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Sample records for lithuania shows unanimous

  1. Mars Express wins unanimous support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-11-01

    "The green light for Mars Express shows that Europe is perfectly capable of seizing special chances in exploring space," said Roger Bonnet, ESA's director of science. "At a cost to ESA of 150 million ECU, Mars Express is the cheapest Mars mission ever, yet its importance and originality are far greater than the price tag suggests." Bonnet continued: "Mars Express has been advertised by the Science Programme Committee as a test case for new approaches in procuring and managing future science projects, with a view to achieving major savings. In the international arena, Mars Express will confirm Europe's interest in a major target for space research in the new century, when we make our forceful debut at the Red Planet. In fact, Mars Express is designed to be a pivotal element of an international multi-mission, global effort for the exploration of Mars." Development of the spacecraft will now proceed swiftly, to meet the deadline of an exceptionally favourable launch window early in June 2003. Mars Express will go into orbit around Mars at Christmas 2003. Seven scientific instruments on board will include a high-resolution camera, a range of spectrometers, and a radar to penetrate below the surface. For the first time in the history of the exploration of the Red Planet, scientists can hope to detect sub-surface water, whether it exists in the form of undergound rivers, pools, glaciers or permafrost. Signs of life on Mars, whether extinct or continuing today, may reveal themselves to a lander carried by Mars Express. This is Beagle 2, a project led by the Open University in the United Kingdom, with contributions from many other European countries. The lander also promises invaluable information about the chemistry of the Martian surface and atmosphere. Beagle 2 is to be independently funded. Some of the necessary funds have already been raised and ESA has agreed with the principal investigator to keep a place for Beagle 2 aboard Mars Express. The financial situation

  2. Detecting Groupthink: Methods for Observing the Illusion of Unanimity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Rebecca J. Welch

    1990-01-01

    Reconceptualizes groupthink symptoms as observable group interaction patterns. Proposes two coding systems for detecting the illusion of unanimity symptom, detecting both degree of unanimity and degree of the illusory versus substantive nature of that unanimity. (SR)

  3. Avoidable mortality in Lithuania.

    PubMed Central

    Gaizauskiene, A; Gurevicius, R

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The study aimed to analyse avoidable mortality in Lithuania as an index of the quality of health care and to assess trends in avoidable mortality from 1970-90. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS--All deaths of Lithuanian residents aged between 0 and 64 years between 1970 and 1990 were analysed. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Twenty seven per cent of all deaths in this age group were avoidable. Avoidable deaths were grouped into preventable and treatable ones. Treatable causes of death accounted for 54%, and preventable, 46% of avoidable mortality. Time trends showed that general mortality and mortality from avoidable causes of death in this age group were almost stable between 1970 and 1990. Mortality from treatable causes of death fell, while deaths from preventable causes increased. The results in the preventable group were greatly affected by deaths from malignant neoplasms of trachea, bronchus, and lungs. Differences were noted between the sexes in total mortality as well as in avoidable mortality. CONCLUSIONS--Avoidable causes of death are relatively common and, consequently, they are of practical importance for public health and studies of the health care quality in Lithuania. Reorganisation of health care is to be carried out and considerable emphasis will be placed on health education, promotion, and prevention, as primary prevention measures have not been effective thus far. PMID:7629464

  4. Cancer education in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Mineikyte, Ramune; Janulionis, Ernestas; Liutkeviciute-Navickiene, Jurgita; Atkocius, Vydmantas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe cancer education in Lithuania according to the data of 2013. In Lithuania, there are the following stages of education for physicians: basic education through integrated studies of medicine (six years), postgraduate education through residency studies (four to five years), and continuing professional development. In recent years, integrated studies of medicine have been the most popular specialty. Oncology is incorporated into the teaching courses in medicine programmes. In each university, an oncology course is mandatory during these studies. In Lithuania, there are two types of specialists related to oncology: medical oncologists and radiation oncologists. These oncologists complete multidisciplinary residency study programmes in the clinics. To receive a doctoral degree, specialists may join PhD programmes at any of the accredited universities. In recent years the number of dissertations in oncology has grown. Notably, oncology is chosen not only by students in the field of medicine. It also becomes the choice of those seeking a doctorate in the fields of nursing, public health, biochemistry, and physics. The professional development of oncologists is a lifelong commitment. In Lithuania, continuing specialist medical training is mandatory. This requirement is ensured with the process of licensing of medical practice. All Lithuanian study programmes are certificated by an independent public agency and are recognised by a number of other countries as well. PMID:25525465

  5. Teaching Negotiation in Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groth, Brian Ibbotson

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes his experiences and the lessons he learned from a 2-week stint teaching negotiation in Lithuania. He learned that for anyone older than about 25, and that constituted most of the class, being part of the Soviet Union for more than half a century seems to have left deep wounds that have not yet healed.…

  6. Investing in Youth: Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. The present report on Lithuania is the fourth of a new…

  7. Mapping ecosystem services potential in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depellegrin, Daniel; Misiune, Ieva; Pereira, Paulo

    2016-04-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) are understood as the benefits that humans get from ecosystems functions. They are divided in providing, regulating, supporting and cultural. The correct management of ES is fundamental to achieve sustainable development goals. A good assessment of ES potential can be obtained using GIS techniques, in order to have a spatial dimension of ES distribution. This will help to have a better territorial planning, improve ES capacity, and have more benefits. ES potential analysis can be carried out based on the ES matrix developed by Burkhard et al. (2009). This method is based on the attribution a rank from 0 to 5 (0= no capacity to 5=very high relevant capacity) to the land use classes of the corine land cover (CLC). This represents an important advantage since a determined land use can be related with a certain number of services. The objective of this work is to Map the ES potential in Lithuania. The results showed that Lithuania has a high potential for regulating services, followed by cultural and provisioning services. Urban areas provide a very small amount of services, contrary to forest, where the highest potential is observed. The most comon land covers in Lithuania are non-irrigated arable land, complex cultivation patterns, mixed and coniferous forest. Total and regulating and cultural ES had dispersed pattern showing that they are scattered in the territory. They are located mainly in forested and coastal areas. In relation to provisioning services they had a clustered distribution, and they were mainly observed in the central part of Lithuania. References Burkhard B, Kroll F, Müller F, Windhorst W. 2009. Landscapes' capacities to provide ecosystem services - a concept for land-cover based assessments. Landsc. Online. 15:1-22

  8. Lithuania: health system review.

    PubMed

    Murauskiene, Liubove; Janoniene, Raimonda; Veniute, Marija; van Ginneken, Ewout; Karanikolos, Marina

    2013-01-01

    This analysis of the Lithuanian health system reviews the developments in organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health system performance since 2000.The Lithuanian health system is a mixed system, predominantly funded from the National Health Insurance Fund through a compulsory health insurance scheme, supplemented by substantial state contributions on behalf of the economically inactive population amounting to about half of its budget. Public financing of the health sector has gradually increased since 2004 to 5.2 per cent of GDP in 2010.Although the Lithuanian health system was tested by the recent economic crisis, Lithuanias counter-cyclical state health insurance contribution policies (ensuring coverage for the economically inactive population) helped the health system to weather the crisis, and Lithuania successfully used the crisis as a lever to reduce the prices of medicines.Yet the future impact of cuts in public health spending is a cause for concern. In addition, out-of-pocket payments remain high (in particular for pharmaceuticals) and could threaten health access for vulnerable groups.A number of challenges remain. The primary care system needs strengthening so that more patients are treated instead of being referred to a specialist, which will also require a change in attitude by patients. Transparency and accountability need to be increased in resource allocation, including financing of capital investment and in the payer provider relationship. Finally, population health,albeit improving, remains a concern, and major progress can be achieved by reducing the burden of amenable and preventable mortality. PMID:23902994

  9. Perinatal care in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Basys, V; Liubsys, A

    1997-01-01

    The Preventive Program of Perinatal, Neonatal and Congenital Abnormalities in Lithuania was launched in 1992. That was the beginning of the reorganization of the Soviet maternal and child health care system. The first stage of the Program provided for the years 1992 through 1996 and aimed to create a system of maternal and neonatal care; to create a system of diagnosis and prevention of congenital abnormalities; to collect, process, and analyze maternal and neonatal data (to establish a new database); to evaluate, distribute, and use available resources efficiently; to plan financial and human resources for a perinatal care infrastructure; and to train medical personnel and control the level and quality of their knowledge. The reorganization was based on a three-tiered maternal and neonatal care system. By the end of 1996 the major goal of the Program was achieved successfully (i.e., perinatal, neonatal, and infant mortality rates decreased significantly. During the next 5 years the Program will focus mainly on qualitative aspects of perinatal care. PMID:9210082

  10. Toward Unanimous Projections for Sea Ice Using CMIP5 Multi-model Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S.; Christensen, J. H.; Langen, P. P.; Thejll, P.

    2015-12-01

    Coupled global climate models have been used to provide future climate projections as major objective tools based on physical laws that govern the dynamics and thermodynamics of the climate system. However, while climate models in general predict declines in Arctic sea ice cover (i.e., ice extent and volume) from late 20th century through the next decades in response to increase of anthropogenic forcing, the model simulated Arctic sea ice demonstrates considerable biases in both the mean and the declining trend in comparison with the observations over the satellite era (1979-present). The models also show wide inter-model spread in hindcast and projected sea ice decline, raising the question of uncertainty in model predicted polar climate. In order to address the model uncertainty in the Arctic sea ice projection, we analyze the Arctic sea ice extent under the context of surface air temperature (SAT) as simulated in the historical, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 experiments by 27 CMIP5 models. These 27 models are all we could obtain from the CMIP5 archive with sufficient gird information for processing the sea ice data. Unlike many previous studies in which only limited number of models were selected based on metrics of modeled sea ice characteristics for getting projected ice with reduced uncertainty, our analysis is applied to all model simulations with no discrimination. It is found that the changes in total Arctic sea ice in various seasons from one model are closely related to the changes in global mean SAT in the corresponding model. This relationship appears very similar in all models and agrees well with that in the observational data. In particular, the ratio of the total Arctic sea ice changes in March, September and annual mean with respect to the baseline climatology (1979-2008) are seen to linearly correlate to the global mean annual SAT anomaly, suggesting unanimous projection of the sea ice extent may be possible with this relationship. Further analysis is

  11. Young Children Understand the Role of Agreement in Establishing Arbitrary Norms-But Unanimity Is Key.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Marco F H; Rakoczy, Hannes; Mietzsch, Teresa; Tomasello, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Human cultural groups value conformity to arbitrary norms (e.g., rituals, games) that are the result of collective "agreement." Ninety-six 3-year-olds had the opportunity to agree upon arbitrary norms with puppets. Results revealed that children normatively enforced these novel norms only on a deviator who had actually entered into the agreement (not on dissenting or ignorant individuals). Interestingly, any dissent during the norm-setting process (even if a majority of 90% preferred one course of action) prevented children from seeing a norm as established for anyone at all. These findings suggest that even young children understand something of the role of agreement in establishing mutually binding social norms, but that their notion of norm formation may be confined to conditions of unanimity. PMID:26990417

  12. Implementing a National Qualifications Framework in Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutlys, Vidmantas; Spudyte, Irma

    2011-01-01

    The design of the national qualifications framework (NQF) in Lithuania started in 2006. The NQF was officially approved by the government decree in May 2010. This article explores the influence of the processes of institutional change on the reform of the national system of qualifications in Lithuania through the implementation of the NQF, looking…

  13. Language Planning and Personal Naming in Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramoniene, Meilute

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the issues of language planning and naming in Lithuania since the restoration of independence in 1990. The aim of the paper is to analyse the challenges of corpus planning with the focus on the use and standardisation of personal names. The paper first presents the historical context of the formation of names in Lithuania and…

  14. Heavy Precipitation Events in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukantis, A.; Rimkus, E.; Kažys, J.

    2010-09-01

    Analysis of heavy precipitation events in Lithuania is presented in this work. Research was divided into two parts. Spatial distribution and dynamic of heavy precipitation events in Lithuania during observation period (1961-2008) is presented in the first part and climate predictions for XXI century according to outputs of CCLM model are in the second. Daily data from 17 meteorological stations were used for the analysis of heavy precipitation events in Lithuania. Research covers period from 1961 to 2008. Annual and seasonal heavy precipitation values and the recurrence of extreme daily and 3-day precipitation events were analyzed. Spatial distribution of heavy precipitation events in Lithuania was determined; the trends of such precipitation recurrence were identified. Also, daily and 3-day annual maxima probabilities were calculated using the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution. 10, 30 and 100 years return period was analyzed. Finally, atmospheric circulation processes during heavy precipitation events were described using the adapted Hess & Brezowski macrocirculation form classification Predictions of changes of heavy precipitation recurrence in Lithuania are also presented in this study. Output data of the regional climate model CCLM (COSMO - Climate Limited-area Model) for the period 1971-2100 were used. Predictions were based on A1B and B1 emission scenarios. Despite of relatively small area and quite negligible differences in altitude there are significant unevenness in spatial distribution of heavy precipitation events in Lithuania. The mean annual number of cases when daily precipitation amount exceeded 10 mm fluctuates from 12.4 to 21.9 and from 5.3 to 10.5 when 3-day precipitation exceeded 20 mm. The probability of maximum precipitation amount for 10 year return period appears very familiar to spatial distribution of heavy precipitation recurrence: the highest values can be expected in the western part (55-60 mm daily and 75-85 mm in 3-days

  15. Observations of noctilucent clouds from Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubietis, Audrius; Dalin, Peter; Balčiūnas, Ričardas; Černis, Kazimieras

    2010-09-01

    We present an analysis of systematic visual and photographic observations of noctilucent clouds seen from Lithuania in the years 1973-2009. The main trends in the noctilucent cloud occurrence frequency and the mean brightness are derived from statistical and correlation analysis. A clear signature of the solar activity cycle is imprinted on the noctilucent cloud occurrence frequency and mean brightness, both showing distinct anti-correlation with the sunspot numbers; however, no statistically significant increase of either noctilucent cloud occurrence frequency or brightness has been detected at least over past 19 yr (1991-2009). The only statistically significant positive trend is established for the numbers of very bright noctilucent cloud displays in the years 1973-2009. The most recent noctilucent cloud observations are linked to variations of local mesospheric temperatures, measured by the Aura satellite.

  16. Positive Unanimous Voting Algorithm for Focal Cortical Dysplasia Detection on Magnetic Resonance Image.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xiaoxia; Yang, Jian; Ma, Shaodong; Bai, Tingzhu; Philips, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is the main cause of epilepsy and can be automatically detected via magnetic resonance (MR) images. However, visual detection of lesions is time consuming and highly dependent on the doctor's personal knowledge and experience. In this paper, we propose a new framework for positive unanimous voting (PUV) to detect FCD lesions. Maps of gray matter thickness, gradient, relative intensity, and gray/white matter width are computed in the proposed framework to enhance the differences between lesional and non-lesional regions. Feature maps are further compared with the feature distributions of healthy controls to obtain feature difference maps. PUV driven by feature and feature difference maps is then applied to classify image voxels into lesion and non-lesion. The connected region analysis then refines the classification results by removing the tiny fragment regions consisting of falsely classified positive voxels. The proposed method correctly identified 8/10 patients with FCD lesions and 30/31 healthy people. Experimental results on the small FCD samples demonstrated that the proposed method can effectively reduce the number of false positives and guarantee correct detection of lesion regions compared with four single classifiers and two recent methods. PMID:27092069

  17. Positive Unanimous Voting Algorithm for Focal Cortical Dysplasia Detection on Magnetic Resonance Image

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Xiaoxia; Yang, Jian; Ma, Shaodong; Bai, Tingzhu; Philips, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is the main cause of epilepsy and can be automatically detected via magnetic resonance (MR) images. However, visual detection of lesions is time consuming and highly dependent on the doctor's personal knowledge and experience. In this paper, we propose a new framework for positive unanimous voting (PUV) to detect FCD lesions. Maps of gray matter thickness, gradient, relative intensity, and gray/white matter width are computed in the proposed framework to enhance the differences between lesional and non-lesional regions. Feature maps are further compared with the feature distributions of healthy controls to obtain feature difference maps. PUV driven by feature and feature difference maps is then applied to classify image voxels into lesion and non-lesion. The connected region analysis then refines the classification results by removing the tiny fragment regions consisting of falsely classified positive voxels. The proposed method correctly identified 8/10 patients with FCD lesions and 30/31 healthy people. Experimental results on the small FCD samples demonstrated that the proposed method can effectively reduce the number of false positives and guarantee correct detection of lesion regions compared with four single classifiers and two recent methods. PMID:27092069

  18. Bartonella infection in small mammals and their ectoparasites in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Lipatova, Indre; Paulauskas, Algimantas; Puraite, Irma; Radzijevskaja, Jana; Balciauskas, Linas; Gedminas, Vaclovas

    2015-01-01

    The Bartonella pathogen is an emerging zoonotic agent. Epidemiological studies worldwide have demonstrated that small mammals are reservoir hosts of Bartonella spp. and their ectoparasites are potential vectors. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Bartonella infections in small mammals (Rodentia, Insectivora) and their ectoparasites (fleas and ticks) in Lithuania. A total of 430 small mammals representing nine species were captured with live-traps in Lithuania during 2013-2014. A total of 151 fleas representing eight species were collected from 109 (25.8%) small mammals. Five hundred and seventy ticks (Ixodes ricinus) were collected from 68 (16.1%) small mammals. Bartonella DNA was detected in 102 (23.7%) small mammals, 44 (29.1%) fleas and five (3.7%) pooled tick samples. Sequence analysis of 16S-23S rRNA ITS region showed that sequences were identical or similar to Bartonella grahamii, Bartonella taylorii and Bartonella rochalimae. This study is the first investigating the distribution and diversity of Bartonella species in small mammals and their ectoparasites in Lithuania. B. grahamii, B. taylorii, and B. rochalimae were detected in small mammals and their fleas, and B. grahamii in ticks obtained from small mammals. PMID:26344603

  19. Curonian Spit, Lithuania and Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Curonian Spit in Lithuania and the Russian Federation was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2000. Human habitation of this elongated sand dune peninsula, 98 km long and 0.4-4 km wide, dates back to prehistoric times. Throughout this period it has been threatened by the natural forces of wind and waves. Its survival to the present day has been made possible only as a result of ceaseless human efforts to combat erosion through stabilization and reforestation projects.

