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Sample records for lithium lead breeding

  1. Properties of lead-lithium solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, N.J.; Darnell, A.; Blink, J.A.

    1980-10-01

    Lead-lithium solutions are of interest to liquid metal wall ICF reactor designers because Pb may be present to some extent in both heavy ion beam and laser-driven ICF targets; therefore, Pb will be present as an impurity in a flowing lithium wall. In addition, Pb-Li solutions containing approx. 80 a/o Pb are a strong candidate for a heavy ion beam driven HYLIFE converter and a viable alternative to a pure Li wall for a laser driven converter. The properties of Pb-Li solutions including the effect of hydrogen impurities are reviewed, and the reactor design implications are discussed.

  2. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, lithium consumption in the United States was estimated to have been about 1 kt (1,100 st) of contained lithium, a 23-percent decrease from 2009. The United States was estimated to be the fourth largest consumer of lithium. It remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. Only one company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic resources. In 2010, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 21 kt (22,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, a 12-percent increase from 2009.

  3. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, lithium consumption in the United States was estimated to have been about 1.2 kt (1,300 st) of contained lithium, a 40-percent decrease from 2008. The United States was estimated to be the fourth largest consumer of lithium, and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. Only one company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic resources. In 2009, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 18.7 kt (20,600 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds.

  4. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 25 kt (25,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, a 10-percent increase from 2010. U.S. consumption was estimated to have been about 2 kt (2,200 st) of contained lithium, a 100-percent increase from 2010. The United States was estimated to be the fourth-ranked consumer of lithium and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. One company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic brine resources near Silver Peak, NV.

  5. Lithium-based oxide ceramics for tritium-breeding applications

    SciTech Connect

    Suiter, D J

    1983-06-01

    Material preparation techniques, crystallographic data, phase diagrams, metal compatibility, and thermal properties have been assembled for the lithium-based oxide ceramics designated as potential solid tritium breeders for fusion devices. The materials discussed in this report include: Li/sub 2/O, ..beta..-Li/sub 5/AlO/sub 4/, ..gamma..-LiAlO/sub 2/, Li/sub 4/SiO/sub 4/, Li/sub 2/SiO/sub 3/, Li/sub 4/TiO/sub 4/, Li/sub 2/TiO/sub 3/, Li/sub 8/ZrO/sub 6/, Li/sub 4/ZrO/sub 4/, and Li/sub 2/ZrO/sub 3/. The thermal properties covered were vaporization, thermal conductivity, specific heat, and linear thermal expansion. There has been no attempt to rank the above mentioned candidates, but rather to merely indicate points that must be considered when using the various materials as solid breeders. These encompass low lithium atom densities, destructive phase transformations, a higher thermal expansion, low thermal conductivity, excessive vaporization at low temperatures, corrosive nature toward metals and difficulty in sample preparation.

  6. Subfertility Problems Leading to Disposal of Breeding Bulls

    PubMed Central

    Khatun, Marzina; Kaur, Simarjeet; Kanchan; Mukhopadhyay, C. S.

    2013-01-01

    Subfertility problems are encountered frequently in the cattle and buffalo bulls commercially maintained for semen production in dairy farms and under field conditions for natural insemination. Reports are scarce on the incidence of subfertility in breeding bulls, especially in India. The objective of the present study was to assess the incidence of the male reproductive anomalies leading to disposal of bovine bulls at GADVASU dairy farm, Ludhiana, Punjab (India). Data on frequency of various subfertility and disposal pattern of bulls maintained at the dairy farm, GADVASU, were collected for 12 yrs (1999 to 2010) and compiled from different record registers. Percentage of bulls that produced freezable semen (out of reserved ones) was less in cattle (25.641%) as compared to that of buffalo (30.4%). Various subfertility traits like poor libido and unacceptable seminal profile were found to be the significant reasons (p<0.01) for culling of the breeding bulls. Inadequate sex drive and poor semen quality were the main contributing factors for bull disposal in cattle whereas poor semen freezability was most frequently observed in buffalo bulls. All the male reproductive traits were significantly different (p<0.05) for the periods of birth, except for semen volume, initial motility (IM), age at last semen collection (ALSC) and age at disposal. The ages at first and last semen collection as well as freezing (i.e. AFSC, ALSC and AFSF, ALSF, respectively) and age at disposal (AD) were higher in buffalo. The spermatological parameters and semen production period (SPP) were higher in cattle. The age at first semen donation and breeding period could be reduced by introducing the bulls to training at an early age. The results revealed an increasing trend in individual motility (IM) while semen volume, AFSC, AFSF, AD, FSPP, SPP, ALSC and ALSF showed a decreasing, however, not a definite trend, over the periods. The semen donation traits like, AFSF, of the cattle and buffalo

  7. Development of advanced tritium breeding material with added lithium for ITER-TBM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Tsuyoshi; Kato, Kenichi; Natori, Yuri; Oikawa, Fumiaki; Nakano, Natsuko; Nakamura, Mutsumi; Sasaki, Kazuya; Suzuki, Akihiro; Terai, Takayuki; Tatenuma, Katsuyoshi

    2011-10-01

    Lithium titanate (Li 2TiO 3) is one of the most promising candidates among tritium breeding materials because of its good tritium release characteristics. However, the mass of Li 2TiO 3 decreased with time in a hydrogen atmosphere by the reduction of Ti and Li evaporation. In order to prevent the mass decrease at high temperatures, advanced tritium breeding material with added Li (Li 2+xTiO 3+y) should be developed. For this purpose, an advanced Li 2TiO 3 with added Li was synthesized from proportionally mixed LiOH·H 2O and H 2TiO 3 with a Li/Ti ratio of 2.2. The results of X-ray diffraction measurement showed that this advanced tritium breeding material existed as the non-stoichiometric compound Li 2+xTiO 3+y. The desired molar ratio of Li/Ti was achieved by appropriate mixing of LiOH·H 2O and H 2TiO 3. Therefore, synthesis by mixing LiOH·H 2O and H 2TiO 3 is a promising mass production method for the advanced tritium breeding material with added Li for the test blanket module of ITER.

  8. Lithium attenuates lead induced toxicity on mouse non-adherent bone marrow cells.

    PubMed

    Banijamali, Mahsan; Rabbani-Chadegani, Azra; Shahhoseini, Maryam

    2016-07-01

    Lead is a poisonous heavy metal that occurs in all parts of environment and causes serious health problems in humans. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible protective effect of lithium against lead nitrate induced toxicity in non-adherent bone marrow stem cells. Trypan blue and MTT assays represented that exposure of the cells to different concentrations of lead nitrate decreased viability in a dose dependent manner, whereas, pretreatment of the cells with lithium protected the cells against lead toxicity. Lead reduced the number and differentiation status of bone marrow-derived precursors when cultured in the presence of colony stimulating factor (CSF), while the effect was attenuated by lithium. The cells treated with lead nitrate exhibited cell shrinkage, DNA fragmentation, anion superoxide production, but lithium prevented lead action. Moreover, apoptotic indexes such as PARP cleavage and release of HMGB1 induced by lead, were protected by lithium, suggesting anti-apoptotic effect of lithium. Immunoblot analysis of histone H3K9 acetylation indicated that lithium overcame lead effect on acetylation. In conclusion, lithium efficiently reduces lead toxicity suggesting new insight into lithium action which may contribute to increased cell survival. It also provides a potentially new therapeutic strategy for lithium and a cost-effective approach to minimize destructive effects of lead on bone marrow stem cells. PMID:27259346

  9. Effect of Lithium Enrichment on the Tritium Breeding Characteristics of Various Breeders in a Fusion Driven Hybrid Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Übeyli, Mustafa

    2009-09-01

    Selection of lithium containing materials is very important in the design of a deuterium-tritium (DT) fusion driven hybrid reactor in order to supply its tritium self-sufficiency. Tritium, an artificial isotope of hydrogen, can be produced in the blanket by using the neutron capture reactions of lithium in the coolants and/or blanket materials which consist of lithium. This study presents the effect of lithium-6 enrichment in the coolant of the reactor on the tritium breeding of the hybrid blanket. Various liquid-solid breeder couples were investigated to determine the effective breeders. Numerical results pointed out that the tritium production increased with increasing lithium-6 enrichment for all cases.

  10. Tritium breeding measurements in a lithium blanket module with Pb/Be multipliers at the LOTUS facility

    SciTech Connect

    Azam, S.; Kumar, A.

    1987-01-01

    The lithium blanket module (LBM) was lent for a fixed duration in 1985 to Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne under an agreement with the Electric Power Research Institute and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The first tritium breeding measurements in the central rod of the LBM and their analysis have been reported previously. Some time ago, we carried out additional experiments wherein the Li/sub 2/O sample disk, each having a theoretical density of /approx/85% and dimensions of 17.8-mm diam x 0.9-mm thickness, were placed in four removable rods. In addition to the central rod, the other rods were at /approx/6-, 18-, and 39-cm radial distances from the axis of the central one. The sample disks wee kept at every 3 cm inside each of these rods up to a length of 30 cm in the Li/sub 2/O part of the LBM. The choice of the off-axis rods resulted from our interest in investigating the effect of room return on tritium breeding in the LBM. We chose two of the leading neutron multipliers: (a) a 5-cm-thick (/approx/100- x 110-cm) lead slab and (b) a 6-cm-thick (/approx/66- x 66-cm) beryllium slab. The experimental assembly, consisting of the multiplier followed by the LBM, was kept at 10 cm from the generator. A packet of three foils, zirconium, indium, and aluminum, was placed at the center of the flat face of the generator to monitor the source intensity during the 10-h operation for the experiments with each multiplier. The source intensity is deduced to be /approx/1.9 x 10/sup 12/ n/s for both the experiments. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Blood lead concentrations in Alaskan tundra swans: linking breeding and wintering areas with satellite telemetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, Craig R.; Franson, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) like many waterfowl species are susceptible to lead (Pb) poisoning, and Pb-induced mortality has been reported from many areas of their wintering range. Little is known however about Pb levels throughout the annual cycle of tundra swans, especially during summer when birds are on remote northern breeding areas where they are less likely to be exposed to anthropogenic sources of Pb. Our objective was to document summer Pb levels in tundra swans throughout their breeding range in Alaska to determine if there were population-specific differences in blood Pb concentrations that might pose a threat to swans and to humans that may consume them. We measured blood Pb concentrations in tundra swans at five locations in Alaska, representing birds that winter in both the Pacific Flyway and Atlantic Flyway. We also marked swans at each location with satellite transmitters and coded neck bands, to identify staging and wintering sites and determine if winter site use correlated with summer Pb concentrations. Blood Pb levels were generally low (<0.2 μg/ml) in swans across all breeding areas. Pb levels were lower in cygnets than adults, suggesting that swans were likely exposed to Pb on wintering areas or on return migration to Alaska, rather than on the summer breeding grounds. Blood Pb levels varied significantly across the five breeding areas, with highest concentrations in birds on the North Slope of Alaska (wintering in the Atlantic Flyway), and lowest in birds from the lower Alaska Peninsula that rarely migrate south for winter.

  12. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, lithium consumption in the United States was at 2.5 kt of contained lithium, nearly 32% more than the estimate for 2004. World consumption was 14.1 kt of lithium contained in minerals and compounds in 2003. Exports from the US increased slightly compared with 2004. Due to strong demand for lithium compounds in 2005, both lithium carbonate plants in Chile were operating at or near capacity.

  13. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.

    1998-01-01

    The lithium industry can be divided into two sectors: ore concentrate producers and chemical producers. Ore concentrate producers mine lithium minerals. They beneficiate the ores to produce material for use in ceramics and glass manufacturing.

  14. Results of R and D for lithium/vanadium breeding blanket design

    SciTech Connect

    Mattas, R.F.; Smith, D.L.; Reed, C.B.; Park, J.H.; Kirillov, I.R.; Strebkov, Yu.S.; Rusanov, A.E.; Votinov, S.N.

    1997-04-01

    The self-cooled lithium/vanadium blanket concept has several attractive features for fusion power systems, including reduced activation, resistance to radiation damage, accommodation of high heat loads and operating to temperatures of 650--700 C. The primary issue associated with the lithium/vanadium concept is the potentially high MHD pressure drop experienced by the lithium as it flows through the high magnetic field of the tokamak. The solution to this issue is to apply a thin insulating coating to the inside of the vanadium alloy to prevent the generation of eddy currents within the structure that are responsible for the high MHD forces and pressure drop. This paper presents progress in the development of an insulator coating that is capable of operating in the severe fusion environment, progress in the fabrication development of vanadium alloys, and a summary of MHD testing. A large number of small scale tests of vanadium alloy specimens coated with CaO and AlN have been conducted in liquid lithium to determine the resistivity and stability of the coating. In-situ measurements in lithium have determined that CaO coatings, {approximately} 5 {micro}m thick, have resistivity times thickness values exceeding 10{sup 6} {Omega}-cm{sup 2}. These results have been used to identify fabrication procedures for coating a large vanadium alloy (V-4Cr-4Ti) test section that was tested in the ALEX (Argonne Liquid metal Experiment) facility. Similar test sections have been produced in both Russia and the US.

  15. The Return of Rare Breeds: How Heritage Livestock Can Lead Us to Greener Pastures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacques, Ben

    2002-01-01

    Several New England groups are breeding and marketing "heritage livestock"--older, multipurpose breeds that are hardier and more disease resistant than modern livestock bred for specialized uses. Hancock Shaker Village (Massachusetts)--a historical museum and working farm--will teach visitors about heritage breeds and sustainable agriculture. A…

  16. Thermo-fluid dynamics and corrosion analysis of a self cooled lead lithium blanket for the HiPER reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juárez, R.; Zanzi, C.; Hernández, J.; Sanz, J.

    2015-09-01

    The HiPER reactor is the HiPER project phase devoted to power production. To reach a preliminary reactor design, tritium breeding schemes need to be adapted to the HiPER project technologies selection: direct drive ignition, 150 \\text{MJ}/\\text{shot}× 10 Hz of power released through fusion reactions, and the dry first wall scheme. In this paper we address the main challenge of the HiPER EUROFER-based self cooled lead lithium blanket, which is related to the corrosive behavior of Pb-15.7Li in contact with EUROFER. We evaluate the cooling and corrosion behavior of the so-called separated first wall blanket (SFWB) configuration by performing thermo-fluid dynamics simulations using a large eddy simulation approach. Despite the expected improvement over the integrated first wall blanket, we still find an unsatisfactory cooling performance, expressed as a low outlet Pb-15.7Li temperature plus too high corrosion rates derived from local Pb-15.7Li high temperature and velocity, which can mainly be attributed to the geometry of the channels. Nevertheless, the analysis allowed us to devise future modifications of the SFWB to overcome the limitations found with the present design.

  17. Lithium

    MedlinePlus

    ... bipolar disorder (manic-depressive disorder; a disease that causes episodes of depression, episodes of mania, and other abnormal moods). Lithium ... Lithium is also sometimes used to treat depression, schizophrenia (a mental ... emotions), disorders of impulse control (inability to resist the urge ...

  18. Susceptibility of 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo steel to liquid metal induced embrittlement by lithium-lead solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhard, B.A.; Edwards, G.R.

    1984-08-01

    An investigation has been conducted on the liquid metal induced embrittlement susceptibility of 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel exposed to lithium and 1a/o lead-lithium at temperatures between 190/sup 0/C and 525/sup 0/C. This research was part of an ongoing effort to evaluate the compatibility of liquid lithium solutions with potential fusion reactor containment materials. Of particular interest was the microstructure present in a weld heat-affected zone, a microstructure known to be highly susceptible to corrosive attack by liquid lead-lithium solutions. Embrittlement susceptibility was determined by conducting tension tests on 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel exposed to an inert environment as well as to a lead-lithium liquid and observing the change in tensile behavior. The 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel was also given a base plate heat treatment to observe its embrittlement susceptibility to 1a/o lead-lithium. The base plate microstructure was severely embrittled at temperatures less than 500/sup 0/C. Tempering the base plate was effective in restoring adequate ductility to the steel.

  19. Low tritium partial pressure permeation system for mass transport measurement in lead lithium eutectic

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pawelko, R. J.; Shimada, M.; Katayama, K.; Fukada, S.; Humrickhouse, P. W.; Terai, T.

    2015-11-28

    This paper describes a new experimental system designed to investigate tritium mass transfer properties in materials important to fusion technology. Experimental activities were carried out at the Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The tritium permeation measurement system was developed as part of the Japan/US TITAN collaboration to investigate tritium mass transfer properties in liquid lead lithium eutectic (LLE) alloy. The experimental system is configured to measure tritium mass transfer properties at low tritium partial pressures. Initial tritium permeation scoping tests were conducted on a 1 mm thick α-Fe plate to determinemore » operating parameters and to validate the experimental technique. A second series of permeation tests was then conducted with the α-Fe plate covered with an approximately 8.5 mm layer of liquid lead lithium eutectic alloy (α-Fe/LLE). We present preliminary tritium permeation data for α-Fe and α-Fe/LLE at temperatures between 400 and 600°C and at tritium partial pressures between 1.7E-3 and 2.5 Pa in helium. Preliminary results for the α-Fe plate and α-Fe/LLE indicate that the data spans a transition region between the diffusion-limited regime and the surface-limited regime. In conclusion, additional data is required to determine the existence and range of a surface-limited regime.« less

  20. Low tritium partial pressure permeation system for mass transport measurement in lead lithium eutectic

    SciTech Connect

    Pawelko, R. J.; Shimada, M.; Katayama, K.; Fukada, S.; Humrickhouse, P. W.; Terai, T.

    2015-11-28

    This paper describes a new experimental system designed to investigate tritium mass transfer properties in materials important to fusion technology. Experimental activities were carried out at the Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The tritium permeation measurement system was developed as part of the Japan/US TITAN collaboration to investigate tritium mass transfer properties in liquid lead lithium eutectic (LLE) alloy. The experimental system is configured to measure tritium mass transfer properties at low tritium partial pressures. Initial tritium permeation scoping tests were conducted on a 1 mm thick α-Fe plate to determine operating parameters and to validate the experimental technique. A second series of permeation tests was then conducted with the α-Fe plate covered with an approximately 8.5 mm layer of liquid lead lithium eutectic alloy (α-Fe/LLE). We present preliminary tritium permeation data for α-Fe and α-Fe/LLE at temperatures between 400 and 600°C and at tritium partial pressures between 1.7E-3 and 2.5 Pa in helium. Preliminary results for the α-Fe plate and α-Fe/LLE indicate that the data spans a transition region between the diffusion-limited regime and the surface-limited regime. In conclusion, additional data is required to determine the existence and range of a surface-limited regime.

  1. Effect of copper oxide on structure and physical properties of lithium lead borate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashif, I.; Ratep, A.

    2015-09-01

    Copper-doped Lead lithium borate glass samples with the composition of (35- x) Pb3O4- xCuO-65Li2B4O7, where x = 5, 10, 15 or 20 mol%, have been prepared by melt quenching technique. Glass-forming ability, density, electrical conductivity, magnetic susceptibility and structural properties of lead lithium borate glasses have been investigated. IR spectroscopic data show that the copper ions play the role of glass modifier. Addition of CuO influences BO3 ↔ BO4 conversion. Density is expressed in terms of the structural modifications that take place in glass matrix. The increase in Tg reflects an increase in bond strength, and samples obtain more rigid glass structure. Electrical conductivity and magnetic susceptibility χ data show a variable behavior with the increase in the copper content in two valance states Cu+ and Cu+2. In addition, optical properties depend on the change of the role of copper ions in the samples' structure. Optical energy band gap E opt and Urbach energy E tail are determined. The increase in E opt and UV cutoff with an increase in CuO content is due to the decrease in non-bridging oxygen concentration. The decrease in E tail at higher concentrations is attributed to the copper ion accumulation in the interstitial positions and to the formation of orthoborate groups. These samples are suitable for the green light longpass filters.

  2. Preliminary corrosion studies of P-91 in flowing lead-lithium with and without magnetic field for Indian lead-lithium ceramic breeder test blanket module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarada Sree, Atchutuni; Tanaji, Kamble; Poulami, Chakraborty; Fotedar, R. K.; Rajendra Kumar, E.; Suri, A. K.; Platacis, E.; Ziks, A.; Bucenieks, I.; Poznjaks, A.; Shisko, A.

    2014-08-01

    To study the corrosion of P-91 (9% chromium and 1% molybdenum) material with lead-lithium (Pb-Li) eutectic, two experiments were carried out in a forced convection loop, at eutectic temperature of 550 °C. The first experiment was carried out at a velocity of 15 cm s-1 for 1000 h and the second experiment, at a velocity of 30 cm s-1 for 2700 h. In both the experiments, P-91 sample coupons were exposed to Pb-Li flow in the presence and absence of magnetic field. Samples were analyzed using an optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA). Micro-Vickers hardness testing was also carried out. Dissolution of elements into liquid metal is the main corrosion mechanism. Iron and chromium were selectively getting leached out from the near-surface region (˜4 µm) in the first experiment and molybdenum and manganese were also found leaching from a greater depth in the second experiment. The samples kept in the magnetic field showed a higher corrosion rate (˜320 µm/year) as compared with the corrosion rate (˜200 µm/year) of the samples kept in non-magnetic field regions. Hardness of the exposed samples was lower than the unexposed samples in both the experiments. Hardness was found to be low in the near-surface region for all the samples in both the experiments.

  3. Physical, thermal, infrared and optical properties of Nd3+ doped lithium-lead-germanate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veeranna Gowda, V. C.

    2015-01-01

    The structure-property relationships of neodymium doped lithium-lead-germanate glasses were investigated. The density was found to increase with the increase of Nd2O3 concentration and its variation is explained in terms of its molecular mass, structural transformation and packing density. Addition of modifier oxide to lead-germanate glass suggests a decreased free space within the glass matrix, resulting in the formation of stiff network. The increase in glass transition temperature specifies strengthening of glass by forming bridging oxygens. The optical properties of glass were measured employing UV-visible spectroscopy. The refractive index values varied nonlinearly with Nd2O3 concentration and were speculated to depend on the electronic polarizability of oxide glasses. The frequencies of the infrared absorption bands were affected marginally and the absorption peaks revealed that the glass matrix consists of [GeO4/2], [GeO6/2] and [PbO4/2] structural units.

  4. Lithium

    MedlinePlus

    ... mania (frenzied, abnormally excited mood) in people with bipolar disorder (manic-depressive disorder; a disease that causes episodes of depression, episodes of mania, and other abnormal moods). Lithium is in a ... antimanic agents. It works by decreasing abnormal activity in the brain.

  5. Lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery for grid-level energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kangli; Jiang, Kai; Chung, Brice; Ouchi, Takanari; Burke, Paul J.; Boysen, Dane A.; Bradwell, David J.; Kim, Hojong; Muecke, Ulrich; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2014-10-01

    The ability to store energy on the electric grid would greatly improve its efficiency and reliability while enabling the integration of intermittent renewable energy technologies (such as wind and solar) into baseload supply. Batteries have long been considered strong candidate solutions owing to their small spatial footprint, mechanical simplicity and flexibility in siting. However, the barrier to widespread adoption of batteries is their high cost. Here we describe a lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery that potentially meets the performance specifications for stationary energy storage applications. This Li||Sb-Pb battery comprises a liquid lithium negative electrode, a molten salt electrolyte, and a liquid antimony-lead alloy positive electrode, which self-segregate by density into three distinct layers owing to the immiscibility of the contiguous salt and metal phases. The all-liquid construction confers the advantages of higher current density, longer cycle life and simpler manufacturing of large-scale storage systems (because no membranes or separators are involved) relative to those of conventional batteries. At charge-discharge current densities of 275 milliamperes per square centimetre, the cells cycled at 450 degrees Celsius with 98 per cent Coulombic efficiency and 73 per cent round-trip energy efficiency. To provide evidence of their high power capability, the cells were discharged and charged at current densities as high as 1,000 milliamperes per square centimetre. Measured capacity loss after operation for 1,800 hours (more than 450 charge-discharge cycles at 100 per cent depth of discharge) projects retention of over 85 per cent of initial capacity after ten years of daily cycling. Our results demonstrate that alloying a high-melting-point, high-voltage metal (antimony) with a low-melting-point, low-cost metal (lead) advantageously decreases the operating temperature while maintaining a high cell voltage. Apart from the fact that this finding

  6. Polonium aspects associated with the use of lead-lithium blankets in fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, N.J.; Blink, J.A.; Meier, W.R.; Murray, K.A.; Vogelsang, W.F.

    1985-07-01

    Polonium, an alpha-emitting sulfur-like element, is formed by neutron irradiation of lead or bismuth impurity in lead. Design studies of both the Pulse*Star inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor and the MARS mirror fusion reactor postulated use of 83Pb-17Li melt as the tritium breeding blanket and coolant. Comparison of the amounts of polonium in the melt at plant shutdown indicated that Pulse*Star would have a far higher level of polonium in the melt. Neutronic considerations and the polonium distribution between the vacuum cleanup system and 83Pb-17Li melt for the two reactors are explored in this paper. Sample neutronics runs showed that the codes used by each design team were not the source of the difference in polonium content.

  7. Safety Analysis of the US Dual Coolant Liquid Lead-Lithium ITER Test Blanket Module

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, Brad; Reyes, Susana; Sawan, Mohamed; Wong, Clement

    2006-07-01

    The US is proposing a prototype of a dual coolant liquid lead-lithium (DCLL) DEMO blanket concept for testing in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) as an ITER Test Blanket Module (TBM). Because safety considerations are an integral part of the design process to ensure that this TBM does not adversely impact the safety of ITER, a safety assessment has been conducted for this TBM and its ancillary systems as requested by the ITER project. Four events were selected by the ITER International Team (IT) to address specific reactor safety concerns, such as VV pressurization, confinement building pressure build-up, TBM decay heat removal capability, tritium and activation products release from the TBM system, and hydrogen and heat production from chemical reactions. This paper summarizes the results of this safety assessment conducted with the MELCOR computer code.

  8. Lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery for grid-level energy storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kangli; Jiang, Kai; Chung, Brice; Ouchi, Takanari; Burke, Paul J; Boysen, Dane A; Bradwell, David J; Kim, Hojong; Muecke, Ulrich; Sadoway, Donald R

    2014-10-16

    The ability to store energy on the electric grid would greatly improve its efficiency and reliability while enabling the integration of intermittent renewable energy technologies (such as wind and solar) into baseload supply. Batteries have long been considered strong candidate solutions owing to their small spatial footprint, mechanical simplicity and flexibility in siting. However, the barrier to widespread adoption of batteries is their high cost. Here we describe a lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery that potentially meets the performance specifications for stationary energy storage applications. This Li||Sb-Pb battery comprises a liquid lithium negative electrode, a molten salt electrolyte, and a liquid antimony-lead alloy positive electrode, which self-segregate by density into three distinct layers owing to the immiscibility of the contiguous salt and metal phases. The all-liquid construction confers the advantages of higher current density, longer cycle life and simpler manufacturing of large-scale storage systems (because no membranes or separators are involved) relative to those of conventional batteries. At charge-discharge current densities of 275 milliamperes per square centimetre, the cells cycled at 450 degrees Celsius with 98 per cent Coulombic efficiency and 73 per cent round-trip energy efficiency. To provide evidence of their high power capability, the cells were discharged and charged at current densities as high as 1,000 milliamperes per square centimetre. Measured capacity loss after operation for 1,800 hours (more than 450 charge-discharge cycles at 100 per cent depth of discharge) projects retention of over 85 per cent of initial capacity after ten years of daily cycling. Our results demonstrate that alloying a high-melting-point, high-voltage metal (antimony) with a low-melting-point, low-cost metal (lead) advantageously decreases the operating temperature while maintaining a high cell voltage. Apart from the fact that this

  9. Study on hydrogen isotopes permeation in fluidized state of liquid lithium-lead

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, S.; Yoshimura, R.; Okada, M.; Fukada, S.; Edao, Y.

    2015-03-15

    Lithium-lead (Li-Pb) is one of the most promising candidate materials for the liquid blanket of fusion reactors. Hydrogen transfer under a fluidized condition of Li-Pb is investigated experimentally to design a Li-Pb blanket system. Li-Pb eutectic alloy flows inside a Ni tube in the experimental system, where H{sub 2} permeates into and out of the forced Li-Pb flow. The overall H{sub 2} permeation rate is analyzed using a mass balance model. Hydrogen atoms diffuse in Ni and Li-Pb. The steady-state H{sub 2} permeation rate obtained by this experiment is smaller than the result of the calculation model. A resistance factor is introduced to the present analysis in order to evaluate the influence of other H{sub 2} transfer mechanisms, such as diffusion in Li-Pb and dissolution reaction between Ni and Li-Pb. The contribution of the resistance to the overall H{sub 2} permeation rate becomes large when the flow rate of Li-Pb is low. This is because the boundary layer thickness between Ni and Li-Pb affects the overall H{sub 2} permeation rate. When the flow velocity of Li-Pb increases, the thickness of the boundary layer becomes thin, and the driving force of H{sub 2} permeation through the Ni wall becomes bigger. (authors)

  10. "Buried-Anode" Technology Leads to Advanced Lithium Batteries (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    A technology developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has sparked a start-up company that has attracted funding from the Advanced Projects Research Agency-Energy (ARPA-E). Planar Energy, Inc. has licensed NREL's "buried-anode" technology and put it to work in solid-state lithium batteries. The company claims its large-format batteries can achieve triple the performance of today's lithium-ion batteries at half the cost, and if so, they could provide a significant boost to the emerging market for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles.

  11. Lithium in 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, estimated world lithium consumption was about 28 kt (31,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, an 8 percent increase from that of 2011. Estimated U.S. consumption was about 2 kt (2,200 st) of contained lithium, the same as that of 2011. The United States was thought to rank fourth in consumption of lithium and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. One company, Rockwood Lithium Inc., produced lithium compounds from domestic brine resources near Silver Peak, NV.

  12. Electrical properties of lead-free Fe-doped niobium-rich potassium lithium tantalate niobate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Li, Jun; Zhou, Zhongxiang; Guo, Ruyan; Bhalla, Amar S.

    2013-12-01

    Lead-free, 0.025 wt% Fe-doped niobium-rich potassium lithium tantalate niobate Fe: K0.95Li0.05Ta1-xNbxO3 single crystals have been grown by the top-seeded melt growth method. All the transition temperatures have been determined by the dielectric constant and loss-dependent temperature. The spontaneous polarizations computed by the integration of pyroelectric coefficients over all the temperatures are consistent with the results of the P-E hysteresis loops. The piezoelectric constants and electromechanical coupling factors are attractive among lead-free piezoelectric materials. With suitable Fe-doping, the electrical properties of KLTN single crystals have been improved overall and can be compared to those of the current important lead-based piezoelectric materials.

  13. A HapMap leads to a Capsicum annuum SNP infinium array: a new tool for pepper breeding

    PubMed Central

    Hulse-Kemp, Amanda M; Ashrafi, Hamid; Plieske, Joerg; Lemm, Jana; Stoffel, Kevin; Hill, Theresa; Luerssen, Hartmut; Pethiyagoda, Charit L; Lawley, Cindy T; Ganal, Martin W; Van Deynze, Allen

    2016-01-01

    The Capsicum genus (Pepper) is a part of the Solanacae family. It has been important in many cultures worldwide for its key nutritional components and uses as spices, medicines, ornamentals and vegetables. Worldwide population growth is associated with demand for more nutritionally valuable vegetables while contending with decreasing resources and available land. These conditions require increased efficiency in pepper breeding to deal with these imminent challenges. Through resequencing of inbred lines we have completed a valuable haplotype map (HapMap) for the pepper genome based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). The identified SNPs were annotated and classified based on their gene annotation in the pepper draft genome sequence and phenotype of the sequenced inbred lines. A selection of one marker per gene model was utilized to create the PepperSNP16K array, which simultaneously genotyped 16 405 SNPs, of which 90.7% were found to be informative. A set of 84 inbred and hybrid lines and a mapping population of 90 interspecific F2 individuals were utilized to validate the array. Diversity analysis of the inbred lines shows a distinct separation of bell versus chile/hot pepper types and separates them into five distinct germplasm groups. The interspecific population created between Tabasco (C. frutescens chile type) and P4 (C. annuum blocky type) produced a linkage map with 5546 markers separated into 1361 bins on twelve 12 linkage groups representing 1392.3 cM. This publically available genotyping platform can be used to rapidly assess a large number of markers in a reproducible high-throughput manner for pepper. As a standardized tool for genetic analyses, the PepperSNP16K can be used worldwide to share findings and analyze QTLs for important traits leading to continued improvement of pepper for consumers. Data and information on the array are available through the Solanaceae Genomics Network. PMID:27602231

  14. A HapMap leads to a Capsicum annuum SNP infinium array: a new tool for pepper breeding.

    PubMed

    Hulse-Kemp, Amanda M; Ashrafi, Hamid; Plieske, Joerg; Lemm, Jana; Stoffel, Kevin; Hill, Theresa; Luerssen, Hartmut; Pethiyagoda, Charit L; Lawley, Cindy T; Ganal, Martin W; Van Deynze, Allen

    2016-01-01

    The Capsicum genus (Pepper) is a part of the Solanacae family. It has been important in many cultures worldwide for its key nutritional components and uses as spices, medicines, ornamentals and vegetables. Worldwide population growth is associated with demand for more nutritionally valuable vegetables while contending with decreasing resources and available land. These conditions require increased efficiency in pepper breeding to deal with these imminent challenges. Through resequencing of inbred lines we have completed a valuable haplotype map (HapMap) for the pepper genome based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). The identified SNPs were annotated and classified based on their gene annotation in the pepper draft genome sequence and phenotype of the sequenced inbred lines. A selection of one marker per gene model was utilized to create the PepperSNP16K array, which simultaneously genotyped 16 405 SNPs, of which 90.7% were found to be informative. A set of 84 inbred and hybrid lines and a mapping population of 90 interspecific F2 individuals were utilized to validate the array. Diversity analysis of the inbred lines shows a distinct separation of bell versus chile/hot pepper types and separates them into five distinct germplasm groups. The interspecific population created between Tabasco (C. frutescens chile type) and P4 (C. annuum blocky type) produced a linkage map with 5546 markers separated into 1361 bins on twelve 12 linkage groups representing 1392.3 cM. This publically available genotyping platform can be used to rapidly assess a large number of markers in a reproducible high-throughput manner for pepper. As a standardized tool for genetic analyses, the PepperSNP16K can be used worldwide to share findings and analyze QTLs for important traits leading to continued improvement of pepper for consumers. Data and information on the array are available through the Solanaceae Genomics Network. PMID:27602231

  15. Breeding on the leading edge of a northward range expansion: differences in morphology and the stress response in the arctic Gambel's white-crowned sparrow.

    PubMed

    Krause, Jesse S; Chmura, Helen E; Pérez, Jonathan H; Quach, Lisa N; Asmus, Ashley; Word, Karen R; McGuigan, Michaela A; Sweet, Shannan K; Meddle, Simone L; Gough, Laura; Boelman, Natalie; Wingfield, John C

    2016-01-01

    Individuals at the forefront of a range shift are likely to exhibit phenotypic traits that distinguish them from the population breeding within the historic range. Recent studies have examined morphological, physiological and behavioral phenotypes of individuals at the edge of their range. Several studies have found differences in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in response to acute restraint stress in individuals at the range limits. HPA axis activation leads to elevations in glucocorticoids that regulate physiology and behavior. Here we compare the hormonal profiles and morphometrics from Gambel's white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii) breeding at the northern limit of the population's range to those birds breeding within the historic population range. Birds breeding at the northern limit experienced a harsher environment with colder temperatures; however, we found no differences in arthropod prey biomass between the northern limit and more southern (historic) sites. Males at the northern limit had higher body condition scores (mass corrected for body size) compared to individuals within the historic range, but no differences were found in beak and tarsus lengths, wing chord, muscle profile or fat stores. In males during the pre-parental stage, before breeding commenced, HPA axis activity was elevated in birds at the northern limit of the range, but no differences were found during the parental or molt stages. Females showed no differences in HPA axis activity during the parental stage. This study suggests that "pioneering" individuals at the limits of their breeding range exhibit physiology and morphology that are distinct from individuals within the historic range. PMID:26423267

  16. Physiological breeding.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Matthew; Langridge, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Physiological breeding crosses parents with different complex but complementary traits to achieve cumulative gene action for yield, while selecting progeny using remote sensing, possibly in combination with genomic selection. Physiological approaches have already demonstrated significant genetic gains in Australia and several developing countries of the International Wheat Improvement Network. The techniques involved (see Graphical Abstract) also provide platforms for research and refinement of breeding methodologies. Recent examples of these include screening genetic resources for novel expression of Calvin cycle enzymes, identification of common genetic bases for heat and drought adaptation, and genetic dissection of trade-offs among yield components. Such information, combined with results from physiological crosses designed to test novel trait combinations, lead to more precise breeding strategies, and feed models of genotype-by-environment interaction to help build new plant types and experimental environments for future climates. PMID:27161822

  17. Active maternal phenotype is established before breeding and leads offspring to align growth trajectory outcomes and reflex ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Santana Muniz, Gisélia; Beserra, Renata; da Silva, Giselle de Paula; Fragoso, Jéssica; Lira, Allan de Oliveira; Nascimento, Elizabeth; Manhães de Castro, Raul; Leandro, Carol Góis

    2014-04-22

    The main goals of this study were to classify dams according to the level of voluntary physical activity before breeding and during pregnancy/lactation and to evaluate the effects on growth trajectory and reflex ontogenesis of offspring. Voluntary physical activity was ranked by traveled distance, time and daily estimated calorie burned. Thirty-five female Wistar rats were classified as control (C, n=5), inactive (I, n=10), active (A, n=8) and very active (VA, n=12). During 30d before breeding, traveled distance, average speed, time and calorie burned were daily recorded for active and very active groups. Traveled distance was recorded each 2h every day of adaptation. Body weight, food intake and fasting glycemia were measured throughout the experiment. During lactation, litters were evaluated in terms of physical features and reflex ontogeny. VA showed a progressive increase in the traveled distance and time while A dams presented constant values. VA rats showed lower body weight and higher food intake. During pregnancy, both groups performed less than 1km/day. Pups from A and VA dams showed higher lateral-lateral axis of the skull, longitudinal axis, tail length, and anticipation of the pavilion and auditory canal opening, and erupting incisors. I, A and VA groups showed a delay of righting, cliff aversion and vibrissae placing reflexes. In conclusion, active maternal phenotype is established before breeding allowing mothers to fit ecological and influencing growth trajectory outcomes and reflex ontogeny of the offspring based on matrilineal experience. PMID:24560842

  18. Enrichment of orange emission of Er3+ ion with Sn4+ ion as sensitizer in lithium lead phosphate glass system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajanikanth, P.; Gandhi, Y.; Veeraiah, N.

    2015-10-01

    Lithium lead phosphate glasses doped with 1.0 mol% of Er2O3 and mixed with varying concentrations of SnO2 (from 0 to 7.0 mol%) have been synthesized. Optical absorption and luminescence spectra of the prepared glasses were recorded at ambient temperature. The radiative lifetimes were measured from the luminescence decay profiles recorded at room temperature. Similar studies have also been carried out for the SnO2 singly doped glasses. The absorption and luminescence spectra of Er3+ ions doped glasses were characterized using Judd-Ofelt theory. The radiative parameters viz., transition probability A, branching ratio β and the radiative lifetime τ of principal emission transitions of these glasses have been evaluated. The energy transfer mechanism between Sn4+ and Er3+ in co-doped glasses has been explored as a function of SnO2 concentration with the help of rate equations. The results indicated a significant enhancement in the intensity of orange emission 4G11/2 → 4I11/2 of Er3+ ions due to co-doping with SnO2. The results were further analyzed with IR spectral data and ac conductivity studies. The analysis pointed out that about 3.0 mol% of SnO2 is the most favorable concentration for getting the highest quantum efficiency of orange emission and for the maximum energy transfer with low non-radiative transition probabilities.

  19. Lead-acid and lithium-ion batteries for the Chinese electric bike market and implications on future technology advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Burke, Andrew F.; Wei, Xuezhe

    China has been experiencing a rapid increase in battery-powered personal transportation since the late 1990s due to the strong growth of the electric bike and scooter (i.e. e-bike) market. Annual sales in China reached 17 million bikes year -1 in 2006. E-bike growth has been in part due to improvements in rechargeable valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery technology, the primary battery type for e-bikes. Further improvements in technology and a transition from VRLA to lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries will impact the future market growth of this transportation mode in China and abroad. Battery performance and cost for these two types are compared to assess the feasibility of a shift from VRLA to Li-ion battery e-bikes. The requirements for batteries used in e-bikes are assessed. A widespread shift from VRLA to Li-ion batteries seems improbable in the near future for the mass market given the cost premium relative to the performance advantages of Li-ion batteries. As both battery technologies gain more real-world use in e-bike applications, both will improve. Cell variability is a key problematic area to be addressed with VRLA technology. For Li-ion technology, safety and cost are the key problem areas which are being addressed through the use of new cathode materials.

  20. Transport properties of lithium- lead-vanadium-telluride glass and glass ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Sathish, M.; Eraiah, B.

    2014-04-24

    Glasses with the chemical composition 35Li{sub 2}O-(45-x)V{sub 2}O{sub 5−}20PbO-xTeO{sub 2} (where x = 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 15 mol %) have prepared by conventional melt quenching method. The electrical conductivity of Li{sup +} ion conducting lead vanadium telluride glass samples has been carried out both as a function of temperature and frequency in the temperature range 503K-563K and over frequencies 40 Hz to 10 MHz. The electronic conduction has been observed in the present systems. When these samples annealed around 400°C for 2hour become the glass ceramic, which also shows increase tendency of conductivity. SEM confines glass and glass ceramic nature of the prepared samples.

  1. Properties of Lithium-11 and Carbon-22 at leading order in halo effective field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Bijaya; Phillips, Daniel R.

    2016-03-01

    We study the 11Li and 22C nuclei at leading order (LO) in halo effective field theory (Halo EFT). Using the value of the 22C rms matter radius deduced in Ref. [1] as an input in a LO calculation, we simultaneously constrain the values of the two-neutron (2n) separation energy of 22C and the virtual-state energy of the 20C-neutron system (hereafter denoted 21C). The 1-σ uncertainty of the input rms matter radius datum, along with the theory error estimated from the anticipated size of the higher-order terms in the Halo EFT expansion, gives an upper bound of about 100 keV for the 2n separation energy. We also study the electric dipole excitation of 2n halo nuclei to a continuum state of two neutrons and the core at LO in Halo EFT. We first compare our results with the 11Li data from a Coulomb dissociation experiment and obtain good agreement within the theoretical uncertainty of a LO calculation. We then obtain the low-energy spectrum of B(E1) of this transition at several different values of the 2n separation energy of 22C and the virtual-state energy of 21C. Our predictions can be compared to the outcome of an ongoing experiment on the Coulomb dissociation of 22C to obtain tighter constraints on the two- and three-body energies in the 22C system.

  2. A critical review of using the Peukert equation for determining the remaining capacity of lead-acid and lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerffel, Dennis; Sharkh, Suleiman Abu

    In many applications it is essential to predict the remaining capacity of a battery reliably, accurately and simply. Several existing techniques for predicting the remaining capacity of a lead-acid battery discharged with a variable current are based on variants of Peukert's empirical equation, which relates the available capacity to a constant discharge current. This paper presents a critical review of these techniques in the light of experimental tests that were carried out on two lead-acid commercial batteries. The relevance of these Peukert's equation based techniques to lithium-ion batteries is also discussed in the light of tests carried on a lithium-ion power battery. The basic conclusion of the paper is that Peukert's equation cannot be used to predict the state of charge of a battery accurately unless it is discharged at a constant current and constant temperature.

  3. ITER breeding blanket design

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.; Cardella, A.; Ioki, K.; Lousteau, D.; Mohri, K.; Raffray, R.; Zolti, E.

    1995-12-31

    A breeding blanket design has been developed for ITER to provide the necessary tritium fuel to achieve the technical objectives of the Enhanced Performance Phase. It uses a ceramic breeder and water coolant for compatibility with the ITER machine design of the Basic Performance Phase. Lithium zirconate and lithium oxide am the selected ceramic breeders based on the current data base. Enriched lithium and beryllium neutron multiplier are used for both breeders. Both forms of beryllium material, blocks and pebbles are used at different blanket locations based on thermo-mechanical considerations and beryllium thickness requirements. Type 316LN austenitic steel is used as structural material similar to the shielding blanket. Design issues and required R&D data are identified during the development of the design.

  4. Lead

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lead Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Lead Poisoning is Preventable If your home was built before ... of the RRP rule. Read more . Learn about Lead Poisoning Prevention Week . Report Uncertified Contractors and Environmental Violations ...

  5. Lead

    MedlinePlus

    ... obvious symptoms, it frequently goes unrecognized. CDC’s Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program is committed to the Healthy People ... Lead Levels Information for Parents Tips for preventing lead poisoning About Us Overview of CDC’s Childhood Lead Poisoning ...

  6. Neutronics Evaluation of Lithium-Based Ternary Alloys in IFE Blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Jolodosky, A.; Fratoni, M.

    2015-09-22

    Lithium is often the preferred choice as breeder and coolant in fusion blankets as it offers excellent heat transfer and corrosion properties, and most importantly, it has a very high tritium solubility and results in very low levels of tritium permeation throughout the facility infrastructure. However, lithium metal vigorously reacts with air and water and exacerbates plant safety concerns. For this reason, over the years numerous blanket concepts have been proposed with the scope of reducing concerns associated with lithium. The European helium cooled pebble bed breeding blanket (HCPB) physically confines lithium within ceramic pebbles. The pebbles reside within a low activation martensitic ferritic steel structure and are cooled by helium. The blanket is composed of the tritium breeding lithium ceramic pebbles and neutron multiplying beryllium pebbles. Other blanket designs utilize lead to lower chemical reactivity; LiPb alone can serve as a breeder, coolant, neutron multiplier, and tritium carrier. Blankets employing LiPb coolants alongside silicon carbide structural components can achieve high plant efficiency, low afterheat, and low operation pressures. This alloy can also be used alongside of helium such as in the dual-coolant lead-lithium concept (DCLL); helium is utilized to cool the first wall and structural components made up of low-activation ferritic steel, whereas lithium-lead (LiPb) acts as a self-cooled breeder in the inner channels of the blanket. The helium-cooled steel and lead-lithium alloy are separated by flow channel inserts (usually made out of silicon carbide) which thermally insulate the self-cooled breeder region from the helium cooled steel walls. This creates a LiPb breeder with a much higher exit temperature than the steel which increases the power cycle efficiency and also lowers the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drop [6]. Molten salt blankets with a mixture of lithium, beryllium, and fluorides (FLiBe) offer good tritium breeding

  7. Process for recovering tritium from molten lithium metal

    DOEpatents

    Maroni, Victor A.

    1976-01-01

    Lithium tritide (LiT) is extracted from molten lithium metal that has been exposed to neutron irradiation for breeding tritium within a thermonuclear or fission reactor. The extraction is performed by intimately contacting the molten lithium metal with a molten lithium salt, for instance, lithium chloride - potassium chloride eutectic to distribute LiT between the salt and metal phases. The extracted tritium is recovered in gaseous form from the molten salt phase by a subsequent electrolytic or oxidation step.

  8. Low temperature synthesis of lead germanate (PbGeO{sub 3})/polypyrrole (PPy) nanocomposites and their lithium storage performance

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Jinkui; Ci, Lijie; Qi, Yongxin; Lun, Ning; Xiong, Shenglin; Qian, Yitai

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • PbGeO{sub 3}/PPy nanocomposites are successfully fabricated for the first time. • PbGeO{sub 3} nanowire and PbGeO{sub 3}/PPy nanocomposites were characterized as anode materials in lithium ion batteries for the first time. • PPy coating can improve the electrochemical performance of PbGeO{sub 3} by increasing the electronic conductivity and buffering the volume changes during cycling. • The PbGeO{sub 3}/PPy nanocomposites deliver a capacity of 662 mA h g{sup −1} after 50 cycles. - Abstract: PGO/PPy nanocomposites were prepared via a low temperature chemical coating method for the first time. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the PbGeO{sub 3} electrodes retain a capacity of 657 mA h g{sup −1} after 100 cycles and possess excellent rate capability indicating that the PGO/PPy nanocomposites could be used as a candidate as high-capacity anode for lithium batteries.

