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Sample records for lithuania early closure

  1. Challenges for Lithuania: Ignalina NPP Early Closure

    SciTech Connect

    Teskeviciene, Birute

    2008-01-15

    thereby reducing operating costs and the final quantity of spent fuel. Design and construction of the facilities for spent fuel storage, waste processing and free-release is ongoing. The siting of the Near Surface Repository is now in the final stages of approval and construction of the landfill facility is under tendering. In order to facilitate the approval process and minimize the transport of waste, both disposal facilities will be within the boundary of the NPP site. Approximately 450 staff are employed at the shutdown Unit 1 for the safe maintenance of essential systems. The total staffing level at the plant is currently being reduced by around 200 each year, with a larger release to take place at the closure of Unit 2. It is envisaged that 2000 staff will be required for the dismantling operations. Although Ignalina NPP is still in the early stages of closure and decommissioning, some important lessons have already been learnt: Firstly, the importance considering social and financial issues as well as technical factors in deciding the decommissioning strategy. This should be done before the preparation is started of the FDP. The same broad consideration should also be given to the economic restructuring of the local area. Consultation is necessary with local and national authorities, and other stakeholders up to ensure a common vision. At Ignalina NPP it was considered essential to staff morale and the maintenance of a strong safety culture to guarantee the special social and employment benefits to dismissed staff in law [9]. At the same time, measures were also adopted to encourage certain key personnel to remain at the plant until closure. The case of Lithuania, which at independence had no legislative framework or management infrastructure for radioactive waste, may be exceptional; however, for all decommissioning projects it is necessary to have, from the outset, a clear strategy on waste storage and disposal. Finally, coordination at all levels must be assured

  2. Early Childhood Education and Care in Europe: Tackling Social and Cultural Inequalities. Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seibokiene, Grazina

    2008-01-01

    In Lithuania early childhood education and care embraces children of the age from one to seven and is an integrated part of the education system. According to Lithuanian education classification, it belongs to the zero level of education. Though defined as pre-school education yet this stage is composed of two parts--pre-school education of…

  3. A shortened and deformed humerus from early modern Lithuania (16th/17th century A.D.) : an unusual case of amputation in childhood?

    PubMed Central

    TEEGEN, WOLF-RÜDIGER; SCHULTZ, MICHAEL; JANKAUSKAS, RIMANTAS

    1997-01-01

    During archaeological excavations in the early modern cemetery in Kernavé, Lithuania, a complete skeleton of a presumed adult male individual was found (grave 108). This skeleton showed a short right humerus and missing radius, ulna and hand. Other parts of the skeleton appeared to be normal, characteristic of a robust constitution. The skeletal material was analysed by macroscopic and radiological techniques. Sex and age were determined following the suggestions of the European Association of Anthropologists (Ferembach et al. 1980), measurements were recorded according to Martin (1928) and Bräuer (1988), and the pathological alterations according to Schultz (1988). The robustness and the measurements indicate a male individual, whose age was put at 40–45 y using the combined method (cf. Ferembach et al. 1980; Szilvássy, 1988) of cranial suture closure, spongiosa structure of the proximal humerus and femur and structure of the pubic symphysis. Skeletal elements analysed included both humeri, clavicles and scapulae. PMID:9419007

  4. Techniques for Abdominal Wall Closure after Damage Control Laparotomy: From Temporary Abdominal Closure to Early/Delayed Fascial Closure-A Review.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qian; Li, Jieshou; Lau, Wan-Yee

    2016-01-01

    Open abdomen (OA) has been an effective treatment for abdominal catastrophes in traumatic and general surgery. However, management of patients with OA remains a formidable task for surgeons. The central goal of OA is closure of fascial defect as early as is clinically feasible without precipitating abdominal compartment syndrome. Historically, techniques such as packing, mesh, and vacuum-assisted closure have been developed to assist temporary abdominal closure, and techniques such as components separation, mesh-mediated traction, bridging fascial defect with permanent synthetic mesh, or biologic mesh have also been attempted to achieve early primary fascial closure, either alone or in combined use. The objective of this review is to present the challenges of these techniques for OA with a goal of early primary fascial closure, when the patient's physiological condition allows. PMID:26819597

  5. Techniques for Abdominal Wall Closure after Damage Control Laparotomy: From Temporary Abdominal Closure to Early/Delayed Fascial Closure—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qian; Li, Jieshou; Lau, Wan-yee

    2016-01-01

    Open abdomen (OA) has been an effective treatment for abdominal catastrophes in traumatic and general surgery. However, management of patients with OA remains a formidable task for surgeons. The central goal of OA is closure of fascial defect as early as is clinically feasible without precipitating abdominal compartment syndrome. Historically, techniques such as packing, mesh, and vacuum-assisted closure have been developed to assist temporary abdominal closure, and techniques such as components separation, mesh-mediated traction, bridging fascial defect with permanent synthetic mesh, or biologic mesh have also been attempted to achieve early primary fascial closure, either alone or in combined use. The objective of this review is to present the challenges of these techniques for OA with a goal of early primary fascial closure, when the patient's physiological condition allows. PMID:26819597

  6. Elevated risk of early reoperation in total hip replacement during the stage of unit closure.

    PubMed

    Peltola, Mikko; Malmivaara, Antti; Paavola, Mika; Seitsalo, Seppo

    2016-04-01

    Background and purpose - The effects of launch or closure of an entire arthroplasty unit on the first or last patients treated in these units have not been studied. Using a 3-year follow-up, we investigated whether patients who were treated at the launch or closure stage of an arthroplasty unit of a hospital would have a higher risk of reoperation than patients treated in-between at the same units. Patients and methods - From the Finnish Arthroplasty Register, we identified all the units that had performed total joint arthroplasty and the units that were launched or closed in Finland between 1998 and 2011. The risks of reoperation within 3 years for the 41,748 total hip and knee replacements performed due to osteoarthritis in these units were modeled with Cox proportional-hazards regression, separately for hip and knee and for the launch and the closure stage. Results - The unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for total hip and knee replacements performed in the initial stage of activity of the units that were launched were similar to the reoperation risks in patients who were operated in these units after the early stage of activity. The unadjusted and risk-adjusted HRs for early reoperation after total hip replacement (THR) were increased at the closure stage (adjusted HR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2-2.8). The reoperation risk at the closure stage after total knee replacement (TKR) was not increased. Interpretation - The results indicate that closure of units performing total hip replacements poses an increased risk of reoperation. Closures need to be managed carefully to prevent the quality from deteriorating when performing the final arthroplasties. PMID:26541178

  7. Elevated risk of early reoperation in total hip replacement during the stage of unit closure

    PubMed Central

    Peltola, Mikko; Malmivaara, Antti; Paavola, Mika; Seitsalo, Seppo

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose — The effects of launch or closure of an entire arthroplasty unit on the first or last patients treated in these units have not been studied. Using a 3-year follow-up, we investigated whether patients who were treated at the launch or closure stage of an arthroplasty unit of a hospital would have a higher risk of reoperation than patients treated in-between at the same units. Patients and methods — From the Finnish Arthroplasty Register, we identified all the units that had performed total joint arthroplasty and the units that were launched or closed in Finland between 1998 and 2011. The risks of reoperation within 3 years for the 41,748 total hip and knee replacements performed due to osteoarthritis in these units were modeled with Cox proportional-hazards regression, separately for hip and knee and for the launch and the closure stage. Results — The unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for total hip and knee replacements performed in the initial stage of activity of the units that were launched were similar to the reoperation risks in patients who were operated in these units after the early stage of activity. The unadjusted and risk-adjusted HRs for early reoperation after total hip replacement (THR) were increased at the closure stage (adjusted HR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2–2.8). The reoperation risk at the closure stage after total knee replacement (TKR) was not increased. Interpretation — The results indicate that closure of units performing total hip replacements poses an increased risk of reoperation. Closures need to be managed carefully to prevent the quality from deteriorating when performing the final arthroplasties. PMID:26541178

  8. Priming of Early Closure: Evidence for the Lexical Boost during Sentence Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Traxler, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Two self-paced reading experiments investigated priming in sentences containing “early” vs. “late closure” ambiguities. Early closure sentences impose relatively large processing costs at the point of syntactic disambiguation (Frazier & Rayner, 1982). The current study investigated a possible way to reduce processing costs. Target sentences were temporarily ambiguous and were disambiguated towards either the preferred “late” closure analysis or the dispreferred “early” closure analysis. Each target sentence was preceded by a prime that was either structurally identical or that required a different syntactic analysis. In Experiment 1, all of the prime sentences shared the same critical verb as the target (Arai et al., 2007; Carminati et al., 2008; Tooley et al., 2009, in press; Traxler et al., in press; Weber & Indefrey, 2009). In Experiment 2, verb repetition was eliminated by reorganizing the stimuli from Experiment 1. In Experiment 1, processing of the disambiguating verb was facilitated when an “early” closure target sentence followed an “early” closure prime. In Experiment 2, there were no significant priming effects, although an overall difference in processing time favored “late closure” targets. Combined analyses verified that the pattern of results in Experiment 1 differed significantly from Experiment 2. These experiments provide the first indication that “early” closure analyses can be primed and that such priming is more robust when a critical verb appears in both the prime and the target sentence. The results add to the body of data indicating a “lexical boost” for syntactic priming effects during comprehension. They have implications for theories of syntactic representation and processing (e.g., Boland & Blodgett, 2006; Vosse & Kempen, 2009; Sag et al., 2003). PMID:25750915

  9. Biogeochemical Changes at Early Stage After the Closure of Radioactive Waste Geological Repository in South Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Choung, Sungwook; Um, Wooyong; Choi, Seho; Francis, Arokiasamy J.; Kim, Sungpyo; Park, Jin beak; Kim, Suk-Hoon

    2014-09-01

    Permanent disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in the subterranean environment has been the preferred method of many countries, including Korea. A safety issue after the closure of a geological repository is that biodegradation of organic materials due to microbial activities generates gases that lead to overpressure of the waste containers in the repository and its disintegration with the release of radionuclides. As part of an ongoing large-scale in situ experiment using organic wastes and groundwater to simulate geological radioactive waste repository conditions, we investigated the geochemical alteration and microbial activities at an early stage (~63 days) intended to be representative of the initial period after repository closure. The increased numbers of both aerobes and facultative anaerobes in waste effluents indicate that oxygen content could be the most significant parameter to control biogeochemical conditions at very early periods of reaction (<35 days). Accordingly, the values of dissolved oxygen and redox potential were decreased. The activation of anaerobes after 35 days was supported by the increased concentration to ~50 mg L-1 of ethanol. These results suggest that the biogeochemical conditions were rapidly altered to more reducing and anaerobic conditions within the initial 2 months after repository closure. Although no gases were detected during the study, activated anaerobic microbes will play more important role in gas generation over the long term.

  10. Offset layered closure reduces deep wound infection in early-onset scoliosis surgery.

    PubMed

    Grzywna, Alexandra M; Miller, Patricia E; Glotzbecker, Michael P; Emans, John B

    2016-07-01

    Deep wound infection is a common complication in early-onset scoliosis (EOS) surgery. Soft tissue technique has received less attention as a means to reduce infection. A retrospective review of 1170 EOS surgeries (single surgeon, institution) investigated the impact of offset layered closure (OLC) and soft tissue awareness. The introduction of OLC reduced deep infection from 3.0% in 99 surgeries to 0.37% in 1071. Logistic regression confirmed that OLC led to significantly lower odds of infection (P=0.007). This deep infection rate (0.37%) is more typical of elective surgery, providing a more optimistic view of infection in EOS surgery than generally reported. PMID:27196268

  11. Hereditary angioedema presenting as irritable bowel syndrome: a case of early closure

    PubMed Central

    Benrajab, Karim M.; Singh, Gurkeerat; Obah, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the most common reasons for outpatient and emergency department visits. We present one such case of early closure in a 32-year-old male with recurrent abdominal pain who was diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Family history was suspicious for hereditary angioedema (HAE). The HAE workup came back positive, and the patient was started on prophylactic therapy, which led to an improvement in symptoms and quality of life. The purpose of this case is to create awareness among physicians to test for HAE in patients diagnosed with IBS who, based on their history or physical examination, have clinical suspicion for HAE. PMID:26486119

  12. Prediction of early-onset atrial tachyarrhythmia after successful trans-catheter device closure of atrial septal defect.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyoung-Min; Hwang, Jin Kyung; Chun, Kwang Jin; Park, Seung-Jung; On, Young Keun; Kim, June Soo; Park, Seung Woo; Kang, I-Seok; Song, Jinyoung; Huh, June

    2016-08-01

    Atrial tachyarrhythmia is a well-known long-term complication of atrial septal defect (ASD) in adults, even after successful trans-catheter closure. However, the risk factors for early-onset atrial tachyarrhythmia after trans-catheter closure remain unclear. This retrospective study enrolled adults with secundum ASD undergoing trans-catheter closure from January 2000 to March 2014. We analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients and assessed risk factors for new-onset atrial tachyarrhythmia defined as a composite of atrial fibrillation or flutter (AF/AFL) after ASD closure. We enrolled a total of 427 patients; 123 were male (28.8%) and the median age was 37.0 (interquartile range [IQR]: 18.3-49.0). Nineteen (4.4%) patients had documented atrial tachyarrhythmia during the follow-up period (median: 11.4 months [IQR: 5.4-24]). Patients with transient AF/AFL during closure showed a greater incidence of new-onset atrial tachyarrhythmia during the follow-up period than patients with consistent sinus rhythm during closure (27.3% vs 3.8%; P = 0.01). Most new-onset atrial tachyarrhythmias were documented within 6 months (median: 2.6 [IQR: 1.2-4.1] months) of closure. In the multivariate analysis, the risk for new-onset atrial tachyarrhythmia was significant in patients with AF/AFL during closure (hazard ratio [HR]: 9.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.86-34.20; P < 0.001), deficient posteroinferior rim (HR: 5.48, 95% CI: 1.15-25.72; P = 0.04), and age of closure over 48 years (HR: 3.30, 95% CI: 1.30-8.38; P = 0.01). In conclusion, transient AF/AFL during trans-catheter closure of ASD as well as deficient posteroinferior rim and age of closure over 48 years may be useful for predicting early new-onset atrial tachyarrhythmia after device closure. PMID:27583905

  13. Prediction of early-onset atrial tachyarrhythmia after successful trans-catheter device closure of atrial septal defect

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyoung-Min; Hwang, Jin Kyung; Chun, Kwang Jin; Park, Seung-Jung; On, Young Keun; Kim, June Soo; Park, Seung Woo; Kang, I-Seok; Song, Jinyoung; Huh, June

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Atrial tachyarrhythmia is a well-known long-term complication of atrial septal defect (ASD) in adults, even after successful trans-catheter closure. However, the risk factors for early-onset atrial tachyarrhythmia after trans-catheter closure remain unclear. This retrospective study enrolled adults with secundum ASD undergoing trans-catheter closure from January 2000 to March 2014. We analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients and assessed risk factors for new-onset atrial tachyarrhythmia defined as a composite of atrial fibrillation or flutter (AF/AFL) after ASD closure. We enrolled a total of 427 patients; 123 were male (28.8%) and the median age was 37.0 (interquartile range [IQR]: 18.3–49.0). Nineteen (4.4%) patients had documented atrial tachyarrhythmia during the follow-up period (median: 11.4 months [IQR: 5.4–24]). Patients with transient AF/AFL during closure showed a greater incidence of new-onset atrial tachyarrhythmia during the follow-up period than patients with consistent sinus rhythm during closure (27.3% vs 3.8%; P = 0.01). Most new-onset atrial tachyarrhythmias were documented within 6 months (median: 2.6 [IQR: 1.2–4.1] months) of closure. In the multivariate analysis, the risk for new-onset atrial tachyarrhythmia was significant in patients with AF/AFL during closure (hazard ratio [HR]: 9.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.86–34.20; P < 0.001), deficient posteroinferior rim (HR: 5.48, 95% CI: 1.15–25.72; P = 0.04), and age of closure over 48 years (HR: 3.30, 95% CI: 1.30–8.38; P = 0.01). In conclusion, transient AF/AFL during trans-catheter closure of ASD as well as deficient posteroinferior rim and age of closure over 48 years may be useful for predicting early new-onset atrial tachyarrhythmia after device closure. PMID:27583905

  14. Early Surgical Management of Large Scalp Infantile Hemangioma Using the TopClosure® Tension-Relief System.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhanyong; Yang, Xilin; Zhao, Yueqiang; Fan, Huajun; Yu, Mosheng; Topaz, Moris

    2015-11-01

    Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common benign vascular neoplasms of infancy and childhood. The majority do not need medical intervention. However, large ulcerated scalp IHs may lead to fatal bleeding as well as severe cosmetic disfigurement that indicate early surgical excision, inflicting substantial surgical risks, with short- and long-term morbidity.The TopClosure Tension-Relief System (TRS) is an innovative skin stretching and wound closure-secure system that facilitates primary closure of relatively large skin defects. This system has been shown as a substitute for skin grafts, flaps, or tissue expanders.We describe a case of a giant IH of the scalp usually requiring a complex surgical approach, which was immediately primarily closed applying the TRS.A 3-day-old female infant presented with a giant scalp hemangioma at birth that rapidly grew in the neonatal period with early signs of ulceration. The patient underwent surgical resection of the giant scalp hemangioma with immediate primary closure of the defect using the TRS. Surgical procedure and postoperative period were uneventful.Early surgical resections of IHs at infancy carry substantial surgical risks and morbidity. This is the first reported case of early resection of a scalp hemangioma in the neonatal period, with successful immediate primary closure by application of stress-relaxation technique through the TRS. The application of the TopClosure TRS in this age group has significant advantages. It reduces the complexity and length of surgery, reducing blood loss, eliminating donor site morbidity, improving wound aesthetics, and minimizing the need for future reconstructive procedures. PMID:26632734

  15. Cancer education in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Mineikyte, Ramune; Janulionis, Ernestas; Liutkeviciute-Navickiene, Jurgita; Atkocius, Vydmantas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe cancer education in Lithuania according to the data of 2013. In Lithuania, there are the following stages of education for physicians: basic education through integrated studies of medicine (six years), postgraduate education through residency studies (four to five years), and continuing professional development. In recent years, integrated studies of medicine have been the most popular specialty. Oncology is incorporated into the teaching courses in medicine programmes. In each university, an oncology course is mandatory during these studies. In Lithuania, there are two types of specialists related to oncology: medical oncologists and radiation oncologists. These oncologists complete multidisciplinary residency study programmes in the clinics. To receive a doctoral degree, specialists may join PhD programmes at any of the accredited universities. In recent years the number of dissertations in oncology has grown. Notably, oncology is chosen not only by students in the field of medicine. It also becomes the choice of those seeking a doctorate in the fields of nursing, public health, biochemistry, and physics. The professional development of oncologists is a lifelong commitment. In Lithuania, continuing specialist medical training is mandatory. This requirement is ensured with the process of licensing of medical practice. All Lithuanian study programmes are certificated by an independent public agency and are recognised by a number of other countries as well. PMID:25525465

  16. Investing in Youth: Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. The present report on Lithuania is the fourth of a new…

  17. Teaching Negotiation in Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groth, Brian Ibbotson

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes his experiences and the lessons he learned from a 2-week stint teaching negotiation in Lithuania. He learned that for anyone older than about 25, and that constituted most of the class, being part of the Soviet Union for more than half a century seems to have left deep wounds that have not yet healed.…

  18. Neural correlates of early-closure garden-path processing: Effects of prosody and plausibility.

    PubMed

    den Ouden, Dirk-Bart; Dickey, Michael Walsh; Anderson, Catherine; Christianson, Kiel

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate neural correlates of early-closure garden-path sentence processing and use of extrasyntactic information to resolve temporary syntactic ambiguities. Sixteen participants performed an auditory picture verification task on sentences presented with natural versus flat intonation. Stimuli included sentences in which the garden-path interpretation was plausible, implausible because of a late pragmatic cue, or implausible because of a semantic mismatch between an optionally transitive verb and the following noun. Natural sentence intonation was correlated with left-hemisphere temporal activation, but also with activation that suggests the allocation of more resources to interpretation when natural prosody is provided. Garden-path processing was associated with upregulation in bilateral inferior parietal and right-hemisphere dorsolateral prefrontal and inferior frontal cortex, while differences between the strength and type of plausibility cues were also reflected in activation patterns. Region of interest (ROI) analyses in regions associated with complex syntactic processing are consistent with a role for posterior temporal cortex supporting access to verb argument structure. Furthermore, ROI analyses within left-hemisphere inferior frontal gyrus suggest a division of labour, with the anterior-ventral part primarily involved in syntactic-semantic mismatch detection, the central part supporting structural reanalysis, and the posterior-dorsal part showing a general structural complexity effect. PMID:25801097

  19. Avoidable mortality in Lithuania.

    PubMed Central

    Gaizauskiene, A; Gurevicius, R

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The study aimed to analyse avoidable mortality in Lithuania as an index of the quality of health care and to assess trends in avoidable mortality from 1970-90. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS--All deaths of Lithuanian residents aged between 0 and 64 years between 1970 and 1990 were analysed. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Twenty seven per cent of all deaths in this age group were avoidable. Avoidable deaths were grouped into preventable and treatable ones. Treatable causes of death accounted for 54%, and preventable, 46% of avoidable mortality. Time trends showed that general mortality and mortality from avoidable causes of death in this age group were almost stable between 1970 and 1990. Mortality from treatable causes of death fell, while deaths from preventable causes increased. The results in the preventable group were greatly affected by deaths from malignant neoplasms of trachea, bronchus, and lungs. Differences were noted between the sexes in total mortality as well as in avoidable mortality. CONCLUSIONS--Avoidable causes of death are relatively common and, consequently, they are of practical importance for public health and studies of the health care quality in Lithuania. Reorganisation of health care is to be carried out and considerable emphasis will be placed on health education, promotion, and prevention, as primary prevention measures have not been effective thus far. PMID:7629464

  20. Morphine-induced early delays in wound closure: involvement of sensory neuropeptides and modification of neurokinin receptor expression

    PubMed Central

    Rook, Jerri M.; Hasan, Wohaib; McCarson, Kenneth E.

    2014-01-01

    Dose-limiting side effects of centrally-acting opioid drugs have led to the use of topical opioids to reduce the pain associated with chronic cutaneous wounds. However, previous studies indicate that topical morphine application impairs wound healing. This study was designed to elucidate the mechanisms by which morphine delays wound closure. Rats were depleted of sensory neuropeptides by treatment with capsaicin, and full-thickness 4 mm diameter wounds were excised from the intrascapular region. Wounds were treated topically twice daily with 5 mM morphine sulfate, 1 mM substance P, 1 mM neurokinin A, or 5 mM morphine combined with 1 m M substance P or neurokinin A and wound areas assessed. During closure, wound tissue was taken 1, 3, 5, and 8 days post-wounding from control and morphine-treated rats and immunostained for neurokinin receptors and markers for macrophages, myofibroblasts, and vasculature. Results obtained from capsaicin-treated animals demonstrated a significant delay in the early stages of wound contraction that was reversed by neuropeptide application. Treatment of capsaicin-treated rats with topical morphine did not further delay wound closure, suggesting that topical opioids impair wound closure via the inhibition of peripheral neuropeptide release into the healing wound. Morphine application altered neurokinin-1 and neurokinin-2 receptor expression in inflammatory and parenchymal cells essential for wound healing in a cell-specific manner, demonstrating a direct effect of morphine on neurokinin receptor regulation within an array of cells involved in wound healing. These data provide evidence indicating a potentially detrimental effect of topical morphine application on the dynamic wound healing process. PMID:19428329

  1. Lithuania: health system review.

    PubMed

    Murauskiene, Liubove; Janoniene, Raimonda; Veniute, Marija; van Ginneken, Ewout; Karanikolos, Marina

    2013-01-01

    This analysis of the Lithuanian health system reviews the developments in organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health system performance since 2000.The Lithuanian health system is a mixed system, predominantly funded from the National Health Insurance Fund through a compulsory health insurance scheme, supplemented by substantial state contributions on behalf of the economically inactive population amounting to about half of its budget. Public financing of the health sector has gradually increased since 2004 to 5.2 per cent of GDP in 2010.Although the Lithuanian health system was tested by the recent economic crisis, Lithuanias counter-cyclical state health insurance contribution policies (ensuring coverage for the economically inactive population) helped the health system to weather the crisis, and Lithuania successfully used the crisis as a lever to reduce the prices of medicines.Yet the future impact of cuts in public health spending is a cause for concern. In addition, out-of-pocket payments remain high (in particular for pharmaceuticals) and could threaten health access for vulnerable groups.A number of challenges remain. The primary care system needs strengthening so that more patients are treated instead of being referred to a specialist, which will also require a change in attitude by patients. Transparency and accountability need to be increased in resource allocation, including financing of capital investment and in the payer provider relationship. Finally, population health,albeit improving, remains a concern, and major progress can be achieved by reducing the burden of amenable and preventable mortality. PMID:23902994

  2. Perinatal care in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Basys, V; Liubsys, A

    1997-01-01

    The Preventive Program of Perinatal, Neonatal and Congenital Abnormalities in Lithuania was launched in 1992. That was the beginning of the reorganization of the Soviet maternal and child health care system. The first stage of the Program provided for the years 1992 through 1996 and aimed to create a system of maternal and neonatal care; to create a system of diagnosis and prevention of congenital abnormalities; to collect, process, and analyze maternal and neonatal data (to establish a new database); to evaluate, distribute, and use available resources efficiently; to plan financial and human resources for a perinatal care infrastructure; and to train medical personnel and control the level and quality of their knowledge. The reorganization was based on a three-tiered maternal and neonatal care system. By the end of 1996 the major goal of the Program was achieved successfully (i.e., perinatal, neonatal, and infant mortality rates decreased significantly. During the next 5 years the Program will focus mainly on qualitative aspects of perinatal care. PMID:9210082

  3. Did India-Asia plate velocity increase and Neo-Tethys closure contribute to the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoareau, G.; Carry, N.; Marquer, D.; Vrielynck, B.; van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Behar, F.; Walter-Simonnet, A.-V.