    The image covers an area of 55.8 x 109.5 km, was acquired on July 25, 2006, and is located near 55.3 degrees north latitude, 20.9 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  20. Geological research for public outreach and education in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skridlaite, Grazina; Guobyte, Rimante

    2013-04-01

    Successful IYPE activities and implementation of Geoheritage day in Lithuania increased public awareness in geology. A series of projects introducing geology to the general public and youth, supported by EU funds and local communities, were initiated. Researchers from the scientific and applied geology institutions of Lithuania participated in these projects and provided with the geological data. In one case, the Lithuanian Survey of Protected Areas supported the installation of a series of geological exhibitions in several regional and national parks. An animation demonstrating glacial processes was chosen for most of these because the Lithuanian surface is largely covered with sedimentary deposits of the Nemunas (Weichselian) glaciation. Researchers from the Lithuanian Geological Survey used the mapping results to demonstrate real glacial processes for every chosen area. In another case, 3D models showing underground structures of different localities were based on detailed geological maps and profiles obtained for that area. In case of the Sartai regional park, the results of previous geological research projects provided the possibility to create a movie depicting the ca. 2 Ga geological evolution of the region. The movie starts with the accretion of volcanic island arcs on the earlier continental margin at ca. 2 Ga and deciphers later Precambrian tectonic and magmatic events. The reconstruction is based on numerous scientific articles and interpretation of geophysical data. Later Paleozoic activities and following erosion sculptured the surface which was covered with several ice sheets in Quaternary. For educational purpose, a collection of minerals and rocks at the Forestry Institute was used to create an exhibition called "Cycle of geological processes". Forestry scientists and their students are able to study the interactions of geodiversity and biodiversity and to understand ancient and modern geological processes leading to a soil formation. An aging

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES IN THE NEMUNAS RIVER BASIN, LITHUANIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Selected research results from a joint environmental studies project that began in 1988 between Lithuania and the United States of America are presented. hemical and hydrological studies address hazardous chemicals, including trace metals, n surface waters of Lithuania; methods f...

  2. Seasonal patterns of suicides over the period of socio-economic transition in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Kalediene, Ramune; Starkuviene, Skirmante; Petrauskiene, Jadvyga

    2006-01-01

    Background In Lithuania, suicides are a grave public health problem, requiring more extensive investigation. The aim of the study was to assess the seasonal variations of suicides in Lithuania throughout the years 1993–2002, describing patterns by gender, age and method of suicide. Methods The study material consisted of all registered suicides (n = 16,147) committed throughout 1993–2002 in Lithuania. Smoothed trends were inspected. The seasonal effect was explored using monthly ratio statistics and spectral analysis. Results Suicides in Lithuania have a distinct annual rhythm with peaks in summer and troughs in December. The December frequencies fell by more than 23% in men and 30% in women, while June peak reached nearly 23% in men and July peak exceeded 29% in women, compare with the average levels, (p < 0.05). Hanging was the most common method of suicide both in men and women comprising up to 90% among all suicides in 1998–2002. Among different methods, only hanging suicides showed significant seasonal variations, especially in men. The seasonal amplitude has decreased over time. Conclusion Substantial seasonal variations in suicides were associated with a high proportion of hanging. Extremely high suicide rates in Lithuania require further extensive studies and urgent preventive programs, taking into account the suggestions of this survey. PMID:16504069

  3. Artificial radionuclides in the atmosphere over Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Lujaniene, G; Aninkevicius, V; Lujanas, V

    2009-02-01

    Measurements of airborne radioactive aerosol concentration were carried out on the basis of 1-3 days samples after the Chernobyl disaster and during the period of 1992-2003. Transport of "hot" particles of different composition resulted in the high activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (238)Pu, (239,240)Pu and (241)Am in the atmosphere in Vilnius at the end of April 1986. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio showed clear evidence of non-global plutonium originating from the Chernobyl accident in the atmosphere over Lithuania. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio ranged from 0.14 to 0.40 in monthly samples in Vilnius in 1995-2003. An increase in activity concentration of (137)Cs by a factor of 100 (up to 300 microBq/m(3)) was found following forest fires in the Ukraine and Belarus. However, no transport of the Chernobyl plutonium was observed and the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio in samples collected during the forest fires was found to be 0.229 and 0.185, respectively. The exponential decrease in the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio from 0.30 to 0.19 (mean values) was observed in 1995-2003. PMID:17884261

  4. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shewbridge, Claire; Godfrey, Katrina; Hermann, Zoltán; Nusche, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    This report for Lithuania forms part of the OECD Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools. The purpose of the review is to explore how school resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. School resources are understood in a broad…

  5. Emerging Language and Education Policies in Lithuania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle; Ramoniene, Meilute

    2003-01-01

    Describes the development of language policy in Lithuania, with the goal of raising the status of the once-oppressed titular national language without trampling on the rights of linguistic minorities. Lithuanian language and education policies have been successful in promoting social integration while safeguarding cultural and linguistic…

  6. Study of Local Seismic Events in Lithuania and Adjacent Areas Using Data from the PASSEQ Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janutyte, Ilma; Kozlovskaya, Elena; Motuza, Gediminas

    2013-05-01

    The territory of Lithuania and adjacent areas of the East European Craton have always been considered a region of low seismicity. Two recent earthquakes with magnitudes of more than 5 in the Kaliningrad District (Russian Federation) on 21 September 2004 motivated re-evaluation of the seismic hazard in Lithuania and adjacent territories. A new opportunity to study seismicity in the region is provided by the PASSEQ (Pasive Seismic Experiment) project that aimed to study the lithosphere-asthenosphere structure around the Trans-European Suture Zone. Twenty-six seismic stations of the PASSEQ temporary seismic array were installed in the territory of Lithuania. The stations recorded a number of local and regional seismic events originating from Lithuania and adjacent areas. This data can be used to answer the question of whether there exist seismically active tectonic zones in Lithuania that could be potentially hazardous for critical industrial facilities. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to find any natural tectonic seismic events in Lithuania and to obtain more general view of seismicity in the region. In order to do this, we make a manual review of the continuous data recorded by the PASSEQ seismic stations in Lithuania. From the good quality data, we select and relocate 45 local seismic events using the well-known LocSAT and VELEST location algortithms. In order to discriminate between possible natural events, underwater explosions and on-shore blasts, we analyse spatial distribution of epicenters and temporal distribution of origin times and perform both visual analysis of waveforms and spectral analysis of recordings. We show that the relocated seismic events can be grouped into five clusters (groups) according to their epicenter coordinates and origin and that several seismic events might be of tectonic origin. We also show that several events from the off-shore region in the Baltic Sea (at the coasts of the Kaliningrad District of the Russian Federation) are

  7. Distribution and source of (129)I, (239)(,240)Pu, (137)Cs in the environment of Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Ežerinskis, Ž; Hou, X L; Druteikienė, R; Puzas, A; Šapolaitė, J; Gvozdaitė, R; Gudelis, A; Buivydas, Š; Remeikis, V

    2016-01-01

    Fifty five soil samples collected in the Lithuania teritory in 2011 and 2012 were analyzed for (129)I, (137)Cs and Pu isotopes in order to investigate the level and distribution of artificial radioactivity in Lithuania. The activity and atomic ratio of (238)Pu/((239,24)0)Pu, (129)I/(127)I and (131)I/(137)Cs were used to identify the origin of these radionuclides. The (238)Pu/(239+240)Pu and (240)Pu/(239)Pu ratios in the soil samples analyzed varied in the range of 0.02-0.18 and 0.18-0.24, respectively, suggesting the global fallout as the major source of Pu in Lithuania. The values of 10(-9) to 10(-6) for (129)I/(127)I atomic ratio revealed that the source of (129)I in Lithuania is global fallout in most cases though several sampling sites shows a possible impact of reprocessing releases. Estimated (129)I/(131)I ratio in soil samples from the southern part of Lithuania shows negligible input of the Chernobyl fallout. No correlation of the (137)Cs and Pu isotopes with (129)I was observed, indicating their different sources terms. Results demonstrate uneven distribution of these radionuclides in the Lithuanian territory and several sources of contamination i.e. Chernobyl accident, reprocessing releases and global fallout. PMID:26476410

  8. The k -Unanimity Rule for Self-Organized Decision-Making in Swarms of Robots.

    PubMed

    Scheidler, Alexander; Brutschy, Arne; Ferrante, Eliseo; Dorigo, Marco

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a collective decision-making method for swarms of robots. The method enables a robot swarm to select, from a set of possible actions, the one that has the fastest mean execution time. By means of positive feedback the method achieves consensus on the fastest action. The novelty of our method is that it allows robots to collectively find consensus on the fastest action without measuring explicitly the execution times of all available actions. We study two analytical models of the decision-making method in order to understand the dynamics of the consensus formation process. Moreover, we verify the applicability of the method in a real swarm robotics scenario. To this end, we conduct three sets of experiments that show that a robotic swarm can collectively select the shortest of two paths. Finally, we use a Monte Carlo simulation model to study and predict the influence of different parameters on the method. PMID:27093717

  9. Space plant biology research in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Ričkienė, Aurika

    2012-09-01

    In 1957, the Soviet Union launched the first artificial Earth satellite, initiating its space exploration programs. Throughout the rest of the twentieth century, the development of these space programs received special attention from Soviet Union authorities. Scientists from the former Soviet Republics, including Lithuania, participated in these programs. From 1971 to 1990, Lithuanians designed more than 20 experiments on higher plant species during space flight. Some of these experiments had never before been attempted and, therefore, made scientific history. However, the formation and development of space plant biology research in Lithuania or its origins, context of formation, and placement in a worldwide context have not been explored from a historical standpoint. By investigating these topics, this paper seeks to construct an image of the development of a very specific field of science in a small former Soviet republic. PMID:22613222

  10. Introduction of total knee arthroplasty in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Stucinskas, Justinas; Robertsson, Otto; Wingstrand, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose We have previously reported that the first 10 years of hip arthroplasty in Lithuania resulted in a higher cumulative revision rate than that observed in Sweden. We thus compared the corresponding results after introduaction of total knee replacement in Lithuania. Methods The 10-year revision rate for the first 595 primary ScanKnee arthroplasties inserted in Klaipeda, Lithuania, was compared to that for the first 1,280 ScanKnee primary arthroplasties inserted in Sweden. As in the hip replacement study, only patients with osteoarthritis (OA) were included. Primary knee arthroplasties without patellar resurfacing were included, and the endpoint was revision for any reason other than addition of a patellar component. Results We found that the cumulative revision rate was not statistically significantly different between the groups. The revision pattern was different, however, and we observed 24 isolated patellar component additions in Sweden, but none in Klaipeda. Interpretation Contrary to the results of our previous hip arthroplasty study, the cumulative revision rate after total knee arthroplasty was similar in the two groups. This suggests that compared to hip arthroplasty, the outcome of total knee arthroplasty was less dependent on surgical experience. The large difference regarding isolated patellar component additions may be explained by long-term accumulation of severe OA cases in Lithuania. To patients subject to a newly introduced surgical treatment offering great improvement in quality of life, patellofemoral pain may be a minor problem. Furthermore, patellar problems may not have seemed particularly relevant for the surgeons, considering the disability of other patients waiting to be treated. PMID:19297790

  11. A checklist of the centipedes (Chilopoda) of Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Tuf, Ivan Hadrián; Ivinskis, Povilas; Rimšaitė, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Only 4 species of centipedes were previously reported for Lithuania. Here we present current distributional data for a total of 20 species (12 species of Lithobiomorpha and 8 species of Geophilomorpha) collected mainly during 7 years conducting ecological research at Curonian Spit, drawing on samples from the central, eastern and north-western parts of Lithuania. PMID:26701439

  12. A summary of the recommendations adopted unanimously at the Fourth World Conference on Women (4-15 September 1995).

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    This article presents a summary of the platform of action recommendations adopted unanimously at the Fourth World Conference on Women in 1995. The Platform called for the empowerment of women; the protection of human rights and freedoms throughout the life cycle; and equity at home, at work, and abroad, items that reinforced the Beijing Declaration. This article identifies recommended actions on poverty, education and training, health, domestic violence, armed conflict, economy, decision-making, institutional mechanisms, human rights, mass media, environment, the girl-child, and institutional and financial arrangements. The Platform recommends, for example, action to create macroeconomic policies and development strategies that address the needs of women in poverty. It recommends changes in laws and administrative practices to ensure women's equal rights and access to economic resources. It recommends action to ensure equal access to education throughout the life cycle, to eradicate illiteracy among women, to develop nondiscriminatory education and training, and to allocate sufficient resources for educational reform. It recommends action to increase women's access throughout the life cycle to appropriate, affordable, and quality health care, information, and related services. Action should reduce maternal mortality by at least 50% of 1990 levels by the year 2000, and a further 50% by 2015. Legislation must be adopted to end violence against women in peace and wartime. Action must promote women's economic and human rights and women's equal access to and full participation in power structures and government decision-making. PMID:12179429

  13. Cancer mortality differences among urban and rural residents in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Smailyte, Giedre; Kurtinaitis, Juozas

    2008-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to describe and to compare the cancer mortality rates in urban and rural residents in Lithuania. Methods Cancer mortality has been studied using the materials of the Lithuanian cancer registry. For the period 1993–2004 age-standardized urban and rural population mortality rates (World standard) were calculated for all malignant neoplasm's and for stomach, colorectal, lung, prostate, breast and cervical cancers. The annual percentage change (APC) was calculated using log-linear regression model, two-sided Mantel-Haenzel test was used to evaluate differences in cancer mortality among rural and urban populations. Results For males in rural population cancer mortality was higher than in urban (212.2 and 197.0 cases per 100000) and for females cancer mortality was higher in urban population (103.5 and 94.2 cases per 100000, p < 0.05). During the study period the age-standardized mortality rates decreased in both sexes in urban residents. The decreasing mortality trend in urban population was contributed by decline of the rates of lung and stomach cancer in male and breast, stomach and colorectal cancer in female. Mortality rates in both urban and rural population were increasing for prostate and cervical cancers. Conclusion This study shows that large rural and urban inequalities in cancer mortality exist in Lithuania. The contrast between the health of residents in urban and rural areas invites researchers for research projects to develop, implement, and enhance cancer prevention and early detection intervention strategies for rural populations. PMID:18267035

  14. Increasing thyroid cancer incidence in Lithuania in 1978–2003

    PubMed Central

    Smailyte, Giedre; Miseikyte-Kaubriene, Edita; Kurtinaitis, Juozas

    2006-01-01

    Background The aim of this paper is to analyze changes in thyroid cancer incidence trends in Lithuania during the period 1978–2003 using joinpoint regression models, with special attention to the period 1993–2003. Methods The study was based on all cases of thyroid cancer reported to the Lithuanian Cancer Registry between 1978 and 2003. Age group-specific rates and standardized rates were calculated for each gender, using the direct method (world standard population). The joinpoint regression model was used to provide estimated annual percentage change and to detect points in time where significant changes in the trends occur. Results During the study period the age-standardized incidence rates increased in males from 0.7 to 2.5 cases per 100 000 and in females from 1.5 to 11.4 per 100 000. Annual percentage changes during this period in the age-standardized rates were 4.6% and 7.1% for males and females, respectively. Joinpoint analysis showed two time periods with joinpoint in the year 2000. A change in the trend occurred in which a significant increase changed to a dramatic increase in thyroid cancer incidence rates. Papillary carcinoma and stage I thyroid cancer increases over this period were mainly responsible for the pattern of changes in trend in recent years. Conclusion A moderate increase in thyroid cancer incidence has been observed in Lithuania between the years 1978 and 2000. An accelerated increase in thyroid cancer incidence rates took place in the period 2000–2003. It seems that the increase in thyroid cancer incidence can be attributed mainly to the changes in the management of non palpable thyroid nodules with growing applications of ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy in clinical practice. PMID:17156468

  15. The molecular basis of phenylketonuria in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Kasnauskiene, J; Giannattasio, S; Lattanzio, P; Cimbalistiene, L; Kucinskas, V

    2003-04-01

    We report the spectrum of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene mutations in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) residing in Lithuania. A total of 184 independent chromosomes was investigated. R408W mutation was first analysed through restriction enzyme digestion of exon 12. The remaining uncharacterised PKU chromosomes were analysed by scanning the whole coding sequence of PAH gene by multiplex 'broad range' denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Mutations were identified by fluorescent automated sequencing or by restriction enzyme digestion analysis if an abnormal DGGE pattern was recognised. 21 different mutations were identified for 175 PKU chromosomes, with a mutation detection rate of 95%. The most common ones were R408W (73.5% chromosomes) and R158Q (7.0% chromosomes) whereas the remaining mutations appeared to be rare (relative frequencies 0.5%-2%). The high mutation detection rate obtained is an evidence of the efficiency of PAH genetic testing achieved in Lithuania. Moreover, the definition of the PKU mutation profile in the Lithuanian population will allow to perform a genotype-phenotype correlation study thus making feasible genotyped-based prediction of the biochemical phenotype in newborns with hyperphenylalaninemia. This may be useful for refining diagnosis and anticipating dietary requirements. PMID:12655550

  16. Ambient ozone concentration and its impact on forest vegetation in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Girgzdiene, Rasa; Serafinaviciūte, Brigita; Stakenas, Vidas; Bycenkiene, Steigvile