  9. Electrical, Mechanical, and Capacity Percolation Leads to High-Performance MoS2/Nanotube Composite Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuping; He, Xiaoyun; Hanlon, Damien; Harvey, Andrew; Khan, Umar; Li, Yanguang; Coleman, Jonathan N

    2016-06-28

    Advances in lithium ion batteries would facilitate technological developments in areas from electrical vehicles to mobile communications. While two-dimensional systems like MoS2 are promising electrode materials due to their potentially high capacity, their poor rate capability and low cycle stability are severe handicaps. Here, we study the electrical, mechanical, and lithium storage properties of solution-processed MoS2/carbon nanotube anodes. Nanotube addition gives up to 10(10)-fold and 40-fold increases in electrical conductivity and mechanical toughness, respectively. The increased conductivity results in up to a 100× capacity enhancement to ∼1200 mAh/g (∼3000 mAh/cm(3)) at 0.1 A/g, while the improved toughness significantly boosts cycle stability. Composites with 20 wt % nanotubes combine high reversible capacity with excellent cycling stability (e.g., ∼950 mAh/g after 500 cycles at 2 A/g) and high rate capability (∼600 mAh/g at 20 A/g). The conductivity, toughness, and capacity scale with nanotube content according to percolation theory, while the stability increases sharply at the mechanical percolation threshold. We believe that the improvements in conductivity and toughness obtained after addition of nanotubes can be transferred to other electrode materials, such as silicon nanoparticles. PMID:27203558

  10. Nitrogen-Doped Hollow Amorphous Carbon Spheres@Graphitic Shells Derived from Pitch: New Structure Leads to Robust Lithium Storage.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qingtao; Wang, Luxiang; Xia, Wei; Jia, Dianzeng; Zhao, Zongbin

    2016-02-12

    Nitrogen-doped mesoporous hollow carbon spheres (NHCS) consisting of hybridized amorphous and graphitic carbon were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition with pitch as raw material. Treatment with HNO3 vapor was performed to incorporate oxygen-containing groups on NHCS, and the resulting NHCS-O showed excellent rate capacity, high reversible capacity, and excellent cycling stability when tested as the anode material in lithium-ion batteries. The NHCS-O electrode maintained a reversible specific capacity of 616 mAh g(-1) after 250 cycles at a current rate of 500 mA g(-1) , which is an increase of 113 % compared to the pristine hollow carbon spheres. In addition, the NHCS-O electrode exhibited a reversible capacity of 503 mAh g(-1) at a high current density of 1.5 A g(-1) . The superior electrochemical performance of NHCS-O can be attributed to the hybrid structure, high N and O contents, and rich surface defects. PMID:26751009

  11. Apricot Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apricot orchard area and fruit production are increasing worldwide. Breeding programs engage in apricot development to provide new varieties to meet needs of producers and consumers. Over the last 20 years, breeders have used new techniques to assist in variety development and to increase breeding...

  12. Secondary lithium batteries for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, B.; Khanna, S. K.; Yen, S. P. S.; Shen, D.; Somoano, R. B.

    1981-01-01

    Secondary lithium cells which use a LiAsF6-2-Me-THF electrolyte and a TiS2 intercalatable cathode exhibit encouraging cycle life at ambient temperature. Electrochemical and surface analytical studies indicate that the electrolyte is unstable in the presence of metallic lithium, leading to the formation of a lithium passivating film composed of lithium arsenic oxyfluorides and lithium fluorsilicates. The lithium cyclability remains as the most important problem to solve. Different electrolyte solvents, such as sulfolane, exhibit promising characteristics but lead to new compatibility problems with the other cell component materials.

  13. In-situ One-step Hydrothermal Synthesis of a Lead Germanate-Graphene Composite as a Novel Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Feng, Chuan-Qi; Sun, Zi-Qi; Chou, Shu-Lei; Liu, Hua-Kun; Wang, Jia-Zhao

    2014-11-01

    Lead germanate-graphene nanosheets (PbGeO3-GNS) composites have been prepared by an efficient one-step, in-situ hydrothermal method and were used as anode materials for Li-ion batteries (LIBs). The PbGeO3 nanowires, around 100-200 nm in diameter, are highly encapsulated in a graphene matrix. The lithiation and de-lithiation reaction mechanisms of the PbGeO3 anode during the charge-discharge processes have been investigated by X-ray diffraction and electrochemical characterization. Compared with pure PbGeO3 anode, dramatic improvements in the electrochemical performance of the composite anodes have been obtained. In the voltage window of 0.01-1.50 V, the composite anode with 20 wt.% GNS delivers a discharge capacity of 607 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1 after 50 cycles. Even at a high current density of 1600 mA g-1, a capacity of 406 mAh g-1 can be achieved. Therefore, the PbGeO3-GNS composite can be considered as a potential anode material for lithium ion batteries.

  14. Development of a chemical kinetic measurement apparatus and the determination of the reaction rate constants for lithium-lead/water interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Biney, P.O.

    1993-04-01

    An experimental set-up for accurate measurement of hydrogen generation rate in Lithium-Lead (Li[sub 17]Pb[sub 83]) Steam or water interactions has been designed. The most important features of the design include a pneumatic actuated quick opening and closing high temperature all stainless steel valve used to control the reaction time and the placement of most measuring devices below a water line to minimize leakage of the hydrogen collected. A PC based data acquisition and control system provides remote process sequencing, acquisition and control of all major components of the set-up. Initial tests indicate that the first design objective of maintaining leakproof gas collection chamber has been achieved. Initial pressure tests indicated that the pressure drop over a time span of 30 minutes was within the tolerance of the pressure transducer used to measure the pressure (within 0.690 kPa) at a nominal system pressure of 685 kPa. The experimental system hardware, data acquisition and control programs and data analysis program have been completed, tested and are currently functional.

  15. Lithium to the Rescue.

    PubMed

    Jope, Richard S; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2016-01-01

    Lithium, an element that Mother Nature has put in some drinking water sources, has been used for its curative powers for centuries. Today, it's given in capsule form as a mood stabilizer for bipolar disorder and depression. New research, however, reveals its role as a neuroprotector, and suggests that a better understanding of the role enzymes modulated by lithium play could lead to new treatments for Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27408673

  16. Fine mapping of Msv1, a major QTL for resistance to Maize Streak Virus leads to development of production markers for breeding pipelines.

    PubMed

    Nair, Sudha K; Babu, Raman; Magorokosho, Cosmos; Mahuku, George; Semagn, Kassa; Beyene, Yoseph; Das, Biswanath; Makumbi, Dan; Lava Kumar, P; Olsen, Michael; Boddupalli, Prasanna M

    2015-09-01

    Msv1 , the major QTL for MSV resistance was delimited to an interval of 0.87 cM on chromosome 1 at 87 Mb and production markers with high prediction accuracy were developed. Maize streak virus (MSV) disease is a devastating disease in the Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), which causes significant yield loss in maize. Resistance to MSV has previously been mapped to a major QTL (Msv1) on chromosome 1 that is germplasm and environment independent and to several minor loci elsewhere in the genome. In this study, Msv1 was fine-mapped through QTL isogenic recombinant strategy using a large F 2 population of CML206 × CML312 to an interval of 0.87 cM on chromosome 1. Genome-wide association study was conducted in the DTMA (Drought Tolerant Maize for Africa)-Association mapping panel with 278 tropical/sub-tropical breeding lines from CIMMYT using the high-density genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) markers. This study identified 19 SNPs in the region between 82 and 93 Mb on chromosome 1(B73 RefGen_V2) at a P < 1.00E-04, which coincided with the fine-mapped region of Msv1. Haplotype trend regression identified a haplotype block significantly associated with response to MSV. Three SNPs in this haplotype block at 87 Mb on chromosome 1 had an accuracy of 0.94 in predicting the disease reaction in a collection of breeding lines with known responses to MSV infection. In two biparental populations, selection for resistant Msv1 haplotype demonstrated a reduction of 1.03-1.39 units on a rating scale of 1-5, compared to the susceptible haplotype. High-throughput KASP assays have been developed for these three SNPs to enable routine marker screening in the breeding pipeline for MSV resistance. PMID:26081946

  17. Formation of Li3O4 nano particles in the discharge products of non-aqueous lithium-oxygen batteries leads to lower charge overvoltage.

    PubMed

    Shi, L; Xu, A; Zhao, T S

    2015-11-28

    Density functional theory calculations are made for bulk thermodynamic properties and surface energies of Li2O2, a primary discharge product, and Li3O4, a possible byproduct in the discharge products, of the non-aqueous lithium-oxygen batteries. Results show that the standard formation Gibbs free energy of bulk Li3O4 is marginally higher than that of Li2O2, but the surface energy of Li3O4 is much lower. Low surface energy results in both lowered nucleation energy and formation Gibbs free energy in the nanometer regime, allowing the Li3O4 nano particles to nucleate ahead of Li2O2 during the discharge process and to exist stably when particle sizes are smaller than about 40 nm. The scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) image of Li3O4 crystals is simulated and compared with the measured STEM image of the discharge product particles. The consistency between the simulated and measured STEM images suggests that the Li3O4 phase can exist stably as a discharge product. The energy profile of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) occurring on the most abundant surfaces of Li3O4 is also calculated. The predicted overpotential for the OER on the {0001} surface (0.30 V) shows a good agreement with experimental data. The presence of more electronically conductive Li3O4 nano particles in the primary discharge product Li2O2 tends to decrease the charge overvoltage of the batteries, explaining why the lower voltage area (<3.5 V) was widely observed during the charging of the batteries. An increase in the oxygen pressure or a decrease in temperature enhances the stability of the Li3O4 phase and increase the proportion of the Li3O4 phase in the discharge products, consequently leading to a lower overall charge overvoltage. PMID:26486991

  18. Lithium sputtering from lithium-coated plasma facing components in the NSTX divertor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotti, F.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Ahn, J.-W.; Bell, R. E.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Jaworski, M. A.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H. W.; McLean, A. G.; Meier, E. T.; Podestà, M.; Roquemore, A. L.

    2015-08-01

    Lithium sputtering yields and gross impurity influxes from lithium-coated graphite and molybdenum plasma facing components (PFCs) have been analyzed for the first time in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) divertor during H-mode NBI-heated discharges. Motivated by the beneficial effects of lithium conditioning on discharge performance and reproducibility, evaporative lithium coatings were the routine wall conditioning technique in NSTX. Neutral lithium sputtering yields from solid lithium coatings in NSTX were found to be consistent with values reported from test stand experiments from deuterium-saturated lithium (with sputtering yields YLi ∼ 0.03- 0.07). Temperature-enhanced lithium sputtering was observed on lithium-coated graphite and molybdenum as a result of PFC heating by both embedded heaters and incident plasma heat flux, leading to YLi ∼ 0.1- 0.2 for surface temperatures above the lithium melting point.

  19. Neutronics and activation analysis of lithium-based ternary alloys in IFE blankets

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jolodosky, Alejandra; Kramer, Kevin; Meier, Wayne; DeMuth, James; Reyes, Susana; Fratoni, Massimiliano

    2016-04-09

    Here we report that an attractive feature of using liquid lithium as the breeder and coolant in fusion blankets is that it has very high tritium solubility and results in very low levels of tritium permeation throughout the facility infrastructure. However, lithium metal vigorously reacts with air and water and presents plant safety concerns. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is carrying an effort to develop a lithium-based alloy that maintains the beneficial properties of lithium (e.g. high tritium breeding and solubility) and at the same time reduces overall flammability concerns. This study evaluates the neutronics performance of lithium-based alloys inmore » the blanket of an inertial fusion energy chamber in order to inform such development. 3-D Monte Carlo calculations were performed to evaluate two main neutronics performance parameters for the blanket: tritium breeding ratio (TBR), and the fusion energy multiplication factor (EMF). It was found that elements that exhibit low absorption cross sections and higher q-values such as lead, tin, and strontium, perform well with those that have high neutron multiplication such as lead and bismuth. These elements meet TBR constrains ranging from 1.02 to 1.1. However, most alloys do not reach EMFs greater than 1.15. Additionally, it was found that enriching lithium significantly increases the TBR and decreases the minimum lithium concentration by more than 60%. The amount of enrichment depends on how much total lithium is in the alloy to begin with. Alloys that performed well in the TBR and EMF calculations were considered for activation analysis. Activation simulations were executed with 50 years of irradiation and 300 years of cooling. It was discovered that bismuth is a poor choice due to achieving the highest decay heat, contact dose rates, and accident doses. In addition, it does not meet the waste disposal ratings (WDR). Some of the activation results for alloys with tin, zinc, and gallium were in

  20. Effect on the tritium breeding ratio for a distributed ICRF antenna in a DEMO reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, A.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Fischer, U.; Dies, J.

    2015-12-01

    The paper reports results of MCNP-5 calculations to assess the effect on the Tritium Breeding Ratio (TBR) when integrating a distributed Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) antenna in the blanket of DEMO fusion power reactor. The calculations consider different parameters such as the ICRF covering ratio and the type of breeding blanket including the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) and the Helium Cooled Lithium Lead (HCLL) concepts. For an antenna with a full toroidal circumference of 360°, located poloidally at 40° with a poloidal extension of 1 m, the reduction of the TBR is -0.349% for the HCPB blanket and -0.532% for the HCLL blanket. The distributed ICRF antenna is thus shown to have only a marginal effect on the TBR of the DEMO reactor.

  1. Effect on the tritium breeding ratio for a distributed ICRF antenna in a DEMO reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, A.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Fischer, U.; Dies, J.

    2015-12-10

    The paper reports results of MCNP-5 calculations to assess the effect on the Tritium Breeding Ratio (TBR) when integrating a distributed Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) antenna in the blanket of DEMO fusion power reactor. The calculations consider different parameters such as the ICRF covering ratio and the type of breeding blanket including the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) and the Helium Cooled Lithium Lead (HCLL) concepts. For an antenna with a full toroidal circumference of 360°, located poloidally at 40° with a poloidal extension of 1 m, the reduction of the TBR is −0.349% for the HCPB blanket and −0.532% for the HCLL blanket. The distributed ICRF antenna is thus shown to have only a marginal effect on the TBR of the DEMO reactor.

  2. Hydrogen, lithium, and lithium hydride production

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Sam W; Spencer, Larry S; Phillips, Michael R; Powell, G. Louis; Campbell, Peggy J

    2014-03-25

    A method of producing high purity lithium metal is provided, where gaseous-phase lithium metal is extracted from lithium hydride and condensed to form solid high purity lithium metal. The high purity lithium metal may be hydrided to provide high purity lithium hydride.

  3. Assortative mating and fragmentation within dog breeds

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background There are around 400 internationally recognized dog breeds in the world today, with a remarkable diversity in size, shape, color and behavior. Breeds are considered to be uniform groups with similar physical characteristics, shaped by selection rooted in human preferences. This has led to a large genetic difference between breeds and a large extent of linkage disequilibrium within breeds. These characteristics are important for association mapping of candidate genes for diseases and therefore make dogs ideal models for gene mapping of human disorders. However, genetic uniformity within breeds may not always be the case. We studied patterns of genetic diversity within 164 poodles and compared it to 133 dogs from eight other breeds. Results Our analyses revealed strong population structure within poodles, with differences among some poodle groups as pronounced as those among other well-recognized breeds. Pedigree analysis going three generations back in time confirmed that subgroups within poodles result from assortative mating imposed by breed standards as well as breeder preferences. Matings have not taken place at random or within traditionally identified size classes in poodles. Instead, a novel set of five poodle groups was identified, defined by combinations of size and color, which is not officially recognized by the kennel clubs. Patterns of genetic diversity in other breeds suggest that assortative mating leading to fragmentation may be a common feature within many dog breeds. Conclusion The genetic structure observed in poodles is the result of local mating patterns, implying that breed fragmentation may be different in different countries. Such pronounced structuring within dog breeds can increase the power of association mapping studies, but also represents a serious problem if ignored. In dog breeding, individuals are selected on the basis of morphology, behaviour, working or show purposes, as well as geographic population structure. The same

  4. Lithium nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Azab, Abed N; Shnaider, Alla; Osher, Yamima; Wang, Dana; Bersudsky, Yuly; Belmaker, R H

    2015-12-01

    Reports of toxic effects on the kidney of lithium treatment emerged very soon after lithium therapy was introduced. Lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is usually self-limiting or not clinically dangerous. Some reports of irreversible chronic kidney disease and renal failure were difficult to attribute to lithium treatment since chronic kidney disease and renal failure exist in the population at large. In recent years, large-scale epidemiological studies have convincingly shown that lithium treatment elevates the risk of chronic kidney disease and renal failure. Most patients do not experience renal side effects. The most common side effect of polyuria only weakly predicts increasing creatinine or reduced kidney function. Among those patients who do experience decrease in creatinine clearance, some may require continuation of lithium treatment even as their creatinine increases. Other patients may be able to switch to a different mood stabilizer medication, but kidney function may continue to deteriorate even after lithium cessation. Most, but not all, evidence today recommends using a lower lithium plasma level target for long-term maintenance and thereby reducing risks of severe nephrotoxicity. PMID:26043842

  5. Sugarcane Improvement Through Breeding and Biotechnology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The advancements in sugarcane breeding and the improvement of sugarcane through biotechnology have been reviewed by a team of leading sugarcane specialists from around the world. Topics covered in the breeding section include the evolution and origin of sugarcane, early history of conventional sugar...

  6. Advances in Japanese pear breeding in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) is one of the most widely grown fruit trees in Japan, and it has been used throughout Japan's history. The commercial production of pears increased rapidly with the successive discoveries of the chance seedling cultivars 'Chojuro' and 'Nijisseiki' around 1890, and the development of new cultivars has continued since 1915. The late-maturing, leading cultivars 'Niitaka' and 'Shinko' were released during the initial breeding stage. Furthermore, systematic breeding by the Horticultural Research Station (currently, NARO Institute of Fruit Tree Science, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NIFTS)) began in 1935, which mainly aimed to improve fruit quality by focusing on flesh texture and black spot disease resistance. To date, 22 cultivars have been released, including 'Kosui', 'Hosui', and 'Akizuki', which are current leading cultivars from the breeding program. Four induced mutant cultivars induced by gamma irradiation, which exhibit some resistance to black spot disease, were released from the Institute of Radiation Breeding. Among these cultivars, 'Gold Nijisseiki' has become a leading cultivar. Moreover, 'Nansui' from the Nagano prefectural institute breeding program was released, and it has also become a leading cultivar. Current breeding objectives at NIFTS mainly combine superior fruit quality with traits related to labor and cost reduction, multiple disease resistance, or self-compatibility. Regarding future breeding, marker-assisted selection for each trait, QTL analyses, genome-wide association studies, and genomic selection analyses are currently in progress. PMID:27069390

  7. Breeding Horticultural Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant breeding involves selection of plants with combinations of improved traits that are inherited in a predictable manner. Collecting, understanding, and incorporating genetic variation into a horticultural breeding program are critical to success. Clearly defined goals help plant breeders choose ...

  8. Blackberry Breeding and Genetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant Breeding Reviews has been published since the early 1980s and each edition presents a thorough review of the state of the are on breeding and genetics of specific crop plant. The extensive chapter on blackberry breeding and genetics is organized as follows: INTRODUCTION (Origin and Speciation...

  9. Chickpea Breeding and Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book presents the current status of chickpea breeding and management by experts from around the world. It thoroughly covers a wide array of subject on chickpea genetics and breeding ranging from cytogenetics, wild relatives and biodiversity, conventional and modern breeding techniques and achi...

  10. Lithium plating in a commercial lithium-ion battery - A low-temperature aging study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzl, Mathias; Kasper, Michael; Danzer, Michael A.

    2015-02-01

    The formation of metallic lithium on the negative graphite electrode in a lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery, also known as lithium plating, leads to severe performance degradation and may also affect the cell safety. This study is focused on the nondestructive characterization of the aging behavior during long-term cycling at plating conditions, i.e. low temperature and high charge rate. A commercial graphite/LiFePO4 Li-ion battery is investigated in order to elucidate the aging effects of lithium plating for real-world purposes. It is shown that lithium plating can be observed as a loss of cyclable lithium which affects the capacity balance of the electrodes. In this way, lithium plating counteracts its own occurrence during prolonged cycling. The capacity losses due to lithium plating are therefore decreasing at higher cycle numbers and the capacity retention curve exhibits an inflection point. It is further shown that the observed capacity fade is partly reversible. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) reveals a significant increase of the ohmic cell resistance due to electrolyte consumption during surface film formation on the plated lithium. Additional cell opening provides important quantitative information regarding the thickness of the lithium layer and the corresponding mass of the plated lithium.

  11. Breeding erect plant type sweetpotato lines using cross breeding and gamma-ray irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Kuranouchi, Toshikazu; Kumazaki, Tadashi; Kumagai, Toru; Nakatani, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Few sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) cultivars with erect plant type are available despite their advantages over spreading type, such as simplicity of cultivation and ability to adapt to limited space. One of the reasons is insufficiency of their agronomic characteristics for table use. So, it is important to overcome these drawbacks of ER-type lines. We attempted to breed new erect plant type sweetpotato lines having good agronomic traits using cross breeding and mutation breeding with gamma-ray irradiation. With cross breeding we successfully developed new erect plant type lines with almost equal levels of yield as compared to ‘Beniazuma’, one of the leading cultivars in Japan. However, mutation breeding failed to develop any promising lines because we could not obtain distinct erect plant type lines. In the future larger numbers of plants should be used for mutation breeding, and irradiation methods should be improved. PMID:27436957

  12. Breeding erect plant type sweetpotato lines using cross breeding and gamma-ray irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kuranouchi, Toshikazu; Kumazaki, Tadashi; Kumagai, Toru; Nakatani, Makoto

    2016-06-01

    Few sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) cultivars with erect plant type are available despite their advantages over spreading type, such as simplicity of cultivation and ability to adapt to limited space. One of the reasons is insufficiency of their agronomic characteristics for table use. So, it is important to overcome these drawbacks of ER-type lines. We attempted to breed new erect plant type sweetpotato lines having good agronomic traits using cross breeding and mutation breeding with gamma-ray irradiation. With cross breeding we successfully developed new erect plant type lines with almost equal levels of yield as compared to 'Beniazuma', one of the leading cultivars in Japan. However, mutation breeding failed to develop any promising lines because we could not obtain distinct erect plant type lines. In the future larger numbers of plants should be used for mutation breeding, and irradiation methods should be improved. PMID:27436957

  13. Catastrophic event modeling. [lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model for the catastrophic failures (venting or explosion of the cell) in lithium thionyl chloride batteries is presented. The phenomenology of the various processes leading to cell failure is reviewed.

  14. Lithium reprocessing technology for ceramic breeders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Saito, Minoru; Tatenuma, Katuyashi; Kainose, Mitsuru

    1995-03-01

    Lithium ceramics have been receiving considerable attention as tritium breeding materials for fusion reactors. Reprocessing technology development for these materials is proposed to recover lithium, as an effective use of resources and to remove radioactive isotopes. Four potential ceramic breeders (Li 2O, LiAlO 2, Li 2ZrO 3 and Li 4SiO 4) were prepared in order to estimate their dissolution properties in water and various acids (HCl, HNO 3, H 2SO 4, HF and aqua regia). The dissolution rates were determined by comparing the weight of the residue with that of the starting powder (the weight method). Recovery properties of lithium were examined by the precipitation method.

  15. Review of Reactivity Experiments for Lithium Ternary Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Jolodosky, A.; Bolind, A.; Fratoni, M.

    2015-09-28

    Lithium is often the preferred choice as breeder and coolant in fusion blankets as it offers high tritium breeding, excellent heat transfer and corrosion properties, and most importantly, it has very high tritium solubility and results in very low levels of tritium permeation throughout the facility infrastructure. However, lithium metal vigorously reacts with air and water and exacerbates plant safety concerns. Consequently, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is attempting to develop a lithium-based alloy—most likely a ternary alloy—which maintains the beneficial properties of lithium (e.g. high tritium breeding and solubility) while reducing overall flammability concerns for use in the blanket of an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant. The LLNL concept employs inertial confinement fusion (ICF) through the use of lasers aimed at an indirect-driven target composed of deuterium-tritium fuel. The fusion driver/target design implements the same physics currently experimented at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The plant uses lithium in both the primary coolant and blanket; therefore, lithium related hazards are of primary concern. Reducing chemical reactivity is the primary motivation for the development of new lithium alloys, and it is therefore important to come up with proper ways to conduct experiments that can physically study this phenomenon. This paper will start to explore this area by outlining relevant past experiments conducted with lithium/air reactions and lithium/water reactions. Looking at what was done in the past will then give us a general idea of how we can setup our own experiments to test a variety of lithium alloys.

  16. A critical overview of definitions and determination techniques of the internal resistance using lithium-ion, lead-acid, nickel metal-hydride batteries and electrochemical double-layer capacitors as examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piłatowicz, Grzegorz; Marongiu, Andrea; Drillkens, Julia; Sinhuber, Philipp; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2015-11-01

    The internal resistance (Ri) is one of the key parameters that determine the current state of electrochemical storage systems (ESS). It is crucial for estimating cranking capability in conventional cars, available power in modern hybrid and electric vehicles and for determining commonly used factors such as state-of-health (SoH) and state-of-function (SoF). However, ESS are complex and non-linear systems. Their Ri depends on many parameters such as current rate, temperature, SoH and state-of-charge (SoC). It is also a fact that no standardized methodologies exist and many different definitions and ways of Ri determination are being used. Nevertheless, in many cases authors are not aware of the consequences that occur when different Ri definitions are being used, such as possible misinterpretations, doubtful comparisons and false figures of merit. This paper focuses on an application-oriented separation between various Ri definitions and highlights the differences between them. The investigation was based on the following technologies: lead-acid, lithium-ion and nickel metal-hydride batteries as well as electrochemical double-layer capacitors. It is not the target of this paper to provide a standardized definition of Ri but to give researchers, engineers and manufacturers a possibility to understand what the term Ri means in their own work.

  17. Development of a chemical kinetic measurement apparatus and the determination of the reaction rate constants for lithium-lead/water interaction. Technical status progress report, October 1, 1991--March 15, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Biney, P.O.

    1993-04-01

    An experimental set-up for accurate measurement of hydrogen generation rate in Lithium-Lead (Li{sub 17}Pb{sub 83}) Steam or water interactions has been designed. The most important features of the design include a pneumatic actuated quick opening and closing high temperature all stainless steel valve used to control the reaction time and the placement of most measuring devices below a water line to minimize leakage of the hydrogen collected. A PC based data acquisition and control system provides remote process sequencing, acquisition and control of all major components of the set-up. Initial tests indicate that the first design objective of maintaining leakproof gas collection chamber has been achieved. Initial pressure tests indicated that the pressure drop over a time span of 30 minutes was within the tolerance of the pressure transducer used to measure the pressure (within 0.690 kPa) at a nominal system pressure of 685 kPa. The experimental system hardware, data acquisition and control programs and data analysis program have been completed, tested and are currently functional.

  18. Lithium-associated hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Siyam, Fadi F; Deshmukh, Sanaa; Garcia-Touza, Mariana

    2013-08-01

    Goiters and hypothyroidism are well-known patient complications of the use of lithium for treatment of bipolar disease. However, the occurrence of lithium-induced hyperthyroidism is a more rare event. Many times, the condition can be confused with a flare of mania. Monitoring through serial biochemical measurement of thyroid function is critical in patients taking lithium. Hyperthyroidism induced by lithium is a condition that generally can be controlled medically without the patient having to discontinue lithium therapy, although in some circumstances, discontinuation of lithium therapy may be indicated. We report on a patient case of lithium-associated hyperthyroidism that resolved after discontinuation of the medication. PMID:23948626

  19. Sexual Reproduction and Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the second edition of Plant Propagation Concepts and Laboratory Exercises, we have combined the first edition chapters 36: Sexual Reproduction in Angiosperms and 37: Breeding Horticultural Plants into the present single chapter Sexual Reproduction and Breeding. These topics are so closely relate...

  20. Blackberry breeding and genetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blackberry (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus Watson) improvement has made substantial progress with over 400 cultivars named originating from wild selections to many releases from breeding efforts. Public breeding has been ongoing for over 100 years. The result of these improvements is commercial production ...

  1. Advances in Japanese pear breeding in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) is one of the most widely grown fruit trees in Japan, and it has been used throughout Japan’s history. The commercial production of pears increased rapidly with the successive discoveries of the chance seedling cultivars ‘Chojuro’ and ‘Nijisseiki’ around 1890, and the development of new cultivars has continued since 1915. The late-maturing, leading cultivars ‘Niitaka’ and ‘Shinko’ were released during the initial breeding stage. Furthermore, systematic breeding by the Horticultural Research Station (currently, NARO Institute of Fruit Tree Science, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NIFTS)) began in 1935, which mainly aimed to improve fruit quality by focusing on flesh texture and black spot disease resistance. To date, 22 cultivars have been released, including ‘Kosui’, ‘Hosui’, and ‘Akizuki’, which are current leading cultivars from the breeding program. Four induced mutant cultivars induced by gamma irradiation, which exhibit some resistance to black spot disease, were released from the Institute of Radiation Breeding. Among these cultivars, ‘Gold Nijisseiki’ has become a leading cultivar. Moreover, ‘Nansui’ from the Nagano prefectural institute breeding program was released, and it has also become a leading cultivar. Current breeding objectives at NIFTS mainly combine superior fruit quality with traits related to labor and cost reduction, multiple disease resistance, or self-compatibility. Regarding future breeding, marker-assisted selection for each trait, QTL analyses, genome-wide association studies, and genomic selection analyses are currently in progress. PMID:27069390

  2. Can non-breeding be a cost of breeding dispersal?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Danchin, E.; Cam, E.

    2002-01-01

    Breeding habitat selection and dispersal are crucial processes that affect many components of fitness. Breeding dispersal entails costs, one of which has been neglected: dispersing animals may miss breeding opportunities because breeding dispersal requires finding a new nesting site and mate, two time- and energy-consuming activities. Dispersers are expected to be prone to non-breeding. We used the kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) to test whether breeding dispersal influences breeding probability. Breeding probability was associated with dispersal, in that both were negatively influenced by private information (previous individual reproductive success) and public information (average reproductive success of conspecifics) about patch quality. Furthermore, the probability of skipping breeding was 1.7 times higher in birds that settled in a new patch relative to those that remained on the same patch. Finally, non-breeders that resumed breeding were 4.4 times more likely to disperse than birds that bred in successive years. Although private information may influence breeding probability directly, the link between breeding probability and public information may be indirect, through the influence of public information on breeding dispersal, non-breeding thus being a cost of dispersal. These results support the hypothesis that dispersal may result in not being able to breed. More generally, non-breeding (which can be interpreted as an extreme form of breeding failure) may reveal costs of various previous activities. Because monitoring the non-breeding portion of a population is difficult, non-breeders have been neglected in many studies of reproduction trade-offs.

  3. Lithium-mediated protection against ethanol neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jia

    2010-01-01

    Lithium has long been used as a mood stabilizer in the treatment of manic-depressive (bipolar) disorder. Recent studies suggest that lithium has neuroprotective properties and may be useful in the treatment of acute brain injuries such as ischemia and chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. One of the most important neuroprotective properties of lithium is its anti-apoptotic action. Ethanol is a neuroteratogen and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are caused by maternal ethanol exposure during pregnancy. FASD is the leading cause of mental retardation. Ethanol exposure causes neuroapoptosis in the developing brain. Ethanol-induced loss of neurons in the central nervous system underlies many of the behavioral deficits observed in FASD. Excessive alcohol consumption is also associated with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and neurodegeneration in the adult brain. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that lithium is able to ameliorate ethanol-induced neuroapoptosis. Lithium is an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) which has recently been identified as a mediator of ethanol neurotoxicity. Lithium's neuroprotection may be mediated by its inhibition of GSK3. In addition, lithium also affects many other signaling proteins and pathways that regulate neuronal survival and differentiation. This review discusses the recent evidence of lithium-mediated protection against ethanol neurotoxicity and potential underlying mechanisms. PMID:20661453

  4. Modeling Lithium Movement over Multiple Cycles in a Lithium-Metal Battery

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrese, A; Newman, J

    2014-04-11

    This paper builds on the work by Ferrese et al. [J. Electrochem., 159, A1615 (2012)], where a model of a lithium-metal battery with a LiyCoO2 positive electrode was created in order to predict the movement of lithium in the negative electrode along the negative electrode/separator interface during cell cycling. In this paper, the model is expanded to study the movement of lithium along the lithium-metal anode over multiple cycles. From this model, it is found that when a low percentage of lithium at the negative electrode is utilized, the movement of lithium along the negative electrode/separator interface reaches a quasi steady state after multiple cycles. This steady state is affected by the slope of the open-circuit-potential function in the positive electrode, the rate of charge and discharge, the depth of discharge, and the length of the rest periods. However, when a high percent of the lithium at the negative electrode is utilized during cycling, the movement does not reach a steady state and pinching can occur, where the lithium nearest the negative tab becomes progressively thinner after cycling. This is another nonlinearity that leads to a progression of the movement of lithium over multiple cycles. (C) 2014 The Electrochemical Society.

  5. Lithium mass transport in ceramic breeder materials

    SciTech Connect

    Blackburn, P.E.; Johnson, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this activity is to measure the lithium vaporization from lithium oxide breeder material under differing temperature and moisture partial pressure conditions. Lithium ceramics are being investigated for use as tritium breeding materials. The lithium is readily converted to tritium after reacting with a neutron. With the addition of 1000 ppM H{sub 2} to the He purge gas, the bred tritium is readily recovered from the blanket as HT and HTO above 400{degree}C. Within the solid, tritium may also be found as LiOT which may transport lithium to cooler parts of the blanket. The pressure of LiOT(g), HTO(g), or T{sub 2}O(g) above Li{sub 2}O(s) is the same as that for reactions involving hydrogen. In our experiments we were limited to the use of hydrogen. The purpose of this work is to investigate the transport of LiOH(g) from the blanket material. 8 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  6. Brain oscillations in bipolar disorder and lithium-induced changes

    PubMed Central

    Atagün, Murat İlhan

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) studies in patients with bipolar disorder have revealed lower amplitudes in brain oscillations. The aim of this review is to describe lithium-induced EEG changes in bipolar disorder and to discuss potential underlying factors. A literature survey about lithium-induced EEG changes in bipolar disorder was performed. Lithium consistently enhances magnitudes of brain oscillations in slow frequencies (delta and theta) in both resting-state EEG studies as well as event-related oscillations studies. Enhancement of magnitudes of beta oscillations is specific to event-related oscillations. Correlation between serum lithium levels and brain oscillations has been reported. Lithium-induced changes in brain oscillations might correspond to lithium-induced alterations in neurotransmitters, signaling cascades, plasticity, brain structure, or biophysical properties of lithium. Therefore, lithium-induced changes in brain oscillations could be promising biomarkers to assess the molecular mechanisms leading to variability in efficacy. Since the variability of lithium response in bipolar disorder is due to the genetic differences in the mechanisms involving lithium, it would be highly promising to assess the lithium-induced EEG changes as biomarkers in genetic studies. PMID:27022264

  7. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, Ian D.; Poris, Jaime; Huggins, Robert A.

    1983-01-01

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  8. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, I.D.; Poris, J.; Huggins, R.A.

    1980-07-18

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell which may be operated at temperatures between about 100 to 170/sup 0/C. The cell is comprised of an electrolyte, which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode.

  9. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, Ian D.; Poris, Jaime; Huggins, Robert A.

    1982-02-09

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  10. Welfare in horse breeding

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, M. L. H.; Sandøe, P.

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations. PMID:25908746

  11. Assisted Breeding in Sugar Beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular insight and methods applied to plant breeding and germplasm enhancement is the goal of assisted breeding, also known as marker assisted breeding, marker assisted selection, molecular plant breeding, or genome-wide selection, among others. The basic idea is that most, if not all, heritable ...

  12. Direct Lit Electrolysis In A Metallic Lithium Fusion Blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Colon-Mercado, H.; Babineau, D.; Elvington, M.; Garcia-Diaz, B.; Teprovich, J.; Vaquer, A.

    2015-10-13

    A process that simplifies the extraction of tritium from molten lithium based breeding blankets was developed.  The process is based on the direct electrolysis of lithium tritide using a ceramic Li ion conductor that replaces the molten salt extraction step. Extraction of tritium in the form of lithium tritide in the blankets/targets of fission/fusion reactors is critical in order to maintained low concentrations.  This is needed to decrease the potential tritium permeation to the surroundings and large releases from unforeseen accident scenarios. Because of the high affinity of tritium for the blanket, extraction is complicated at the required low levels. This work identified, developed and tested the use of ceramic lithium ion conductors capable of recovering the hydrogen and deuterium thru an electrolysis step at high temperatures. 

  13. To breed or not to breed: a seabird's response to extreme climatic events.

    PubMed

    Cubaynes, Sarah; Doherty, Paul F; Schreiber, E A; Gimenez, Olivier

    2011-04-23

    Intermittent breeding is an important life-history strategy that has rarely been quantified in the wild and for which drivers remain unclear. It may be the result of a trade-off between survival and reproduction, with individuals skipping breeding when breeding conditions are below a certain threshold. Heterogeneity in individual quality can also lead to heterogeneity in intermittent breeding. We modelled survival, recruitment and breeding probability of the red-footed booby (Sula sula), using a 19 year mark-recapture dataset involving more than 11,000 birds. We showed that skipping breeding was more likely in El-Niño years, correlated with an increase in the local sea surface temperature, supporting the hypothesis that it may be partly an adaptive strategy of birds to face the trade-off between survival and reproduction owing to environmental constraints. We also showed that the age-specific probability of first breeding attempt was synchronized among different age-classes and higher in El-Niño years. This result suggested that pre-breeders may benefit from lowered competition with experienced breeders in years of high skipping probabilities. PMID:20943677

  14. Genome-wide genetic changes during modern breeding of maize.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yinping; Zhao, Hainan; Ren, Longhui; Song, Weibin; Zeng, Biao; Guo, Jinjie; Wang, Baobao; Liu, Zhipeng; Chen, Jing; Li, Wei; Zhang, Mei; Xie, Shaojun; Lai, Jinsheng

    2012-07-01

    The success of modern maize breeding has been demonstrated by remarkable increases in productivity over the last four decades. However, the underlying genetic changes correlated with these gains remain largely unknown. We report here the sequencing of 278 temperate maize inbred lines from different stages of breeding history, including deep resequencing of 4 lines with known pedigree information. The results show that modern breeding has introduced highly dynamic genetic changes into the maize genome. Artificial selection has affected thousands of targets, including genes and non-genic regions, leading to a reduction in nucleotide diversity and an increase in the proportion of rare alleles. Genetic changes during breeding happen rapidly, with extensive variation (SNPs, indels and copy-number variants (CNVs)) occurring, even within identity-by-descent regions. Our genome-wide assessment of genetic changes during modern maize breeding provides new strategies as well as practical targets for future crop breeding and biotechnology. PMID:22660547

  15. Rechargeable lithium sulfide electrode for a polymer tin/sulfur lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassoun, Jusef; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno

    In this work we investigate the electrochemical behavior of a new type of carbon-lithium sulfide composite electrode. Results based on cyclic voltammetry, charge (lithium removal)-discharge (lithium acceptance) demonstrate that this electrode has a good performance in terms of reversibility, cycle life and coulombic efficiency. XRD analysis performed in situ in a lithium cell shows that lithium sulfide can be converted into sulfur during charge and re-converted back into sulfide during the following discharge process. We also show that this electrochemical process can be efficiently carried out in polymer electrolyte lithium cells and thus, that the Li 2S-C composite can be successfully used as cathode for the development of novel types of rechargeable lithium-ion sulfur batteries where the reactive and unsafe lithium metal anode is replaced by a reliable, high capacity tin-carbon composite and the unstable organic electrolyte solution is replaced by a composite gel polymer membrane that is safe, highly conductive and able to control dendrite growth across the cell. This new Sn-C/Li 2S polymer battery operates with a capacity of 600 mAh g -1 and with an average voltage of 2 V, this leading to a value of energy density amounting to 1200 Wh kg -1.

  16. Halo Star Lithium Depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Pinsonneault, M. H.; Walker, T. P.; Steigman, G.; Narayanan, Vijay K.

    1999-12-10

    The depletion of lithium during the pre-main-sequence and main-sequence phases of stellar evolution plays a crucial role in the comparison of the predictions of big bang nucleosynthesis with the abundances observed in halo stars. Previous work has indicated a wide range of possible depletion factors, ranging from minimal in standard (nonrotating) stellar models to as much as an order of magnitude in models that include rotational mixing. Recent progress in the study of the angular momentum evolution of low-mass stars permits the construction of theoretical models capable of reproducing the angular momentum evolution of low-mass open cluster stars. The distribution of initial angular momenta can be inferred from stellar rotation data in young open clusters. In this paper we report on the application of these models to the study of lithium depletion in main-sequence halo stars. A range of initial angular momenta produces a range of lithium depletion factors on the main sequence. Using the distribution of initial conditions inferred from young open clusters leads to a well-defined halo lithium plateau with modest scatter and a small population of outliers. The mass-dependent angular momentum loss law inferred from open cluster studies produces a nearly flat plateau, unlike previous models that exhibited a downward curvature for hotter temperatures in the 7Li-Teff plane. The overall depletion factor for the plateau stars is sensitive primarily to the solar initial angular momentum used in the calibration for the mixing diffusion coefficients. Uncertainties remain in the treatment of the internal angular momentum transport in the models, and the potential impact of these uncertainties on our results is discussed. The 6Li/7Li depletion ratio is also examined. We find that the dispersion in the plateau and the 6Li/7Li depletion ratio scale with the absolute 7Li depletion in the plateau, and we use observational data to set bounds on the 7Li depletion in main-sequence halo

  17. Lithium use in batteries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

  18. Interconnected hollow carbon nanospheres for stable lithium metal anodes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guangyuan; Lee, Seok Woo; Liang, Zheng; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Yan, Kai; Yao, Hongbin; Wang, Haotian; Li, Weiyang; Chu, Steven; Cui, Yi

    2014-08-01

    For future applications in portable electronics, electric vehicles and grid storage, batteries with higher energy storage density than existing lithium ion batteries need to be developed. Recent efforts in this direction have focused on high-capacity electrode materials such as lithium metal, silicon and tin as anodes, and sulphur and oxygen as cathodes. Lithium metal would be the optimal choice as an anode material, because it has the highest specific capacity (3,860 mAh g(-1)) and the lowest anode potential of all. However, the lithium anode forms dendritic and mossy metal deposits, leading to serious safety concerns and low Coulombic efficiency during charge/discharge cycles. Although advanced characterization techniques have helped shed light on the lithium growth process, effective strategies to improve lithium metal anode cycling remain elusive. Here, we show that coating the lithium metal anode with a monolayer of interconnected amorphous hollow carbon nanospheres helps isolate the lithium metal depositions and facilitates the formation of a stable solid electrolyte interphase. We show that lithium dendrites do not form up to a practical current density of 1 mA cm(-2). The Coulombic efficiency improves to ∼ 99% for more than 150 cycles. This is significantly better than the bare unmodified samples, which usually show rapid Coulombic efficiency decay in fewer than 100 cycles. Our results indicate that nanoscale interfacial engineering could be a promising strategy to tackle the intrinsic problems of lithium metal anodes. PMID:25064396

  19. Interconnected hollow carbon nanospheres for stable lithium metal anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Guangyuan; Lee, Seok Woo; Liang, Zheng; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Yan, Kai; Yao, Hongbin; Wang, Haotian; Li, Weiyang; Chu, Steven; Cui, Yi

    2014-08-01

    For future applications in portable electronics, electric vehicles and grid storage, batteries with higher energy storage density than existing lithium ion batteries need to be developed. Recent efforts in this direction have focused on high-capacity electrode materials such as lithium metal, silicon and tin as anodes, and sulphur and oxygen as cathodes. Lithium metal would be the optimal choice as an anode material, because it has the highest specific capacity (3,860 mAh g-1) and the lowest anode potential of all. However, the lithium anode forms dendritic and mossy metal deposits, leading to serious safety concerns and low Coulombic efficiency during charge/discharge cycles. Although advanced characterization techniques have helped shed light on the lithium growth process, effective strategies to improve lithium metal anode cycling remain elusive. Here, we show that coating the lithium metal anode with a monolayer of interconnected amorphous hollow carbon nanospheres helps isolate the lithium metal depositions and facilitates the formation of a stable solid electrolyte interphase. We show that lithium dendrites do not form up to a practical current density of 1 mA cm-2. The Coulombic efficiency improves to ˜99% for more than 150 cycles. This is significantly better than the bare unmodified samples, which usually show rapid Coulombic efficiency decay in fewer than 100 cycles. Our results indicate that nanoscale interfacial engineering could be a promising strategy to tackle the intrinsic problems of lithium metal anodes.

  20. Analysis of lithium driven electron density peaking in FTU liquid lithium limiter experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szepesi, G.; Romanelli, M.; Militello, F.; Peeters, A. G.; Camenen, Y.; Casson, F. J.; Hornsby, W. A.; Snodin, A. P.; Wágner, D.; the FTU Team

    2013-03-01

    The impact of lithium impurities on the microstability and turbulent transport characteristics in the core of a typical FTU liquid lithium limiter (LLL) (Mazzitelli et al 2011 Nucl. Fusion 51 073006) discharge during the density ramp-up phase is studied. A non-linear gyrokinetic analysis performed with GKW (Peeters et al 2009 Comput. Phys. Commun. 180 2650) accompanied by a quasi-linear fluid analysis is presented. We show that a centrally peaked, high concentration lithium profile contributes to the electron peaking by reducing the outward electron flux, and that it leads to inward turbulent deuterium transport through ion flux separation.

  1. The TFTR lithium blanket module program

    SciTech Connect

    Jassby, D.L.; Bertone, P.C.; Creedon, R.L.; File, J.; Graumann, D.W.

    1985-02-01

    The Lithium Blanket Module (LBM) is an approximately 80X80X80 cm cubic module, representative of a helium-cooled lithium oxide fusion reactor blanket module, that will be installed on the TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) in late 1986. The principal objective of the LBM Program is to perform a series of neutron transport and tritium-breeding measurements throughout the LBM when it is exposed to the TFTR toroidal fusion neutron source, and to compare these data with the predictions of Monte Carlo (MCNP) neutronics codes. The LBM consists of 920 2.5-cm diameter breeder rods constructed of lithium oxide (Li/sub 2/O) pellets housed in thin-walled stainless steel tubes. Procedures for mass-producing 25,000 Li/sub 2/O pellets with satisfactory reproducibility were developed using purified Li/sub 2/O powder, and fabrication of all the breeder rods was completed in early 1985. Tritium assay methods were investigated experimentally using both small lithium metal samples and LBM-type pellets. This work demonstrated that the thermal extraction method will be satisfactory for accurate evaluation of the minute concentrations of tritium expected in the LBM pellets (0.1-1nCi/g).

  2. 1980 breeding bird censuses

    SciTech Connect

    Raynor, G.S.

    1980-09-01

    As part of a program to characterize the plant and animal life of the Laboratory site and the surrounding region, the two breeding bird censuses originated in 1977 were continued in 1980. Coverage was below that of previous years due to illness and travel of some participants, but 11 trips were made to the BNL plot and 8 to the Westhampton plot. Each was censused by separate teams of three volunteer observers. The number of breeding species and number of territorial males on the BNL plot have progressively declined since 1977 but little change has taken place in either number of territories or species composition on the Westhampton plot.

  3. Overview of the TFTR Lithium Blanket Module program

    SciTech Connect

    Jassby, D.L.

    1986-11-01

    The LBM (Lithium Blanket Module) is an approximately cubic module, about 80 cm on each side, with construction representative of a helium-cooled lithium oxide fusion reactor blanket module. Measurements of neutron transport and tritium breeding in the LBM will be made in irradiation programs first with a point-neutron source, and subsequently with the D-D and D-T fusion-neutron sources of the TFTR. This paper summarizes the objectives of the LBM program, the design, development and construction of the LBM, and progress in the experimental tests.

  4. Breeding Cold Hardy Begonias

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hardy begonia cultivars have potential as a new crop for Southern nurseries. Current begonia breeding efforts are focused on sections Begonia and Pritzelia. Diverse begonia germplasm has been collected to study fertility and hardiness.To date cold hardy germplasm which has produced viable seeds inc...

  5. Hop Cultivars and Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pest management decision making in hops varies among cultivars. Historically, the primary objective of hop breeding programs has been to increase the yield or characteristics associated with either bittering (high alpha-acids) or aroma (unique volatile oil profiles) cultivars. Other factors consid...

  6. Red Clover Breeding Progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is an important forage legume grown on approximately 4 million hectares worldwide. It has a long and varied history in agriculture. Active breeding efforts began at the end of the 19th century. Since this time significant improvement in red clover cultivar for a...

  7. Raspberry Breeding and Genetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the origin, speciation, and history of improvement of the raspberries, Rubus section idaeobatus. The world industry in North America, Australasia, China, Europe, Eastern Europe, Africa, and South America and the breeding objectives of programs in those areas are discussed. Ger...