    2012-04-01

    The 60-50 Ma interval was characterized by a long-term increase of global temperatures (+4 to +6° C), which culminated during the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO, 53-50 Ma), the warmest interval of the Cenozoic [1]. Geochemical proxies and modelling claim high CO2 atmospheric concentrations prevailing at this time [e.g., 2]. Processes explaining sustained high greenhouse gas concentrations may relate either to volcanic degassing (NAIP, [3]) or to CO2/CH4 release during metamorphism in extensional (NW American Cordillera [4]) or compressional tectonic regimes (India-Asia collision, [5]; Gulf of Alaska, [6]). More recently, it has been suggested that Tethyan closure may have strongly controlled Cretaceous and Eocene climates, through the subduction of large amounts of pelagic carbonates and their recycling as CO2 at arc volcanoes ("subduction factory") [7,8,9]. In order to detail the impact of the Tethys closure on the EECO, we have built a model to calculate the volume of subducted sediments and the amount of CO2 and CH4 emitted at active arc volcanoes along the northern Tethys margin. The model takes into account the sediment thickness, carbonate and organic matter content, the mean subduction velocities of the Indian, Arabian and African plates and the decarbonation efficiency at arc volcanoes. The effect of the India-Asia collision was also modelled using a simple Indian passive margin geometry. Our first results indicate that the mean subduction rate (controlling the volume of subducted sediments) increased from 4.5 cm/yr on late Maastrichtian to a maximum value of 7 cm/yr during the EECO, mainly owing to a dramatic India-Asia plate convergence increase. If a minimal decarbonation efficiency at arc volcanoes of 20% is considered, pelagic carbonate-rich sediments (CaCO3 = 90 wt%) must reach a minimal thickness of 450 m to allow the release of 1018mol/Ma between 60 and 50 Ma, a minimal value to account for Late Paleocene/Early Eocene warming [10]. A

  4. Closure of Tethys and early stages of Himalayan evolution: constraints from the detrital record, Ladakh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenks, D.; Najman, Y.; Godin, L.; Parrish, R.; Horstwood, M.; Green, O.; Bown, P.; Garzanti, E.; Willems, H.

    2009-04-01

    Closure of Tethys marks initiation of collision between India and Asia, and the start of Himalayan orogenesis. A clear understanding of when this occurred is paramount to understanding the tectonic and denudational processes that have occurred since collision. A number of methods and datasets have been used to constrain the initiation of collision, from faunal mixing at 65 Ma [1] to the timing at which Indian rocks reached UHP depths at 57 Ma [2], to a reduction in northward drift of the Indian plate at 55 Ma [3]. New interpretations have placed collision as late as 38 Ma [4]. The extent of diachroneity is also disputed, varying from slight [5] to substantial [6]. Two approaches are used here to determine collision, 1) the timing of closure of the Tethys Ocean [7], based on stratigraphic succession, 2) first evidence of Asian derived material deposited on the Indian plate [8], using U-Pb ages of detrital zircon to assess provenance. In Ladakh, Indian plate passive margin limestones of the Mid-Late Paleocene Dibling Formation [9] are overlain by the youngest marine facies of the region, the marine siltstones of the Kong Fm. and the fluvio-deltaic facies of the Chulung La Fm. [8]. The age of the Kong and Chulung La formations is disputed, ranging from P5/6 (56 Ma) [10] to P8 (50.5 Ma) [8]. The provenance is also debated, considered either to be eroded from ophiolitic material from the Indian plate [10] or containing detritus from the Trans-Himalayan arc of the Asian plate [8,11]. We applied biostratigraphy, and U-Pb dating on detrital zircon, to samples from the Kong and Chulung La Formations to define depositional age and provenance. Biostratigraphy identified Asselines A. placentula grande and A. pomeroli, from the SBZ 10 (50.5 to 52.5 Ma) and SBZ 9 (53 Ma) zones respectively, thereby defining a minimum age of collision at 50.5 Ma, based on cessation of marine facies. However, the possibility that these fossils are reworked will be discussed. U-Pb dating of

  5. Emergency evacuation/transportation plan update: Traffic model development and evaluation of early closure procedures. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-10-28

    Prolonged delays in traffic experienced by Laboratory personnel during a recent early dismissal in inclement weather, coupled with reconstruction efforts along NM 502 east of the White Rock Wye for the next 1 to 2 years, has prompted Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to re-evaluate and improve the present transportation plan and its integration with contingency plans maintained in other organizations. Facilities planners and emergency operations staff need to evaluate the transportation system`s capability to inefficiently and safely evacuate LANL under different low-level emergency conditions. A variety of potential procedures governing the release of employees from the different technical areas (TAs) requires evaluation, perhaps with regard to multiple emergency-condition scenarios, with one or more optimal procedures ultimately presented for adoption by Lab Management. The work undertaken in this project will hopefully lay a foundation for an on-going, progressive transportation system analysis capability. It utilizes microscale simulation techniques to affirm, reassess and validate the Laboratory`s Early Dismissal/Closure/Delayed Opening Plan. The Laboratory is required by Federal guidelines, and compelled by prudent practice and conscientious regard for the welfare of employees and nearby residents, to maintain plans and operating procedures for evacuation if the need arises. The tools developed during this process can be used outside of contingency planning. It is anticipated that the traffic models developed will allow site planners to evaluate changes to the traffic network which could better serve the normal traffic levels. Changes in roadway configuration, control strategies (signalization and signing), response strategies to traffic accidents, and patterns of demand can be modelled using the analysis tools developed during this project. Such scenarios typically are important considerations in master planning and facilities programming.

  6. Early results using an ePTFE membrane for pericardial closure following coronary bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, G; Fremes, S E; Christakis, G T; Goldman, B S

    1998-05-01

    A prospective randomized trial was conducted to evaluate the early efficacy and safety of the Gortex surgical membrane. Three hundred two patients (265 males, 37 females) undergoing isolated coronary bypass surgery were randomized to receive a Gortex membrane (GM = 138) or have the pericardium left open (complication [C] = 164). The groups did not differ in age, gender, urgency of procedure, length of procedure, or use of arterial grafts. Two deaths occurred in each group giving an overall mortality of 1.3%. Fifty-three (17%) patients experienced some complication (C = 34, 21%), GM = 19 (14%). Although the combined complication rate was higher in the control group, this was not statistically significant (chi2 = 2.51, p = 0.11). Postoperative ischemic events (C = 8, GM = 4) observed between the groups were not significant (chi2 = 0.05, p = 0.8), and no statistically significant difference was observed between the incidences of infections (C = 7, GM = 5) or mediastinal complications (C = 3, GM = 3). The Gortex surgical membrane can be used safely without increasing the risk of infection or mediastinal complications. The incidence of recurrent myocardial ischemia, a possible indicator of graft compression, was not higher following membrane implantation. Efficacy at injury prevention will need to be determined by a longitudinal follow-up study presently underway. PMID:10193989

  7. Implementing a National Qualifications Framework in Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutlys, Vidmantas; Spudyte, Irma

    2011-01-01

    The design of the national qualifications framework (NQF) in Lithuania started in 2006. The NQF was officially approved by the government decree in May 2010. This article explores the influence of the processes of institutional change on the reform of the national system of qualifications in Lithuania through the implementation of the NQF, looking…

  8. Language Planning and Personal Naming in Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramoniene, Meilute

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the issues of language planning and naming in Lithuania since the restoration of independence in 1990. The aim of the paper is to analyse the challenges of corpus planning with the focus on the use and standardisation of personal names. The paper first presents the historical context of the formation of names in Lithuania and…

  9. Heavy Precipitation Events in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukantis, A.; Rimkus, E.; Kažys, J.

    2010-09-01

    Analysis of heavy precipitation events in Lithuania is presented in this work. Research was divided into two parts. Spatial distribution and dynamic of heavy precipitation events in Lithuania during observation period (1961-2008) is presented in the first part and climate predictions for XXI century according to outputs of CCLM model are in the second. Daily data from 17 meteorological stations were used for the analysis of heavy precipitation events in Lithuania. Research covers period from 1961 to 2008. Annual and seasonal heavy precipitation values and the recurrence of extreme daily and 3-day precipitation events were analyzed. Spatial distribution of heavy precipitation events in Lithuania was determined; the trends of such precipitation recurrence were identified. Also, daily and 3-day annual maxima probabilities were calculated using the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution. 10, 30 and 100 years return period was analyzed. Finally, atmospheric circulation processes during heavy precipitation events were described using the adapted Hess & Brezowski macrocirculation form classification Predictions of changes of heavy precipitation recurrence in Lithuania are also presented in this study. Output data of the regional climate model CCLM (COSMO - Climate Limited-area Model) for the period 1971-2100 were used. Predictions were based on A1B and B1 emission scenarios. Despite of relatively small area and quite negligible differences in altitude there are significant unevenness in spatial distribution of heavy precipitation events in Lithuania. The mean annual number of cases when daily precipitation amount exceeded 10 mm fluctuates from 12.4 to 21.9 and from 5.3 to 10.5 when 3-day precipitation exceeded 20 mm. The probability of maximum precipitation amount for 10 year return period appears very familiar to spatial distribution of heavy precipitation recurrence: the highest values can be expected in the western part (55-60 mm daily and 75-85 mm in 3-days

  10. Arrhythmias after transcatheter closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defects with a modified double-disk occluder: early and long-term results.

    PubMed

    Li, Pan; Zhao, Xian-xian; Zheng, Xing; Qin, Yong-wen

    2012-07-01

    With the development of interventional techniques and devices, transcatheter closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defect has been widely performed. However, there has been a lack of long-term follow-up results about postoperative ECG changes of PmVSD patients. We report our experience of early and late arrhythmias after transcatheter closure of PmVSD with a modified double-disk occluder (MDVO). We performed a retrospective review of 79 patients (47 males, 32 females) between September 2002 and May 2007 who underwent transcatheter closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defect. Symmetric and asymmetric PmVSD occluders were used. The diameter of the evaluated defects ranged from 3 to 12 mm, as measured by TTE and 3 to 15 mm by left ventriculography. Most cases of PmVSD were treated successfully with a single procedure, resulting in a successful closure rate of 97% (77/79 patients). There was no death in any of the patients. After the operation, 79 patients were followed-up for a range of 10-76 months (35.3 ± 17.4 months). In this series, 11 cases of incomplete right bundle branch block and five cases of complete right bundle branch block occurred during the early period after operation. During long-term follow-up, these issues declined in prevalence to five and four cases, respectively. Moreover, reversible third-degree AVB occurred during closure or after the procedure, and two of the three patients with reversible AVB received a temporary heart pacemaker implantation. These patients recovered 1 h, 6 days, and 9 days later, respectively. During 10-76 months of follow-up, no complications occurred in any of the patients, including residual shunt, severe aortic valve, or tricuspid valve regurgitation. Device closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defects with a modified double-disk occluder (MDVO) resulted in excellent closure rates and acceptably low arrhythmia rates. PMID:21643813

  11. Early Conversion of External Fixation to Interlocked Nailing in Open Fractures of Both Bone Leg Assisted with Vacuum Closure (VAC) - Final Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Manish; Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Pulkesh; Kumar, Dinesh; Singh, Jasveer; Deep, Akash

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Management of compound grade III fractures of both bone leg includes external stabilization for long period, followed by various soft tissue coverage procedures. Primary interlocking of tibia had been also done with variable results. External fixation for long time without any bone loss often leads to infected nonunion, loss of reduction, pin tract infection and failure of fixation, primary interlocking in compound grade III fractures had shown high medullary infection rate. We managed all cases of compound grade III A/B fractures with primary external fixation, simultaneous wound management using vacuum assisted closure (VAC) followed by early conversion to interlocking within 2 weeks of fixator application. Aim To determine the effectiveness of vacuum assisted closure (VAC) for the early conversion of external fixator to definitive interlocking in open fractures of the both bone leg. Materials and Methods In current study we selected 84 cases of compound grade IIIA/B diaphyseal fractures of both bone leg during period of May 2010 to September 2013. We managed these cases by immediate debridement and application of external fixation followed by repeated debridement, application of vacuum assisted closure (VAC) and conversion to interlocking within two weeks. Results Out of 84 cases union was achieved in 80(95%) of cases with definitive tibial interlocking. Excellent to good result were obtained in 77(91.8%) of cases and fair to poor result seen in rest of 7(8.2%) of cases according to modified Ketenjian’s criteria. 5 out of these 7 poor result group cases were from Compound Grade III B group to start with. Deep infection rate in our series were 7% i.e. total 6 cases and 4 out of these were from compound Grade III B group to start with. Conclusion Vacuum assisted closure (VAC) give a good help for rapid closure of the wound and help in early conversion to definitive intramedullary nailing. Reamed nail could well be used in compound grade IIIA

  12. Curonian Spit, Lithuania and Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Curonian Spit in Lithuania and the Russian Federation was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2000. Human habitation of this elongated sand dune peninsula, 98 km long and 0.4-4 km wide, dates back to prehistoric times. Throughout this period it has been threatened by the natural forces of wind and waves. Its survival to the present day has been made possible only as a result of ceaseless human efforts to combat erosion through stabilization and reforestation projects.

    The image covers an area of 55.8 x 109.5 km, was acquired on July 25, 2006, and is located near 55.3 degrees north latitude, 20.9 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES IN THE NEMUNAS RIVER BASIN, LITHUANIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Selected research results from a joint environmental studies project that began in 1988 between Lithuania and the United States of America are presented. hemical and hydrological studies address hazardous chemicals, including trace metals, n surface waters of Lithuania; methods f...

  14. Early closure of a long loop in the refolding of adenylate kinase: a possible key role of non-local interactions in the initial folding steps.

    PubMed

    Orevi, Tomer; Ben Ishay, Eldad; Pirchi, Menachem; Jacob, Maik H; Amir, Dan; Haas, Elisha

    2009-01-30

    Most globular protein chains, when transferred from high to low denaturant concentrations, collapse instantly before they refold to their native state. The initial compaction of the protein molecule is assumed to have a key effect on the folding pathway, but it is not known whether the earliest structures formed during or instantly after collapse are defined by local or by non-local interactions--that is, by secondary structural elements or by loop closure of long segments of the protein chain. Stable closure of one or several long loops can reduce the chain entropy at a very early stage and can prevent the protein from following non-productive pathways whose number grows exponentially with the length of the protein chain. In Escherichia coli adenylate kinase (AK), about seven long loops define the topology of the native structure. We selected four loop-forming sections of the chain and probed the time course of loop formation during refolding of AK. We labeled the termini of the loop segments with tryptophan and cysteine-5-amidosalicylic acid. This donor-acceptor pair of probes used with fluorescence resonance excitation energy transfer spectroscopy (FRET) is suitable for detecting very short distances and thus is able to distinguish between random and specific compactions. Refolding of AK was initiated by stopped-flow mixing, followed simultaneously by donor and acceptor fluorescence, and analyzed in terms of energy transfer efficiency and distance. In the collapsed state of AK, observed after the 5-ms dead time of the instrument, one of the selected segments shows a native-like separation of its termini; it forms a loop already in the collapsed state. A second segment that includes the first but is longer by 15 residues shows an almost native-like separation of its termini. In contrast, a segment that is shorter but part of the second segment shows a distance separation of its termini as high as a segment that spans almost the whole protein chain. We conclude

  15. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shewbridge, Claire; Godfrey, Katrina; Hermann, Zoltán; Nusche, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    This report for Lithuania forms part of the OECD Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools. The purpose of the review is to explore how school resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. School resources are understood in a broad…

  16. Emerging Language and Education Policies in Lithuania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle; Ramoniene, Meilute

    2003-01-01

    Describes the development of language policy in Lithuania, with the goal of raising the status of the once-oppressed titular national language without trampling on the rights of linguistic minorities. Lithuanian language and education policies have been successful in promoting social integration while safeguarding cultural and linguistic…

  17. Visual Closure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groffman, Sidney

    An experimental test of visual closure based on an information-theory concept of perception was devised to test the ability to discriminate visual stimuli with reduced cues. The test is to be administered in a timed individual situation in which the subject is presented with sets of incomplete drawings of simple objects that he is required to name…

  18. Cenomanian-Coniacian Upper Cretaceous foraminiferal fauna of Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksienė, Agnė

    2010-12-01

    Foraminiferal assemblages form a unique fauna succession from the Cenomanian to Maastrichtian stages in Lithuania; the Cenomanian-Coniacian succession is discussed in this paper. The first Cretaceous planktonic foraminifera species appeared in the Early Cenomanian. The Cenomanian planktonic foraminiferal association consists of the relatively abundant genus Hedbergella. However, Cenomanian planktonic foraminifera are rare compared to benthic; the latter are numerous, and their assemblage contains various calcareous and agglutinated species. As a result of environmental changes, foraminiferal assemblages gradually changed as well. The newly formed deep-water niches in the Turonian allowed spreading the keeled forms of planktonic foraminifera. Taxonomically, Turonian-Coniacian foraminiferal assemblages are mainly composed of species of the following genera: Praeglobotruncana, Helvetoglobotruncana, Dicarinella, Marginotruncana.

  19. Expression of the Celsr/flamingo homologue, c-fmi1, in the early avian embryo indicates a conserved role in neural tube closure and additional roles in asymmetry and somitogenesis.

    PubMed

    Formstone, Caroline J; Mason, Ivor

    2005-02-01

    Flamingo is one of a core group of proteins that regulate planar cell polarity of epithelial structures within the Drosophila embryo while their vertebrate counterparts have been implicated in the coordination of convergent extension movements during gastrulation and in neural tube closure, suggesting that planar polarity mechanisms also function in these processes. Failure of neural tube closure is one of the most common human birth defects, and a murine flamingo (fmi) homologue, Celsr1/fmi-1, was identified as the defective gene in two mouse mutants exhibiting failure of closure 1 of the neural tube. This failure resulted in craniorachischisis in which the neural tube is open from the midbrain posteriorly. The avian embryo provides a tractable system to study neural tube closure. We have identified a chick Celsr1/fmi-1 orthologue, c-fmi1 and provide the first study of expression of an avian flamingo gene. We show that expression is highly dynamic in the early embryo and that c-fmi1 transcripts become enriched within the avian neural epithelium at the initiation of neural tube closure, suggesting a conserved function for Flamingo proteins in this process. Our data also suggest a role for c-fmi1 in myotome development. PMID:15614764

  20. Duct closure

    DOEpatents

    Vowell, Kennison L.

    1987-01-01

    A closure for an inclined duct having an open upper end and defining downwardly extending passageway. The closure includes a cap for sealing engagement with the open upper end of the duct. Associated with the cap are an array of vertically aligned plug members, each of which has a cross-sectional area substantially conforming to the cross-sectional area of the passageway at least adjacent the upper end of the passageway. The plug members are interconnected in a manner to provide for free movement only in the plane in which the duct is inclined. The uppermost plug member is attached to the cap means and the cap means is in turn connected to a hoist means which is located directly over the open end of the duct.

  1. Space plant biology research in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Ričkienė, Aurika

    2012-09-01

    In 1957, the Soviet Union launched the first artificial Earth satellite, initiating its space exploration programs. Throughout the rest of the twentieth century, the development of these space programs received special attention from Soviet Union authorities. Scientists from the former Soviet Republics, including Lithuania, participated in these programs. From 1971 to 1990, Lithuanians designed more than 20 experiments on higher plant species during space flight. Some of these experiments had never before been attempted and, therefore, made scientific history. However, the formation and development of space plant biology research in Lithuania or its origins, context of formation, and placement in a worldwide context have not been explored from a historical standpoint. By investigating these topics, this paper seeks to construct an image of the development of a very specific field of science in a small former Soviet republic. PMID:22613222

  2. Early Miocene chondrichthyans from the Culebra Formation, Panama: A window into marine vertebrate faunas before closure the Central American Seaway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimiento, Catalina; Gonzalez-Barba, Gerardo; Hendy, Austin J. W.; Jaramillo, Carlos; MacFadden, Bruce J.; Montes, Camilo; Suarez, Sandra C.; Shippritt, Monica

    2013-03-01

    The newly described chondrichthyan fauna of the early Miocene Culebra Formation of Panama provides insight into the marine vertebrates occupying shallow seas adjacent to the Central American Seaway, prior to the rise of the Isthmus of Panama. This study takes advantage of a time-limited and unique opportunity to recover fossil from renewed excavations of the Panama Canal. The chondrichthyan fauna of the Culebra Formation is composed of teeth and vertebral centra representing 12 taxa. The species found possessed a cosmopolitan tropical and warm-temperate distribution during the early Neogene and are similar to other assemblages of the tropical eastern Pacific and southern Caribbean. The taxa described suggest a neritic environment, and is in contrast with other interpretations that proposed bathyal water depths for the upper member of the Culebra Formation. The wide depth range of the most common species, Carcharocles chubutensis, and the habitat preference of Pristis sp., suggests varied marine environments, from deep, to shallow waters, close to emerged areas of the evolving isthmus.

  3. Mapping ecosystem services potential in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depellegrin, Daniel; Misiune, Ieva; Pereira, Paulo

    2016-04-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) are understood as the benefits that humans get from ecosystems functions. They are divided in providing, regulating, supporting and cultural. The correct management of ES is fundamental to achieve sustainable development goals. A good assessment of ES potential can be obtained using GIS techniques, in order to have a spatial dimension of ES distribution. This will help to have a better territorial planning, improve ES capacity, and have more benefits. ES potential analysis can be carried out based on the ES matrix developed by Burkhard et al. (2009). This method is based on the attribution a rank from 0 to 5 (0= no capacity to 5=very high relevant capacity) to the land use classes of the corine land cover (CLC). This represents an important advantage since a determined land use can be related with a certain number of services. The objective of this work is to Map the ES potential in Lithuania. The results showed that Lithuania has a high potential for regulating services, followed by cultural and provisioning services. Urban areas provide a very small amount of services, contrary to forest, where the highest potential is observed. The most comon land covers in Lithuania are non-irrigated arable land, complex cultivation patterns, mixed and coniferous forest. Total and regulating and cultural ES had dispersed pattern showing that they are scattered in the territory. They are located mainly in forested and coastal areas. In relation to provisioning services they had a clustered distribution, and they were mainly observed in the central part of Lithuania. References Burkhard B, Kroll F, Müller F, Windhorst W. 2009. Landscapes' capacities to provide ecosystem services - a concept for land-cover based assessments. Landsc. Online. 15:1-22

  4. Introduction of total knee arthroplasty in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Stucinskas, Justinas; Robertsson, Otto; Wingstrand, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose We have previously reported that the first 10 years of hip arthroplasty in Lithuania resulted in a higher cumulative revision rate than that observed in Sweden. We thus compared the corresponding results after introduaction of total knee replacement in Lithuania. Methods The 10-year revision rate for the first 595 primary ScanKnee arthroplasties inserted in Klaipeda, Lithuania, was compared to that for the first 1,280 ScanKnee primary arthroplasties inserted in Sweden. As in the hip replacement study, only patients with osteoarthritis (OA) were included. Primary knee arthroplasties without patellar resurfacing were included, and the endpoint was revision for any reason other than addition of a patellar component. Results We found that the cumulative revision rate was not statistically significantly different between the groups. The revision pattern was different, however, and we observed 24 isolated patellar component additions in Sweden, but none in Klaipeda. Interpretation Contrary to the results of our previous hip arthroplasty study, the cumulative revision rate after total knee arthroplasty was similar in the two groups. This suggests that compared to hip arthroplasty, the outcome of total knee arthroplasty was less dependent on surgical experience. The large difference regarding isolated patellar component additions may be explained by long-term accumulation of severe OA cases in Lithuania. To patients subject to a newly introduced surgical treatment offering great improvement in quality of life, patellofemoral pain may be a minor problem. Furthermore, patellar problems may not have seemed particularly relevant for the surgeons, considering the disability of other patients waiting to be treated. PMID:19297790

  5. The physiology and proteomics of drought tolerance in maize: early stomatal closure as a cause of lower tolerance to short-term dehydration?