    2009-12-01

    Continuous ozone concentration measurements at rural sites in Lithuania have been performed since 1982. Long-term ozone data show an increasing trend 0.4 ppb y(-1) in annual mean concentrations during the period 1982-2008, although ozone peak values show an insignificant tendency to decrease. Several studies were performed to evaluate the ozone effect on the main plant species of Lithuanian forests. A strong positive correlation was found between values for the accumulated doses over a threshold of 40 ppb index and the defoliation of Fraxinus excelsior trees in Lithuanian forests during 1991-2008. A strong correlation was found between ozone exposure and the proportion of healthy F. excelsior, Betula sp., and Alnus incana, trees indicating that in Lithuania the deciduous species are more sensitive to ozone than conifers and that healthier trees may be better indicators of the changing environment. The results of the studies suggest that the observed levels of ozone are sufficiently high to have negative effects on the vegetation in Lithuania. PMID:20175442

  17. Detection and molecular characterization of canine babesiosis causative agent Babesia canis in the naturally infected dog in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Paulauskas, Algimantas; Radzijevskaja, Jana; Karvelienė, Birutė; Grigonis, Aidas; Aleksandravičienė, Asta; Zamokas, Gintaras; Babickaitė, Lina; Sabūnas, Vytautas; Petkevičius, Saulius

    2014-10-15

    Canine babesiosis caused by Babesia canis is an emerging infectious disease in Europe. Although previously uncommon, canine babesiosis has become quite frequent in Lithuania during the past decade. In the last few years an increasing number of cases with a wide variety of clinical signs have been recorded throughout the country. In Lithuania the identification of the disease agent in veterinarian clinics is based on a microscopic analysis of size and morphology. To date, no data on the genetic characterization of Babesia species in dogs have been documented for Lithuania. A total of 123 blood samples from dogs showing clinical signs of babesiosis on the basis of veterinary examination were tested for the presence of babesial parasites. Babesia isolated from dogs were detected and characterized by nested-PCR and sequence analysis of a fragment of the 18S rRNA gene. Babesia parasites were detected in blood smears of 94 dogs (76.4%). The molecular analysis revealed the presence of B. canis in 108 dogs (87.8%). Two genotypes of B. canis were distinguished on the basis on two nucleotide (GA → AG) substitutions observed in 18S rRNA gene sequences. The results of the present study provide knowledge of the distribution of B. canis genotypes in dogs in Lithuania, and show the necessity to use a molecular analysis for an accurate diagnosis of canine babesiosis. PMID:25257504

  18. Challenges for Lithuania: Ignalina NPP Early Closure

    SciTech Connect

    Teskeviciene, Birute

    2008-01-15

    As a condition of accession into the European Union (EU), Lithuania is committed to the closure and decommissioning of Ignalina NPP comprising two RBMK-1500 reactor units (Fig. 1). It was agreed in a special protocol to the Accession Treaty that, in return for adequate EU financial assistance, Unit 1 would be closed before 2005 and Unit 2 by the end of 2009. The first unit was duly shut down on December 31, 2004. Lithuania, which has borders with Russia (Kaliningrad territory), Poland, Latvia and Belarus, spent fifty years as part of the Soviet Union and was deeply integrated into its economy and electrical infrastructure. At the break-up of the USSR, Lithuania inherited electricity generating capacity designed to supply the north-west region including ownership of Ignalina NPP located in the north-east of the country. Ignalina NPP Unit 1 was commissioned in 1983, Unit 2 in 1987; the planned lifespan of each unit was 30 years. Construction of a third unit was started but never completed. Since Lithuania became independent in 1990, Ignalina NPP has typically contributed more than 70% of national power supply. The town of Visaginas (population approx. 30,000) was purpose built to serve the plant and staff were brought in from throughout the USSR. With 3200 direct employees, Ignalina NPP remains by far the largest employer. Although there are pockets of Russian-language speakers in communities throughout Lithuania, Visaginas is the only example on a whole-town scale. Thus closure of Ignalina NPP within the restricted timescale required by the EU Accession Treaty commitment set an exceptional challenge to Lithuania. However, since the preparatory phase of decommissioning started in 2000, notable progress has been made, experience gained and lessons learnt. At present Unit 1 remains partially fueled in a state of care and maintenance. Partly burnt fuel is being transferred from Unit 1 to Unit 2 for further irradiation in order to minimize the commitment of new fuel

  19. [Lithuania: the need for a better intergovernmental collaboration].

    PubMed

    Caplinskas, S

    1996-01-01

    An interview is presented with Saulius Caplinskas, a virologist serving as director of Lithuania's National Center to Combat AIDS and president of the AIDS Foundation, a nongovernmental organization (NGO). AIDS is viewed principally as a health issue in Lithuania, but other institutions are gradually becoming involved. Dr. Caplinskas simultaneously heads both a governmental and nongovernmental organization because some of the activities developed with risk groups are at the margin of existing laws. The NGO allows the government to be spared direct involvement in actions that the society is not yet ready to accept. Prevention programs are lacking in Lithuania because health education and promotion were a low priority of the former Soviet Union, and discussion of homosexuality, drug addiction, and prostitution was forbidden. Social workers are nonexistent in Lithuania. Government AIDS control programs in the region have been medically oriented. Lithuania's government program has a diagnostic laboratory and a department for medical, social, and psychological support of the seropositive. An AIDS hotline and an IEC section working with the general population, mass media, and specific target groups are other activities. NGOs working in the area of AIDS receive only indirect assistance, such as use of meeting rooms. NGOs are a new development in Lithuania, and the official attitude toward them remains cautious. The first priority of the AIDS program is to increase collaboration between specialists in sexually transmitted diseases, drug use, health education, and other relevant areas. A multisectorial approach should be developed to prepare for collaboration with the NGOs. PMID:12179246

  20. The residential space heating problem in Lithuania

    SciTech Connect

    Kazakevicius, E.; Schipper, L.; Meyers, S.

    1996-02-01

    This report gives preliminary data on housing in Lithuania. We focus on the actual housing structure now that much of the stock has been privatized-an action that carries with it uncertainty regarding who is responsible for heating energy use, who is responsible for conservation measures and retrofitting, and who benefits from these actions. The paper then discusses some of the measures undertaken by both property owners and by governmental agencies to ameliorate poor heating conditions. The report summarizes results from a number of recent studies of the potential for energy savings in heating Lithuanian multifamily buildings. In closing we recommend actions that should be taken soon to ensure that Lithuanian housing moves along a path to greater energy efficiency. Some signals as to where this path should go can be taken from European countries with similar climatic conditions.

  1. Lessons from Lithuania: rethinking public health training.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, L; Dixon, J

    1993-01-01

    Lithuania faces stark problems that are familiar to most countries in the former Soviet Union: high morbidity and mortality rates, pollution, an unstable economy, and rapid changes in the financing and organisation of health care. In this environment Moore and Dixon visited Kaunas Medical Academy to help identify how training in public health medicine could contribute towards improving the health of the population. Although over 200 hours are devoted to public health training for medical undergraduates, teaching is unfocused, fragmented, and includes little epidemiology--the core subject for public health physicians. Teaching is mainly through long lectures with few group discussions. Student participation and motivation are low. As well as recommending redesign of the curriculum, Moore and Dixon suggested training in teaching methods for teachers. They also suggested that postgraduate training in public health should begin and should be targeted at hospital managers, teaching staff, and existing public health physicians. Images p913-a PMID:8490421

  2. Geosites of Lithuania as an environment for dwelling of specific biota: geo- and biodiversity interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skridlaite, Grazina; Motiejunaite, Jurga; Jukoniene, Ilona; Prigodina Lukosiene, Ingrida

    2016-04-01

    Surface of Lithuania and surrounding countries is sculptured by five glaciations, which left behind morainic tills and melt water deposits, modified by erosion and later used for agriculture or overgrown by wild meadows or forests. The glaciations also left numerous erratic boulders and boulder fields that are declared as natural monuments in Lithuania and surrounding countries. Tens of single boulders and boulder fields are included into the Geosites database at the Lithuanian Geological Survey. Though sparse, but of high scientific value, Devonian, Permian, Triassic and Jurassic outcrops and quarries of Lithuania are variably protected. Quaternary scientists attempted to use single erratic boulders, their fields and abundances in tills to imply glacier dynamics. Some erratics came from known localities in Scandinavia and are called indicator boulders because they show the source and directions of ice sheet movements. Huge single boulders (e.g. 7 m long and 6 m high Puntukas, Anyksciai Regional Park) and wild boulder fields are natural monuments and attractive sites for visitors. Outcrops and quarries of Devonian dolomites and gypsium, Permian limestones and Jurassic sandstones widely used for a scientific research are parts of the protected geo-diversity in the Venta and Birzai regional parks, N and NW Lithuania. On the other hand, a large part of the c. 700 species of lichenized and allied fungi and of c. 500 bryophytes known in Lithuania are confined to natural or semi-natural (quarries) rocky habitats. Eight rock-dwelling lichen and nine bryophyte species are included in the Lithuanian Red Data Book, some of them are known from 1-2 localities or are thought to be extinct now. Besides, the recent investigations of dolomite quarries revealed them to be habitats for 7 bryophyte, 8 lichenized and lichenicolous species, previously unknown for Lithuania. One new lichenicolous species was discovered (Khodosovtsev et al., 2012). Some of the newfinds are rare or absent

  3. Adolescent pathological gambling in Kaunas, Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Skokauskas, Norbertas; Satkeviciute, Regina

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the first survey of pathological gambling among adolescents in Kaunas, Lithuania. The results indicated that a large majority of adolescent (82.6%) have engaged in a variety of gambling activities. Although most respondents were classified as "occasional gamblers", there were significantly more females than males who were occasional gamblers and non-gamblers, and significantly more males than females who were regular gamblers. More adolescents surveyed had gambled on Tele-Lotto than on any other gambling activity. Based on Diagnostic statistical manual-IV-Multiple Response-Adapted for Juveniles, 4.2% of participants were categorized as pathological gamblers, with a further 9.1% classified as at-risk gamblers, 69.4% as social gamblers, and 17.3% as non-gamblers. Based on South Oaks Gambling Screen-Revised for Adolescents, 5.2% (n = 43) of participants were categorized as pathological gamblers, with a further 10.5% (n = 88) classified as at-risk gamblers, 67% (n = 559) as social gamblers, and 17.3% (n = 145) as non-gamblers. The commonest reason given by adolescents for gambling were "enjoyment", "a chance to try luck" and "to win money"; however, the top reasons reported for pathological gambling were "to relax", "to distract myself from problems" and "to improve mood". Male gender, cognitive distortions regarding gambling, having parents who gamble and gamble too excess, using alcohol regularly, and smoking regularly were characteristics significantly associated with pathological gambling in adolescence. PMID:17454722

  4. Residential energy use in Lithuania: The prospects for energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.; Kazakevicius, E.

    1998-06-01

    While the potential for saving energy in Lithuania`s residential sector (especially, space heating in apartment buildings) is large, significant barriers (financial, administration, etc.) to energy efficiency remain. Removing or ameliorating these barriers will be difficult since these are systematic barriers that require societal change. Furthermore, solutions to these problems will require the cooperation and, in some cases, active participation of households and homeowner associations. Therefore, prior to proposing and implementing energy-efficiency solutions, one must understand the energy situation from a household perspective.

  5. Chemical composition of oils from recently discovered fields in West Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdanavičiūtė, Onytė; Dakhnova, Marina; Kleinas, Arūnas

    2008-01-01

    Four minor oil discoveries have been made in West Lithuania in recent years. Studies of the oil composition show that its physical and chemical properties (density, viscosity, petrol content, etc.) and the group composition of hydrocarbons (content of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, tars and asphaltenes) mainly depend on the formation conditions and distances of migration between the kitchen and accumulation areas. According to the distribution patterns of n-alkanes and isoprenoids, the examined oils are comparable and generated from sapropel organic matter. There are certain differences in biomarker and carbon isotope data, indicating oil generation from different source rocks containing organic matter of different catagenesis.

  6. National burden of colorectal cancer in Lithuania and the ranking of Lithuania within the 45 European nations

    PubMed Central

    LUNEVICIUS, RAIMUNDAS; POSKUS, TOMAS; SAMALAVICIUS, NARIMANTAS E.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to assess the national burden of colorectal cancer in Lithuania, and to determine the performance of Lithuania for the control of colorectal cancer compared with 45 European nations by ranking. Seven sources of data and information were used. The majority of the findings on disease burden are reported in the present study in the form of the crude and age-standardised incidence, age-specific and age-standardised mortality, disability adjusted life years (DALYs), years lived with disability (YLDs) and years of life lost (YLLs) per 100,000 individuals per year by gender and in the two genders combined between 1990 and 2011. Colorectal cancer was ranked as the 3rd leading cause of disease burden out of all malignancies. Overall, the crude incidence was 35 per 100,000 individuals in 2001 and 51 per 100,000 individuals in 2011 in Lithuania. Incidence and mortality from colorectal cancer varied markedly within Lithuania. The number of DALYs and YLLs slightly declined between 2005 and 2010. YLLs contributed 97% of the total burden due to colorectal cancer in 1990, and 96% in 2010. The mortality rate was 4–5 times higher in males aged 50–54 years than in males aged 45–49. The YLDs per 100,000 individuals per year in Lithuania increased by 61.1% between 1990 and 2010. However, Lithuania was below the average of the Central & Eastern, Southern, Northern and Western regions of Europe. It was concluded that the national colorectal cancer service provision should be amplified and that a programme for the prevention and control of colorectal cancer is required. PMID:26171046

  7. A study of stress affecting police officers in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Zukauskas, Gediminas; Ruksenas, Osvaldas; Burba, Benjaminas; Grigaliuniene, Viktorija; Mitchell, Jeffrey T

    2009-01-01

    This research study aims to identify the key stresses encountered by police officers in Lithuania in 2003. A questionnaire was distributed to officers working in police departments throughout Lithuania. The 2003 results were a compared with a similar study carried out among male and female police officers in Lithuania 1999. The stressors determined to have the greatest negative effects were administrative problems, family problems, and an ineffective criminal justice system. Identified consequences of police stress included depression, alcoholism, physical illness, and suicide. Dealing with stressful situations led to more frequent physical illness in female police officers and higher alcohol consumption in male police officers. This paper confirms the findings of previous studies. It adds to the knowledge of the unique stresses affecting police officers. It briefly explores the consequences of stress in police work. Since the study represents a small sample of the 15,000 police officers in Lithuania, caution is urged in the application of the findings to other police departments. PMID:20524505

  8. Reviews of National Policies for Education: Lithuania. Education and Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Reform of education, training, and human resource development is an integral part of the transition to a democratic society and market economy. The talents, skills, and knowledge base of the Lithuanian population are crucial in this process, motivating the ambitious scale and urgency of the reforms being advanced for education. Lithuania has made…

  9. Transition and the Development of Higher Education Managers in Lithuania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roffe, Ian

    1996-01-01

    Broad contextual and cultural influences of reforms on employment and higher education in Lithuania are examined, effects of this transition on higher education administration are considered, and conditions that would encourage administrators to take an entrepreneurial or proactive approach are discussed. A model for training programs to assist…

  10. OXYGENATED ORGANIC COMPOUND CONCENTRATIONS NEAR A ROADWAY IN LITHUANIA, SSR

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the period June 1 to June 9, 1989, aldehyde and other oxygenated organic compound concentrations were examined at sites 3, 10, and 80 meters northeast of the Vilnius-Kaunas highway in Lithuania, SSR by collecting 120 liter (1 L/min for 120 min) samples on 2,4-dinitrophenyl...

  11. Onshore Wind Farms: Value Creation for Stakeholders in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burinskienė, Marija; Rudzkis, Paulius; Kanopka, Adomas

    With the costs of fossil fuel consistently rising worldwide over the last decade, the development of green technologies has become a major goal in many countries. Therefore the evaluation of wind power projects becomes a very important task. To estimate the value of the technologies based on renewable resources also means taking into consideration social, economic, environmental, and scientific value of such projects. This article deals with economic evaluation of electricity generation costs of onshore wind farms in Lithuania and the key factors that have influence on wind power projects and offer a better understanding of social-economic context behind wind power projects. To achieve these goals, this article makes use of empirical data of Lithuania's wind power farms as well as data about the investment environment of the country.Based on empirical data of wind power parks, the research investigates the average wind farm generation efficiency in Lithuania. Employing statistical methods the return on investments of wind farms in Lithuania is calculated. The value created for every party involved and the total value of the wind farm is estimated according to Stakeholder theory.

  12. Giftedness Perceptions and Practices of Teachers in Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavitt, Monita; Geake, John

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on two of the first studies of post-Soviet reforms of gifted education in Lithuania. After a professional development (PD) programme was provided Lithuanian teachers to help them develop a list of characteristics of gifted children, define giftedness, and design a procedure for gifted identification, two qualitative studies…

  13. Perspectives on Language Attitudes and Use in Lithuania's Multilingual Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle; Ramoniene, Meilute

    2005-01-01

    EU accession negotiations have impacted on and generated ongoing interest in Baltic language and citizenship legislation. There is however no detailed knowledge of prevailing language attitudes amongst mainstream and minority populations in Lithuania. This paper investigates attitudes to minority language use and to the (officially reinstated)…

  14. 3-D crustal velocity model for Lithuania and its application to local event studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budraitis, M.; Kozlovskaya, E.; Janutyte, I.; Motuza, G.