  8. The synergetic effect of lithium polysulfide and lithium nitrate to prevent lithium dendrite growth.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiyang; Yao, Hongbin; Yan, Kai; Zheng, Guangyuan; Liang, Zheng; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Cui, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Lithium metal has shown great promise as an anode material for high-energy storage systems, owing to its high theoretical specific capacity and low negative electrochemical potential. Unfortunately, uncontrolled dendritic and mossy lithium growth, as well as electrolyte decomposition inherent in lithium metal-based batteries, cause safety issues and low Coulombic efficiency. Here we demonstrate that the growth of lithium dendrites can be suppressed by exploiting the reaction between lithium and lithium polysulfide, which has long been considered as a critical flaw in lithium-sulfur batteries. We show that a stable and uniform solid electrolyte interphase layer is formed due to a synergetic effect of both lithium polysulfide and lithium nitrate as additives in ether-based electrolyte, preventing dendrite growth and minimizing electrolyte decomposition. Our findings allow for re-evaluation of the reactions regarding lithium polysulfide, lithium nitrate and lithium metal, and provide insights into solving the problems associated with lithium metal anodes. PMID:26081242

  9. The synergetic effect of lithium polysulfide and lithium nitrate to prevent lithium dendrite growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weiyang; Yao, Hongbin; Yan, Kai; Zheng, Guangyuan; Liang, Zheng; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Cui, Yi

    2015-06-01

    Lithium metal has shown great promise as an anode material for high-energy storage systems, owing to its high theoretical specific capacity and low negative electrochemical potential. Unfortunately, uncontrolled dendritic and mossy lithium growth, as well as electrolyte decomposition inherent in lithium metal-based batteries, cause safety issues and low Coulombic efficiency. Here we demonstrate that the growth of lithium dendrites can be suppressed by exploiting the reaction between lithium and lithium polysulfide, which has long been considered as a critical flaw in lithium-sulfur batteries. We show that a stable and uniform solid electrolyte interphase layer is formed due to a synergetic effect of both lithium polysulfide and lithium nitrate as additives in ether-based electrolyte, preventing dendrite growth and minimizing electrolyte decomposition. Our findings allow for re-evaluation of the reactions regarding lithium polysulfide, lithium nitrate and lithium metal, and provide insights into solving the problems associated with lithium metal anodes.

  10. Method of recycling lithium borate to lithium borohydride through diborane

    DOEpatents

    Filby, Evan E.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a method for the recycling of lithium borate to lithium borohydride which can be reacted with water to generate hydrogen for utilization as a fuel. The lithium borate by-product of the hydrogen generation reaction is reacted with hydrogen chloride and water to produce boric acid and lithium chloride. The boric acid and lithium chloride are converted to lithium borohydride through a diborane intermediate to complete the recycle scheme.

  11. Growth energizes lithium ion interest

    SciTech Connect

    D`Amico, E.

    1996-03-20

    The prospects for big growth in the US for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) has sparked the interest of potential domestic suppliers. {open_quotes}The money that can be made in this market is staggering,{close_quotes} says one industry expert. {open_quotes}Everybody who is remotely related to this industry is interested.{close_quotes} The size of the market, still in its infancy, is difficult to gauge, say consultants, who estimate that leading Japanese producers are each making millions of lithium ion cells/month. {open_quotes}The market is not too measurable right now because the only production is really limited to prototypes being sampled,{close_quotes} says Ward Seitz, a consultant with SRI International (Menlo Park, CA), {open_quotes}but there is phenomenal interest.{close_quotes}

  12. Lithium pinacolone enolate solvated by hexamethylphosphoramide.

    PubMed

    Guang, Jie; Liu, Qiyong Peter; Hopson, Russell; Williard, Paul G

    2015-06-17

    We report the crystal structure of a substoichiometric, HMPA-trisolvated lithium pinacolone enolate tetramer (LiOPin)4·HMPA3 abbreviated as T3. In this tetramer one HMPA binds to lithium more strongly than the other two causing a reduction in spatial symmetry with corresponding loss of C3 symmetry. A variety of NMR experiments, including HMPA titration, diffusion coefficient-formula weight (D-FW) analysis, and other multinuclear one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques reveal that T3 is the major species in hydrocarbon solution when more than 0.6 equiv of HMPA is present. Due to a small amount of moisture from HMPA or air leaking into the solution, a minor complex was identified and confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis as a mixed aggregate containing enolate, lithium hydroxide, and HMPA in a 4:2:4 ratio, [(LiOPin)4·(LiOH)2·HMPA4], that we refer to as pseudo-T4. A tetra-HMPA-solvated lithium cyclopentanone enolate tetramer was also prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction, leading to the conclusion that steric effects dominate the formation and solvation of the pinacolone aggregates. An unusual mixed aggregate consisting of pinacolone enolate, lithium diisopropyl amide, lithium oxide, and HMPA in the ratio 5:1:1:2 is also described. PMID:25933508

  13. Ionic liquid based lithium battery electrolytes: charge carriers and interactions derived by density functional theory calculations.

    PubMed

    Angenendt, Knut; Johansson, Patrik

    2011-06-23

    The solvation of lithium salts in ionic liquids (ILs) leads to the creation of a lithium ion carrying species quite different from those found in traditional nonaqueous lithium battery electrolytes. The most striking differences are that these species are composed only of ions and in general negatively charged. In many IL-based electrolytes, the dominant species are triplets, and the charge, stability, and size of the triplets have a large impact on the total ion conductivity, the lithium ion mobility, and also the lithium ion delivery at the electrode. As an inherent advantage, the triplets can be altered by selecting lithium salts and ionic liquids with different anions. Thus, within certain limits, the lithium ion carrying species can even be tailored toward distinct important properties for battery application. Here, we show by DFT calculations that the resulting charge carrying species from combinations of ionic liquids and lithium salts and also some resulting electrolyte properties can be predicted. PMID:21591707

  14. Lithium Redistribution in Lithium-Metal Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrese, A; Albertus, P; Christensen, J; Newman, J

    2012-01-01

    A model of a lithium-metal battery with a CoO2 positive electrode has been modeled in order to predict the movement of lithium in the negative electrode along the negative electrode/separator interface during cell cycling. A finite-element approach was used to incorporate an intercalation positive electrode using superposition, electrode tabbing, transport using concentrated solution theory, as well as the net movement of the lithium electrode during cycling. From this model, it has been found that movement of lithium along the negative electrode/separator interface does occur during cycling and is affected by three factors: the cell geometry, the slope of the open-circuit-potential function of the positive electrode, and concentration gradients in both the solid and liquid phases in the cell. (C) 2012 The Electrochemical Society. [DOI: 10.1149/2.027210jes] All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanisms of dendritic growth investigated by in situ light microscopy during electrodeposition and dissolution of lithium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiger, Jens; Kramer, Dominik; Mönig, Reiner

    2014-09-01

    Batteries with metallic lithium anodes offer improved volumetric and gravimetric energy densities; therefore, future batteries including the promising lithium-sulfur and lithium-air systems would benefit from them. The electrodeposition of lithium metal - which is an unwanted incident in lithium ion systems - often results in fine filaments or moss, called dendritic lithium, which leads to strong capacity fading and the danger of internal short circuiting. To study the mechanisms of dendritic growth and the behavior during lithium dissolution, lithium deposits have been observed in situ in 1 M LiPF6 in EC:DMC by light microscopy. The high resolution optical microscopy provided information on the growth and electrodissolution of single lithium filaments. The growth areas could be identified in detail: The lithium wires can grow either from the substrate-lithium interface, at kinks or in a region at or close to the tip. Based on these observations, we suggest a growth model for lithium filaments predicated on defect-based insertion of lithium at the aforementioned locations. This type of growth is not compatible with previous models of dendritic growth, for example, it is hardly influenced by electric fields at the tip and does not depend on the direction of the electric field.

  16. Reprocessing of lithium titanate pebbles by graphite bed method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Ming; Zhang, Yingchun; Xiang, Maoqiao; Zhang, Yun

    2015-04-01

    Lithium titanate enriched by 6Li isotope is considered as a candidate of tritium breeding materials for fusion reactors due to its excellent performance. The reuse of burned Li2TiO3 pebbles is an important issue because of the high costs of 6Li-enriched materials and waste considerations. For this purpose, reprocessing of Li2TiO3 pebbles by graphite bed method was developed. Simulative Li2TiO3 pebbles with low-lithium content according to the expected lithium burn-up were fabricated. After that, Li2TiO3 pebbles were re-fabricated with lithium carbonate as lithium additives, in order to gain the composition of lithium titanate with a Li/Ti ratio of 2. The process was optimized to obtain reprocessed Li2TiO3 pebbles that were suitable for reuse as ceramic breeder. Density, porosity, grain size and crushing load of the reprocessed pebbles were characterized. This process did not deteriorate the properties of the reprocessed pebbles and was almost no waste generation.

  17. Haploids: Constraints and opportunities in plant breeding.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Sangam L; Britt, Anne B; Tripathi, Leena; Sharma, Shivali; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Ortiz, Rodomiro

    2015-11-01

    The discovery of haploids in higher plants led to the use of doubled haploid (DH) technology in plant breeding. This article provides the state of the art on DH technology including the induction and identification of haploids, what factors influence haploid induction, molecular basis of microspore embryogenesis, the genetics underpinnings of haploid induction and its use in plant breeding, particularly to fix traits and unlock genetic variation. Both in vitro and in vivo methods have been used to induce haploids that are thereafter chromosome doubled to produce DH. Various heritable factors contribute to the successful induction of haploids, whose genetics is that of a quantitative trait. Genomic regions associated with in vitro and in vivo DH production were noted in various crops with the aid of DNA markers. It seems that F2 plants are the most suitable for the induction of DH lines than F1 plants. Identifying putative haploids is a key issue in haploid breeding. DH technology in Brassicas and cereals, such as barley, maize, rice, rye and wheat, has been improved and used routinely in cultivar development, while in other food staples such as pulses and root crops the technology has not reached to the stage leading to its application in plant breeding. The centromere-mediated haploid induction system has been used in Arabidopsis, but not yet in crops. Most food staples are derived from genomic resources-rich crops, including those with sequenced reference genomes. The integration of genomic resources with DH technology provides new opportunities for the improving selection methods, maximizing selection gains and accelerate cultivar development. Marker-aided breeding and DH technology have been used to improve host plant resistance in barley, rice, and wheat. Multinational seed companies are using DH technology in large-scale production of inbred lines for further development of hybrid cultivars, particularly in maize. The public sector provides support to

  18. Lithium and symptomatic hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed Central

    Ananth, J; Dubin, S E

    1983-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism with or without adenoma has occasionally been reported in association with lithium treatment, and in symptomatic patients depression, psychosis and an exacerbation of existing psychopathology may occur. Three lithium-treated patients with hyperparathyroidism are reported, in whom discontinuation of lithium in one and removal of parathyroid adenomata in two led to both a reduction in plasma calcium levels and an improvement in their psychopathology. PMID:6423822

  19. Lithium purification technique

    DOEpatents

    Keough, R.F.; Meadows, G.E.

    1984-01-10

    A method for purifying liquid lithium to remove unwanted quantities of nitrogen or aluminum. The method involves precipitation of aluminum nitride by adding a reagent to the liquid lithium. The reagent will be either nitrogen or aluminum in a quantity adequate to react with the unwanted quantity of the impurity to form insoluble aluminum nitride. The aluminum nitride can be mechanically separated from the molten liquid lithium.

  20. Lithium purification technique

    DOEpatents

    Keough, Robert F.; Meadows, George E.

    1985-01-01

    A method for purifying liquid lithium to remove unwanted quantities of nitrogen or aluminum. The method involves precipitation of aluminum nitride by adding a reagent to the liquid lithium. The reagent will be either nitrogen or aluminum in a quantity adequate to react with the unwanted quantity of the impurity to form insoluble aluminum nitride. The aluminum nitride can be mechanically separated from the molten liquid lithium.

  1. Locus minimization in breed prediction using artificial neural network approach.

    PubMed

    Iquebal, M A; Ansari, M S; Sarika; Dixit, S P; Verma, N K; Aggarwal, R A K; Jayakumar, S; Rai, A; Kumar, D

    2014-12-01

    Molecular markers, viz. microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms, have revolutionized breed identification through the use of small samples of biological tissue or germplasm, such as blood, carcass samples, embryos, ova and semen, that show no evident phenotype. Classical tools of molecular data analysis for breed identification have limitations, such as the unavailability of referral breed data, causing increased cost of collection each time, compromised computational accuracy and complexity of the methodology used. We report here the successful use of an artificial neural network (ANN) in background to decrease the cost of genotyping by locus minimization. The webserver is freely accessible (http://nabg.iasri.res.in/bisgoat) to the research community. We demonstrate that the machine learning (ANN) approach for breed identification is capable of multifold advantages such as locus minimization, leading to a drastic reduction in cost, and web availability of reference breed data, alleviating the need for repeated genotyping each time one investigates the identity of an unknown breed. To develop this model web implementation based on ANN, we used 51,850 samples of allelic data of microsatellite-marker-based DNA fingerprinting on 25 loci covering 22 registered goat breeds of India for training. Minimizing loci to up to nine loci through the use of a multilayer perceptron model, we achieved 96.63% training accuracy. This server can be an indispensable tool for identification of existing breeds and new synthetic commercial breeds, leading to protection of intellectual property in case of sovereignty and bio-piracy disputes. This server can be widely used as a model for cost reduction by locus minimization for various other flora and fauna in terms of variety, breed and/or line identification, especially in conservation and improvement programs. PMID:25183434

  2. Is violence in part a lithium deficiency state?

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Mark R; Mascitelli, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Violence, particularly firearm violence, leading to suicide and homicide is a significant problem worldwide. A majority of suicidal and homicidal violence involves males; homicidal violence is prevalent among young men and suicide is the leading cause of violence worldwide. Lithium, in pharmacological doses, has been used successfully for decades in treating bipolar disorders, and has been shown to decrease violent crime in this situation. Interestingly, lithium, in trace amounts, as occurs in some drinking water, has been inversely related to aggression, and suicidal and homicidal violence. Lithium is naturally found in vegetables, grains and drinking water, and dietary intake varies from nearly zero to 3mg daily. Elemental lithium, in trace doses, has been shown to improve mood in weeks. Moreover, lithium, in trace amounts, has no toxicity. In order to ensure adequate dietary intakes of elemental lithium daily for the purpose of decreasing aggression and violence, we propose considering the fortification of cereal grain products with lithium and also the addition of lithium to vitamin preparations for adults. Importantly, randomized trials in various populations are needed to test this hypothesis. PMID:26968907

  3. Experimental Investigation of Ternary Alloys for Fusion Breeding Blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, B. William; Chiu, Ing L.

    2015-10-26

    Future fusion power plants based on the deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel cycle will be required to breed the T fuel via neutron reactions with lithium, which will be incorporated in a breeding blanket that surrounds the fusion source. Recent work by LLNL proposed the used of liquid Li as the breeder in an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant. Subsequently, an LDRD was initiated to develop alternatives ternary alloy liquid metal breeders that have reduced chemical reactivity with water and air compared to pure Li. Part of the work plan was to experimentally investigate the phase diagrams of ternary alloys. Of particular interest was measurement of the melt temperature, which must be low enough to be compatible with the temperature limits of the steel used in the construction of the chamber and heat transfer system.

  4. Lithium-associated primary hyperparathyroidism complicated by nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

    PubMed Central

    Aksakal, Nihat; Erçetin, Candaş; Özçınar, Beyza; Aral, Ferihan; Erbil, Yeşim

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-associated hyperparathyroidism is the leading cause of hypercalcemia in lithium-treated patients. Lithium may lead to exacerbation of pre-existing primary hyperparathyroidism or cause an increased set-point of calcium for parathyroid hormone suppression, leading to parathyroid hyperplasia. Lithium may cause renal tubular concentration defects directly by the development of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus or indirectly by the effects of hypercalcemia. In this study, we present a female patient on long-term lithium treatment who was evaluated for hypercalcemia. Preoperative imaging studies indicated parathyroid adenoma and multinodular goiter. Parathyroidectomy and thyroidectomy were planned. During the postoperative course, prolonged intubation was necessary because of agitation and delirium. During this period, polyuria, severe dehydration, and hypernatremia developed, which responded to controlled hypotonic fluid infusions and was unresponsive to parenteral desmopressin. A diagnosis of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus was apparent. A parathyroid adenoma and multifocal papillary thyroid cancer were detected on histopathological examination. It was thought that nephrogenic diabetes insipidus was masked by hypercalcemia preoperatively. A patient on lithium treatment should be carefully followed up during or after surgery to prevent life-threatening complications of previously unrecognized nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, and the possibility of renal concentrating defects on long-term lithium use should be sought, particularly in patients with impaired consciousness. PMID:26504422

  5. Laminar Multicell Lithium Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Bruder, A. H.

    1984-01-31

    Laminar batteries of series connected cells comprising lithium anodes and an electrolyte containing a passivating solvent reactive with lithium in which the cells are electrically connected in series by intercell barriers comprising outer layers of electrochemically inert electronically conducting material in contact with the electrochemically active anode and cathode of adjacent cells and a layer of metal foil between the electrochemically inert layers.

  6. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2015-01-13

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  7. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2013-07-23

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  8. Lithium and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Motoi, Yumiko; Shimada, Kohei; Ishiguro, Koichi; Hattori, Nobutaka

    2014-06-18

    Lithium, a drug used to treat bipolar disorders, has a variety of neuroprotective mechanisms, including autophagy regulation, in various neuropsychiatric conditions. In neurodegenerative diseases, lithium enhances degradation of aggregate-prone proteins, including mutated huntingtin, phosphorylated tau, and α-synuclein, and causes damaged mitochondria to degrade, while in a mouse model of cerebral ischemia and Alzheimer's disease autophagy downregulation by lithium is observed. The signaling pathway of lithium as an autophagy enhancer might be associated with the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-independent pathway, which is involved in myo-inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) in Huntington's disease and Parkinson's disease. However, the mTOR-dependent pathway might be involved in inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) in other diseases. Lithium's autophagy-enhancing property may contribute to the therapeutic benefit of patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:24738557

  9. Materials for breeding blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Mattas, R.F.; Billone, M.C.

    1995-09-01

    There are several candidate concepts for tritium breeding blankets that make use of a number of special materials. These materials can be classified as Primary Blanket Materials, which have the greatest influence in determining the overall design and performance, and Secondary Blanket Materials, which have key functions in the operation of the blanket but are less important in establishing the overall design and performance. The issues associated with the blanket materials are specified and several examples of materials performance are given. Critical data needs are identified.

  10. Lithium: a versatile tool for understanding renal physiology

    PubMed Central

    Ecelbarger, Carolyn M.

    2013-01-01

    By virtue of its unique interactions with kidney cells, lithium became an important research tool in renal physiology and pathophysiology. Investigators have uncovered the intricate relationships of lithium with the vasopressin and aldosterone systems, and the membrane channels or transporters regulated by them. While doing so, their work has also led to 1) questioning the role of adenylyl cyclase activity and prostaglandins in lithium-induced suppression of aquaporin-2 gene transcription; 2) unraveling the role of purinergic signaling in lithium-induced polyuria; and 3) highlighting the importance of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). Lithium-induced remodeling of the collecting duct has the potential to shed new light on collecting duct remodeling in disease conditions, such as diabetes insipidus. The finding that lithium inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) has opened an avenue for studies on the role of GSK3β in urinary concentration, and GSK isoforms in renal development. Finally, proteomic and metabolomic profiling of the kidney and urine in rats treated with lithium is providing insights into how the kidney adapts its metabolism in conditions such as acquired NDI and the multifactorial nature of lithium-induced NDI. This review provides state-of-the-art knowledge of lithium as a versatile tool for understanding the molecular physiology of the kidney, and a comprehensive view of how this tool is challenging some of our long-standing concepts in renal physiology, often with paradigm shifts, and presenting paradoxical situations in renal pathophysiology. In addition, this review points to future directions in research where lithium can lead the renal community. PMID:23408166

  11. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Kim, Jeom-Soo; Johnson, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)/(2+x)M'.sub.2x/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.x<1 and .delta. is less than 0.2, and in which M is a non-lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. Methods of preconditioning the electrodes are disclosed as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  12. Size effects in lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu-Rong, Yao; Ya-Xia, Yin; Yu-Gao, Guo

    2016-01-01

    Size-related properties of novel lithium battery materials, arising from kinetics, thermodynamics, and newly discovered lithium storage mechanisms, are reviewed. Complementary experimental and computational investigations of the use of the size effects to modify electrodes and electrolytes for lithium ion batteries are enumerated and discussed together. Size differences in the materials in lithium ion batteries lead to a variety of exciting phenomena. Smaller-particle materials with highly connective interfaces and reduced diffusion paths exhibit higher rate performance than the corresponding bulk materials. The thermodynamics is also changed by the higher surface energy of smaller particles, affecting, for example, secondary surface reactions, lattice parameter, voltage, and the phase transformation mechanism. Newly discovered lithium storage mechanisms that result in superior storage capacity are also briefly highlighted. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51225204 and 21303222), the Shandong Taishan Scholarship, China, the Ministry of Science and Technology, China (Grant No. 2012CB932900), and the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDA09010000).

  13. Mechanochemistry of lithium nitride under hydrogen gas.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Zhang, J; Wang, S; Jiang, L; Latroche, M; Du, J; Cuevas, F

    2015-09-14

    Hydrogen uptake during the mechanochemistry of lithium nitride under 9 MPa hydrogen pressure has been analyzed by means of in situ solid-gas absorption and ex situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. In situ hydrogenation curves show two H-sorption steps leading to an overall hydrogen uptake of 9.8 wt% H after 3 hours of milling. The milled end-products consist of nanocrystalline (∼10 nm) LiNH2 and LiH phases. The first reaction step comprises the transformation of the polymorph α-Li3N (S.G. P6/mmm) into the β-Li3N (S.G. P63/mmc) metastable phase and the reaction of the latter with hydrogen to form lithium imide: β-Li3N + H2→ Li2NH + LiH. Reaction kinetics of the first step is zero-order. Its rate-limiting control is assigned to the collision frequency between milling balls and Li3N powder. In the second absorption step, lithium imide converts to lithium amide following the reaction scheme Li2NH + H2→ LiNH2 + LiH. Reaction kinetics is here limited by one-dimensional nucleation and the growth mechanism, which, in light of structural data, is assigned to the occurrence of lithium vacancies in the imide compound. This study provides new insights into the reaction paths and chemical kinetics of light hydrogen storage materials during their mechanochemical synthesis. PMID:26234206

  14. Application of Genomic Tools in Plant Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-de-Castro, A.M.; Vilanova, S.; Cañizares, J.; Pascual, L.; Blanca, J.M.; Díez, M.J.; Prohens, J.; Picó, B.

    2012-01-01

    Plant breeding has been very successful in developing improved varieties using conventional tools and methodologies. Nowadays, the availability of genomic tools and resources is leading to a new revolution of plant breeding, as they facilitate the study of the genotype and its relationship with the phenotype, in particular for complex traits. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies are allowing the mass sequencing of genomes and transcriptomes, which is producing a vast array of genomic information. The analysis of NGS data by means of bioinformatics developments allows discovering new genes and regulatory sequences and their positions, and makes available large collections of molecular markers. Genome-wide expression studies provide breeders with an understanding of the molecular basis of complex traits. Genomic approaches include TILLING and EcoTILLING, which make possible to screen mutant and germplasm collections for allelic variants in target genes. Re-sequencing of genomes is very useful for the genome-wide discovery of markers amenable for high-throughput genotyping platforms, like SSRs and SNPs, or the construction of high density genetic maps. All these tools and resources facilitate studying the genetic diversity, which is important for germplasm management, enhancement and use. Also, they allow the identification of markers linked to genes and QTLs, using a diversity of techniques like bulked segregant analysis (BSA), fine genetic mapping, or association mapping. These new markers are used for marker assisted selection, including marker assisted backcross selection, ‘breeding by design’, or new strategies, like genomic selection. In conclusion, advances in genomics are providing breeders with new tools and methodologies that allow a great leap forward in plant breeding, including the ‘superdomestication’ of crops and the genetic dissection and breeding for complex traits. PMID:23115520

  15. RosBREED: Enabling Marker-Assisted Breeding In Rosaceae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    RosBREED will create a national, dynamic, sustained effort in research, infrastructure establishment, training, and extension for applying marker-assisted breeding (MAB) to deliver improved plant materials more efficiently and rapidly. The Rosaceae family (including apple, peach, sweet and tart cher...

  16. The development of Sn-Li coolant/breeding material for APEX/ALPS applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, D.-K.

    1999-07-08

    A Sn-Li alloy has been identified to be a coolant/breeding material for D-T fusion applications. The key feature of this material is its very low vapor pressure, which will be very useful for free surface concepts employed in APEX, ALPS and inertial confinement fission. The vapor is dominated by lithium, which has very low Z. Initial assessment of the material indicates acceptable tritium breeding capability, high thermal conductivity, expected low tritium volubility, and expected low chemical reactivities with water and air. Some key concerns are the high activation and material compatibility issues. The initial assessment of this material, for fission applications, is presented in this paper.

  17. Neutronics Evaluation of Lithium-Based Ternary Alloys in IFE Blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Jolodosky, A.; Fratoni, M.

    2014-11-20

    Pre-conceptual fusion blanket designs require research and development to reflect important proposed changes in the design of essential systems, and the new challenges they impose on related fuel cycle systems. One attractive feature of using liquid lithium as the breeder and coolant is that it has very high tritium solubility and results in very low levels of tritium permeation throughout the facility infrastructure. However, lithium metal vigorously reacts with air and water and presents plant safety concerns. If the chemical reactivity of lithium could be overcome, the result would have a profound impact on fusion energy and associated safety basis. The overriding goal of this project is to develop a lithium-based alloy that maintains beneficial properties of lithium (e.g. high tritium breeding and solubility) while reducing overall flammability concerns. To minimize the number of alloy combinations that must be explored, only those alloys that meet certain nuclear performance metrics will be considered for subsequent thermodynamic study. The specific scope of this study is to evaluate the neutronics performance of lithium-based alloys in the blanket of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) engine. The results of this study will inform the development of lithium alloys that would guarantee acceptable neutronics performance while mitigating the chemical reactivity issues of pure lithium.

  18. Lithium cell test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, B. J.

    1977-01-01

    Three lithium SO2 cells, two lithium CF cells, and a vinyl chloride cell, all with crimped seals, and all strictly experimental, were independently discharged on resistors. Three temperatures were used and several different storage temperatures. Discharge rate generally on the nominal discharges were 0.1 amp, 0.5 amp, and 1 amp. Tests results show that the crimp seals are inadequate, especially for the SO2 cells. Normal discharges present no hazards. All cells discharge to zero. The problem of lithium cell explosions, such as occurred during off-limits testing, is discussed.

  19. Lithium Dendrite Formation

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-06

    Scientists at the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory have captured the first real-time nanoscale images of lithium dendrite structures known to degrade lithium-ion batteries. The ORNL team’s electron microscopy could help researchers address long-standing issues related to battery performance and safety. Video shows annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging (ADF STEM) of lithium dendrite nucleation and growth from a glassy carbon working electrode and within a 1.2M LiPF6 EC:DM battery electrolyte.

  20. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kang, Sun-Ho

    2010-06-08

    An uncycled preconditioned electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.yO.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 in which 0lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. The xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.y.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 material is prepared by preconditioning a precursor lithium metal oxide (i.e., xLi.sub.2M'O.sub.3.(1-x)LiMO.sub.2) with a proton-containing medium with a pH<7.0 containing an inorganic acid. Methods of preparing the electrodes are disclosed, as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  1. Breeding, Genetics, and Cultivar Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato breeding is a challenge due to the tetraploid nature of the potato, limited variability for economically important traits in adapted breeding clones, and a complex set of requirements necessary for the successful adoption of new cultivars. However, rich germplasm resources are readily availa...

  2. THE USDA PECAN BREEDING PROGRAM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper outlines how the USDA Pecan Breeding Program is operated to produce superior new cultivars that are given names of Native American peoples, and released for planting in new pecan orchards. The USDA conducts the largest pecan breeding and genetics program in the world. The program is div...

  3. Lithium drifted germanium system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fjarlie, E. J.

    1969-01-01

    General characteristics of the lithium-drifted germanium photodiode-Dewar-preamplifier system and particular operating instructions for the device are given. Information is included on solving operational problems.

  4. APPARATUS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF LITHIUM METAL

    DOEpatents

    Baker, P.S.; Duncan, F.R.; Greene, H.B.

    1961-08-22

    Methods and apparatus for the production of high-purity lithium from lithium halides are described. The apparatus is provided for continuously contacting a molten lithium halide with molten barium, thereby forming lithium metal and a barium halide, establishing separate layers of these reaction products and unreacted barium and lithium halide, and continuously withdrawing lithium and barium halide from the reaction zone. (AEC)

  5. A lithium-oxygen battery based on lithium superoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jun; Jung Lee, Yun; Luo, Xiangyi; Chun Lau, Kah; Asadi, Mohammad; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Brombosz, Scott; Wen, Jianguo; Zhai, Dengyun; Chen, Zonghai; Miller, Dean J.; Sub Jeong, Yo; Park, Jin-Bum; Zak Fang, Zhigang; Kumar, Bijandra; Salehi-Khojin, Amin; Sun, Yang-Kook; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

    2016-01-01

    Batteries based on sodium superoxide and on potassium superoxide have recently been reported. However, there have been no reports of a battery based on lithium superoxide (LiO2), despite much research into the lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) battery because of its potential high energy density. Several studies of Li-O2 batteries have found evidence of LiO2 being formed as one component of the discharge product along with lithium peroxide (Li2O2). In addition, theoretical calculations have indicated that some forms of LiO2 may have a long lifetime. These studies also suggest that it might be possible to form LiO2 alone for use in a battery. However, solid LiO2 has been difficult to synthesize in pure form because it is thermodynamically unstable with respect to disproportionation, giving Li2O2 (refs 19, 20). Here we show that crystalline LiO2 can be stabilized in a Li-O2 battery by using a suitable graphene-based cathode. Various characterization techniques reveal no evidence for the presence of Li2O2. A novel templating growth mechanism involving the use of iridium nanoparticles on the cathode surface may be responsible for the growth of crystalline LiO2. Our results demonstrate that the LiO2 formed in the Li-O2 battery is stable enough for the battery to be repeatedly charged and discharged with a very low charge potential (about 3.2 volts). We anticipate that this discovery will lead to methods of synthesizing and stabilizing LiO2, which could open the way to high-energy-density batteries based on LiO2 as well as to other possible uses of this compound, such as oxygen storage.

  6. A lithium-oxygen battery based on lithium superoxide.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Lee, Yun Jung; Luo, Xiangyi; Lau, Kah Chun; Asadi, Mohammad; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Brombosz, Scott; Wen, Jianguo; Zhai, Dengyun; Chen, Zonghai; Miller, Dean J; Jeong, Yo Sub; Park, Jin-Bum; Fang, Zhigang Zak; Kumar, Bijandra; Salehi-Khojin, Amin; Sun, Yang-Kook; Curtiss, Larry A; Amine, Khalil

    2016-01-21

    Batteries based on sodium superoxide and on potassium superoxide have recently been reported. However, there have been no reports of a battery based on lithium superoxide (LiO2), despite much research into the lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) battery because of its potential high energy density. Several studies of Li-O2 batteries have found evidence of LiO2 being formed as one component of the discharge product along with lithium peroxide (Li2O2). In addition, theoretical calculations have indicated that some forms of LiO2 may have a long lifetime. These studies also suggest that it might be possible to form LiO2 alone for use in a battery. However, solid LiO2 has been difficult to synthesize in pure form because it is thermodynamically unstable with respect to disproportionation, giving Li2O2 (refs 19, 20). Here we show that crystalline LiO2 can be stabilized in a Li-O2 battery by using a suitable graphene-based cathode. Various characterization techniques reveal no evidence for the presence of Li2O2. A novel templating growth mechanism involving the use of iridium nanoparticles on the cathode surface may be responsible for the growth of crystalline LiO2. Our results demonstrate that the LiO2 formed in the Li-O2 battery is stable enough for the battery to be repeatedly charged and discharged with a very low charge potential (about 3.2 volts). We anticipate that this discovery will lead to methods of synthesizing and stabilizing LiO2, which could open the way to high-energy-density batteries based on LiO2 as well as to other possible uses of this compound, such as oxygen storage. PMID:26751057

  7. Scoping studies: behavior and control of lithium and lithium aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Jeppson, D W

    1982-01-01

    The HEDL scoping studies examining the behavior of lithium and lithium aerosols have been conducted to determine and examine potential safety and environmental issues for postulated accident conditions associated with the use of lithium as a fusion reactor blanket and/or coolant. Liquid lithium reactions with air, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and concretes have been characterized. The effectiveness of various powder extinguishing agents and methods of application were determined for lithium-air reactions. The effectiveness of various lithium aerosol collection methods were determined and the volatilization and transport of radioactive metals potentially associated with lithium-air reactions were evaluated. Liquid lithium atmosphere reactions can be safely controlled under postulated accident conditions, but special handling practices must be provided. Lithium-concrete reactions should be avoided because of the potential production of high temperatures, corrosive environment and hydrogen. Carbon microspheres are effective in extinguishing well established lithium-air reactions for the lithium quantities tested (up to 10 kg). Large mass loading of lithium aerosols can be efficiently collected with conventional air cleaning systems. Potentially radioactive species (cobalt, iron and manganese) will be volatilized in a lithium-air reaction in contact with neutron activated stainless steel.

  8. Failure Mechanism of Fast-Charged Lithium Metal Batteries in Liquid Electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Dongping; Shao, Yuyan; Lozano, Terence J.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Graff, Gordon L.; Polzin, Bryant; Zhang, Jiguang; Engelhard, Mark H.; Saenz, Natalio T.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, lithium anode has re-attracted broad interest because of the necessity of employing lithium metal in the next-generation battery technologies such as lithium sulfur (Li-S) and lithium oxygen (Li-O2) batteries. Fast capacity degradation and safety issue associated with rechargeable lithium metal batteries have been reported, although the fundamental understanding on the failure mechanism of lithium metal at high charge rate is still under debate due to the complicated interfacial chemistry between lithium metal and electrolyte. Herein, we demonstrate that, at high current density, the quick growth of porous solid electrolyte interphase towards bulk lithium, instead of towards the separator, dramatically builds up the cell impedance that directly leads to the cell failure. Understanding the lithium metal failure mechanism is very critical to gauge the various approaches used to address the stability and safety issues associated with lithium metal anode. Otherwise, all cells will fail quickly at high rates before the observation of any positive effects that might be brought from adopting the new strategies to protect lithium.

  9. Where Will LEAD Lead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildman, Louis

    After setting forth eight assumptions concerning the education of educational administrators, findings about the Leadership in Educational Administration Development (LEAD) program are discussed. The analysis is based on the first-year applications, telephone conversations with staff at a majority of the project sites, and additional material…

  10. Lithium battery management system

    DOEpatents

    Dougherty, Thomas J.

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  11. Solid-state lithium battery

    SciTech Connect

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  12. A Car-Parrinello and path integral molecular dynamics study of the intramolecular lithium bond in the lithium 2-pyridyl-N-oxide acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durlak, Piotr; Latajka, Zdzisław; Berski, Sławomir

    2009-07-01

    Lithium bonding in lithium 2-pyridyl-N-oxide acetate has been investigated using classic Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) and the path integral approach [path integrals molecular dynamics (PIMD)]. The simulations have been performed in 300 K. Structures, energies, and lithium trajectories have been determined. The CPMD results show that the lithium atom is generally equidistant between heavy atoms in the (O⋯Li⋯O) bridge. Applying quantum effects through the PIMD leads to similar conclusion. The theoretical lithium 2-pyridyl-N-oxide acetate infrared spectrum has also been determined using the CPMD calculations. This shows very good agreement with available experimental results and reproduces well the broad low-frequency band observed experimentally. In order to gain deeper understanding of the nature of the lithium bonding topological analysis of the electron localization function has been applied.

  13. Stereoselective synthesis of tetrasubstituted alkenes via a sequential carbocupration and a new sulfur–lithium exchange

    PubMed Central

    Unsinn, Andreas; Dunst, Cora

    2012-01-01

    Summary We have designed a new sequential carbocupration and sulfur–lithium exchange that leads stereo- and regioselectively to trisubstituted alkenyllithiums. Subsequent trapping with various electrophiles yields tetrasubstituted olefins with good control of the double-bond geometry (E/Z ratio up to 99:1). The novel sulfur–lithium exchange could be extended to the stereoselective preparation of Z-styryl lithium derivatives with almost complete retention of the double-bond geometry. PMID:23365630

  14. LEADING WITH LEADING INDICATORS

    SciTech Connect

    PREVETTE, S.S.

    2005-01-27

    This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with the customer. The use of Statistical Process Control, Pareto Charts, and Systems Thinking and their effect on management decisions and employee involvement are discussed. Included are practical examples of choosing leading indicators. A statistically based color coded dashboard presentation system methodology is provided. These tools, management theories and methods, coupled with involved leadership and employee efforts, directly led to significant improvements in worker safety and health, and environmental protection and restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites.

  15. Hydrogen Outgassing from Lithium Hydride

    SciTech Connect

    Dinh, L N; Schildbach, M A; Smith, R A; Balazs1, B; McLean II, W

    2006-04-20

    Lithium hydride is a nuclear material with a great affinity for moisture. As a result of exposure to water vapor during machining, transportation, storage and assembly, a corrosion layer (oxide and/or hydroxide) always forms on the surface of lithium hydride resulting in the release of hydrogen gas. Thermodynamically, lithium hydride, lithium oxide and lithium hydroxide are all stable. However, lithium hydroxides formed near the lithium hydride substrate (interface hydroxide) and near the sample/vacuum interface (surface hydroxide) are much less thermally stable than their bulk counterpart. In a dry environment, the interface/surface hydroxides slowly degenerate over many years/decades at room temperature into lithium oxide, releasing water vapor and ultimately hydrogen gas through reaction of the water vapor with the lithium hydride substrate. This outgassing can potentially cause metal hydriding and/or compatibility issues elsewhere in the device. In this chapter, the morphology and the chemistry of the corrosion layer grown on lithium hydride (and in some cases, its isotopic cousin, lithium deuteride) as a result of exposure to moisture are investigated. The hydrogen outgassing processes associated with the formation and subsequent degeneration of this corrosion layer are described. Experimental techniques to measure the hydrogen outgassing kinetics from lithium hydride and methods employing the measured kinetics to predict hydrogen outgassing as a function of time and temperature are presented. Finally, practical procedures to mitigate the problem of hydrogen outgassing from lithium hydride are discussed.

  16. Lithium compound deposition on mesocarbon microbead anode of lithium ion batteries after long-term cycling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lijie; Cheng, Xinqun; Gao, Yunzhi; Zuo, Pengjian; Ma, Yulin; Du, Chunyu; Shen, Bin; Cui, Yingzhi; Guan, Ting; Yin, Geping

    2014-08-13

    Lithium compound deposition on mesocarbon microbead (MCMB) anode after long-term cycling was studied in LiCoO2/MCMB battery. Lithium compound deposition did not generate on the activated MCMB anode, but it generated unevenly on the long-term cycled anode. Gray deposition composed of dendrites and particles was formed on the lower surface of the MCMB layer first, then on the upper surface. The deposition and MCMB layer peeled off from the current collector, and a bump was formed in the cycled anode. The exfoliation and thick deposition increased the ohmic resistance, film resistance, and charge transfer resistance of the cell and decreased the capacity significantly. Metallic lithium did not exist in either the upper or the lower deposition layer according to the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), the discharge curve, and anode potential. The outer region of both the lower and the upper deposition layers consisted of Li2CO3, LiOH, ROCO2Li, and ROLi. The inner region of the etched lower deposition layer mainly consisted of Li2O, LiF, and Li2CO3, and that of the etched upper deposition layer mainly consisted of Li2CO3, ROCO2Li, ROLi, and LiF. Solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film hindering the intercalation of lithium ions into carbon layers and LiCoO2 cathode providing lithium source for the deposition were the two reasons leading to the formation of lithium compound deposition during long-term cycles. Because SEI film on the lower surface of MCMB layer was thicker than that on the upper surface, lithium compound deposition generated on the lower surface first. PMID:25020035

  17. RosBREED: Enabling Marker-Assisted Breeding in Rosaceae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomics research has not yet been translated into routine practical application in breeding Rosaceae fruit crops (peach, apple, strawberry, cherry, apricot, pear, raspberry, etc.). Through dedicated efforts of many researchers worldwide, a wealth of genomics resources has accumulated, including ES...

  18. Mutation breeding by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zengliang; Deng, Jianguo; He, Jianjun; Huo, Yuping; Wu, Yuejin; Wang, Xuedong; Lui, Guifu

    1991-07-01

    Ion implantation as a new mutagenic method has been used in the rice breeding program since 1986, and for mutation breeding of other crops later. It has been shown, in principle and in practice, that this method has many outstanding advantages: lower damage rate; higher mutation rate and wider mutational spectrum. Many new lines of rice with higher yield rate; broader disease resistance; shorter growing period but higher quality have been bred from ion beam induced mutants. Some of these lines have been utilized for the intersubspecies hybridization. Several new lines of cotton, wheat and other crops are now in breeding. Some biophysical effects of ion implantation for crop seeds have been studied.

  19. Best of Breed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohn, Jason

    2004-01-01

    No team of engineers, no matter how much time they took or how many bottles of cabernet they consumed, would dream up an antenna that looked like a deer antler on steroids. Yet that's what a group at NASA Ames Research Center came up with-thanks to a little help from Darwin. NASA's Space Technology 5 nanosatellites, which are scheduled to start measuring Earth's magnetosphere in late 2004, requires an antenna that can receive a wide range of frequencies regardless of the spacecraft's orientation. Rather than leave such exacting requirements in the hands of a human, the engineers decided to breed a design using genetic algorithms and 32 Linux PCs. The computers generated small antenna-constructing programs (the genotypes) and executed them to produce designs (the phenotypes). Then the designs were evaluated using an antenna simulator. The team settled on the form pictured here. You won't find this kind of antenna in any textbook, design guide, or research paper. But its innovative structure meets a challenging set of specifications. If successfully deployed, it will be the first evolved antenna to make it out of the lab and the first piece of evolved hardware ever to fly in space.

  20. Nanostructures and Lithium Electrochemical Reactivity of Lithium Titanites and Titanium Oxides: A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhenguo; Choi, Daiwon; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Wang, Donghai; Zhang, Jiguang; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, J.

    2009-07-15

    Being inherently safe and chemically compatible with the electrolyte, titanium oxidebased materials, including both Li-titanites and various TiO2-polymorphs, are considered alternatives to carbonaceous anodes in Li-ion batteries. Given the commercial success of the spinel lithium titanites, TiO2-polymorphs, in particular in nanostructured forms, have been fabricated and investigated for the applications. Nanostructuring leads to increased reaction areas, shortened Li+ diffusion and potentially enhanced solubility/capacity. Integration with an electron conductive second phase into the TiO2-based nanostructures eases the electron transport, resulting in further improved lithium electrochemical activity and the overall electrochemical performance. This paper reviews structural characteristics and Li-electrochemical reactivity, along with synthetic approaches, of nanostructures and nano-composites based on lithium titanites and TiO2-polymorphs that include rutile, anatase, bronze and brookite.

  1. Lithium: for harnessing renewable energy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Dwight; Jaskula, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Lithium, which has the chemical symbol Li and an atomic number of 3, is the first metal in the periodic table. Lithium has many uses, the most prominent being in batteries for cell phones, laptops, and electric and hybrid vehicles. Worldwide sources of lithium are broken down by ore-deposit type as follows: closed-basin brines, 58%; pegmatites and related granites, 26%; lithium-enriched clays, 7%; oilfield brines, 3%; geothermal brines, 3%; and lithium-enriched zeolites, 3% (2013 statistics). There are over 39 million tons of lithium resources worldwide. Of this resource, the USGS estimates there to be approximately 13 million tons of current economically recoverable lithium reserves. To help predict where future lithium supplies might be located, USGS scientists study how and where identified resources are concentrated in the Earth’s crust, and they use that knowledge to assess the likelihood that undiscovered resources also exist.

  2. Rechargeable ambient temperature lithium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleck, G. L.

    1980-01-01

    The cycling performance of a secondary lithium cell with a 2-methyl THF lithium hectofluorarsenate electrolyte is discussed. Stripping efficiency, dendritization, passivation on standing, and discharge efficiency are considered.

  3. The development of a chemical kinetic measurement apparatus and the determination of the reaction rate constants for lithium-lead/steam interaction. Final report 9-21-90--3-31-95

    SciTech Connect

    Biney, P.O.

    1995-03-01

    The objective of this research to experimentally determine the hydrogen generation rate during the beginning and subsequent stages of liquid metal (Li{sub 17}Pb{sub 83}) and water reaction. The experimental set-up has been built. It includes a metal sample preparation apparatus, a reaction system, a measurement system and a PC based data acquisition and control system. The most important feature of the reaction system is a pneumatic actuated quick opening and closing high temperature, all stainless steel valve used the system for reaction time control. The PC system provides remote process sequencing, acquisition and control of all the systems except the metal preparation apparatus. Due to the reactivity of the lithium, all the metal sampling, preparation and loading procedures are executed in a glove box under argon protection. The metal temperature was varied between 350{degrees}C-650{degrees}C and water temperature fixed at 60{degrees}C during the experiments. A set of experimental procedures and two analyses methods: (1) thermodynamics method and (2) heat transfer method are discussed. All the measurements and data collections are executed under the PC system control. A data analysis program is used to calculate both the partial pressure of hydrogen and the hydrogen generation rate. The experiment results indicate that the amount of hydrogen generated is relate to the initial liquid metal temperature when the reaction surface is fixed. The mass of hydrogen generated as a function of initial liquid metal temperature and time of reaction is presented, The hydrogen generation over a time period of 240 seconds and the calculated errors are summarized in Table 1.

  4. Opposing selection and environmental variation modify optimal timing of breeding.

    PubMed

    Tarwater, Corey E; Beissinger, Steven R

    2013-09-17

    Studies of evolution in wild populations often find that the heritable phenotypic traits of individuals producing the most offspring do not increase proportionally in the population. This paradox may arise when phenotypic traits influence both fecundity and viability and when there is a tradeoff between these fitness components, leading to opposing selection. Such tradeoffs are the foundation of life history theory, but they are rarely investigated in selection studies. Timing of breeding is a classic example of a heritable trait under directional selection that does not result in an evolutionary response. Using a 22-y study of a tropical parrot, we show that opposing viability and fecundity selection on the timing of breeding is common and affects optimal breeding date, defined by maximization of fitness. After accounting for sampling error, the directions of viability (positive) and fecundity (negative) selection were consistent, but the magnitude of selection fluctuated among years. Environmental conditions (rainfall and breeding density) primarily and breeding experience secondarily modified selection, shifting optimal timing among individuals and years. In contrast to other studies, viability selection was as strong as fecundity selection, late-born juveniles had greater survival than early-born juveniles, and breeding later in the year increased fitness under opposing selection. Our findings provide support for life history tradeoffs influencing selection on phenotypic traits, highlight the need to unify selection and life history theory, and illustrate the importance of monitoring survival as well as reproduction for understanding phenological responses to climate change. PMID:24003118

  5. Dairy Cattle: Breeding and Genetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five primary factors affect breeding genetically improved dairy cattle: 1) identification, 2) pedigree, 3) performance recording, 4) artificial insemination, and 5) genetic evaluation systems (traditional and genomic). Genetic progress can be measured as increased efficiency (higher performance with...

  6. Stripe rust resistance and genes in Chinese wheat cultivars and breeding lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is one of the most important diseases on wheat in China. To assess resistance in wheat cultivars and breeding lines in China, 330 leading cultivars and 164 advanced breeding lines were evaluated with stripe rust. In the greenhouse tes...

  7. A genetic investigation of isle of Jersey cattle, the foundation of the Jersey breed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jersey, one of the oldest dairy breeds, was founded nearly 200 years ago on the Channel Island of Jersey. As early as 1763, legislation banned cattle importation to the island, leading to the development of the Jersey breed. Records indicate considerable cattle exportation from Jersey Island from t...