    PubMed

    Benešová, Monika; Holá, Dana; Fischer, Lukáš; Jedelský, Petr L; Hnilička, František; Wilhelmová, Naďa; Rothová, Olga; Kočová, Marie; Procházková, Dagmar; Honnerová, Jana; Fridrichová, Lenka; Hniličková, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the response of a crop to drought is the first step in the breeding of tolerant genotypes. In our study, two maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes with contrasting sensitivity to dehydration were subjected to moderate drought conditions. The subsequent analysis of their physiological parameters revealed a decreased stomatal conductance accompanied by a slighter decrease in the relative water content in the sensitive genotype. In contrast, the tolerant genotype maintained open stomata and active photosynthesis, even under dehydration conditions. Drought-induced changes in the leaf proteome were analyzed by two independent approaches, 2D gel electrophoresis and iTRAQ analysis, which provided compatible but only partially overlapping results. Drought caused the up-regulation of protective and stress-related proteins (mainly chaperones and dehydrins) in both genotypes. The differences in the levels of various detoxification proteins corresponded well with the observed changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes. The number and levels of up-regulated protective proteins were generally lower in the sensitive genotype, implying a reduced level of proteosynthesis, which was also indicated by specific changes in the components of the translation machinery. Based on these results, we propose that the hypersensitive early stomatal closure in the sensitive genotype leads to the inhibition of photosynthesis and, subsequently, to a less efficient synthesis of the protective/detoxification proteins that are associated with drought tolerance. PMID:22719860

  6. Cancer mortality differences among urban and rural residents in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Smailyte, Giedre; Kurtinaitis, Juozas

    2008-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to describe and to compare the cancer mortality rates in urban and rural residents in Lithuania. Methods Cancer mortality has been studied using the materials of the Lithuanian cancer registry. For the period 1993–2004 age-standardized urban and rural population mortality rates (World standard) were calculated for all malignant neoplasm's and for stomach, colorectal, lung, prostate, breast and cervical cancers. The annual percentage change (APC) was calculated using log-linear regression model, two-sided Mantel-Haenzel test was used to evaluate differences in cancer mortality among rural and urban populations. Results For males in rural population cancer mortality was higher than in urban (212.2 and 197.0 cases per 100000) and for females cancer mortality was higher in urban population (103.5 and 94.2 cases per 100000, p < 0.05). During the study period the age-standardized mortality rates decreased in both sexes in urban residents. The decreasing mortality trend in urban population was contributed by decline of the rates of lung and stomach cancer in male and breast, stomach and colorectal cancer in female. Mortality rates in both urban and rural population were increasing for prostate and cervical cancers. Conclusion This study shows that large rural and urban inequalities in cancer mortality exist in Lithuania. The contrast between the health of residents in urban and rural areas invites researchers for research projects to develop, implement, and enhance cancer prevention and early detection intervention strategies for rural populations. PMID:18267035

  7. A checklist of the centipedes (Chilopoda) of Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Tuf, Ivan Hadrián; Ivinskis, Povilas; Rimšaitė, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Only 4 species of centipedes were previously reported for Lithuania. Here we present current distributional data for a total of 20 species (12 species of Lithobiomorpha and 8 species of Geophilomorpha) collected mainly during 7 years conducting ecological research at Curonian Spit, drawing on samples from the central, eastern and north-western parts of Lithuania. PMID:26701439

  8. Per-catheter ASD closure.

    PubMed

    Latson, L A

    1998-01-01

    Per-catheter devices for atrial septal defect (ASD) closure have been evolving since 1974. The four major devices available for use on a limited basis in early 1997 are reviewed. These include (in alphabetical order) the Angel Wing device, the ASDOS device, the Buttoned device, and the CardioSeal device (successor to the Clamshell). Sufficient data have been collected to indicate that transcatheter ASD closure is a viable alternative to surgery in selected patients. The advantages of the concept of per-catheter closure over surgical closure should lead to the continued development of devices and techniques for per-catheter treatment of ASD and other septal defects in the years to come. PMID:9396853

  9. Renal Anemia Control in Lithuania: Influence of Local Conditions and Local Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Kuzminskis, Vytautas; Vaiciuniene, Ruta; Stankuviene, Asta; Bumblyte, Inga Arune

    2013-01-01

    Erythropoietin stimulating agents had a long haul in Lithuania—we had no epoetin till 1994 and there was no intravenous iron in 2001–2004. The aim of this study was to assess the changes of renal anemia control in hemodialysis patients from early independence of Lithuania till nowadays and to evaluate the link of anemia with hospitalization rates and survival and hemoglobin variability in association with mortality. In December of each year since 1996 all hemodialysis centers have been visited and data has been collected using special questionnaires. The history of renal anemia control in Lithuania was complicated; however, a significant improvement was achieved: 54.7% of hemodialysis patients reached the target hemoglobin; all patients have a possibility of treatment with epoetin and intravenous iron. The involuntary experiment with an intravenous iron occurred in Lithuania because of economic reasons and confirmed the significant role of intravenous iron in the management of renal anemia. Hemoglobin below 100 g/L was associated with a 2.5-fold increase in relative risk of death and 1.7-fold increase in relative risk of hospitalization in Lithuanian hemodialysis patients. Although hemoglobin variability was common in Lithuanian hemodialysis patients, we did not find the association between hemoglobin variability and all-cause mortality in our study. PMID:24367239

  10. CLOSURE DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Linzell, S.M.; Dorcy, D.J.

    1958-08-26

    A quick opening type of stuffing box employing two banks of rotatable shoes, each of which has a caraming action that forces a neoprene sealing surface against a pipe or rod where it passes through a wall is presented. A ring having a handle or wrench attached is placed eccentric to and between the two banks of shoes. Head bolts from the shoes fit into slots in this ring, which are so arranged that when the ring is rotated a quarter turn in one direction the shoes are thrust inwardly to cramp the neopnrene about the pipe, malting a tight seal. Moving the ring in the reverse direction moves the shoes outwardly and frees the pipe which then may be readily removed from the stuffing box. This device has particular application as a closure for the end of a coolant tube of a neutronic reactor.

  11. The molecular basis of phenylketonuria in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Kasnauskiene, J; Giannattasio, S; Lattanzio, P; Cimbalistiene, L; Kucinskas, V

    2003-04-01

    We report the spectrum of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene mutations in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) residing in Lithuania. A total of 184 independent chromosomes was investigated. R408W mutation was first analysed through restriction enzyme digestion of exon 12. The remaining uncharacterised PKU chromosomes were analysed by scanning the whole coding sequence of PAH gene by multiplex 'broad range' denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Mutations were identified by fluorescent automated sequencing or by restriction enzyme digestion analysis if an abnormal DGGE pattern was recognised. 21 different mutations were identified for 175 PKU chromosomes, with a mutation detection rate of 95%. The most common ones were R408W (73.5% chromosomes) and R158Q (7.0% chromosomes) whereas the remaining mutations appeared to be rare (relative frequencies 0.5%-2%). The high mutation detection rate obtained is an evidence of the efficiency of PAH genetic testing achieved in Lithuania. Moreover, the definition of the PKU mutation profile in the Lithuanian population will allow to perform a genotype-phenotype correlation study thus making feasible genotyped-based prediction of the biochemical phenotype in newborns with hyperphenylalaninemia. This may be useful for refining diagnosis and anticipating dietary requirements. PMID:12655550

  12. Early Cretaceous amphibolite dehydratation melting preserved within the Tertiary Sabzevar ophiolitic suture (NE Iran): significance for the closure of the Alpine Tethyan oceans in central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetti, Federico; Nasrabady, Mohsen; Vignaroli, Gianluca; Theye, Thomas; Gerdes, Axel; Razavi, Mohammad Hossein; Moin Vaziri, Hosein

    2010-05-01

    The tectono-metamorphic signature of the oceanic-derived units marking orogenic suture zones provides key elements to decipher modes and regimes of oceanic subduction and continental accretion, and to constrain tectonic reconstructions at paleo-convergent margins. The remnants of the Tethyan oceanic realm form the most remarkable of these suture zones, running from the Mediterranean through East Europe, Middle East to Asia. These ophiolitic rocks record a polyphase and prolonged history of oceanic construction (the Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic Paleo-Tethys and the Mesozoic-Tertiary Neo-Tethys oceanic realms) and consumption during a sequence of Late Paleozoic to Cenozoic subduction/obduction/collision stages localized along the Eurasian active plate margin (e.g. Stampfli and Borel, 2002). The Iranian ophiolites are an integrant part of this evolving scenario, with the Neotethyan remnants distributed to mark diachronous closures of various oceanic branches during the Alpine-Himalayan convergence history. Despite these peculiar characteristics, few modern studies have addressed the characterization of the tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Neotethyan Iranian ophiolites. Furthermore, most of these studies focused on the Zagros orogen (e.g. Agard et al., 2006), and the ophiolitic mélanges surrounding the Central East Iranian Microcontinent are still lacking of a full petrological and geochronological characterisation. The ophiolitic mélange exposed in the Sabzevar Range of NE Iran is a remnant of one of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic branches of Central Iran, closed during the Paleocene-Eocene Arabia-Eurasia convergence. In this study, we document occurrence of km-scale, variably retrogressed mafic high-pressure granulitic (Am + Grt + Cpx + Pl + Qtz) slices embedded within this suture zone. Granulites record an episode of amphibole-dehydratation melting and felsic (tonalite/throndhjemite) melt segregation at 1.1 ± 0.1 GPa and 810 ± 80 °C. In situ U(-Th)-Pb geochronology of

  13. [Lithuania: the need for a better intergovernmental collaboration].

    PubMed

    Caplinskas, S

    1996-01-01

    An interview is presented with Saulius Caplinskas, a virologist serving as director of Lithuania's National Center to Combat AIDS and president of the AIDS Foundation, a nongovernmental organization (NGO). AIDS is viewed principally as a health issue in Lithuania, but other institutions are gradually becoming involved. Dr. Caplinskas simultaneously heads both a governmental and nongovernmental organization because some of the activities developed with risk groups are at the margin of existing laws. The NGO allows the government to be spared direct involvement in actions that the society is not yet ready to accept. Prevention programs are lacking in Lithuania because health education and promotion were a low priority of the former Soviet Union, and discussion of homosexuality, drug addiction, and prostitution was forbidden. Social workers are nonexistent in Lithuania. Government AIDS control programs in the region have been medically oriented. Lithuania's government program has a diagnostic laboratory and a department for medical, social, and psychological support of the seropositive. An AIDS hotline and an IEC section working with the general population, mass media, and specific target groups are other activities. NGOs working in the area of AIDS receive only indirect assistance, such as use of meeting rooms. NGOs are a new development in Lithuania, and the official attitude toward them remains cautious. The first priority of the AIDS program is to increase collaboration between specialists in sexually transmitted diseases, drug use, health education, and other relevant areas. A multisectorial approach should be developed to prepare for collaboration with the NGOs. PMID:12179246

  14. Origins of Early Mesozoic granitoids and their enclaves from West Kunlun, NW China: implications for evolving magmatism related to closure of the Paleo-Tethys ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Liu, Liang; Korhonen, Fawna; Yang, Wen-Qiang; Cao, Yu-Ting; He, Shi-Ping; Zhu, Xiao-Hui; Liang, Wen-Tian

    2016-04-01

    younging of Mesozoic granitoids in the West Kunlun records a transition from shallow level, mid-crustal melting to deeper level, lower-crustal melting. The post-collisional granitoids show significant mantle input increasing from northwest to southeast, which was closely associated with mafic magma-driven partial melting of mantle and crustal sources as a consequence of slab break-off. Syn- to post-collisional Early Mesozoic granites emplaced along the Mazar-Kangxiwar suture zone suggest that these tectonomagmatic processes followed the closure of the Paleo-Tethys ocean during the Tarim and Karakorum-Qiangtang continental collision.

  15. The residential space heating problem in Lithuania

    SciTech Connect

    Kazakevicius, E.; Schipper, L.; Meyers, S.

    1996-02-01

    This report gives preliminary data on housing in Lithuania. We focus on the actual housing structure now that much of the stock has been privatized-an action that carries with it uncertainty regarding who is responsible for heating energy use, who is responsible for conservation measures and retrofitting, and who benefits from these actions. The paper then discusses some of the measures undertaken by both property owners and by governmental agencies to ameliorate poor heating conditions. The report summarizes results from a number of recent studies of the potential for energy savings in heating Lithuanian multifamily buildings. In closing we recommend actions that should be taken soon to ensure that Lithuanian housing moves along a path to greater energy efficiency. Some signals as to where this path should go can be taken from European countries with similar climatic conditions.

  16. Observations of noctilucent clouds from Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubietis, Audrius; Dalin, Peter; Balčiūnas, Ričardas; Černis, Kazimieras

    2010-09-01

    We present an analysis of systematic visual and photographic observations of noctilucent clouds seen from Lithuania in the years 1973-2009. The main trends in the noctilucent cloud occurrence frequency and the mean brightness are derived from statistical and correlation analysis. A clear signature of the solar activity cycle is imprinted on the noctilucent cloud occurrence frequency and mean brightness, both showing distinct anti-correlation with the sunspot numbers; however, no statistically significant increase of either noctilucent cloud occurrence frequency or brightness has been detected at least over past 19 yr (1991-2009). The only statistically significant positive trend is established for the numbers of very bright noctilucent cloud displays in the years 1973-2009. The most recent noctilucent cloud observations are linked to variations of local mesospheric temperatures, measured by the Aura satellite.

  17. Lessons from Lithuania: rethinking public health training.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, L; Dixon, J

    1993-01-01

    Lithuania faces stark problems that are familiar to most countries in the former Soviet Union: high morbidity and mortality rates, pollution, an unstable economy, and rapid changes in the financing and organisation of health care. In this environment Moore and Dixon visited Kaunas Medical Academy to help identify how training in public health medicine could contribute towards improving the health of the population. Although over 200 hours are devoted to public health training for medical undergraduates, teaching is unfocused, fragmented, and includes little epidemiology--the core subject for public health physicians. Teaching is mainly through long lectures with few group discussions. Student participation and motivation are low. As well as recommending redesign of the curriculum, Moore and Dixon suggested training in teaching methods for teachers. They also suggested that postgraduate training in public health should begin and should be targeted at hospital managers, teaching staff, and existing public health physicians. Images p913-a PMID:8490421

  18. 40 CFR 264.113 - Closure; time allowed for closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Closure; time allowed for closure. 264... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Closure and Post-Closure § 264.113 Closure; time allowed for closure. (a) Within 90 days after...

  19. 40 CFR 265.113 - Closure; time allowed for closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Closure; time allowed for closure. 265... (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Closure and Post-Closure § 265.113 Closure; time allowed for closure. (a) Within...

  20. Artificial radionuclides in the atmosphere over Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Lujaniene, G; Aninkevicius, V; Lujanas, V

    2009-02-01

    Measurements of airborne radioactive aerosol concentration were carried out on the basis of 1-3 days samples after the Chernobyl disaster and during the period of 1992-2003. Transport of "hot" particles of different composition resulted in the high activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (238)Pu, (239,240)Pu and (241)Am in the atmosphere in Vilnius at the end of April 1986. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio showed clear evidence of non-global plutonium originating from the Chernobyl accident in the atmosphere over Lithuania. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio ranged from 0.14 to 0.40 in monthly samples in Vilnius in 1995-2003. An increase in activity concentration of (137)Cs by a factor of 100 (up to 300 microBq/m(3)) was found following forest fires in the Ukraine and Belarus. However, no transport of the Chernobyl plutonium was observed and the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio in samples collected during the forest fires was found to be 0.229 and 0.185, respectively. The exponential decrease in the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio from 0.30 to 0.19 (mean values) was observed in 1995-2003. PMID:17884261

  1. Adolescent pathological gambling in Kaunas, Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Skokauskas, Norbertas; Satkeviciute, Regina

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the first survey of pathological gambling among adolescents in Kaunas, Lithuania. The results indicated that a large majority of adolescent (82.6%) have engaged in a variety of gambling activities. Although most respondents were classified as "occasional gamblers", there were significantly more females than males who were occasional gamblers and non-gamblers, and significantly more males than females who were regular gamblers. More adolescents surveyed had gambled on Tele-Lotto than on any other gambling activity. Based on Diagnostic statistical manual-IV-Multiple Response-Adapted for Juveniles, 4.2% of participants were categorized as pathological gamblers, with a further 9.1% classified as at-risk gamblers, 69.4% as social gamblers, and 17.3% as non-gamblers. Based on South Oaks Gambling Screen-Revised for Adolescents, 5.2% (n = 43) of participants were categorized as pathological gamblers, with a further 10.5% (n = 88) classified as at-risk gamblers, 67% (n = 559) as social gamblers, and 17.3% (n = 145) as non-gamblers. The commonest reason given by adolescents for gambling were "enjoyment", "a chance to try luck" and "to win money"; however, the top reasons reported for pathological gambling were "to relax", "to distract myself from problems" and "to improve mood". Male gender, cognitive distortions regarding gambling, having parents who gamble and gamble too excess, using alcohol regularly, and smoking regularly were characteristics significantly associated with pathological gambling in adolescence. PMID:17454722

  2. Mechanics of fatigue crack closure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C., Jr. (Editor); Elber, Wolf (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Papers are presented on plasticity induced crack closure, crack closure in fatigue crack growth, the dependence of crack closure on fatigue loading variables, and a procedure for standardizing crack closure levels. Also considered are a statistical approach to crack closure determination, the crack closure behavior of surface cracks under pure bending, closure measurements on short fatigue cracks, and crack closure under plane strain conditions. Other topics include fatigue crack closure behavior at high stress ratios, the use of acoustic waves for the characterization of closed fatigue cracks, and the influence of fatigue crack wake length and state of stress on crack closure.

  3. Residential energy use in Lithuania: The prospects for energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.; Kazakevicius, E.

    1998-06-01

    While the potential for saving energy in Lithuania`s residential sector (especially, space heating in apartment buildings) is large, significant barriers (financial, administration, etc.) to energy efficiency remain. Removing or ameliorating these barriers will be difficult since these are systematic barriers that require societal change. Furthermore, solutions to these problems will require the cooperation and, in some cases, active participation of households and homeowner associations. Therefore, prior to proposing and implementing energy-efficiency solutions, one must understand the energy situation from a household perspective.

  4. National burden of colorectal cancer in Lithuania and the ranking of Lithuania within the 45 European nations

    PubMed Central

    LUNEVICIUS, RAIMUNDAS; POSKUS, TOMAS; SAMALAVICIUS, NARIMANTAS E.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to assess the national burden of colorectal cancer in Lithuania, and to determine the performance of Lithuania for the control of colorectal cancer compared with 45 European nations by ranking. Seven sources of data and information were used. The majority of the findings on disease burden are reported in the present study in the form of the crude and age-standardised incidence, age-specific and age-standardised mortality, disability adjusted life years (DALYs), years lived with disability (YLDs) and years of life lost (YLLs) per 100,000 individuals per year by gender and in the two genders combined between 1990 and 2011. Colorectal cancer was ranked as the 3rd leading cause of disease burden out of all malignancies. Overall, the crude incidence was 35 per 100,000 individuals in 2001 and 51 per 100,000 individuals in 2011 in Lithuania. Incidence and mortality from colorectal cancer varied markedly within Lithuania. The number of DALYs and YLLs slightly declined between 2005 and 2010. YLLs contributed 97% of the total burden due to colorectal cancer in 1990, and 96% in 2010. The mortality rate was 4–5 times higher in males aged 50–54 years than in males aged 45–49. The YLDs per 100,000 individuals per year in Lithuania increased by 61.1% between 1990 and 2010. However, Lithuania was below the average of the Central & Eastern, Southern, Northern and Western regions of Europe. It was concluded that the national colorectal cancer service provision should be amplified and that a programme for the prevention and control of colorectal cancer is required. PMID:26171046

  5. Reviews of National Policies for Education: Lithuania. Education and Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Reform of education, training, and human resource development is an integral part of the transition to a democratic society and market economy. The talents, skills, and knowledge base of the Lithuanian population are crucial in this process, motivating the ambitious scale and urgency of the reforms being advanced for education. Lithuania has made…

  6. Transition and the Development of Higher Education Managers in Lithuania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roffe, Ian

    1996-01-01

    Broad contextual and cultural influences of reforms on employment and higher education in Lithuania are examined, effects of this transition on higher education administration are considered, and conditions that would encourage administrators to take an entrepreneurial or proactive approach are discussed. A model for training programs to assist…

  7. OXYGENATED ORGANIC COMPOUND CONCENTRATIONS NEAR A ROADWAY IN LITHUANIA, SSR

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the period June 1 to June 9, 1989, aldehyde and other oxygenated organic compound concentrations were examined at sites 3, 10, and 80 meters northeast of the Vilnius-Kaunas highway in Lithuania, SSR by collecting 120 liter (1 L/min for 120 min) samples on 2,4-dinitrophenyl...

  8. A study of stress affecting police officers in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Zukauskas, Gediminas; Ruksenas, Osvaldas; Burba, Benjaminas; Grigaliuniene, Viktorija; Mitchell, Jeffrey T

    2009-01-01

    This research study aims to identify the key stresses encountered by police officers in Lithuania in 2003. A questionnaire was distributed to officers working in police departments throughout Lithuania. The 2003 results were a compared with a similar study carried out among male and female police officers in Lithuania 1999. The stressors determined to have the greatest negative effects were administrative problems, family problems, and an ineffective criminal justice system. Identified consequences of police stress included depression, alcoholism, physical illness, and suicide. Dealing with stressful situations led to more frequent physical illness in female police officers and higher alcohol consumption in male police officers. This paper confirms the findings of previous studies. It adds to the knowledge of the unique stresses affecting police officers. It briefly explores the consequences of stress in police work. Since the study represents a small sample of the 15,000 police officers in Lithuania, caution is urged in the application of the findings to other police departments. PMID:20524505

  9. Onshore Wind Farms: Value Creation for Stakeholders in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burinskienė, Marija; Rudzkis, Paulius; Kanopka, Adomas

    With the costs of fossil fuel consistently rising worldwide over the last decade, the development of green technologies has become a major goal in many countries. Therefore the evaluation of wind power projects becomes a very important task. To estimate the value of the technologies based on renewable resources also means taking into consideration social, economic, environmental, and scientific value of such projects. This article deals with economic evaluation of electricity generation costs of onshore wind farms in Lithuania and the key factors that have influence on wind power projects and offer a better understanding of social-economic context behind wind power projects. To achieve these goals, this article makes use of empirical data of Lithuania's wind power farms as well as data about the investment environment of the country.Based on empirical data of wind power parks, the research investigates the average wind farm generation efficiency in Lithuania. Employing statistical methods the return on investments of wind farms in Lithuania is calculated. The value created for every party involved and the total value of the wind farm is estimated according to Stakeholder theory.

  10. Giftedness Perceptions and Practices of Teachers in Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavitt, Monita; Geake, John

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on two of the first studies of post-Soviet reforms of gifted education in Lithuania. After a professional development (PD) programme was provided Lithuanian teachers to help them develop a list of characteristics of gifted children, define giftedness, and design a procedure for gifted identification, two qualitative studies…

  11. Perspectives on Language Attitudes and Use in Lithuania's Multilingual Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle; Ramoniene, Meilute

    2005-01-01

    EU accession negotiations have impacted on and generated ongoing interest in Baltic language and citizenship legislation. There is however no detailed knowledge of prevailing language attitudes amongst mainstream and minority populations in Lithuania. This paper investigates attitudes to minority language use and to the (officially reinstated)…

  12. Equations and closure methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Basic differential equations governing compressible turbulent boundary layer flow are reviewed, including conservation of mass and energy, momentum equations derived from Navier-Stokes equations, and equations of state. Closure procedures were broken down into: (1) simple or zeroth-order methods, (2) first-order or mean field closure methods, and (3) second-order or mean turbulence field methods.

  13. Atrioventricular block after ASD closure

    PubMed Central

    Asakai, Hiroko; Weskamp, Sofia; Eastaugh, Lucas; d'Udekem, Yves; Pflaumer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Objective Secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) is a common congenital heart defect. There is limited data on both early and late atrioventricular (AV) block post ASD closure. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors of AV block associated with ASD closure. Methods A retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent ASD closure either with a device or surgical method at the Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne between 1996 and 2010 was performed. Baseline demographics, procedural details and follow-up data were collected from medical records. Results A total of 378 patients were identified; 242 in the device group and 136 in the surgical group. Fourteen patients (3.7%) had AV block (1 with second degree and 13 with first degree) at a median follow-up of 28 months; 11/242 (4.5%) in the device group and 3/135 (2.2%) in the surgical group (p=0.39). Six patients had new-onset AV block after ASD closure. In the device subgroup, patients with AV block at follow-up had a larger indexed device size compared with those without (22 (15–31) vs 18(7–38), p=0.02). Multivariate analysis revealed the presence of AV block either pre procedure or post procedure to be the only variables associated with late AV block. Conclusions Late AV block in patients with repaired ASD is rare and most likely independent of the technique used. In the device subgroup, the only risk factor identified to be associated with late AV block was the presence of either preprocedural or postprocedural AV block, so long-term follow-up for these patients should be provided. PMID:27540418

  14. PERFORMANCE OF A CONTAINMENT VESSEL CLOSURE FOR RADIOACTIVE GAS CONTENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2010-07-09

    This paper presents a summary of the design and testing of the containment vessel closure for the Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP). This package is a replacement for a package that has been used to ship tritium in a variety of content configurations and forms since the early 1970s. The containment vessel closure incorporates features specifically designed for the containment of tritium when subjected to the normal and hypothetical conditions required of Type B radioactive material shipping Packages. The paper discusses functional performance of the containment vessel closure of the BTSP prototype packages and separate testing that evaluated the performance of the metallic C-Rings used in a mock BTSP closure.