    2009-12-01

    PASSEQ 2006-2008 project (PASsive Seismic Experiment in TESZ) aimed at studying the lithosphere-asthenosphere system around the TransEuropean Suture Zone (TESZ)- the transition between old Proterozoic platform of north and east Europe and younger Phanerozoic platform in central and western Europe. The experiment was a seismic array research aiming to retrieve the structure of the crust and Earth's mantle down to the mantle transition zone, including mapping of upper mantle seismic velocity variations and discontinuities (Moho, lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, mantle transition zone) using all available techniques. During the experiment 26 seismic stations (including four broadband stations) were installed in Lithuania and operated since June, 2006 till January, 2008. One of the main reasons of PASSEQ deployment in Lithuania is identification and characterisation of the local seismic activity. During the data acquisition period a number of local seismic events was identified and preliminary event location was made using LocSat and VELEST algorithms and 1-D velocity models. These standard procedures is not enough precise for Lithuania, however, because the thickness of the crust varies significantly in the region (from 45 to 55 km). Another problem was low quality of S-wave arrivals due to thick (up to 2 km) sediments in most part of Lithuania. In order to improve event location, we compiled a 3-D seismic velocity model of the crust down to a depth of 60 km. The model, consisting of four major layers (sediments, upper crust, middle crust, lower crust and uppermost mantle) was interpolated from 2-D velocity models along previous wide-angle reflection and refraction profiles into a regular grid. The quality of the approximation was analysed using comparison of travel times of P-waves recorded by controlled source experiments and calculated travel times through the 3-D velocity model. The model was converted into a density model using a special procedure, in which

  15. [Comparative study of quality of life in patients with psoriasis from Lithuania and Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Chernyshov, P V; Bylaĭte, M

    2010-01-01

    Lithuania and Ukraine have different models of national health care. We decided to determine whether difference in health care systems influence quality of life (QoL) of psoriasis patients from Lithuania and Ukraine. Lithuanian and Ukrainian versions of the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and Skindex-16 were used. 157 Lithuanian and 136 Ukrainian in-patients with chronic plaque psoriasis were invited to complete questionnaires. The distribution of each separate item according its influence on QoL was the same for Lithuanian and Ukrainian psoriatic patients. Lithuanian patients had higher overall mean score for the DLQI (P<0.05) and Skindex-16 (P<0.001). Significantly higher number of Ukrainian psoriatic patients showed no or small effect on their life (P<0.001) and significantly higher number of Lithuanian psoriatic patients had very large or extremely large effect on their life according to the DLQI (P<0.05). The number of psoriatic patients with a moderate effect on their life according to the DLQI did not differ significantly between patients from both countries. We found almost equal distribution of QoL domains assessed by Lithuanian and Ukrainian psoriatic patients. Differences in QoL assessment by Lithuanian and Ukrainian psoriatic patients may be attributed to peculiarities of health care systems and cross-cultural inequivalence. PMID:21714295

  16. Study on Customer Satisfaction with Facilities Management Services in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepkova, Natalija; Žūkaitė-Jefimovienė, Giedrė

    2012-12-01

    The article introduces the concept and content of facilities management (FM) services. The paper presents the concept of customer satisfaction and discusses the key factors which influence the opinions of customers and their satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the services provided. The article presents two studies: a brief survey of several FM service providers and a survey of customer satisfaction with FM services in Lithuania. The conclusions are given at the end of the article.

  17. Comparisons organized by Ionizing Radiation Metrology Laboratory of FTMC, Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Gudelis, A; Gorina, I

    2016-03-01

    The newly established Ionizing Radiation Metrology Laboratory of the National Metrology Institute (FTMC) in Lithuania organized four comparisons in the field of low-level radioactivity measurements in water. For gamma-ray emitters, the activity concentration in the samples was in the range 1-25Bq/kg, while for tritium it was around 2Bq/g. The assigned values of all comparisons were traceable to the primary standards of the Czech Metrology Institute (CMI). PMID:26585643

  18. Malacofauna of Holocene freshwater calcareous deposits of Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanko, Aleksander; Vainorius, Julius; Melešytė, Monika

    2010-12-01

    The malacofauna of freshwater calcareous deposits of Lithuania was studied. Sections of the Mūšos Tyrelis and Pabaliai peatbogs near the town of Šiauliai, as well as Dubičiai section (three sites) in SE Lithuania and Dūkštos in Central Lithuania were investigated. Freshwater calcareous deposits are attributed to three groups of facies - lacustrine, valley-hollow-peatbog and terrestrial. Each group of facies consists of sub-facies (freshwater lime, "gazha" (limno-calcite), peat-tufa, calcareous tufa, "mada") varying the formation conditions, composition and other characteristics. The mollusc fauna in the lacustrine facies group (Mūšos Tyrelis and Pabaliai sections) is represented by lacustrine species containing euryecological freshwater molluscs. Terrestrial and rheophilous species are rare or absent in the lacustrine group. Deposits of valley-hollow-peatbog facies contain shells of euryecological freshwater and lacustrine molluscs together with rheophyl shells, sometimes with abundant terrestrial shells, as was observed in the Dubičiai-4 section. A characteristic feature of the terrestrial facies group deposits is the occurrence of solely terrestrial mollusc shells (Dūkštos section).

  19. Language and Education Orientations in Lithuania: A Cross-Baltic Perspective Post-EU Accession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulajeva, Tatjana; Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an up-to-date overview of language policies and practices in Lithuania, paying particular attention to the latest developments that have taken place in national educational contexts. Against the background of recent sociodemographic changes in the three Baltic republics, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, it analyzes issues…

  20. The Revival of Agrarian Youth Organizations in the Former Soviet Union: Lithuania--One Country's Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, M. Craig; Thuemmel, William L.; Kisieliene, Sonata

    2000-01-01

    Provides an historical sketch of the origin of young farmers' organizations in Lithuania during the 1920s and 1930s and their second beginning since the fall of communism, the demise of the Soviet Union, and the regaining of Lithuania's independence in the 1990s. (Author/JOW)

  1. Clinical presentation of pertussis in fully immunized children in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Narkeviciute, Irena; Kavaliunaite, Ema; Bernatoniene, Genovaite; Eidukevicius, Rimantas

    2005-01-01

    Background In Lithuania, the vaccination coverage against pertussis is high. Nevertheless, there is a significant increase in pertussis cases in fully immunized children. The aim of our study was to determine the frequency of classical symptoms of laboratory confirmed pertussis and describe its epidemiology in children fully vaccinated against pertussis. Methods From May to December 2001, 70 children aged 1 month to 15 years, suffering from prolonged cough were investigated in the Centre of Paediatrics, Vilnius University Children's Hospital. The collected information included personal data, vaccination history, clinical symptoms of the current illness, and treatment before hospitalization. At the admission to the hospital blood samples were taken from all studied children for Bordetella pertussis IgM and IgA. Results A total of 53 (75.7%) of the 70 recruited patients with prolonged cough showed laboratory evidence of pertussis. 32 of them were fully vaccinated with whole cell pertussis vaccine (DTP). The age of fully vaccinated patients varied from 4 to 15 years (average 10.9 ± 3.1; median 11). The time period between the last vaccination dose (fourth) and the clinical manifestation of pertussis was 2.6–13 years (average 8.9 ± 3.0; median 9). More than half of the children before the beginning of pertussis were in contact with persons suffering from long lasting cough illness in the family, school or day-care center. The mean duration from onset of pertussis symptoms until hospitalization was 61.4 ± 68.3 days (range, 7 to 270 days; median 30). For 11 patients who had had two episodes (waves) of coughing, the median duration of cough was 90 days, and for 21 with one episode 30 days (p < 0.0002). Most of the children (84.4%) had paroxysmal cough, 31.3% had post-tussive vomiting, 28.1% typical whoop, and 3.1% apnea. Only 15.6% children had atypical symptoms of pertussis. Conclusion Fully vaccinated children fell ill with pertussis at the median of 11 years old

  2. Duration of unemployment and depression: a cross-sectional survey in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Stankunas, Mindaugas; Kalediene, Ramune; Starkuviene, Skirmante; Kapustinskiene, Violeta

    2006-01-01

    Background In spite of a growing economy, unemployment is still a severe socio-economic problem in Lithuania. Nonetheless, no studies have been performed about the associations between unemployment and mental health in Lithuania. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between unemployment duration and depression in Lithuania. Methods The data was collected in a cross-sectional study in 2005. There were 429 filled-in questionnaires received (53.6% response rate) from unemployed persons registered with the Kaunas Labour Market Office. The severity of depression symptoms was evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Logistic regression was used to estimate the risk factors for occurrence of depression. Sex, age, place of residence, marital status, education, income and practiced religion were the independent variables. Long-term unemployment was defined as lasting a duration of 12 months or more. Results The findings showed that long-term unemployed persons had more episodes of a depressive mood in the past 12 months in comparison with the group of the short-term unemployed. In addition, the BDI score mean was higher among the long-term unemployed compared with the short-term unemployed (10.1 ± 8.8 and 14.2 ± 9.5 respectively, p < 0.001). It was estimated that the duration of unemployment and BDI score had a positive correlation (r = 0.1968, p < 0.001). Among the short-term unemployed, the risk of depression increased significantly when the person was female, had an older age and had experienced more episodes of unemployment. Among the long-term unemployed, an older age was the risk factor for development of depression. However, higher education and income were the factors that significantly decreased the risk of developing depression for-short term as well as for long-term unemployed. Conclusion The results indicated that depression is a severe problem in the unemployed population. Depression is more elevated among the long

  3. Traffic injury mortality trends in children and adolescents in Lithuania among road users.

    PubMed

    Strukcinskiene, Birute; Uğur-Baysal, Serpil; Raistenskis, Juozas

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes traffic mortality trends among road users from 1998 to 2012 in children and adolescents aged 0-19 years in Lithuania. National mortality data of pedestrians, cyclists, motorcyclists, and car occupants were used to compare trend lines. The study revealed that 56% of the deceased in road traffic crashes were car occupants, while 24% were pedestrians. The incidence of death from traffic injury was 2.5 times higher in boys than girls. Traffic injury mortality and pedestrian mortality rates declined significantly in the total group. There was also a significant decline in mortality among cyclists for the total group and female subgroup. Trends in mortality rates among motorcyclists and car occupants showed no significant changes. A long-term decline is more likely to be affected by efforts in the promotion of sustainable and permanent road safety. The reduced risk exposure may also have been influenced by the economic recession. PMID:25341601

  4. Nurses' knowledge and attitudes to HIV/AIDS--an international comparison between Finland, Estonia and Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Suominen, Tarja; Koponen, Niina; Mockiene, Vida; Raid, Ulla; Istomina, Natalja; Vänskä, Maj-Lis; Blek-Vehkaluoto, Mari; Välimäki, Maritta

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents baseline data on nurses' knowledge of and attitudes to HIV/AIDS in three countries: Finland, Estonia and Lithuania. The prevalence of HIV/AIDS is steadily increasing in Finland, Estonia and Lithuania. At the same time, labour mobility and also nursing mobility between these countries increases. Previous international studies have shown that lack of knowledge and negative attitudes continue to exist. A total of 681 registered nurses from one Finnish (n = 322), one Estonian (n = 191) and one Lithuanian (n = 168) hospital were surveyed in spring 2006. The questionnaire was originally developed by Held in 1993 and modified for this study. The questionnaire has three scales: demographic and other background variable, nurses' knowledge related to HIV/AIDS, and nurses' attitudes towards people with HIV/AIDS and towards the disease itself. Across the whole sample respondents showed average levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes towards people with HIV/AIDS. Years of work experience correlated negatively with the knowledge and attitude levels. A significant correlation was found between the level of knowledge and attitudes. Significant differences were found between countries, Finnish nurses showing the highest knowledge levels and most positive attitudes towards patients with HIV/AIDS. Factors positively influencing levels of knowledge and attitudes were education, previous experience of providing care to HIV/AIDS patient or knowing someone with the infection, and willingness to provide care to HIV/AIDS patients. Supplementary education is needed to strengthen nurses' knowledge. It is important to recognize that there might be differences in knowledge and attitudes between neighbour countries. This needs to be taken into account when planning education for degrees and for further nursing education. PMID:20487059

  5. Anti-HCV prevalence in the general population of Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Liakina, Valentina; Valantinas, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of this study was to assess risk factors for HCV acquisition and prevalence of anti-HCV in the general population of Lithuania. Material/Methods The study enrolled 1528 randomly selected adults from the 5 biggest cities of Lithuania and its rural regions. Screening for anti-HCV was performed by analysis of peripheral capillary blood with lateral flow immunochromatography and confirmation of positive cases by peripheral venous blood testing with 2-step chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Results Anti-HCV prevalence in Lithuania is 2.78% and according to the standard European population the adjusted anti-HCV rate is 2.85%. It is more prevalent among men (crude rates: 4.02% males vs. 1.49% females, p=.0030) and this does not depend on age. Vilnius and Kaunas regions have higher infection rates than smaller rural regions (2.92% and 3.01% vs. 2.24%, 0.74% and 1.35%). Nowadays among our population HCV infection spreads mainly via intravenous drug use (OR=42.5, p<.0001). HCV transmission occurs through blood transfusions (OR=6.4, p=.0002), tooth removal (OR=4.1, p=.0048), childbirth (OR=5.0, p=.0224), multiple and a long-term hospitalization (OR=3.0, p=.0064), tattooing (OR=4.4, p=.0013), open traumas (OR=3.7, p=.0009) and intrafamilially (OR=11.3, p=.0002). Conclusions 2.78% of the population is anti-HCV-positive. The anti-HCV rate is higher in Vilnius and Kaunas in comparison with other regions. HCV spreads mainly through intravenous drug use, but intrafamilial and some nosocomial routes are also important. The anti-HCV prevalence did not depend on age. Despite active prevention of nosocomial HCV transmission, the incidence of HCV infection does not decrease due to virus spread mostly in “trusted networks” of intravenous drug users. PMID:22367136

  6. 3-D crustal velocity model for Lithuania and its application to local event studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlovskaya, Elena; Budraitis, Mantas; Janutyte, Ilma; Motuza, Gediminas; Lazauskiene, Jurga; Passeq-Working Group

    2010-05-01

    PASSEQ 2006-2008 project (PASsive Seismic Experiment in TESZ) aimed at studying the lithosphere-asthenosphere system around the TransEuropean Suture Zone (TESZ)- the transition between old Proterozoic platform of north and east Europe and younger Phanerozoic platform in central and western Europe. The experiment was a seismic array research aiming to retrieve the structure of the crust and Earth's mantle down to the mantle transition zone, including mapping of upper mantle seismic velocity variations and discontinuities (Moho, lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, mantle transition zone) using all available techniques. During the experiment 26 seismic stations (including four broadband stations) were installed in Lithuania. One of the main targets of PASSEQ deployment in Lithuania was identification and characterization of the local seismic activity. The PASSEQ stations in Lithuania were in operation since June, 2006 till January, 2008. During this period a number of local seismic events was recorded and preliminary event location was made using the LocSat algorithm and 1-D velocity model. This standard procedure is not enough precise for Lithuania, however, because the thickness of the crust varies significantly in the region (from 45 to 55 km). In order to improve event location, we separated the events into several groups and located each group separately using a VELEST algorithms and own 1-D velocity model for each group. We also compiled a 3-D seismic velocity of the crust down to a depth of 60 km. The model, consisting of four major layers (sediments, upper crust, middle crust, lower crust and uppermost mantle) was interpolated from 2-D velocity models along previous wide-angle reflection and refraction profiles into a regular grid. The quality of the approximation was analysed using comparison of travel times of P-waves recorded along previous controlled source profiles and synthetic travel times calculated using the 3-D velocity model. The model was converted

  7. Health care reform and job satisfaction of primary health care physicians in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Buciuniene, Ilona; Blazeviciene, Aurelija; Bliudziute, Egle

    2005-01-01

    Background The aim of this research paper is to study job satisfaction of physicians and general practitioners at primary health care institutions during the health care reform in Lithuania. Methods Self-administrated anonymous questionnaires were distributed to all physicians and general practitioners (N = 243, response rate – 78.6%), working at Kaunas primary health care level establishments, in October – December 2003. Results 15 men (7.9%) and 176 women (92.1%) participated in the research, among which 133 (69.6%) were GPs and 58 (30.4%) physicians. Respondents claimed to have chosen to become doctors, as other professions were of no interest to them. Total job satisfaction of the respondents was 4.74 point (on a 7 point scale). Besides 75.5% of the respondents said they would not recommend their children to choose a PHC level doctor's profession. The survey also showed that the respondents were most satisfied with the level of autonomy they get at work – 5.28, relationship with colleagues – 5.06, and management quality – 5.04, while compensation (2.09), social status (3.36), and workload (3.93) turned to be causing the highest dissatisfaction among the respondents. The strongest correlation (Spearmen's ratio) was observed between total job satisfaction and such factors as the level of autonomy – 0.566, workload – 0.452, and GP's social status – 0.458. Conclusion Total job satisfaction of doctors working at primary health care establishments in Lithuania is relatively low, and compensation, social status, and workload are among the key factors that condition PHC doctors' dissatisfaction with their job. PMID:15748299

  8. Educational differences in incidence of cancer in Lithuania, 2001-2009: evidence from census-linked cancer registry data.