  8. Reversibility of anodic lithium in rechargeable lithium-oxygen batteries.

    PubMed

    Shui, Jiang-Lan; Okasinski, John S; Kenesei, Peter; Dobbs, Howard A; Zhao, Dan; Almer, Jonathan D; Liu, Di-Jia

    2013-01-01

    Non-aqueous lithium-air batteries represent the next-generation energy storage devices with very high theoretical capacity. The benefit of lithium-air batteries is based on the assumption that the anodic lithium is completely reversible during the discharge-charge process. Here we report our investigation on the reversibility of the anodic lithium inside of an operating lithium-air battery using spatially and temporally resolved synchrotron X-ray diffraction and three-dimensional micro-tomography technique. A combined electrochemical process is found, consisting of a partial recovery of lithium metal during the charging cycle and a constant accumulation of lithium hydroxide under both charging and discharging conditions. A lithium hydroxide layer forms on the anode separating the lithium metal from the separator. However, numerous microscopic 'tunnels' are also found within the hydroxide layer that provide a pathway to connect the metallic lithium with the electrolyte, enabling sustained ion-transport and battery operation until the total consumption of lithium. PMID:23929396

  9. Integrating genomic selection into dairy cattle breeding programmes: a review.

    PubMed

    Bouquet, A; Juga, J

    2013-05-01

    Extensive genetic progress has been achieved in dairy cattle populations on many traits of economic importance because of efficient breeding programmes. Success of these programmes has relied on progeny testing of the best young males to accurately assess their genetic merit and hence their potential for breeding. Over the last few years, the integration of dense genomic information into statistical tools used to make selection decisions, commonly referred to as genomic selection, has enabled gains in predicting accuracy of breeding values for young animals without own performance. The possibility to select animals at an early stage allows defining new breeding strategies aimed at boosting genetic progress while reducing costs. The first objective of this article was to review methods used to model and optimize breeding schemes integrating genomic selection and to discuss their relative advantages and limitations. The second objective was to summarize the main results and perspectives on the use of genomic selection in practical breeding schemes, on the basis of the example of dairy cattle populations. Two main designs of breeding programmes integrating genomic selection were studied in dairy cattle. Genomic selection can be used either for pre-selecting males to be progeny tested or for selecting males to be used as active sires in the population. The first option produces moderate genetic gains without changing the structure of breeding programmes. The second option leads to large genetic gains, up to double those of conventional schemes because of a major reduction in the mean generation interval, but it requires greater changes in breeding programme structure. The literature suggests that genomic selection becomes more attractive when it is coupled with embryo transfer technologies to further increase selection intensity on the dam-to-sire pathway. The use of genomic information also offers new opportunities to improve preservation of genetic variation. However

  10. Measurements of the Absorption of Atmospheric Gases in Bulk Lithium Metal using a Mass Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Connor A.; Skinner, Charles H.; Capece, Angela M.; Koel, Bruce E.

    2014-10-01

    Lithium conditioning of plasma facing components has enhanced the performance of several fusion devices. However, metallic lithium is very reactive and it is important to quantify the processes leading to the passivation of lithium upon exposure to air. Passivation, as used here, refers to the absorption of atmospheric gases by lithium to ultimately form lithium species including lithium hydroxide, carbonate, and oxide. The current work uses a mass balance with microgram sensitivity to measure the mass gain during the absorption of atmospheric gases by bulk lithium. Metallic lithium films with thicknesses of 0.3 and 1.0 mm are exposed to humid air as well as dry synthetic air at atmospheric conditions in order to reproduce the environment of a tokamak exposed to air during maintenance activities and venting. The data yield the reaction rates and interdiffusion of these lithium species as functions of thickness and time. These results provide critical insight into the chemical state of a lithiated surface after air exposure. In addition, the depth of passivation versus time is of interest in determining the length of exposure required to completely passivate a lithium layer of a given thickness, making it safe to handle. Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship funded by Department of Energy.

  11. Antihypertensive therapy in patients on chronic lithium treatment for bipolar disorders.

    PubMed

    Bisogni, Valeria; Rossitto, Giacomo; Reghin, Francesco; Padrini, Roberto; Rossi, Gian Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorders are chronic conditions treated with lithium, which exerts deleterious effects on the kidney, among which nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, tubular acidosis and ultimately chronic kidney disease. Conversely, drugs that alter renal function can modify its serum levels and lead to the potentially fatal lithium intoxication. A search in the main library databases from 1975 to 2015 to identify interactions between antihypertensive drugs and lithium using the Population Intervention Comparison Outcome strategy provided only 30 reports of lithium intoxication. A regression analysis showed that the severity of lithium intoxication was significantly predicted by female, age, and use of certain classes of antihypertensive agents. A model including certain albeit not all diuretics and/or inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system, but not age, serum lithium or creatinine levels at baseline and/or on admission to the hospital, predicted lithium toxicity. The true incidence of lithium intoxication is unknown but probably low, albeit underestimated. Nonetheless, in patients treated with lithium, monitoring of the serum lithium levels and clinical conditions is mandatory after the introduction of antihypertensive drugs, as diuretics and renin-aldosterone system inhibitors. PMID:26630207

  12. Structural factors affecting lithium transport in lithium-excess layered cathode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fell, Christopher R.

    Lithium ion batteries have drawn significant attention as the principle energy storage device powering today's mobile electronic equipment. Despite the increased usage, the performance of current lithium ion battery technology falls short of the requirements needed for large format applications such as electric vehicles. The layered lithium-excess oxide compounds Li[NixLi1/3-2x/3Mn2/3-x/3]O2 are of interest as a new generation of cathode materials for high energy density lithium ion batteries. Efforts to achieve a better understanding of the electrochemistry of lithium-excess materials require the connection of crystal structure to electrochemical properties. In this dissertation, a combination of advanced characterization techniques was used as a tool to understand the intercalation mechanism of the layered lithium-excess transition metal oxide Li[NixLi1/3-2x/3Mn 2/3-x/3]O2. The research identified that synthesis influences the structure of the material specifically the surface of the particles. The formation of a hydroxide rich surface film decreases the electrochemical performance. Post synthesis modifications including high pressure and high temperature leads to the formation of a second layered phase in the bulk; however, the treated samples display good electrochemical properties. This result underlines the flexibility of the structure of Li[NixLi1/3-2x/3Mn 2/3-x/3]O2, a feature uncommon to other layered transition metal oxides. Surface characterization of the layered lithium-excess cathodes following electrochemical cycling revealed the formation of a new surface phase 1 to 5 nm thick as well as insight to the complex cation rearrangement process and phase transformation. This part of the research identified that significant changes occurred during electrochemical cycling; however did not identify when the transformations occurred. Investigation using in situ techniques during the first electrochemical cycle shows that the structure undergoes irreversible

  13. A review of lithium deposition in lithium-ion and lithium metal secondary batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhe; Huang, Jun; Yann Liaw, Bor; Metzler, Viktor; Zhang, Jianbo

    2014-05-01

    Major aspects related to lithium deposition in lithium-ion and lithium metal secondary batteries are reviewed. For lithium-ion batteries with carbonaceous anode, lithium deposition may occur under harsh charging conditions such as overcharging or charging at low temperatures. The major technical solutions include: (1) applying electrochemical models to predict the critical conditions for deposition initiation; (2) preventions by improved battery design and material modification; (3) applying adequate charging protocols to inhibit lithium deposition. For lithium metal secondary batteries, the lithium deposition is the inherent reaction during charging. The major technical solutions include: (1) the use of mechanistic models to elucidate and control dendrite initiation and growth; (2) engineering surface morphology of the lithium deposition to avoid dendrite formation via adjusting the composition and concentration of the electrolyte; (3) controlling battery working conditions. From a survey of the literature, the areas that require further study are proposed; e.g., refining the lithium deposition criteria, developing an effective AC self pre-heating method for low-temperature charging of lithium-ion batteries, and clarifying the role the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) plays in determining the deposition morphology; to facilitate a refined control of the lithium deposition.

  14. Modifications of impurity transport and divertor sources by lithium wall conditioning in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotti, Filippo

    In the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), lithium coatings are evaporated on graphite plasma facing components (PFCs) for wall conditioning. In lithium-conditioned H-mode discharges, carbon accumulation is observed with core concentrations ≤10%, leading to a lack of density control, while lithium ions have concentrations ≤0.1%. In this thesis, modifications of carbon and lithium divertor sources as well as scrape-off layer (SOL) and core transport due to lithium conditioning are studied. Spectroscopic impurity influxes (measured by filtered cameras) and 2D multi-fluid edge transport simulations via the UEDGE code are employed to study divertor impurity sources and SOL transport, respectively. Core transport of carbon and lithium is analyzed using the impurity transport code MIST and the neoclassical transport codes NEO and NCLASS. A reduction of the carbon sputtering yield in the lower divertor is observed with lithium evaporation. However, weaker divertor impurity retention resulting from reduced recycling (inferred from UEDGE simulations) and the possible importance of wall sources can counteract this reduction in divertor carbon influxes. The suppression of edge-localized-modes (ELMs) is the primary cause of the increased carbon inventories in lithium-conditioned discharges, leading to lack of density control. Deviations from neoclassical predictions for carbon transport are observed at the pedestal top in lithium-conditioned discharges, indicating the presence of anomalous outward convection. While the lithium sputtering yield from lithium-coated graphite in the divertor is consistent with physical and temperature-enhanced sputtering, a strong reduction in ionized lithium influxes is observed, possibly due to prompt re-deposition. The different poloidal source distribution and the stronger divertor retention for lithium (inferred from UEDGE simulations) contribute to a lower edge lithium source with respect to carbon. The latter is due to the

  15. Composite lithium metal anode by melt infusion of lithium into a 3D conducting scaffold with lithiophilic coating.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zheng; Lin, Dingchang; Zhao, Jie; Lu, Zhenda; Liu, Yayuan; Liu, Chong; Lu, Yingying; Wang, Haotian; Yan, Kai; Tao, Xinyong; Cui, Yi

    2016-03-15

    Lithium metal-based battery is considered one of the best energy storage systems due to its high theoretical capacity and lowest anode potential of all. However, dendritic growth and virtually relative infinity volume change during long-term cycling often lead to severe safety hazards and catastrophic failure. Here, a stable lithium-scaffold composite electrode is developed by lithium melt infusion into a 3D porous carbon matrix with "lithiophilic" coating. Lithium is uniformly entrapped on the matrix surface and in the 3D structure. The resulting composite electrode possesses a high conductive surface area and excellent structural stability upon galvanostatic cycling. We showed stable cycling of this composite electrode with small Li plating/stripping overpotential (<90 mV) at a high current density of 3 mA/cm(2) over 80 cycles. PMID:26929378

  16. The Success-Breeds-Success Phenomenon and Bibliometric Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tague, Jean

    1981-01-01

    Describes success-breeds-success phenomenon by single and multiple-urn models, and shows that these models lead to a negative binomial distribution for the total number of successes and to a Zipf-Mandelbrot law for the number of sources contributing a specified number of successes. Ten references are cited. (FM)

  17. Lithium Dinitramide as an Additive in Lithium Power Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorkovenko, Alexander A.

    2007-01-01

    Lithium dinitramide, LiN(NO2)2 has shown promise as an additive to nonaqueous electrolytes in rechargeable and non-rechargeable lithium-ion-based electrochemical power cells. Such non-aqueous electrolytes consist of lithium salts dissolved in mixtures of organic ethers, esters, carbonates, or acetals. The benefits of adding lithium dinitramide (which is also a lithium salt) include lower irreversible loss of capacity on the first charge/discharge cycle, higher cycle life, lower self-discharge, greater flexibility in selection of electrolyte solvents, and greater charge capacity. The need for a suitable electrolyte additive arises as follows: The metallic lithium in the anode of a lithium-ion-based power cell is so highly reactive that in addition to the desired main electrochemical reaction, it engages in side reactions that cause formation of resistive films and dendrites, which degrade performance as quantified in terms of charge capacity, cycle life, shelf life, first-cycle irreversible capacity loss, specific power, and specific energy. The incidence of side reactions can be reduced through the formation of a solid-electrolyte interface (SEI) a thin film that prevents direct contact between the lithium anode material and the electrolyte. Ideally, an SEI should chemically protect the anode and the electrolyte from each other while exhibiting high conductivity for lithium ions and little or no conductivity for electrons. A suitable additive can act as an SEI promoter. Heretofore, most SEI promotion was thought to derive from organic molecules in electrolyte solutions. In contrast, lithium dinitramide is inorganic. Dinitramide compounds are known as oxidizers in rocket-fuel chemistry and until now, were not known as SEI promoters in battery chemistry. Although the exact reason for the improvement afforded by the addition of lithium dinitramide is not clear, it has been hypothesized that lithium dinitramide competes with other electrolyte constituents to react with

  18. Lithium overdosage and related tests.

    PubMed

    Pigatto, Paolo D; Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Guzzi, Gianpaolo

    2016-12-01

    Lithium acts biochemically through the inositol depletion in brain cortex. At low doses, however, it is partly effective and/or ineffective, whereas in high concentrations is toxic. We would like to make one point about this review. In fact, in our view, the patient should be given a support to correct hypernatremia and even sodium levels should be tested serially-along with serum lithium concentrations-because high sodium levels reduce the rate of elimination of lithium. Lithium is mainly a neurotoxicant. Lithium-related central nervous system toxicity as well as the cardiovascular and thyroid changes are most likely due to the cations (Na2 (+) and K(+)) competition. PMID:26753697

  19. Space use by Forster's Terns breeding in South San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bluso-Demers, J.; Colwell, M.A.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Ackerman, J.T.

    2008-01-01

    Parental care behaviors often differ in dimorphic seabirds, leading to sex-specific differences in foraging behaviors. However, few studies have examined sex-specific foraging behaviors in monomorphic seabirds. Using radio-telemetry, we studied Forster's Terns (Sterna forsteri) - a monomorphic and socially monogamous seabird - breeding in the South San Francisco Bay, California. Space use did not differ between males and females. Instead, space use varied by breeding stage and colony affiliation. Forster's Terns were located farthest from the nest during pre-breeding and post-breeding time periods, and closest to the nest during incubation and chick-rearing. Home-range size and core-use areas decreased as the breeding season progressed and were most concentrated in the post-breeding stage. The results of this and other studies indicate that tems, unlike other monomorphic seabirds studied, do not exhibit sex-specific differences in space use.

  20. Manipulating surface reactions in lithium-sulphur batteries using hybrid anode structures.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng; Xiao, Jie; Shao, Yuyan; Zheng, Jianming; Bennett, Wendy D; Lu, Dongping; Saraf, Laxmikant V; Engelhard, Mark; Ji, Liwen; Zhang, Jiguang; Li, Xiaolin; Graff, Gordon L; Liu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-sulphur batteries have high theoretical energy density and potentially low cost, but significant challenges such as severe capacity degradation prevent its widespread adoption. Here we report a new design of lithium-sulphur battery using electrically connected graphite and lithium metal as a hybrid anode to control undesirable surface reactions on lithium. Lithiated graphite placed in front of the lithium metal functions as an artificial, self-regulated solid electrolyte interface layer to actively control the electrochemical reactions and minimize the deleterious side reactions, leading to significant performance improvements. Lithium-sulphur cells incorporating this hybrid anodes deliver capacities of >800 mAh g(-1) for 400 cycles at a high rate of 1,737 mA g(-1), with only 11% capacity fade and a Coulombic efficiency >99%. This simple hybrid concept may also provide scientific strategies for protecting metal anodes in other energy-storage devices. PMID:24402522

  1. Manipulating surface reactions in lithium-sulphur batteries using hybrid anode structures

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C; Xiao, J; Shao, YY; Zheng, JM; Bennett, WD; Lu, DP; Saraf, LV; Engelhard, M; Ji, LW; Zhang, J; Li, XL; Graff, GL; Liu, J

    2014-01-09

    Lithium-sulphur batteries have high theoretical energy density and potentially low cost, but significant challenges such as severe capacity degradation prevent its widespread adoption. Here we report a new design of lithium-sulphur battery using electrically connected graphite and lithium metal as a hybrid anode to control undesirable surface reactions on lithium. Lithiated graphite placed in front of the lithium metal functions as an artificial, self-regulated solid electrolyte interface layer to actively control the electrochemical reactions and minimize the deleterious side reactions, leading to significant performance improvements. Lithium-sulphur cells incorporating this hybrid anodes deliver capacities of >800 mAhg(-1) for 400 cycles at a high rate of 1,737mAg(-1), with only 11% capacity fade and a Coulombic efficiency >99%. This simple hybrid concept may also provide scientific strategies for protecting metal anodes in other energy-storage devices.

  2. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Experiments Stories Lessons Topics Games Activities Lessons MENU Lead Poisoning Kids Homepage Topics Pollution Lead Poisoning What is ... you can avoid contact with it! Sources of Lead Poisoning HOUSE PAINTS: Before1950, lead-based paint was used ...

  3. Lead Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... to determine lead sources, educating family members about lead poisoning , and instituting follow-up testing to monitor the ... high levels of lead, see the article on Lead Poisoning . The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has ...

  4. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Lead Poisoning What is it and who is affected? Lead is a highly toxic substance, exposure to which ... and children can suffer from the effects of lead poisoning, but childhood lead poisoning is much more frequent. ...

  5. Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries, which use a new battery chemistry, are being developed under cooperative agreements between Lockheed Martin, Ultralife Battery, and the NASA Lewis Research Center. The unit cells are made in flat (prismatic) shapes that can be connected in series and parallel to achieve desired voltages and capacities. These batteries will soon be marketed to commercial original-equipment manufacturers and thereafter will be available for military and space use. Current NiCd batteries offer about 35 W-hr/kg compared with 110 W-hr/kg for current lithium ion batteries. Our ultimate target for these batteries is 200 W-hr/kg.

  6. LITHIUM PROPHYLAXIS IN AFFECTIVE DISORDER

    PubMed Central

    Rao, A. Venkoba; Hariharasubramanian, N.; Devi, S. Parvathi; Sugumar, A.; Srinivasan, V.

    1982-01-01

    SUMMARY Out of 108 patients on the rolls in the Lithium clinic, Madurai Medical College and Govt. Rajaji Hospital, Madurai, India, 47 patients suffering from affective disorders receiving lithium continuously for more than three years were analysed with a view to study the recurrences. Thirteen suffered no relapses while on lithium while nineteen experienced them while on lithium. Four were free from recurrences after lithium was withdrawn- Seven defaulted but suffered recurrences while in four the drug was withdrawn and in both the groups remission was achieved with re-administration of lithium. The study reveals that lithium besides averting the recurrences can reduce the frequency, number, duration, intensity of episodes and improve the amenability to drugs. Among the symptoms, suicidal ideas and behaviour and insight were found to be influenced favourably by lithium. Among the factors that help favourable response to lithium were a positive family history of affective disorder, in the first degree relatives and lesser frequency and number of episodes in the pre-lithium period. A reappraisal of the natural history of the illness is called for in the light of lithium prophylaxis of manic depressive psychosis. PMID:21965880

  7. 77 FR 28259 - Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... for mailpieces containing lithium metal or lithium-ion cells or batteries and applies regardless of...'' instead of ``lithium content'' for secondary lithium-ion batteries when describing maximum quantity limits...-ion (Rechargeable) Cells and Batteries Small consumer-type lithium-ion cells and batteries like...

  8. Cassava Breeding I: The Value of Breeding Value

    PubMed Central

    Ceballos, Hernán; Pérez, Juan C.; Joaqui Barandica, Orlando; Lenis, Jorge I.; Morante, Nelson; Calle, Fernando; Pino, Lizbeth; Hershey, Clair H.

    2016-01-01

    Breeding cassava relies on several selection stages (single row trial-SRT; preliminary; advanced; and uniform yield trials—UYT). This study uses data from 14 years of evaluations. From more than 20,000 genotypes initially evaluated only 114 reached the last stage. The objective was to assess how the data at SRT could be used to predict the probabilities of genotypes reaching the UYT. Phenotypic data from each genotype at SRT was integrated into the selection index (SIN) used by the cassava breeding program. Average SIN from all the progenies derived from each progenitor was then obtained. Average SIN is an approximation of the breeding value of each progenitor. Data clearly suggested that some genotypes were better progenitors than others (e.g., high number of their progenies reaching the UYT), suggesting important variation in breeding values of progenitors. However, regression of average SIN of each parental genotype on the number of their respective progenies reaching UYT resulted in a negligible coefficient of determination (r2 = 0.05). Breeding value (e.g., average SIN) at SRT was not efficient predicting which genotypes were more likely to reach the UYT stage. Number of families and progenies derived from a given progenitor were more efficient predicting the probabilities of the progeny from a given parent reaching the UYT stage. Large within-family genetic variation tends to mask the true breeding value of each progenitor. The use of partially inbred progenitors (e.g., S1 or S2 genotypes) would reduce the within-family genetic variation thus making the assessment of breeding value more accurate. Moreover, partial inbreeding of progenitors can improve the breeding value of the original (S0) parental material and sharply accelerate genetic gains. For instance, homozygous S1 genotypes for the dominant resistance to cassava mosaic disease (CMD) could be generated and selected. All gametes from these selected S1 genotypes would carry the desirable allele and

  9. Cassava Breeding I: The Value of Breeding Value.

    PubMed

    Ceballos, Hernán; Pérez, Juan C; Joaqui Barandica, Orlando; Lenis, Jorge I; Morante, Nelson; Calle, Fernando; Pino, Lizbeth; Hershey, Clair H

    2016-01-01

    Breeding cassava relies on several selection stages (single row trial-SRT; preliminary; advanced; and uniform yield trials-UYT). This study uses data from 14 years of evaluations. From more than 20,000 genotypes initially evaluated only 114 reached the last stage. The objective was to assess how the data at SRT could be used to predict the probabilities of genotypes reaching the UYT. Phenotypic data from each genotype at SRT was integrated into the selection index (SIN) used by the cassava breeding program. Average SIN from all the progenies derived from each progenitor was then obtained. Average SIN is an approximation of the breeding value of each progenitor. Data clearly suggested that some genotypes were better progenitors than others (e.g., high number of their progenies reaching the UYT), suggesting important variation in breeding values of progenitors. However, regression of average SIN of each parental genotype on the number of their respective progenies reaching UYT resulted in a negligible coefficient of determination (r (2) = 0.05). Breeding value (e.g., average SIN) at SRT was not efficient predicting which genotypes were more likely to reach the UYT stage. Number of families and progenies derived from a given progenitor were more efficient predicting the probabilities of the progeny from a given parent reaching the UYT stage. Large within-family genetic variation tends to mask the true breeding value of each progenitor. The use of partially inbred progenitors (e.g., S1 or S2 genotypes) would reduce the within-family genetic variation thus making the assessment of breeding value more accurate. Moreover, partial inbreeding of progenitors can improve the breeding value of the original (S0) parental material and sharply accelerate genetic gains. For instance, homozygous S1 genotypes for the dominant resistance to cassava mosaic disease (CMD) could be generated and selected. All gametes from these selected S1 genotypes would carry the desirable allele and

  10. Breeding potential of elite Pee Dee germplasm in Upland cotton breeding programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successful plant breeding programs begin with parental line selection. Effective parental line selection is facilitated when the breeding potential of candidate parental lines is known. Using topcross families involving germplasm representing eight US public cotton breeding programs, we evaluated th...

  11. Bioavailability of lithium from lithium citrate syrup versus conventional lithium carbonate tablets.

    PubMed

    Guelen, P J; Janssen, T J; De Witte, T C; Vree, T B; Benson, K

    1992-10-01

    The bioavailability of lithium citrate syrup was compared with that of regular lithium carbonate tablets in 18 healthy male human volunteers. Blood samples were collected up to 48 h after dosing. Lithium serum concentrations were determined by means of AAS. The absorption rate following oral administration of the syrup was greater (tmax 0.8 h) than following administration of regular tablets (tmax 1.4 h). Maximum lithium serum concentrations, however, were only about 10 per cent higher after syrup dosing and serum concentrations resulting from syrup and tablets were almost superimposable from 2 h after dosing. The terminal half-life of lithium was found to be 22 h after syrup as well as after tablet dosing. No side-effects were observed during the study. The bioavailability of lithium from syrup relative to tablets was found to be bioequivalent with respect to the maximum lithium serum concentration and the extent of drug absorption (AUC). PMID:1489941

  12. Fabrication of Lead-Free Lithium-Doped Na0.5K0.5NbO3 Piezoelectric Ceramics with Dense Grain Structure Using Sol-Gel Surface Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Sun Kyung; Han, Jeong Seon; Yoo, Ae Ri; Lee, Seong Eui; Lee, Hee Chul

    2013-10-01

    Lead-free piezoelectric 0.06(LiNbO3)-0.94(Na0.5K0.5)NbO3 (LNKN) ceramics in disc form were fabricated and characterized to acquire good electromechanical properties. A molding method including cold isostatic pressing (CIP) was used to form a dense and regular microstructure and suppress the cracking problems of LNKN ceramics during the following high-temperature sintering. The LNKN ceramic sintered at 1040 °C showed a high piezoelectric constant d33 of 170 pC/N owing to its high density. Furthermore, perovskite LNKN films with the same composition as the ceramics were fabricated using 2-methoxyethanol-based sol-gel solution. The sol-gel surface coating on the LNKN ceramics was found to be very effective for increasing the piezoelectric constant because of the interface stabilization effect leading to a uniform electric field in piezoelectric elements. As a result, we obtained the highest piezoelectric constant d33 of 183 pC/N. The lead-free LNKN ceramics are promising for applications in eco-friendly ferroelectric and piezoelectric devices.

  13. Lithium disulfide battery

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1988-01-01

    A negative electrode limited secondary electrochemical cell having dense FeS.sub.2 positive electrode operating exclusively on the upper plateau, a Li alloy negative electrode and a suitable lithium-containing electrolyte. The electrolyte preferably is 25 mole percent LiCl, 38 mole percent LiBr and 37 mole percent KBr. The cell may be operated isothermally.

  14. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C. Austen; Liu, Changle

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN) succinnonitrile (CH.sub.2 CN).sub.2, and tetraglyme (CH.sub.3 --O--CH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 --O--).sub.2 (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg.sup.+2 cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100.degree. C. conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone.

  15. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C.A.; Liu, C.

    1996-04-09

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN), succinnonitrile (CH{sub 2}CN){sub 2}, and tetraglyme (CH{sub 3}--O--CH{sub 2}--CH{sub 2}--O--){sub 2} (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg{sup +2} cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100 C conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone. 2 figs.

  16. Lithium and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... role in the rate of miscarriage, which include maternal age, gestational age, and history of previous miscarriage that ... Studies on children up to seven years of age who were exposed to lithium during pregnancy did not find significant physical, mental, or behavioral ...

  17. Lithium thionyl chloride battery

    SciTech Connect

    Saathoff, D.J.; Venkatasetty, H.V.

    1982-10-19

    The discharge rate and internal conductivity of electrochemical cell including a lithium anode, and a cathode and an electrolyte including LiAlCl4 and SOC2 is improved by the addition of an amount of a mixture containing AlCl3 and butyl pyridinium chloride.

  18. Lithium battery discharge tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. J.

    1980-01-01

    The long term discharge of a variety of lithium cells was characterized and the susceptibility of the cells to chemical variation during the slow discharge was tested. A shunt resistor was set across the terminals to monitor the voltage as a function of time. Failures were identified by premature voltage drops.

  19. Diet of canvasbacks during breeding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, J.E.; Serie, J.R.; Noyes, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    We examined diets of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) breeding in southwestern Manitoba during 1977-81. Percent volume of animal foods consumed did not differ between males and females nor among prenesting, rapid follicle growth, laying, incubation, and renesting periods in females (mean = 50.1%). Tubers and shoots of fennelleaf pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus) and midge larvae (Chironomidae) were the predominant foods, comprising on average 45% and 23% of the diet volume, respectively. Continued importance of plant foods to canvasbacks throughout reproduction contrasts with the mostly invertebrate diets of other prairie-breeding ducks, and does not fit current theories of nutritional ecology of breeding anatids (i.e., females meet the protein requirements of reproduction by consuming a high proportion of animal foods).

  20. Definition of animal breeding goals for sustainable production systems.

    PubMed

    Olesen, I; Groen, A F; Gjerde, B

    2000-03-01

    What we do is determined by the way we "view" a complex issue and what sample of issues or events we choose to deal with. In this paper, a model based on a communal, cultural, or people-centered worldview, informed by a subjective epistemology and a holistic ontology, is considered. Definitions and interpretations of sustainable agriculture are reviewed. Common elements in published definitions of sustainable agriculture and animal production among those who seek long-term and equitable solutions for food production are resource efficiency, profitability, productivity, environmental soundness, biodiversity, social viability, and ethical aspects. Possible characteristics of future sustainable production systems and further development are presented. The impact of these characteristics on animal breeding goals is reviewed. The need for long-term biologically, ecologically, and sociologically sound breeding goals is emphasized, because animal breeding determined only by short-term market forces leads to unwanted side effects. Hence, a procedure for defining animal breeding goals with ethical priorities and weighing of market and non-market values is suggested. Implementation of non-market as well as market economic trait values in the aggregate genotype, as suggested, may allow for breeding programs that contribute to sustainable production systems. Examples of breeding goals in salmon, cattle, and pigs are given, and the resulting genetic responses are evaluated with respect to economic profit (or costs) and other criteria of sustainability. Important prerequisites for breeding programs for sustainable production are appropriate governmental policies, awareness of our way of thinking, and a more communal worldview informed by a subjective epistemology and a holistic ontology. PMID:10764063

  1. Emperor penguins breeding on iceshelves.

    PubMed

    Fretwell, Peter T; Trathan, Phil N; Wienecke, Barbara; Kooyman, Gerald L

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land). Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin's reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as "near threatened" in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species. PMID:24416381

  2. Comparison of molecular breeding values based on within- and across-breed training in beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the efficacy of genomic predictors based on within-breed training looks promising, it is necessary to develop and evaluate across-breed predictors for the technology to be fully applied in the beef industry. The efficacies of genomic predictors trained in one breed and utilized to predict genetic merit in differing breeds based on simulation studies have been reported, as have the efficacies of predictors trained using data from multiple breeds to predict the genetic merit of purebreds. However, comparable studies using beef cattle field data have not been reported. Methods Molecular breeding values for weaning and yearling weight were derived and evaluated using a database containing BovineSNP50 genotypes for 7294 animals from 13 breeds in the training set and 2277 animals from seven breeds (Angus, Red Angus, Hereford, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Limousin, and Simmental) in the evaluation set. Six single-breed and four across-breed genomic predictors were trained using pooled data from purebred animals. Molecular breeding values were evaluated using field data, including genotypes for 2227 animals and phenotypic records of animals born in 2008 or later. Accuracies of molecular breeding values were estimated based on the genetic correlation between the molecular breeding value and trait phenotype. Results With one exception, the estimated genetic correlations of within-breed molecular breeding values with trait phenotype were greater than 0.28 when evaluated in the breed used for training. Most estimated genetic correlations for the across-breed trained molecular breeding values were moderate (> 0.30). When molecular breeding values were evaluated in breeds that were not in the training set, estimated genetic correlations clustered around zero. Conclusions Even for closely related breeds, within- or across-breed trained molecular breeding values have limited prediction accuracy for breeds that were not in the training set. For breeds in the training

  3. Terror breeds terrorists.

    PubMed

    de Zulueta, Felicity

    2006-01-01

    Terrorism can be carried out by the state or by its citizens. The latter may be labelled 'freedom fighters' or 'terrorists' depending on the political context. One of the most important aetiological factors driving Islamic terrorists is the experience of alienation and shame. This sense of being made to feel totally invalidated, of feeling worthless in the eyes of the other, is at the root of rage and violent revenge, implying that the way the current 'War on Terror' is being fought by the United States and the United Kingdom can only lead to more terrorism and danger for our society. PMID:16594374

  4. Breeding monkeys for biomedical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourne, G. H.; Golarzdebourne, M. N.; Keeling, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    Captive bred rhesus monkeys show much less pathology than wild born animals. The monkeys may be bred in cages or in an outdoor compound. Cage bred animals are not psychologically normal which makes then unsuited for some types of space related research. Compound breeding provides contact between mother and infant and an opportunity for the infants to play with their peers which are important requirements to help maintain their behavioral integrity. Offspring harvested after a year in the compound appear behaviorally normal and show little histopathology. Compound breeding is also an economical method for the rapid production of young animals. The colony can double its size about every two and a half years.

  5. Breed base representation in dairy animals of 5 breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inheritance of DNA from different dairy breeds can be determined by genotyping, just as individual ancestors such as parents, grandparents, or even great grandparents can be identified correctly in a high percentage of the cases by genotyping even if not reported or reported incorrectly in pedigrees...

  6. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Lead is a metal that occurs naturally in the earth's crust. Lead can be found in all parts of our ... from human activities such as mining and manufacturing. Lead used to be in paint; older houses may ...

  7. Lead poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... swallows a lead object or breathes in lead dust, some of the poison can stay in the ... a health problem. Lead is everywhere, including dirt, dust, new toys, and old house paint. Unfortunately, you ...

  8. Lead Toxicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... homes. • Most people, especially children, who suffer from lead poisoning are exposed through lead-contaminated household dust or ... and six if they are at risk of lead poisoning (see: ). Who can I call to get more ...

  9. Proximate drivers of spatial segregation in non-breeding albatrosses

    PubMed Central

    Clay, Thomas A.; Manica, Andrea; Ryan, Peter G.; Silk, Janet R. D.; Croxall, John P.; Ireland, Louise; Phillips, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Many animals partition resources to avoid competition, and in colonially-breeding species this often leads to divergent space or habitat use. During the non-breeding season, foraging constraints are relaxed, yet the patterns and drivers of segregation both between and within populations are poorly understood. We modelled habitat preference to examine how extrinsic (habitat availability and intra-specific competition) and intrinsic factors (population, sex and breeding outcome) influence the distributions of non-breeding grey-headed albatrosses Thalassarche chrysostoma tracked from two major populations, South Georgia (Atlantic Ocean) and the Prince Edward Islands (Indian Ocean). Spatial segregation was greater than expected, reflecting distinct seasonal differences in habitat selection and accessibility, and avoidance of intra-specific competition with local breeders. Previously failed birds segregated spatially from successful birds during summer, when they used less productive waters, suggesting a link between breeding outcome and subsequent habitat selection. In contrast, we found weak evidence of sexual segregation, which did not reflect a difference in habitat use. Our results indicate that the large-scale spatial structuring of albatross distributions results from interactions between extrinsic and intrinsic factors, with important implications for population dynamics. As habitat preferences differed substantially between colonies, populations should be considered independently when identifying critical areas for protection. PMID:27443877

  10. Proximate drivers of spatial segregation in non-breeding albatrosses.

    PubMed

    Clay, Thomas A; Manica, Andrea; Ryan, Peter G; Silk, Janet R D; Croxall, John P; Ireland, Louise; Phillips, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    Many animals partition resources to avoid competition, and in colonially-breeding species this often leads to divergent space or habitat use. During the non-breeding season, foraging constraints are relaxed, yet the patterns and drivers of segregation both between and within populations are poorly understood. We modelled habitat preference to examine how extrinsic (habitat availability and intra-specific competition) and intrinsic factors (population, sex and breeding outcome) influence the distributions of non-breeding grey-headed albatrosses Thalassarche chrysostoma tracked from two major populations, South Georgia (Atlantic Ocean) and the Prince Edward Islands (Indian Ocean). Spatial segregation was greater than expected, reflecting distinct seasonal differences in habitat selection and accessibility, and avoidance of intra-specific competition with local breeders. Previously failed birds segregated spatially from successful birds during summer, when they used less productive waters, suggesting a link between breeding outcome and subsequent habitat selection. In contrast, we found weak evidence of sexual segregation, which did not reflect a difference in habitat use. Our results indicate that the large-scale spatial structuring of albatross distributions results from interactions between extrinsic and intrinsic factors, with important implications for population dynamics. As habitat preferences differed substantially between colonies, populations should be considered independently when identifying critical areas for protection. PMID:27443877

  11. Network Candidate Genes in Breeding for Drought Tolerant Crops

    PubMed Central

    Krannich, Christoph Tim; Maletzki, Lisa; Kurowsky, Christina; Horn, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Climate change leading to increased periods of low water availability as well as increasing demands for food in the coming years makes breeding for drought tolerant crops a high priority. Plants have developed diverse strategies and mechanisms to survive drought stress. However, most of these represent drought escape or avoidance strategies like early flowering or low stomatal conductance that are not applicable in breeding for crops with high yields under drought conditions. Even though a great deal of research is ongoing, especially in cereals, in this regard, not all mechanisms involved in drought tolerance are yet understood. The identification of candidate genes for drought tolerance that have a high potential to be used for breeding drought tolerant crops represents a challenge. Breeding for drought tolerant crops has to focus on acceptable yields under water-limited conditions and not on survival. However, as more and more knowledge about the complex networks and the cross talk during drought is available, more options are revealed. In addition, it has to be considered that conditioning a crop for drought tolerance might require the production of metabolites and might cost the plants energy and resources that cannot be used in terms of yield. Recent research indicates that yield penalty exists and efficient breeding for drought tolerant crops with acceptable yields under well-watered and drought conditions might require uncoupling yield penalty from drought tolerance. PMID:26193269

  12. Rice Molecular Breeding Laboratories in the Genomics Era: Current Status and Future Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Collard, Bert C. Y.; Vera Cruz, Casiana M.; McNally, Kenneth L.; Virk, Parminder S.; Mackill, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Using DNA markers in plant breeding with marker-assisted selection (MAS) could greatly improve the precision and efficiency of selection, leading to the accelerated development of new crop varieties. The numerous examples of MAS in rice have prompted many breeding institutes to establish molecular breeding labs. The last decade has produced an enormous amount of genomics research in rice, including the identification of thousands of QTLs for agronomically important traits, the generation of large amounts of gene expression data, and cloning and characterization of new genes, including the detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms. The pinnacle of genomics research has been the completion and annotation of genome sequences for indica and japonica rice. This information—coupled with the development of new genotyping methodologies and platforms, and the development of bioinformatics databases and software tools—provides even more exciting opportunities for rice molecular breeding in the 21st century. However, the great challenge for molecular breeders is to apply genomics data in actual breeding programs. Here, we review the current status of MAS in rice, current genomics projects and promising new genotyping methodologies, and evaluate the probable impact of genomics research. We also identify critical research areas to “bridge the application gap” between QTL identification and applied breeding that need to be addressed to realize the full potential of MAS, and propose ideas and guidelines for establishing rice molecular breeding labs in the postgenome sequence era to integrate molecular breeding within the context of overall rice breeding and research programs. PMID:18528527

  13. Population-Wide Failure to Breed in the Clark’s Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana)

    PubMed Central

    Schaming, Taza D.

    2015-01-01

    In highly variable environments, conditions can be so stressful in some years that entire populations forgo reproduction in favor of higher likelihood of surviving to breed in future years. In two out of five years, Clark’s nutcrackers (Nucifraga Columbiana) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem exhibited population-wide failure to breed. Clark’s nutcrackers at the study site experienced substantial interannual differences in food availability and weather conditions, and the two nonbreeding years corresponded with low whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) cone crops the previous autumn (≤ an average of 8 ± 2 cones per tree versus ≥ an average of 20 ± 2 cones per tree during breeding years) and high snowpack in early spring (≥ 61.2 ± 5.5 cm versus ≤ 51.9 ± 4.4 cm during breeding years). The average adult body condition index during the breeding season was significantly lower in 2011 (-1.5 ± 1.1), a nonbreeding year, as compared to 2012 (6.2 ± 2.0), a breeding year. The environmental cues available to the birds prior to breeding, specifically availability of cached whitebark pine seeds, may have allowed them to predict that breeding conditions would be poor, leading to the decision to skip breeding. Alternatively, the Clark’s nutcrackers may have had such low body energy stores that they chose not to or were unable to breed. Breeding plasticity would allow Clark’s nutcrackers to exploit an unpredictable environment. However, if large-scale mortality of whitebark pines is leading to an increase in the number of nonbreeding years, there could be serious population-level and ecosystem-wide consequences. PMID:25970294

  14. The history of lithium therapy

    PubMed Central

    Shorter, Edward

    2013-01-01

    The use of lithium in psychiatry goes back to the mid-19th century. Early work, however, was soon forgotten, and John Cade is credited with reintroducing lithium to psychiatry for mania in 1949. Mogens Schou undertook a randomly controlled trial for mania in 1954, and in the course of that study became curious about lithium as a prophylactic for depressive illness. In 1970, the United States became the 50th country to admit lithium to the marketplace. Meanwhile, interest in lithium for the prophylaxis of depression was growing apace and today the agent is widely prescribed for that indication, even though it has not been accepted by the Food and Drug Administration. Lithium was almost derailed by a small group of opponents from the Maudsley Hospital and its status today is threatened by the “mood stabilizers.” PMID:19538681

  15. Experimental lithium system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kolowith, R.; Berg, J.D.; Miller, W.C.

    1985-04-01

    A full-scale mockup of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility lithium system was built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). This isothermal mockup, called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS), was prototypic of FMIT, excluding the accelerator and dump heat exchanger. This 3.8 m/sup 3/ lithium test loop achieved over 16,000 hours of safe and reliable operation. An extensive test program demonstrated satisfactory performance of the system components, including the HEDL-supplied electromagnetic lithium pump, the lithium jet target, the purification and characterization hardware, as well as the auxiliary argon and vacuum systems. Experience with the test loop provided important information on system operation, performance, and reliability. This report presents a complete overview of the entire Experimental Lithium System test program and also includes a summary of such areas as instrumentation, coolant chemistry, vapor/aerosol transport, and corrosion.

  16. Modeling of Spherical Torus Plasmas for Liquid Lithium Wall Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    R. Kaita; S. Jardin; B. Jones; C. Kessel; R. Majeski; J. Spaleta; R. Woolley; L. Zakharo; B. Nelson; M. Ulrickson

    2002-01-29

    Liquid metal walls have the potential to solve first-wall problems for fusion reactors, such as heat load and erosion of dry walls, neutron damage and activation, and tritium inventory and breeding. In the near term, such walls can serve as the basis for schemes to stabilize magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes. Furthermore, the low recycling characteristics of lithium walls can be used for particle control. Liquid lithium experiments have already begun in the Current Drive eXperiment-Upgrade (CDX-U). Plasmas limited with a toroidally localized limiter have been investigated, and experiments with a fully toroidal lithium limiter are in progress. A liquid surface module (LSM) has been proposed for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). In this larger ST, plasma currents are in excess of 1 MA and a typical discharge radius is about 68 cm. The primary motivation for the LSM is particle control, and options for mounting it on the horizontal midplane or in the divertor region are under consideration. A key consideration is the magnitude of the eddy currents at the location of a liquid lithium surface. During plasma start up and disruptions, the force due to such currents and the magnetic field can force a conducting liquid off of the surface behind it. The Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC) has been used to estimate the magnitude of this effect. This program is a two dimensional, time dependent, free boundary simulation code that solves the MHD equations for an axisymmetric toroidal plasma. From calculations that match actual ST equilibria, the eddy current densities can be determined at the locations of the liquid lithium. Initial results have shown that the effects could be significant, and ways of explicitly treating toroidally local structures are under investigation.

  17. Forage Breeding and New Varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, the focus of the forage breeding program is to identify and develop novel germplasm and cultivars. The main objective is to produce cultivars with superior persistence, nutritive value and forage yield. This program also emphasizes two other objectives, namely:...

  18. Genomic selection in plant breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic selection (GS) is a method to predict the genetic value of selection candidates based on the genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV) predicted from high-density markers positioned throughout the genome. Unlike marker-assisted selection, the GEBV is based on all markers including both minor ...

  19. USDA lettuce breeding and genetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lettuce industry of California requires continued development of improved, adapted cultivars to meet new disease and insect problems, changes in the market, and changes in growing procedures. The USDA lettuce breeding and genetics project aims to incorporate valuable traits into crisphead, mixed...

  20. The evolution of potato breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato cultivars in most regions of the world are tetraploid and clonally propagated. For over a century, the breeding strategy has been phenotypic recurrent selection. However, the polyploid nature of the crop prevents breeders from eliminating deleterious alleles and assembling positive alleles fo...

  1. Breeding and propagating oakleaf hydrangeas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An oakleaf hydrangea breeding program at the U.S. National Arboretum’s worksite in McMinnville, Tenn. was started in 1996 for the purpose of developing attractive, compact oakleaf hydrangea cultivars suitable for use in small residential gardens. ‘Ruby Slippers’ and ‘Munchkin’ oakleaf hydrangeas we...

  2. Forage breeding and new varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, the focus of the forage breeding program is to identify and develop novel germplasm and cultivars. The main objective is to produce cultivars with superior persistence, nutritive value and forage yield. This program also emphasizes two other objectives, namely:...

  3. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min; Hou, Junbo

    2012-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed. PMID:24958286

  4. METAPOPULATION STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF POND BREEDING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our review indicates that pond breeding amphibians exhibit highly variable spatial and temporal population dynamics, such that no single generalized model can realistically describe these animals. We propose that consideration of breeding pond permanence, and adaptations to pond ...

  5. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... our environment. Much of it comes from human activities such as mining and manufacturing. Lead used to be in paint; older houses may still have lead paint. You could be exposed to lead by Eating food or drinking water that contains lead. Water pipes in older homes ...

  6. Lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Rekus, J.F.

    1992-08-01

    Construction workers who weld, cut or blast structural steel coated with lead-based paint are at significant risk of lead poisoning. Although technology to control these exposures may not have existed when the lead standard was promulgated, it is available today. Employers who do not take steps to protect their employees from lead exposure may be cited and fined severely for their failure.

  7. LITHIUM TOXICITY - A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ratanendra; Deb, Jayant Kumar; Sinha, Baxi Neeraj Prasad; Sinha, Vinod Kumar

    2001-01-01

    Lithium is the treatment for acute mania and bipolar disorders. Ever since its introduction in the psychiatric arsenal, case reports of toxicity have been appearing in the literature at regular intervals. This study was thus carried out to study the presentation and associated features of lithium toxicity. In this retrospective study, case record files of all patients suspected to have developed lithium toxicity during a five year period were retrieved. It was found that toxicity presented most commonly with cerebellar symptoms and appeared at lower serum levels. Lithium could be restarted albeit at a lower dose and with a gradual titration in a number of cases. PMID:21407839

  8. Lithium batteries with laminar anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Bruder, A.H.

    1986-11-04

    This patent describes a laminar electrical cell, comprising an anode, a cathode, and an electrolyte permeable separator between the anode and the cathode. The anode consists essentially of a layer of lithium having at least one surface of unreacted lithium metal in direct contact with and adhered to a layer of conductive plastic with no intermediate adhesive promoting adjuncts. The cathode comprises a slurry of MnO/sub 2/ and carbon particles in a solution of a lithium salt in an organic solvent, the solution permeating the separator and being in contact with the lithium.

  9. Genetic Diversity of US Sheep Breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the genetic relationships between US sheep breeds is useful in developing conservation strategies and actions. A broad sampling of individual sheep from 28 breeds was performed. Breed types included: fine wool, meat types, long wool, hair, prolific, and fat tailed. Blood and semen samp...

  10. Considerations related to breed or biological type.

    PubMed

    Van Eenennaam, Alison L

    2013-11-01

    This article reviews the literature on breed, biological type, and breeding system and their impact on female fertility, especially as they relate to heifer development. The attributes of different breeding systems and their appropriate use is discussed. In addition, the extant and emerging selection tools that are available for replacement heifer selection are reviewed. PMID:24182431

  11. International strategic minerals inventory summary report; lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anstett, T.F.; Krauss, U.H.; Ober, J.A.; Schmidt, H.W.

    1990-01-01

    Major world resources of lithium are described in this summary report of information in the International Strategic Minerals Inventory (ISMI). ISMI is a cooperative data-collection effort of earth-science and mineral-resource agencies in Australia, Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Republic of South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. Part I of this report presents an overview of the resources and potential supply of lithium on the basis of inventory information; Part II contains tables of some of the geologic information and mineral-resource information and production data collected by ISMI participants. In terms of lithium-resource availability, present economically viable resources are more than sufficient to meet likely demand in the foreseeable future. In times of excess capacity such as currently exist, some pegmatite operations cannot compete with brine operations, which are less costly. A further production shift from pegmatites to brines will result in the concentration of supply in a few countries such as Chile and the United States. This shift would lead to the dependence of industrialized countries on deliveries from these sources.

  12. Lithium intercalation in porous carbon electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, T.D.; Feikert, J.; Pekala, R.W.

    1995-04-01

    Carbons derived from the phase separation of polyacrylonitrile/solvent mixtures were investigated as lithium intercalation anodes for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. The carbon electrodes have a bulk density of 0.35-0.5 g/cm{sup 3}, relatively low surface areas (< 10 m{sup 2}/g), and micron-size cells. Pyrolysis temperature influences the reversible lithium intercalation and the irreversible capacity (associated with the formation of the passivating layer). Carbon electrodes pyrolyzed at 600{degrees}C have first-cycle capacity as high as 550 mAh/g as well as large irreversible capacity, 440 mAh/g. Electrodes prepared at 1050{degrees}C have reversible capacities around 270 mAh/g with relatively lower capacity losses (120 mAh/g). Doping the organic precursors with phosphoric acid, prior to pyrolysis at 1050{degrees}C, leads to carbon electrodes with reversible capacities as high as 450 mAh/g. The capacity of doped carbon increased with increasing phosphorus concentration in the samples. The doped carbon anodes exhibited good cycleability and excellent coulombic efficiency. The electrochemical performance is related to morphology, chemical composition, and local structural order.