  15. Unusually well preserved casts of halite crystals: A case from the Upper Frasnian of northern Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rychliński, Tomasz; Jaglarz, Piotr; Uchman, Alfred; Vainorius, Julius

    2014-07-01

    Upper Frasnian carbonate-siliciclastics of the Stipinai Formation (northern Lithuania) comprise a bed of calcareous silty arenite with casts of halite crystals, including hopper crystals. Unusually well-preserved casts occur on the lower surface of the bed, while poorly-preserved casts are present on the upper bedding surface. The casts originated as the result of the dissolution of halite crystals which grew in the sediment. The dissolution took place during early stages of diagenesis, when host sediment was soft. Unstable cavities after crystal dissolution were filled by overlying sediment forming their casts. The collapsing sediment form sink-hole deformation structures which disturb wave-ripple cross lamination from the upper part of the bed. Dewatering pipe structures are also present. The casts and accompanying sink-hole and dewatering pipes are classified as the postdepositional deformation structures caused by haloturbation.

  16. Prosody, Phonology, and Parsing in Closure Ambiguities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Paul; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This paper investigated the relationship of syntactic structure with prosodic and phonological information, focusing on distinctions between early and late closure sentences in terms both of intonational phrasing and of stress placement on stress shift items such as "Hong Kong." Contains 63 references. (MDM)

  17. Study on Customer Satisfaction with Facilities Management Services in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepkova, Natalija; Žūkaitė-Jefimovienė, Giedrė

    2012-12-01

    The article introduces the concept and content of facilities management (FM) services. The paper presents the concept of customer satisfaction and discusses the key factors which influence the opinions of customers and their satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the services provided. The article presents two studies: a brief survey of several FM service providers and a survey of customer satisfaction with FM services in Lithuania. The conclusions are given at the end of the article.

  18. Comparisons organized by Ionizing Radiation Metrology Laboratory of FTMC, Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Gudelis, A; Gorina, I

    2016-03-01

    The newly established Ionizing Radiation Metrology Laboratory of the National Metrology Institute (FTMC) in Lithuania organized four comparisons in the field of low-level radioactivity measurements in water. For gamma-ray emitters, the activity concentration in the samples was in the range 1-25Bq/kg, while for tritium it was around 2Bq/g. The assigned values of all comparisons were traceable to the primary standards of the Czech Metrology Institute (CMI). PMID:26585643

  19. Quick actuating closure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, III, Dorsey E. (Inventor); Updike, deceased, Benjamin T. (Inventor); Allred, Johnny W. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A quick actuating closure for a pressure vessel 80 in which a wedge ring 30 with a conical outer surface 31 is moved forward to force shear blocks 40, with conical inner surfaces 41, radially outward to lock an end closure plug 70 within an opening 81 in the pressure vessel 80. A seal ring 60 and a preload ramp 50 sit between the shear blocks 40 and the end closure plug 70 to provide a backup sealing capability. Conical surfaces 44 and 55 of the preload ramp 50 and the shear blocks 40 interact to force the seal ring 60 into shoulders 73 and 85 in the end closure plug 70 and opening 81 to form a tight seal. The end closure plug 70 is unlocked by moving the wedge ring 30 rearward, which causes T-bars 32 of the wedge ring 30 riding within T -slots 42 of the shear blocks 40 to force them radially inward. The end closure plug 70 is then removed, allowing access to the interior of the pressure vessel 80.

  20. Bartonella infection in small mammals and their ectoparasites in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Lipatova, Indre; Paulauskas, Algimantas; Puraite, Irma; Radzijevskaja, Jana; Balciauskas, Linas; Gedminas, Vaclovas

    2015-01-01

    The Bartonella pathogen is an emerging zoonotic agent. Epidemiological studies worldwide have demonstrated that small mammals are reservoir hosts of Bartonella spp. and their ectoparasites are potential vectors. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Bartonella infections in small mammals (Rodentia, Insectivora) and their ectoparasites (fleas and ticks) in Lithuania. A total of 430 small mammals representing nine species were captured with live-traps in Lithuania during 2013-2014. A total of 151 fleas representing eight species were collected from 109 (25.8%) small mammals. Five hundred and seventy ticks (Ixodes ricinus) were collected from 68 (16.1%) small mammals. Bartonella DNA was detected in 102 (23.7%) small mammals, 44 (29.1%) fleas and five (3.7%) pooled tick samples. Sequence analysis of 16S-23S rRNA ITS region showed that sequences were identical or similar to Bartonella grahamii, Bartonella taylorii and Bartonella rochalimae. This study is the first investigating the distribution and diversity of Bartonella species in small mammals and their ectoparasites in Lithuania. B. grahamii, B. taylorii, and B. rochalimae were detected in small mammals and their fleas, and B. grahamii in ticks obtained from small mammals. PMID:26344603

  1. Malacofauna of Holocene freshwater calcareous deposits of Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanko, Aleksander; Vainorius, Julius; Melešytė, Monika

    2010-12-01

    The malacofauna of freshwater calcareous deposits of Lithuania was studied. Sections of the Mūšos Tyrelis and Pabaliai peatbogs near the town of Šiauliai, as well as Dubičiai section (three sites) in SE Lithuania and Dūkštos in Central Lithuania were investigated. Freshwater calcareous deposits are attributed to three groups of facies - lacustrine, valley-hollow-peatbog and terrestrial. Each group of facies consists of sub-facies (freshwater lime, "gazha" (limno-calcite), peat-tufa, calcareous tufa, "mada") varying the formation conditions, composition and other characteristics. The mollusc fauna in the lacustrine facies group (Mūšos Tyrelis and Pabaliai sections) is represented by lacustrine species containing euryecological freshwater molluscs. Terrestrial and rheophilous species are rare or absent in the lacustrine group. Deposits of valley-hollow-peatbog facies contain shells of euryecological freshwater and lacustrine molluscs together with rheophyl shells, sometimes with abundant terrestrial shells, as was observed in the Dubičiai-4 section. A characteristic feature of the terrestrial facies group deposits is the occurrence of solely terrestrial mollusc shells (Dūkštos section).

  2. Geological research for public outreach and education in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skridlaite, Grazina; Guobyte, Rimante

    2013-04-01

    Successful IYPE activities and implementation of Geoheritage day in Lithuania increased public awareness in geology. A series of projects introducing geology to the general public and youth, supported by EU funds and local communities, were initiated. Researchers from the scientific and applied geology institutions of Lithuania participated in these projects and provided with the geological data. In one case, the Lithuanian Survey of Protected Areas supported the installation of a series of geological exhibitions in several regional and national parks. An animation demonstrating glacial processes was chosen for most of these because the Lithuanian surface is largely covered with sedimentary deposits of the Nemunas (Weichselian) glaciation. Researchers from the Lithuanian Geological Survey used the mapping results to demonstrate real glacial processes for every chosen area. In another case, 3D models showing underground structures of different localities were based on detailed geological maps and profiles obtained for that area. In case of the Sartai regional park, the results of previous geological research projects provided the possibility to create a movie depicting the ca. 2 Ga geological evolution of the region. The movie starts with the accretion of volcanic island arcs on the earlier continental margin at ca. 2 Ga and deciphers later Precambrian tectonic and magmatic events. The reconstruction is based on numerous scientific articles and interpretation of geophysical data. Later Paleozoic activities and following erosion sculptured the surface which was covered with several ice sheets in Quaternary. For educational purpose, a collection of minerals and rocks at the Forestry Institute was used to create an exhibition called "Cycle of geological processes". Forestry scientists and their students are able to study the interactions of geodiversity and biodiversity and to understand ancient and modern geological processes leading to a soil formation. An aging

  3. The Revival of Agrarian Youth Organizations in the Former Soviet Union: Lithuania--One Country's Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, M. Craig; Thuemmel, William L.; Kisieliene, Sonata

    2000-01-01

    Provides an historical sketch of the origin of young farmers' organizations in Lithuania during the 1920s and 1930s and their second beginning since the fall of communism, the demise of the Soviet Union, and the regaining of Lithuania's independence in the 1990s. (Author/JOW)

  4. Language and Education Orientations in Lithuania: A Cross-Baltic Perspective Post-EU Accession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulajeva, Tatjana; Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an up-to-date overview of language policies and practices in Lithuania, paying particular attention to the latest developments that have taken place in national educational contexts. Against the background of recent sociodemographic changes in the three Baltic republics, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, it analyzes issues…

  5. Primary angle-closure glaucoma: an update.

    PubMed

    Wright, Carrie; Tawfik, Mohammed A; Waisbourd, Michael; Katz, Leslie J

    2016-05-01

    Primary angle-closure glaucoma is potentially a devastating disease, responsible for half of glaucoma-related blindness worldwide. Angle closure is characterized by appositional approximation or contact between the iris and trabecular meshwork. It tends to develop in eyes with shallow anterior chambers, anteriorly positioned or pushed lenses, and angle crowding. Risk of primary angle-closure glaucoma is high among women, the elderly and the hyperopic, and it is most prevalent in Asia. Investigation into genetic mechanisms of glaucoma inheritance is underway. Diagnosis relies on gonioscopy and may be aided by anterior segment optical coherence tomography and ultrasound biomicroscopy. Treatment is designed to control intraocular pressure while monitoring changes to the angle and optic nerve head. Treatment typically begins with medical management through pressure-reducing topical medications. Peripheral iridotomy is often performed to alleviate pupillary block, while laser iridoplasty has been found effective for mechanisms of closure other than pupillary block, such as plateau iris syndrome. Phacoemulsification, with or without goniosynechialysis, both in eyes with existing cataracts and in those with clear lenses, is thus far a viable treatment alternative. Long-term research currently underway will examine its efficacy in cases of angle closure in early stages of the disease. Endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation is another treatment option, which can be combined with cataract surgery. Trabeculectomy remains effective therapy for more advanced cases. PMID:26119516

  6. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  7. 6. Launch closure, close up of closure motor, view towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Launch closure, close up of closure motor, view towards north - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  8. Quantitative reconstruction of climate variability during the Eemian (Merkinė) and Weichselian (Nemunas) in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šeirienė, Vaida; Kühl, Norbert; Kisielienė, Dalia

    2014-07-01

    Little is known concerning climate changes in the Eastern Baltic region during the last interglacial-glacial cycle and in particular, climate changes during the Weichselian. In this study, a quantitative reconstruction of the mean January and July temperature for the Medininkai-117 site in Lithuania is presented. The reconstruction is based on pollen and plant macrofossils from this site, which reveal that the vegetation was characteristic of many northern Europe sites during the Eemian and Early Weichselian. Gradual evolution of the vegetation suggests that relatively uniform climate conditions existed during the Eemian. Our reconstructions support the view of a relatively stable Eemian, with short cooling phases of low amplitude. A strong increase in temperature was apparent during the beginning of the interglacial and decrease during the transition to the Weichselian. Reconstructed July temperatures of the Eemian interglacial were approximately 2 °C higher than today (18.5 °C; today: 16.2 °C) and were similar to today for January (- 5.2 °C; today: - 5.1 °C). July temperatures during the Early Weichselian were only ~ 2°C lower than during the Eemian, whereas the January temperatures gradually decreased. Winter temperatures were relatively high (above - 10 °C) during the Early Weichselian.

  9. 40 CFR 264.258 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264.258... Waste Piles § 264.258 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner or operator must remove... facility and perform post-closure care in accordance with the closure and post-closure care...

  10. 40 CFR 264.310 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264.310... Landfills § 264.310 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At final closure of the landfill or upon closure of...) After final closure, the owner or operator must comply with all post-closure requirements contained...

  11. Tank closure reducing grout

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, T.B.

    1997-04-18

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr{sup 90}, the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel.

  12. A Plio-Pleistocene Synthesis of Tropical Planktonic Oxygen Isotope Records: Early Closure of the Isthmus of Panama and Late Development of the Walker Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wara, M. W.; Ravelo, A. C.; Ziegler, C. L.; Schilla, A. S.

    2001-12-01

    Walker circulation were established between 2-1 Ma. Comparison of these oxygen isotope records allows us to infer the history of tropical ocean conditions since 5 Ma. Marked hydrographic changes at 4.2 Ma associated with early Pliocene tectonic/gateway changes such as those in Central America of in Indonesia, precede the development of the modern Walker circulation by >2 Ma. Finally, the establishment of equatorial Pacific hydrographic gradients appears to occur significantly after the initiation of northern hemisphere glaciation but before the change from 40 to 100 kyr glacial cycles.

  13. Anti-HCV prevalence in the general population of Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Liakina, Valentina; Valantinas, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of this study was to assess risk factors for HCV acquisition and prevalence of anti-HCV in the general population of Lithuania. Material/Methods The study enrolled 1528 randomly selected adults from the 5 biggest cities of Lithuania and its rural regions. Screening for anti-HCV was performed by analysis of peripheral capillary blood with lateral flow immunochromatography and confirmation of positive cases by peripheral venous blood testing with 2-step chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Results Anti-HCV prevalence in Lithuania is 2.78% and according to the standard European population the adjusted anti-HCV rate is 2.85%. It is more prevalent among men (crude rates: 4.02% males vs. 1.49% females, p=.0030) and this does not depend on age. Vilnius and Kaunas regions have higher infection rates than smaller rural regions (2.92% and 3.01% vs. 2.24%, 0.74% and 1.35%). Nowadays among our population HCV infection spreads mainly via intravenous drug use (OR=42.5, p<.0001). HCV transmission occurs through blood transfusions (OR=6.4, p=.0002), tooth removal (OR=4.1, p=.0048), childbirth (OR=5.0, p=.0224), multiple and a long-term hospitalization (OR=3.0, p=.0064), tattooing (OR=4.4, p=.0013), open traumas (OR=3.7, p=.0009) and intrafamilially (OR=11.3, p=.0002). Conclusions 2.78% of the population is anti-HCV-positive. The anti-HCV rate is higher in Vilnius and Kaunas in comparison with other regions. HCV spreads mainly through intravenous drug use, but intrafamilial and some nosocomial routes are also important. The anti-HCV prevalence did not depend on age. Despite active prevention of nosocomial HCV transmission, the incidence of HCV infection does not decrease due to virus spread mostly in “trusted networks” of intravenous drug users. PMID:22367136

  14. ROCKET PORT CLOSURE

    DOEpatents

    Mattingly, J.T.

    1963-02-12

    This invention provides a simple pressure-actuated closure whereby windowless observation ports are opened to the atmosphere at preselected altitudes. The closure comprises a disk which seals a windowless observation port in rocket hull. An evacuated instrument compartment is affixed to the rocket hull adjacent the inner surface of the disk, while the outer disk surface is exposed to the atmosphere through which the rocket is traveling. The pressure differential between the evacuated instrument compartment and the relatively high pressure external atmosphere forces the disk against the edge of the observation port, thereby effecting a tight seai. The instrument compartment is evacuated to a pressure equal to the atmospheric pressure existing at the altitude at which it is desiretl that the closure should open. When the rocket reaches this preselected altitude, the inwardly directed atmospheric force on the disk is just equaled by the residual air pressure force within the instrument compartment. Consequently, the closure disk falls away and uncovers the open observation port. The separation of the disk from the rocket hull actuates a switch which energizes the mechanism of a detecting instrument disposed within the instrument compartment. (AE C)

  15. Epidermal closure regulates histolysis during mammalian (Mus) digit regeneration.

    PubMed

    Simkin, Jennifer; Sammarco, Mimi C; Dawson, Lindsay A; Tucker, Catherine; Taylor, Louis J; Van Meter, Keith; Muneoka, Ken

    2015-06-01

    Mammalian digit regeneration progresses through consistent stages: histolysis, inflammation, epidermal closure, blastema formation, and finally redifferentiation. What we do not yet know is how each stage can affect others. Questions of stage timing, tissue interactions, and microenvironmental states are becoming increasingly important as we look toward solutions for whole limb regeneration. This study focuses on the timing of epidermal closure which, in mammals, is delayed compared to more regenerative animals like the axolotl. We use a standard wound closure device, Dermabond (2-octyl cyanoacrylate), to induce earlier epidermal closure, and we evaluate the effect of fast epidermal closure on histolysis, blastema formation, and redifferentiation. We find that fast epidermal closure is reliant upon a hypoxic microenvironment. Additionally, early epidermal closure eliminates the histolysis stage and results in a regenerate that more closely replicates the amputated structure. We show that tools like Dermabond and oxygen are able to independently influence the various stages of regeneration enabling us to uncouple histolysis, wound closure, and other regenerative events. With this study, we start to understand how each stage of mammalian digit regeneration is controlled. PMID:27499872

  16. Epidermal closure regulates histolysis during mammalian (Mus) digit regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Simkin, Jennifer; Sammarco, Mimi C.; Dawson, Lindsay A.; Tucker, Catherine; Taylor, Louis J.; Van Meter, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mammalian digit regeneration progresses through consistent stages: histolysis, inflammation, epidermal closure, blastema formation, and finally redifferentiation. What we do not yet know is how each stage can affect others. Questions of stage timing, tissue interactions, and microenvironmental states are becoming increasingly important as we look toward solutions for whole limb regeneration. This study focuses on the timing of epidermal closure which, in mammals, is delayed compared to more regenerative animals like the axolotl. We use a standard wound closure device, Dermabond (2‐octyl cyanoacrylate), to induce earlier epidermal closure, and we evaluate the effect of fast epidermal closure on histolysis, blastema formation, and redifferentiation. We find that fast epidermal closure is reliant upon a hypoxic microenvironment. Additionally, early epidermal closure eliminates the histolysis stage and results in a regenerate that more closely replicates the amputated structure. We show that tools like Dermabond and oxygen are able to independently influence the various stages of regeneration enabling us to uncouple histolysis, wound closure, and other regenerative events. With this study, we start to understand how each stage of mammalian digit regeneration is controlled. PMID:27499872

  17. Transcatheter device occlusion of a large pulmonary arteriovenous fistula by exit closure: the road less travelled.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Bhavesh M; Shah, Jayal; Shukla, Anand

    2014-01-01

    Large pulmonary arteriovenous fistula (PAVF) manifests as cyanosis and predisposes to serious complications of right-to-left shunt, and therefore necessitates early treatment. The emergence of antegrade transcatheter closure of feeding arteries as treatment of choice is limited by inherent risk of either recanalization or reappearance of new feeders and potential risk of systemic embolization. Additional closure of the draining vessel by transcatheter device occlusion should overcome the limitations of conventional antegrade technique. We describe two cases of successful transcatheter closure of a large PAVF by antegrade device closure of feeders as well as transseptal retrograde closure of the exiting channel. PMID:24402810

  18. Sedimentary structures from different proglacial glaciofluvial settings in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šinkūnė, E.; Šinkūnas, E.

    2012-04-01

    Proglacial glaciofluvial sedimentation during old continental glaciations created a wide range of landforms. However, proglacial deposit sequences are not always well expressed in form of typical landforms. In that case, and also when we are dealing with buried deposits, we face difficulties to recognise their origin or conditions of sedimentation. Sediment bedding structures vary considerably depending on the sedimentation conditions; consequently, they are most helpful in this case. The sediment bedding structures were studied in number of proglacial sediment sequences of different origin in Lithuania to gain the most characteristic complexes of sedimentary structures from particular conditions of sedimentation. In order to analyse the successions of bedforms created in different settings of proglacial glaciofluvial sedimentation the sedimentary models for particular sites in sandur, meltwater streamway and glaciofluvial delta were built. Trough, tabular and planar cross bedding and climbing-ripple cross-lamination is characteristic of proglacial glaciofluvial sediment sequences. However, distinct complexes of bedding structures were recognised for specific conditions of sedimentation in particular sites. This study was financed by the Research Council of Lithuania (No. LEK- 03/2010).

  19. 75 FR 65463 - Record of Decision (ROD) for the Implementation of the Base Closure and Realignment (BRAC) 2005...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ...The Department of the Army announces the availability of the ROD, which summarizes the decision on how to implement property disposal in accordance with the Defense Base Closure and Realignment Act of 1990 (the Base Closure Act), Public Law 101-510, as amended, following the closure of Fort Monroe, Virginia. The Army has decided to implement its preferred alternative of early transfer of......

  20. Conservation of geo- and -biodiversity in Lithuania: are there conflicts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skridlaite, Grazina; Motiejunaite, Jurga

    2014-05-01

    Lithuanian surface is sculptured by more than five glaciers, which retreated c. 10 000 years ago. After the ice sheets melted in Lithuania, Latvia and Poland, and other neighbouring countries, they left numerous erratic boulders and boulder fields. Hundreds of single boulders and boulder fields are declared as natural monuments in Lithuania and other countries and are variably protected. Tens of single boulders and boulder fields are included into the Geosites database at the Lithuanian Geological Survey. Rapid weather changes in Lithuania cause the weathering of erratic boulders. However, the fastest erosion is by overgrowing cryptogams: lichenized and non-lichenized fungi, algae, cyanobacteria and bryophytes. Lichens are among the first colonizers of rock surfaces, and their impact on stonework heritage is rather well documented. Hard rocks (e.g. granites) are weathering considerably slower than soft or relatively soft sandstones, dolomites or marbles; however serious impact is visible on stones with inscriptions, drawings and open surfaces of the protected nature monuments. Lichens gradually cover whole boulder surfaces obscuring their geological value and contributing to the surface weathering in Lithuania and neighbouring countries where numerous protected stony nature monuments occur. The 73 of the 723 species of lichenized and allied fungi in Lithuania are confined to hard acid rocks. Eight of these acid rock-dwelling species are included in the Lithuanian Red Data Book, some of them have high threat category or are thought to be extinct now. There is no conservation conflict between the red-listed saxicolous lichens and their substrate where the species are confined to wild boulder meadows. Here lichens and their boulder substrate suffer from excessive growth and overshadowing from surrounding vascular plants, also from pollution which change stone surface properties and induce encroachment of more aggressive species than the usual slow-growing acid rock

  1. Airway closure in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Dutrieue, Brigitte; Verbanck, Sylvia; Darquenne, Chantal; Prisk, G Kim

    2005-08-25

    Recent single breath washout (SBW) studies in microgravity and on the ground have suggested an important effect of airway closure on gas mixing in the human lung, reflected particularly in the phase III slope of vital capacity SBW and bolus tests. In order to explore this effect, we designed a SBW in which subjects inspired 2-l from residual volume (RV) starting with a 150 ml bolus of He and SF6. In an attempt to vary the pattern of airways closure configuration before the test, the experiments were conducted in 1G and in microgravity during parabolic flight allowing the pre-test expiration to RV to be either in microgravity or at 1.8 G, with the actual test gas inhalation performed entirely in microgravity. Contrary to our expectations, the measured phase III slope and phase IV height and volume obtained from seven subjects in microgravity were essentially identical irrespective of the gravity level during the pre-test expiration to RV. The results suggest that airway closure configuration at RV before the test inspiration has no apparent impact on phases III and IV generation. PMID:15979418

  2. Hexokinase mediates stomatal closure.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Gilor; Moshelion, Menachem; David-Schwartz, Rakefet; Halperin, Ofer; Wallach, Rony; Attia, Ziv; Belausov, Eduard; Granot, David

    2013-09-01

    Stomata, composed of two guard cells, are the gates whose controlled movement allows the plant to balance the demand for CO2 for photosynthesis with the loss of water through transpiration. Increased guard-cell osmolarity leads to the opening of the stomata and decreased osmolarity causes the stomata to close. The role of sugars in the regulation of stomata is not yet clear. In this study, we examined the role of hexokinase (HXK), a sugar-phosphorylating enzyme involved in sugar-sensing, in guard cells and its effect on stomatal aperture. We show here that increased expression of HXK in guard cells accelerates stomatal closure. We further show that this closure is induced by sugar and is mediated by abscisic acid. These findings support the existence of a feedback-inhibition mechanism that is mediated by a product of photosynthesis, namely sucrose. When the rate of sucrose production exceeds the rate at which sucrose is loaded into the phloem, the surplus sucrose is carried toward the stomata by the transpiration stream and stimulates stomatal closure via HXK, thereby preventing the loss of precious water. PMID:23738737

  3. Identification of viral and phytoplasmal agents responsible for diseases affecting plants of Gaillardia Foug. in Lithuania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gaillardia plants exhibiting symptoms characteristic of viral and phytoplasmal diseases were collected at botanical gardens and floriculture farms in Lithuania. Cucumber mosaic virus was isolated from diseased plants exhibiting symptoms characterized stunting, color breaking and malformation of flo...

  4. Autonomic closure for turbulence simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Ryan N.; Hamlington, Peter E.; Dahm, Werner J. A.