    PubMed

    Smailyte, Giedre; Jasilionis, Domantas; Vincerzevskiene, Ieva; Krilaviciute, Agne; Ambrozaitiene, Dalia; Stankuniene, Vladislava; Shkolnikov, Vladimir M

    2015-05-01

    This study used population-based census-linked cancer incidence data to identify patterns of educational differentials in the risk of cancer by detailed sites of cancer in Lithuania. The study is based on the linkage between all records of the 2001 population census, all records from the Lithuanian Cancer Registry (cancer incidence), and all death and emigration records from Statistics Lithuania for the period between 6 April 2001 and 31 December 2009. The study population (cohort) includes all permanent residents of Lithuania aged 30-74 years on the day of the census (6 April 2001). The study found that cancers of the lip, mouth, and pharynx, esophagus, stomach, larynx, urinary bladder, pancreas, and lung for men and cancers of the cervix uteri, lung, and colon for women show a statistically significant inverse educational gradient with excess incidence in the lowest educational group. At the same time, a reversed cancer risk gradient with the highest incidence for the higher education group was observed for thyroid cancer, melanoma, nonmelanoma skin cancers, and non-Hodgkin lymphomas. This group also includes prostate cancer, kidney cancer, and multiple myeloma for men and cancer of the pancreas, breast cancer, cancer of the colon, and cancer of the uterus for women. The associations between education and cancer incidence observed in this study reflect the concordance between social status and lifestyle-related risk factors for cancer. Cancer awareness in society has also contributed toward the observed higher risk of cancer, which is usually promoted more by patients with higher education. PMID:24743349

  9. Sedimentary structures from different proglacial glaciofluvial settings in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šinkūnė, E.; Šinkūnas, E.

    2012-04-01

    Proglacial glaciofluvial sedimentation during old continental glaciations created a wide range of landforms. However, proglacial deposit sequences are not always well expressed in form of typical landforms. In that case, and also when we are dealing with buried deposits, we face difficulties to recognise their origin or conditions of sedimentation. Sediment bedding structures vary considerably depending on the sedimentation conditions; consequently, they are most helpful in this case. The sediment bedding structures were studied in number of proglacial sediment sequences of different origin in Lithuania to gain the most characteristic complexes of sedimentary structures from particular conditions of sedimentation. In order to analyse the successions of bedforms created in different settings of proglacial glaciofluvial sedimentation the sedimentary models for particular sites in sandur, meltwater streamway and glaciofluvial delta were built. Trough, tabular and planar cross bedding and climbing-ripple cross-lamination is characteristic of proglacial glaciofluvial sediment sequences. However, distinct complexes of bedding structures were recognised for specific conditions of sedimentation in particular sites. This study was financed by the Research Council of Lithuania (No. LEK- 03/2010).

  10. "The Show"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the state's best…

  11. Conservation of geo- and -biodiversity in Lithuania: are there conflicts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skridlaite, Grazina; Motiejunaite, Jurga

    2014-05-01

    Lithuanian surface is sculptured by more than five glaciers, which retreated c. 10 000 years ago. After the ice sheets melted in Lithuania, Latvia and Poland, and other neighbouring countries, they left numerous erratic boulders and boulder fields. Hundreds of single boulders and boulder fields are declared as natural monuments in Lithuania and other countries and are variably protected. Tens of single boulders and boulder fields are included into the Geosites database at the Lithuanian Geological Survey. Rapid weather changes in Lithuania cause the weathering of erratic boulders. However, the fastest erosion is by overgrowing cryptogams: lichenized and non-lichenized fungi, algae, cyanobacteria and bryophytes. Lichens are among the first colonizers of rock surfaces, and their impact on stonework heritage is rather well documented. Hard rocks (e.g. granites) are weathering considerably slower than soft or relatively soft sandstones, dolomites or marbles; however serious impact is visible on stones with inscriptions, drawings and open surfaces of the protected nature monuments. Lichens gradually cover whole boulder surfaces obscuring their geological value and contributing to the surface weathering in Lithuania and neighbouring countries where numerous protected stony nature monuments occur. The 73 of the 723 species of lichenized and allied fungi in Lithuania are confined to hard acid rocks. Eight of these acid rock-dwelling species are included in the Lithuanian Red Data Book, some of them have high threat category or are thought to be extinct now. There is no conservation conflict between the red-listed saxicolous lichens and their substrate where the species are confined to wild boulder meadows. Here lichens and their boulder substrate suffer from excessive growth and overshadowing from surrounding vascular plants, also from pollution which change stone surface properties and induce encroachment of more aggressive species than the usual slow-growing acid rock

  12. Uncertainty analysis of moderate- versus coarse-scale satellite fire products for quantifying agricultural burning: Implications for Air Quality in European Russia, Belarus, and Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarty, J. L.; Krylov, A.; Prishchepov, A. V.; Banach, D. M.; Potapov, P.; Tyukavina, A.; Rukhovitch, D.; Koroleva, P.; Turubanova, S.; Romanenkov, V.

    2015-12-01

    Cropland and pasture burning are common agricultural management practices that negatively impact air quality at a local and regional scale, including contributing to short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs). This research focuses on both cropland and pasture burning in European Russia, Lithuania, and Belarus. Burned area and fire detections were derived from 500 m and 1 km Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), 30 m Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) data. Carbon, particulate matter, volatile organic carbon (VOCs), and harmful air pollutants (HAPs) emissions were then calculated using MODIS and Landsat-based estimates of fire and land-cover and land-use. Agricultural burning in Belarus, Lithuania, and European Russia showed a strong and consistent seasonal geographic pattern from 2002 to 2012, with the majority of fire detections occurring in March - June and smaller peak in July and August. Over this 11-year period, there was a decrease in both cropland and pasture burning throughout this region. For Smolensk Oblast, a Russian administrative region with comparable agro-environmental conditions to Belarus and Lithuania, a detailed analysis of Landsat-based burned area estimations for croplands and pastures and field data collected in summer 2014 showed that the agricultural burning area can be up to 10 times higher than the 1 km MODIS active fire estimates. In general, European Russia is the main source of agricultural burning emissions compared to Lithuania and Belarus. On average, all cropland burning in European Russia as detected by the MCD45A1 MODIS Burned Area Product emitted 17.66 Gg of PM10 while annual burning of pasture in Smolensk Oblast, Russia as detected by Landsat burn scars emitted 494.85 Gg of PM10, a 96% difference. This highlights that quantifying the contribution of pasture burning and burned area versus cropland burning in agricultural regions is important for accurately

  13. Identification of viral and phytoplasmal agents responsible for diseases affecting plants of Gaillardia Foug. in Lithuania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gaillardia plants exhibiting symptoms characteristic of viral and phytoplasmal diseases were collected at botanical gardens and floriculture farms in Lithuania. Cucumber mosaic virus was isolated from diseased plants exhibiting symptoms characterized stunting, color breaking and malformation of flo...

  14. Modeling of radionuclide releases from the geological repository for RBMK-1500 spent nuclear fuel in crystalline rocks in Lithuania

    SciTech Connect

    Poskas, Povilas; Brazauskaite, Asta

    2007-07-01

    During 2002-2005 the assessment of possibilities for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in Lithuania was performed with support of Swedish experts. Potential geological formations for disposal of SNF were selected, disposal concept was developed, reference disposal site was defined and preliminary generic safety assessment was performed. Performing safety assessment the analysis of radionuclides migration from the repository as well as their impact to human and environment were also very important issues. In this paper results on the analysis of the radionuclide releases from the reference geological repository site for RBMK-1500 SNF in crystalline rocks in Lithuania are presented. For radionuclide migration in the near field region of the repository integrated finite difference method and the concept of compartments were used. For radionuclide migration in the far field the discrete channel network concept was used. The assessment of radionuclide migration in the near and far field region was performed using computer codes AMRER4.5 and CHAN3D. The results of analysis show that most of safety relevant radionuclides of RBMK-1500 SNF are effectively retarded in the near field region. The exposure due to possible release of the radionuclides from the crystalline rocks would be dominated by 1291 firstly while after approx. 250 thousand years {sup 226}Ra is dominating already. (authors)

  15. An Energy Overview of the Republic of Lithuania

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2003-10-20

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Lithuania. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit.

  16. Cenomanian-Coniacian Upper Cretaceous foraminiferal fauna of Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksienė, Agnė

    2010-12-01

    Foraminiferal assemblages form a unique fauna succession from the Cenomanian to Maastrichtian stages in Lithuania; the Cenomanian-Coniacian succession is discussed in this paper. The first Cretaceous planktonic foraminifera species appeared in the Early Cenomanian. The Cenomanian planktonic foraminiferal association consists of the relatively abundant genus Hedbergella. However, Cenomanian planktonic foraminifera are rare compared to benthic; the latter are numerous, and their assemblage contains various calcareous and agglutinated species. As a result of environmental changes, foraminiferal assemblages gradually changed as well. The newly formed deep-water niches in the Turonian allowed spreading the keeled forms of planktonic foraminifera. Taxonomically, Turonian-Coniacian foraminiferal assemblages are mainly composed of species of the following genera: Praeglobotruncana, Helvetoglobotruncana, Dicarinella, Marginotruncana.

  17. Comprehensive BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutational profile in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Janavičius, Ramūnas; Rudaitis, Vilius; Mickys, Ugnius; Elsakov, Pavel; Griškevičius, Laimonas

    2014-05-01

    There is limited knowledge about the BRCA1/2 mutational profile in Lithuania. We aimed to define the full BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutational spectrum and the clinically relevant prevalence of these gene mutations in Lithuania. A data set of 753 unrelated probands, recruited through a clinical setting, was used and consisted of 380 female breast cancer cases, 213 epithelial ovarian cancer cases, 20 breast and ovarian cancer cases, and 140 probands with positive family history of breast or ovarian cancer. A comprehensive mutation analysis of the BRCA1/2 genes by high resolution melting analysis coupled with Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis was performed. Genetic analysis revealed 32 different pathogenic germline BRCA1/2 mutations: 20 in the BRCA1 gene and 12 in the BRCA2 gene, including four different large genomic rearrangements in the BRCA1 gene. In all, 10 novel BRCA1/2 mutations were found. Nine different recurrent BRCA1 mutations and two recurrent BRCA2 mutations were identified, which comprised 90.4% of all BRCA1/2 mutations. BRCA1 exon 1-3 deletion and BRCA2 c.658_659del are reported for the first time as recurrent mutations, pointing to a possible Baltic founder effect. Approximately 7% of breast cancer and 22% of ovarian cancer patients without family history and an estimated 0.5-0.6% of all Lithuanian women were found to be carriers of mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene. PMID:25066507

  18. The Palaeoproterozoic accretionary crustal growth: implications from new age data on the crystalline basement in Lithuania, NW Belarus and N Poland (the East European Craton)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skridlaite, G.; Bogdanova, S.; Taran, L.; Wiszniewska, J.

    2012-04-01

    A southwestward younging of Palaeoproterozoic terranes in the crystalline basement in the western part of the East European Craton has been recently suggested by numerous isotopic datings (TIMS, SIMS zircon, EPMA monazite and 40Ar/39Ar). Along with geochemical and geophysical data this allows to decipher a multistage accretionary history. In the east, the Belarus-Podlasie Granulite belt (BPG) is dominated by 1.88 Ga dioritic-granodioritic (calc-alkaline) magmatism in Belarus (Claesson et al., 2001). Remnants of c. 1.89 Ga metadiorites, c. 1.90 Ga magmatic zircon cores in c. 1.80 Ga granites (Vejelyte, 2011) in S and E Lithuania and 1.88 Ga metagranodiorites in E Poland (Radzyn area) confirm the c. 1.90 Ga accretion-related magmatism in the BPG and the East Lithuanian domain. Together with the coeval juvenile granitoids in the adjacent Okolovo terrane this indicates the formation of the Lithuanian-Belarus composite terrane at 1.90-1.88 Ga. At c. 1.86-1.84 Ga, abundant gabbro-diorite-granodiorite-granite intrusions were emplaced further southwest in Lithuania, NW Belarus and N Poland. In Lithuana, within the Polish-Lithuanian terrane the TTG suite of deformed and metamorphosed in amphibolite facies calc-alkaline tonalitic, quartz dioritic and dioritic rocks is characteristic for the Randamonys massif. The strongly deformed granitoids in the adjacent NW Belarus, mafic granulites and gneissic granites of igneous origin in central Lithuania, garnet-cordierite bearing granites further north display similar c. 1.84 Ga magmatic age (Motuza et al., 2008). This shows that various tectonic settings including island and continental magmatic arcs were possible. They were accreted to the Lithuanian-Belarus terrane sometime at 1.84-1.81 Ga while voluminous charnockitic magmatism took place in W Lithuania (e.g. Claesson et al., 2001; Vejelyte, 2011). A chain of younger c. 1.83 Ga volcanic arcs was developed in W and S Lithuania and N Poland (Wiszniewska et al., 2005). The

  19. Varena suite in the crystalline crust of the Southern Lithuania: implication to the genesis and mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkliauskaite, Vaida; Motuza, Gediminas; Skipityte, Raminta

    2016-04-01

    Keywords: Lithuania, Proterozoic, Varena suite, rare earth elements, metasomatosis. Crystalline crust in Southern Lithuania is covered by 200-500 m thick sedimentary cover and is investigated by potential field mapping and drilling. It is composed by amphibolites (metabasalts), biotite-quartz-plagioclase gneisses (metapsammites and porphyry metadacite and metaandesite) of Orosirian period. Each lithology is predominant in alternating bands extended NNE-SSW. Supracrustals are metamorphosed on the level of amphibolite facies and migmatized. Intrusive rocks are represented by coeval rare bodies of gabbro, peridotite and widespread Calymmian granitic plutons. Varena suite comprises olivine, enstatite, diopside, olivine-magnetite, magnetite, apatite-bearing, and presumably also dolomite rocks. They form integrated bodies few sq. km large, concentrated in the ˜300 km2area extended in N-S direction.Bodies of particular rocks from Varena suite fixed in the boreholes are few tenths up to few hundred meters thick, except apatite-bearing rocks, forming decimeter up to meter scale lenses and veins. Rocks of Varena suite are affected by strong metasomatic alteration. Olivine is substituted by serpentine, and phlogopite, pyroxenes with amphibols (hornblende, actinolite, tremolite, rarely richterite). The country rocks (amphibolites, metaporphyres) also affected by alkaline (mainly sodic) metasomatosis manifested by formation of scapolite, albite, clynopyroxene (often sodic), phlogopite, carbonates. The mineralization of REE (up to 2759-3100 ppm of La and Ce respectively), Th, U, P hosted by monazite, apatite, allanite is spatially related to the Varena suite and some metasomatized supracrustals. The views on the genesis of Varena suite are contradicting. By various authors they are regarded as skarns, presuming metasomatic origin, as layered intrusions or products of alkaline and carbonatitic magmatism. In this presentation the genetic model is reviewed based on

  20. Blood donors' motivation and attitude to non-remunerated blood donation in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Buciuniene, Ilona; Stonienë, Laimutë; Blazeviciene, Aurelija; Kazlauskaite, Ruta; Skudiene, Vida

    2006-01-01

    Background In the Soviet period, the blood donation system operated in Lithuania exclusively on a remunerative basis. After joining the EU, Lithuania committed itself to meeting the EU requirements to provide all consumers within its boundaries with safe blood products made from voluntary unpaid blood donations. However, the introduction of a non-remunerated donation system may considerably affect donors' motivation and retention. Thus the aim of the current research was to determine blood donation motives among the present donors and investigate their attitude towards non-remunerated donation. Methods A questionnaire survey of 400 blood donors. Survey data processed using SPSS statistical analysis package. Statistical data reliability checked using Fisher's exact test (p < 0.05). Results Paid donors comprised 89.9%, while non-paid ones made 10.1% of the respondents. Research findings show that 93 per cent of the paid donors give blood on a regular basis; while among the non-remunerated donors the same figure amounted merely to 20.6 per cent. The idea of the remuneration necessity is supported by 78.3 per cent of the paid donors, while 64.7 per cent of the non-remunerated respondents believe that remuneration is not necessary. The absolute majority of the paid donors (92%) think they should be offered a monetary compensation for blood donation, while more than half of the non-remunerated donors (55.9) claim they would be content with a mere appreciation of the act. Provided no remuneration were offered, 28.44 per cent of the respondents would carry on doing it, 29.6 per cent would do it only in emergency, 29.6 per cent would donate blood merely for their family or friends, and 12.3 per cent would quit it completely. Conclusion Most respondents admitted having donated blood for the following reasons: willingness to help the ill or monetary compensation. Majority would consent to free blood donation only in case of emergency or as a family replacement, which leads to

  1. Molecular identification of Phytoplasmas infecting diseased pine trees in the UNESCO-protected Curonian Spit of Lithuania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although mainly known as pathogens that affect angiosperms, phytoplasmas have recently been detected in diseased coniferous plants. In 2008-2014, we observed, in the Curonian Spit of western Lithuania and in forests of southern Lithuania (Varena district), diseased trees of Scots pine (Pinus sylvest...