  13. Solid electrolyte: The key for high-voltage lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Juchuan; Ma, Cheng; Chi, Miaofang; Liang, Chengdu; Dudney, Nancy J.

    2014-10-14

    A solid-state high-voltage (5 V) lithium battery is demonstrated to deliver a cycle life of 10 000 with 90% capacity retention. Furthermore, the solid electrolyte enables the use of high-voltage cathodes and Li anodes with minimum side reactions, leading to a high Coulombic efficiency of 99.98+%.

  14. Separator for lithium batteries and lithium batteries including the separator

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, D.L.

    1989-03-14

    A multilayer separator is described for preventing the internal shorting of lithium batteries, the multilayer separator including porous membranes and an electroactive polymeric material contained within the separator layers wherein the polymer is one that will react with any lithium dendrites that could penetrate the separator thus preventing an internal short circuit of the cell.

  15. Brain lithium, N-acetyl aspartate and myo-inositol levels in older adults with bipolar disorder treated with lithium: a lithium-7 and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

    PubMed Central

    Forester, Brent P; Finn, Chelsea T; Berlow, Yosef A; Wardrop, Megan; Renshaw, Perry F; Moore, Constance M

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We investigated the relationship between brain lithium levels and the metabolites N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and myo-inositol (myo-Ino) in the anterior cingulate cortex of a group of older adults with bipolar disorder (BD). Methods This cross-sectional assessment included nine subjects (six males and three females) with bipolar I disorder and currently treated with lithium, who were examined at McLean Hospital’s Geriatric Psychiatry Research Program and Brain Imaging Center. The subjects’ ages ranged from 56 to 85 years (66.0 ± 9.7 years) and all subjects had measurements of serum and brain lithium levels. Brain lithium levels were assessed using lithium magnetic resonance spectroscopy. All subjects also had proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to obtain measurements of NAA and myo-Ino. Results Brain lithium levels were associated with higher NAA levels [df = (1, 8), B = 12.53, t = 4.09, p < 0.005] and higher myo-Ino levels [df = (1, 7), F = 16.81, p < 0.006]. There were no significant effects of serum lithium levels on any of the metabolites. Conclusion Our findings of a relationship between higher brain lithium levels and elevated NAA levels in older adult subjects with BD may support previous evidence of lithium’s neuroprotective, neurotrophic, and mitochondrial function-enhancing effects. Elevated myo-Ino related to elevated brain lithium levels may reflect increased inositol monophosphatase (IMPase) activity, which would lead to an increase in myo-Ino levels. This is the first study to demonstrate alterations in NAA and myo-Ino in a sample of older adults with BD treated with lithium. PMID:18837863

  16. Emperor Penguins Breeding on Iceshelves

    PubMed Central

    Fretwell, Peter T.; Trathan, Phil N.; Wienecke, Barbara; Kooyman, Gerald L.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land). Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin’s reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as “near threatened” in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species. PMID:24416381

  17. Ionic liquid-based electrolyte with binary lithium salts for high performance lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Feng; Zhu, Qizhen; Chen, Renjie; Chen, Nan; Chen, Yan; Ye, Yusheng; Qian, Ji; Li, Li

    2015-11-01

    Rechargeable Li-S batteries have suffered several technical obstacles, such as rapid capacity fading and low coulombic efficiency. To overcome these problems, we design new electrolytes containing N-methoxyethyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)-imide (Pyr1,2O1TFSI) and tri(ethylene glycol)dimethyl ether (TEGDME) in mass ratio of 7:3. Moreover, Lithium difluoro(oxalate)borate (LiODFB) is introduced for the modification. Although the addition of LiODFB as additive lead to extremely high viscosity of electrolyte and inferior performance of the cells, the electrolyte containing lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI, 0.84 nm) and LiODFB (0.60 nm) mixture with a total molar concentration of 0.4 mol kg-1 as binary lithium salt shows excellent electrochemical performance. The Pyr1,2O1TFSI/TEGDME electrolyte with LiTFSI/LiODFB binary lithium salts in mole ratio of 6:4 is obtained after optimizing ratio. The Li-S cells containing this electrolyte system show excellent capacity and cycle performance, whose initial discharge capacity is 1264.4 mAh g-1, and retains 911.4 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles with the coulombic efficiency more than 95%. It can be attributed the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI)-forming ability of LiODFB which protect Li anode from suffering lithium dendrites and prevent the shuttle phenomenon. The novel electrolytes provide good cycling stability and high coulombic efficiency for the Li-S batteries, which is suggested as a promising electrolyte for Li-S batteries.

  18. Lead poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... lead is still found in some modern faucets. Soil contaminated by decades of car exhaust or years ... house paint scrapings. Lead is more common in soil near highways and houses. Hobbies involving soldering, stained ...

  19. Temperature changes in spectral characteristics of electrons in metallic lithium

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, V.A.

    1995-12-01

    Self-consistent calculations of the electron energy structure in metallic lithium are performed taking into account atomic vibrations in the crystal lattice. A satisfactory agreement between the results of calculations and experimental data is achieved. The most significant changes in the electron spectrum of lithium revealed with rising temperature are as follows: (1) shift and broadening of core states of the 1s-asymmetry and (2) transition of outer electrons of the 2s-symmetry to the states of the 2p-symmetry leading to strengthening of the directional bonds. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-02-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O--CeO{sub 2}--SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

  1. Intercell connector for lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Bruder, A.H.

    1984-10-16

    Laminar batteries of series connected cells comprising lithium anodes and an electrolyte containing a passivating solvent reactive with lithium in which the cells are electrically connected in series by intercell barriers comprising outer layers of electrochemically inert electronically conducting material in contact with the electrochemically active anode and cathode of adjacent cells and a layer of metal foil between the electrochemically inert layers.

  2. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Benson, David K.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

  3. Progress in secondary lithium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleck, G. L.

    1982-01-01

    The lithium/molybdenum trisulfide system is discussed. This system has a higher potential energy density than that of lithium/titanium disulfide. Possible energy densities and performance values for cells, projected from preliminary data obtained on small cells, are summarized. The electrode structure is emphasized as an important factor in the decreasing of capacity upon cycling.

  4. Migratory double breeding in Neotropical migrant birds

    PubMed Central

    Rohwer, Sievert; Hobson, Keith A.; Rohwer, Vanya G.

    2009-01-01

    Neotropical migratory songbirds typically breed in temperate regions and then travel long distances to spend the majority of the annual cycle in tropical wintering areas. Using stable-isotope methodology, we provide quantitative evidence of dual breeding ranges for 5 species of Neotropical migrants. Each is well known to have a Neotropical winter range and a breeding range in the United States and Canada. However, after their first bout of breeding in the north, many individuals migrate hundreds to thousands of kilometers south in midsummer to breed a second time during the same summer in coastal west Mexico or Baja California Sur. They then migrate further south to their final wintering areas in the Neotropics. Our discovery of dual breeding ranges in Neotropical migrants reveals a hitherto unrealized flexibility in life-history strategies for these species and underscores that demographic models and conservation plans must consider dual breeding for these migrants. PMID:19858484

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Polyphosphazene Materials for Advanced Lithium-Water Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Mason K. Harrup; Thomas A. Luther; Frederick F. Stewart; Christopher J. Orme; Mark L. Stone; William F. Bauer

    2007-08-01

    Development of long-lived high-energy lithium-water batteries hinges upon developing solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) with the appropriate properties. These polymer membranes paradoxically must allow lithium atoms to pass from the metallic surface, oxidize to the ionic form, and then pass through the membrane to the water outside. At the same time, the membrane must exclude all water, tramp ions, and deleterious gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide. SPE membranes are the leading choice for lithium-water batteries however, because current non-membrane approaches being pursued by other research groups suffer from two insurmountable problems - storage and non-productive energy loss via direct lithium/water reaction. In this paper, we present the results of our latest investigations into the transport of water and permanent gasses, such as carbon dioxide, through polyphosphazene SPE materials designed to address the challenges inherent in lithium water batteries.

  6. Unconventional methods in plant breeding.

    PubMed

    Melchers, G

    There are three wass whereby unconventional methods of plant genetics can be used for applied plant breeding. 1. The time necessary for breeding by recombination can be shortened, making use of the discovery that plants can be obtained directly from the products of meiosis, the "Gonen." Two new cultivars bred in tobacco by this method already exist. 2. Microbiological methods may be applied to mutation and selection in haploid or dihaploid cell cultures. New cultivars bred by this method have not yet been published, but it should be possible to make use of this technique in plant breeding. 3. Somatic hybridization of plants by fusions of protoplasts or by uptake of nuclei and other organelles (plastids, mitochondria) or pure nucleic acids is another useful method. There exist up to now somatic hybrid plants (a) between mutants of the liverwort Sphaerocarpos donnellii, (b) some varieties of tobacco, and (c) two species of Nicotiana. All these hybrids can also be produced by conventional sexual hybridization. It is impossible to predict how often incompatibility for cross-fertilization can be surmounted by somatic hybridization, as incompatibility between two genomes must be restricted to the fertilization process, but it can work on any stage of the development of the hybrid. PMID:1032113

  7. Improved Carbon Anodes For Rechargeable Lithium Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Chen-Kuo; Surampudi, Subbarao; Attia, Alan; Halpert, Gerald

    1994-01-01

    Carbon anodes for rechargeable lithium cells improved by choosing binder contents and fabrication conditions to achieve maximum porosity, uniform loading, and maximum reversible lithium capacity. Stacking electrodes under pressure during assembly of cells increases cyclability of lithium. Rechargeable, high-energy-density lithium cells containing improved carbon anodes find use in spacecraft, military, communications, automotive, and other demanding applications.

  8. Lithium Treatment for Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Maletzky, Barry M.; Shore, James H.

    1978-01-01

    Although used around the world since 1949, lithium has come into extensive use in psychiatry in the United States only within the past decade. Before initiating treatment with this drug, physicians must be familiar with the diagnostic scheme of the major affective disorders, the indications and contraindications to lithium's use, and its principles of treatment, including evaluation before lithium therapy, criteria for monitoring blood levels and signs of impending toxicity. Despite earlier reports about the toxicity of lithium when it was promoted as a salt substitute, lithium is a safe drug. Its use not only has revolutionized the treatment of the major affective disorders, but has opened up new and broad avenues of research into the regulation of man's emotions. PMID:664651

  9. HOW RELIABLE IS 24 HOUR SERUM LITHIUM LEVEL AFTER A TEST DOSE OF LITHIUM IN PREDICTING OPTIMAL LITHIUM DOSE?

    PubMed Central

    Kuruvilla, K.; Shaji, K.S.

    1989-01-01

    SUMMARY 57% of a group of 35 patients treated with Lithium Carbonate at dosages predicted by the nomogram suggested by Cooper et al (1973) failed to reach therapeutic levels of serum lithium. This finding casts serious doubts on the usefulness of the claim by Cooper et al (1973 & 1976) that 24 hour serum lithium level after a test dose of 600 mg. lithium can predict the daily lithium dose. PMID:21927360

  10. Lithium metaborate flux in silicate analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingamells, C.O.

    1970-01-01

    Lithium metaborate is an effective flux for silicates and other rock-forming minerals. The glass resulting from fusion is mechanically strong, reasonably nonhygroscopic, and is readily soluble in dilute acids. These characteristics lead to its use in X-ray spectrography and in methods which require whole-rock solutions, such as atomic absorption and emission spectrometry. Difficulties have been encountered in the use of such techniques : a high-quality reagent has been difficult to obtain ; fusion conditions must be rather closely controlled; graphite crucibles used in the fusions need special treatment. Methods for overcoming these difficulties are outlined. Selected procedures for various instrumental methods of analysis are described. ?? 1970.

  11. Traditional and modern plant breeding methods with examples in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Breseghello, Flavio; Coelho, Alexandre Siqueira Guedes

    2013-09-01

    Plant breeding can be broadly defined as alterations caused in plants as a result of their use by humans, ranging from unintentional changes resulting from the advent of agriculture to the application of molecular tools for precision breeding. The vast diversity of breeding methods can be simplified into three categories: (i) plant breeding based on observed variation by selection of plants based on natural variants appearing in nature or within traditional varieties; (ii) plant breeding based on controlled mating by selection of plants presenting recombination of desirable genes from different parents; and (iii) plant breeding based on monitored recombination by selection of specific genes or marker profiles, using molecular tools for tracking within-genome variation. The continuous application of traditional breeding methods in a given species could lead to the narrowing of the gene pool from which cultivars are drawn, rendering crops vulnerable to biotic and abiotic stresses and hampering future progress. Several methods have been devised for introducing exotic variation into elite germplasm without undesirable effects. Cases in rice are given to illustrate the potential and limitations of different breeding approaches. PMID:23551250

  12. Lithium orotate, carbonate and chloride: pharmacokinetics, polyuria in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, D F

    1976-01-01

    1 The pharmacokinetics of the lithium ion administered as lithium orotate were studied in rats. Parallel studies were carried out with lithium carbonate and lithium chloride. 2 No differences in the uptake, distribution and excretion of the lithium ion were observed between lithium orotate, lithium carbonate and lithium chloride after single intraperitoneal, subcutaneous or intragastric injections (0.5-1.0 mEq lithium/kg) or after administration of the lithium salts for 20 days in the food. 3 The findings oppose the notion that the pharmacokinetics of the lithium ion given as lithium orotate differ from lithium chloride or lithium carbonate. 4 Polyuria and polydipsia developed more slowly in rats given lithium orotate than in those given lithium carbonate or lithium chloride, perhaps due to an effect of the orotate anion. PMID:1260219

  13. Characterization of Lithium Polysulfide Salts in Homopolymers and Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dunyang; Wujcik, Kevin; Balsara, Nitash

    Ion-conducting polymers are important for solid-state batteries due to the promise of better safety and the potential to produce higher energy density batteries. Nanostructured block copolymer electrolytes can provide high ionic conductivity and mechanical strength through microphase separation. One of the potential use of block copolymer electrolytes is in lithium-sulfur batteries, a system that has high theoretical energy density wherein the reduction of sulfur leads to the formation of lithium polysulfide intermediates. In this study we investigate the effect of block copolymer morphology on the speciation and transport properties of the polysulfides. The morphology and conductivities of polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (SEO) containing lithium polysulfides were studies using small-angle X-ray scattering and ac impedance spectroscopy. UV-vis spectroscopy is being used to determine nature of the polysulfide species in poly(ethylene oxide) and SEO. Department of Energy, Soft Matter Electron Microscopy Program and Battery Materials Research Program.

  14. Mitigating Thermal Runaway Risk in Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darcy, Eric; Jeevarajan, Judy; Russell, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    The JSC/NESC team has successfully demonstrated Thermal Runaway (TR) risk reduction in a lithium ion battery for human space flight by developing and implementing verifiable design features which interrupt energy transfer between adjacent electrochemical cells. Conventional lithium ion (li-Ion) batteries can fail catastrophically as a result of a single cell going into thermal runaway. Thermal runaway results when an internal component fails to separate electrode materials leading to localized heating and complete combustion of the lithium ion cell. Previously, the greatest control to minimize the probability of cell failure was individual cell screening. Combining thermal runaway propagation mitigation design features with a comprehensive screening program reduces both the probability, and the severity, of a single cell failure.

  15. Structural properties of lithium atom under weakly coupled plasma environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, S.; Saha, J. K.; Chandra, R.; Mukherjee, T. K.

    2016-04-01

    The Rayleigh-Ritz variational technique with a Hylleraas basis set is being tested for the first time to estimate the structural modifications of a lithium atom embedded in a weakly coupled plasma environment. The Debye-Huckel potential is used to mimic the weakly coupled plasma environment. The wave functions for both the helium-like lithium ion and the lithium atom are expanded in the explicitly correlated Hylleraas type basis set which fully takes care of the electron-electron correlation effect. Due to the continuum lowering under plasma environment, the ionization potential of the system gradually decreases leading to the destabilization of the atom. The excited states destabilize at a lower value of the plasma density. The estimated ionization potential agrees fairly well with the few available theoretical estimates. The variation of one and two particle moments, dielectric susceptibility and magnetic shielding constant, with respect to plasma density is also been discussed in detail.

  16. Lithium Promotes Longevity through GSK3/NRF2-Dependent Hormesis

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Quan, Jorge Iván; Li, Li; Kinghorn, Kerri J.; Ivanov, Dobril K.; Tain, Luke S.; Slack, Cathy; Kerr, Fiona; Nespital, Tobias; Thornton, Janet; Hardy, John; Bjedov, Ivana; Partridge, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Summary The quest to extend healthspan via pharmacological means is becoming increasingly urgent, both from a health and economic perspective. Here we show that lithium, a drug approved for human use, promotes longevity and healthspan. We demonstrate that lithium extends lifespan in female and male Drosophila, when administered throughout adulthood or only later in life. The life-extending mechanism involves the inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) and activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (NRF-2). Combining genetic loss of the NRF-2 repressor Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) with lithium treatment revealed that high levels of NRF-2 activation conferred stress resistance, while low levels additionally promoted longevity. The discovery of GSK-3 as a therapeutic target for aging will likely lead to more effective treatments that can modulate mammalian aging and further improve health in later life. PMID:27068460

  17. Lithium Promotes Longevity through GSK3/NRF2-Dependent Hormesis.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Quan, Jorge Iván; Li, Li; Kinghorn, Kerri J; Ivanov, Dobril K; Tain, Luke S; Slack, Cathy; Kerr, Fiona; Nespital, Tobias; Thornton, Janet; Hardy, John; Bjedov, Ivana; Partridge, Linda

    2016-04-19

    The quest to extend healthspan via pharmacological means is becoming increasingly urgent, both from a health and economic perspective. Here we show that lithium, a drug approved for human use, promotes longevity and healthspan. We demonstrate that lithium extends lifespan in female and male Drosophila, when administered throughout adulthood or only later in life. The life-extending mechanism involves the inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) and activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (NRF-2). Combining genetic loss of the NRF-2 repressor Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) with lithium treatment revealed that high levels of NRF-2 activation conferred stress resistance, while low levels additionally promoted longevity. The discovery of GSK-3 as a therapeutic target for aging will likely lead to more effective treatments that can modulate mammalian aging and further improve health in later life. PMID:27068460

  18. Model and Mockup of DEMO Ceramic Breeding Zone for Testing in the IVV-2M Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Kapychev, V.; Gorokhov, V.; Davydov, D.

    2001-01-15

    A model of a ceramic breeding zone has been designed and manufactured for testing in the IVV-2M fission reactor. The model contains both lithium orthosilicate and beryllium spheroid particles 1 to 2 mm in diameter. The structural material is ferritic-martensitic stainless steel. In addition, a mockup of the model for verification of neutronics calculation methods has been designed and manufactured. A special facility (Functional In-Reactor Investigations of Tritium-Breeding Models) has been designed, fabricated, and assembled at the reactor for studying the kinetics of tritium extraction from the ceramic material under irradiation. Neutronic and thermo-hydraulic calculations and an initial measurement of tritium release from the model under reactor irradiation have been performed.

  19. Molecular Structure and Stability of Dissolved Lithium Polysulfide Species

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayakumar, M.; Govind, Niranjan; Walter, Eric D.; Burton, Sarah D.; Shukla, Anil K.; Devaraj, Arun; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Jun; Wang, Chong M.; Karim, Ayman M.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2014-01-01

    Ability to predict the solubility and stability of lithium polysulfide is vital in realizing longer lasting lithium-sulfur batteries. Herein we report a combined computational and experimental spectroscopic analysis to understand the dissolution mechanism of lithium polysulfide species in an aprotic solvent medium. Multinuclear NMR and sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption (XAS) analysis reveals that the lithium exchange between polysulfide species and solvent molecule constitutes the first step in the dissolution process. Lithium exchange leads to de-lithiated polysulfide ions which subsequently forms highly reactive free radicals through disproportion reaction. The energy required for the disproportion and possible dimer formation reactions of the polysulfide species are analyzed using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We validate our calculations with variable temperature electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements. Based on these findings, we discuss approaches to optimize the electrolyte in order to control the polysulfide solubility. The energy required for the disproportion and possible dimer formation reactions of the polysulfide species are analyzed using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We validate our calculations with variable temperature electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements. Based on these findings, we discuss approaches to optimize the electrolyte in order to control the polysulfide solubility.

  20. Thymus transplantation and disease prevention in the diabetes-prone Bio-Breeding rat

    SciTech Connect

    Georgiou, H.M.; Bellgrau, D.

    1989-05-15

    Bio-Breeding rat T lymphocytes proliferate poorly in response to alloantigen. Transplantation of Bio-Breeding rats with fetal thymus tissue from diabetes resistant rats leads to an improvement in the T cell proliferative response, but only if the thymus contains bone marrow-derived, radiation-resistant thymic antigen presenting cells of the diabetes-resistant phenotype. The current study provides evidence that thymus transplantation leading to the restoration of Bio-Breeding T cell proliferative function can also significantly reduce the incidence of insulitis and prevent the development of diabetes. It appears that a defect in the bone marrow-derived thymic APC population contributes to an abnormal maturation of Bio-Breeding T lymphocytes which in turn predisposes animals to insulitis and diabetic disease.

  1. Lithium electric dipole polarizability

    SciTech Connect

    Puchalski, M.; KePdziera, D.; Pachucki, K.

    2011-11-15

    The electric dipole polarizability of the lithium atom in the ground state is calculated including relativistic and quantum electrodynamics corrections. The obtained result {alpha}{sub E}=164.0740(5) a.u. is in good agreement with the less accurate experimental value of 164.19(1.08) a.u. The small uncertainty of about 3 parts per 10{sup 6} comes from the approximate treatment of quantum electrodynamics corrections. Our theoretical result can be considered as a benchmark for more general atomic structure methods and may serve as a reference value for the relative measurement of polarizabilities of the other alkali-metal atoms.

  2. Lithium niobate explosion monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bundy, C.H.; Graham, R.A.; Kuehn, S.F.; Precit, R.R.; Rogers, M.S.

    1990-01-09

    Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier. 8 figs.

  3. Lithium niobate explosion monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bundy, Charles H.; Graham, Robert A.; Kuehn, Stephen F.; Precit, Richard R.; Rogers, Michael S.

    1990-01-01

    Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier.

  4. Canine gastrointestinal physiology: Breeds variations that can influence drug absorption.

    PubMed

    Oswald, Hayley; Sharkey, Michele; Pade, Devendra; Martinez, Marilyn N

    2015-11-01

    Although all dogs belong to Canis lupus familiaris, the physiological diversity resulting from selective breeding can lead to wide interbreed variability in drug pharmacokinetics (PK) or in oral drug product performance. It is important to understand this diversity in order to predict the impact of drug product formulation attributes on in vivo dissolution and absorption characteristics across the canine population when the dog represents the targeted patient population. Based upon published information, this review addresses breed differences in gastrointestinal (GI) physiology and discusses the in vivo implications of these differences. In addition to the importance of such information for understanding the variability that may exist in the performance of oral dosage forms in dogs for the purpose of developing canine therapeutics, an appreciation of breed differences in GI physiology can improve our prediction of oral drug formulation performance when we extrapolate bioavailability results from the dog to the humans, and vice versa. In this literature review, we examine reports of breed associated diversity in GI anatomy and morphology, gastric emptying time (GET), oro-cecal transit time (OCTT), small intestinal transit time (SITT), large intestinal transit time (LITT), intestinal permeability, sodium/potassium fecal concentrations, intestinal flora, and fecal moisture content. PMID:26409436

  5. Genomics for greater efficiency in pigeonpea hybrid breeding

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Rachit K.; Saxena, K. B.; Pazhamala, Lekha T.; Patel, Kishan; Parupalli, Swathi; Sameerkumar, C. V.; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2015-01-01

    Cytoplasmic genic male sterility (CGMS) based hybrid technology has demonstrated its immense potential in increasing the productivity of various crops, including pigeonpea. This technology has shown promise for breaking the long-standing yield stagnation in pigeonpea. There are difficulties in commercial hybrid seed production due to non-availability of field-oriented technologies such as time-bound assessment of genetic purity of hybrid seeds. Besides this, there are other routine breeding activities which are labor oriented and need more resources. These include breeding and maintenance of new fertility restorers and maintainer lines, diversification of cytoplasm, and incorporation of biotic and abiotic stress resistances. The recent progress in genomics research could accelerate the existing traditional efforts to strengthen the hybrid breeding technology. Marker based seed purity assessment, identification of heterotic groups; selection of new fertility restorers are few areas which have already been initiated. In this paper efforts have been made to identify critical areas and opportunities where genomics can play a leading role and assist breeders in accelerating various activities related to breeding and commercialization of pigeonpea hybrids. PMID:26483810

  6. Lead Pencils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, L. B.

    1971-01-01

    A study, undertaken to determine the lead content of paint on various pencils in the Goddard supply system, is reported. The survey found that lead content varied from .04 mg per pencil for carmine colored pencils to approximately 43 mg per pencil for yellow colored pencils. Results also show that yellow pencils had higher lead content than other colors analyzed. More detailed results are given in tabular form.

  7. Method of recycling lithium borate to lithium borohydride through methyl borate

    DOEpatents

    Filby, Evan E.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a method for the recycling of lithium borate to lithium borohydride which can be reacted with water to generate hydrogen for utilization as a fuel. The lithium borate by-product of the hydrogen generation reaction is reacted with hydrogen chloride and water to produce boric acid and lithium chloride. The boric acid and lithium chloride are converted to lithium borohydride through a methyl borate intermediate to complete the recycle scheme.

  8. Balancing surface adsorption and diffusion of lithium-polysulfides on nonconductive oxides for lithium-sulfur battery design.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xinyong; Wang, Jianguo; Liu, Chong; Wang, Haotian; Yao, Hongbin; Zheng, Guangyuan; Seh, Zhi Wei; Cai, Qiuxia; Li, Weiyang; Zhou, Guangmin; Zu, Chenxi; Cui, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur batteries have attracted attention due to their six-fold specific energy compared with conventional lithium-ion batteries. Dissolution of lithium polysulfides, volume expansion of sulfur and uncontrollable deposition of lithium sulfide are three of the main challenges for this technology. State-of-the-art sulfur cathodes based on metal-oxide nanostructures can suppress the shuttle-effect and enable controlled lithium sulfide deposition. However, a clear mechanistic understanding and corresponding selection criteria for the oxides are still lacking. Herein, various nonconductive metal-oxide nanoparticle-decorated carbon flakes are synthesized via a facile biotemplating method. The cathodes based on magnesium oxide, cerium oxide and lanthanum oxide show enhanced cycling performance. Adsorption experiments and theoretical calculations reveal that polysulfide capture by the oxides is via monolayered chemisorption. Moreover, we show that better surface diffusion leads to higher deposition efficiency of sulfide species on electrodes. Hence, oxide selection is proposed to balance optimization between sulfide-adsorption and diffusion on the oxides. PMID:27046216

  9. Balancing surface adsorption and diffusion of lithium-polysulfides on nonconductive oxides for lithium-sulfur battery design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Xinyong; Wang, Jianguo; Liu, Chong; Wang, Haotian; Yao, Hongbin; Zheng, Guangyuan; Seh, Zhi Wei; Cai, Qiuxia; Li, Weiyang; Zhou, Guangmin; Zu, Chenxi; Cui, Yi

    2016-04-01

    Lithium-sulfur batteries have attracted attention due to their six-fold specific energy compared with conventional lithium-ion batteries. Dissolution of lithium polysulfides, volume expansion of sulfur and uncontrollable deposition of lithium sulfide are three of the main challenges for this technology. State-of-the-art sulfur cathodes based on metal-oxide nanostructures can suppress the shuttle-effect and enable controlled lithium sulfide deposition. However, a clear mechanistic understanding and corresponding selection criteria for the oxides are still lacking. Herein, various nonconductive metal-oxide nanoparticle-decorated carbon flakes are synthesized via a facile biotemplating method. The cathodes based on magnesium oxide, cerium oxide and lanthanum oxide show enhanced cycling performance. Adsorption experiments and theoretical calculations reveal that polysulfide capture by the oxides is via monolayered chemisorption. Moreover, we show that better surface diffusion leads to higher deposition efficiency of sulfide species on electrodes. Hence, oxide selection is proposed to balance optimization between sulfide-adsorption and diffusion on the oxides.

  10. Parameter estimation for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram

    With an increase in the demand for lithium based batteries at the rate of about 7% per year, the amount of effort put into improving the performance of these batteries from both experimental and theoretical perspectives is increasing. There exist a number of mathematical models ranging from simple empirical models to complicated physics-based models to describe the processes leading to failure of these cells. The literature is also rife with experimental studies that characterize the various properties of the system in an attempt to improve the performance of lithium ion cells. However, very little has been done to quantify the experimental observations and relate these results to the existing mathematical models. In fact, the best of the physics based models in the literature show as much as 20% discrepancy when compared to experimental data. The reasons for such a big difference include, but are not limited to, numerical complexities involved in extracting parameters from experimental data and inconsistencies in interpreting directly measured values for the parameters. In this work, an attempt has been made to implement simplified models to extract parameter values that accurately characterize the performance of lithium ion cells. The validity of these models under a variety of experimental conditions is verified using a model discrimination procedure. Transport and kinetic properties are estimated using a non-linear estimation procedure. The initial state of charge inside each electrode is also maintained as an unknown parameter, since this value plays a significant role in accurately matching experimental charge/discharge curves with model predictions and is not readily known from experimental data. The second part of the dissertation focuses on parameters that change rapidly with time. For example, in the case of lithium ion batteries used in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) applications, the prediction of the State of Charge (SOC) of the cell under a variety of

  11. Leading Democratically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Democracy is the most venerated of American ideas, the one for which wars are fought and people die. So most people would probably agree that leaders should be able to lead well in a democratic society. Yet, genuinely democratic leadership is a relative rarity. Leading democratically means viewing leadership as a function or process, rather than…

  12. A lithium superionic conductor.

    PubMed

    Kamaya, Noriaki; Homma, Kenji; Yamakawa, Yuichiro; Hirayama, Masaaki; Kanno, Ryoji; Yonemura, Masao; Kamiyama, Takashi; Kato, Yuki; Hama, Shigenori; Kawamoto, Koji; Mitsui, Akio

    2011-09-01

    Batteries are a key technology in modern society. They are used to power electric and hybrid electric vehicles and to store wind and solar energy in smart grids. Electrochemical devices with high energy and power densities can currently be powered only by batteries with organic liquid electrolytes. However, such batteries require relatively stringent safety precautions, making large-scale systems very complicated and expensive. The application of solid electrolytes is currently limited because they attain practically useful conductivities (10(-2) S cm(-1)) only at 50-80 °C, which is one order of magnitude lower than those of organic liquid electrolytes. Here, we report a lithium superionic conductor, Li(10)GeP(2)S(12) that has a new three-dimensional framework structure. It exhibits an extremely high lithium ionic conductivity of 12 mS cm(-1) at room temperature. This represents the highest conductivity achieved in a solid electrolyte, exceeding even those of liquid organic electrolytes. This new solid-state battery electrolyte has many advantages in terms of device fabrication (facile shaping, patterning and integration), stability (non-volatile), safety (non-explosive) and excellent electrochemical properties (high conductivity and wide potential window). PMID:21804556

  13. [The native domestic animal breeds of Japan].

    PubMed

    Sambraus, H H

    1989-01-01

    During the last decades some domestic animal breeds have spread to all parts of the world. In general, consideration is given to these breeds only; on the other hand, autochthonous breeds of various countries are hardly known. These, however, can be valuable gene-reserves, and moreover, they represent a significant cultural value. In Japan there are several domestic animal breeds which are almost unknown in Central Europe. They are presented verbally and by means of illustration, and their breeding history is dealt with as well. The purpose of this study is to point out the importance of these breeds within the country and to make clear the extent of the danger of their extinction. PMID:2683212

  14. [Progress and countermeasures of Dendrobium officinale breeding].

    PubMed

    Si, Jin-Ping; He, Bo-wei; Yu, Qiao-xian

    2013-02-01

    The standandized cultivation of Chinese medicinal materials is based on variety. With the rapid development of Dendrobium officinale industry and increasing demand of improved varieties, many studies have concentrated on the variety breeding of D. officinale and subsequently achieved remarkable success. This paper systematically expounds the research progress of D. officinale breeding, e. g. the collection and differentiated evaluation for germplasm, theory and practice for variety breeding, tissue culture and efficient production with low-carbon for germchit, and DNA molecular marker-assisted breeding, and then indicates the main problems of the current breeding of D. officinale. Furthermore, the priorities and keys for the further breeding of D. officinale have been pointed out. PMID:23713267

  15. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C.A.; Xu, K.; Liu, C.

    1996-01-16

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors. 4 figs.

  16. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C. Austen; Xu, Kang; Liu, Changle

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors.

  17. Anodes for rechargeable lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Kepler, Keith D.; Vaughey, John T.

    2003-01-01

    A negative electrode (12) for a non-aqueous electrochemical cell (10) with an intermetallic host structure containing two or more elements selected from the metal elements and silicon, capable of accommodating lithium within its crystallographic host structure such that when the host structure is lithiated it transforms to a lithiated zinc-blende-type structure. Both active elements (alloying with lithium) and inactive elements (non-alloying with lithium) are disclosed. Electrochemical cells and batteries as well as methods of making the negative electrode are disclosed.

  18. A Lithium Superionic Sulfide Cathode for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhan; Liu, Zengcai; Dudney, Nancy J; Liang, Chengdu

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a facile synthesis approach for core-shell structured Li2S nanoparticles, which have Li2S as the core and Li3PS4 as the shell. This material functions as lithium superionic sulfide (LSS) cathode for long-lasting, energy-efficient lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. The LSS has an ionic conductivity of 10-7 S cm-1 at 25 oC, which is 6 orders of magnitude higher than that of bulk Li2S (~10-13 S cm-1). The high lithium-ion conductivity of LSS imparts an excellent cycling performance to all-solid Li-S batteries, which also promises safe cycling of high-energy batteries with metallic lithium anodes.

  19. Cyanoethylated Compounds as Additives in Lithium/Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan

    1998-05-08

    The power loss of lithium/lithium ion battery cells is significantly reduced, especially at low temperatures, when about 1% by weight of an additive is incorporated in the electrolyte layer of the cells. The usable additives are organic solvent soluble cyanoethylated polysaccharides and poly(vinyl alcohol). The power loss decrease results primarily from the decrease in the charge transfer resistance at the interface between the electrolyte and the cathode.

  20. Lithium metal doped electrodes for lithium-ion rechargeable chemistry

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vince; Wang, Lei

    2016-09-13

    An embodiment of the invention combines the superior performance of a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) or polyethyleneoxide (POE) binder, the strong binding force of a styrene-butadiene (SBR) binder, and a source of lithium ions in the form of solid lithium metal powder (SLMP) to form an electrode system that has improved performance as compared to PVDF/SBR binder based electrodes. This invention will provide a new way to achieve improved results at a much reduced cost.

  1. Cyanoethylated compounds as additives in lithium/lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan

    1999-01-01

    The power loss of lithium/lithium ion battery cells is significantly reduced, especially at low temperatures, when about 1% by weight of an additive is incorporated in the electrolyte layer of the cells. The usable additives are organic solvent soluble cyanoethylated polysaccharides and poly(vinyl alcohol). The power loss decrease results primarily from the decrease in the charge transfer resistance at the interface between the electrolyte and the cathode.

  2. Genomics-assisted breeding in fruit trees

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Minamikawa, Mai F.; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Ishimori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in genomic analysis technologies have opened up new avenues to promote the efficiency of plant breeding. Novel genomics-based approaches for plant breeding and genetics research, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS), are useful, especially in fruit tree breeding. The breeding of fruit trees is hindered by their long generation time, large plant size, long juvenile phase, and the necessity to wait for the physiological maturity of the plant to assess the marketable product (fruit). In this article, we describe the potential of genomics-assisted breeding, which uses these novel genomics-based approaches, to break through these barriers in conventional fruit tree breeding. We first introduce the molecular marker systems and whole-genome sequence data that are available for fruit tree breeding. Next we introduce the statistical methods for biparental linkage and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping as well as GWAS and GS. We then review QTL mapping, GWAS, and GS studies conducted on fruit trees. We also review novel technologies for rapid generation advancement. Finally, we note the future prospects of genomics-assisted fruit tree breeding and problems that need to be overcome in the breeding. PMID:27069395

  3. Nanostructured silicon anodes for lithium ion rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Teki, Ranganath; Datta, Moni K; Krishnan, Rahul; Parker, Thomas C; Lu, Toh-Ming; Kumta, Prashant N; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2009-10-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries are integral to today's information-rich, mobile society. Currently they are one of the most popular types of battery used in portable electronics because of their high energy density and flexible design. Despite their increasing use at the present time, there is great continued commercial interest in developing new and improved electrode materials for lithium ion batteries that would lead to dramatically higher energy capacity and longer cycle life. Silicon is one of the most promising anode materials because it has the highest known theoretical charge capacity and is the second most abundant element on earth. However, silicon anodes have limited applications because of the huge volume change associated with the insertion and extraction of lithium. This causes cracking and pulverization of the anode, which leads to a loss of electrical contact and eventual fading of capacity. Nanostructured silicon anodes, as compared to the previously tested silicon film anodes, can help overcome the above issues. As arrays of silicon nanowires or nanorods, which help accommodate the volume changes, or as nanoscale compliant layers, which increase the stress resilience of silicon films, nanoengineered silicon anodes show potential to enable a new generation of lithium ion batteries with significantly higher reversible charge capacity and longer cycle life. PMID:19739146

  4. Breeding without Breeding: Is a Complete Pedigree Necessary for Efficient Breeding?

    PubMed Central

    El-Kassaby, Yousry A.; Cappa, Eduardo P.; Liewlaksaneeyanawin, Cherdsak; Klápště, Jaroslav; Lstibůrek, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Complete pedigree information is a prerequisite for modern breeding and the ranking of parents and offspring for selection and deployment decisions. DNA fingerprinting and pedigree reconstruction can substitute for artificial matings, by allowing parentage delineation of naturally produced offspring. Here, we report on the efficacy of a breeding concept called “Breeding without Breeding” (BwB) that circumvents artificial matings, focusing instead on a subset of randomly sampled, maternally known but paternally unknown offspring to delineate their paternal parentage. We then generate the information needed to rank those offspring and their paternal parents, using a combination of complete (full-sib: FS) and incomplete (half-sib: HS) analyses of the constructed pedigrees. Using a random sample of wind-pollinated offspring from 15 females (seed donors), growing in a 41-parent western larch population, BwB is evaluated and compared to two commonly used testing methods that rely on either incomplete (maternal half-sib, open-pollinated: OP) or complete (FS) pedigree designs. BwB produced results superior to those from the incomplete design and virtually identical to those from the complete pedigree methods. The combined use of complete and incomplete pedigree information permitted evaluating all parents, both maternal and paternal, as well as all offspring, a result that could not have been accomplished with either the OP or FS methods alone. We also discuss the optimum experimental setting, in terms of the proportion of fingerprinted offspring, the size of the assembled maternal and paternal half-sib families, the role of external gene flow, and selfing, as well as the number of parents that could be realistically tested with BwB. PMID:21991342

  5. A new piece in the puzzle of lithium/air batteries: computational study on the chemical stability of propylene carbonate in the presence of lithium peroxide.

    PubMed

    Laino, Teodoro; Curioni, Alessandro

    2012-03-19

    The electrolyte role in non-aqueous lithium/air batteries is attracting a lot of attention in several research groups, because of its fundamental importance in producing the appropriate reversible electrochemical reduction. While recent published works identify the lithium superoxide as the main degrading agent for propylene carbonate (PC), there is no clear experimental evidence that the oxygen at the cathode interface layer does not reduce further to peroxide before reacting with PC. Here, we investigate the reactivity of lithium peroxide versus propylene carbonate and find that Li(2)O(2) irreversibly decomposes the carbonate solvent, leading to alkyl carbonates. We also show that, compared with a single Li(2)O(2) unit in PC, a crystalline surface of Li(2)O(2) exhibits an enhanced reactivity. Our findings support the possibility that in lithium/air cells, oxygen may still be reduced to peroxide, with the formation of solid Li(2)O(2), which degrades by decomposing PC. PMID:22354790

  6. Silica Precipitation and Lithium Sorption

    SciTech Connect

    Jay Renew

    2015-09-20

    This file contains silica precipitation and lithium sorption data from the project. The silica removal data is corrected from the previous submission. The previous submission did not take into account the limit of detection of the ICP-MS procedure.

  7. 21 CFR 862.3560 - Lithium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lithium test system. 862.3560 Section 862.3560....3560 Lithium test system. (a) Identification. A lithium test system is a device intended to measure lithium (from the drug lithium carbonate) in serum or plasma. Measurements of lithium are used to...

  8. 21 CFR 862.3560 - Lithium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lithium test system. 862.3560 Section 862.3560....3560 Lithium test system. (a) Identification. A lithium test system is a device intended to measure lithium (from the drug lithium carbonate) in serum or plasma. Measurements of lithium are used to...

  9. 21 CFR 862.3560 - Lithium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lithium test system. 862.3560 Section 862.3560....3560 Lithium test system. (a) Identification. A lithium test system is a device intended to measure lithium (from the drug lithium carbonate) in serum or plasma. Measurements of lithium are used to...

  10. 21 CFR 862.3560 - Lithium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lithium test system. 862.3560 Section 862.3560....3560 Lithium test system. (a) Identification. A lithium test system is a device intended to measure lithium (from the drug lithium carbonate) in serum or plasma. Measurements of lithium are used to...

  11. Comparison of molecular breeding values based on within- and across-breed training in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Although the efficacy of genomic predictors based on within-breed training looks promising, it is necessary to develop and evaluate across-breed predictors for the technology to be fully applied in the beef industry. The efficacies of genomic predictors trained in one breed and utilized ...

  12. Modeling the Lithium Ion Battery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerfield, John

    2013-01-01

    The lithium ion battery will be a reliable electrical resource for many years to come. A simple model of the lithium ions motion due to changes in concentration and voltage is presented. The battery chosen has LiCoO[subscript 2] as the cathode, LiPF[subscript 6] as the electrolyte, and LiC[subscript 6] as the anode. The concentration gradient and…

  13. Air breathing lithium power cells

    DOEpatents

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2014-07-15

    A cell suitable for use in a battery according to one embodiment includes a catalytic oxygen cathode; a stabilized zirconia electrolyte for selective oxygen anion transport; a molten salt electrolyte; and a lithium-based anode. A cell suitable for use in a battery according to another embodiment includes a catalytic oxygen cathode; an electrolyte; a membrane selective to molecular oxygen; and a lithium-based anode.

  14. Early North American research on lithium.

    PubMed

    Johnson, G; Gershon, S

    1999-12-01

    Research and clinical interest in lithium in the USA lagged behind that in Europe, largely because of the experience of deaths due to lithium in cardiac patients. The first American report on lithium was published in 1960 by Sam Gershon, the Australian psychiatrist who had undertaken lithium studies in Melbourne in conjunction with the physiologist Trautner. Major USA clinical trials originated in the 1960s; and the clinical significance of lithium was recognised in a special section in the American Journal of Psychiatry in 1968. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of lithium for control of manic episodes was finally given in 1970. PMID:10622180

  15. Lithium compensation for full cell operation

    DOEpatents

    Xiao, Jie; Zheng, Jianming; Chen, Xilin; Lu, Dongping; Liu, Jun; Jiguang, Jiguang

    2016-05-17

    Disclosed herein are embodiments of a lithium-ion battery system comprising an anode, an anode current collector, and a layer of lithium metal in contact with the current collector, but not in contact with the anode. The lithium compensation layer dissolves into the electrolyte to compensate for the loss of lithium ions during usage of the full cell. The specific placement of the lithium compensation layer, such that there is no direct physical contact between the lithium compensation layer and the anode, provides certain advantages.

  16. Dendrite preventing separator for secondary lithium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, David H. (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Huang, Chen-Kuo (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Dendrites are prevented from shorting a secondary lithium battery by use of a first porous separator, such as porous polypropylene, adjacent to the lithium anode that is unreactive with lithium and a second porous fluoropolymer separator between the cathode and the first separator, such as polytetrafluoroethylene, that is reactive with lithium. As the tip of a lithium dendrite contacts the second separator, an exothermic reaction occurs locally between the lithium dendrite and the fluoropolymer separator. This results in the prevention of the dendrite propagation to the cathode.

  17. Dendrite preventing separator for secondary lithium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, David H. (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Huang, Chen-Kuo (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Dendrites are prevented from shorting a secondary lithium battery by use of a first porous separator such as porous polypropylene adjacent the lithium anode that is unreactive with lithium and a second porous fluoropolymer separator between the cathode and the first separator such as polytetrafluoroethylene that is reactive with lithium. As the tip of a lithium dendrite contacts the second separator, an exothermic reaction occurs locally between the lithium dendrite and the fluoropolymer separator. This results in the prevention of the dendrite propagation to the cathode.

  18. Adaptive traits of indigenous cattle breeds: The Mediterranean Baladi as a case study.

    PubMed

    Shabtay, Ariel

    2015-11-01

    Generally taken, breeds of Bos taurus ancestry are considered more productive, in comparison with Bos indicus derived breeds that present enhanced hardiness and disease resistance, low nutritional requirements and higher capability of feed utilization. While breeds of B. taurus have been mostly selected for intensive production systems, indigenous cattle, developed mostly from indicine and African taurines, flourish in extensive habitats. Worldwide demographic and economic processes face animal production with new challenges - the increasing demand for animal food products. Intensification of animal husbandry is thus a desired goal in stricken parts of the world. An introduction of productive traits to indigenous breeds might serve to generate improved biological and economic efficiencies. For this to succeed, the genetic merit of traits like efficiency of feed utilization and product quality should be revealed, encouraging the conservation initiatives of indigenous cattle populations, many of which are already extinct and endangered. Moreover, to overcome potential genetic homogeneity, controlled breeding practices should be undertaken. The Baladi cattle are a native local breed found throughout the Mediterranean basin. Purebred Baladi animals are rapidly vanishing, as more European breeds are being introduced or used for backcrosses leading to improved production. The superiority of Baladi over large-framed cattle, in feedlot and on Mediterranean pasture, with respect to adaptability and efficiency, is highlighted in the current review. PMID:26025652

  19. Indirect exclusion of four candidate genes for generalized progressive retinal atrophy in several breeds of dogs

    PubMed Central

    Lippmann, Tanja; Pasternack, Sandra M; Kraczyk, Britta; Dudek, Sabine E; Dekomien, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    Background Generalized progressive retinal atrophy (gPRA) is a hereditary ocular disorder with progressive photoreceptor degeneration in dogs. Four retina-specific genes, ATP binding cassette transporter retina (ABCA4), connexin 36 (CX36), c-mer tyrosin kinase receptor (MERTK) and photoreceptor cell retinol dehydrogenase (RDH12) were investigated in order to identify mutations leading to autosomal recessive (ar) gPRA in 29 breeds of dogs. Results Mutation screening was performed initially by PCR and single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis, representing a simple method with comparatively high reliability for identification of sequence variations in many samples. Conspicuous banding patterns were analyzed via sequence analyses in order to detect the underlying nucleotide variations. No pathogenetically relevant mutations were detected in the genes ABCA4, CX36, MERTK and RDH12 in 71 affected dogs of 29 breeds. Yet 30 new sequence variations were identified, both, in the coding regions and intronic sequences. Many of the sequence variations were in heterozygous state in affected dogs. Conclusion Based on the ar transmittance of gPRA in the breeds investigated, informative sequence variations provide evidence allowing indirect exclusion of pathogenetic mutations in the genes ABCA4 (for 9 breeds), CX36 (for 12 breeds), MERTK (for all 29 breeds) and RDH12 (for 9 breeds). PMID:17134500

  20. Do first-time breeding females imprint on their own eggs?

    PubMed Central

    Soler, Manuel; Ruiz-Castellano, Cristina; Carra, Laura G.; Ontanilla, Juan; Martín-Galvez, David

    2013-01-01

    The egg-recognition processes underlying egg rejection are assumed to be based on an imprinting-like process (a female learning the aspect of her own eggs during her first breeding attempt). The imprinting-like process and the misimprinting costs have been the objective of many theoretical models and frequently have a leading role in papers published on brood parasitism; however, an experiment has never been undertaken to test the existence of this imprinting-like process by manipulating egg appearance in first-time breeding females. Here, we present the first such experimental study using the house sparrow (Passer domesticus), which is a conspecific brood parasite and which has a good ability to reject conspecific eggs, as a model species. We found that contrary to what the hypothesis predicts first-time breeding females did not reject their own eggs in their second breeding attempt. This lack of response against unmanipulated eggs could indicate that females have an innate preference for their own eggs. However, in a second experimental group in which first-time breeding females were allowed to learn the aspect of their (unmanipulated) own eggs, none ejected manipulated eggs during their second clutch either—a finding that does not support the idea of recognition templates being inherited, but instead suggests that recognition templates could be acquired again at each new breeding attempt. Our results demonstrate that it is likely that egg discrimination is not influenced by egg appearance in the first breeding attempt. PMID:23235707

  1. Lithium peroxide primary element

    SciTech Connect

    Winsel, A.