    2016-03-01

    A new approach to turbulence closure is presented that eliminates the need to specify a predefined turbulence model and instead provides for fully adaptive, self-optimizing, autonomic closures. The closure is autonomic in the sense that the simulation itself determines the optimal local, instantaneous relation between any unclosed term and resolved quantities through the solution of a nonlinear, nonparametric system identification problem. This nonparametric approach allows the autonomic closure to freely adapt to varying nonlinear, nonlocal, nonequilibrium, and other turbulence characteristics in the flow. Even a simple implementation of the autonomic closure for large eddy simulations provides remarkably more accurate results in a priori tests than do dynamic versions of traditional prescribed closures.

  5. Autonomic closure for turbulence simulations.

    PubMed

    King, Ryan N; Hamlington, Peter E; Dahm, Werner J A

    2016-03-01

    A new approach to turbulence closure is presented that eliminates the need to specify a predefined turbulence model and instead provides for fully adaptive, self-optimizing, autonomic closures. The closure is autonomic in the sense that the simulation itself determines the optimal local, instantaneous relation between any unclosed term and resolved quantities through the solution of a nonlinear, nonparametric system identification problem. This nonparametric approach allows the autonomic closure to freely adapt to varying nonlinear, nonlocal, nonequilibrium, and other turbulence characteristics in the flow. Even a simple implementation of the autonomic closure for large eddy simulations provides remarkably more accurate results in a priori tests than do dynamic versions of traditional prescribed closures. PMID:27078285

  6. Morbidity and mortality in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania in the 1980's.

    PubMed

    Zvidriņs, P; Krumiņs, J

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the general morbidity and mortality rates in the three Baltic republics--Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania during a decade before the collapse of the Soviet Union. Official statistical data were used to compare morbidity and mortality rates. A method of standardization and life table functions were employed. Soviet morbidity statistics were predominantly descriptive, and based mainly on crude rates registered cases of illness during a year per 100,000 population. The death rates during the Soviet period are a better indicator of the health of the populations than more specific health indicators. A general deterioration of the ecological, social and economic situation in the Baltic republics at the end of the 1980s and early 1990s may have resulted in the mortality rising and aborted any trends to increasing life expectancy in the next few years thus requiring more radical reforms in health and social policy. The study demonstrates a noticeable difference in mortality rates between demographic and socio-economic groups in the Baltic states. PMID:8235500

  7. Nevada Test Site closure program

    SciTech Connect

    Shenk, D.P.

    1994-08-01

    This report is a summary of the history, design and development, procurement, fabrication, installation and operation of the closures used as containment devices on underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. It also addresses the closure program mothball and start-up procedures. The Closure Program Document Index and equipment inventories, included as appendices, serve as location directories for future document reference and equipment use.

  8. An Energy Overview of the Republic of Lithuania

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2003-10-20

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Lithuania. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit.

  9. Comprehensive BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutational profile in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Janavičius, Ramūnas; Rudaitis, Vilius; Mickys, Ugnius; Elsakov, Pavel; Griškevičius, Laimonas

    2014-05-01

    There is limited knowledge about the BRCA1/2 mutational profile in Lithuania. We aimed to define the full BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutational spectrum and the clinically relevant prevalence of these gene mutations in Lithuania. A data set of 753 unrelated probands, recruited through a clinical setting, was used and consisted of 380 female breast cancer cases, 213 epithelial ovarian cancer cases, 20 breast and ovarian cancer cases, and 140 probands with positive family history of breast or ovarian cancer. A comprehensive mutation analysis of the BRCA1/2 genes by high resolution melting analysis coupled with Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis was performed. Genetic analysis revealed 32 different pathogenic germline BRCA1/2 mutations: 20 in the BRCA1 gene and 12 in the BRCA2 gene, including four different large genomic rearrangements in the BRCA1 gene. In all, 10 novel BRCA1/2 mutations were found. Nine different recurrent BRCA1 mutations and two recurrent BRCA2 mutations were identified, which comprised 90.4% of all BRCA1/2 mutations. BRCA1 exon 1-3 deletion and BRCA2 c.658_659del are reported for the first time as recurrent mutations, pointing to a possible Baltic founder effect. Approximately 7% of breast cancer and 22% of ovarian cancer patients without family history and an estimated 0.5-0.6% of all Lithuanian women were found to be carriers of mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene. PMID:25066507

  10. Increasing thyroid cancer incidence in Lithuania in 1978–2003

    PubMed Central

    Smailyte, Giedre; Miseikyte-Kaubriene, Edita; Kurtinaitis, Juozas

    2006-01-01

    Background The aim of this paper is to analyze changes in thyroid cancer incidence trends in Lithuania during the period 1978–2003 using joinpoint regression models, with special attention to the period 1993–2003. Methods The study was based on all cases of thyroid cancer reported to the Lithuanian Cancer Registry between 1978 and 2003. Age group-specific rates and standardized rates were calculated for each gender, using the direct method (world standard population). The joinpoint regression model was used to provide estimated annual percentage change and to detect points in time where significant changes in the trends occur. Results During the study period the age-standardized incidence rates increased in males from 0.7 to 2.5 cases per 100 000 and in females from 1.5 to 11.4 per 100 000. Annual percentage changes during this period in the age-standardized rates were 4.6% and 7.1% for males and females, respectively. Joinpoint analysis showed two time periods with joinpoint in the year 2000. A change in the trend occurred in which a significant increase changed to a dramatic increase in thyroid cancer incidence rates. Papillary carcinoma and stage I thyroid cancer increases over this period were mainly responsible for the pattern of changes in trend in recent years. Conclusion A moderate increase in thyroid cancer incidence has been observed in Lithuania between the years 1978 and 2000. An accelerated increase in thyroid cancer incidence rates took place in the period 2000–2003. It seems that the increase in thyroid cancer incidence can be attributed mainly to the changes in the management of non palpable thyroid nodules with growing applications of ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy in clinical practice. PMID:17156468

  11. System for closure of a physical anomaly

    DOEpatents

    Bearinger, Jane P; Maitland, Duncan J; Schumann, Daniel L; Wilson, Thomas S

    2014-11-11

    Systems for closure of a physical anomaly. Closure is accomplished by a closure body with an exterior surface. The exterior surface contacts the opening of the anomaly and closes the anomaly. The closure body has a primary shape for closing the anomaly and a secondary shape for being positioned in the physical anomaly. The closure body preferably comprises a shape memory polymer.

  12. FINAL CLOSURE PLAN SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTS CLOSURE, SITE 300

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, J E; Scott, J E; Mathews, S E

    2004-09-29

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory of the University of California (LLNL) operates two Class II surface impoundments that store wastewater that is discharged from a number of buildings located on the Site 300 Facility (Site 300). The wastewater is the by-product of explosives processing. Reduction in the volume of water discharged from these buildings over the past several years has significantly reduced the wastewater storage needs. In addition, the impoundments were constructed in 1984, and the high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane liners are nearing the end of their service life. The purpose of this project is to clean close the surface impoundments and provide new wastewater storage using portable, above ground storage tanks at six locations. The tanks will be installed prior to closure of the impoundments and will include heaters for allowing evaporation during relatively cool weather. Golder Associates (Golder) has prepared this Final Closure Plan (Closure Plan) on behalf of LLNL to address construction associated with the clean closure of the impoundments. This Closure Plan complies with State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Section 21400 of the California Code of Regulations Title 27 (27 CCR {section}21400). As required by these regulations and guidance, this Plan provides the following information: (1) A site characterization, including the site location, history, current operations, and geology and hydrogeology; (2) The regulatory requirements relevant to clean closure of the impoundments; (3) The closure procedures; and, (4) The procedures for validation and documentation of clean closure.

  13. 40 CFR 264.228 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264.228... Surface Impoundments § 264.228 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner or operator must... materials are left in place at final closure, the owner or operator must comply with all...

  14. 40 CFR 265.197 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 265.197... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems § 265.197 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure of a tank system..., then the owner or operator must close the tank system and perform post-closure care in accordance...

  15. 40 CFR 264.1102 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264... FACILITIES Containment Buildings § 264.1102 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure of a containment... or decontaminated, he must close the facility and perform post-closure care in accordance with...

  16. 40 CFR 265.258 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 265.258... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste Piles § 265.258 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner or... or decontaminated, he must close the facility and perform post-closure care in accordance with...

  17. 40 CFR 264.197 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264.197... Tank Systems § 264.197 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure of a tank system, the owner or..., then the owner or operator must close the tank system and perform post-closure care in accordance...

  18. 40 CFR 265.228 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 265.228... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 265.228 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner... impoundment and provide post-closure care for a landfill under subpart G and § 265.310, including...

  19. 40 CFR 265.310 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 265.310... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Landfills § 265.310 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At final closure of the landfill... subsoils present. (b) After final closure, the owner or operator must comply with all...

  20. 40 CFR 264.228 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264.228... Surface Impoundments § 264.228 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner or operator must... materials are left in place at final closure, the owner or operator must comply with all...

  1. 40 CFR 265.228 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 265.228... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 265.228 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner... impoundment and provide post-closure care for a landfill under subpart G and § 265.310, including...

  2. 27 CFR 26.136 - Affixing closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Closures for Distilled Spirits From Puerto Rico § 26.136 Affixing closures. Closures or other devices shall be...

  3. 27 CFR 19.523 - Affixing closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle, Label, and Closure Requirements Closure Requirements § 19.523 Affixing closures. Each bottle or other container of spirits having...

  4. 27 CFR 19.523 - Affixing closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle, Label, and Closure Requirements Closure Requirements § 19.523 Affixing closures. Each bottle or other container of spirits having...

  5. 27 CFR 19.523 - Affixing closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle, Label, and Closure Requirements Closure Requirements § 19.523 Affixing closures. Each bottle or other container of spirits having...

  6. 27 CFR 19.523 - Affixing closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle, Label, and Closure Requirements Closure Requirements § 19.523 Affixing closures. Each bottle or other container of spirits having...

  7. Closedure - Mine Closure Technologies Resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauppila, Päivi; Kauppila, Tommi; Pasanen, Antti; Backnäs, Soile; Liisa Räisänen, Marja; Turunen, Kaisa; Karlsson, Teemu; Solismaa, Lauri; Hentinen, Kimmo

    2015-04-01

    Closure of mining operations is an essential part of the development of eco-efficient mining and the Green Mining concept in Finland to reduce the environmental footprint of mining. Closedure is a 2-year joint research project between Geological Survey of Finland and Technical Research Centre of Finland that aims at developing accessible tools and resources for planning, executing and monitoring mine closure. The main outcome of the Closedure project is an updatable wiki technology-based internet platform (http://mineclosure.gtk.fi) in which comprehensive guidance on the mine closure is provided and main methods and technologies related to mine closure are evaluated. Closedure also provides new data on the key issues of mine closure, such as performance of passive water treatment in Finland, applicability of test methods for evaluating cover structures for mining wastes, prediction of water effluents from mine wastes, and isotopic and geophysical methods to recognize contaminant transport paths in crystalline bedrock.

  8. Assisted closure of fasciotomy wounds

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, J. R.; Kleiner, M. T.; Das, R.; Gaughan, J. P.; Rehman, S.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) and vessel loop assisted closure are two common methods used to assist with the closure of fasciotomy wounds. This retrospective review compares these two methods using a primary outcome measurement of skin graft requirement. Methods A retrospective search was performed to identify patients who underwent fasciotomy at our institution. Patient demographics, location of the fasciotomy, type of assisted closure, injury characteristics, need for skin graft, length of stay and evidence of infection within 90 days were recorded. Results A total of 56 patients met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 49 underwent vessel loop closure and seven underwent NPWT assisted closure. Patients who underwent NPWT assisted closure were at higher risk for requiring skin grafting than patients who underwent vessel loop closure, with an odds ratio of 5.9 (95% confidence interval 1.11 to 31.24). There was no difference in the rate of infection or length of stay between the two groups. Demographic factors such as age, gender, fracture mechanism, location of fasciotomy and presence of open fracture were not predictive of the need for skin grafting. Conclusion This retrospective descriptive case series demonstrates an increased risk of skin grafting in patients who underwent fasciotomy and were treated with NPWT assisted wound closure. In our series, vessel loop closure was protective against the need for skin grafting. Due to the small sample size in the NPWT group, caution should be taken when generalising these results. Further research is needed to determine if NPWT assisted closure of fasciotomy wounds truly leads to an increased requirement for skin grafting, or if the vascular injury is the main risk factor. PMID:23610668

  9. CPT-hole closure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noce, T.E.; Holzer, T.L.

    2003-01-01

    The long-term stability of deep holes 1.75 inches. (4.4 cm) in diameter by 98.4 feet (30 m) created by cone penetration testing (CPT) was monitored at a site in California underlain by Holocene and Pleistocene age alluvial fan deposits. Portions of the holes remained open both below and above the 28.6-foot (8.7 m)-deep water table for approximately three years, when the experiment was terminated. Hole closure appears to be a very slow process that may take decades in the stiff soils studied here. Other experience suggests holes in softer soils may also remain open. Thus, despite their small diameter, CPT holes may remain open for years and provide paths for rapid migration of contaminants. The observations confirm the need to grout holes created by CPT soundings as well as other direct-push techniques in areas where protection of shallow ground water is important.

  10. Spontaneous ileostomy closure

    PubMed Central

    Alyami, Mohammad S.; Lundberg, Peter W.; Cotte, Eddy G.; Glehen, Olivier J.

    2016-01-01

    Iatrogenic ileostomies are routinely placed during colorectal surgery for the diversion of intestinal contents to permit healing of the distal anastomosis prior to elective reversal. We present an interesting case of spontaneous closure of a diverting ileostomy without any adverse effects to the patient. A 65-year-old woman, positive for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer type-I, with locally invasive cancer of the distal colon underwent en-bloc total colectomy, hysterectomy, and bilateral salpingoophorectomy with creation of a proximal loop ileostomy. The ostomy temporarily closed without reoperation at 10 weeks, after spontaneously reopening, it definitively closed, again without surgical intervention at 18 weeks following the original surgery. This rare phenomenon has occurred following variable colorectal pathology and is poorly understood, particularly in patients with aggressive disease and adjunct perioperative interventions. PMID:27279518

  11. Molecular identification of Phytoplasmas infecting diseased pine trees in the UNESCO-protected Curonian Spit of Lithuania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although mainly known as pathogens that affect angiosperms, phytoplasmas have recently been detected in diseased coniferous plants. In 2008-2014, we observed, in the Curonian Spit of western Lithuania and in forests of southern Lithuania (Varena district), diseased trees of Scots pine (Pinus sylvest...

  12. Seasonal patterns of suicides over the period of socio-economic transition in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Kalediene, Ramune; Starkuviene, Skirmante; Petrauskiene, Jadvyga

    2006-01-01

    Background In Lithuania, suicides are a grave public health problem, requiring more extensive investigation. The aim of the study was to assess the seasonal variations of suicides in Lithuania throughout the years 1993–2002, describing patterns by gender, age and method of suicide. Methods The study material consisted of all registered suicides (n = 16,147) committed throughout 1993–2002 in Lithuania. Smoothed trends were inspected. The seasonal effect was explored using monthly ratio statistics and spectral analysis. Results Suicides in Lithuania have a distinct annual rhythm with peaks in summer and troughs in December. The December frequencies fell by more than 23% in men and 30% in women, while June peak reached nearly 23% in men and July peak exceeded 29% in women, compare with the average levels, (p < 0.05). Hanging was the most common method of suicide both in men and women comprising up to 90% among all suicides in 1998–2002. Among different methods, only hanging suicides showed significant seasonal variations, especially in men. The seasonal amplitude has decreased over time. Conclusion Substantial seasonal variations in suicides were associated with a high proportion of hanging. Extremely high suicide rates in Lithuania require further extensive studies and urgent preventive programs, taking into account the suggestions of this survey. PMID:16504069

  13. 40 CFR 265.280 - Closure and post-closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... contaminants caused by wind erosion; and (4) Compliance with § 265.276 concerning the growth of food-chain... unit as appropriate for its post-closure use; (3) Assure that growth of food chain crops complies...

  14. 40 CFR 265.280 - Closure and post-closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... contaminants caused by wind erosion; and (4) Compliance with § 265.276 concerning the growth of food-chain... unit as appropriate for its post-closure use; (3) Assure that growth of food chain crops complies...

  15. 40 CFR 265.280 - Closure and post-closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... contaminants caused by wind erosion; and (4) Compliance with § 265.276 concerning the growth of food-chain... unit as appropriate for its post-closure use; (3) Assure that growth of food chain crops complies...

  16. 40 CFR 265.280 - Closure and post-closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... contaminants caused by wind erosion; and (4) Compliance with § 265.276 concerning the growth of food-chain... unit as appropriate for its post-closure use; (3) Assure that growth of food chain crops complies...

  17. 40 CFR 265.280 - Closure and post-closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... contaminants caused by wind erosion; and (4) Compliance with § 265.276 concerning the growth of food-chain... unit as appropriate for its post-closure use; (3) Assure that growth of food chain crops complies...

  18. [Angle-closure chronic glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Lachkar, Y

    2003-10-01

    The incidence of chronic angle closure glaucoma is considerably greater than the incidence of the acute type. This type of glaucoma may mimic primary open angle glaucoma with visual field deterioration, optic nerve alteration and intraocular pressure elevation with a quiet painless eye. Its diagnosis is based on indentation gonioscopy showing peripheral anterior synechiae. The mechanisms of angle closure are the pupillary block, the plateau iris configuration and the creeping form. The treatment of chronic angle closure glaucoma is based on laser peripheral iridotomy. PMID:14646832

  19. Closure in Knee Replacement Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kharat, Kiran

    2012-01-01

    Total Knee replacement (TKR) is one of the commonest arthroplasty surgeries performed. Various techniques of closures in TKR are described. This technical note describes an useful technique of achieving water tight closure in TKR. An optimal tension watertight closure also reduces the chances of dead space hematomas and infection. The author has described his technique where the soft tissues are never unduly compromised. In his experience the patient can be mobilized freely in bed and even allowed to sleep prone after first wound check.

  20. Closure report for N Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This report has been prepared to satisfy Section 3156(b) of Public Law 101-189 (Reports in Connection with Permanent Closures of Department of Energy Defense Nuclear Facilities), which requires submittal of a Closure Report to Congress by the Secretary of Energy upon the permanent cessation of production operations at a US Department of Energy (DOE) defense nuclear facility (Watkins 1991). This closure report provides: (1) A complete survey of the environmental problems at the facility; (2) Budget quality data indicating the cost of environmental restoration and other remediation and cleanup efforts at the facility; (3) A proposed cleanup schedule.

  1. Dealing with ethical problems in the healthcare system in Lithuania: achievements and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Bankauskaite, V; Jakusovaite, I

    2006-01-01

    Ethical problems in healthcare in Lithuania are identified, existing mechanisms that deal with them are analysed and policy implications are discussed. At least three groups of ethical problems exist in the Lithuanian healthcare system: problems in the healthcare reform process, in interprofessional interaction and in doctor–patient relationships. During the past 15 years, several diverse legal, political and administrative mechanisms have been implemented in Lithuania to tackle these problems. Despite major achievements, numerous problems persist, implying that the focus should be shifted to different mechanisms and interventions. It is necessary to broaden the conceptual understanding of ethics in healthcare and focus on management ethics to tackle ethical problems in Lithuania or in other countries in transition. PMID:17012499

  2. Awareness and practice of patient's rights law in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Ducinskiene, Danute; Vladickiene, Jurgita; Kalediene, Ramune; Haapala, Irja

    2006-01-01

    Background Patient's rights law is intended to secure good medical practice, but it can also serve to improve understanding between patients and medical staff if both were aware of their rights. Methods Awareness and practice of the new patient's rights law in Lithuanian health care institutions was explored through a survey of 255 medical staff and 451 patients in the four Kaunas city medical units in 2002. Participation rates were 74% and 66%, respectively. Results Majority of the medical staff (85%) and little over one half of the patients (56%) had heard or read about the Law on Patient's Rights (p < 0.001). Only 50% of professionals compared to 69% of patients thought information for patients about diagnosis, treatment results and alternative treatments is necessary (p < 0.001). A clear discrepancy was indicated between physicians informing the patients (80% – 98% of physicians) and patients actually knowing (37% – 54%) their treatment prognosis, disease complications or possible alternative treatment methods. Conclusion These results suggest a need for awareness-raising among patients to improve the practical implementation of the Patient's Rights Law in Lithuania. PMID:16948855

  3. Pinhole closure measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Afeyan, B. B.; Boley, C. D.; Estabrook, K. G.; Kirkwood, R. K.; Milam, D.; Murray, J. E.; Nielsen, N. D.; Sell, W. D.; Zakharenkov, Y. A.

    1998-07-20

    Spatial-filter pinholes and knife-edge samples were irradiated in vacuum by 1053-nm, 5-20 ns pulses at intensities to 500 GW/cm. The knife-edge samples were fabricated of plastic, carbon, ahnuinum, stainless steel, molybdenum, tantalum, gold and an absorbing glass. Time-resolved two-beam interferometry with a 40-ns probe pulse was used to observe phase shifts in the expanding laser-induced plasma. For all of these materials, at any time during square-pulse irradiation, the phase shift fell exponentially with distance from the edge of the sample. The expansion was characterized by the propagation velocity V2x of the contour for a 2(pi) phase shift. To within experimental error, V2x, was constant during irradiation at a particular intensity, and it increased linearly with intensity for intensities <300 GW/cn2. For metal samples, V, exhibited an approximate M-0.5 dependence where M is the atomic mass. Plasmas of plastic, carbon and absorbing glass produced larger phase shifts, and expanded more rapidly, than plasmas of the heavy metals. The probe beam and interferometer were also used to observe the closing of pinholes. With planar pinholes, accumulation of on-axis plasma was observed along with the advance of plasma away from the edge of the hole. On-axis closure was not observed in square, 4-leaf pinholes.

  4. 27 CFR 19.662 - Affixing closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Affixing closures. 19.662 Section 19.662 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Closures § 19.662 Affixing closures. Closures...

  5. 40 CFR 258.60 - Closure criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Closure criteria. 258.60 Section 258.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Closure and Post-Closure Care § 258.60 Closure criteria. (a) Owners or operators of all MSWLF units must install a...

  6. 40 CFR 258.60 - Closure criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Closure criteria. 258.60 Section 258.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Closure and Post-Closure Care § 258.60 Closure criteria. (a) Owners or operators of all MSWLF units must install a...

  7. 40 CFR 258.60 - Closure criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closure criteria. 258.60 Section 258.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Closure and Post-Closure Care § 258.60 Closure criteria. (a) Owners or operators of all MSWLF units must install a...

  8. Closure and Sealing Design Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    T. Lahnalampi; J. Case

    2005-08-26

    The purpose of the ''Closure and Sealing Design Calculation'' is to illustrate closure and sealing methods for sealing shafts, ramps, and identify boreholes that require sealing in order to limit the potential of water infiltration. In addition, this calculation will provide a description of the magma that can reduce the consequences of an igneous event intersecting the repository. This calculation will also include a listing of the project requirements related to closure and sealing. The scope of this calculation is to: summarize applicable project requirements and codes relating to backfilling nonemplacement openings, removal of uncommitted materials from the subsurface, installation of drip shields, and erecting monuments; compile an inventory of boreholes that are found in the area of the subsurface repository; describe the magma bulkhead feature and location; and include figures for the proposed shaft and ramp seals. The objective of this calculation is to: categorize the boreholes for sealing by depth and proximity to the subsurface repository; develop drawing figures which show the location and geometry for the magma bulkhead; include the shaft seal figures and a proposed construction sequence; and include the ramp seal figure and a proposed construction sequence. The intent of this closure and sealing calculation is to support the License Application by providing a description of the closure and sealing methods for the Safety Analysis Report. The closure and sealing calculation will also provide input for Post Closure Activities by describing the location of the magma bulkhead. This calculation is limited to describing the final configuration of the sealing and backfill systems for the underground area. The methods and procedures used to place the backfill and remove uncommitted materials (such as concrete) from the repository and detailed design of the magma bulkhead will be the subject of separate analyses or calculations. Post-closure monitoring will not

  9. Response of deciduous trees spring phenology to recent and projected climate change in Central Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juknys, Romualdas; Kanapickas, Arvydas; Šveikauskaitė, Irma; Sujetovienė, Gintarė

    2016-03-01

    The analysis of long-term time series of spring phenology for different deciduous trees species has shown that leaf unfolding for all the investigated species is the most sensitive to temperatures in March and April and illustrates that forcing temperature is the main driver of the advancement of leaf unfolding. Available chilling amount has increased by 22.5 % over the last 90 years, indicating that in the investigated geographical region there is no threat of chilling shortage. The projection of climatic parameters for Central Lithuania on the basis of three global circulation models has shown that under the optimistic climate change scenario (RCP 2.6) the mean temperature tends to increase by 1.28 °C and under the pessimistic scenario (RCP 8.5) by 5.03 °C until the end of the current century. Recently, different statistical models are used not only to analyze but also to project the changes in spring phenology. Our study has shown that when the data of long-term phenological observations are available, multiple regression models are suitable for the projection of the advancement of leaf unfolding under the changing climate. According to the RCP 8.5 scenario, the projected advancement in leaf unfolding for early-season species birch consists of almost 15 days as an average of all three used GSMs. Markedly less response to the projected far future (2071-2100), climate change is foreseen for other investigated climax species: -9 days for lime, 10 days for oak, and 11 days for maple.