  2. Forecasting medical waste generation using short and extra short datasets: Case study of Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Karpušenkaitė, Aistė; Ruzgas, Tomas; Denafas, Gintaras

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the performance of various mathematical modelling methods, while forecasting medical waste generation using Lithuania's annual medical waste data. Only recently has a hazardous waste collection system that includes medical waste been created and therefore the study access to gain large sets of relevant data for its research has been somewhat limited. According to data that was managed to be obtained, it was decided to develop three short and extra short datasets with 20, 10 and 6 observations. Spearman's correlation calculation showed that the influence of independent variables, such as visits at hospitals and other medical institutions, number of children in the region, number of beds in hospital and other medical institutions, average life expectancy and doctor's visits in that region are the most consistent and common in all three datasets. Tests on the performance of artificial neural networks, multiple linear regression, partial least squares, support vector machines and four non-parametric regression methods were conducted on the collected datasets. The best and most promising results were demonstrated by generalised additive (R(2) = 0.90455) in the regional data case, smoothing splines models (R(2) = 0.98584) in the long annual data case and multilayer feedforward artificial neural networks in the short annual data case (R(2) = 0.61103). PMID:26879908

  3. Land use impacts on lake water quality in Alytus region (Lithuania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Laukonis, Rymvidas

    2016-04-01

    Land use has important impacts on soils, surface and ground water quality. Urban agricultural areas are an important source of pollutants, which can reach lakes through surface runoff and underground circulation. Human intervention in the landscape is one of the major causes pollution and land degradation, thus it is very important to understand the impacts of and use on environment and if they have some spatial pattern (Pereira et al., 2013, 2015; Brevik et al., 2016). The identification of the spatial pattern of lakes pollution is in Alytus area (Lithuania) is fundamental, since they provide an important range of ecosystem services to local communities, including food and recreational activities. Thus, the degradation of these environments can induce important economic losses. In this context, it is import to identify the areas with high pollutant accumulation and the environmental and human factors responsible for it. The objective of this work is to study identify the amount of some important nutrients resultant from human activities in lake water quality in Alytus region (Lithuania). Alytus region is located in southern part of Lithuania and has an approximate area of 40 km2. Inside this region we analyzed several water quality parameters of 55 lakes, including, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), suspended materials (SM), water clarity (WC) biochemical oxygen demand (BDO), total phosphorous (TP), total Nitrogen (TN), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), as other environmental variables as altitude, lake maximum deep (MD), lake area and land use according Corine land cover classification (CLC2006). Previous to data analysis, data normality and homogeneity of the variances, was assessed with the Shapiro-wilk and Leven's test, respectively. The majority of the data did not respect the Gaussian distribution and the heteroscedasticity, even after a logarithmic, and box-cox transformation. Thus, in this work we used the logarithmic transformed data to do a principal

  4. Dealing with ethical problems in the healthcare system in Lithuania: achievements and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Bankauskaite, V; Jakusovaite, I

    2006-01-01

    Ethical problems in healthcare in Lithuania are identified, existing mechanisms that deal with them are analysed and policy implications are discussed. At least three groups of ethical problems exist in the Lithuanian healthcare system: problems in the healthcare reform process, in interprofessional interaction and in doctor–patient relationships. During the past 15 years, several diverse legal, political and administrative mechanisms have been implemented in Lithuania to tackle these problems. Despite major achievements, numerous problems persist, implying that the focus should be shifted to different mechanisms and interventions. It is necessary to broaden the conceptual understanding of ethics in healthcare and focus on management ethics to tackle ethical problems in Lithuania or in other countries in transition. PMID:17012499

  5. Awareness and practice of patient's rights law in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Ducinskiene, Danute; Vladickiene, Jurgita; Kalediene, Ramune; Haapala, Irja

    2006-01-01

    Background Patient's rights law is intended to secure good medical practice, but it can also serve to improve understanding between patients and medical staff if both were aware of their rights. Methods Awareness and practice of the new patient's rights law in Lithuanian health care institutions was explored through a survey of 255 medical staff and 451 patients in the four Kaunas city medical units in 2002. Participation rates were 74% and 66%, respectively. Results Majority of the medical staff (85%) and little over one half of the patients (56%) had heard or read about the Law on Patient's Rights (p < 0.001). Only 50% of professionals compared to 69% of patients thought information for patients about diagnosis, treatment results and alternative treatments is necessary (p < 0.001). A clear discrepancy was indicated between physicians informing the patients (80% – 98% of physicians) and patients actually knowing (37% – 54%) their treatment prognosis, disease complications or possible alternative treatment methods. Conclusion These results suggest a need for awareness-raising among patients to improve the practical implementation of the Patient's Rights Law in Lithuania. PMID:16948855

  6. Lung cancer risk among textile workers in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmickiene, Irena; Stukonis, Mecys

    2007-01-01

    Background The textile industry is one of the largest employers in Lithuania. IARC monograph concludes that working in the textile manufacturing industry entails exposures that are possibly carcinogenic to humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate risk of lung cancer incidence in textile industry workers by the type of job and evaluate the relation between occupational textile dusts exposure and lung cancer risk in a cohort. Methods Altogether 14650 textile workers were included in this retrospective study and were followed from 1978 to 2002. Lung cancer risk was analyzed using the standardized incidence ratios (SIR) calculated by the person-years method. The expected number of cases was calculated by indirect methods using Lithuanian incidence rates. Results During the period of 25 years 70 cancer cases for male and 15 for female were identified. The SIR for male was 0.94 (95% CI PI 0.73–1.19), for female 1.36 (95% CI 0.76–2.25). The lung cancer risk for male in the cotton textile production unit was significantly lower after 10 years of employment (SIR = 0.34; 95% CI 0.12–0.73). The lung cancer risk decreased with level of exposure to textile dust (p for trends was <0.05): the SIR for the low, medium, high and very high level of cumulative exposure were 1.91 (95% CI 0.92–3.51), 1.30 (95% CI 0.52–2.69), 0.77 (95% CI 0.21–1.96), and 0.24 (95% CI 0.03–0.86) respectively. Conclusion In our study the exposure to cotton textile dust at workplaces for male is associated with adverse lung cancer risk effects. High level of exposure to cotton dusts appears to be associated with a reduced risk of lung cancer in cotton textile workers. PMID:18021389

  7. Characterization of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated from diseased dogs in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Ruzauskas, M; Couto, N; Pavilonis, A; Klimiene, I; Siugzdiniene, R; Virgailis, M; Vaskeviciute, L; Anskiene, L; Pomba, C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize Staphylococcus pseudintermedius for its antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors with a special focus on methicillin-resistant (MRSP) strains isolated from sick dogs in Lithuania. Clinically sick adult dogs suffering from infections (n=214) and bitches with reproductive disorders (n=36) from kennels were selected for the study. Samples (n=192) from the 250 tested (76.8%) dogs were positive for Staphylococcus spp. Molecular profiling using the species-specific nuc gene identified 51 isolates as S. pseudintermedius (26.6% from a total number of isolated staphylococci) of which 15 isolates were identified as MRSP. Ten MRSP isolates were isolated from bitches with reproductive disorders from two large breeding kennels. Data on susceptibility of S. pseudintermedius to different antimicrobials revealed that all isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, daptomycin and linezolid. Two isolates (3.9%) were resistant to rifampicin. A high resistance was seen towards penicillin G (94.1%), tetracycline (64.7%) and macrolides (68.7%). Resistance to fluoroquinolones ranged from 25.5% (gatifloxacin) to 31.4% (ciprofloxacin). The most prevalent genes encoding resistance included blaZ, aac(6')-Ie-aph(2'')-Ia, mecA, and tet(M). The Luk-I gene encoding a leukotoxin was detected in 29% of the isolates, whereas the siet gene encoding exfoliative toxin was detected in 69% of the S. pseudintermedius isolates. This report of MRSP in companion animals represents a major challenge for veterinarians in terms of antibiotic therapy and is a concern for both animal and public health. PMID:27096782

  8. Re-Learning Higher Education in the Age of Convergence: Example of Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulvydiene, Loreta

    2012-01-01

    Since May of 1999, 46 European countries have been engaged in reconstructing their higher education systems to bring about a greater degree of "convergence," i.e. a move toward common reference points and operating procedures to create a European Higher Education Area. Education has always played an important role in the development of Lithuania,…

  9. Development of Indicators for Educational Planning: Brazil, Cambodia, Estonia, Gambia, Lithuania, Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). International Inst. for Educational Planning.

    This publication presents the outcomes of a distance education course on development and dissemination of indicators used for educational planning. The course took place from November 2000 to February 2001 and was attended by representatives from the ministries of education of Brazil, Cambodia, Estonia, Gambia, Lithuania, and Thailand. The overall…

  10. Evolution of Competence Concept in Lithuania: From VET Reform to Development of National Qualifications System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauzackas, Rimantas; Tutlys, Vidmantas; Spudyte, Irma

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the development of the concept of competence in Lithuania beginning from the period of transition from the Soviet planned economy and post-totalitarian regime to the market economy and democratic society and ending with the designing and implementation of the National Qualifications System and Qualifications…

  11. Gap Year Students in Lithuania: The Value Orientations of Children from Wealthy Social Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonavicius, Vylius; Ozolinciute, Egle

    2015-01-01

    The paper seeks to understand the trajectories of students who defer entry to university. The study was conducted in Lithuania, a former Soviet Union republic. The phenomenon of a "gap year" is usually associated with young people, who decide not to enter higher education schools immediately after receiving secondary education, instead…

  12. On Ideology, Language, and Identity: Language Politics in the Soviet and Post-Soviet Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balockaite, Rasa

    2014-01-01

    The paper illuminates links between state politics and language politics in Lithuania during different historical periods: (a) the thaw period, (b) the stagnation period, (c) the liberalization periods of Soviet socialism, and (d) the two post-Soviet decades characterized by both nationalism and liberalization. Based on analysis of the texts by…

  13. National Testing of Pupils in Europe: Objectives, Organisation and Use of Results. Lithuania 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigeliene, Daiva; Gudynas, Pranas; Ranonyte, Asta; Uginciene, Egle

    2009-01-01

    The guiding principles of assessment policy and practice in Lithuania are described in the Law on Education (2003), General Curriculum and Educational Standards for Pre-school, Primary and Basic education (2003) and General Education Plans (2008-2009) as well as the special policy document on assessment called The Concept of Assessment of Pupils'…

  14. Harmonization of Higher Education System in Lithuania--Prerequisite for Quality Improvement of Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zibeniene, Gintaute; Targamadze, Vilija

    2006-01-01

    The article examines harmonization of higher education as an prerequisite of improvement of study quality in Lithuania. It overviews the development of higher education and criteria of university and higher non-university study programmes. An assumption is made that higher university and higher non-university studies are poorly harmonized and the…

  15. Economic, Educational and Cultural Predictors of Science Learning in Lithuania and Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikk, Jaan

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the research was to assess the economic, educational and cultural predictors of the TIMSS 2003 science test results in Lithuania and Estonia. The data for the research were received from the TIMSS 2003 User Guide for the International Database. The Spearman rank correlation coefficients, calculated on the students' level and the schools…

  16. "Lyderiu Laikas" (Time for Leaders): Lithuania's Response to Changing Leadership and Learning in Their Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Coleen; Blandford, Sonia; Pranckuniene, Egle; Vildziuniene, Marina

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how the Ministry of Education in Lithuania has approached policy change to the leadership of their schools. The aim of the Time for Leaders Project and subsequent policy is to recapture the enthusiasm of teachers and school leaders that had been in evidence immediately after the country regaining independence in 1990. The Time…

  17. Philosophy of Education in Post-Soviet Societies of Eastern Europe: Poland, Lithuania and Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godon, Rafal; Juceviciene, Palmira; Kodelja, Zdenko

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the role of philosophy of education in three post-Soviet societies of Eastern Europe: Poland, Lithuania and Slovenia. The characteristic themes and approaches of philosophical reflection about education in these societies are explored with reference to three periods: the pre-Soviet, Soviet and post-Soviet periods.

  18. Arts and Cultural Education at School in Europe. Lithuania 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siaulytiene, Dalia

    2008-01-01

    Artistic education at general education schools in Lithuania is organised by teaching separate art subjects. Art education based on the integrated approach or project method may be organized at primary school, in grades one to four, according to the individual curriculum prepared by the teacher. Arts subjects included in Lithuanian arts curriculum…

  19. Early Childhood Education and Care in Europe: Tackling Social and Cultural Inequalities. Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seibokiene, Grazina

    2008-01-01

    In Lithuania early childhood education and care embraces children of the age from one to seven and is an integrated part of the education system. According to Lithuanian education classification, it belongs to the zero level of education. Though defined as pre-school education yet this stage is composed of two parts--pre-school education of…

  20. Parenting Dimensions in Relation to Pre-Schoolers' Behaviour Problems in Latvia and Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebre, Sandra B.; Jusiene, Roma; Dapkevice, Egle; Skreitule-Pikse, Inga; Bieliauskaite, Rasa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine associations between parenting and child behaviour problems in two neighbouring countries with subtle, yet apparent cultural differences. Participants were mothers and fathers of preschool-age children from Latvia and Lithuania. Parents completed a measure of child-rearing attitudes and reported on their…

  1. The factors associated to psychosocial stress among general practitioners in Lithuania. Cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Vanagas, Giedrius; Bihari-Axelsson, Susanna

    2005-01-01

    Background There are number of studies showing that general practice is one of the most stressful workplace among health care workers. Since Baltic States regained independence in 1990, the reform of the health care system took place in which new role and more responsibilities were allocated to general practitioners' in Lithuania. This study aimed to explore the psychosocial stress level among Lithuanian general practitioner's and examine the relationship between psychosocial stress and work characteristics. Methods The cross-sectional study of 300 Lithuanian General practitioners. Psychosocial stress was investigated with a questionnaire based on the Reeder scale. Job demands were investigated with the R. Karasek scale. The analysis included descriptive statistics; interrelationship analysis between characteristics and multivariate logistic regression to estimate odds ratios for each of the independent variables in the model. Results Response rate 66% (N = 197). Our study highlighted highest prevalence of psychosocial stress among widowed, single and female general practitioners. Lowest prevalence of psychosocial stress was among males and older age general practitioners. Psychosocial stress occurs when job demands are high and job decision latitude is low (χ2 = 18,9; p < 0,01). The multivariate analysis shows that high job demands (OR 4,128; CI 2,102–8,104; p < 0,001), patient load more than 18 patients per day (OR 5,863; CI 1,549–22,188; p < 0,01) and young age of GP's (OR 6,874; CI 1,292–36,582; p < 0,05) can be assigned as significant predictors for psychosocial stress. Conclusion One half of respondents suffering from work related psychosocial stress. High psychological workload demands combined with low decision latitude has the greatest impact to stress caseness among GP's. High job demands, high patient load and young age of GP's can be assigned as significant predictors of psychosocial stress among GP's. PMID:15946388

  2. Teamwork in primary care: perspectives of general practitioners and community nurses in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A team approach in primary care has proven benefits in achieving better outcomes, reducing health care costs, satisfying patient needs, ensuring continuity of care, increasing job satisfaction among health providers and using human health care resources more efficiently. However, some research indicates constraints in collaboration within primary health care (PHC) teams in Lithuania. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of the phenomenon of teamwork in Lithuania by exploring the experiences of teamwork by general practitioners (GPs) and community nurses (CNs) involved in PHC. Methods Six focus groups were formed with 29 GPs and 27 CNs from the Kaunas Region of Lithuania. Discussions were recorded and transcribed verbatim. A thematic analysis of these data was then performed. Results The analysis of focus group data identified six thematic categories related to teamwork in PHC: the structure of a PHC team, synergy among PHC team members, descriptions of roles and responsibilities of team members, competencies of PHC team members, communications between PHC team members and the organisational background for teamwork. These findings provide the basis for a discussion of a thematic model of teamwork that embraces formal, individual and organisational factors. Conclusions The need for effective teamwork in PHC is an issue receiving broad consensus; however, the process of teambuilding is often taken for granted in the PHC sector in Lithuania. This study suggests that both formal and individual behavioural factors should be targeted when aiming to strengthen PHC teams. Furthermore, this study underscores the need to provide explicit formal descriptions of the roles and responsibilities of PHC team members in Lithuania, which would include establishing clear professional boundaries. The training of team members is an essential component of the teambuilding process, but not sufficient by itself. PMID:23945286

  3. Land use impacts on lake water quality in Alytus region (Lithuania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Laukonis, Rymvidas

    2016-04-01

    Land use has important impacts on soils, surface and ground water quality. Urban agricultural areas are an important source of pollutants, which can reach lakes through surface runoff and underground circulation. Human intervention in the landscape is one of the major causes pollution and land degradation, thus it is very important to understand the impacts of and use on environment and if they have some spatial pattern (Pereira et al., 2013, 2015; Brevik et al., 2016). The identification of the spatial pattern of lakes pollution is in Alytus area (Lithuania) is fundamental, since they provide an important range of ecosystem services to local communities, including food and recreational activities. Thus, the degradation of these environments can induce important economic losses. In this context, it is import to identify the areas with high pollutant accumulation and the environmental and human factors responsible for it. The objective of this work is to study identify the amount of some important nutrients resultant from human activities in lake water quality in Alytus region (Lithuania). Alytus region is located in southern part of Lithuania and has an approximate area of 40 km2. Inside this region we analyzed several water quality parameters of 55 lakes, including, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), suspended materials (SM), water clarity (WC) biochemical oxygen demand (BDO), total phosphorous (TP), total Nitrogen (TN), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), as other environmental variables as altitude, lake maximum deep (MD), lake area and land use according Corine land cover classification (CLC2006). Previous to data analysis, data normality and homogeneity of the variances, was assessed with the Shapiro-wilk and Leven's test, respectively. The majority of the data did not respect the Gaussian distribution and the heteroscedasticity, even after a logarithmic, and box-cox transformation. Thus, in this work we used the logarithmic transformed data to do a principal

  4. Nurses' and nursing students' perceptions of sexual risk behavior: a study in Finland, Estonia, and Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Suominen, Tarja; Koponen, Niina; Mockiene, Vida; Staniuliene, Vida; Istomina, Natalja; Aro, Ilme; Kisper-Hint, Ima-Riina; Raid, Ulla; Vänskä, Maj-Lis; Välimäki, Maritta

    2008-10-01

    The continuing escalation of the global HIV/AIDS epidemic has changed our perceptions of sexual health. This article reports on a study of nurses' and nursing students' perceptions of sexual risk behaviour in Finland, Estonia and Lithuania and of how these perceptions are associated with background variables. Questionnaire data were collected in year 2006 with a modified version of Chng and Moore's Safer Sex Scale (1993), which consists of 12 background questions and 10 items exploring nurses' and nursing students' perceptions of sexual risk behaviour. Responses were obtained from 1152 nurses and nursing students. Their perceptions of sexual risk behaviour appeared to be quite cautious. The results revealed statistically significant country differences, with Finnish and Estonian respondents showing more cautious perceptions of sexual risk behavior than Lithuanian respondents. Some background variables were found to be associated with perceptions of sexual risk behavior. Nurses' perceptions differed from those of nursing students: the latter were less cautious in their perceptions. The most important background factor was previous experience of nursing an HIV/AIDS patient: nurses and students who had such experience reported more cautious perceptions than those who did not. In addition, age was found to correlate with perceptions of sexual risk behavior. Nurses and nursing students need to be more aware of their own perceptions of sexual risk behavior and the impact of those perceptions on their clinical practice. Interventions need to be developed in order to promote safer sex practices. Health care personnel should have the opportunity in their training to work with HIV/AIDS patients. PMID:18847386