    1982-05-04

    In a galvanic primary element of the system Li/H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, the aqueous cathode depolarizer H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ is fixated as a polyurethane gel. It can thereby be controlled and caused to react with the anode metal in accordance with the current drain requirements. This is accomplished using a ram to press the gel toward a conductor which covers the lithium anode, which may take the form of a metal grid and/or a gas diffusion electrode. The oxygen which forms in the working layer through catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide creates a gas bubble when the current is interrupted or the ram is stopped, thereby interrupting the further supply of hydrogen peroxide to the catalyst.

  2. Ecotoxicology: Lead

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scheuhammer, A.M.; Beyer, W.N.; Schmitt, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a naturally occurring metallic element; trace concentrations are found in all environmental media and in all living things. However, certain human activities, especially base metal mining and smelting; combustion of leaded gasoline; the use of Pb in hunting, target shooting, and recreational angling; the use of Pb-based paints; and the uncontrolled disposal of Pb-containing products such as old vehicle batteries and electronic devices have resulted in increased environmental levels of Pb, and have created risks for Pb exposure and toxicity in invertebrates, fish, and wildlife in some ecosystems.

  3. USVL-220, A Novel Watermelon Breeding Line

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel watermelon breeding line was developed at the USDA, ARS, U.S. Vegetable Laboratory, Charleston, South Carolina. This breeding line contains the nuclear genome of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) and the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomic background of the desert spe...

  4. What breeds make up the national herd?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in the procedures and database at the Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory have resulted in the ability to know which breeds contribute to each cow and in what proportion. Previously each animal was considered to be the single breed reported through the dairy industry; therefore, statistic...

  5. Grasses and Legumes: Genetics and Plant Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Humans have been breeding forage and turf species for over 100 years. This chapter explores the progress that has been made in improving grasses and legumes for human benefit and the evolution of breeding and selection systems that have brought about those changes....

  6. Breeding sugarcane for temperate and cold environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Louisiana represents one of the world’s more temperate environments where sugarcane is commercially grown. Since its inception in the 1920s, The USDA-ARS breeding program at the Sugarcane Research Laboratory in Houma, Louisiana, U.S.A. has focused on breeding varieties adapted to this unique envir...

  7. Mean EPDs reported by different breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef cattle genetic evaluations result in expected progeny differences (EPDs), which can be used to select animals for growth, productivity, carcass composition, and, most recently, economic value. Breed averages allow producers to compare the genetic value of potential breed stock against their br...

  8. Mean EPDs Reported by Different Breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef cattle genetic evaluations result in expected progeny differences (EPDs), which can be used to select animals for growth, productivity, carcass composition, and, most recently, economic value. Breed averages allow producers to compare the genetic value of potential breeding stock against their...

  9. Breeding Perspectives and Programs at East Lansing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA-ARS sugar beet breeding activities for both Aphanomyces resistance and CMS/O-type conversion at East Lansing reach back to the 1940’s, with variety testing activities at Michigan State University reaching back to circa 1911. Many of those contributions are well known in the sugar beet breeding ...

  10. Plant Breeding: Surprisingly, Less Sex Is Better.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Peter J; Rigola, Diana; Schauer, Stephen E

    2016-02-01

    Introduction of apomixis, asexual reproduction through seeds, into crop species has the potential to dramatically transform plant breeding. A new study demonstrates that traits can be stably transferred between generations in newly produced apomictic lines, and heralds a breeding revolution needed to increase food production for the growing planet. PMID:26859270

  11. Mean EPDs Reported by Different Breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef cattle genetic evaluations result in expected progeny differences (EPDs), which can be used to select animals for growth, productivity, carcass composition, and, most recently, economic value. Breed averages allow producers to compare the genetic value of potential breed stock against their br...

  12. Breeding commercial sugarcane varieties for the industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent literature suggests that sugarcane breeding in the United States has reached a sugar yield plateau. If so, this could have huge implications for the future of the industry and breeding per se because yield improvement might have to be achieved through secondary, non-sugar-related traits, or t...

  13. Mean EPDs reported by different breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef cattle genetic evaluations result in expected progeny differences (EPDs), which can be used to select animals for growth, productivity, carcass composition, and, most recently, economic value. Breed averages allow producers to compare the genetic value of potential breeding stock against their...

  14. Breeding potato at the diploid level

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In most regions of the world, potato cultivars are tetraploid. However, complexities due to tetraploid genetics have slowed breeding progress and limited the implementation of breeding strategies commonly used in other major crops. We are developing diploid genetics resources, including partially in...

  15. Mean EPDs reported by different breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef cattle genetic evaluations result in expected progeny differences (EPDs), which can be used to select animals for growth, productivity, carcass composition, and, most recently, economic value. Breed averages allow producers to compare the genetic value of potential breeding stock against their ...

  16. Genetic Evaluations for Mixed-Breed Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An all-breed animal model was developed for routine genetic evaluations of US dairy cattle. Data sets from individual breeds were combined, and records from crossbred cows were included. About 1% of recent cows were first generation crossbreds. Numbers of cows with records since 1960 ranged from 10 ...

  17. Breeding broccoli adapted to high temperature environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A breeding program to select broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. Italica Group) for adaptation to summer environments has been conducted at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory (USVL) in Charleston, South Carolina, for almost two decades. This effort provides a case study of a concerted effort to breed polygen...

  18. A new lithium salt with dihydroxybenzene and lithium tetrafluoroborate for lithium battery electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Zhao-Ming; Sun, Bin-Bin; Zhou, Wei; Chen, Chun-Hua

    2011-10-01

    A new unsymmetrical lithium salt containing F-, C6H4O22- [dianion of 1,2-benzenediol], lithium difluoro(1,2-benzene-diolato(2-)-o,o‧)borate (LDFBDB) is synthesized and characterized. Its thermal decomposition in nitrogen begins at 170 °C. The cyclic voltammetry study shows that the LDFBDB solution in propylene carbonate (PC) is stable up to 3.7 V versus Li+/Li. It is soluble in common organic solvents. The ionic dissociation properties of LDFBDB are examined by conductivity measurements in PC, PC+ ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), PC + dimethyl ether (DME), PC + ethylene carbonate (EC) + EMC solutions. The conductivity values of the 0.564 mol dm-3 LDFBDB electrolyte in PC + DME solution is 3.90 mS cm-1. All these properties of the new lithium salt including the thermal characteristics, electrochemical stabilities, solubilities, ionic dissociation properties are studied and compared with those of its derivatives, lithium difluoro(3-fluoro-1,2-benzene-diolato(2-)-o,o‧)borate (FLDFBDB), lithium [3-fluoro-1,2-benzenediolato(2-)-o,o‧ oxalato]borate (FLBDOB), and lithium bis(oxalate)borate (LBOB).

  19. Tetraethyl lead

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Tetraethyl lead ; CASRN 78 - 00 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  20. Lithium suppresses Aβ pathology by inhibiting translation in an adult Drosophila model of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Sofola-Adesakin, Oyinkan; Castillo-Quan, Jorge I.; Rallis, Charalampos; Tain, Luke S.; Bjedov, Ivana; Rogers, Iain; Li, Li; Martinez, Pedro; Khericha, Mobina; Cabecinha, Melissa; Bähler, Jürg; Partridge, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is age, and changes in the ageing nervous system are likely contributors to AD pathology. Amyloid beta (Aβ) accumulation, which occurs as a result of the amyloidogenic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP), is thought to initiate the pathogenesis of AD, eventually leading to neuronal cell death. Previously, we developed an adult-onset Drosophila model of AD. Mutant Aβ42 accumulation led to increased mortality and neuronal dysfunction in the adult flies. Furthermore, we showed that lithium reduced Aβ42 protein, but not mRNA, and was able to rescue Aβ42-induced toxicity. In the current study, we investigated the mechanism/s by which lithium modulates Aβ42 protein levels and Aβ42 induced toxicity in the fly model. We found that lithium caused a reduction in protein synthesis in Drosophila and hence the level of Aβ42. At both the low and high doses tested, lithium rescued the locomotory defects induced by Aβ42, but it rescued lifespan only at lower doses, suggesting that long-term, high-dose lithium treatment may have induced toxicity. Lithium also down-regulated translation in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe associated with increased chronological lifespan. Our data highlight a role for lithium and reduced protein synthesis as potential therapeutic targets for AD pathogenesis. PMID:25126078

  1. Protective lithium ion conducting ceramic coating for lithium metal anodes and associate method

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John B.

    1994-01-01

    A battery structure including a cathode, a lithium metal anode and an electrolyte disposed between the lithium anode and the cathode utilizes a thin-film layer of lithium phosphorus oxynitride overlying so as to coat the lithium anode and thereby separate the lithium anode from the electrolyte. If desired, a preliminary layer of lithium nitride may be coated upon the lithium anode before the lithium phosphorous oxynitride is, in turn, coated upon the lithium anode so that the separation of the anode and the electrolyte is further enhanced. By coating the lithium anode with this material lay-up, the life of the battery is lengthened and the performance of the battery is enhanced.

  2. High performance discharges in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment with liquid lithium walls

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, J. C.; Bell, R. E.; Boyle, D. P.; Esposti, B.; Kaita, R.; Kozub, T.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lucia, M.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Merino, E.; Punjabi-Vinoth, S.; Tchilingurian, G.; Capece, A.; Koel, B.; Roszell, J.; Biewer, T. M.; Gray, T. K.; Kubota, S.; Beiersdorfer, P.; and others

    2015-05-15

    The first-ever successful operation of a tokamak with a large area (40% of the total plasma surface area) liquid lithium wall has been achieved in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX). These results were obtained with a new, electron beam-based lithium evaporation system, which can deposit a lithium coating on the limiting wall of LTX in a five-minute period. Preliminary analyses of diamagnetic and other data for discharges operated with a liquid lithium wall indicate that confinement times increased by 10× compared to discharges with helium-dispersed solid lithium coatings. Ohmic energy confinement times with fresh lithium walls, solid and liquid, exceed several relevant empirical scaling expressions. Spectroscopic analysis of the discharges indicates that oxygen levels in the discharges limited on liquid lithium walls were significantly reduced compared to discharges limited on solid lithium walls. Tokamak operations with a full liquid lithium wall (85% of the total plasma surface area) have recently started.

  3. Non-aqueous electrolytes for lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Bakos, V.W.; Steklenski, D.J.

    1989-02-14

    An electrochemical cell is described comprising a lithium anode, a cathode and an electrolyte having a conductivity, and reciprocal ohms per cm, of at least 3.5 in, comprising a lithium salt, propylene carbonate and 1,2-dimethoxypropane.

  4. Michael Thackeray on Lithium-air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Thackeray, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Michael Thackeray, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  5. Michael Thackeray on Lithium-air Batteries

    ScienceCinema

    Thackeray, Michael

    2013-04-19

    Michael Thackeray, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  6. Khalil Amine on Lithium-air Batteries

    ScienceCinema

    Khalil Amine

    2010-01-08

    Khalil Amine, materials scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  7. Khalil Amine on Lithium-air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil Amine

    2009-09-14

    Khalil Amine, materials scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  8. Neutron dosimetry for the Lithium-Blanket-Module program

    SciTech Connect

    Harker, Y.D.; Tsang, F.Y.; Caffrey, A.J.; Homeyer, W.G.; Engholm, B.A.; Schultz, E.K.

    1982-01-01

    The Lithium Blanket Module (LBM) program is a first-of-a-kind neutronics experiment involving a prototypical fusion reactor blanket module with a distributed neutron source from the plasma of the Tokamak fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The objectives of the LBM program are: (1) to test the capabilities of neutron transport codes when applied to prototypical fusion reactor blanket conditions, and (2) to obtain tritium breeding and power production performance data on a typical design concept of a fusion-reactor blanket. This paper addresses the issues relative to the measurement of neutron fields in the LBM, presents the results of preliminary design studies concerning neutron measurements and also presents the results of blanket mockup experiments performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory.

  9. Neutron dosimetry for the TFTR Lithium-Blanket-Module program

    SciTech Connect

    Harker, Y.D.; Tsang, F.Y.; Caffrey, A.J.; Homeyer, W.G.; Engholm, B.A.

    1981-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Lithium Blanket Module (LBM) program is a first-of-a-kind neutronics experiment involving a prototypical fusion reactor blanket module with a distributed neutron source from the plasma of the TFTR at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The objectives of the LBM program are: (1) to test the capabilities of neutron transport codes when applied to fusion test reactor blanket conditions, and (2) to obtain tritium breeding performance data on a typical design concept of a fusion-reactor blanket. This paper addresses the issues relative to the measurement of neutron fields in the LBM, presents the results of preliminary design studies concerning neutron measurements and also presents the results of blanket mockup experiments performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL).

  10. Neutronic design for the TFTR lithium blanket module

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, E.T.; Engholm, B.A.; Su, S.D.

    1981-01-01

    The preliminary design of a lithium blanket module (LBM) to be installed and tested in the TFTR has been performed under subcontract to PPPL and EPRI. The objectives of the LBM program are calculation and measurement of neutron fluences and tritium production in a breeding blanket module using state of art techniques, comparison of calculations with measurements, and acquisition of operational experience with a fusion reactor blanket module. The neutronic design of the LBM is one of the key areas of this program in which the LBM composition and geometry are optimized and the boundary material effects on the tritium production in the blanket module are explored. The concept of employing sintered Li/sub 2/O pellets in tubes is proposed for the blanket design.

  11. Multi-layered, chemically bonded lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Nanda, Jagjit; Bischoff, Brian L; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2014-05-13

    Disclosed are multilayer, porous, thin-layered lithium-ion batteries that include an inorganic separator as a thin layer that is chemically bonded to surfaces of positive and negative electrode layers. Thus, in such disclosed lithium-ion batteries, the electrodes and separator are made to form non-discrete (i.e., integral) thin layers. Also disclosed are methods of fabricating integrally connected, thin, multilayer lithium batteries including lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries.

  12. Complete atrioventricular block secondary to lithium therapy.

    PubMed

    Shiraki, Teruo; Kohno, Kunihisa; Saito, Daiji; Takayama, Hiroki; Fujimoto, Akira

    2008-05-01

    Sinus node dysfunction has been reported most frequently among the adverse cardiovascular effects of lithium. In the present case, complete atrioventricular (AV) block with syncopal attacks developed secondary to lithium therapy, necessitating permanent pacemaker implantation. Serum lithium levels remained under or within the therapeutic range during the syncopal attacks. Lithium should be used with extreme caution, especially in patients with mild disturbance of AV conduction. PMID:18441470

  13. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lucht, Brett L

    2014-12-12

    We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have been investigating the thermal stability of novel electrolytes for lithium ion batteries, in particular borate based salts. Second, we have been investigating novel additives to improve the calendar life of lithium ion batteries. Third, we have been investigating the thermal decomposition reactions of electrolytes for lithium-oxygen batteries.

  14. Cardiovascular malformations with lithium use during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, M R; Goldfield, M

    1975-05-01

    The 143 cases of lithium use during pregnancy collected by the Register of Lithium Babies show that infants exposed to lithium appear to have a higher than expected ratio of cardiovascular anomalies to all anomalies and may have an increased risk of congenital heart disease. The authors believe that these findings justify a conservative policy on the use of lithium with fertile and pregnant women. PMID:1119612

  15. Rechargeable lithium battery technology - A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, Gerald; Surampudi, Subbarao

    1990-01-01

    The technology of the rechargeable lithium battery is discussed with special attention given to the types of rechargeable lithium cells and to their expected performance and advantages. Consideration is also given to the organic-electrolyte and polymeric-electrolyte cells and to molten salt lithium cells, as well as to technical issues, such as the cycle life, charge control, rate capability, cell size, and safety. The role of the rechargeable lithium cell in future NASA applications is discussed.

  16. Primary lithium batteries, some consumer considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bro, P.

    1983-01-01

    In order to determine whether larger size lithium batteries would be commercially marketable, the performance of several D size lithium batteries was compared with that of an equivalent alkaline manganese battery, and the relative costs of the different systems were compared. It is concluded that opportunities exist in the consumer market for the larger sizes of the low rate and moderate rate lithium batteries, and that the high rate lithium batteries need further improvements before they can be recommended for consumer applications.

  17. Nanocarbon networks for advanced rechargeable lithium batteries.

    PubMed

    Xin, Sen; Guo, Yu-Guo; Wan, Li-Jun

    2012-10-16

    Carbon is one of the essential elements in energy storage. In rechargeable lithium batteries, researchers have considered many types of nanostructured carbons, such as carbon nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and nanoporous carbon, as anode materials and, especially, as key components for building advanced composite electrode materials. Nanocarbons can form efficient three-dimensional conducting networks that improve the performance of electrode materials suffering from the limited kinetics of lithium storage. Although the porous structure guarantees a fast migration of Li ions, the nanocarbon network can serve as an effective matrix for dispersing the active materials to prevent them from agglomerating. The nanocarbon network also affords an efficient electron pathway to provide better electrical contacts. Because of their structural stability and flexibility, nanocarbon networks can alleviate the stress and volume changes that occur in active materials during the Li insertion/extraction process. Through the elegant design of hierarchical electrode materials with nanocarbon networks, researchers can improve both the kinetic performance and the structural stability of the electrode material, which leads to optimal battery capacity, cycling stability, and rate capability. This Account summarizes recent progress in the structural design, chemical synthesis, and characterization of the electrochemical properties of nanocarbon networks for Li-ion batteries. In such systems, storage occurs primarily in the non-carbon components, while carbon acts as the conductor and as the structural buffer. We emphasize representative nanocarbon networks including those that use carbon nanotubes and graphene. We discuss the role of carbon in enhancing the performance of various electrode materials in areas such as Li storage, Li ion and electron transport, and structural stability during cycling. We especially highlight the use of graphene to construct the carbon conducting

  18. Open cycle lithium chloride cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, T. G.; Loef, G. O. G.; Iyer, R.; Wenger, J.

    1983-05-01

    A lithium chloride open cycle absorption chiller has been designed, built and tested. Solution reconcentration takes place in a small counter current packed column supplied with solar heated air. Removal of noncondensable gases that enter the chiller dissolved in the strong solution and the make-up refrigerant streams is accomplished by a liquid-jet ejector and a small vacuum pump. Cooling capacities approaching 1.4 tons and COP levels of 0.58 have been achieved at non-optimum operating conditions. Test results from preliminary system operation suggest that mass transfer processes in both the packed column reconcentrator and the absorber are controlled by concentration gradients in the lithium chloride solution. Liquid phase controlled mass transfer dictates an operating strategy different from the previously assumed gas phase controlled process to obtain maximum rates of evaporation in the packed column. Determination of optimal operating conditions leading to decreased electrical power consumption and improved cooling capacity and coefficient of performance will require further analysis and testing.

  19. Inherent safety of minimum-burnup breed and burn reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Qvist, S.; Reenspan, E.

    2012-07-01

    Reactors that aim to sustain the breed and burn (B and B) mode of operation at minimum discharge burnup require excellent neutron economy, Minimum-burnup B and B cores are generally large and feature low neutron leakage probability and a hard neutron spectrum. While highly promising fuel cycles can be achieved with such designs, the very same features are pushing the limits of the core's ability to passively respond safely to unprotected accidents. Low leakage minimum-burnup sodium-cooled B and B cores have a large positive coolant void-worth and coolant temperature reactivity coefficient. In this study, the applicability of major approaches for fast reactor void-worth reduction is evaluated specifically for B and B cores. The design, shuffling scheme and performance of a new metallic-fueled, sodium-cooled minimum burnup B and B core, used as basis for the void-worth reduction analysis, is presented. The analysis shows that reactivity control systems based on passive {sup 6}Li injection during temperature excursions are the only option able to provide negative void-worth without significantly increasing the minimum burnup required for sustaining the B and B mode of operation. A new type of lithium expansion module (LEM) system was developed specifically for B and B cores and its effect on core performance is presented. (authors)

  20. Aplastic anemia associated with lithium therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, M. Z.; Khan, A. G.; Chaudhry, Z. A.

    1973-01-01

    A case is reported of fatal aplastic anemia developing in a 50-year-old woman who received lithium carbonate in the generally accepted dosage for a manic-depressive disorder. The serum lithium had been determined at regular intervals and never exceeded what is considered a safe level. Patients for whom lithium is prescribed should have periodic hematologic examinations. PMID:4691107

  1. Solid composite electrolytes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Kumar, Binod; Scanlon, Jr., Lawrence G.

    2000-01-01

    Solid composite electrolytes are provided for use in lithium batteries which exhibit moderate to high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and low activation energies. In one embodiment, a ceramic-ceramic composite electrolyte is provided containing lithium nitride and lithium phosphate. The ceramic-ceramic composite is also preferably annealed and exhibits an activation energy of about 0.1 eV.

  2. Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Meduri, Praveen; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2014-12-30

    An anode material for lithium-ion batteries is provided that comprises an elongated core structure capable of forming an alloy with lithium; and a plurality of nanostructures placed on a surface of the core structure, with each nanostructure being capable of forming an alloy with lithium and spaced at a predetermined distance from adjacent nanostructures.

  3. Army position on lithium battery safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiss, E.

    1982-01-01

    User requirements for lithium sulfur batteries are presented. They include careful analysis of design and quality control, along with certain equipment specifications. Some of the specifications include: hermetically sealed cells; lithium limited cells with stoichiometry of lithium to sulfur dioxide as a ratio of one; low moisture content in the cells; and battery capacity.

  4. NASA/Marshall's lithium battery applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paschal, L. E.

    1980-01-01

    A general lithium battery is described and a summary of lithium battery applications is presented. Four aspects of a particular lithium battery, the inducement environmental contamination monitoring battery, are discussed-design and construction details, thermal vacuum tests, projection tests, and acceptance tests.

  5. Magnetism in lithium-oxygen discharge product.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Jung, Hun-Ji; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Schlueter, John A; Du, Peng; Assary, Rajeev S; Greeley, Jeffrey; Ferguson, Glen A; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Hassoun, Jusef; Iddir, Hakim; Zhou, Jigang; Zuin, Lucia; Hu, Yongfeng; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Curtiss, Larry A; Amine, Kahlil

    2013-07-01

    Nonaqueous lithium-oxygen batteries have a much superior theoretical gravimetric energy density compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries, and thus could render long-range electric vehicles a reality. A molecular-level understanding of the reversible formation of lithium peroxide in these batteries, the properties of major/minor discharge products, and the stability of the nonaqueous electrolytes is required to achieve successful lithium-oxygen batteries. We demonstrate that the major discharge product formed in the lithium-oxygen cell, lithium peroxide, exhibits a magnetic moment. These results are based on dc-magnetization measurements and a lithium-oxygen cell containing an ether-based electrolyte. The results are unexpected because bulk lithium peroxide has a significant band gap. Density functional calculations predict that superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with unpaired electrons exist on stoichiometric lithium peroxide crystalline surfaces and on nanoparticle surfaces; these computational results are consistent with the magnetic measurement of the discharged lithium peroxide product as well as EPR measurements on commercial lithium peroxide. The presence of superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with spin can play a role in the reversible formation and decomposition of lithium peroxide as well as the reversible formation and decomposition of electrolyte molecules. PMID:23670967

  6. Conductive lithium storage electrode

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Chung, Sung-Yoon; Bloking, Jason T.; Andersson, Anna M.

    2008-03-18

    A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z(A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).s- ub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001lithium phosphate that can intercalate lithium or hydrogen. The compound can be used in an electrochemical device including electrodes and storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

  7. Conductive lithium storage electrode

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Chung, Sung-Yoon; Bloking, Jason T.; Andersson, Anna M.

    2012-04-03

    A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001lithium phosphate that can intercalate lithium or hydrogen. The compound can be used in an electrochemical device including electrodes and storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

  8. Strong lithium polysulfide chemisorption on electroactive sites of nitrogen-doped carbon composites for high-performance lithium-sulfur battery cathodes.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiangxuan; Gordin, Mikhail L; Xu, Terrence; Chen, Shuru; Yu, Zhaoxin; Sohn, Hiesang; Lu, Jun; Ren, Yang; Duan, Yuhua; Wang, Donghai

    2015-03-27

    Despite the high theoretical capacity of lithium-sulfur batteries, their practical applications are severely hindered by a fast capacity decay, stemming from the dissolution and diffusion of lithium polysulfides in the electrolyte. A novel functional carbon composite (carbon-nanotube-interpenetrated mesoporous nitrogen-doped carbon spheres, MNCS/CNT), which can strongly adsorb lithium polysulfides, is now reported to act as a sulfur host. The nitrogen functional groups of this composite enable the effective trapping of lithium polysulfides on electroactive sites within the cathode, leading to a much improved electrochemical performance (1200 mAh g(-1) after 200 cycles). The enhancement in adsorption can be attributed to the chemical bonding of lithium ions by nitrogen functional groups in the MNCS/CNT framework. Furthermore, the micrometer-sized spherical structure of the material yields a high areal capacity (ca. 6 mAh cm(-2)) with a high sulfur loading of approximately 5 mg cm(-2), which is ideal for practical applications of the lithium-sulfur batteries. PMID:25663183

  9. The lithium vapor box divertor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldston, R. J.; Myers, R.; Schwartz, J.

    2016-02-01

    It has long been recognized that volumetric dissipation of the plasma heat flux from a fusion power system is preferable to its localized impingement on a material surface. Volumetric dissipation mitigates both the anticipated very high heat flux and intense particle-induced damage due to sputtering. Recent projections to a tokamak demonstration power plant suggest an immense upstream parallel heat flux, of order 20 GW m-2, implying that fully detached operation may be a requirement for the success of fusion power. Building on pioneering work on the use of lithium by Nagayama et al and by Ono et al as well as earlier work on the gas box divertor by Watkins and Rebut, we present here a concept for a lithium vapor box divertor, in which lithium vapor extracts momentum and energy from a fusion-power-plant divertor plasma, using fully volumetric processes. At the high powers and pressures that are projected this requires a high density of lithium vapor, which must be isolated from the main plasma in order to avoid lithium build-up on the chamber walls or in the plasma. Isolation is achieved through a powerful multi-box differential pumping scheme available only for condensable vapors. The preliminary box-wise calculations are encouraging, but much more work is required to demonstrate the practical viability of this scheme, taking into account at least 2D plasma and vapor flows within and between the vapor boxes and out of the vapor boxes to the main plasma.

  10. Iberian origins of New World horse breeds.

    PubMed

    Luís, Cristina; Bastos-Silveira, Cristiane; Cothran, E Gus; Oom, Maria do Mar

    2006-01-01

    Fossil records, archaeological proofs, and historical documents report that horses persisted continuously in the Iberian Peninsula since the Pleistocene and were taken to the American continent (New World) in the 15th century. To investigate the variation within the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of Iberian and New World horse breeds, to analyze their relationships, and to test the historical origin of New World horses, a total of 153 samples, representing 30 Iberian and New World breeds, were analyzed by sequencing mtDNA control region fragments. Fifty-four haplotypes were found and assigned to seven haplogroups. Reduced levels of variation found for the Menorquina, Sorraia, and Sulphur Mustang breeds are consistent with experienced bottlenecks or limited number of founders. For all diversity indices, Iberian breeds showed higher diversity values than South American and North American breeds. Although, the results show that the Iberian and New World breeds stem from multiple origins, we present a set of genetic data revealing a high frequency of Iberian haplotypes in New World breeds, which is consistent with historical documentation. PMID:16489143

  11. Synergetic interactions improve cobalt leaching from lithium cobalt oxide in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liping; Li, Tianchi; Liu, Chuan; Quan, Xie; Chen, Lijie; Wang, Aijie; Chen, Guohua

    2013-01-01

    Cobalt leaching from lithium cobalt oxide is a promising reduction process for recovery of cobalt and recycle of spent lithium ion batteries, but suffers from consumption of large amount of reductants and energy, and generation of excess secondary polluted sludge. Thus, effective and environmental friendly processes are needed to improve the existing process limitations. Here we reported microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to effectively reduce Co(III) in lithium cobalt oxide with concomitant energy generation. There was a synergetic interaction in MFCs, leading to a more rapid Co(III) leaching at a rate 3.4 times the sum of rates by conventional chemical processes and no-acid controls. External resistor, solid/liquid ratio, solution conductivity, pH and temperature affected system performance. This study provides a new process for recovery of cobalt and recycle of spent lithium ion batteries with concomitant energy generation from MFCs. PMID:23211478

  12. Novel intercore-cladding lithium niobate thin film coated MOEMS fiber sensor/modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamlson, Tracee L.; Konreich, Phillip; Yu, Chung

    2005-01-01

    A MOEMS fiber modulator/sensor is fabricated by depositing a lithium niobate sol-gel thin film between the core and cladding of a fiber preform. The preform is then drawn into 125-micron fibers. Such a MOEMS modulator design is expected to enhance existing lithium niobate undersea acousto-optic sound wave detectors. In our proposed version, the lithium niobate thin film alters the ordinary silica core/cladding boundary conditions such that, when a stress or strain is applied to the fiber, the core light confinement factor changes, leading to modulation of fiber light transmission. Test results of the lithium niobate embedded fiber with a 1550-nm, 4-mW laser source revealed a reduction in light transmission with applied tension. As a comparison, using the same laser source, an ordinary silica core/cladding fiber did not exhibit any reduction in transmitted light when the same strain was applied. Further experimental work and theoretical analysis is ongoing.

  13. Inexpensive method for producing macroporous silicon particulates (MPSPs) with pyrolyzed polyacrylonitrile for lithium ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Madhuri; Sinsabaugh, Steven L.; Isaacson, Mark J.; Wong, Michael S.; Biswal, Sibani Lisa

    2012-01-01

    One of the most exciting areas in lithium ion batteries is engineering structured silicon anodes. These new materials promise to lead the next generation of batteries with significantly higher reversible charge capacity than current technologies. One drawback of these materials is that their production involves costly processing steps, limiting their application in commercial lithium ion batteries. In this report we present an inexpensive method for synthesizing macroporous silicon particulates (MPSPs). After being mixed with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and pyrolyzed, MPSPs can alloy with lithium, resulting in capacities of 1000 mAhg−1 for over 600+ cycles. These sponge-like MPSPs with pyrolyzed PAN (PPAN) can accommodate the large volume expansion associated with silicon lithiation. This performance combined with low cost processing yields a competitive anode material that will have an immediate and direct application in lithium ion batteries. PMID:23139860

  14. A strategic approach to recharging lithium-sulphur batteries for long cycle life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yu-Sheng; Fu, Yongzhu; Cochell, Thomas; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2013-12-01

    The success of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries has brought indisputable convenience to human society for the past two decades. However, unlike commercialized intercalation cathodes, high-energy-density sulphur cathodes are still in the stage of research because of the unsatisfactory capacity retention and long-term cyclability. The capacity degradation over extended cycles originates from the soluble polysulphides gradually diffusing out of the cathode region. Here we report an applicable way to recharge lithium-sulphur cells by a simple charge operation control that offers tremendous improvement with various lithium-sulphur battery systems. Adjusting the charging condition leads to long cycle life (over 500 cycles) with excellent capacity retention (>99%) by inhibiting electrochemical reactions along with severe polysulphide dissolution. This charging strategy and understanding of the reactions in different discharge steps will advance progress in the development of lithium-sulphur batteries.

  15. Molecular structure in peripheral dog breeds: Portuguese native breeds as a case study.

    PubMed

    Pires, A E; Amorim, I R; Ginja, C; Gomes, M; Godinho, I; Simões, F; Oom, M; Petrucci-Fonseca, F; Matos, J; Bruford, M W

    2009-08-01

    Genetic variability in purebred dogs is known to be highly structured, with differences among breeds accounting for approximately 30% of the genetic variation. However, analysis of the genetic structure in non-cosmopolitan breeds and local populations is still limited. Nine Portuguese native dog breeds, and other peripheral dog populations (five) with regional affinities, were characterized using 16 microsatellites and 225 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, and the pattern of genetic differentiation was investigated. Although the level of breed differentiation detected is below that of other dog breeds, there is in most cases a correlation between breed affiliation and molecular structure. AFLP markers and Bayesian clustering methods allowed an average of 73.1% of individuals to be correctly assigned to source populations, providing robust genotypic assessment of breed affiliation. A geographical genetic structure was also detected, which suggests a limited influence of African dogs on the Iberian breeds. The sampling effect on the estimation of population structure was evaluated and there was a 2.2% decrease in genetic differentiation among breeds when working animals were included. Genetic diversity of stray dogs was also assessed and there is no evidence that they pose a threat to the preservation of the gene pool of native dog breeds. PMID:19298456

  16. Status of the Space-Rated Lithium-Ion Battery Advanced Development Project in Support of the Exploration Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), along with the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Johnson Space Center (JSC), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and industry partners, is leading a space-rated lithium-ion advanced development battery effort to support the vision for Exploration. This effort addresses the lithium-ion battery portion of the Energy Storage Project under the Exploration Technology Development Program. Key discussions focus on the lithium-ion cell component development activities, a common lithium-ion battery module, test and demonstration of charge/discharge cycle life performance and safety characterization. A review of the space-rated lithium-ion battery project will be presented highlighting the technical accomplishments during the past year.

  17. Functional Organosulfide Electrolyte Promotes an Alternate Reaction Pathway to Achieve High Performance in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuru; Dai, Fang; Gordin, Mikhail L; Yu, Zhaoxin; Gao, Yue; Song, Jiangxuan; Wang, Donghai

    2016-03-18

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have recently received great attention because they promise to provide energy density far beyond current lithium ion batteries. Typically, Li-S batteries operate by conversion of sulfur to reversibly form different soluble lithium polysulfide intermediates and insoluble lithium sulfides through multistep redox reactions. Herein, we report a functional electrolyte system incorporating dimethyl disulfide as a co-solvent that enables a new electrochemical reduction pathway for sulfur cathodes. This pathway uses soluble dimethyl polysulfides and lithium organosulfides as intermediates and products, which can boost cell capacity and lead to improved discharge-charge reversibility and cycling performance of sulfur cathodes. This electrolyte system can potentially enable Li-S batteries to achieve high energy density. PMID:26918660

  18. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kim, Jaekook

    2006-11-14

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2M'O.sub.3 in which 0

  19. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kim, Jaekook

    2004-01-13

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2 M'O.sub.3 in which 0

  20. Breeding season survival and breeding incidence of female Mottled Ducks on the upper Texas gulf coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rigby, Elizabeth A.; Haukos, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Previous Mottled Duck (Anas fulvigula) studies suggested that high female breeding season survival may be caused by low nesting effort, but few breeding season estimates of survival associated with nesting effort exist on the western Gulf Coast. Here, breeding season survival (N = 40) and breeding incidence (N = 39) were estimated for female Mottled Ducks on the upper Texas coast, 2006–2008. Females were fitted with backpack radio transmitters and visually relocated every 3–4 days. Weekly survival was estimated using the Known Fate procedure of program MARK with breeding incidence estimated as the annual proportion of females observed nesting or with broods. The top-ranked survival model included a body mass covariate and held weekly female survival constant across weeks and years (SW = 0.986, SE = 0.006). When compared to survival across the entire year estimated from previous band recovery and age ratio analysis, survival rate during the breeding season did not differ. Breeding incidence was well below 100% in all years and highly variable among years (15%–63%). Breeding season survival and breeding incidence were similar to estimates obtained with implant transmitters from the mid-coast of Texas. The greatest breeding incidence for both studies occurred when drought indices indicated average environmental moisture during the breeding season. The observed combination of low breeding incidence and high breeding season survival support the hypothesis of a trade-off between the ecological cost of nesting effort and survival for Mottled Duck females. Habitat cues that trigger nesting are unknown and should be investigated.

  1. Breeding behavior of immature mourning doves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irby, H.D.; Blankenship, L.H.

    1966-01-01

    Some immature mourning doves (Zenaidura mncroura) are capable of breeding in their first (calendar) year of life. The breeding activities of immatures observed in this study included calling, copulating, and nesting. Development of sexual structures such as cloacal papillae, oviduct openings, and gonads was also regarded as evidence of breeding potential. Immatures were identified principally by white-tipped wing coverts. Sexes were distinguished by behavioral characteristics. Males coo, perform flights, carry nest material, and attend nests during the day and females attend nests at night. Immatures were involved in at least ten nestings on two areas near Tucson, Arizona, in 1963. Five young fledged from these nests.

  2. First charge breeding results at CARIBU EBIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondrashev, S.; Barcikowski, A.; Dickerson, C.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Sharamentov, S.; Vondrasek, R.; Pikin, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) developed to breed CARIBU radioactive beams at ATLAS is currently in the off-line commissioning stage. The beam commissioning is being performed using a low emittance surface ionization source producing singly-charged cesium ions. The primary goal of the off-line commissioning is the demonstration of high-efficiency charge breeding in the pulsed injection mode. An overview of the final design of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder, the off-line commissioning installation and the first results on charge breeding of stable cesium ions are presented and discussed.

  3. First charge breeding results at CARIBU EBIS

    SciTech Connect

    Kondrashev, S. Barcikowski, A. Dickerson, C. Ostroumov, P. N. Sharamentov, S. Vondrasek, R.; Pikin, A.

    2015-01-09

    The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) developed to breed CARIBU radioactive beams at ATLAS is currently in the off-line commissioning stage. The beam commissioning is being performed using a low emittance surface ionization source producing singly-charged cesium ions. The primary goal of the off-line commissioning is the demonstration of high-efficiency charge breeding in the pulsed injection mode. An overview of the final design of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder, the off-line commissioning installation and the first results on charge breeding of stable cesium ions are presented and discussed.

  4. Apparatus and methods for purifying lead

    DOEpatents

    Tunison, Harmon M.

    2016-01-12

    Disclosed is an exemplary method of purifying lead which includes the steps of placing lead and a fluoride salt blend in a container; forming a first fluid of molten lead at a first temperature; forming a second fluid of the molten fluoride salt blend at a second temperature higher than the first temperature; mixing the first fluid and the second fluid together; separating the two fluids; solidifying the molten fluoride salt blend at a temperature above a melting point of the lead; and removing the molten lead from the container. In certain exemplary methods the molten lead is removed from the container by decanting. In still other exemplary methods the molten salt blend is a Lewis base fluoride eutectic salt blend, and in yet other exemplary methods the molten salt blend contains sodium fluoride, lithium fluoride, and potassium fluoride.

  5. Lithium-6 foil neutron detector

    SciTech Connect

    Young, C.A.

    1982-12-21

    A neutron detection apparatus is provided which includes a selected number of flat surfaces of lithium-6 foil, and which further includes a gas mixture in contact with each of the flat surfaces for selectively reacting to charged particles emitted by or radiated from the lithium foil. A container is provided to seal the lithium foil and the gas mixture in a volume from which water vapor and atmospheric gases are excluded, the container having one or more walls which are transmissive to neutrons. Monitoring equipment in contact with the gas mixture detects reactions taking place in the gas mixture, and, in response to such reactions, provides notice of the flux of neutrons passing through the volume of the detector.

  6. Lithium ion rechargeable systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, S.C.; Lasasse, R.R.; Cygan, R.T.; Voigt, J.A.

    1995-02-01

    Lithium ion systems, although relatively new, have attracted much interest worldwide. Their high energy density, long cycle life and relative safety, compared with metallic lithium rechargeable systems, make them prime candidates for powering portable electronic equipment. Although lithium ion cells are presently used in a few consumer devices, e.g., portable phones, camcorders, and laptop computers, there is room for considerable improvement in their performance. Specific areas that need to be addressed include: (1) carbon anode--increase reversible capacity, and minimize passivation; (2) cathode--extend cycle life, improve rate capability, and increase capacity. There are several programs ongoing at Sandia National Laboratories which are investigating means of achieving the stated objectives in these specific areas. This paper will review these programs.

  7. Nanomaterials for rechargeable lithium batteries.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Peter G; Scrosati, Bruno; Tarascon, Jean-Marie

    2008-01-01

    Energy storage is more important today than at any time in human history. Future generations of rechargeable lithium batteries are required to power portable electronic devices (cellphones, laptop computers etc.), store electricity from renewable sources, and as a vital component in new hybrid electric vehicles. To achieve the increase in energy and power density essential to meet the future challenges of energy storage, new materials chemistry, and especially new nanomaterials chemistry, is essential. We must find ways of synthesizing new nanomaterials with new properties or combinations of properties, for use as electrodes and electrolytes in lithium batteries. Herein we review some of the recent scientific advances in nanomaterials, and especially in nanostructured materials, for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. PMID:18338357

  8. Lithium ion rechargeable systems studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Samuel C.; Lasasse, Robert R.; Cygan, Randall T.; Voigt, James A.

    Lithium ion systems, although relatively new, have attracted much interest worldwide. Their high energy density, long cycle life and relative safety, compared with metallic lithium rechargeable systems, make them prime candidates for powering portable electronic equipment. Although lithium ion cells are presently used in a few consumer devices, e.g., portable phones, camcorders, and laptop computers, there is room for considerable improvement in their performance. Specific areas that need to be addressed include: (1) carbon anode-increase reversible capacity, and minimize passivation; (2) cathode-extend cycle life, improve rate capability, and increase capacity. There are several programs ongoing at Sandia National Laboratories which are investigating means of achieving the stated objectives in these specific areas. This paper will review these programs.

  9. Breeding bald eagles in captivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maestrelli, J.R.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.

    1975-01-01

    A 7-year-old female Bald Eagle from Alabama was paired with a 4-year-old Alaskan male in a large flight pen during December 1969. Both birds were free of physical defects when originally placed in the pen but the female was blind in one eye prior to the 1973 breeding season.....Nesting first occurred during 1971 when at least two eggs were laid; all but one, which showed no sign of embryonic development after being incubated for 56 days, were broken by the adult birds. Two of three eggs laid in 1972 hatched. Both young died a few days after hatching following a period of inclement weather. Three eggs were laid and hatched during 1973. Antagonism between the nestlings was observed soon after hatching and may have been responsible for the unobserved death of one nestling, two days after the third young hatched. The two remaining young were raised by the adult birds and eventually left the nest 85 days after the first egg hatched. Incubation periods for the 1972-73 clutches averaged 35 days. No renesting attempts were made by the eagles during the 3.year period.

  10. Thin-film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Dudney, N. J.; Bates, J. B.; Lubben, D.

    1995-06-01

    Thin film rechargeable lithium batteries using ceramic electrolyte and cathode materials have been fabricated by physical deposition techniques. The lithium phosphorous oxynitride electrolyte has exceptional electrochemical stability and a good lithium conductivity. The lithium insertion reaction of several different intercalation materials, amorphous V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, amorphous LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and crystalline LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} films, have been investigated using the completed cathode/electrolyte/lithium thin film battery.

  11. Phthalocyanine cathode materials for secondary lithium cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tamaki, J.; Yamaji, A.

    1982-01-01

    Discharge and charge characteristics of various phthalocyanine cathodes coupled with lithium metal are studied. The best capacity based only on cathode active material weight is 1440 A-hr/kg in the lithium/iron phthalocyanine system, and the cycle life of the lithium/Cu phthalocyanine system is more than 100 times at the discharge depth of 157 A-hr/kg. The cathode reaction mechanism is supposed to be lithium intercalation between phthalocyanine molecules. The results indicate that these phthalocyanines are promising cathode active materials for lithium secondary batteries.

  12. Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Dudney, N.J.; Bates, J.B.; Lubben, D.

    1995-06-01

    Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries using ceramic electrolyte and cathode materials have been fabricated by physical deposition techniques. The lithium phosphorous oxynitride electrolyte has exceptional electrochemical stability and a good lithium conductivity. The lithium insertion reaction of several different intercalation materials, amorphous V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, amorphous LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and crystalline LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} films, have been investigated using the completed cathode/electrolyte/lithium thin-film battery.

  13. Spatial periphery of lithium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Galanina, L. I. Zelenskaja, N. S.

    2013-12-15

    The spatial structure of lithium isotopes is studied with the aid of the charge-exchange and (t, p) reactions on lithium nuclei. It is shown that an excited isobaric-analog state of {sup 6}Li (0{sup +}, 3.56MeV) has a halo structure formed by a proton and a neutron, that, in the {sup 9}Li nucleus, there is virtually no neutron halo, and that {sup 11}Li is a Borromean nucleus formed by a {sup 9}Li core and a two-neutron halo manifesting itself in cigar-like and dineutron configurations.

  14. Lithium synthesis in microquasar accretion.

    PubMed

    Iocco, Fabio; Pato, Miguel

    2012-07-13

    We study the synthesis of lithium isotopes in the hot tori formed around stellar mass black holes by accretion of the companion star. We find that sizable amounts of both stable isotopes 6Li and 7Li can be produced, the exact figures varying with the characteristics of the torus and reaching as much as 10(-2) M⊙ for each isotope. This mass output is enough to contaminate the entire Galaxy at a level comparable with the original, pregalactic amount of lithium and to overcome other sources such as cosmic-ray spallation or stellar nucleosynthesis. PMID:23030150

  15. Problem of the lithium peroxide thermal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nefedov, R. A.; Ferapontov, Yu A.; Kozlova, N. P.

    2016-01-01

    The behavior of lithium peroxide and lithium peroxide monohydrate samples under heating in atmospheric air was studied by the method of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). It was found that in the temperature range of 32°C to 82°C the interaction of lithium peroxides and steam with the formation of lithium peroxide monohydrate occurs, which was confirmed chemically and by X-ray Single-qualitative analysis. It was experimentally found that lithium peroxide starts to decompose into the lithium oxide and oxygen in the temperature range of 340 ÷ 348°C. It was established that the resulting thermal decomposition of lithium oxide, lithium peroxide at the temperature of 422°C melts with lithium carbonate eutecticly. The manifestation of polymorphism was not marked(seen or noticed) under the heating of studied samples of lithium peroxide and lithium peroxide monohydrate in the temperature range of 25°C ÷ 34°C.

  16. Solid solution lithium alloy cermet anodes

    DOEpatents

    Richardson, Thomas J.

    2013-07-09

    A metal-ceramic composite ("cermet") has been produced by a chemical reaction between a lithium compound and another metal. The cermet has advantageous physical properties, high surface area relative to lithium metal or its alloys, and is easily formed into a desired shape. An example is the formation of a lithium-magnesium nitride cermet by reaction of lithium nitride with magnesium. The reaction results in magnesium nitride grains coated with a layer of lithium. The nitride is inert when used in a battery. It supports the metal in a high surface area form, while stabilizing the electrode with respect to dendrite formation. By using an excess of magnesium metal in the reaction process, a cermet of magnesium nitride is produced, coated with a lithium-magnesium alloy of any desired composition. This alloy inhibits dendrite formation by causing lithium deposited on its surface to diffuse under a chemical potential into the bulk of the alloy.

  17. Lithium Abundance in Planet Search Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myles, Justin; Yale Exoplanets

    2016-01-01

    Since most lithium in the universe is primordial and is destroyed in stars, lithium abundance can be used as a stellar age indicator. Some research seems to show that planet formation may also affect lithium abundance in exoplanet host stars (EHS). However, small and heterogenous samples have made both of these phenomena unclear. Further study of lithium abundance in EHS is needed to better understand possible physical roles of lithium in planet formation theory. We use a large homogenous sample with accurate stellar parameters on which we will use equivalent width analysis to determine precise lithium abundances. From these abundance values we determine an age vs. abundance relation. Additionally, we aim to explore correlation between lithium abundance and planet formation.

  18. Surface protected lithium-metal-oxide electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Kang, Sun-Ho

    2016-04-05

    A lithium-metal-oxide positive electrode having a layered or spinel structure for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell and battery is disclosed comprising electrode particles that are protected at the surface from undesirable effects, such as electrolyte oxidation, oxygen loss or dissolution by one or more lithium-metal-polyanionic compounds, such as a lithium-metal-phosphate or a lithium-metal-silicate material that can act as a solid electrolyte at or above the operating potential of the lithium-metal-oxide electrode. The surface protection significantly enhances the surface stability, rate capability and cycling stability of the lithium-metal-oxide electrodes, particularly when charged to high potentials.