  10. 40 CFR 264.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 264... FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Munitions and Explosives Storage § 264.1202 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At... or decontaminated, he or she must close the facility and perform post-closure care in accordance...

  11. 40 CFR 265.1102 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure and post-closure care. 265..., STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Containment Buildings § 265.1102 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At... practicably removed or decontaminated, he must close the facility and perform post-closure care in...

  12. RCRA closure of mixed waste impoundments

    SciTech Connect

    Blaha, F.J.; Greengard, T.C.; Arndt, M.B.

    1989-11-01

    A case study of a RCRA closure action at the Rocky Flats Plant is presented. Closure of the solar evaporation ponds involves removal and immobilization of a mixed hazardous/radioactive sludge, treatment of impounded water, groundwater monitoring, plume delineation, and collection and treatment of contaminated groundwater. The site closure is described within the context of regulatory negotiations, project schedules, risk assessment, clean versus dirty closure, cleanup levels, and approval of closure plans and reports. Lessons learned at Rocky Flats are summarized.

  13. Lung cancer risk among textile workers in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmickiene, Irena; Stukonis, Mecys

    2007-01-01

    Background The textile industry is one of the largest employers in Lithuania. IARC monograph concludes that working in the textile manufacturing industry entails exposures that are possibly carcinogenic to humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate risk of lung cancer incidence in textile industry workers by the type of job and evaluate the relation between occupational textile dusts exposure and lung cancer risk in a cohort. Methods Altogether 14650 textile workers were included in this retrospective study and were followed from 1978 to 2002. Lung cancer risk was analyzed using the standardized incidence ratios (SIR) calculated by the person-years method. The expected number of cases was calculated by indirect methods using Lithuanian incidence rates. Results During the period of 25 years 70 cancer cases for male and 15 for female were identified. The SIR for male was 0.94 (95% CI PI 0.73–1.19), for female 1.36 (95% CI 0.76–2.25). The lung cancer risk for male in the cotton textile production unit was significantly lower after 10 years of employment (SIR = 0.34; 95% CI 0.12–0.73). The lung cancer risk decreased with level of exposure to textile dust (p for trends was <0.05): the SIR for the low, medium, high and very high level of cumulative exposure were 1.91 (95% CI 0.92–3.51), 1.30 (95% CI 0.52–2.69), 0.77 (95% CI 0.21–1.96), and 0.24 (95% CI 0.03–0.86) respectively. Conclusion In our study the exposure to cotton textile dust at workplaces for male is associated with adverse lung cancer risk effects. High level of exposure to cotton dusts appears to be associated with a reduced risk of lung cancer in cotton textile workers. PMID:18021389

  14. Characterization of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated from diseased dogs in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Ruzauskas, M; Couto, N; Pavilonis, A; Klimiene, I; Siugzdiniene, R; Virgailis, M; Vaskeviciute, L; Anskiene, L; Pomba, C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize Staphylococcus pseudintermedius for its antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors with a special focus on methicillin-resistant (MRSP) strains isolated from sick dogs in Lithuania. Clinically sick adult dogs suffering from infections (n=214) and bitches with reproductive disorders (n=36) from kennels were selected for the study. Samples (n=192) from the 250 tested (76.8%) dogs were positive for Staphylococcus spp. Molecular profiling using the species-specific nuc gene identified 51 isolates as S. pseudintermedius (26.6% from a total number of isolated staphylococci) of which 15 isolates were identified as MRSP. Ten MRSP isolates were isolated from bitches with reproductive disorders from two large breeding kennels. Data on susceptibility of S. pseudintermedius to different antimicrobials revealed that all isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, daptomycin and linezolid. Two isolates (3.9%) were resistant to rifampicin. A high resistance was seen towards penicillin G (94.1%), tetracycline (64.7%) and macrolides (68.7%). Resistance to fluoroquinolones ranged from 25.5% (gatifloxacin) to 31.4% (ciprofloxacin). The most prevalent genes encoding resistance included blaZ, aac(6')-Ie-aph(2'')-Ia, mecA, and tet(M). The Luk-I gene encoding a leukotoxin was detected in 29% of the isolates, whereas the siet gene encoding exfoliative toxin was detected in 69% of the S. pseudintermedius isolates. This report of MRSP in companion animals represents a major challenge for veterinarians in terms of antibiotic therapy and is a concern for both animal and public health. PMID:27096782

  15. Linearly exact parallel closures for slab geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Jeong-Young; Held, Eric D.; Jhang, Hogun

    2013-08-01

    Parallel closures are obtained by solving a linearized kinetic equation with a model collision operator using the Fourier transform method. The closures expressed in wave number space are exact for time-dependent linear problems to within the limits of the model collision operator. In the adiabatic, collisionless limit, an inverse Fourier transform is performed to obtain integral (nonlocal) parallel closures in real space; parallel heat flow and viscosity closures for density, temperature, and flow velocity equations replace Braginskii's parallel closure relations, and parallel flow velocity and heat flow closures for density and temperature equations replace Spitzer's parallel transport relations. It is verified that the closures reproduce the exact linear response function of Hammett and Perkins [Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 3019 (1990)] for Landau damping given a temperature gradient. In contrast to their approximate closures where the vanishing viscosity coefficient numerically gives an exact response, our closures relate the heat flow and nonvanishing viscosity to temperature and flow velocity (gradients).

  16. Linearly exact parallel closures for slab geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Jeong-Young; Held, Eric D.; Jhang, Hogun

    2013-08-15

    Parallel closures are obtained by solving a linearized kinetic equation with a model collision operator using the Fourier transform method. The closures expressed in wave number space are exact for time-dependent linear problems to within the limits of the model collision operator. In the adiabatic, collisionless limit, an inverse Fourier transform is performed to obtain integral (nonlocal) parallel closures in real space; parallel heat flow and viscosity closures for density, temperature, and flow velocity equations replace Braginskii's parallel closure relations, and parallel flow velocity and heat flow closures for density and temperature equations replace Spitzer's parallel transport relations. It is verified that the closures reproduce the exact linear response function of Hammett and Perkins [Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 3019 (1990)] for Landau damping given a temperature gradient. In contrast to their approximate closures where the vanishing viscosity coefficient numerically gives an exact response, our closures relate the heat flow and nonvanishing viscosity to temperature and flow velocity (gradients)

  17. Fast-Tracking Colostomy Closures.

    PubMed

    Nanavati, Aditya J; Prabhakar, Subramaniam

    2015-12-01

    There have been very few studies on applying fast-track principles to colostomy closures. We believe that outcome may be significantly improved with multimodal interventions in the peri-operative care of patients undergoing this procedure. A retrospective study was carried out comparing patients who had undergone colostomy closures by the fast-track and traditional care protocols at our centre. We intended to analyse peri-operative period and recovery in colostomy closures to confirm that fast-track surgery principles improved outcomes. Twenty-six patients in the fast-track arm and 24 patients in the traditional care arm had undergone colostomy closures. Both groups were comparable in terms of their baseline parameters. Patients in the fast-track group were ambulatory and accepted oral feeding earlier. There was a significant reduction in the duration of stay (4.73 ± 1.43 days vs. 7.21 ± 1.38 days, p = 0.0000). We did not observe a rise in complications or 30-day re-admissions. Fast-track surgery can safely be applied to colostomy closures. It shows earlier ambulation and reduction in length of hospital stay. PMID:27011527

  18. Evolution of Competence Concept in Lithuania: From VET Reform to Development of National Qualifications System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauzackas, Rimantas; Tutlys, Vidmantas; Spudyte, Irma

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the development of the concept of competence in Lithuania beginning from the period of transition from the Soviet planned economy and post-totalitarian regime to the market economy and democratic society and ending with the designing and implementation of the National Qualifications System and Qualifications…

  19. Gap Year Students in Lithuania: The Value Orientations of Children from Wealthy Social Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonavicius, Vylius; Ozolinciute, Egle

    2015-01-01

    The paper seeks to understand the trajectories of students who defer entry to university. The study was conducted in Lithuania, a former Soviet Union republic. The phenomenon of a "gap year" is usually associated with young people, who decide not to enter higher education schools immediately after receiving secondary education, instead…

  20. On Ideology, Language, and Identity: Language Politics in the Soviet and Post-Soviet Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balockaite, Rasa

    2014-01-01

    The paper illuminates links between state politics and language politics in Lithuania during different historical periods: (a) the thaw period, (b) the stagnation period, (c) the liberalization periods of Soviet socialism, and (d) the two post-Soviet decades characterized by both nationalism and liberalization. Based on analysis of the texts by…

  1. Re-Learning Higher Education in the Age of Convergence: Example of Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulvydiene, Loreta

    2012-01-01

    Since May of 1999, 46 European countries have been engaged in reconstructing their higher education systems to bring about a greater degree of "convergence," i.e. a move toward common reference points and operating procedures to create a European Higher Education Area. Education has always played an important role in the development of Lithuania,…

  2. Development of Indicators for Educational Planning: Brazil, Cambodia, Estonia, Gambia, Lithuania, Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). International Inst. for Educational Planning.

    This publication presents the outcomes of a distance education course on development and dissemination of indicators used for educational planning. The course took place from November 2000 to February 2001 and was attended by representatives from the ministries of education of Brazil, Cambodia, Estonia, Gambia, Lithuania, and Thailand. The overall…

  3. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Lithuania 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siaulytiene, Dalia

    2008-01-01

    Artistic education at general education schools in Lithuania is organised by teaching separate art subjects. Art education based on the integrated approach or project method may be organized at primary school, in grades one to four, according to the individual curriculum prepared by the teacher. Arts subjects included in Lithuanian arts curriculum…

  4. National Testing of Pupils in Europe: Objectives, Organisation and Use of Results. Lithuania 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigeliene, Daiva; Gudynas, Pranas; Ranonyte, Asta; Uginciene, Egle

    2009-01-01

    The guiding principles of assessment policy and practice in Lithuania are described in the Law on Education (2003), General Curriculum and Educational Standards for Pre-school, Primary and Basic education (2003) and General Education Plans (2008-2009) as well as the special policy document on assessment called The Concept of Assessment of Pupils'…

  5. Harmonization of Higher Education System in Lithuania--Prerequisite for Quality Improvement of Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zibeniene, Gintaute; Targamadze, Vilija

    2006-01-01

    The article examines harmonization of higher education as an prerequisite of improvement of study quality in Lithuania. It overviews the development of higher education and criteria of university and higher non-university study programmes. An assumption is made that higher university and higher non-university studies are poorly harmonized and the…

  6. Economic, Educational and Cultural Predictors of Science Learning in Lithuania and Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikk, Jaan

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the research was to assess the economic, educational and cultural predictors of the TIMSS 2003 science test results in Lithuania and Estonia. The data for the research were received from the TIMSS 2003 User Guide for the International Database. The Spearman rank correlation coefficients, calculated on the students' level and the schools…

  7. "Lyderiu Laikas" (Time for Leaders): Lithuania's Response to Changing Leadership and Learning in Their Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Coleen; Blandford, Sonia; Pranckuniene, Egle; Vildziuniene, Marina

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how the Ministry of Education in Lithuania has approached policy change to the leadership of their schools. The aim of the Time for Leaders Project and subsequent policy is to recapture the enthusiasm of teachers and school leaders that had been in evidence immediately after the country regaining independence in 1990. The Time…

  8. Philosophy of Education in Post-Soviet Societies of Eastern Europe: Poland, Lithuania and Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godon, Rafal; Juceviciene, Palmira; Kodelja, Zdenko

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the role of philosophy of education in three post-Soviet societies of Eastern Europe: Poland, Lithuania and Slovenia. The characteristic themes and approaches of philosophical reflection about education in these societies are explored with reference to three periods: the pre-Soviet, Soviet and post-Soviet periods.

  9. Parenting Dimensions in Relation to Pre-Schoolers' Behaviour Problems in Latvia and Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebre, Sandra B.; Jusiene, Roma; Dapkevice, Egle; Skreitule-Pikse, Inga; Bieliauskaite, Rasa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine associations between parenting and child behaviour problems in two neighbouring countries with subtle, yet apparent cultural differences. Participants were mothers and fathers of preschool-age children from Latvia and Lithuania. Parents completed a measure of child-rearing attitudes and reported on their…

  10. Study of Local Seismic Events in Lithuania and Adjacent Areas Using Data from the PASSEQ Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janutyte, Ilma; Kozlovskaya, Elena; Motuza, Gediminas

    2013-05-01

    The territory of Lithuania and adjacent areas of the East European Craton have always been considered a region of low seismicity. Two recent earthquakes with magnitudes of more than 5 in the Kaliningrad District (Russian Federation) on 21 September 2004 motivated re-evaluation of the seismic hazard in Lithuania and adjacent territories. A new opportunity to study seismicity in the region is provided by the PASSEQ (Pasive Seismic Experiment) project that aimed to study the lithosphere-asthenosphere structure around the Trans-European Suture Zone. Twenty-six seismic stations of the PASSEQ temporary seismic array were installed in the territory of Lithuania. The stations recorded a number of local and regional seismic events originating from Lithuania and adjacent areas. This data can be used to answer the question of whether there exist seismically active tectonic zones in Lithuania that could be potentially hazardous for critical industrial facilities. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to find any natural tectonic seismic events in Lithuania and to obtain more general view of seismicity in the region. In order to do this, we make a manual review of the continuous data recorded by the PASSEQ seismic stations in Lithuania. From the good quality data, we select and relocate 45 local seismic events using the well-known LocSAT and VELEST location algortithms. In order to discriminate between possible natural events, underwater explosions and on-shore blasts, we analyse spatial distribution of epicenters and temporal distribution of origin times and perform both visual analysis of waveforms and spectral analysis of recordings. We show that the relocated seismic events can be grouped into five clusters (groups) according to their epicenter coordinates and origin and that several seismic events might be of tectonic origin. We also show that several events from the off-shore region in the Baltic Sea (at the coasts of the Kaliningrad District of the Russian Federation) are

  11. Humid site stabilization and closure

    SciTech Connect

    Cutshall, N.H.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the work described here is to identify and evaluate the importance of factors that are expected to dictate the nature of site stabilization and closure requirements. Subsequent efforts will plan for implementation of such requirements. Two principal areas of site stabilization and closure effort will be pursued initially - geological management and vegetation management. The geological effort will focus on chemical weathering and surficial erosion. Such catastrophic geologic events as landslides, flooding, earthquakes, volcanos, etc. are already considered in site selection and operation and these factors will not be emphasized initially. Vegetation management will be designed to control erosion, to minimize nuclide mobilization by roots and to be compatible with natural successional pressures. It is anticipated that the results of this work will be important both to site selection and operation as well as the actual stabilization and closure procedure.

  12. [Endoscopic vacuum-assisted closure].

    PubMed

    Wedemeyer, J; Lankisch, T

    2013-03-01

    Anastomotic leakage in the upper and lower intestinal tract is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Within the last 10 years endoscopic treatment options have been accepted as sufficient treatment option of these surgical complications. Endoscopic vacuum assisted closure (E-VAC) is a new innovative endoscopic therapeutic option in this field. E-VAC transfers the positive effects of vacuum assisted closure (VAC) on infected cutaneous wounds to infected cavities that can only be reached endoscopically. A sponge connected to a drainage tube is endoscopically placed in the leakage and a continuous vacuum is applied. Sponge and vacuum allow removal of infected fluids and promote granulation of the leakage. This results in clean wound grounds and finally allows wound closure. Meanwhile the method was also successfully used in the treatment of necrotic pancreatitis. PMID:23430199

  13. Fundamental base closure environmental principles

    SciTech Connect

    Yim, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    Military base closures present a paradox. The rate, scale and timing of military base closures is historically unique. However, each base itself typically does not present unique problems. Thus, the challenge is to design innovative solutions to base redevelopment and remediation issues, while simultaneously adopting common, streamlined or pre-approved strategies to shared problems. The author presents six environmental principles that are fundamental to base closure. They are: remediation not clean up; remediation will impact reuse; reuse will impact remediation; remediation and reuse must be coordinated; environmental contamination must be evaluated as any other initial physical constraint on development, not as an overlay after plans are created; and remediation will impact development, financing and marketability.

  14. Organisational closure in biological organisms.

    PubMed

    Mossio, Matteo; Moreno, Alvaro

    2010-01-01

    The central aim of this paper consists in arguing that biological organisms realize a specific kind of causal regime that we call "organisational closure"; i.e., a distinct level of causation, operating in addition to physical laws, generated by the action of material structures acting as constraints. We argue that organisational closure constitutes a fundamental property of biological systems since even its minimal instances are likely to possess at least some of the typical features of biological organisation as exhibited by more complex organisms. Yet, while being a necessary condition for biological organization, organisational closure underdetermines, as such, the whole set of requirements that a system has to satisfy in order to be taken as a paradigmatic example of organism. As we suggest, additional properties, as modular templates and control mechanisms via dynamical decoupling between constraints, are required to get the complexity typical of full-fledged biological organisms. PMID:21162371

  15. Teamwork in primary care: perspectives of general practitioners and community nurses in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A team approach in primary care has proven benefits in achieving better outcomes, reducing health care costs, satisfying patient needs, ensuring continuity of care, increasing job satisfaction among health providers and using human health care resources more efficiently. However, some research indicates constraints in collaboration within primary health care (PHC) teams in Lithuania. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of the phenomenon of teamwork in Lithuania by exploring the experiences of teamwork by general practitioners (GPs) and community nurses (CNs) involved in PHC. Methods Six focus groups were formed with 29 GPs and 27 CNs from the Kaunas Region of Lithuania. Discussions were recorded and transcribed verbatim. A thematic analysis of these data was then performed. Results The analysis of focus group data identified six thematic categories related to teamwork in PHC: the structure of a PHC team, synergy among PHC team members, descriptions of roles and responsibilities of team members, competencies of PHC team members, communications between PHC team members and the organisational background for teamwork. These findings provide the basis for a discussion of a thematic model of teamwork that embraces formal, individual and organisational factors. Conclusions The need for effective teamwork in PHC is an issue receiving broad consensus; however, the process of teambuilding is often taken for granted in the PHC sector in Lithuania. This study suggests that both formal and individual behavioural factors should be targeted when aiming to strengthen PHC teams. Furthermore, this study underscores the need to provide explicit formal descriptions of the roles and responsibilities of PHC team members in Lithuania, which would include establishing clear professional boundaries. The training of team members is an essential component of the teambuilding process, but not sufficient by itself. PMID:23945286

  16. Preparation for Early Termination of Ignalina NPP Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Poskas, P.; Poskas, R.

    2003-02-26

    Seimas (Parliament of Lithuania) approved updated National Energy strategy where it is indicated that first Unit will be shutdown before the year 2005 and second Unit in 2009 if funding for decommissioning is available from EU and other donors. In accordance to Ignalina NPP Unit 1 Closure Law the Government of Lithuania approved the Ignalina NPP Unit 1 Decommissioning Program until year 2005. For enforcement of this program, the plan of measures for implementation of the program was prepared and approved by the Minister of Economy. The plan consists of two parts, namely technical- environmental and social-economic. Technical-environmental measures are mostly oriented to the safe management of spent nuclear fuel and operational radioactive waste stored at the plant and preparation of licensing documents for Unit 1 decommissioning. Social-economic measures are oriented to mitigate negative social and economic impact on Lithuania, inhabitants of the region, and, particularly, o n the staff of Ignalina NPP by means of creating favorable conditions for a balanced social and economic development of the region. In this paper analysis of planned activities, licensing requirements for decommissioning, progress in preparation of the Final Decommissioning Plan is discussed.

  17. Alarm sensor apparatus for closures

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, James A.; Stoddard, Lawrence M.

    1986-01-01

    An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or frame work and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

  18. Alarm sensor apparatus for closures

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, J.A.; Stoddard, L.M.

    1984-01-31

    An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or framework and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

  19. RCRA post-closure permits

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requires that hazardous waste management facilities operate in accordance with permits granted by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) or a State authorized to carry out the RCRA Subtitle C program. Several categories of permits (including treatment, storage, and disposal permits; research, development, and demonstration permits; post-closure permits; emergency permits; permits-by-rule; and trial burn and land treatment demonstration permits) are issued under the RCRA Subtitle C program. This Information Brief focuses on post-closure permitting requirements under 40 CFR 270.1(c).

  20. TECHNOLOGY NEEDS AND STATUS ON CLOSURE OF DOE RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK ANCILLARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, H; Sharon Marra, S; Christine Langton, C

    2009-01-21

    This paper summarizes the current state of art of sampling, characterizing, retrieving, transferring and treating the incidental waste and stabilizing the void space in tank ancillary systems and the needs involved with closure of these systems. The overall effort for closing tank and ancillary systems is very large and is in the initial stages of being addressed in a systematic manner. It was recognized in doing this effort, that gaps in both technology and material application for characterization and removal of residual waste and closure of ancillary systems would be identified. Great efficiencies are to be gained by defining the technology need areas early in the closure process and providing recommendations for technical programs to improve the closure strategies. Therefore, this paper will not only summarize the state of closure of ancillary systems but also provide recommendations to address the technology gaps identified in this assessment.

  1. Clinical presentation of pertussis in fully immunized children in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Narkeviciute, Irena; Kavaliunaite, Ema; Bernatoniene, Genovaite; Eidukevicius, Rimantas

    2005-01-01

    Background In Lithuania, the vaccination coverage against pertussis is high. Nevertheless, there is a significant increase in pertussis cases in fully immunized children. The aim of our study was to determine the frequency of classical symptoms of laboratory confirmed pertussis and describe its epidemiology in children fully vaccinated against pertussis. Methods From May to December 2001, 70 children aged 1 month to 15 years, suffering from prolonged cough were investigated in the Centre of Paediatrics, Vilnius University Children's Hospital. The collected information included personal data, vaccination history, clinical symptoms of the current illness, and treatment before hospitalization. At the admission to the hospital blood samples were taken from all studied children for Bordetella pertussis IgM and IgA. Results A total of 53 (75.7%) of the 70 recruited patients with prolonged cough showed laboratory evidence of pertussis. 32 of them were fully vaccinated with whole cell pertussis vaccine (DTP). The age of fully vaccinated patients varied from 4 to 15 years (average 10.9 ± 3.1; median 11). The time period between the last vaccination dose (fourth) and the clinical manifestation of pertussis was 2.6–13 years (average 8.9 ± 3.0; median 9). More than half of the children before the beginning of pertussis were in contact with persons suffering from long lasting cough illness in the family, school or day-care center. The mean duration from onset of pertussis symptoms until hospitalization was 61.4 ± 68.3 days (range, 7 to 270 days; median 30). For 11 patients who had had two episodes (waves) of coughing, the median duration of cough was 90 days, and for 21 with one episode 30 days (p < 0.0002). Most of the children (84.4%) had paroxysmal cough, 31.3% had post-tussive vomiting, 28.1% typical whoop, and 3.1% apnea. Only 15.6% children had atypical symptoms of pertussis. Conclusion Fully vaccinated children fell ill with pertussis at the median of 11 years old

  2. CIRSE Vascular Closure Device Registry

    SciTech Connect

    Reekers, Jim A.; Mueller-Huelsbeck, Stefan; Libicher, Martin; Atar, Eli; Trentmann, Jens; Goffette, Pierre; Borggrefe, Jan; Zelenak, Kamil; Hooijboer, Pieter; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: Vascular closure devices are routinely used after many vascular interventional radiology procedures. However, there have been no major multicenter studies to assess the safety and effectiveness of the routine use of closure devices in interventional radiology. Methods: The CIRSE registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug started in January 2009 and ended in August 2009. A total of 1,107 patients were included in the registry. Results: Deployment success was 97.2%. Deployment failure specified to access type was 8.8% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5.0-14.5] for antegrade access and 1.8% (95% CI 1.1-2.9) for retrograde access (P = 0.001). There was no difference in deployment failure related to local PVD at the access site. Calcification was a reason for deployment failure in only <0.5% of patients. Postdeployment bleeding occurred in 6.4%, and most these (51.5%) could be managed with light manual compression. During follow-up, other device-related complications were reported in 1.3%: seven false aneurysms, three hematoma >5.9 cm, and two vessel occlusions. Conclusion: The conclusion of this registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug is that the use of this device in interventional radiology procedures is safe, with a low incidence of serious access site complications. There seems to be no difference in complications between antegrade and retrograde access and other parameters.