  5. The hill forts and castle mounds in Lithuania: interaction between geodiversity and human-shaped landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skridlaite, Grazina; Guobyte, Rimante; Satkunas, Jonas

    2015-04-01

    Lithuania is famous for its abundant, picturesque hill forts and castle mounds of natural origin. In Lithuania as well as in whole Europe the fortified hills were used as the society dwelling place since the beginning of the Late Bronze Age. Their importance increased when Livonian and Teutonic Orders directed a series of military campaigns against Lithuania with the aim of expansion of Christianity in the region at the end of 1st millennium AD, and they were intensively used till the beginning of the 15th c. when most of them were burned down during fights with the Orders or just abandoned due to the changing political and economical situation. What types of the geodiversity were used for fortified dwellings? The choice in a particular area depended on a variety of geomorphology left behind the retreating ice sheets. High spots dominating their surroundings were of prime interest. In E and SE Lithuania, the Baltic Upland hills marking the eastern margin of the last Weichselian glacier hosted numerous fortified settlements from the end of 2nd millennium BC to the Medieval Ages (Narkunai, Velikuskes etc). In W Lithuania, plateau-like hills of the insular Samogitian Upland had been repeatedly fortified from the beginning of 1st millennium AD to the 14th century (Satrija, Medvegalis etc). Chains of hill forts and castle mounds feature the slopes of glaciofluvial valleys of Nemunas, Neris and other rivers where the slopes were dissected by affluent rivulets and ravines and transformed into isolated, well protected hills (Kernave, Punia, Veliuona etc). Peninsulas and headlands formed by the erosion of fluvial and lacustrine deposits were used in the lowlands, e.g. in central and N Lithuania (Paberze, Mezotne etc). How much the landscape was modified for defense purposes? Long-term erosion and overgrowing vegetation damaged the former fortified sites, however some remains and the archeological excavations allowed their reconstruction. The fortified Bronze Age settlements

  6. Trends and Social Differences in Alcohol Consumption during the Postcommunist Transition in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Klumbiene, Jurate; Kalasauskas, Darius; Petkeviciene, Janina; Veryga, Aurelijus; Sakyte, Edita

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the trends and social differences in consumption of various types of alcoholic beverages in Lithuania over the postcommunist transition period (1994–2010). The data were obtained from nine nationally representative postal surveys of Lithuanian population aged 20–64 conducted every second year (n = 17154). Prevalence of regular (at least once a week) consumption of beer, wine, or strong alcoholic beverages and the amount of alcohol consumed per week were examined. Regular beer drinking as well as the amounts consumed increased considerably in both genders. The increase in regular consumption of strong alcohol was found among women. Sociodemographic patterning of regular alcohol drinking was more evident in women than in men. In women, young age and high education were associated with frequent regular drinking of wine and beer. Social differences in regular alcohol drinking should be considered in further development of national alcohol control policy in Lithuania. PMID:22629164

  7. Tuberculosis infection control in health facilities in Lithuania: lessons learnt from a capacity support project

    PubMed Central

    Ljungqvist, I.; Davidavičiene, E.; Mikaityte, J.; van der Werf, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) infection control (IC) is key in controlling TB transmission in health facilities in Lithuania. This article presents a project that aimed at supporting health care facilities in Lithuania in implementing TB-IC. The project consisted of 1) facility TB-IC assessments, 2) development of facility TB-IC plans, 3) TB-IC training and 4) site visits. We assessed the impact of these activities through a self-assessment questionnaire. The project resulted in limited improvements. Most progress was seen in administrative and managerial activities. Possible reasons for the limited improvements are challenges with funding and the lack of supportive legislation and a national TB-IC plan. PMID:27051607

  8. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Lithuania - Still a long way ahead.

    PubMed

    Musteikienė, Greta; Miliauskas, Skaidrius; Sakalauskas, Raimundas; Vitkauskienė, Astra; Žemaitis, Marius

    2016-01-01

    Despite the recent advances in the diagnosis of tuberculosis, treatment of the disease, for the most part, remains the same as it was half a century ago. In recent years only two new anti-tuberculosis drugs have been approved by the European Medicines Agency and Food and Drug Administration. Though the prevalence of this disease is slowly decreasing all over Europe, new challenges appear. One of them is multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). This problem is especially prominent in Lithuania, which is one of the 27 high MDR-TB burden countries in the world and falls behind neighboring countries in terms of the prevalence of the disease. The objective of this paper was to review the situation of tuberculosis and MDR-TB in Lithuania, and current available methods of treatment, control and diagnosis of this disease. PMID:27170479

  9. Tuberculosis infection control in health facilities in Lithuania: lessons learnt from a capacity support project.

    PubMed

    Turusbekova, N; Ljungqvist, I; Davidavičiene, E; Mikaityte, J; van der Werf, M J

    2016-03-21

    Tuberculosis (TB) infection control (IC) is key in controlling TB transmission in health facilities in Lithuania. This article presents a project that aimed at supporting health care facilities in Lithuania in implementing TB-IC. The project consisted of 1) facility TB-IC assessments, 2) development of facility TB-IC plans, 3) TB-IC training and 4) site visits. We assessed the impact of these activities through a self-assessment questionnaire. The project resulted in limited improvements. Most progress was seen in administrative and managerial activities. Possible reasons for the limited improvements are challenges with funding and the lack of supportive legislation and a national TB-IC plan. PMID:27051607

  10. Trends and social differences in alcohol consumption during the postcommunist transition in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Klumbiene, Jurate; Kalasauskas, Darius; Petkeviciene, Janina; Veryga, Aurelijus; Sakyte, Edita

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the trends and social differences in consumption of various types of alcoholic beverages in Lithuania over the postcommunist transition period (1994-2010). The data were obtained from nine nationally representative postal surveys of Lithuanian population aged 20-64 conducted every second year (n = 17154). Prevalence of regular (at least once a week) consumption of beer, wine, or strong alcoholic beverages and the amount of alcohol consumed per week were examined. Regular beer drinking as well as the amounts consumed increased considerably in both genders. The increase in regular consumption of strong alcohol was found among women. Sociodemographic patterning of regular alcohol drinking was more evident in women than in men. In women, young age and high education were associated with frequent regular drinking of wine and beer. Social differences in regular alcohol drinking should be considered in further development of national alcohol control policy in Lithuania. PMID:22629164

  11. Teaching ethics in a Masters Program in Public Health in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Jakusovaite, Irayda; Bankauskaite, Vaida

    2007-01-01

    This article aims to present 10 years of experience of teaching ethics in a Masters Program in Public Health in Lithuania, and to discuss the content, skills, teaching approach and tools of this programme. In addition, the article analyses the links between ethics and law, identifies the challenges of the teaching process and suggests future teaching strategies. The important role of teaching ethics in countries that are in transition owing to a radically changing value system is emphasised. PMID:17601872

  12. Optimisation of X-ray examinations in Lithuania: start of implementation in mammography.

    PubMed

    Adliene, Diana; Adlys, Gediminas; Cerapaite, Reda; Jonaitiene, Egle; Cibulskaite, Inga

    2005-01-01

    Optimisation of medical X-ray examinations is very important for the enhancement of the reliability of the examination and for the reduction of the radiation dose to patients. Results of investigations of doses to patients during mammography using thermoluminescence dosemeters at different hospitals are presented together with a brief overview of the situation for mammography in Lithuania. It is shown that the entrance surface air kerma varies in a broad range and differed from hospital to hospital. Nevertheless the calculated values of average glandular dose (AGD) for a 'standard' breast being relatively high were comparable with those (3.2 mGy per exposure at net optical density 1.4) currently accepted by international authorities. Differences in AGD values evaluated at different hospitals demonstrate the existing potential for optimisation of the mammography screening procedures. The results of this investigation will be included in a database for patient doses in Lithuania and used for establishing a national reference dose level for mammography. Currently, reference levels recommended by international authorities are used in Lithuania. PMID:15933145

  13. Molecular epidemiology of Trichinella spp. in three Baltic countries: Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia.

    PubMed

    Malakauskas, A; Paulauskas, V; Järvis, T; Keidans, P; Eddi, C; Kapel, C M O

    2007-03-01

    Meat of domestic pigs and wild boars has been the significant source of emerged human trichinellosis in Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia over the past two decades. However, there is very little known on the occurrence of Trichinella spp. in main wildlife reservoirs and its transmission in domestic and sylvatic cycles in these countries. The present study demonstrated considerably higher endemicity of Trichinella spp. in main sylvatic reservoirs (28.9-42% in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in all three countries than previously reported. Molecular identification of Trichinella larvae from more than 500 sylvatic and domestic animals revealed four Trichinella species (Trichinella spiralis, Trichinella britovi, Trichinella nativa, and Trichinella pseudospiralis) sympatric in a relatively small area and several as the first records for the respective countries. The nonencapsulating T. pseudospiralis is found for the first time in the Eastern Europe. Sylvatic T. britovi was found in domestic pigs in Lithuania and Latvia (16 and 57.1%, respectively) and only in these countries, domestic T. spiralis was detected in sylvatic animals in areas where domestic trichinellosis was registered. The study suggests that transmission of Trichinella between domestic and sylvatic cycles in Lithuania and Latvia is favored by improper human behavior, e.g., pig and slaughter waste management. PMID:17013647

  14. Renal Anemia Control in Lithuania: Influence of Local Conditions and Local Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Kuzminskis, Vytautas; Vaiciuniene, Ruta; Stankuviene, Asta; Bumblyte, Inga Arune

    2013-01-01

    Erythropoietin stimulating agents had a long haul in Lithuania—we had no epoetin till 1994 and there was no intravenous iron in 2001–2004. The aim of this study was to assess the changes of renal anemia control in hemodialysis patients from early independence of Lithuania till nowadays and to evaluate the link of anemia with hospitalization rates and survival and hemoglobin variability in association with mortality. In December of each year since 1996 all hemodialysis centers have been visited and data has been collected using special questionnaires. The history of renal anemia control in Lithuania was complicated; however, a significant improvement was achieved: 54.7% of hemodialysis patients reached the target hemoglobin; all patients have a possibility of treatment with epoetin and intravenous iron. The involuntary experiment with an intravenous iron occurred in Lithuania because of economic reasons and confirmed the significant role of intravenous iron in the management of renal anemia. Hemoglobin below 100 g/L was associated with a 2.5-fold increase in relative risk of death and 1.7-fold increase in relative risk of hospitalization in Lithuanian hemodialysis patients. Although hemoglobin variability was common in Lithuanian hemodialysis patients, we did not find the association between hemoglobin variability and all-cause mortality in our study. PMID:24367239

  15. Fleas (Siphonaptera) in the Nests of Dormice (Gliridae: Rodentia) in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Lipatova, I; Stanko, M; Paulauskas, A; Spakovaite, S; Gedminas, V

    2015-05-01

    Negative effects of flea (Siphonaptera) parasitism on the host may be expressed in different ways. The aim of this study was to assess distribution of the flea fauna in nests of dormice in Lithuania. Nests of Glis glis (L.), Dryomys nitedula (Pallas), and Muscardinus avellanarius (L.) were collected from nest boxes in 2012 and 2013. Fleas were collected from nests in the laboratory and put into plastic tubes with 70% ethanol. Flea species were identified using morphological keys. From 400 nest boxes, 112 nests of dormice were collected from eight sites from mixed forests of central Lithuania. Twenty-three nests of G. glis were collected from nest boxes, with 16 of them containing 286 fleas belonging to four species: Ceratophyllus sciurorum (Schrank) (259), C. gallinae (Schrank) (23), Hystrichopsylla talpae (Curtis) (3), and Megabothris turbidus (Rothschild) (1). Fourteen nests of M. avellanarius were collected from nest boxes, 4 of which contained 224 fleas belonging to two species: C. sciurorum (221) and C. gallinae (3). Twenty-four nests of D. nitedula were collected from nest boxes, including 17 containing 207 fleas belonging to two species: C. sciurorum (205) and C. gallinae (2). Fifty-one nests of undetermined dormice species also were collected from nest boxes, 12 of them contained 395 fleas belonging to three species: C. sciurorum (374), Ctenophthalmus agyrtes (Heller) (19), and Ctenophthalmus assimilis (Taschenberg) (2). C. sciurorum was a predominant species in the nests of dormice. The occurrence of C. gallinae was documented in Lithuania for the first time. PMID:26334823

  16. Isotope geochemistry and modelling of the multi-aquifer system in the eastern part of Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokrik, Robert; Juodkazis, Vytautas; Štuopis, Anicetas; Mažeika, Jonas

    2014-06-01

    A steady-state groundwater flow model of three Quaternary intertill aquifers in the eastern part of Lithuania has been compiled. The distinction of separate modelled layers is based on hydraulic and isotope-hydrochemistry data criteria. 3H data were used to estimate the corrected groundwater age and were coupled with a groundwater-flow-dynamics model of the Quaternary aquifer system along a cross-section flow pathway from the Baltic Upland recharge area in eastern Lithuania towards the discharge area in the lowlands near the city of Kaunas in central Lithuania. The bicarbonate content in groundwater (214-462 mg/l) increases downgradient towards the lowland area. The other major constituents and total dissolved solids (TDS) have a trend analogous to the bicarbonate. The 14C activity of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the groundwater ranges from 41.4 to 85.7 pMC. With aquifer-system depth, active precipitation of aqueous solution takes place by dissolving minerals of calcite and dolomite and leakage of "old" groundwater from lower aquifers; the process is also traced by lower 14C and 3H activities and by more positive δ18O values in lowland areas.

  17. [Water treatment systems of hemodialysis centers in Lithuania and trace metals in purified water in 2002].

    PubMed

    Skarupskiene, Inga; Kuzminskis, Vytautas; Abdrachmanovas, Olegas; Ryselis, Stanislovas; Smalinskiene, Alina; Naginiene, Rima

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this survey was to obtain information on hemodialysis chemical water quality and on water treatment systems of hemodialysis centers in Lithuania. Five trace metals (Al, Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu) were examined in the purified water (sample from a point after the water treatment system) of 28 hemodialysis centers. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was applied to measure water trace metals levels. All hemodialysis centers in Lithuania used treated water. Softeners were used by 100%, reverse osmosis by 86.2% of the centers. Concomitant use of sand filter, softeners, activated carbon, reverse osmosis was found in 72.4% of the centers. The age of the water treatment system varied from 1 to 117 months (mean=39.7+/-30.4). Concentrations of Al, Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu in the purified water of 28 hemodialysis centers did not exceed standards of the European Pharmacopoeia. There was significant decrease in the mean levels of investigated trace elements in the treated water in Lithuania in 2002 compared with examined in 1998. PMID:12761429

  18. Raccoon dog rabies surveillance and post-vaccination monitoring in Lithuania 2006 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Oral rabies vaccination (ORV) in rabies infected regions should target the primary rabies vector species, which in Lithuania includes raccoon dogs as well as red foxes. Specific investigations on ORV in raccoon dogs are needed e.g. evaluation of vaccine effectiveness under field conditions. The objective of the current study was to investigate the efficacy of the ORV programme 2006-2010 in Lithuania by examining the number of rabies cases and estimating the prevalences of a tetracycline biomarker (TTC) and rabies virus antibodies in raccoon dogs. Methods From 2006 to 2010, 12.5 million rabies vaccine-baits were distributed by aircraft. Baiting occurred twice per year (spring and autumn), targeting raccoon dogs and red foxes in a 63,000 km2 area of Lithuania. The mandibles of raccoon dogs found dead or killed in the vaccination area were analyzed by fluorescence microscopy for the presence of the TTC. Rabies virus sera neutralizing anti-glycoprotein antibody titres were determined using an indirect ELISA method and seroconversion (> 0.5 EU/ml) rates were estimated. Results During the study period, 51.5% of raccoon dog mandibles were positive for TTC. 1688 of 3260 tested adults and 69 of 175 tested cubs were TTC positive. Forty-seven percent of raccoon dog serum samples were positive for rabies virus antibodies. 302 of 621 investigated adults and 33 of 95 investigated cubs were seropositive. In the same time 302 of 684 and 43 of 124 tested samples were TTC and ELISA positive in spring; whereas 1455 of 2751 and 292 of 592 tested samples were TTC and ELISA positive in autumn. There was a positive correlation between the number of TTC and antibody positive animals for both adult and cub groups. Conclusions ORV was effective in reducing the prevalence of rabies in the raccoon dog population in Lithuania. The prevalence of rabies cases in raccoon dogs in Lithuania decreased from 60.7% in 2006-2007 to 6.5% in 2009-2010. PMID:22085767

  19. Advocating for Children and Families in an Emerging Democracy: The Post-Soviet Experience in Lithuania. A Volume in Research in Global Child Advocacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kugelmass, Judy W., Ed.; Ritchie, Dennis J., Ed.