  19. Equine post-breeding endometritis: A review.

    PubMed

    Maischberger, E; Irwin, Ja; Carrington, Sd; Duggan, Ve

    2008-01-01

    The deposition of semen, bacteria and debris in the uterus of the mare after breeding normally induces a self-limiting endometritis. The resultant fluid and inflammatory products are cleared by 48 hours post cover. Mares that are susceptible to persistent post-breeding endometritis (PPBEM) have impaired uterine defence and clearance mechanisms, making them unable to resolve this inflammation within the normal time. This persists beyond 48 hours post-breeding and causes persistent fluid accumulation within the uterus. Mares with PPBEM have an increased rate of embryonic loss and a lower overall pregnancy rate than those without the condition. To enhance conception rates, mares at high risk need optimal breeding management as well as early diagnosis, followed by the most appropriate treatment. This article reviews the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of PPBEM and the management of affected mares. PMID:21851709

  20. Analysis of breed effects on semen traits in light horse, warmblood, and draught horse breeds.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, Maren; Sieme, Harald; Martinsson, Gunilla; Distl, Ottmar

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, systematic effects on semen quality traits were investigated in 381 stallions representing 22 breeds. All stallions were used for AI either at the Lower Saxon National Stud Celle or the North Rhine-Westphalian National Stud Warendorf. A total of 71,078 fresh semen reports of the years 2001 to 2014 were edited for analysis of gel-free volume, sperm concentration, total number of sperm, progressive motility, and total number of progressively motile sperm. Breed differences were studied for warmblood and light horse breeds of both national studs (model I) and for warmblood breeds and the draught horse breed Rhenish German Coldblood from the North Rhine-Westphalian National stud (model II) using mixed model procedures. The fixed effects of age class, year, and month of semen collection had significant influences on all semen traits in both analyses. A significant influence of the horse breed was found for all semen traits but gel-free volume in both statistical models. Comparing warmblood and light horse stallions of both national studs, we observed highest sperm concentrations, total numbers of sperm, and total numbers of progressively motile sperm in Anglo-Arabian stallions. The draught horse breed Rhenish German Coldblood had the highest least squares means for gel-free volume, whereas all other investigated semen traits were significantly lower in this breed compared to the warmblood stallions under study. The variance components among stallions within breeds were significant for all semen traits and accounted for 40% to 59% of the total variance. The between-breed-variance among stallions was not significant underlining the similar size of the random stallion effect in each of the horse breeds analyzed here. In conclusion, breed and stallion are accounting for a significant proportion of the variation in semen quality. PMID:26893165

  1. Analysis of LBM (lithium blanket module) experiments at LOTUS

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanek, J.; Davidson, J.W.; Dudziak, D.J.; Haldy, P.A.; Pelloni, S.

    1986-01-01

    A Lithium Blanket Module (LBM) has been designed at General Atomic Company for testing on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The LBM has both realistic fusion blanket materials and configuration and has been designed for detailed experimental analyses of tritium breeding and neutron flux spatial/spectral distributions. It is {approximately}80 cm{sup 3} and the breeding material is Li{sub 2}O. The main objective of the LBM program was to perform a series of experiments by irradiating it using the toroidal neutron source of the TFTR. The comparison between measured and calculated neutron spectra and reaction rates would indicate the accuracy of presently available nuclear data and calculational methods and show the need for future data evaluation and methods development. With a delay in undertaking the deuterium-tritium operation of the Princeton TFTR, it was clear that the LOTUS facility could now provide an extremely valuable resolution of basic technological uncertainties in fusion reactor blanket physics. This resolution has been a major force behind EPRI's fusion program. 6 refs.

  2. Quantum Monte Carlo methods and lithium cluster properties

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, R.K.

    1990-12-01

    Properties of small lithium clusters with sizes ranging from n = 1 to 5 atoms were investigated using quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods. Cluster geometries were found from complete active space self consistent field (CASSCF) calculations. A detailed development of the QMC method leading to the variational QMC (V-QMC) and diffusion QMC (D-QMC) methods is shown. The many-body aspect of electron correlation is introduced into the QMC importance sampling electron-electron correlation functions by using density dependent parameters, and are shown to increase the amount of correlation energy obtained in V-QMC calculations. A detailed analysis of D-QMC time-step bias is made and is found to be at least linear with respect to the time-step. The D-QMC calculations determined the lithium cluster ionization potentials to be 0.1982(14) [0.1981], 0.1895(9) [0.1874(4)], 0.1530(34) [0.1599(73)], 0.1664(37) [0.1724(110)], 0.1613(43) [0.1675(110)] Hartrees for lithium clusters n = 1 through 5, respectively; in good agreement with experimental results shown in the brackets. Also, the binding energies per atom was computed to be 0.0177(8) [0.0203(12)], 0.0188(10) [0.0220(21)], 0.0247(8) [0.0310(12)], 0.0253(8) [0.0351(8)] Hartrees for lithium clusters n = 2 through 5, respectively. The lithium cluster one-electron density is shown to have charge concentrations corresponding to nonnuclear attractors. The overall shape of the electronic charge density also bears a remarkable similarity with the anisotropic harmonic oscillator model shape for the given number of valence electrons.

  3. Quantum Monte Carlo methods and lithium cluster properties. [Atomic clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, R.K.

    1990-12-01

    Properties of small lithium clusters with sizes ranging from n = 1 to 5 atoms were investigated using quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods. Cluster geometries were found from complete active space self consistent field (CASSCF) calculations. A detailed development of the QMC method leading to the variational QMC (V-QMC) and diffusion QMC (D-QMC) methods is shown. The many-body aspect of electron correlation is introduced into the QMC importance sampling electron-electron correlation functions by using density dependent parameters, and are shown to increase the amount of correlation energy obtained in V-QMC calculations. A detailed analysis of D-QMC time-step bias is made and is found to be at least linear with respect to the time-step. The D-QMC calculations determined the lithium cluster ionization potentials to be 0.1982(14) (0.1981), 0.1895(9) (0.1874(4)), 0.1530(34) (0.1599(73)), 0.1664(37) (0.1724(110)), 0.1613(43) (0.1675(110)) Hartrees for lithium clusters n = 1 through 5, respectively; in good agreement with experimental results shown in the brackets. Also, the binding energies per atom was computed to be 0.0177(8) (0.0203(12)), 0.0188(10) (0.0220(21)), 0.0247(8) (0.0310(12)), 0.0253(8) (0.0351(8)) Hartrees for lithium clusters n = 2 through 5, respectively. The lithium cluster one-electron density is shown to have charge concentrations corresponding to nonnuclear attractors. The overall shape of the electronic charge density also bears a remarkable similarity with the anisotropic harmonic oscillator model shape for the given number of valence electrons.

  4. Lead shot poisoning of a Pacific loon in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, H.M.; Oyen, J.L.; Sileo, L.

    2004-01-01

    Lead poisoning, associated with ingestion of spent lead shot, was diagnosed in an adult female Pacific loon (Gavia pacifica) observed with partial paralysis on 13 June 2002 and found dead on 16 June 2002 on Kigigak Island, Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge, western Alaska, USA. A necropsy revealed three pellets of ingested lead shot in the loona??s gizzard and a lead liver concentration of 31 ppm wet weight, which was consistent with metallic lead poisoning. This is the first report of lead poisoning in a Pacific loon and is the only account of lead toxicosis associated with ingestion of lead shot in any loon species breeding in Alaska.

  5. Breeding laboratory cats during artificially induced estrus.

    PubMed

    Cline, E M; Jennings, L L; Sojka, N J

    1980-12-01

    Mature female cats of known reproductive history were randomly divided into groups for natural breeding or mating following hormonal induction of estrus. Treatment with a single injection of 100 international units of pregnant mares' serum followed in 7 days by 50 international units of human chorionic gonadotropin produced results comparable to natural breeding. Daily injections of pregnant mares' serum (300-500 international units total) resulted in fewer successful pregnancies and adversely affected the ability of kittens to survive to weaning. PMID:7464025

  6. Photodisintegration of Lithium Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurtz, Ward Andrew

    We have performed a measurement of the photodisintegration of the lithium isotopes, 6Li and 7Li, using a monochromatic, polarised photon beam and a segmented neutron detector array which covers approximately ¼ of 4pi srad. Using time-of-flight and scintillator light-output spectra we separate the data into individual reaction channels. This work is motivated by the need to compare with recent theoretical predictions and to provide data for future theoretical work. For the photodisintegration of 6Li we took data at 12 photon energies between 8 and 35 MeV. We describe the data using a model consisting of two-body reaction channels and obtain angular distributions and absolute cross sections for many of these reaction channels. We compare our results with a recent Lorentz integral transform calculation (Bacca et al. Phys. Rev. C 69, 057001 (2004)). Our results are in reasonable agreement with the calculation, in contradiction with previous experimental results. For the photodisintegration of 7Li, we took data at 9 photon energies between 10 and 35 MeV. We obtain cross sections for the reaction channel 7Li + gamma → n + 6 Li(g.s.) at all photon energies with angular distributions at all but the highest energy. We obtain angular distributions and total cross sections for reaction channels involving excited states of the daughter nucleus, 6Li, at select energies. We hope that these measurements will provide incentive for new theoretical calculations. We observe neutrons that can only be described by the reaction channel 7Li + gamma → n + 6Li(10.0) which necessitates an excited state of 6Li with excitation energy Ex = 10.0 +/- 0.5 MeV that is not in the standard tables of excited states. ii

  7. Lithium-Induced Motor Neuropathy: An Unusual Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Satyakam; Sahoo, Manas Ranjan; Rath, Neelmadhav

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy secondary to lithium is under-recognized. Most cases of polyneuropathy were reported with lithium intoxication. However, very few cases were reported without lithium toxicity. We present a case of motor neuropathy due to the use of lithium in a 26-year-old male with a therapeutic lithium level. PMID:27335523

  8. 49 CFR 173.185 - Lithium cells and batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lithium cells and batteries. 173.185 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.185 Lithium cells and batteries. (a) Cells and batteries. A lithium cell or battery, including a lithium polymer cell or battery and a lithium-ion cell or battery, must conform to all of...

  9. 49 CFR 173.185 - Lithium cells and batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lithium cells and batteries. 173.185 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.185 Lithium cells and batteries. (a) Cells and batteries. A lithium cell or battery, including a lithium polymer cell or battery and a lithium-ion cell or battery, must conform to all of...

  10. 49 CFR 173.185 - Lithium cells and batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lithium cells and batteries. 173.185 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.185 Lithium cells and batteries. (a) Cells and batteries. A lithium cell or battery, including a lithium polymer cell or battery and a lithium-ion cell or battery, must conform to all of...

  11. Skeletal muscle transcriptional profiles in two Italian beef breeds, Chianina and Maremmana, reveal breed specific variation.

    PubMed

    Bongiorni, S; Gruber, C E M; Chillemi, G; Bueno, S; Failla, S; Moioli, B; Ferrè, F; Valentini, A

    2016-04-01

    Chianina and Maremmana breeds play an important role in the Italian cattle meat market. The Chianina breed is an ancient breed principally raised for draught. Now this breed is the worldwide recognized producer of top quality beef, tasteful and tender, specifically the famous "Florentine steak". The Maremmana characterized by a massive skeletal structure, is a rustic cattle breed selected for adaptability to the marshy land of the Maremma region. We used a high throughput mRNA sequencing to analyze gene expression in muscle tissues of two Italian cattle breeds, Maremmana (MM) and Chianina (CN) with different selection history. We aim to examine the specific genetic contribution of each breed to meat production and quality, comparing the skeletal muscle tissue from Maremmana and Chianina. Most of the differentially expressed genes were grouped in the Glycolysis/Gluconeogenesis pathways. The rate and the extent of post-mortem energy metabolism have a critical effect on the conversion of muscle to meat. Furthermore, we aim at discovering the differences in nucleotide variation between the two breeds which might be attributable to the different history of selection/divergence. In this work we could emphasize the involvement of pathways of post-mortem energy metabolism. Moreover, we detected a collection of coding SNPs which could offer new genomic resources to improve phenotypic selection in livestock breeding program. PMID:26896938

  12. Electrocardiogram pattern of some exotic breeds of trained dogs: A variation study

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Joydip; Das, Pradip Kumar; Ghosh, Prabal Ranjan; Banerjee, Dipak; Sharma, Tripti; Basak, Debananda; Sanyal, Sagar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study has been conducted to evaluate the variation in electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters among different trained breeds of dogs (viz. Labrador, German Shepherd, and Golden Retriever) used for security reasons. Materials and Methods: The ECG was recorded by single channel ECG at a paper speed of 25 mm/s and calibration of 10 mm=1 mV. The recordings were taken from all the standard bipolar limb leads (Lead-I, II, and III) and unipolar augmented limb leads (Lead-aVR, aVL, and aVF). Results: Heart rate was found to be highest in Labrador and lowest in German Shepherd. P-wave duration was maximum in Golden Retriever breed and lowest in Labrador. Maximum amplitude of P-wave was found in Labrador followed by German Shepherd and Golden Retriever. There was significantly (p<0.05) higher values of PR interval in German Shepherd compared to other breeds. The variation in QRS duration, ST segment duration, T-wave duration, and T-wave amplitude was found to be non-significant among breeds. Inverted T-waves were most common in Golden Retriever and German Shepherd, whereas positive T-waves were found in Labrador. There was significant (p<0.05) variation in mean electrical axis of QRS complex among different breeds and it ranges from +60° to +80°. Conclusion: The present study provides the reference values for different ECG parameters to monitor the cardiac health status among Labrador, German Shepherd, and Golden Retriever breeds. PMID:27047036

  13. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan.

    PubMed

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional breeding methods. To promote citrus molecular breeding in Japan, a genetic mapping was initiated in 1987, and the experimental tools and resources necessary for citrus functional genomics have been developed in relation to the physiological analysis of satsuma mandarin. In this paper, we review the progress of citrus breeding and genome researches in Japan and report the studies on genetic mapping, expression sequence tag cataloguing, and molecular characterization of breeding characteristics, mainly in terms of the metabolism of bio-functional substances as well as factors relating to, for example, fruit quality, disease resistance, polyembryony, and flowering. PMID:27069387

  14. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional breeding methods. To promote citrus molecular breeding in Japan, a genetic mapping was initiated in 1987, and the experimental tools and resources necessary for citrus functional genomics have been developed in relation to the physiological analysis of satsuma mandarin. In this paper, we review the progress of citrus breeding and genome researches in Japan and report the studies on genetic mapping, expression sequence tag cataloguing, and molecular characterization of breeding characteristics, mainly in terms of the metabolism of bio-functional substances as well as factors relating to, for example, fruit quality, disease resistance, polyembryony, and flowering. PMID:27069387

  15. Application of Genomics Tools to Animal Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Dekkers, Jack C.M.

    2012-01-01

    The main goal in animal breeding is to select individuals that have high breeding values for traits of interest as parents to produce the next generation and to do so as quickly as possible. To date, most programs rely on statistical analysis of large data bases with phenotypes on breeding populations by linear mixed model methodology to estimate breeding values on selection candidates. However, there is a long history of research on the use of genetic markers to identify quantitative trait loci and their use in marker-assisted selection but with limited implementation in practical breeding programs. The advent of high-density SNP genotyping, combined with novel statistical methods for the use of this data to estimate breeding values, has resulted in the recent extensive application of genomic or whole-genome selection in dairy cattle and research to implement genomic selection in other livestock species is underway. The high-density SNP data also provides opportunities to detect QTL and to encover the genetic architecture of quantitative traits, in terms of the distribution of the size of genetic effects that contribute to trait differences in a population. Results show that this genetic architecture differs between traits but that for most traits, over 50% of the genetic variation resides in genomic regions with small effects that are of the order of magnitude that is expected under a highly polygenic model of inheritance. PMID:23115522

  16. Fabrication of Li2TiO3 pebbles using PVA-boric acid reaction for solid breeding materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yi-Hyun; Cho, Seungyon; Ahn, Mu-Young

    2014-12-01

    Lithium metatitanate (Li2TiO3) is a candidate breeding material of the Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) Test Blanket Module (TBM). The breeding material is used in pebble-bed form to reduce the uncertainty of the interface thermal conductance. In this study, Li2TiO3 pebbles were successfully fabricated by the slurry droplet wetting method using the cross-linking reaction between polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and boric acid. The effects of fabrication parameters on the shaping of Li2TiO3 green body were investigated. In addition, the basic characteristics of the sintered pebble were also evaluated. The shape of Li2TiO3 green bodies was affected by slurry viscosity, PVA content and boric acid content. The grain size and average crush load of sintered Li2TiO3 pebble were controlled by the sintering time. The boron was completely removed during the final sintering process.

  17. Prunus transcription factors: breeding perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Valmor J; Rubio, Manuel; Trainotti, Livio; Verde, Ignazio; Bonghi, Claudio; Martínez-Gómez, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Many plant processes depend on differential gene expression, which is generally controlled by complex proteins called transcription factors (TFs). In peach, 1533 TFs have been identified, accounting for about 5.5% of the 27,852 protein-coding genes. These TFs are the reference for the rest of the Prunus species. TF studies in Prunus have been performed on the gene expression analysis of different agronomic traits, including control of the flowering process, fruit quality, and biotic and abiotic stress resistance. These studies, using quantitative RT-PCR, have mainly been performed in peach, and to a lesser extent in other species, including almond, apricot, black cherry, Fuji cherry, Japanese apricot, plum, and sour and sweet cherry. Other tools have also been used in TF studies, including cDNA-AFLP, LC-ESI-MS, RNA, and DNA blotting or mapping. More recently, new tools assayed include microarray and high-throughput DNA sequencing (DNA-Seq) and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). New functional genomics opportunities include genome resequencing and the well-known synteny among Prunus genomes and transcriptomes. These new functional studies should be applied in breeding programs in the development of molecular markers. With the genome sequences available, some strategies that have been used in model systems (such as SNP genotyping assays and genotyping-by-sequencing) may be applicable in the functional analysis of Prunus TFs as well. In addition, the knowledge of the gene functions and position in the peach reference genome of the TFs represents an additional advantage. These facts could greatly facilitate the isolation of genes via QTL (quantitative trait loci) map-based cloning in the different Prunus species, following the association of these TFs with the identified QTLs using the peach reference genome. PMID:26124770

  18. Prunus transcription factors: breeding perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Valmor J.; Rubio, Manuel; Trainotti, Livio; Verde, Ignazio; Bonghi, Claudio; Martínez-Gómez, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Many plant processes depend on differential gene expression, which is generally controlled by complex proteins called transcription factors (TFs). In peach, 1533 TFs have been identified, accounting for about 5.5% of the 27,852 protein-coding genes. These TFs are the reference for the rest of the Prunus species. TF studies in Prunus have been performed on the gene expression analysis of different agronomic traits, including control of the flowering process, fruit quality, and biotic and abiotic stress resistance. These studies, using quantitative RT-PCR, have mainly been performed in peach, and to a lesser extent in other species, including almond, apricot, black cherry, Fuji cherry, Japanese apricot, plum, and sour and sweet cherry. Other tools have also been used in TF studies, including cDNA-AFLP, LC-ESI-MS, RNA, and DNA blotting or mapping. More recently, new tools assayed include microarray and high-throughput DNA sequencing (DNA-Seq) and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). New functional genomics opportunities include genome resequencing and the well-known synteny among Prunus genomes and transcriptomes. These new functional studies should be applied in breeding programs in the development of molecular markers. With the genome sequences available, some strategies that have been used in model systems (such as SNP genotyping assays and genotyping-by-sequencing) may be applicable in the functional analysis of Prunus TFs as well. In addition, the knowledge of the gene functions and position in the peach reference genome of the TFs represents an additional advantage. These facts could greatly facilitate the isolation of genes via QTL (quantitative trait loci) map-based cloning in the different Prunus species, following the association of these TFs with the identified QTLs using the peach reference genome. PMID:26124770

  19. 50 CFR 15.24 - Permits for cooperative breeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Permits for cooperative breeding. 15.24... PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.24 Permits for cooperative breeding. (a) Application requirements for permits for cooperative breeding....

  20. 50 CFR 15.24 - Permits for cooperative breeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Permits for cooperative breeding. 15.24... PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.24 Permits for cooperative breeding. (a) Application requirements for permits for cooperative breeding....

  1. 50 CFR 15.24 - Permits for cooperative breeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Permits for cooperative breeding. 15.24... PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.24 Permits for cooperative breeding. (a) Application requirements for permits for cooperative breeding....

  2. 78 FR 45494 - Plant Breeding Listening Session meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... breeding and cultivar development stakeholders. DATES: The Plant Breeding Listening Session will be held... discuss their plant breeding and cultivar development programs and/or their perception of needs and potential improvements in publicly-funded plant breeding and cultivar development research. Following...

  3. Anode material for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2008-06-24

    Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell system. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plastized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  4. Anode material for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2011-04-05

    Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell systems. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plasticized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  5. Anode material for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2012-01-31

    Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell systems. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plasticized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  6. Gelled Electrolytes For Lithium Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Attia, Alan; Halpert, Gerald

    1993-01-01

    Gelled polymer electrolyte consists of polyacrylonitrile (PAN), LiBF4, and propylene carbonate (PC). Thin films of electrolyte found to exhibit stable bulk conductivities of order of 10 to the negative 3rd power S/cm at room temperature. Used in thinfilm rechargeable lithium batteries having energy densities near 150 W h/kg.

  7. Lithium-loaded liquid scintillators

    DOEpatents

    Dai, Sheng; Kesanli, Banu; Neal, John S.

    2012-05-15

    The invention is directed to a liquid scintillating composition containing (i) one or more non-polar organic solvents; (ii) (lithium-6)-containing nanoparticles having a size of up to 10 nm and surface-capped by hydrophobic molecules; and (iii) one or more fluorophores. The invention is also directed to a liquid scintillator containing the above composition.

  8. Tradeoff analysis with lithium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, C.

    1978-01-01

    Characteristic data, primarily on high rate lithium sulfur dioxide design (basically in the D and DD cell configuration), both before and after much exposure to environmental conditions are discussed. The environmental as opposed to signle cells. Discussion was generated among the Workshop participants and comments and questions are reported. Graphical representations of the test data are presented.

  9. Fundamental Study of a Stacked Lithium Niobate Transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Takeshi; Niino, Toshiki; Asama, Hajime; Tashiro, Hideo

    2001-05-01

    Generally, a lead zirconate titanate ceramic is utilized for a high-power transducer such as an ultrasonic motor drive. However, it is difficult to realize an ultrasonic motor that can withstand a high temperature, above 500°C. We focused on lithium niobate because it has a high Curie temperature (1210°C) and high quality factor. The electromechanical coupling factor of lithium niobate is large, although the permittivity is one hundred times smaller compared to that of hard-type lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-8. Hence a stacked structure is required to generate high output power. Dimensions of the fabricated actuator were 10 mm square and 18.5 mm long. The number of lithium niobate layers was 18. The calculated force factor of this transducer was 0.28 N/V, a value comparable to that of the bolted Langevin transducer using PZT, though the vibration velocity was saturated at 0.12 m/s. To realize improved transducer performance, we are attempting to fabricate a new transducer that can generate high vibration velocity.

  10. An investigation of the desorption of hydrogen from lithium oxide using temperature programmed desorption and diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kopasz, J.P.; Johnson, C.E.; Ortiz-Villafuerte, J.

    1994-09-01

    The addition of hydrogen to the purge stream has been shown to enhance tritium release from ceramic breeder materials. In an attempt to determine the mechanism for this enhancement the authors have investigated the adsorption and desorption of hydrogen and water from lithium oxide (a leading candidate for the breeder material) by temperature programmed desorption and diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy. The results from these studies indicate that several different types of hydroxide groups are formed on the lithium oxide surface. They also suggest that under certain conditions hydride species form on the surface. The role of these species in tritium release from lithium oxide is discussed.

  11. Genome-wide Association Mapping of Fusarium Head Blight Resistance in Contemporary Barley Breeding Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Utilization of quantitative trait loci (QTL) identified in bi-parental mapping populations has had limited success for complex quantitative traits. The use of association mapping in contemporary breeding germplasm may lead to more effective marker strategies for crop improvement. To map Fusarium he...

  12. Across-breed EPD tables for the year 2011 adjusted to breed differences for birth year of 2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Records of F1 and 3-way cross progeny of 18 breeds of sire and maternal grandsire, respectively, were used to estimate differences among the breeds for birth, weaning, and yearling weight and for maternal effects (16 breeds) of weaning weight and among 13 of the 18 breeds for carcass marbling, ribey...

  13. Across-breed EPD tables for the year 2012 adjusted to breed differences for birth year of 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Records of F1 and 3-way cross progeny of 18 breeds of sire and maternal grandsire, respectively, were used to estimate differences among the breeds for birth, weaning, and yearling weight and for maternal effects (16 breeds) of weaning weight and among 13 of the 18 breeds for carcass marbling, ribey...

  14. Across-Breed EPD Tables for the Year 2009 Adjusted to Breed Differences for Birth Year of 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Records of F1 and 3-way cross progeny of 18 breeds of sire and maternal grandsire, respectively, were used to estimate differences among the breeds for birth, weaning, and yearling weight and for maternal effects (16 breeds) of weaning weight and among 11 of the 18 breeds for carcass marbling, ribey...

  15. Across-Breed EPD Tables for the Year 2010 Adjusted to Breed Differences for Birth Year of 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Records of F1 and 3-way cross progeny of 18 breeds of sire and maternal grandsire, respectively, were used to estimate differences among the breeds for birth, weaning, and yearling weight and for maternal effects (16 breeds) of weaning weight and among 13 of the 18 breeds for carcass marbling, ribey...

  16. Across-breed EPD tables for the year 2016 adjusted to breed differences for birth year of 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Records of progeny of 18 breeds were used to estimate differences among the breeds for birth, weaning, and yearling weight and for maternal effects of weaning weight, among 15 of the 18 breeds for carcass marbling and ribeye area and among 14 of the 18 breeds for fat depth and carcass weight. The r...

  17. Tritium self-sufficiency time and inventory evolution for solid-type breeding blanket materials for DEMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packer, L. W.; Pampin, R.; Zheng, S.

    2011-10-01

    One of the primary functions of a fusion blanket is to generate enough tritium to make a fusion power plant (FPP) self-sufficient. To ensure that there is satisfactory tritium production in a real plant the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) in the blanket must be greater than 1 + M, where M is the breeding margin. For solid-type blanket designs, the initial TBR must be significantly higher than 1 + M, since the blanket TBR will be reduced over time as the lithium fuel is consumed. The rate of TBR reduction will impact on the overall blanket self-sufficiency time, the time in which the net tritium inventory of the system is positive. DEMO relevant blanket materials, Li 4SiO 4 and Li 2TiO 3, are investigated by computational simulation using radiation transport tools coupled with time-dependent inventory calculations. The results include tritium inventory assessments and depletion of breeding materials over time, which enable self-sufficiency times and maximum surplus tritium inventories to be evaluated, which are essential quantities to determine to allow one to design a credible FPP using solid-type breeding material concepts. The blanket concepts investigated show self-sufficiency times of several years in some cases and maximum surplus inventories of up to a few tens of kg.

  18. Lithium in the Kidney: Friend and Foe?

    PubMed

    Alsady, Mohammad; Baumgarten, Ruben; Deen, Peter M T; de Groot, Theun

    2016-06-01

    Trace amounts of lithium are essential for our physical and mental health, and administration of lithium has improved the quality of life of millions of patients with bipolar disorder for >60 years. However, in a substantial number of patients with bipolar disorder, long-term lithium therapy comes at the cost of severe renal side effects, including nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and rarely, ESRD. Although the mechanisms underlying the lithium-induced renal pathologies are becoming clearer, several recent animal studies revealed that short-term administration of lower amounts of lithium prevents different forms of experimental AKI. In this review, we discuss the knowledge of the pathologic and therapeutic effects of lithium in the kidney. Furthermore, we discuss the underlying mechanisms of these seemingly paradoxical effects of lithium, in which fine-tuned regulation of glycogen synthase kinase type 3, a prime target for lithium, seems to be key. The new discoveries regarding the protective effect of lithium against AKI in rodents call for follow-up studies in humans and suggest that long-term therapy with low lithium concentrations could be beneficial in CKD. PMID:26577775

  19. Lithium Ion Battery Performance of Silicon Nanowires With Carbon Skin

    SciTech Connect

    Bogart, Timothy D.; Oka, Daichi; Lu, Xiaotang; Gu, Meng; Wang, Chong M.; Korgel, Brian A.

    2013-12-06

    Silicon (Si) nanomaterials have emerged as a leading candidate for next generation lithium-ion battery anodes. However, the low electrical conductivity of Si requires the use of conductive additives in the anode film. Here we report a solution-based synthesis of Si nanowires with a conductive carbon skin. Without any conductive additive, the Si nanowire electrodes exhibited capacities of over 2000 mA h g-1 for 100 cycles when cycled at C/10 and over 1200 mA h g-1 when cycled more rapidly at 1C against Li metal.. In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation reveals that the carbon skin performs dual roles: it speeds lithiation of the Si nanowires significantly, while also constraining the final volume expansion. The present work sheds light on ways to optimize lithium battery performance by smartly tailoring the nanostructure of composition of materials based on silicon and carbon.

  20. Using lithium as a neuroprotective agent in patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Khasraw, Mustafa; Ashley, David; Wheeler, Greg; Berk, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Neurocognitive impairment is being increasingly recognized as an important issue in patients with cancer who develop cognitive difficulties either as part of direct or indirect involvement of the nervous system or as a consequence of either chemotherapy-related or radiotherapy-related complications. Brain radiotherapy in particular can lead to significant cognitive defects. Neurocognitive decline adversely affects quality of life, meaningful employment, and even simple daily activities. Neuroprotection may be a viable and realistic goal in preventing neurocognitive sequelae in these patients, especially in the setting of cranial irradiation. Lithium is an agent that has been in use for psychiatric disorders for decades, but recently there has been emerging evidence that it can have a neuroprotective effect.This review discusses neurocognitive impairment in patients with cancer and the potential for investigating the use of lithium as a neuroprotectant in such patients. PMID:23121766

  1. Polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether (PEGDME)-based electrolyte for lithium metal battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, Lorenzo; Gobet, Mallory; Peng, Jing; Devany, Matthew; Scrosati, Bruno; Greenbaum, Steve; Hassoun, Jusef

    2015-12-01

    We propose in this work a polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether (MW 500) dissolving lithium trifluoromethansulfonate (LiCF3SO3) salt as suitable electrolyte media for a safe and efficient use of the lithium metal anode in battery. Voltammetry and galvanostatic tests reveal significant enhancement of the electrolyte characteristics, in terms of cycling life and chemical stability, by the addition of lithium nitrate (LiNO3) to the solution. Furthermore, PFG NMR measurements suggest the applicability of the electrolyte in battery in terms of ionic conductivity, lithium transference number, ionic-association degree and self-diffusion coefficient. Accordingly, the electrolyte is employed in a lithium battery using lithium iron phosphate as the selected cathode. The battery delivers a stable capacity of 150 mAh g-1 and flat working voltage of 3.5 V, thus leading to a theoretical energy density referred to the cathode of 520 Wh kg-1. This battery is considered a suitable energy storage system for advanced applications requiring both high safety and high energy density.

  2. Lithium inhibits invasion of glioma cells; possible involvement of glycogen synthase kinase-3

    PubMed Central

    Nowicki, Michal O.; Dmitrieva, Nina; Stein, Andrew M.; Cutter, Jennifer L.; Godlewski, Jakub; Saeki, Yoshinaga; Nita, Masayuki; Berens, Michael E.; Sander, Leonard M.; Newton, Herbert B.; Chiocca, E. Antonio; Lawler, Sean

    2008-01-01

    Therapies targeting glioma cells that diffusely infiltrate normal brain are highly sought after. Our aim was to identify novel approaches to this problem using glioma spheroid migration assays. Lithium, a currently approved drug for the treatment of bipolar illnesses, has not been previously examined in the context of glioma migration. We found that lithium treatment potently blocked glioma cell migration in spheroid, wound-healing, and brain slice assays. The effects observed were dose dependent and reversible, and worked using every glioma cell line tested. In addition, there was little effect on cell viability at lithium concentrations that inhibit migration, showing that this is a specific effect. Lithium treatment was associated with a marked change in cell morphology, with cells retracting the long extensions at their leading edge. Examination of known targets of lithium showed that inositol monophosphatase inhibition had no effect on glioma migration, whereas inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) did. This suggested that the effects of lithium on glioma cell migration could possibly be mediated through GSK-3. Specific pharmacologic GSK-3 inhibitors and siRNA knockdown of GSK-3α or GSK-3β isoforms both reduced cell motility. These data outline previously unidentified pathways and inhibitors that may be useful for the development of novel anti-invasive therapeutics for the treatment of brain tumors. PMID:18715951

  3. Breeding biology of Acadian flycatchers in a bottomland hardwood forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, R.R.; Cooper, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    From 1993-1995, we located and monitored 601 Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) nests in a large contiguous tract of bottomland hardwood forest on the White River National Wildlife Refuge, Arkansas. Annual reproductive success was significantly different among years; ranging from 10-25% (Mayfield estimate) over the three years of the study. There was no significant difference in nest success among study plots, with nesting success showing a trend of increasing late in the breeding season. Clutch size for non-parasitized nests averaged 2.9 ? 0.02 (SE) eggs with a mode of 3. Rates of Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism were low (21%), accounting for 7% of all nest failures. However, parasitism by cowbirds resulted in a reduction of clutch size for nests initiated early (i.e., first nests and replacements) in the breeding season. Predation was the leading cause of nest failures, accounting for 75% of all failures. Snakes and avian predators were thought to be the leading cause of nest failures. Although additional factors must be investigated, preliminary results indicate that nest predation is a major influence on this population, despite the size of the forest tract.

  4. The Sub-Annual Breeding Cycle of a Tropical Seabird

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, S. James; Martin, Graham R.; Dawson, Alistair; Wearn, Colin P.; Hughes, B. John

    2014-01-01

    Breeding periodicity allows organisms to synchronise breeding attempts with the most favourable ecological conditions under which to raise offspring. For most animal species, ecological conditions vary seasonally and usually impose an annual breeding schedule on their populations; sub-annual breeding schedules will be rare. We use a 16-year dataset of breeding attempts by a tropical seabird, the sooty tern (Onychoprion fuscatus), on Ascension Island to provide new insights about this classical example of a population of sub-annually breeding birds that was first documented in studies 60 years previously on the same island. We confirm that the breeding interval of this population has remained consistently sub-annual. By ringing >17000 birds and re-capturing a large sample of them at equivalent breeding stages in subsequent seasons, we reveal for the first time that many individual birds also consistently breed sub-annually (i.e. that sub-annual breeding is an individual as well as a population breeding strategy). Ascension Island sooty terns appear to reduce their courtship phase markedly compared with conspecifics breeding elsewhere. Our results provide rare insights into the ecological and physiological drivers of breeding periodicity, indicating that reduction of the annual cycle to just two life-history stages, breeding and moult, is a viable life-history strategy and that moult may determine the minimum time between breeding attempts. PMID:24714514

  5. Lithium cell technology and safety report of the Tri-Service Lithium Safety Committee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiss, E.

    1980-01-01

    The organization of the Tri-Service Lithium Safety Committee is described. The following areas concerning lithium batteries are discussed: transportation--DOT Exemption 7052, FAA; disposal; storage; individual testing/test results; and battery design and usage.

  6. Recoil Based Fuel Breeding Fuel Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Popa-Simil, Liviu

    2008-07-01

    Nuclear transmutation reactions are based on the absorption of a smaller particle as neutron, proton, deuteron, alpha, etc. The resulting compound nucleus gets out of its initial lattice mainly by taking the recoil, also with help from its sudden change in chemical properties. The recoil implantation is used in correlation with thin and ultra thin materials mainly for producing radiopharmaceuticals and ultra-thin layer radioactive tracers. In nuclear reactors, the use of nano-particulate pellets could facilitate the recoil implantation for breeding, transmutation and partitioning purposes. Using enriched {sup 238}U or {sup 232}Th leads to {sup 239}Pu and {sup 233}U production while using other actinides as {sup 240}Pu, {sup 241}Am etc. leads to actinide burning. When such a lattice is immersed into a radiation resistant fluid (water, methanol, etc.), the recoiled product is transferred into the flowing fluid and removed from the hot area using a concentrator/purifier, preventing the occurrence of secondary transmutation reactions. The simulation of nuclear collision and energy transfer shows that the impacted nucleus recoils in the interstitial space creating a defect or lives small lattices. The defect diffuses, and if no recombination occurs it stops at the lattices boundaries. The nano-grains are coated in thin layer to get a hydrophilic shell to be washed by the collection liquid the particle is immersed in. The efficiency of collection depends on particle magnitude and nuclear reaction channel parameters. For {sup 239}Pu the direct recoil extraction rate is about 70% for {sup 238}UO{sub 2} grains of 5 nm diameters and is brought up to 95% by diffusion due to {sup 239}Neptunium incompatibility with Uranium dioxide lattice. Particles of 5 nm are hard to produce so a structure using particles of 100 nm have been tested. The particles were obtained by plasma sputtering in oxygen atmosphere. A novel effect as nano-cluster radiation damage robustness and cluster

  7. Miniaturized GPS Tags Identify Non-breeding Territories of a Small Breeding Migratory Songbird

    PubMed Central

    Hallworth, Michael T.; Marra, Peter P.

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, we use a small archival global positioning system (GPS) tag to identify and characterize non-breeding territories, quantify migratory connectivity, and identify population boundaries of Ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapilla), a small migratory songbird, captured at two widely separated breeding locations. We recovered 15 (31%) GPS tags with data and located the non-breeding territories of breeding Ovenbirds from Maryland and New Hampshire, USA (0.50 ± 0.15 ha, mean ± SE). All non-breeding territories had similar environmental attributes despite being distributed across parts of Florida, Cuba and Hispaniola. New Hampshire and Maryland breeding populations had non-overlapping non-breeding population boundaries that encompassed 114,803 and 169,233 km2, respectively. Archival GPS tags provided unprecedented pinpoint locations and associated environmental information of tropical non-breeding territories. This technology is an important step forward in understanding seasonal interactions and ultimately population dynamics of populations throughout the annual cycle. PMID:26057892

  8. Proposed amendments to UN ST/SG/AC.10/11: transport of dangerous goods—lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrington, Michael D.

    UN Document ST/SG/AC.10/11 [ST/SG/AC.10/11, The UN recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, Manual of Tests and Criteria, 2nd revision] outlines a test plan that is fundamental to the classification for transport of lithium batteries with metallic lithium or lithium alloy anodes. Cells and batteries that fall within its scope are considered dangerous goods. The test plan requires amendment to address many shortcomings. Some tests assess risks that do not exist, other risks are not addressed. This paper outlines the issues we have identified with the test plan, the proposed amendments, the rationale behind the proposed amendments, and issues we have not addressed in the current round of amendments. Transport of lithium batteries has an excellent record. Packaging requirements are essential to continued safe transport. Tests that address known risks relevant to conditions normal to transport are discussed. It is for consideration that non-metallic anode systems such as some polymer and lithium-ion systems should be treated as distinctly different technologies with their own set of transportation risks. The use of the marketing term lithium battery when applied to lithium polymer and lithium-ion products has erroneously lead to the suggestion that they be included in the scope of UN Document ST/SG/AC.10/11. A recommendation to classify such systems under a new UN number is presented. It is suggested that UN 3090 or UN 3091 should be reserved for lithium metal or lithium metal alloy products.

  9. Lithium ferrate and lithium cobaltate cathodes for molten carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Krumpelt, M.; Roche, M.; Bloom, I.; Indacochea, J.E.; Kucera, G.

    1994-08-01

    The objective of this research is to develop cathodes for the molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) having a performance approaching that of the lithiated nickel oxide cathode and a significantly greater life, particularly in pressurized MCFCs. To meet this objective, cathodes containing either doubly doped lithium ferrate or lithium cobaltate are being developed. In this project, the authors are optimizing the composition, microstructure, and loading density of the doubly doped lithium ferrate cathode and the lithium cobaltate cathodes.

  10. Measuring nanocurie quantities of tritium bred in metallic lithium and lithium oxide samples

    SciTech Connect

    Bertone, P.C.

    1985-07-01

    The LBM program requires that nanocurie quantities of tritium, bred in both lithium oxide pellets and lithium samples, be measured with an uncertainty not exceeding + or - 6%. Two methods of accurately measuring nanocurie quantities of tritium bred in LBM lithium oxide pellets and one method of accurately measuring nanocurie quantities of tritium bred in lithium samples are described. Potential errors associated with these tritium measurement techniques are also discussed.

  11. Lithium borate cluster salts as novel redox shuttles for overcharge protection of lithium-ion cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Z.; Liu, J.; Jansen, A. N.; Casteel, B.; Amine, K.; GirishKumar, G.; Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.

    2010-01-01

    Redox shuttle is a promising mechanism for intrinsic overcharge protection in lithium-ion cells and batteries. Two lithium borate cluster salts are reported to function as both the main salt for a nonaqueous electrolyte and the redox shuttle for overcharge protection. Lithium borate cluster salts with a tunable redox potential are promising candidates for overcharge protection for most positive electrodes in state-of-the-art lithium-ion cells.

  12. Investigation into the role of silica in lithium polysulfide adsorption for lithium sulfur battery

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Miso; Kang, Sung-Hwan; Manuel, James; Zhao, Xiaohui; Cho, Kwon Koo; Ahn, Jou Hyeon

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Amine functionalized silica nanoparticles (AFSN) were prepared. • Polysulfide adsorption studies were carried out with silica nanoparticles and AFSN. • Sulfur cathodes were prepared with SN and AFSN for Li–S batteries. • AFSN showed excellent polysulfide adsorption. - Abstract: A new type of sulfur electrodes with the ability for polysulfide adsorption was prepared by incorporating silica nanoparticles (SN) or amine functionalized silica nanoparticles (AFSN). AFSN was synthesized by a simple and cost-effective method. The functionalization and surface morphology of silica were confirmed with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Polysulfide adsorption studies were carried out using UV–vis spectrometer, which confirmed the excellent adsorption of polysulfides by AFSN. Interaction of polysulfides with SN or AFSN was studied using FTIR and FT-Raman spectroscopy. The effective polysulfide adsorption by SN and AFSN leads to good and stable cycle performance of lithium sulfur cells. The results show that the incorporation of SN or AFSN with sulfur is a promising method to prepare cathode material for lithium sulfur batteries.

  13. Behavioral profiles of feline breeds in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2009-08-01

    To clarify the behavioral profiles of 9 feline purebreds, 2 Persian subbreeds and the Japanese domestic cat, a questionnaire survey was distributed to 67 small-animal veterinarians. We found significant differences among breeds in all behavioral traits examined except for "inappropriate elimination". In addition, sexual differences were observed in certain behaviors, including "aggression toward cats", "general activity", "novelty-seeking", and "excitability". These behaviors were more common in males than females, whereas "nervousness" and "inappropriate elimination" were rated higher in females. When all breeds were categorized into four groups on the basis of a cluster analysis using the scores of two behavioral trait factors called "aggressiveness/sensitivity" and "vivaciousness", the group including Abyssinian, Russian Blue, Somali, Siamese, and Chinchilla breeds showed high aggressiveness/sensitivity and low vivaciousness. In contrast, the group including the American Shorthair and Japanese domestic cat displayed low aggressiveness/sensitivity and high vivaciousness, and the Himalayan and Persian group showed mild aggressiveness/sensitivity and very low vivaciousness. Finally, the group containing Maine Coon, Ragdoll, and Scottish Fold breeds displayed very low aggressiveness/sensitivity and low vivaciousness. The present results demonstrate that some feline behavioral traits vary by breed and/or sex. PMID:19721357

  14. Lithium: Sources, Production, Uses, and Recovery Outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talens Peiró, Laura; Villalba Méndez, Gara; Ayres, Robert U.

    2013-08-01

    The demand for lithium has increased significantly during the last decade as it has become key for the development of industrial products, especially batteries for electronic devices and electric vehicles. This article reviews sources, extraction and production, uses, and recovery and recycling, all of which are important aspects when evaluating lithium as a key resource. First, it describes the estimated reserves and lithium production from brine and pegmatites, including the material and energy requirements. Then, it continues with a description about the current uses of lithium focusing on its application in batteries and concludes with a description of the opportunities for recovery and recycling and the future demand forecast. The article concludes that the demand of lithium for electronic vehicles will increase from 30% to almost 60% by 2020. Thus, in the next years, the recovery and recycling of lithium from batteries is decisive to ensure the long-term viability of the metal.

  15. Lithium-aluminum-iron electrode composition

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1979-01-01

    A negative electrode composition is presented for use in a secondary electrochemical cell. The cell also includes an electrolyte with lithium ions such as a molten salt of alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides that can be used in high-temperature cells. The cell's positive electrode contains a a chalcogen or a metal chalcogenide as the active electrode material. The negative electrode composition includes up to 50 atom percent lithium as the active electrode constituent in an alloy of aluminum-iron. Various binary and ternary intermetallic phases of lithium, aluminum and iron are formed. The lithium within the intermetallic phase of Al.sub.5 Fe.sub.2 exhibits increased activity over that of lithium within a lithium-aluminum alloy to provide an increased cell potential of up to about 0.25 volt.

  16. In-situ scanning electron microscopy observations of Li plating and stripping reactions at the lithium phosphorus oxynitride glass electrolyte/Cu interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagane, Fumihiro; Shimokawa, Ryosuke; Sano, Hikaru; Sakaebe, Hikari; Iriyama, Yasutoshi

    2013-03-01

    Morphology variations during electrochemical lithium plating-stripping reactions at the lithium phosphorus oxynitride glass electrolyte (LiPON)/copper current collector (Cu) interface are observed in-situ by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This in-situ SEM observation shows dynamically that the plating reactions at 50 μA cm-2 distribute initial lithium growth sites sparsely at the LiPON/Cu interface, later, local lithium growth occurs from the pre-plated sites through the Cu film, and finally, most of the precipitated lithium grows to be needle-shape with the height of micron order. This local growth rate attains to be 6.8 mA cm-2, about 100 times higher value than applied one. When those precipitated lithium are stripped at 50 μA cm-2, core region of each precipitate is mostly stripped but its degree depends on the length of the precipitate. This dependency will arise from the diffusivity of Li. When this stripping current density is increased to 500 μA cm-2, the coulomb efficiency is further decreased. In-situ SEM observation shows that plated lithium around the interface becomes thin preferentially while that far away from the interface (upper side of plated lithium) remains unchanged. This will isolate most of precipitate lithium from LiPON film electrically, leading to further decreasing of the coulomb efficiency.

  17. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil

    2008-12-23

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2M'O.sub.3 in which 0

  18. Lithium Metal Oxide Electrodes For Lithium Cells And Batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kim, Jaekook

    2004-01-20

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2 M'O.sub.3 in which 0

  19. Potential environmental and human health impacts of rechargeable lithium batteries in electronic waste.

    PubMed

    Kang, Daniel Hsing Po; Chen, Mengjun; Ogunseitan, Oladele A

    2013-05-21

    Rechargeable lithium-ion (Li-ion) and lithium-polymer (Li-poly) batteries have recently become dominant in consumer electronic products because of advantages associated with energy density and product longevity. However, the small size of these batteries, the high rate of disposal of consumer products in which they are used, and the lack of uniform regulatory policy on their disposal means that lithium batteries may contribute substantially to environmental pollution and adverse human health impacts due to potentially toxic materials. In this research, we used standardized leaching tests, life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA), and hazard assessment models to evaluate hazardous waste classification, resource depletion potential, and toxicity potentials of lithium batteries used in cellphones. Our results demonstrate that according to U.S. federal regulations, defunct Li-ion batteries are classified hazardous due to their lead (Pb) content (average 6.29 mg/L; σ = 11.1; limit 5). However, according to California regulations, all lithium batteries tested are classified hazardous due to excessive levels of cobalt (average 163,544 mg/kg; σ = 62,897; limit 8000), copper (average 98,694 mg/kg; σ = 28,734; limit 2500), and nickel (average 9525 mg/kg; σ = 11,438; limit 2000). In some of the Li-ion batteries, the leached concentrations of chromium, lead, and thallium exceeded the California regulation limits. The environmental impact associated with resource depletion and human toxicity is mainly associated with cobalt, copper, nickel, thallium, and silver, whereas the ecotoxicity potential is primarily associated with cobalt, copper, nickel, thallium, and silver. However, the relative contribution of aluminum and lithium to human toxicity and ecotoxicity could not be estimated due to insufficient toxicity data in the models. These findings support the need for stronger government policy at the local, national, and international levels to encourage recovery, recycling, and

  20. Improving electrolytes for lithium-ion and lithium oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalasani, Dinesh

    There is an ever increasing demand for fossil fuels. Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) can effectively reduce the production of greenhouse gases and lessen the need for fossil fuels. LIBs also have great potential in electric vehicle applications as an alternative to petroleum modes of transportation. Understanding the chemical reactions between the electrolyte and electrodes in LIBs is very crucial in developing batteries which can work over a wide temperature range and also give a wide potential window. The Solid Electrolyte Interface (SEI), formed by the reduction of solvent molecules on the surface of electrodes, is an important component of LIBs. The SEI is very essential to the performance of LIBs. One electron reduction pathway products of solvent molecules was investigated using lithium-naphthalenide. Methylene ethylene carbonate, a high temperature additive has been synthesized and its performance has been tested at 60°C. Lithium-Oxygen batteries have an energy density ten times greater than that of LIBs. However, lithium-oxygen batteries have rechargability problems associated with them. The most common electrolyte used in this type of batteries is LiPF6 in carbonate or ether based solvents. LiPF6 inherently decreases electrolyte stability, since LiPF 6 can undergo thermal dissociation into PF5 and LiF. PF 5 being a strong Lewis acid, can react with electron rich species. The thermal decomposition reactions of LiPF6 based electrolytes are studied in detail with regard to LIBs. The comprehensive study has been conducted on the thermal degradation of several electrolyte systems in the presence of Li2O2.