  3. The hill forts and castle mounds in Lithuania: interaction between geodiversity and human-shaped landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skridlaite, Grazina; Guobyte, Rimante; Satkunas, Jonas

    2015-04-01

    Lithuania is famous for its abundant, picturesque hill forts and castle mounds of natural origin. In Lithuania as well as in whole Europe the fortified hills were used as the society dwelling place since the beginning of the Late Bronze Age. Their importance increased when Livonian and Teutonic Orders directed a series of military campaigns against Lithuania with the aim of expansion of Christianity in the region at the end of 1st millennium AD, and they were intensively used till the beginning of the 15th c. when most of them were burned down during fights with the Orders or just abandoned due to the changing political and economical situation. What types of the geodiversity were used for fortified dwellings? The choice in a particular area depended on a variety of geomorphology left behind the retreating ice sheets. High spots dominating their surroundings were of prime interest. In E and SE Lithuania, the Baltic Upland hills marking the eastern margin of the last Weichselian glacier hosted numerous fortified settlements from the end of 2nd millennium BC to the Medieval Ages (Narkunai, Velikuskes etc). In W Lithuania, plateau-like hills of the insular Samogitian Upland had been repeatedly fortified from the beginning of 1st millennium AD to the 14th century (Satrija, Medvegalis etc). Chains of hill forts and castle mounds feature the slopes of glaciofluvial valleys of Nemunas, Neris and other rivers where the slopes were dissected by affluent rivulets and ravines and transformed into isolated, well protected hills (Kernave, Punia, Veliuona etc). Peninsulas and headlands formed by the erosion of fluvial and lacustrine deposits were used in the lowlands, e.g. in central and N Lithuania (Paberze, Mezotne etc). How much the landscape was modified for defense purposes? Long-term erosion and overgrowing vegetation damaged the former fortified sites, however some remains and the archeological excavations allowed their reconstruction. The fortified Bronze Age settlements

  4. Acute Angle Closure Glaucoma with Capilllary Leak Syndrome Following Snake Bite

    PubMed Central

    George, Twinkle Ann; AV, Asha; Ravindran, Risha

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Acute angle closure glaucoma is rarely seen as complication of snake bite.We report three cases of bilateral acute angle closure glaucoma with capillary leak syndrome and acute renal failure secondary to hematotoxic snake bites. We are also briefly discussing the association of capillary leak syndrome and angle closure glaucoma in hematotoxic snake bite. This is the first time an association between angle closure and capillary leak syndrome following snake bite is reported. Study type: Descriptive case series. Materials and Methods: Records of all patients admitted to ICU with snake bite were reviewed to identify cases developing acute angle closure glaucoma. These cases with acute angle closure glaucoma are analysed in detail for systemic condition. Diagnosis, management and outcome of cases are described Results: Of the 119 snake bites admitted, 47 patients had confirmed hematotoxic snake bite. Fifteen of these patients underwent hemodialysis for acute renal failure. Seven of them were diagnosed to have capillary leak syndrome and all of them complained of decreased vision. Three of the 7 cases had acute angle closure glaucoma on the second day of bite. One of the patients expired and other two recovered fully, both of them had normal IOP and good vision at one month follow-up. Conclusion: Acute angle closure glaucoma seems to be associated with systemic capillary leak syndrome in hematotoxic snake bite. High suspicion, early recognition, timely and appropriate treatment can prevent visual loss in this rare complication. PMID:25478432

  5. 40 CFR 258.61 - Post-closure care requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Post-closure care requirements. 258.61... FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Closure and Post-Closure Care § 258.61 Post-closure care requirements. (a) Following closure of each MSWLF unit, the owner or operator must conduct post-closure...

  6. 40 CFR 258.61 - Post-closure care requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Post-closure care requirements. 258.61... FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Closure and Post-Closure Care § 258.61 Post-closure care requirements. (a) Following closure of each MSWLF unit, the owner or operator must conduct post-closure...

  7. 40 CFR 258.61 - Post-closure care requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Post-closure care requirements. 258.61... FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Closure and Post-Closure Care § 258.61 Post-closure care requirements. (a) Following closure of each MSWLF unit, the owner or operator must conduct post-closure...

  8. 40 CFR 265.112 - Closure plan; amendment of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Closure plan; amendment of plan. 265... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Closure and Post-Closure § 265.112 Closure plan; amendment of plan. (a) Written plan... have a written closure plan. Until final closure is completed and certified in accordance with §...

  9. 40 CFR 265.112 - Closure plan; amendment of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closure plan; amendment of plan. 265... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Closure and Post-Closure § 265.112 Closure plan; amendment of plan. (a) Written plan... have a written closure plan. Until final closure is completed and certified in accordance with §...

  10. 40 CFR 265.112 - Closure plan; amendment of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure plan; amendment of plan. 265... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Closure and Post-Closure § 265.112 Closure plan; amendment of plan. (a) Written plan... have a written closure plan. Until final closure is completed and certified in accordance with §...

  11. The preliminary data on the Aeronian (Silurian) machaerids from Lithuania (Baltic Basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radzevičius, S.; Ekleris, A.

    2012-04-01

    Machaerids are stem-Lophotrochozoans, closely related to the Annelids, and known from the Early Ordovician to Middle Permian. Machaerids is a group of worm-like benthic marine, bilaterally symmetrical, armoured invertebrate. Their body is covered by an external scleritome. The scleritome is imbricated of longitudinally arranged series of plates or sclerites. Completely articulated specimens of machaeridians are very rare, yet the systematic position of machaerids is controversial. Machaeridians had been assigned to different groups, such as barnacles, mollusks, echinoderms and annelids. The latter is prevailing, however their exact place within the annelids still remains unresolved. New findings of disarticulated Silurian machaerids have been recorded in western Lithuania, Geniai-1 core. This well has been drilled with exploration purposes regarding the Cambrian oil reservoir; therefore the biggest part of the Silurian core has not been collected. The exceptions are some parts of the Llandovery and Ludlow, which have partially recovered well core, but the identification of the precise stratigraphical position is complicated. Disarticulated sclerites of machaeridians have been found at the 1756.4 m depth, in the argillite, together with some graptolites and brachiopods. Several rhabdosome fragments of Normalograptus scalaris (Hisinger) were found together with the machaenid sclerites as well. N. scalaris has wide biostratigraphical distribution from the Rhudanian to the lower part of Telychian, which comprises the convolutus - triangulates graptolite biozones, corresponding to the 1756.8 - 1756 m depth. Convolutus - triangulates biozones represent Aeronian, and the machaeridian sclerites come from this interval, together with the Jonsea grayi (Davidson) brachiopod shells, which are very common and correspond to the BA 5-6 benthic assemblage, as well as do the graptolites found together. In previous studies, two orders of machaerids have been recognized: the

  12. Survival of drug resistant tuberculosis patients in Lithuania: retrospective national cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Radiulyte, Birute; Davidaviciene, Edita; Hooper, Richard; Ignatyeva, Olga; Nikolayevskyy, Vladyslav; Drobniewski, Francis A

    2011-01-01

    Objective To establish risk factors influencing survival of patients with multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/XDRTB). Design All MDR/XDRTB cases (n=1809) reported from 2002 to 2008 in Lithuania with a known outcome were included in the survival analysis. Results Median survival for MDRTB and XDRTB patients was 4.1 (95% CI 3.7 to 4.4) and 2.9 (95% CI 2.2 to 3.9) years. In a multivariable analysis adjusting for other patient characteristics, the difference in survival between MDRTB and XDRTB patients was not significant (HR=1.29 (0.91 to 1.81)). Older age (HR=4.80 (3.16 to 7.29)) for 60+ vs <30 years, rural living (HR=1.20 (1.02 to 1.40)), alcohol use (HR=1.49 (1.13 to 1.96)) for alcoholic versus moderate use, unemployment (HR=1.79 (1.31 to 2.46)), lower education levels (HR=1.50 (1.08 to 2.07)) for primary level versus tertiary level, cavitary disease (HR=1.54 (1.29 to 1.83)) and being smear positive at the time of MDR/XDRTB diagnosis (HR=1.47 (1.19 to 1.82)) were associated with poorer survival. HIV positivity significantly affected survival (HR=3.44 (1.92 to 6.19)) for HIV positive versus HIV negative; HR=1.60 (1.28 to 2.01) for HIV not tested versus HIV negative). There was no difference in survival of patients who acquired MDR/XDRTB during treatment compared with patients with primary MDR/XDRTB (HR=1.01 (0.85 to 1.19)). Treatment with a second-line drug improved survival (HR=0.40 (0.34 to 0.47)). In a subgroup with genotyped TB strains, a Beijing family of strains was associated with poorer survival (HR=1.71 (1.19 to 2.47)). Conclusions Social factors, rural living, HIV infection and Beijing strain family impact on survival. Survival of MDR/XDRTB patients is short. Rapid drug resistance identification, early administration of appropriate treatment and achieving high cure rates, expansion of HIV testing and antiretroviral treatment are necessary for optimal management of MDR/XDRTB. PMID:22123922

  13. Anesthetic management of Amplatzer atrial septal defect closure device embolization to right ventricular outflow tract

    PubMed Central

    Das, S; Kumar, P; Bhardwaj, V; Palleti, R

    2016-01-01

    Percutaneous device closure of atrial septal defect (ASD) is an alternative treatment to surgery with advantages of avoidance of surgery, short procedure time, early discharge from hospital, and lower rates of complications. However, percutaneous device closure is associated with infrequent life-threatening complications such as device embolization. We report a case device embolization of the ASD occlude device into right ventricular outflow tract resulting progressive hypoxia. The role of anesthesiologist as a team leader in managing such emergency is discussed. PMID:27375392

  14. Modified Wise closure of the conjunctival fornix-based trabeculectomy flap.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Tyler Q; Condon, Garry P

    2014-03-01

    We present modifications to the Wise fornix-based conjunctival trabeculectomy flap technique that have minimized early wound leakage in our experience. A retrospective chart review of 509 consecutive eyes revealed a 2.9% leak rate in the first postoperative month and 1.6% returned to the operating room to resuture a persistent leak. If meticulously performed, this modified closure technique may provide watertight closure as commonly as limbal-based techniques. PMID:24480563

  15. Trends and social differences in alcohol consumption during the postcommunist transition in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Klumbiene, Jurate; Kalasauskas, Darius; Petkeviciene, Janina; Veryga, Aurelijus; Sakyte, Edita

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the trends and social differences in consumption of various types of alcoholic beverages in Lithuania over the postcommunist transition period (1994-2010). The data were obtained from nine nationally representative postal surveys of Lithuanian population aged 20-64 conducted every second year (n = 17154). Prevalence of regular (at least once a week) consumption of beer, wine, or strong alcoholic beverages and the amount of alcohol consumed per week were examined. Regular beer drinking as well as the amounts consumed increased considerably in both genders. The increase in regular consumption of strong alcohol was found among women. Sociodemographic patterning of regular alcohol drinking was more evident in women than in men. In women, young age and high education were associated with frequent regular drinking of wine and beer. Social differences in regular alcohol drinking should be considered in further development of national alcohol control policy in Lithuania. PMID:22629164

  16. Trends and Social Differences in Alcohol Consumption during the Postcommunist Transition in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Klumbiene, Jurate; Kalasauskas, Darius; Petkeviciene, Janina; Veryga, Aurelijus; Sakyte, Edita

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the trends and social differences in consumption of various types of alcoholic beverages in Lithuania over the postcommunist transition period (1994–2010). The data were obtained from nine nationally representative postal surveys of Lithuanian population aged 20–64 conducted every second year (n = 17154). Prevalence of regular (at least once a week) consumption of beer, wine, or strong alcoholic beverages and the amount of alcohol consumed per week were examined. Regular beer drinking as well as the amounts consumed increased considerably in both genders. The increase in regular consumption of strong alcohol was found among women. Sociodemographic patterning of regular alcohol drinking was more evident in women than in men. In women, young age and high education were associated with frequent regular drinking of wine and beer. Social differences in regular alcohol drinking should be considered in further development of national alcohol control policy in Lithuania. PMID:22629164

  17. Tuberculosis infection control in health facilities in Lithuania: lessons learnt from a capacity support project

    PubMed Central

    Ljungqvist, I.; Davidavičiene, E.; Mikaityte, J.; van der Werf, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) infection control (IC) is key in controlling TB transmission in health facilities in Lithuania. This article presents a project that aimed at supporting health care facilities in Lithuania in implementing TB-IC. The project consisted of 1) facility TB-IC assessments, 2) development of facility TB-IC plans, 3) TB-IC training and 4) site visits. We assessed the impact of these activities through a self-assessment questionnaire. The project resulted in limited improvements. Most progress was seen in administrative and managerial activities. Possible reasons for the limited improvements are challenges with funding and the lack of supportive legislation and a national TB-IC plan. PMID:27051607

  18. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Lithuania - Still a long way ahead.

    PubMed

    Musteikienė, Greta; Miliauskas, Skaidrius; Sakalauskas, Raimundas; Vitkauskienė, Astra; Žemaitis, Marius

    2016-01-01

    Despite the recent advances in the diagnosis of tuberculosis, treatment of the disease, for the most part, remains the same as it was half a century ago. In recent years only two new anti-tuberculosis drugs have been approved by the European Medicines Agency and Food and Drug Administration. Though the prevalence of this disease is slowly decreasing all over Europe, new challenges appear. One of them is multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). This problem is especially prominent in Lithuania, which is one of the 27 high MDR-TB burden countries in the world and falls behind neighboring countries in terms of the prevalence of the disease. The objective of this paper was to review the situation of tuberculosis and MDR-TB in Lithuania, and current available methods of treatment, control and diagnosis of this disease. PMID:27170479

  19. Tuberculosis infection control in health facilities in Lithuania: lessons learnt from a capacity support project.

    PubMed

    Turusbekova, N; Ljungqvist, I; Davidavičiene, E; Mikaityte, J; van der Werf, M J

    2016-03-21

    Tuberculosis (TB) infection control (IC) is key in controlling TB transmission in health facilities in Lithuania. This article presents a project that aimed at supporting health care facilities in Lithuania in implementing TB-IC. The project consisted of 1) facility TB-IC assessments, 2) development of facility TB-IC plans, 3) TB-IC training and 4) site visits. We assessed the impact of these activities through a self-assessment questionnaire. The project resulted in limited improvements. Most progress was seen in administrative and managerial activities. Possible reasons for the limited improvements are challenges with funding and the lack of supportive legislation and a national TB-IC plan. PMID:27051607

  20. Teaching ethics in a Masters Program in Public Health in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Jakusovaite, Irayda; Bankauskaite, Vaida

    2007-01-01

    This article aims to present 10 years of experience of teaching ethics in a Masters Program in Public Health in Lithuania, and to discuss the content, skills, teaching approach and tools of this programme. In addition, the article analyses the links between ethics and law, identifies the challenges of the teaching process and suggests future teaching strategies. The important role of teaching ethics in countries that are in transition owing to a radically changing value system is emphasised. PMID:17601872

  1. Particle Deposition During Airway Closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Cheng-Feng; Halpern, David; Grotberg, James B.

    2011-11-01

    Inhaled aerosol particles deposit in the lung and may be from environmental, toxic, or medical therapy sources. While much research focuses on inspiratory deposition, primarily at airway bifurcations due to inertial impaction, there are other mechanisms that allow the particles to reach the airway surface, such as gravitational settling and diffusion depending on particle size. We introduce a new mechanism not previously studied, i.e. aerosol deposition from airway closure. The airways are lined with a liquid layer. Due to the surface tension driven instability, a liquid plug can form from this layer which blocks the airway. This process of airway closure tends to occur toward the end of expiration. In this study, the efficiency of the impaction of the particles during airway closure will be investigated. The particles will be released from the upstream of the airway and convected by the air flow and deposited onto the closing liquid layer. We solve the governing equations using a finite volume approach in conjunction with a sharp interface method for the interfaces. Once the velocity field of the gas flow is obtained, the path of the particles will be calculated and the efficiency of the deposition can be estimated. We acknowledge support from the National Institutes of Health grant number NIH HL85156.

  2. Optimisation of X-ray examinations in Lithuania: start of implementation in mammography.

    PubMed

    Adliene, Diana; Adlys, Gediminas; Cerapaite, Reda; Jonaitiene, Egle; Cibulskaite, Inga

    2005-01-01

    Optimisation of medical X-ray examinations is very important for the enhancement of the reliability of the examination and for the reduction of the radiation dose to patients. Results of investigations of doses to patients during mammography using thermoluminescence dosemeters at different hospitals are presented together with a brief overview of the situation for mammography in Lithuania. It is shown that the entrance surface air kerma varies in a broad range and differed from hospital to hospital. Nevertheless the calculated values of average glandular dose (AGD) for a 'standard' breast being relatively high were comparable with those (3.2 mGy per exposure at net optical density 1.4) currently accepted by international authorities. Differences in AGD values evaluated at different hospitals demonstrate the existing potential for optimisation of the mammography screening procedures. The results of this investigation will be included in a database for patient doses in Lithuania and used for establishing a national reference dose level for mammography. Currently, reference levels recommended by international authorities are used in Lithuania. PMID:15933145

  3. Ambient ozone concentration and its impact on forest vegetation in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Girgzdiene, Rasa; Serafinaviciūte, Brigita; Stakenas, Vidas; Bycenkiene, Steigvile

    2009-12-01

    Continuous ozone concentration measurements at rural sites in Lithuania have been performed since 1982. Long-term ozone data show an increasing trend 0.4 ppb y(-1) in annual mean concentrations during the period 1982-2008, although ozone peak values show an insignificant tendency to decrease. Several studies were performed to evaluate the ozone effect on the main plant species of Lithuanian forests. A strong positive correlation was found between values for the accumulated doses over a threshold of 40 ppb index and the defoliation of Fraxinus excelsior trees in Lithuanian forests during 1991-2008. A strong correlation was found between ozone exposure and the proportion of healthy F. excelsior, Betula sp., and Alnus incana, trees indicating that in Lithuania the deciduous species are more sensitive to ozone than conifers and that healthier trees may be better indicators of the changing environment. The results of the studies suggest that the observed levels of ozone are sufficiently high to have negative effects on the vegetation in Lithuania. PMID:20175442

  4. [Water treatment systems of hemodialysis centers in Lithuania and trace metals in purified water in 2002].

    PubMed

    Skarupskiene, Inga; Kuzminskis, Vytautas; Abdrachmanovas, Olegas; Ryselis, Stanislovas; Smalinskiene, Alina; Naginiene, Rima

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this survey was to obtain information on hemodialysis chemical water quality and on water treatment systems of hemodialysis centers in Lithuania. Five trace metals (Al, Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu) were examined in the purified water (sample from a point after the water treatment system) of 28 hemodialysis centers. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was applied to measure water trace metals levels. All hemodialysis centers in Lithuania used treated water. Softeners were used by 100%, reverse osmosis by 86.2% of the centers. Concomitant use of sand filter, softeners, activated carbon, reverse osmosis was found in 72.4% of the centers. The age of the water treatment system varied from 1 to 117 months (mean=39.7+/-30.4). Concentrations of Al, Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu in the purified water of 28 hemodialysis centers did not exceed standards of the European Pharmacopoeia. There was significant decrease in the mean levels of investigated trace elements in the treated water in Lithuania in 2002 compared with examined in 1998. PMID:12761429

  5. Molecular epidemiology of Trichinella spp. in three Baltic countries: Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia.

    PubMed

    Malakauskas, A; Paulauskas, V; Järvis, T; Keidans, P; Eddi, C; Kapel, C M O

    2007-03-01

    Meat of domestic pigs and wild boars has been the significant source of emerged human trichinellosis in Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia over the past two decades. However, there is very little known on the occurrence of Trichinella spp. in main wildlife reservoirs and its transmission in domestic and sylvatic cycles in these countries. The present study demonstrated considerably higher endemicity of Trichinella spp. in main sylvatic reservoirs (28.9-42% in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in all three countries than previously reported. Molecular identification of Trichinella larvae from more than 500 sylvatic and domestic animals revealed four Trichinella species (Trichinella spiralis, Trichinella britovi, Trichinella nativa, and Trichinella pseudospiralis) sympatric in a relatively small area and several as the first records for the respective countries. The nonencapsulating T. pseudospiralis is found for the first time in the Eastern Europe. Sylvatic T. britovi was found in domestic pigs in Lithuania and Latvia (16 and 57.1%, respectively) and only in these countries, domestic T. spiralis was detected in sylvatic animals in areas where domestic trichinellosis was registered. The study suggests that transmission of Trichinella between domestic and sylvatic cycles in Lithuania and Latvia is favored by improper human behavior, e.g., pig and slaughter waste management. PMID:17013647

  6. Fleas (Siphonaptera) in the Nests of Dormice (Gliridae: Rodentia) in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Lipatova, I; Stanko, M; Paulauskas, A; Spakovaite, S; Gedminas, V

    2015-05-01

    Negative effects of flea (Siphonaptera) parasitism on the host may be expressed in different ways. The aim of this study was to assess distribution of the flea fauna in nests of dormice in Lithuania. Nests of Glis glis (L.), Dryomys nitedula (Pallas), and Muscardinus avellanarius (L.) were collected from nest boxes in 2012 and 2013. Fleas were collected from nests in the laboratory and put into plastic tubes with 70% ethanol. Flea species were identified using morphological keys. From 400 nest boxes, 112 nests of dormice were collected from eight sites from mixed forests of central Lithuania. Twenty-three nests of G. glis were collected from nest boxes, with 16 of them containing 286 fleas belonging to four species: Ceratophyllus sciurorum (Schrank) (259), C. gallinae (Schrank) (23), Hystrichopsylla talpae (Curtis) (3), and Megabothris turbidus (Rothschild) (1). Fourteen nests of M. avellanarius were collected from nest boxes, 4 of which contained 224 fleas belonging to two species: C. sciurorum (221) and C. gallinae (3). Twenty-four nests of D. nitedula were collected from nest boxes, including 17 containing 207 fleas belonging to two species: C. sciurorum (205) and C. gallinae (2). Fifty-one nests of undetermined dormice species also were collected from nest boxes, 12 of them contained 395 fleas belonging to three species: C. sciurorum (374), Ctenophthalmus agyrtes (Heller) (19), and Ctenophthalmus assimilis (Taschenberg) (2). C. sciurorum was a predominant species in the nests of dormice. The occurrence of C. gallinae was documented in Lithuania for the first time. PMID:26334823

  7. Isotope geochemistry and modelling of the multi-aquifer system in the eastern part of Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokrik, Robert; Juodkazis, Vytautas; Štuopis, Anicetas; Mažeika, Jonas

    2014-06-01

    A steady-state groundwater flow model of three Quaternary intertill aquifers in the eastern part of Lithuania has been compiled. The distinction of separate modelled layers is based on hydraulic and isotope-hydrochemistry data criteria. 3H data were used to estimate the corrected groundwater age and were coupled with a groundwater-flow-dynamics model of the Quaternary aquifer system along a cross-section flow pathway from the Baltic Upland recharge area in eastern Lithuania towards the discharge area in the lowlands near the city of Kaunas in central Lithuania. The bicarbonate content in groundwater (214-462 mg/l) increases downgradient towards the lowland area. The other major constituents and total dissolved solids (TDS) have a trend analogous to the bicarbonate. The 14C activity of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the groundwater ranges from 41.4 to 85.7 pMC. With aquifer-system depth, active precipitation of aqueous solution takes place by dissolving minerals of calcite and dolomite and leakage of "old" groundwater from lower aquifers; the process is also traced by lower 14C and 3H activities and by more positive δ18O values in lowland areas.

  8. Middle Miocene closure of the Central American Seaway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, C.; Cardona, A.

    2014-12-01

    The final closure of the Panama Isthmus and permanent separation of Caribbean and Pacific waters is thought to have modified their salinity, faunistic assemblages, and ultimately, ocean circulation patterns and global climate. The Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI) is thought to have been the result of Plio-Pleistocene closure of the Isthmus that allowed land animals to massively cross the Isthmus. Similarly, the separation of Caribbean and Pacific waters by a rising Isthmus is thougth to be a prime example of vicariance. The role of Isthmus closure on global changes, however, remains controversial due in part to the difficulty of establishing a precise chronology of seaway closure. While timing of glaciation is well established, new data on the chronology of Isthmus emergence suggests that the process of closure is more complex, long, and old than previously thought. We sampled fluvial and shallow marine strata in northwesternmost South America to recover zircon grains for provenance analyses in the immediate vicinity of the docking site. Because the ages of magmatic provinces in northwestern South America and the Panama Isthmus are mutually exclusive, detrital zircon analyses provides a tool to evaluate land connections. We found that an uniquely Panamanian, 40-45 Ma (early Lutetian) detrital zircon fingerprint is abundant in middle Miocene strata, but absent in underlying lower Miocene and Oligocene strata of the northern Andes. This fingerprint represents the beginning of fluvial detrital exchange between the Panama arc and South America, and therefore marks the time of docking and the end of deep-water, and probably shallow-water connections by middle Miocene times.

  9. Raccoon dog rabies surveillance and post-vaccination monitoring in Lithuania 2006 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Oral rabies vaccination (ORV) in rabies infected regions should target the primary rabies vector species, which in Lithuania includes raccoon dogs as well as red foxes. Specific investigations on ORV in raccoon dogs are needed e.g. evaluation of vaccine effectiveness under field conditions. The objective of the current study was to investigate the efficacy of the ORV programme 2006-2010 in Lithuania by examining the number of rabies cases and estimating the prevalences of a tetracycline biomarker (TTC) and rabies virus antibodies in raccoon dogs. Methods From 2006 to 2010, 12.5 million rabies vaccine-baits were distributed by aircraft. Baiting occurred twice per year (spring and autumn), targeting raccoon dogs and red foxes in a 63,000 km2 area of Lithuania. The mandibles of raccoon dogs found dead or killed in the vaccination area were analyzed by fluorescence microscopy for the presence of the TTC. Rabies virus sera neutralizing anti-glycoprotein antibody titres were determined using an indirect ELISA method and seroconversion (> 0.5 EU/ml) rates were estimated. Results During the study period, 51.5% of raccoon dog mandibles were positive for TTC. 1688 of 3260 tested adults and 69 of 175 tested cubs were TTC positive. Forty-seven percent of raccoon dog serum samples were positive for rabies virus antibodies. 302 of 621 investigated adults and 33 of 95 investigated cubs were seropositive. In the same time 302 of 684 and 43 of 124 tested samples were TTC and ELISA positive in spring; whereas 1455 of 2751 and 292 of 592 tested samples were TTC and ELISA positive in autumn. There was a positive correlation between the number of TTC and antibody positive animals for both adult and cub groups. Conclusions ORV was effective in reducing the prevalence of rabies in the raccoon dog population in Lithuania. The prevalence of rabies cases in raccoon dogs in Lithuania decreased from 60.7% in 2006-2007 to 6.5% in 2009-2010. PMID:22085767

  10. Using a continuum model to predict closure time of gaps in intestinal epithelial cell layers

    PubMed Central

    Arciero, Julia C.; Mi, Qi; Branca, Maria; Hackam, David; Swigon, David

    2016-01-01

    A two-dimensional continuum model of collective cell migration is used to predict the closure of gaps in intestinal epithelial cell layers. The model assumes cell migration is governed by lamellipodia formation, cell-cell adhesion, and cell-substrate adhesion. Model predictions of the gap edge position and complete gap closure time are compared with experimental measures from cell layer scratch assays (also called scratch wound assays). The goal of the study is to combine experimental observations with mathematical descriptions of cell motion to identify effects of gap shape and area on closure time and to propose a method that uses a simple measure (e.g., area) to predict overall gap closure time early in the closure process. Gap closure time is shown to increase linearly with increasing gap area; however, gaps of equal areas but different aspect ratios differ greatly in healing time. Previous methods that calculate overall healing time according to the absolute or percent change in gap area assume that the gap area changes at a constant rate and typically underestimate gap closure time. In this study, data from scratch assays suggest that the rate of change of area is proportional to the first power or square root power of area. PMID:23421747

  11. Advocating for Children and Families in an Emerging Democracy: The Post-Soviet Experience in Lithuania. A Volume in Research in Global Child Advocacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kugelmass, Judy W., Ed.; Ritchie, Dennis J., Ed.

    The articles in this collection seek to provide a unique and important description about the transition of society in Lithuania and offer insights about how to approach advocacy for children to create opportunities to fulfill their potential. Following the introduction, articles in the collection are: (1) "The Emerging Democracy of Lithuania: A…

  12. Characterization of aerosol particles at the forested site in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimselyte, I.; Garbaras, A.; Kvietkus, K.; Remeikis, V.

    2009-04-01

    monitoring station (55˚ 26'26"N; 26˚ 03'60"E) in the eastern part of Lithuania in the Aukštaitija national park during 2-24 July, 2008. The Rugšteliškis station is located in a remote relatively clean forested area. An aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), developed at Aerodyne Research, was used to obtain real-time quantitative information on particle size-resolved mass loadings for volatile and semi-volatile chemical components present in/on ambient aerosol. The AMS inlet system allows 100 % transmission efficiency for particles with size diameter between 60 to 600 nm and partial transmission down to 20 nm and up to 2000 nm. The aerosol sampling was also carried out using a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) model 110. The flow rate was 30 l/min, and the 50% aerodynamic cutoff diameters of the 10 stages were 18, 10, 5.6, 3.2, 1.8, 1.0, 0.56, 0.32, 0.18, 0.10 and 0.056 m. Aluminum foil was used as the impaction surface. The aerosol samples were analyzed for total carbon using the elemental analyzer (Flash EA1112). Besides, samples were analyzed for ^13C/12C ratio by the isotopic ratio mass spectrometer (Thermo Finnigan Delta Plus Advantage) (Norman et al., 1999; Garbaras et al., 2008). During campaign the dynamic behavior of aerosols was measured and quantitatively compared with meteorological conditions and air mass transport. The submicron aerosol was predominately sulphate and organic material. The AMS was able to discriminate and quantify mixed organic/inorganic accumulation mode particles (300 - 400 nm), which appeared to be dominated by regional sources and were of the origin similar to those seen in the more remote areas. The particulate organic fraction was also investigated in detail using the mass spectral data. By combining the organic matter size distribution (measured with AMS) with the total carbon (TC) size distribution (measured with MOUDI) we were able to report organic carbon to total carbon (OC/TC) ratio in different size particles

  13. Characterization of aerosol particles at the forested site in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimselyte, I.; Garbaras, A.; Kvietkus, K.; Remeikis, V.

    2009-04-01

    monitoring station (55˚ 26'26"N; 26˚ 03'60"E) in the eastern part of Lithuania in the Aukštaitija national park during 2-24 July, 2008. The Rugšteliškis station is located in a remote relatively clean forested area. An aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), developed at Aerodyne Research, was used to obtain real-time quantitative information on particle size-resolved mass loadings for volatile and semi-volatile chemical components present in/on ambient aerosol. The AMS inlet system allows 100 % transmission efficiency for particles with size diameter between 60 to 600 nm and partial transmission down to 20 nm and up to 2000 nm. The aerosol sampling was also carried out using a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) model 110. The flow rate was 30 l/min, and the 50% aerodynamic cutoff diameters of the 10 stages were 18, 10, 5.6, 3.2, 1.8, 1.0, 0.56, 0.32, 0.18, 0.10 and 0.056 m. Aluminum foil was used as the impaction surface. The aerosol samples were analyzed for total carbon using the elemental analyzer (Flash EA1112). Besides, samples were analyzed for ^13C/12C ratio by the isotopic ratio mass spectrometer (Thermo Finnigan Delta Plus Advantage) (Norman et al., 1999; Garbaras et al., 2008). During campaign the dynamic behavior of aerosols was measured and quantitatively compared with meteorological conditions and air mass transport. The submicron aerosol was predominately sulphate and organic material. The AMS was able to discriminate and quantify mixed organic/inorganic accumulation mode particles (300 - 400 nm), which appeared to be dominated by regional sources and were of the origin similar to those seen in the more remote areas. The particulate organic fraction was also investigated in detail using the mass spectral data. By combining the organic matter size distribution (measured with AMS) with the total carbon (TC) size distribution (measured with MOUDI) we were able to report organic carbon to total carbon (OC/TC) ratio in different size particles

  14. Distribution and source of (129)I, (239)(,240)Pu, (137)Cs in the environment of Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Ežerinskis, Ž; Hou, X L; Druteikienė, R; Puzas, A; Šapolaitė, J; Gvozdaitė, R; Gudelis, A; Buivydas, Š; Remeikis, V

    2016-01-01

    Fifty five soil samples collected in the Lithuania teritory in 2011 and 2012 were analyzed for (129)I, (137)Cs and Pu isotopes in order to investigate the level and distribution of artificial radioactivity in Lithuania. The activity and atomic ratio of (238)Pu/((239,24)0)Pu, (129)I/(127)I and (131)I/(137)Cs were used to identify the origin of these radionuclides. The (238)Pu/(239+240)Pu and (240)Pu/(239)Pu ratios in the soil samples analyzed varied in the range of 0.02-0.18 and 0.18-0.24, respectively, suggesting the global fallout as the major source of Pu in Lithuania. The values of 10(-9) to 10(-6) for (129)I/(127)I atomic ratio revealed that the source of (129)I in Lithuania is global fallout in most cases though several sampling sites shows a possible impact of reprocessing releases. Estimated (129)I/(131)I ratio in soil samples from the southern part of Lithuania shows negligible input of the Chernobyl fallout. No correlation of the (137)Cs and Pu isotopes with (129)I was observed, indicating their different sources terms. Results demonstrate uneven distribution of these radionuclides in the Lithuanian territory and several sources of contamination i.e. Chernobyl accident, reprocessing releases and global fallout. PMID:26476410

  15. Geosites of Lithuania as an environment for dwelling of specific biota: geo- and biodiversity interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skridlaite, Grazina; Motiejunaite, Jurga; Jukoniene, Ilona; Prigodina Lukosiene, Ingrida

    2016-04-01

    Surface of Lithuania and surrounding countries is sculptured by five glaciations, which left behind morainic tills and melt water deposits, modified by erosion and later used for agriculture or overgrown by wild meadows or forests. The glaciations also left numerous erratic boulders and boulder fields that are declared as natural monuments in Lithuania and surrounding countries. Tens of single boulders and boulder fields are included into the Geosites database at the Lithuanian Geological Survey. Though sparse, but of high scientific value, Devonian, Permian, Triassic and Jurassic outcrops and quarries of Lithuania are variably protected. Quaternary scientists attempted to use single erratic boulders, their fields and abundances in tills to imply glacier dynamics. Some erratics came from known localities in Scandinavia and are called indicator boulders because they show the source and directions of ice sheet movements. Huge single boulders (e.g. 7 m long and 6 m high Puntukas, Anyksciai Regional Park) and wild boulder fields are natural monuments and attractive sites for visitors. Outcrops and quarries of Devonian dolomites and gypsium, Permian limestones and Jurassic sandstones widely used for a scientific research are parts of the protected geo-diversity in the Venta and Birzai regional parks, N and NW Lithuania. On the other hand, a large part of the c. 700 species of lichenized and allied fungi and of c. 500 bryophytes known in Lithuania are confined to natural or semi-natural (quarries) rocky habitats. Eight rock-dwelling lichen and nine bryophyte species are included in the Lithuanian Red Data Book, some of them are known from 1-2 localities or are thought to be extinct now. Besides, the recent investigations of dolomite quarries revealed them to be habitats for 7 bryophyte, 8 lichenized and lichenicolous species, previously unknown for Lithuania. One new lichenicolous species was discovered (Khodosovtsev et al., 2012). Some of the newfinds are rare or absent

  16. 40 CFR 265.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the closure and post-closure requirements that apply to landfills (40 CFR 264.310). ... decontamination of contaminated components, subsoils, structures, and equipment as required in paragraph (a)...

  17. 40 CFR 265.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the closure and post-closure requirements that apply to landfills (40 CFR 264.310). ... decontamination of contaminated components, subsoils, structures, and equipment as required in paragraph (a)...

  18. 40 CFR 265.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the closure and post-closure requirements that apply to landfills (40 CFR 264.310). ... decontamination of contaminated components, subsoils, structures, and equipment as required in paragraph (a)...

  19. 40 CFR 265.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the closure and post-closure requirements that apply to landfills (40 CFR 264.310). ... decontamination of contaminated components, subsoils, structures, and equipment as required in paragraph (a)...

  20. Clamshell closure for metal drum

    DOEpatents

    Blanton, Paul S

    2014-09-30

    Closure ring to retain a lid in contact with a metal drum in central C-section conforming to the contact area between a lid and the rim of a drum and further having a radially inwardly directed flange and a vertically downwardly directed flange attached to the opposite ends of the C-section. The additional flanges reinforce the top of the drum by reducing deformation when the drum is dropped and maintain the lid in contact with the drum. The invention is particularly valuable in transportation and storage of fissile material.

  1. From autopoiesis to semantic closure.

    PubMed

    Stewart, J

    2000-01-01

    This article addresses the question of providing an adequate mathematical formulation for the concepts of autopoiesis and closure under efficient cause. What is required is metaphorically equivalent to reducing the act of writing to a set of mathematical equations, habitually effected by a human mathematician, within the ongoing function of the system itself. This, in turn, raises the question of the relationship between autopoiesis and semantics. The hypothesis suggested is that whereas semantics clearly requires autopoiesis, it may be also be the case that autopoiesis itself can only be materially realized in a system that is characterized by a semantic dimension. PMID:10818567

  2. Closure Welding of Plutonium Bearing Storage Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Cannell, G.R.

    2002-02-28

    A key element in the Department of Energy (DOE) strategy for the stabilization, packaging and storage of plutonium-bearing materials involves closure welding of DOE-STD-3013 Outer Containers (3013 container). The 3013 container provides the primary barrier and pressure boundary preventing release of plutonium-bearing materials to the environment. The final closure (closure weld) of the 3013 container must be leaktight, structurally sound and meet DOE STD 3013 specified criteria. This paper focuses on the development, qualification and demonstration of the welding process for the closure welding of Hanford PFP 3013 outer containers.

  3. 100-D Ponds closure plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, S.W.

    1997-09-01

    The 100-D Ponds is a Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) unit on the Hanford Facility that received both dangerous and nonregulated waste. This Closure Plan (Rev. 1) for the 100-D Ponds TSD unit consists of a RCRA Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application (Rev. 3), a RCRA Closure Plan, and supporting information contained in the appendices to the plan. The closure plan consists of eight chapters containing facility description, process information, waste characteristics, and groundwater monitoring data. There are also chapters containing the closure strategy and performance standards. The strategy for the closure of the 100-D Ponds TSD unit is clean closure. Appendices A and B of the closure plan demonstrate that soil and groundwater beneath 100-D Ponds are below cleanup limits. All dangerous wastes or dangerous waste constituents or residues associated with the operation of the ponds have been removed, therefore, human health and the environment are protected. Discharges to the 100-D Ponds, which are located in the 100-DR-1 operable unit, were discontinued in June 1994. Contaminated sediment was removed from the ponds in August 1996. Subsequent sampling and analysis demonstrated that there is no contamination remaining in the ponds, therefore, this closure plan is a demonstration of clean closure.

  4. Spontaneous closure of a dural arteriovenous fistula

    PubMed Central

    Al-Afif, Shadi; Nakamura, Makoto; Götz, Friedrich; Krauss, Joachim K

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous closure of a dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) is a rare condition and only a few cases have been reported since its first description in 1976. We report delayed and progressive spontaneous closure of a dAVF after massive intracerebral hemorrhage documented by angiographic studies before and after bleeding. To our knowledge, this is the first report to document gradual closure of a dAVF by serial angiographic studies. The mechanism of spontaneous closure of dAVFs has not been fully elucidated. We suggest different factors for consideration from previously published data and show how each of these factors can influence the others. PMID:25053666

  5. 40 CFR 264.112 - Closure plan; amendment of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Closure plan; amendment of plan. 264... Closure and Post-Closure § 264.112 Closure plan; amendment of plan. (a) Written plan. (1) The owner or operator of a hazardous waste management facility must have a written closure plan. In addition,...

  6. 40 CFR 264.112 - Closure plan; amendment of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure plan; amendment of plan. 264... Closure and Post-Closure § 264.112 Closure plan; amendment of plan. (a) Written plan. (1) The owner or operator of a hazardous waste management facility must have a written closure plan. In addition,...

  7. 40 CFR 264.112 - Closure plan; amendment of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closure plan; amendment of plan. 264... Closure and Post-Closure § 264.112 Closure plan; amendment of plan. (a) Written plan. (1) The owner or operator of a hazardous waste management facility must have a written closure plan. In addition,...

  8. 40 CFR 264.112 - Closure plan; amendment of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Closure plan; amendment of plan. 264... Closure and Post-Closure § 264.112 Closure plan; amendment of plan. (a) Written plan. (1) The owner or operator of a hazardous waste management facility must have a written closure plan. In addition,...

  9. 40 CFR 264.112 - Closure plan; amendment of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Closure plan; amendment of plan. 264... Closure and Post-Closure § 264.112 Closure plan; amendment of plan. (a) Written plan. (1) The owner or operator of a hazardous waste management facility must have a written closure plan. In addition,...

  10. 40 CFR 264.258 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste Piles § 264.258 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner or operator must remove or decontaminate all waste residues, contaminated containment system components (liners,...

  11. 40 CFR 264.228 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 264.228 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner or operator must... remaining wastes to a bearing capacity sufficient to support final cover; and (iii) Cover the...

  12. 40 CFR 265.228 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 265.228 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner... cover; and (iii) Cover the surface impoundment with a final cover designed and constructed to:...

  13. Identification of Selected Child-Resistant Closures (Continuous Thread, Lug-Bayonet, and Snap Closures).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Rosalind L.; White, Harry E.

    This publication describes a selected group of child-resistant closures used in packaging five categories of medicine and household products. The material in the document was collected to train survey personnel to identify closures for a planned household study of the effectiveness of child-resistant packaging. The 39 closures described are of…

  14. 40 CFR 265.258 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste Piles § 265.258 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner or operator must remove or decontaminate all waste residues, contaminated containment system...

  15. 40 CFR 264.258 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste Piles § 264.258 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner or operator must remove or decontaminate all waste residues, contaminated containment system components (liners,...

  16. 40 CFR 265.258 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste Piles § 265.258 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner or operator must remove or decontaminate all waste residues, contaminated containment system...

  17. 40 CFR 265.258 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste Piles § 265.258 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure, the owner or operator must remove or decontaminate all waste residues, contaminated containment system...

  18. Criticality assessment of LLRWDF closure

    SciTech Connect

    Sarrack, A.G.; Weber, J.H.; Woody, N.D.

    1992-10-06

    During the operation of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (LLRWDF), large amounts (greater than 100 kg) of enriched uranium (EU) were buried. This EU came primarily from the closing and decontamination of the Naval Fuels Facility in the time period from 1987--1989. Waste Management Operations (WMO) procedures were used to keep the EU boxes separated to prevent possible criticality during normal operation. Closure of the LLRWDF is currently being planned, and waste stabilization by Dynamic Compaction (DC) is proposed. Dynamic compaction will crush the containers in the LLRWDF and result in changes in their geometry. Research of the LLRWDF operations and record keeping practices have shown that the EU contents of trenches are known, but details of the arrangement of the contents cannot be proven. Reviews of the trench contents, combined with analysis of potential critical configurations, revealed that some portions of the LLRWDF can be expected to be free of criticality concerns while other sections have credible probabilities for the assembly of a critical mass, even in the uncompacted configuration. This will have an impact on the closure options and which trenches can be compacted.

  19. Accelerating cleanup: Paths to closure

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, C.

    1998-06-30

    This document was previously referred to as the Draft 2006 Plan. As part of the DOE`s national strategy, the Richland Operations Office`s Paths to Closure summarizes an integrated path forward for environmental cleanup at the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site underwent a concerted effort between 1994 and 1996 to accelerate the cleanup of the Site. These efforts are reflected in the current Site Baseline. This document describes the current Site Baseline and suggests strategies for further improvements in scope, schedule and cost. The Environmental Management program decided to change the name of the draft strategy and the document describing it in response to a series of stakeholder concerns, including the practicality of achieving widespread cleanup by 2006. Also, EM was concerned that calling the document a plan could be misconstrued to be a proposal by DOE or a decision-making document. The change in name, however, does not diminish the 2006 vision. To that end, Paths to Closure retains a focus on 2006, which serves as a point in time around which objectives and goals are established.

  20. Transitional nuclei near shell closures

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, G.

    2014-08-14

    High spin states in Bismuth and Thallium nuclei near the Z = 82 shell closure and Cesium nuclei near the N = 82 shell closure in A = 190 and A = 130 regions, respectively, have been experimentally investigated using heavy-ion fusion evaporation reaction and by detecting the gamma rays using the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA). Interesting shape properties in these transitional nuclei have been observed. The results were compared with the neighboring nuclei in these two regions. The total Routhian surface (TRS) calculations have been performed for a better understanding of the observed properties. In mass region A = 190, a change in shape from spherical to deformed has been observd around neutron number N = 112 for the Bi (Z = 83) isotopes with proton number above the magic gap Z = 82, whereas, the shape of Tl (Z = 81) isotopes with proton number below the magic gap Z = 82 remains stable as a function of neutron number. An important transition from aplanar to planar configuration of angular momentum vectors leading to the occurance of nuclar chirality and magnetic rotation, respectively, has been proposed for the unique parity πh{sub 11/2}⊗νh{sub 11/2} configuration in Cs isotopes in the mass region A ∼ 130 around neutron number N = 79. These results are in commensurate with the TRS calculations.

  1. Higher order turbulence closure models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amano, Ryoichi S.; Chai, John C.; Chen, Jau-Der

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical models are developed and numerical studies conducted on various types of flows including both elliptic and parabolic. The purpose of this study is to find better higher order closure models for the computations of complex flows. This report summarizes three new achievements: (1) completion of the Reynolds-stress closure by developing a new pressure-strain correlation; (2) development of a parabolic code to compute jets and wakes; and, (3) application to a flow through a 180 deg turnaround duct by adopting a boundary fitted coordinate system. In the above mentioned models near-wall models are developed for pressure-strain correlation and third-moment, and incorporated into the transport equations. This addition improved the results considerably and is recommended for future computations. A new parabolic code to solve shear flows without coordinate tranformations is developed and incorporated in this study. This code uses the structure of the finite volume method to solve the governing equations implicitly. The code was validated with the experimental results available in the literature.

  2. Organizational closure and conceptual coherence

    PubMed

    Scott

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews ideas developed by the late Gordon Pask as part of this conversation theory (CT). CT uses theories of the dynamics of complex, self-organizing systems, in conjunction with models of conceptual structures, in order to give an account of conceptual coherence (for example, of a theory or a belief system) as a form of organizational closure. In Pask's own terms, CT is concerned both with the kinematics of knowledge structures and the kinetics of knowing and coming to know. The main features of modelling conceptual structures and processes used by Pask are presented. We continue by presenting a summary two-cycle model of learning, aimed to capture some of Pask's key insights with respect to conceptual coherence and the organizational closure of conceptual systems. Parallels are drawn with other work in epistemology, classic cybernetic studies of self-organization, and the concept of autopoiesis. The two-cycle model is then applied recursively to generate learning cycles and conceptual structures at different levels of abstraction, as a contribution to the work of Pask on the topology of thought. Finally, the model is applied reflexively. That is, its own form is considered as a topic for conversation and conceptualization. Carrying out such a reflection provides a coherent way of characterizing epistemological limits, while retaining a clear sense of there being an (in principle) unlimited praxeology of awareness. PMID:10818581

  3. Insomnia symptoms and mortality: a register-linked study among women and men from Finland, Norway and Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Lallukka, Tea; Podlipskytė, Aurelija; Sivertsen, Børge; Andruškienė, Jurgita; Varoneckas, Giedrius; Lahelma, Eero; Ursin, Reidun; Tell, Grethe S; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2016-02-01

    Evidence on the association between insomnia symptoms and mortality is limited and inconsistent. This study examined the association between insomnia symptoms and mortality in cohorts from three countries to show common and unique patterns. The Finnish cohort comprised 6605 employees of the City of Helsinki, aged 40-60 years at baseline in 2000-2002. The Norwegian cohort included 6236 participants from Western Norway, aged 40-45 years at baseline in 1997-1999. The Lithuanian cohort comprised 1602 participants from the City of Palanga, aged 35-74 years at baseline in 2003. Mortality data were derived from the Statistics Finland and Norwegian Cause of Death Registry until the end of 2012, and from the Lithuanian Regional Mortality Register until the end of 2013. Insomnia symptoms comprised difficulties initiating sleep, nocturnal awakenings, and waking up too early. Covariates were age, marital status, education, smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, depression, shift work, sleep duration, and self-rated health. Cox regression analysis was used. Frequent difficulties initiating sleep were associated with all-cause mortality among men after full adjustments in the Finnish (hazard ratio 2.51; 95% confidence interval 1.07-5.88) and Norwegian (hazard ratio 3.42; 95% confidence interval 1.03-11.35) cohorts. Among women and in Lithuania, insomnia symptoms were not statistically significantly associated with all-cause mortality after adjustments. In conclusion, difficulties initiating sleep were associated with mortality among Norwegian and Finnish men. Variation and heterogeneity in the association between insomnia symptoms and mortality highlights that further research needs to distinguish between men and women, specific symptoms and national contexts, and focus on more chronic insomnia. PMID:26420582

  4. 50 CFR 665.666 - Closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Closures. 665.666 Section 665.666 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... § 665.666 Closures. (a) If the Regional Administrator determines that the harvest quota for any...

  5. 50 CFR 635.28 - Fishery closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fishery closures. 635.28 Section 635.28 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ATLANTIC HIGHLY MIGRATORY SPECIES Management Measures § 635.28 Fishery closures....

  6. School Closures in Rural Finnish Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Autti, Outi; Hyry-Beihammer, Eeva Kaisa

    2014-01-01

    The network of small rural schools in Finland has been radically weakened since the global recession of the 1990s. This article focuses on the social role of rural schools and the phenomenon of school closures. Our aim is to look at rural schools from the viewpoint of local residents and examine how they experience school closures. We seek to hear…

  7. 36 CFR 261.53 - Special closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special closures. 261.53 Section 261.53 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order § 261.53 Special closures. When provided in an order, it is prohibited to go into or be upon any...

  8. 36 CFR 261.53 - Special closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special closures. 261.53 Section 261.53 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order § 261.53 Special closures. When provided in an order, it is prohibited to go into or be upon any...

  9. 36 CFR 261.53 - Special closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special closures. 261.53 Section 261.53 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order § 261.53 Special closures. When provided in an order, it is prohibited to go into or be upon any...

  10. 36 CFR 261.53 - Special closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special closures. 261.53 Section 261.53 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order § 261.53 Special closures. When provided in an order, it is prohibited to go into or be upon any...