  1. Electrode materials and lithium battery systems

    DOEpatents

    Amine, Khalil; Belharouak, Ilias; Liu, Jun

    2011-06-28

    A material comprising a lithium titanate comprising a plurality of primary particles and secondary particles, wherein the average primary particle size is about 1 nm to about 500 nm and the average secondary particle size is about 1 .mu.m to about 4 .mu.m. In some embodiments the lithium titanate is carbon-coated. Also provided are methods of preparing lithium titanates, and devices using such materials.

  2. Lithium-Ion Cell Storage Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Leonine; Rao, Gopalkrishna M.

    2000-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the issues concerning storage of lithium ion batteries. The presentation outlines tests used to establish a best long term storage for the lithium ion cells. Another objective of the study was to determine the preferred solstice condition for the lithium ion chemistry (polymer and liquid electrolyte). It also compared voltage clamped with trickle charge storage. The tests and results are reviewed

  3. Male and female breeding strategies in a cooperative primate.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Maria Emilia; Araujo, Arrilton; Arruda, Maria de Fatima; Lima, Ana Karinne Moreira; Siqueira, Jose de Oliveira; Hattori, Wallisen Tadashi

    2014-11-01

    Marmosets are cooperative breeders organized as extended family groups, but breeding is generally restricted to a single pair. Breeding competition is fierce in female marmosets; males, on the other hand, show low levels of intragroup aggression. We investigated male and female breeding strategies and the resulting reproductive output in 9 wild groups. Reproductive output, tenure of breeding animals, identification of the breeding system, breeding position replacements, migration and infanticide were recorded; also, we recorded grooming and aggression. Replacement of the breeding male or female was observed on nine occasions. On four occasions, the son of the breeding male inherited the breeding post, but we never observed inheritance of a breeding post by a daughter. Mostly, females attained a breeding post by immigrating to a group that had a breeding vacancy. Our results showed that Callithrix jacchus males and females use different strategies to attain a breeding position and maintain it for as long as possible. These strategies prolong the tenure of the breeding position, which is the best way to produce a large number of offspring. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour. PMID:25010563

  4. [Mendelism in animal breeding as developed by professor Leopold Frateur, Louvain (1877-1946)].

    PubMed

    Gobin, A

    2000-01-01

    Educated as a veterinarian at Cureghem, Leopold Frateur started his scientific career in 1899 as a professor at the Faculty of Sciences of the Catholic University of Louvain, Belgium, in charge of the course in zootechnology. After a study tour to zootechnical institutes and centres of animal breeding in Europe he was invited by the governmental department of Agriculture and the Belgian Society of Zootechnology to investigate the relevance of the Mendelian laws of heredity for the improvement of cattle breeding. In the early years of the century, Frateur conducted field research in order to determine the characteristics of the cattle breeds in Belgium. In 1908 Frateur founded the Institute of Animal Husbandry at his university. Here he worked out his programme of experimental genetics until his retirement in 1936. The last six years of his professorship he teached also agricultural economics in the Faculty of Economical Sciences. In Frateur's experimental research the following main lines can be distinguished: 1) The analysis of simple and complex hereditary factors in cattle, rabbits and poultry; 2) The study of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of importance for the improvement of animal breeds; 3) The synthesis of genetic factors from different stock in order to obtain higher yielding breeds with stable characteristics; 4) Theoretical study of the relationship between genotype and phenotype and the influence of environment factors; 5) Theoretical exploration of the issue of variability and modification of newly formed characteristics; 6) Research leading to an explanation of telegony and atavism; 7) The formulation of a theory on the creation of new breeds in domestic animals and plants, and the relation between breed and species. Also he was responding to topical needs, e.g. he determined the causal factor of pullorum epidemic in chicken farming, or he investigated the hereditary resistance against diphteric infection amongst chickens. Frateur took

  5. Hot topic: Definition and implementation of a breeding value for feed efficiency in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pryce, J E; Gonzalez-Recio, O; Nieuwhof, G; Wales, W J; Coffey, M P; Hayes, B J; Goddard, M E

    2015-10-01

    A new breeding value that combines the amount of feed saved through improved metabolic efficiency with predicted maintenance requirements is described. The breeding value includes a genomic component for residual feed intake (RFI) combined with maintenance requirements calculated from either a genomic or pedigree estimated breeding value (EBV) for body weight (BW) predicted using conformation traits. Residual feed intake is only available for genotyped Holsteins; however, BW is available for all breeds. The RFI component of the "feed saved" EBV has 2 parts: Australian calf RFI and Australian lactating cow RFI. Genomic breeding values for RFI were estimated from a reference population of 2,036 individuals in a multi-trait analysis including Australian calf RFI (n=843), Australian lactating cow RFI (n=234), and UK and Dutch lactating cow RFI (n=958). In all cases, the RFI phenotypes were deviations from a mean of 0, calculated by correcting dry matter intake for BW, growth, and milk yield (in the case of lactating cows). Single nucleotide polymorphism effects were calculated from the output of genomic BLUP and used to predict breeding values of 4,106 Holstein sires that were genotyped but did not have RFI phenotypes themselves. These bulls already had BW breeding values calculated from type traits, from which maintenance requirements in kilograms of feed per year were inferred. Finally, RFI and the feed required for maintenance (through BW) were used to calculate a feed saved breeding value and expressed as the predicted amount of feed saved per year. Animals that were 1 standard deviation above the mean were predicted to eat 66 kg dry matter less per year at the same level of milk production. In a data set of genotyped Holstein sires, the mean reliability of the feed saved breeding value was 0.37. For Holsteins that are not genotyped and for breeds other than Holsteins, feed saved is calculated using BW only. From April 2015, feed saved has been included as part of

  6. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships in local cattle breeds of Senegal based on autosomal microsatellite markers

    PubMed Central

    Ndiaye, Ndèye Penda; Sow, Adama; Dayo, Guiguigbaza-Kossigan; Ndiaye, Saliou; Sawadogo, Germain Jerôme; Sembène, Mbacké

    2015-01-01

    Aim: In Senegal, uncontrolled cross-breeding of cattle breeds and changes in production systems are assumed to lead to an increase of gene flow between populations. This might constitute a relevant threat to livestock improvement. Therewith, this study was carried out to assess the current genetic diversity and the phylogenetic relationships of the four native Senegalese cattle breeds (Gobra zebu, Maure zebu, Djakoré, and N’Dama). Methods: Genomic DNA was isolated from blood samples of 120 unrelated animals collected from three agro-ecological areas of Senegal according to their phenotypic traits. Genotyping was done using 11 specific highly polymorphic microsatellite makers recommended by Food and Agriculture Organization. The basic measures of genetic variation and phylogenetic trees were computed using bioinformatics’ software. Results: A total of 115 alleles were identified with a number of alleles (Na) at one locus ranging from 6 to 16. All loci were polymorphic with a mean polymorphic information content of 0.76. The mean allelic richness (Rs) lay within the narrow range of 5.14 in N’Dama taurine to 6.10 in Gobra zebu. While, the expected heterozygosity (HE) per breed was high in general with an overall mean of 0.76±0.04. Generally, the heterozygote deficiency (FIS) of 0.073±0.026 was relatively due to inbreeding among these cattle breeds or the occurrence of population substructure. The high values of allelic and gene diversity showed that Senegalese native cattle breeds represented an important reservoir of genetic variation. The genetic distances and clustering trees concluded that the N’Dama cattle were most distinct among the investigated cattle populations. So, the principal component analyses showed qualitatively that there was an intensive genetic admixture between the Gobra zebu and Maure zebu breeds. Conclusions: The broad genetic diversity in Senegalese cattle breeds will allow for greater opportunities for improvement of productivity

  7. Lithium-sulfur hexafluoride magnetohydrodynamic power system

    SciTech Connect

    Dobran, F.

    1987-02-24

    A method is described to operate a two-phase flow magnetohydrodynamic electric power generation system with liquid lithium and gaseous sulfur-hexafluoride flowing through a diverging channel, with side electrodes to remove the electric current generated in the flowing liquid lithium, across the applied magnetic field that is perpendicular to both the flow velocity and electrodes. Sulfur-hexafluoride is dispersed in the form of small bubbles and reacts with liquid lithium that forms a continuous phase to conduct the current between the electrodes so as to produce a near isothermal two-phase flow mixture and provides for an expansion of lithium across the magnetic field in the generator.

  8. Ternary compound electrode for lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, Ian D.; Godshall, Ned A.; Huggins, Robert A.

    1982-01-01

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and of light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and normally is operated in the temperature range of about 350.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell in which lithium is the electroactive species. The cell has a positive electrode which includes a ternary compound generally represented as Li-M-O, wherein M is a transition metal. Corrosion of the inventive cell is considerably reduced.

  9. Ternary compound electrode for lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, I.D.; Godshall, N.A.; Huggins, R.A.

    1980-07-30

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and of light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and normally is operated in the temperature range of about 350 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell in which lithium is the electroactive species. The cell has a positive electrode which includes a ternary compound generally represented as Li-M-O, wherein M is a transition metal. Corrosion of the inventive cell is considerably reduced.

  10. Secondary lithium cells for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surampudi, S.; Shen, D. H.; Huang, C.-K.; Narayanan, S. R.; Attia, A.; Halpert, G.

    1992-01-01

    It is concluded that secondary lithium batteries are suitable for planetary missions requiring high specific energy, long active shelf life, and limited cycle life. Titanium disulfide cathode material meet all the requirements for rechargeable lithium cell, including high intrinsic reversibility and realizable specific energy. Secondary lithium technology is still evolving, although low capacity cells have been demonstrated and greater than 700 cycle life was achieved. Work is in progress to improve the cycle life and safety of the electrolytes, alternate lithium anode, and the separators.

  11. Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Wu; Wang, Jiulin; Ding, Fei; Chen, Xilin; Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Zhang, Yaohui; Zhang, Jiguang

    2013-10-29

    Rechargeable lithium metal batteries have much higher energy density than those of lithium ion batteries using graphite anode. Unfortunately, uncontrollable dendritic lithium growth inherent in these batteries (upon repeated charge/discharge cycling) and limited Coulombic efficiency during lithium deposition/striping has prevented their practical application over the past 40 years. With the emerging of post Li-ion batteries, safe and efficient operation of lithium metal anode has become an enabling technology which may determine the fate of several promising candidates for the next generation of energy storage systems, including rechargeable Li-air battery, Li-S battery, and Li metal battery which utilize lithium intercalation compounds as cathode. In this work, various factors which affect the morphology and Coulombic efficiency of lithium anode will be analyzed. Technologies used to characterize the morphology of lithium deposition and the results obtained by modeling of lithium dendrite growth will also be reviewed. At last, recent development in this filed and urgent need in this field will also be discussed.

  12. Lithium in Medicine: Mechanisms of Action.

    PubMed

    Mota de Freitas, Duarte; Leverson, Brian D; Goossens, Jesse L

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we review the mechanism of action of lithium salts from a chemical perspective. A description on how lithium salts are used to treat mental illnesses, in particular bipolar disorder, and other disease states is provided. Emphasis is not placed on the genetics and the psychopharmacology of the ailments for which lithium salts have proven to be beneficial. Rather we highlight the application of chemical methodologies for the characterization of the cellular targets of lithium salts and their distribution in tissues. PMID:26860311

  13. Review of lithium-ion technology

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, S.C.; Cieslak, W.R.

    1993-12-31

    The first practical use of graphite intercalation compounds (GIC) as battery anodes was reported in a 1981 patent by Basu in which a molten salt cell was described having a negative electrode that consisted of lithium intercalated in graphite. A second patent by Basu, issued in 1983, described an ambient temperature rechargeable system which also utilized lithium intercalated in graphite as the anode. Work in this area progressed at a low level, however, until interest was sparked in 1990 when Sony Corporation announced a new ``lithium-ion`` rechargeable cell containing a lithium ion intercalating carbon anode. These cells have the advantages of metallic lithium systems; i.e., high energy density, high voltage, and light weight, without the disadvantages of dendrite formation on charge and the safety considerations associated with metallic lithium. Materials other than carbon have been studied as intercalation anodes. Examples are Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, WO{sub 2} and TiS{sub 2}. Although these alternate anode materials are of interest academically and for specialty applications, they do not hold much promise for widespread general use due to their increased weight and lower cell voltage. Studies of cathode materials for lithium-ion systems have centered on the transition metal chalcogenides. A number of these materials are capable of reversibly intercalating lithium ions at a useful potential versus lithium. Both organic liquids and polymers are candidate electrolytes for this technology.

  14. Age-specific breeding in Emperor Geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmutz, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    I studied the frequency with which Emperor Geese (Chen canagica) of known age were observed breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. No one- or two-year old geese were observed on nests. Three-year old geese bred at a lower rate than four-year old geese. These data suggest that patterns of age-specific breeding in Emperor Geese are similar to other sympatrically nesting, large bodied geese [Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons)] but delayed relative to smaller bodied geese [Cackling Canada Geese (Branta canadensis minima) and Pacific Black Brant (B. bernicla nigricans)].

  15. Lithium-Air Cell Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Dobley, Arthur; Seymour, Frasier W.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-air (Li-air) primary batteries have a theoretical specific capacity of 11,400 Wh/kg, the highest of any common metal-air system. NASA is developing Li-air technology for a Mobile Oxygen Concentrator for Spacecraft Emergencies, an application which requires an extremely lightweight primary battery that can discharge over 24 hours continuously. Several vendors were funded through the NASA SBIR program to develop Li-air technology to fulfill the requirements of this application. New catalysts and carbon cathode structures were developed to enhance the oxygen reduction reaction and increase surface area to improve cell performance. Techniques to stabilize the lithium metal anode surface were explored. Experimental results for prototype laboratory cells are given. Projections are made for the performance of hypothetical cells constructed from the materials that were developed.

  16. Potential Impacts of Climatic Change on European Breeding Birds

    PubMed Central

    Huntley, Brian; Collingham, Yvonne C.; Willis, Stephen G.; Green, Rhys E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Climatic change is expected to lead to changes in species' geographical ranges. Adaptation strategies for biodiversity conservation require quantitative estimates of the magnitude, direction and rates of these potential changes. Such estimates are of greatest value when they are made for large ensembles of species and for extensive (sub-continental or continental) regions. Methodology/Principal Findings For six climate scenarios for 2070–99 changes have been estimated for 431 European breeding bird species using models relating species' distributions in Europe to climate. Mean range centroid potentially shifted 258–882 km in a direction between 341° (NNW) and 45° (NE), depending upon the climate scenario considered. Potential future range extent averaged 72–89% of the present range, and overlapped the present range by an average of 31–53% of the extent of the present range. Even if potential range changes were realised, the average number of species breeding per 50×50 km grid square would decrease by 6·8–23·2%. Many species endemic or near-endemic to Europe have little or no overlap between their present and potential future ranges; such species face an enhanced extinction risk as a consequence of climatic change. Conclusions/Significance Although many human activities exert pressures upon wildlife, the magnitude of the potential impacts estimated for European breeding birds emphasises the importance of climatic change. The development of adaptation strategies for biodiversity conservation in the face of climatic change is an urgent need; such strategies must take into account quantitative evidence of potential climatic change impacts such as is presented here. PMID:18197250

  17. Nickel-Hydrogen and Lithium Ion Space Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Robert O., II

    2004-01-01

    The tasks of the Electrochemistry Branch of NASA Glenn Research Center are to improve and develop high energy density and rechargeable, life-long batteries. It is with these batteries that people across the globe are able to power their cell phones, laptop computers, and cameras. Here, at NASA Glenn Research Center, the engineers and scientists of the Electrochemistry branch are leading the way in the development of more powerful, long life batteries that can be used to power space shuttles and satellites. As of now, the cutting edge research and development is being done on nickel-hydrogen batteries and lithium ion batteries. Presently, nickel-hydrogen batteries are common types of batteries that are used to power satellites, space stations, and space shuttles, while lithium batteries are mainly used to power smaller appliances such as portable computers and phones. However, the Electrochemistry Branch at NASA Glenn Research Center is focusing more on the development of lithium ion batteries for deep space use. Because of the limitless possibilities, lithium ion batteries can revolutionize the space industry for the better. When compared to nickel-hydrogen batteries, lithium ion batteries possess more advantages than its counterpart. Lithium ion batteries are much smaller than nickel-hydrogen batteries and also put out more power. They are more energy efficient and operate with much more power at a reduced weight than its counterpart. Lithium ion cells are also cheaper to make, possess flexibility that allow for different design modifications. With those statistics in hand, the Electrochemistry Branch of NASA Glenn has decided to shut down its Nickel-Hydrogen testing for lithium ion battery development. Also, the blackout in the summer of 2003 eliminated vital test data, which played a part in shutting down the program. from the nickel-hydrogen batteries and compare it to past data. My other responsibilities include superheating the electrolyte that is used in the

  18. Estimating superpopulation size and annual probability of breeding for pond-breeding salamanders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinkead, K.E.; Otis, D.L.

    2007-01-01

    It has long been accepted that amphibians can skip breeding in any given year, and environmental conditions act as a cue for breeding. In this paper, we quantify temporary emigration or nonbreeding probability for mole and spotted salamanders (Ambystoma talpoideum and A. maculatum). We estimated that 70% of mole salamanders may skip breeding during an average rainfall year and 90% may skip during a drought year. Spotted salamanders may be more likely to breed, with only 17% avoiding the breeding pond during an average rainfall year. We illustrate how superpopulations can be estimated using temporary emigration probability estimates. The superpopulation is the total number of salamanders associated with a given breeding pond. Although most salamanders stay within a certain distance of a breeding pond for the majority of their life spans, it is difficult to determine true overall population sizes for a given site if animals are only captured during a brief time frame each year with some animals unavailable for capture at any time during a given year. ?? 2007 by The Herpetologists' League, Inc.

  19. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2014-08-05

    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  20. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Alamgir, Mohamed; Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  1. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Alamgir, M.; Abraham, K.M.

    1993-10-12

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li[sup +]) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride). 3 figures.

  2. Crystallization of lithium borate glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goktas, A. A.; Neilson, G. F.; Weinberg, M. C.

    1992-01-01

    The glass-forming ability and crystallization behavior of lithium borate compositions, in the diborate-to-metaborate-range, were studied. In particular, the nature and sequence of formation of crystalline phases and the tendency toward devitrification were investigated as functions of temperature, thermal history and batch composition. It was found that the sequence of crystalline phase formation was sensitive to all of the three latter factors, and it was observed that under certain conditions metastable defect structures of the metaborate can appear.

  3. Willet M. Hays, great benefactor to plant breeding and the founder of our association.

    PubMed

    Troyer, A F; Stoehr, H

    2003-01-01

    Willet M. Hays was a great benefactor to plant breeding and the founder of the American Genetic Association (AGA). We commemorate the AGA's centennial. We mined university archives, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) yearbooks, plant breeding textbooks, scientific periodicals, and descendants for information. Willet Hays first recognized the individual plant as the unit of selection and started systematic pure-line selection and progeny tests in 1888. He developed useful plant breeding methods. He selected superior flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), wheat (Triticum vulgare L.), corn (Zea mays L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and oat (Avena sativa L.) varieties, and discovered Grimm alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.); all became commercially important. He initiated branch stations for better performance testing. Willet Hays befriended colleagues in other universities, in federal stations, in a London conference, and in Europe. He gathered and spread the scientific plant breeding gospel. He also improved rural roads and initiated animal breeding records and agricultural economics records. He started the AGA in 1903, serving as secretary for 10 years. He became assistant secretary of agriculture in 1904. He introduced the project system for agricultural research. He authored or coauthored the Nelson Amendment, the Smith-Lever Act, the Smith-Hughes Act, and the protocol leading to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization-all involved teaching agricultural practices that improved the world. PMID:14691309

  4. Next generation sequencing and omics in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) breeding directed research.

    PubMed

    Pawełkowicz, Magdalena; Zieliński, Konrad; Zielińska, Dorota; Pląder, Wojciech; Yagi, Kouhei; Wojcieszek, Michał; Siedlecka, Ewa; Bartoszewski, Grzegorz; Skarzyńska, Agnieszka; Przybecki, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    In the post-genomic era the availability of genomic tools and resources is leading us to novel generation methods in plant breeding, as they facilitate the study of the genotype and its relationship with the phenotype, in particular for complex traits. In this study we have mainly concentrated on the Cucumis sativus and (but much less) Cucurbitaceae family several important vegetable crops. There are many reports on research conducted in Cucurbitaceae plant breeding programs on the ripening process, phloem transport, disease resistance, cold tolerance and fruit quality traits. This paper presents the role played by new omic technologies in the creation of knowledge on the mechanisms of the formation of the breeding features. The analysis of NGS (NGS-next generation sequencing) data allows the discovery of new genes and regulatory sequences, their positions, and makes available large collections of molecular markers. Genome-wide expression studies provide breeders with an understanding of the molecular basis of complex traits. Firstly a high density map should be created for the reference genome, then each re-sequencing data could be mapped and new markers brought out into breeding populations. The paper also presents methods that could be used in the future for the creation of variability and genomic modification of the species in question. It has been shown also the state and usefulness in breeding the chloroplastomic and mitochondriomic study. PMID:26566826

  5. The effects of different rack systems on the breeding performance of DBA/2 mice.

    PubMed

    Tsai, P-P; Oppermann, D; Stelzer, H D; Mähler, M; Hackbarth, H

    2003-01-01

    Housing systems for laboratory animals have been developed over a long time. Micro-environmental systems such as positive, individually ventilated caging systems and forced-air-ventilated systems are increasingly used by many researchers to reduce cross contamination between cages. There have been many investigations of the impact of these systems on the health of animals, the light intensity, the relative humidity and temperature of cages, the concentration of ammonia and CO(2), and other factors in the cages. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of different rack systems and to understand the influence of environmental enrichment on the breeding performance of mice. Sixty DBA/2 breeding pairs were used for this experiment. Animals were kept in three rack systems: a ventilated cabinet, a normal open rack and an individually ventilated cage rack (IVC rack) with enriched or non-enriched type II elongated Makrolon cages. Reproduction performance was recorded from 10 to 40 weeks of age. In all three rack systems there was a similar breeding index (pups/dam/week) in non-enriched groups during the long-term breeding period, but the coefficients of variation in the IVC rack were higher for most parameters. This type of enrichment seems to lead to a decrease in the number of pups born, especially in the IVC group. However, there was no significant difference in breeding index (young weaned/female/week). PMID:12626071

  6. Aluminum-lithium target behavior

    SciTech Connect

    McDonell, W.R.

    1989-10-01

    Information on physical properties and irradiation behavior of aluminum-lithium target alloys employed for the production of tritium in Savannah River reactors has been reviewed to support development of technology for the New Production Reactor (NPR). Phase compositions and microstructures, thermal conductivity, mechanical properties, and constituent diffusion phenomena of the alloys, established in prior site studies, are presented. Irradiation behavior, including distributions of product tritium and helium and related exposure limits due to swelling and cracking of the target alloys is discussed, along with gas release processes occurring during subsequent product recovery operations. The property review supports designation of the aluminum-lithium alloys as ideally well-suited target materials for low-temperature, tritium-producing reactors, demonstrated over 35 years of Savannah River reactor operation. Low temperature irradiation and reaction with lithium in the alloy promotes tritium retention during reactor exposure, and the aluminum provides a matrix from which the product is readily recovered on heating following irradiation. 33 refs., 26 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Lithium batteries for pulse power

    SciTech Connect

    Redey, L.

    1990-01-01

    New designs of lithium batteries having bipolar construction and thin cell components possess the very low impedance that is necessary to deliver high-intensity current pulses. The R D and understanding of the fundamental properties of these pulse batteries have reached an advanced level. Ranges of 50--300 kW/kg specific power and 80--130 Wh/kg specific energy have been demonstrated with experimental high-temperature lithium alloy/transition-metal disulfide rechargeable bipolar batteries in repeated 1- to 100-ms long pulses. Other versions are designed for repetitive power bursts that may last up to 20 or 30 s and yet may attain high specific power (1--10 kW/kg). Primary high-temperature Li-alloy/FeS{sub 2} pulse batteries (thermal batteries) are already commercially available. Other high-temperature lithium systems may use chlorine or metal-oxide positive electrodes. Also under development are low-temperature pulse batteries: a 50-kW Li/SOCl{sub 2} primary batter and an all solid-state, polymer-electrolyte secondary battery. Such pulse batteries could find use in commercial and military applications in the near future. 21 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Costs Associated with Equine Breeding in Kentucky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Cassandra L.

    There were approximately 9 million horses in the United States having a 102 billion impact on the U.S. economy (AHC, 2005). Over 1 million of those horses were involved in the breeding sector. In Kentucky, nearly 18% of the horse population have been involved in breeding. Managing an equine enterprise can be difficult, particularly given that many who undertake such endeavors do not have a background or education in business management. Kentucky Cooperative Extension has produced interactive spreadsheets to help horse owners better understand the costs associated with owning horses or managing certain equine businesses, including boarding and training operations. However, there has been little support for breeders. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide owners with a list of services offered for breeding and the costs associated with those services. Survey questions were created from a list of topics pertinent to equine breeding and from that list of questions, an electronic survey was created. The survey was sent via Qualtrics Survey Software to collect information on stallion and mare management costs as well as expenses related to owning and breeding. Question topics included veterinary and housing costs, management and advertising expenses, and membership fees. A total of 78 farms were selected from the 2013 breeder's listings for the Kentucky Quarter Horse Association (n = 39) and the Kentucky Thoroughbred Farm Managers' Club (n = 26), and other breed association contacts (n = 13). These farms were selected from the lists by outside individuals who were not related to the project. Participants were asked to answer all questions relevant to the farm. After the initial survey distribution, follow-up e-mails and phone calls were conducted in order to answer any questions participants might have had about the survey. Survey response rate was 32.1% (25 of 78 surveys returned). Farms in Kentucky had an average of two farm-owned and two outside

  9. Fundamental Investigation of Silicon Anode in Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, James J.; Bennett, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Silicon is a promising and attractive anode material to replace graphite for high capacity lithium ion cells since its theoretical capacity is 10 times of graphite and it is an abundant element on Earth. However, there are challenges associated with using silicon as Li-ion anode due to the significant first cycle irreversible capacity loss and subsequent rapid capacity fade during cycling. Understanding solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation along with the lithium ion insertion/de-insertion kinetics in silicon anodes will provide greater insight into overcoming these issues, thereby lead to better cycle performance. In this paper, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are used to build a fundamental understanding of silicon anodes. The results show that it is difficult to form the SEI film on the surface of a Si anode during the first cycle; the lithium ion insertion and de-insertion kinetics for Si are sluggish, and the cell internal resistance changes with the state of lithiation after electrochemical cycling. These results are compared with those for extensively studied graphite anodes. The understanding gained from this study will help to design better Si anodes, and the combination of cyclic voltammetry with impedance spectroscopy provides a useful tool to evaluate the effectiveness of the design modifications on the Si anode performance.

  10. Investigation of lithium-thionyl chloride battery safety hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attia, A. I.; Gabriel, K. A.; Burns, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    In the ten years since the feasibility of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell was first recognized (1) remarkable progress has been made in hardware development. Cells as large as 16,000 Ah (2) and batteries of 10.8 MWh (3) have been demonstrated. In a low rate configuration, energy densities of 500 to 600 Wh/kg are easily achieved. Even in the absence of reported explosions, safety would be a concern for such a dense energetic package; the energy density of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell is approaching that of dynamite (924 Wh/kg). In fact explosions have occurred. In general the hazards associated with lithium-thionyl chloride batteries may be divided into four categories: Explosions as a result of an error in battery design. Very large cells were in prototype development prior to a full appreciation of the hazards of the system. It is possible that some of the remaining safety issues are related to cell design; Explosions as a result of external physical abuse such as cell incineration and puncture; Explosions due to short circuiting which could lead to thermal runaway reactions. These problems appear to have been solved by changes in the battery design (4); and Explosions due to abnormal electrical operation (i.e., charging (5) and overdischarging (6) and in partially or fully discharged cells on storage (7 and 8).

  11. Systematic Effect for an Ultralong Cycle Lithium-Sulfur Battery.

    PubMed

    Wu, Feng; Ye, Yusheng; Chen, Renjie; Qian, Ji; Zhao, Teng; Li, Li; Li, Wenhui

    2015-11-11

    Rechargeable lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are attractive candidates for energy storage devices because they have five times the theoretical energy storage of state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries. The main problems plaguing Li-S batteries are poor cycle life and limited rate capability, caused by the insulating nature of S and the shuttle effect associated with the dissolution of intermediate lithium polysulfides. Here, we report the use of biocell-inspired polydopamine (PD) as a coating agent on both the cathode and separator to address these problems (the "systematic effects"). The PD-modified cathode and separator play key roles in facilitating ion diffusion and keeping the cathode structure stable, leading to uniform lithium deposition and a solid electrolyte interphase. As a result, an ultralong cycle performance of more than 3000 cycles, with a capacity fade of only 0.018% per cycle, was achieved at 2 C. It is believed that the systematic modification of the cathode and separator for Li-S batteries is a new strategy for practical applications. PMID:26502268

  12. Solvents' Critical Role in Nonaqueous Lithium-Oxygen Battery Electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    McCloskey, B D; Bethune, D S; Shelby, R M; Girishkumar, G; Luntz, A C

    2011-05-19

    Among the many important challenges facing the development of Li-air batteries, understanding the electrolyte's role in producing the appropriate reversible electrochemistry (i.e., 2Li(+) + O2 + 2e(-) ↔ Li2O2) is critical. Quantitative differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS), coupled with isotopic labeling of oxygen gas, was used to study Li-O2 electrochemistry in various solvents, including carbonates (typical Li ion battery solvents) and dimethoxyethane (DME). In conjunction with the gas-phase DEMS analysis, electrodeposits formed during discharge on Li-O2 cell cathodes were characterized using ex situ analytical techniques, such as X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Carbonate-based solvents were found to irreversibly decompose upon cell discharge. DME-based cells, however, produced mainly lithium peroxide on discharge. Upon cell charge, the lithium peroxide both decomposed to evolve oxygen and oxidized DME at high potentials. Our results lead to two conclusions; (1) coulometry has to be coupled with quantitative gas consumption and evolution data to properly characterize the rechargeability of Li-air batteries, and (2) chemical and electrochemical electrolyte stability in the presence of lithium peroxide and its intermediates is essential to produce a truly reversible Li-O2 electrochemistry. PMID:26295320

  13. Application of Carbon Nanomaterials in Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaber-Ansari, Laila

    Carbon nanomaterials such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and graphene have emerged as leading additives for high capacity nanocomposite lithium ion battery electrodes due to their ability to improve electrode conductivity, current collection efficiency, and charge/discharge rate for high power applications. In this work, the these nanomaterials have been developed and their properties have been fine-tuned to help solve fundamental issues in conventional lithium ion battery electrodes. Towards this end, the application of SWCNTs in lithium-ion anodes has been studied. As-grown SWCNTs possess a distribution of physical and electronic structures, and it is of high interest to determine which subpopulations of SWCNTs possess the highest lithiation capacity and to develop processing methods that can enhance the lithiation capacity of underperforming SWCNT species. Towards this end, SWCNT electronic type purity is controlled via density gradient ultracentrifugation, enabling a systematic study of the lithiation of SWCNTs as a function of metal versus semiconducting content. Experimentally, vacuum filtered freestanding films of metallic SWCNTs are found to accommodate lithium with an order of magnitude higher capacity than their semiconducting counterparts. In contrast, SWCNT film densification leads to the enhancement of the lithiation capacity of semiconducting SWCNTs to levels comparable to metallic SWCNTs, which is corroborated by theoretical calculations. To understand the interaction of the graphene with lithium ions and electrolyte species during electrochemical we use Raman spectroscopy in a model system of monolayer graphene transferred on a Si(111) substrate and density functional theory (DFT) to investigate defect formation as a function of lithiation. This model system enables the early stages of defect formation to be probed in a manner previously not possible with commonly-used reduced graphene oxide or multilayer graphene substrates. Using ex

  14. Criteria for selecting replacements at weaning, before breeding, and after breeding.

    PubMed

    Lamb, G Cliff

    2013-11-01

    At weaning, heifers should be considered for replacements based on their dam's previous performance; heifer calving date, age, and weight; and previous exposure to implants. Before breeding, heifers should be selected as replacements based on whether they have attained puberty (determined by a prebreeding examination), do not have abnormal pelvic areas, or fail to meet temperament standards. After breeding, heifers should be selected as replacements if they conceive early in the breeding season, are capable of achieving 85% of their mature weight by calving, and calve at a body condition of 5.5 to 6.0. PMID:24182435

  15. A Lithium Amide Protected Against Protonation in the Gas Phase: Unexpected Effect of LiCl.

    PubMed

    Lesage, Denis; Barozzino-Consiglio, Gabriella; Duwald, Romain; Fressigné, Catherine; Harrison-Marchand, Anne; Faull, Kym F; Maddaluno, Jacques; Gimbert, Yves

    2015-06-19

    In cold THF and in the presence of LiCl, a lithium pyrrolidinylamide forms a 1:1 mixed aggregate, which is observed directly by ESI-MS. Gas-phase protonation of this species leads to selective transfer of H(+) to the chlorine, suggesting that LiCl shields the amide nitrogen and prevents its direct protonation. PMID:25997158

  16. Solid lithium electrolyte via addition of lithium salts to metal-organic frameworks

    DOEpatents

    Wiers, Brian M.; Balsara, Nitash P.; Long, Jeffrey R.

    2016-03-29

    Various embodiments of the invention disclose that the uptake of LiO.sup.iPr in Mg.sub.2(dobdc) (dobdc.sup.4-=1,4-dioxido-2,5-benzenedicarboxylate) followed by soaking in a typical electrolyte solution leads to a new solid lithium electrolyte Mg.sub.2(dobdc).0.35LiO.sup.iPr.0.25LiBF.sub.4.EC.DEC. Two-point ac impedance data show a pressed pellet of this material to have a conductivity of 3.1.times.10.sup.-4 S/cm at 300 K. In addition, the results from variable-temperature measurements reveal an activation energy of approximately 0.15 eV, while single-particle data suggest that intraparticle transport dominates conduction.

  17. Effects of Carbonate Solvents and Lithium Salts on Morphology and Coulombic Efficiency of Lithium Electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Fei; Xu, Wu; Chen, Xilin; Zhang, Jian; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhang, Yaohui; Johnson, Bradley R.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Blake, Thomas A.; Liu, Xingjiang; Zhang, Jiguang

    2013-09-04

    The application of lithium (Li) metal anode in rechargeable batteries is hindered by Li dendrite growth during Li deposition and low Li Coulombic efficiency (CE), where the nonaqueous electrolyte plays a critical role. In this work, the effects of different carbonate solvents and Li salts on Li deposition morphology and CE were systematically investigated. Typically cyclic carbonates are found to favor the formation of uniform Li film and improve Li CE than linear carbonates do. Several specific cyclic carbonates that are conventionally used as solid electrolyte interface formation additives in Li ion batteries can also improve the CE of Li anode. Furthermore, among the nine electrolyte salts studied, LiAsF6 and LiBOB lead to the highest CE for Li anode. LiBOB also leads to much smoother Li morphology than other salts do. Considering the better safety of LiBOB as compared to LiAsF6, LiBOB is a promising Li salt for rechargeable Li metal batteries with high CE. By combining the best electrolyte solvent/salt that can lead to high Li CE and novel electrolyte additives that can prevent dendrite formation, it is possible to find an electrolyte that not only prevents Li dendrite formation but also lead to high CE during Li deposition/stripping processes.

  18. Development and application of biological technologies in fish genetic breeding.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kang; Duan, Wei; Xiao, Jun; Tao, Min; Zhang, Chun; Liu, Yun; Liu, ShaoJun

    2015-02-01

    Fish genetic breeding is a process that remolds heritable traits to obtain neotype and improved varieties. For the purpose of genetic improvement, researchers can select for desirable genetic traits, integrate a suite of traits from different donors, or alter the innate genetic traits of a species. These improved varieties have, in many cases, facilitated the development of the aquaculture industry by lowering costs and increasing both quality and yield. In this review, we present the pertinent literatures and summarize the biological bases and application of selection breeding technologies (containing traditional selective breeding, molecular marker-assisted breeding, genome-wide selective breeding and breeding by controlling single-sex groups), integration breeding technologies (containing cross breeding, nuclear transplantation, germline stem cells and germ cells transplantation, artificial gynogenesis, artificial androgenesis and polyploid breeding) and modification breeding technologies (represented by transgenic breeding) in fish genetic breeding. Additionally, we discuss the progress our laboratory has made in the field of chromosomal ploidy breeding of fish, including distant hybridization, gynogenesis, and androgenesis. Finally, we systematically summarize the research status and known problems associated with each technology. PMID:25595050

  19. Molecular breeding in Brassica for salt tolerance: importance of microsatellite (SSR) markers for molecular breeding in Brassica

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Manu; Choi, Ju-Young; Kumari, Nisha; Pareek, Ashwani; Kim, Seong-Ryong

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the important abiotic factors for any crop management in irrigated as well as rainfed areas, which leads to poor harvests. This yield reduction in salt affected soils can be overcome by improving salt tolerance in crops or by soil reclamation. Salty soils can be reclaimed by leaching the salt or by cultivation of salt tolerance crops. Salt tolerance is a quantitative trait controlled by several genes. Poor knowledge about mechanism of its inheritance makes slow progress in its introgression into target crops. Brassica is known to be a good reclamation crop. Inter and intra specific variation within Brassica species shows potential of molecular breeding to raise salinity tolerant genotypes. Among the various molecular markers, SSR markers are getting high attention, since they are randomly sparsed, highly variable and show co-dominant inheritance. Furthermore, as sequencing techniques are improving and softwares to find SSR markers are being developed, SSR markers technology is also evolving rapidly. Comparative SSR marker studies targeting Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica species which lie in the same family will further aid in studying the salt tolerance related QTLs and subsequent identification of the “candidate genes” and finding out the origin of important QTLs. Although, there are a few reports on molecular breeding for improving salt tolerance using molecular markers in Brassica species, usage of SSR markers has a big potential to improve salt tolerance in Brassica crops. In order to obtain best harvests, role of SSR marker driven breeding approaches play important role and it has been discussed in this review especially for the introgression of salt tolerance traits in crops. PMID:26388887

  20. Molecular breeding in Brassica for salt tolerance: importance of microsatellite (SSR) markers for molecular breeding in Brassica.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manu; Choi, Ju-Young; Kumari, Nisha; Pareek, Ashwani; Kim, Seong-Ryong

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the important abiotic factors for any crop management in irrigated as well as rainfed areas, which leads to poor harvests. This yield reduction in salt affected soils can be overcome by improving salt tolerance in crops or by soil reclamation. Salty soils can be reclaimed by leaching the salt or by cultivation of salt tolerance crops. Salt tolerance is a quantitative trait controlled by several genes. Poor knowledge about mechanism of its inheritance makes slow progress in its introgression into target crops. Brassica is known to be a good reclamation crop. Inter and intra specific variation within Brassica species shows potential of molecular breeding to raise salinity tolerant genotypes. Among the various molecular markers, SSR markers are getting high attention, since they are randomly sparsed, highly variable and show co-dominant inheritance. Furthermore, as sequencing techniques are improving and softwares to find SSR markers are being developed, SSR markers technology is also evolving rapidly. Comparative SSR marker studies targeting Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica species which lie in the same family will further aid in studying the salt tolerance related QTLs and subsequent identification of the "candidate genes" and finding out the origin of important QTLs. Although, there are a few reports on molecular breeding for improving salt tolerance using molecular markers in Brassica species, usage of SSR markers has a big potential to improve salt tolerance in Brassica crops. In order to obtain best harvests, role of SSR marker driven breeding approaches play important role and it has been discussed in this review especially for the introgression of salt tolerance traits in crops. PMID:26388887

  1. Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Lithium-Air, Lithium-Water & Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Visco, Steven J

    2015-11-30

    The global demand for rechargeable batteries is large and growing rapidly. Assuming the adoption of electric vehicles continues to increase, the need for smaller, lighter, and less expensive batteries will become even more pressing. In this vein, PolyPlus Battery Company has developed ultra-light high performance batteries based on its proprietary protected lithium electrode (PLE) technology. The Company’s Lithium-Air and Lithium-Seawater batteries have already demonstrated world record performance (verified by third party testing), and we are developing advanced lithium-sulfur batteries which have the potential deliver high performance at low cost. In this program PolyPlus Battery Company teamed with Corning Incorporated to transition the PLE technology from bench top fabrication using manual tooling to a pre- commercial semi-automated pilot line. At the inception of this program PolyPlus worked with a Tier 1 battery manufacturing engineering firm to design and build the first-of-its-kind pilot line for PLE production. The pilot line was shipped and installed in Berkeley, California several months after the start of the program. PolyPlus spent the next two years working with and optimizing the pilot line and now produces all of its PLEs on this line. The optimization process successfully increased the yield, throughput, and quality of PLEs produced on the pilot line. The Corning team focused on fabrication and scale-up of the ceramic membranes that are key to the PLE technology. PolyPlus next demonstrated that it could take Corning membranes through the pilot line process to produce state-of-the-art protected lithium electrodes. In the latter part of the program the Corning team developed alternative membranes targeted for the large rechargeable battery market. PolyPlus is now in discussions with several potential customers for its advanced PLE-enabled batteries, and is building relationships and infrastructure for the transition into manufacturing. It is likely

  2. Linkage Drag: Implication for Plant Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Linkage drag is commonly observed in plant breeding, yet the molecular mechanisms controlling this is unclear. The Pi-ta gene, a single copy gene near the centromere region of chromosome 12, confers resistance to races of Magnaporthe oryzae that contain AVR-Pita. The Pi-ta gene in Tetep has been su...

  3. Genomics to feed a switchgrass breeding program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of improved cultivars is one of three pillars, along with sustainable production and efficient conversion, required for dedicated cellulosic bioenergy crops to succeed. Breeding new cultivars is a long, slow process requiring patience, dedication, and motivation to realize gains and adva...

  4. Genetics, Breeding, and Ecology of Reed Canarygrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reed canarygrass has been an important grass for hay production, soil conservation, and pastures in the USA since the late 1800s. It is tolerant of a wide range of environmental stresses, including drought, heat, and flooding. Breeding new varieties of reed canarygrass began in the 1950s by collec...

  5. Breeding lettuce for fresh-cut processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lettuce is increasingly consumed in fresh-cut packaged salads. New cultivars specifically bred for this use can enhance production and processing efficiency and extend shelf life. Cultivars with novel head architectures and leaf traits are being released by private and public breeding programs with ...

  6. Marketing potential of advanced breeding clones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. The degree to which cultivars accumulate reducing sugars during storage determines their processing and market potential. Cultivars or advanced breeding lines with...

  7. MARKETING POTENTIAL OF ADVANCED BREEDING CLONES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accumulation of reducing sugars during cold storage of potato tubers is a serious and costly problem for producers and processors. The degree to which cultivars accumulate reducing sugars during storage determines their processing and market potential. Cultivars or advanced breeding lines with...

  8. Strawberry breeding selections for postharvest fruit decay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit from the annual replicated yield assessments for the USDA-ARS strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier) breeding program at Beltsville, MD in 2010 were evaluated for postharvest decay development after storage at 5 °C. A statistically significant correlation between percentage decay o...

  9. Impacts of the USDA basic breeding program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDAs basic sugarcane breeding program began in the mid 1950s with the objective of moving genes from wild sugarcane germplasm into commercial cane. Several releases have been made from this program, but it is a very long process. To date, the pedigree of seven commercial Louisiana varieties can...

  10. Breeding for phytonutrient content; examples from watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeding for high phytonutrient fruits and vegetables can be a fairly straightforward endeavor when the compounds of interest produce a visible effect or the methods for quantifying the compounds simple and inexpensive. Lycopene in tomatoes and watermelon is one such compound, since the amount of r...

  11. A New Breed of Environmental Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malamud, Randy

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author reports how today's environmental film festivals feature a new breed of documentary that offer nuanced narratives about intricate technologies. The author relates that the environmental films he grew up with sedately depicted the quiet sublimity of the wilderness. Today's films, the author observes, aim far beyond a…

  12. A brief genomic history of tomato breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we report a brief genomic history of tomato breeding by analyzing the genomes of 360 diverse accessions collected all over the world. These included 333 accessions from the red fruited clade (S. pimpinellifolium, S. l. var. cerasiforme, and S. lycopersicum) that represent various geographical o...

  13. Breeding System of Ruellia succulenta Small (Acanthaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examines the breeding system of Ruellia succulenta (Acanthaceae), an herbaceous perennial found in the pine rockland habitat of southern Florida. Hand pollination treatments were performed on 75 plants, 25 from each of three sites. Treatments applied to test plants included: 1) control ...

  14. Interspecific Sorghum Breeding Using S. macrospermum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] has been improved by public and private breeding programs utilizing germplasm mostly from within the species. Different cross-incompatibility mechanisms have prevented its hybridization with species in other sections of the genus. These incompatibilities...

  15. Traditional breeding and cultivar development (potato)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional breeding allows for the genetic ‘reshuffling’ of genes and their recombination into new genotypes that may carry the desired assemblage of resistance and agronomic traits necessary for release as a new cultivar. While molecular biology techniques can be useful for improving upon a weakne...

  16. Determining Ploidy Level in Guayule Breeding Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The domestication and cultivation of guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray) as a perennial natural rubber crop has been intermittent in the southwestern United States, thus its continued genetic improvement through modern plant breeding is vitally needed to realize yield potential and suitability for ...

  17. Validating selective breeding approaches for disease resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selective breeding of rainbow trout at the USDA/ARS National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture (NCCCWA) in Leetown, West Virginia is designed to accomplish four goals: 1) define commercially important traits such as disease resistance, growth rate, stress response, and feed efficiency; 2) d...

  18. Biotechnology and apple breeding in Japan.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Megumi; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Harada, Takeo; Fukasawa-Akada, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Apple is a fruit crop of significant economic importance, and breeders world wide continue to develop novel cultivars with improved characteristics. The lengthy juvenile period and the large field space required to grow apple populations have imposed major limitations on breeding. Various molecular biological techniques have been employed to make apple breeding easier. Transgenic technology has facilitated the development of apples with resistance to fungal or bacterial diseases, improved fruit quality, or root stocks with better rooting or dwarfing ability. DNA markers for disease resistance (scab, powdery mildew, fire-blight, Alternaria blotch) and fruit skin color have also been developed, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been employed in breeding programs. In the last decade, genomic sequences and chromosome maps of various cultivars have become available, allowing the development of large SNP arrays, enabling efficient QTL mapping and genomic selection (GS). In recent years, new technologies for genetic improvement, such as trans-grafting, virus vectors, and genome-editing, have emerged. Using these techniques, no foreign genes are present in the final product, and some of them show considerable promise for application to apple breeding. PMID:27069388

  19. Biotechnology and apple breeding in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Megumi; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Harada, Takeo; Fukasawa-Akada, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Apple is a fruit crop of significant economic importance, and breeders world wide continue to develop novel cultivars with improved characteristics. The lengthy juvenile period and the large field space required to grow apple populations have imposed major limitations on breeding. Various molecular biological techniques have been employed to make apple breeding easier. Transgenic technology has facilitated the development of apples with resistance to fungal or bacterial diseases, improved fruit quality, or root stocks with better rooting or dwarfing ability. DNA markers for disease resistance (scab, powdery mildew, fire-blight, Alternaria blotch) and fruit skin color have also been developed, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been employed in breeding programs. In the last decade, genomic sequences and chromosome maps of various cultivars have become available, allowing the development of large SNP arrays, enabling efficient QTL mapping and genomic selection (GS). In recent years, new technologies for genetic improvement, such as trans-grafting, virus vectors, and genome-editing, have emerged. Using these techniques, no foreign genes are present in the final product, and some of them show considerable promise for application to apple breeding. PMID:27069388

  20. Combination solar hothouse and silkworm breeding house

    SciTech Connect

    Vardiashvili, A.B.; Muradov, M.; Kim, V.D.

    1980-01-01

    The basic arrangement is shown for a combination silkworm breeding house and solar hothouse with subsoil irrigation and accumulation of heat; it employs a semicylindrical film covering. The process of accumulation of solar heat in the subsoil pebble stores, in water-heater banks, and in the soil is described.