    The articles in this collection seek to provide a unique and important description about the transition of society in Lithuania and offer insights about how to approach advocacy for children to create opportunities to fulfill their potential. Following the introduction, articles in the collection are: (1) "The Emerging Democracy of Lithuania: A…

  20. Social Network Structure and HIV Infection Among Injecting Drug Users in Lithuania: Gatekeepers as Bridges of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Caplinskiene, Irma; Caplinskas, Saulius; Latkin, Carl A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess—while controlling for individual risk characteristics—how certain social network structural characteristics (degree, eigenvector, and betweenness centrality) are related to HIV infections. Injecting drug users (N = 299) in Vilnius, Lithuania were recruited using incentivized chain referral sampling for a cross-sectional study. Sociometric social links were established between participants, and UCINET was used to calculate network measures. HIV prevalence was 10 %, and all except two knew they were infected. Of the five variables that remained significant in the final multivariate model, one showed temporal cumulative infection risk (more years since first drug injecting), three reflected informed altruism (always using condoms, less distributive syringe sharing and having not more than one sex partner), and one pointed to the importance of social network structure (betweenness centrality, indicating bridge populations). Loess regression indicates that betweenness may have the highest impact on HIV prevalence (about 60 vs. 20 % estimated HIV prevalence for the highest betweenness centrality values vs. highest age values). This analysis contributes to existing evidence showing both potential informed altruism (or maybe social desirability bias) in connection with HIV infection, and a link between HIV infection risk and the role of bridges within the social network of injecting drug user populations. These findings suggest the importance of harm reduction activities, including confidential testing and counseling, and of social network interventions. PMID:24469223

  1. Social network structure and HIV infection among injecting drug users in Lithuania: gatekeepers as bridges of infection.

    PubMed

    Gyarmathy, V Anna; Caplinskiene, Irma; Caplinskas, Saulius; Latkin, Carl A

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to assess-while controlling for individual risk characteristics-how certain social network structural characteristics (degree, eigenvector, and betweenness centrality) are related to HIV infections. Injecting drug users (N = 299) in Vilnius, Lithuania were recruited using incentivized chain referral sampling for a cross-sectional study. Sociometric social links were established between participants, and UCINET was used to calculate network measures. HIV prevalence was 10 %, and all except two knew they were infected. Of the five variables that remained significant in the final multivariate model, one showed temporal cumulative infection risk (more years since first drug injecting), three reflected informed altruism (always using condoms, less distributive syringe sharing and having not more than one sex partner), and one pointed to the importance of social network structure (betweenness centrality, indicating bridge populations). Loess regression indicates that betweenness may have the highest impact on HIV prevalence (about 60 vs. 20 % estimated HIV prevalence for the highest betweenness centrality values vs. highest age values). This analysis contributes to existing evidence showing both potential informed altruism (or maybe social desirability bias) in connection with HIV infection, and a link between HIV infection risk and the role of bridges within the social network of injecting drug user populations. These findings suggest the importance of harm reduction activities, including confidential testing and counseling, and of social network interventions. PMID:24469223

  2. Characterization of aerosol particles at the forested site in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimselyte, I.; Garbaras, A.; Kvietkus, K.; Remeikis, V.

    2009-04-01

    monitoring station (55˚ 26'26"N; 26˚ 03'60"E) in the eastern part of Lithuania in the Aukštaitija national park during 2-24 July, 2008. The Rugšteliškis station is located in a remote relatively clean forested area. An aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), developed at Aerodyne Research, was used to obtain real-time quantitative information on particle size-resolved mass loadings for volatile and semi-volatile chemical components present in/on ambient aerosol. The AMS inlet system allows 100 % transmission efficiency for particles with size diameter between 60 to 600 nm and partial transmission down to 20 nm and up to 2000 nm. The aerosol sampling was also carried out using a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) model 110. The flow rate was 30 l/min, and the 50% aerodynamic cutoff diameters of the 10 stages were 18, 10, 5.6, 3.2, 1.8, 1.0, 0.56, 0.32, 0.18, 0.10 and 0.056 m. Aluminum foil was used as the impaction surface. The aerosol samples were analyzed for total carbon using the elemental analyzer (Flash EA1112). Besides, samples were analyzed for ^13C/12C ratio by the isotopic ratio mass spectrometer (Thermo Finnigan Delta Plus Advantage) (Norman et al., 1999; Garbaras et al., 2008). During campaign the dynamic behavior of aerosols was measured and quantitatively compared with meteorological conditions and air mass transport. The submicron aerosol was predominately sulphate and organic material. The AMS was able to discriminate and quantify mixed organic/inorganic accumulation mode particles (300 - 400 nm), which appeared to be dominated by regional sources and were of the origin similar to those seen in the more remote areas. The particulate organic fraction was also investigated in detail using the mass spectral data. By combining the organic matter size distribution (measured with AMS) with the total carbon (TC) size distribution (measured with MOUDI) we were able to report organic carbon to total carbon (OC/TC) ratio in different size particles

  3. Characterization of aerosol particles at the forested site in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimselyte, I.; Garbaras, A.; Kvietkus, K.; Remeikis, V.

    2009-04-01

    monitoring station (55˚ 26'26"N; 26˚ 03'60"E) in the eastern part of Lithuania in the Aukštaitija national park during 2-24 July, 2008. The Rugšteliškis station is located in a remote relatively clean forested area. An aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), developed at Aerodyne Research, was used to obtain real-time quantitative information on particle size-resolved mass loadings for volatile and semi-volatile chemical components present in/on ambient aerosol. The AMS inlet system allows 100 % transmission efficiency for particles with size diameter between 60 to 600 nm and partial transmission down to 20 nm and up to 2000 nm. The aerosol sampling was also carried out using a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) model 110. The flow rate was 30 l/min, and the 50% aerodynamic cutoff diameters of the 10 stages were 18, 10, 5.6, 3.2, 1.8, 1.0, 0.56, 0.32, 0.18, 0.10 and 0.056 m. Aluminum foil was used as the impaction surface. The aerosol samples were analyzed for total carbon using the elemental analyzer (Flash EA1112). Besides, samples were analyzed for ^13C/12C ratio by the isotopic ratio mass spectrometer (Thermo Finnigan Delta Plus Advantage) (Norman et al., 1999; Garbaras et al., 2008). During campaign the dynamic behavior of aerosols was measured and quantitatively compared with meteorological conditions and air mass transport. The submicron aerosol was predominately sulphate and organic material. The AMS was able to discriminate and quantify mixed organic/inorganic accumulation mode particles (300 - 400 nm), which appeared to be dominated by regional sources and were of the origin similar to those seen in the more remote areas. The particulate organic fraction was also investigated in detail using the mass spectral data. By combining the organic matter size distribution (measured with AMS) with the total carbon (TC) size distribution (measured with MOUDI) we were able to report organic carbon to total carbon (OC/TC) ratio in different size particles

  4. Prevalence, quantitative load and genetic diversity of Campylobacter spp. in dairy cattle herds in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Campylobacteriosis is a zoonotic disease, and animals such as poultry, pigs and cattle may act as reservoirs for Campylobacter spp. Cattle shed Campylobacter spp. into the environment and they can act as a reservoir for human infection directly via contact with cattle or their faeces or indirectly by consumption of contaminated food. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, the quantitative load and the genetic strain diversity of Campylobacter spp. in dairy cattle of different age groups. Results Faecal samples of 200 dairy cattle from three farms in the central part of Lithuania were collected and examined for Campylobacter. Cattle herds of all three farms were Campylobacter spp. positive, with a prevalence ranging from 75% (farm I), 77.5% (farm II) to 83.3% (farm III). Overall, the highest prevalence was detected in calves (86.5%) and heifers (86.2%). In contrast, the lowest Campylobacter prevalence was detectable in dairy cows (60.6%). C. jejuni, C. coli, C. lari and C. fetus subsp. fetus were identified in faecal samples of dairy cattle. C. upsaliensis was not detectable in any sample. The high counts of Campylobacter spp. were observed in faecal material of dairy cattle (average 4.5 log10 cfu/g). The highest numbers of Campylobacter spp. were found in faecal samples from calves (average 5.3 log10 cfu/g), whereas, faecal samples from cows harboured the lowest number of Campylobacter spp. (average 3.7 log10 cfu/g). Genotyping by flaA PCR-RFLP analysis of selected C. jejuni isolates showed that some genotypes were present in all farms and all age groups. However, farm or age specific genotypes were also identified. Conclusions Future studies are needed to investigate risk factors related to the degree of colonisation in cattle. Based on that, possible measures to reduce the colonisation and subsequent shedding of Campylobacter in cattle could be established. It is important to further investigate the epidemiology of Campylobacter in the

  5. NGMSElect™ and Investigator(®) Argus X-12 analysis in population samples from Albania, Iraq, Lithuania, Slovenia, and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, L; Tomas, C; Drobnič, K; Ivanova, V; Mogensen, H S; Kondili, A; Miniati, P; Bunokiene, D; Jankauskiene, J; Pereira, V; Morling, N

    2016-05-01

    The analysis of STRs is the main tool when studying genetic diversity in populations or when addressing individual identification in forensic casework. Population data are needed to establish reference databases that can be used in the forensic context. To that end, this work investigated five population samples from Albania, Iraq, Lithuania, Slovenia, and Turkey. Individuals were typed for 16 autosomal STRs and 12 X-chromosomal STRs using the NGMSElect™ and Investigator(®) Argus X-12 kits, respectively. The aim of the study was to characterize the diversity of both STR kits in these population samples and to expand our forensic database. The results showed that all markers were polymorphic in the five populations studied. No haplotype was shared between the males analysed for X-STRs. No statistically significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed for any of the genetic markers included in both the kits. Pairwise LD was only detected in X-STRs between markers located in the same linkage group. Power of discrimination values for males and females and the probability of exclusion in duos and trios were high for the populations in this study. PMID:26894835

  6. A shortened and deformed humerus from early modern Lithuania (16th/17th century A.D.) : an unusual case of amputation in childhood?

    PubMed Central

    TEEGEN, WOLF-RÜDIGER; SCHULTZ, MICHAEL; JANKAUSKAS, RIMANTAS

    1997-01-01

    During archaeological excavations in the early modern cemetery in Kernavé, Lithuania, a complete skeleton of a presumed adult male individual was found (grave 108). This skeleton showed a short right humerus and missing radius, ulna and hand. Other parts of the skeleton appeared to be normal, characteristic of a robust constitution. The skeletal material was analysed by macroscopic and radiological techniques. Sex and age were determined following the suggestions of the European Association of Anthropologists (Ferembach et al. 1980), measurements were recorded according to Martin (1928) and Bräuer (1988), and the pathological alterations according to Schultz (1988). The robustness and the measurements indicate a male individual, whose age was put at 40–45 y using the combined method (cf. Ferembach et al. 1980; Szilvássy, 1988) of cranial suture closure, spongiosa structure of the proximal humerus and femur and structure of the pubic symphysis. Skeletal elements analysed included both humeri, clavicles and scapulae. PMID:9419007

  7. [WILD MAMMALS OF THE GRAND DUCHY OF LITHUANIA IN THE WORKS OF JEAN-EMMANUEL GILIBERT].

    PubMed

    Samojlik, Tomasz; Daszkiewicz, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Among the many topics of lively scientific work that Jean Emmanuel Gilibert (1741-1814) conducted in Grodno and Vilnius, an important place is occupied by his observations of wild mammals. Royal patronage and care from Antoni Tyzenhauz, Treasurer of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the governor of Grodno, allowed Gilibert to keep and observe wild fauna captured by royal services in royal forests, including Białowieża Primeval Forest. Such was an origin of a female bison kept by Gilibert in Grodno. Its description, published in Indagatores naturae in Lithuania (Vilnius 1781) for decades became the primary source of information about the behaviour, food preferences and the anatomy of European bison. European science has just begun to take interest in European bison, therefore Gilibert's account entered scientific circulation by way of French natural history encyclopaedias (mainly Georges Buffon's Histoire naturelle) and works by Georges Cuvier or Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. Apart from the description of European bison, Gilibert left an entire series of observations of wild mammals inhabiting the forests of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. His accounts of moose were important in building a knowledge base for this species. In the first half of the 18th century, moose was known mainly from fantastic descriptions in Renaissance works and from prescriptions devoted to using moose hoof as the epilepsy treatment. Gilibert's observations helped to overthrow such superstitions. Similarly, Gilibert's first-hand information verified the widespread legends concerning brown bear (e.g. the belief that white bears, belonging to other species than polar bears, occur in Lithuania) . List of species kept and thoroughly watched by the scholar is much longer and includes lynx, wolf (and hybrids of wolves and dogs), beaver, badger, fox, hedgehog, and even white mouse. Also his comments on the species of mammals then absent in Lithuania but known either from farming or from the fur

  8. Public Knowledge, Beliefs and Behavior on Antibiotic Use and Self-Medication in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Pavydė, Eglė; Veikutis, Vincentas; Mačiulienė, Asta; Mačiulis, Vytautas; Petrikonis, Kęstutis; Stankevičius, Edgaras

    2015-06-01

    Irrational antibiotic use has led society to antibiotic resistance-a serious health problem worldwide. This study aimed to assess public knowledge, beliefs, and behavior concerning antibiotic use and self-medication in Lithuania. The cross-sectional survey method was processed using a validated questionnaire in different regions of Lithuania. In total, 1005 adults completed the questionnaire and were included in the study. More than half of the respondents (61.1%) had poor knowledge of antibiotics. Almost half of the respondents incorrectly identified antibiotics as being effective either against viral (26.0%) or mixed (bacterial and viral) infections (21.7%). The respondents with lower educational qualifications (OR = 2.515; 95% CI 1.464-4.319; p = 0.001) and those from rural areas (OR = 1.765; 95% CI 1.041-2.991; p = 0.035) were significantly less knowledgeable of antibiotics. There was no significant difference between genders, different age groups, or different parenthood status. The determined level of self-medication with antibiotics was 31.0%. The men (OR = 1.650; 95% CI 1.120-2.430; p = 0.011), the respondents from rural areas (OR = 2.002; 95% CI 1.343-2.985; p = 0.001), and those without children (OR = 2.428; 95% CI 1.477-3.991; p < 0.001) were more likely to use antibiotics in self-medication. Lithuanian residents' knowledge of antibiotics is insufficient. More information about antibiotic use should be provided by physicians and pharmacists. Self-medication with antibiotics is a serious problem in Lithuania and requires considerable attention. PMID:26090612

  9. Initial results of the National Colorectal Cancer Screening Program in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Poskus, Tomas; Strupas, Kestutis; Mikalauskas, Saulius; Bitinaitė, Dominyka; Kavaliauskas, Augustas; Samalavicius, Narimantas E; Saladzinskas, Zilvinas

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to review the National Colorectal Cancer Screening Program (the Program) in Lithuania according to the criteria set by the European Union. In Lithuania, screening services are provided free of charge to the population. The National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF) reimburses the institutions for performing each service; each procedure within the Program has its own administrative code. All the information about the performance of the Program is collected in one institution - the NHIF. The results of the Program were retrieved from the database of NHIF from the start of the Program from 1 July 2009 to 1 July 2012. Descriptive analysis of epidemiological indicators was carried out. Results were compared with the references in the guidelines of the European Union for quality assurance in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and diagnosis. Information service [which involves fecal immunochemical test (FIT)] was provided to 271,396 of 890,309 50-74-year-old residents. The screening uptake was 46.0% over 3 years. During this period, 19,455 (7.2%) FITs were positive and 251,941 (92.8%) FITs were negative. Referral for colonoscopy was performed in 10,190 (52.4%) patients. Colonoscopy was performed in 12,864 (66.1%) patients. Colonoscopy did not indicate any pathological findings in 8613 (67.0%) patients. Biopsies were performed in 4251 (33.0%) patients. The rate of high-grade neoplasia reported by pathologists was 3.9%; the rate of cancer was 3.1% of all colonoscopies. The rate of CRC detected by the Program was 0.2%. The CRC screening program in Lithuania meets most of the requirements for standardized CRC screening programs. The invitation coverage and rate of referral for colonoscopy after positive FIT should be improved. PMID:25370682

  10. The results of nucleic acid testing in remunerated and non-remunerated blood donors in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Kalibatas, Vytenis; Kalibatienė, Lina

    2014-01-01

    Background In Lithuania, governmentally covered remuneration for whole blood donations prevails. Donors may choose to accept or reject the remuneration. The purpose of this study was to compare the rate of nucleic acid testing (NAT) discriminatory-positive markers for human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in seronegative, first-time and repeat, remunerated and non-remunerated donations at the National Blood Centre in Lithuania during the period from 2005 to 2010. Materials and methods All seronegative whole blood and blood component donations were individually analysed by NAT for HIV-1, HBV and HCV. Only discriminatory-positive NAT were classified. The prevalence of discriminatory-positive NAT per 100,000 donations in the donor groups and the odds ratios comparing the remunerated and non-remunerated donations were determined. Results Significant differences were observed for HBV NAT results: 47.42 and 26.29 per 100,000 remunerated first-time and repeat donations, respectively, compared to 10.6 and 3.58 per 100,000 non-remunerated first-time and repeat, seronegative donations, respectively. The differences were also significant for HCV NAT results: 47.42 and 51.99 for remunerated first-time and repeat donations, respectively, compared to 2.12 and 0 per 100,000 non-remunerated first-time and repeat, seronegative donations, respectively. No seronegative, discriminatory-positive NAT HIV case was found. The odds of discriminatory HBV and HCV NAT positive results were statistically significantly higher for both first-time and repeat remunerated donations compared to first-time and repeat non-remunerated donations. Discussion First-time and repeat remunerated seronegative donations were associated with a statistically significantly higher prevalence and odds for discriminatory-positive HBV and HCV NAT results compared to first-time and repeat non-remunerated donations at the National Blood Centre in Lithuania. PMID

  11. Public Knowledge, Beliefs and Behavior on Antibiotic Use and Self-Medication in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Pavydė, Eglė; Veikutis, Vincentas; Mačiulienė, Asta; Mačiulis, Vytautas; Petrikonis, Kęstutis; Stankevičius, Edgaras

    2015-01-01

    Irrational antibiotic use has led society to antibiotic resistance—a serious health problem worldwide. This study aimed to assess public knowledge, beliefs, and behavior concerning antibiotic use and self-medication in Lithuania. The cross-sectional survey method was processed using a validated questionnaire in different regions of Lithuania. In total, 1005 adults completed the questionnaire and were included in the study. More than half of the respondents (61.1%) had poor knowledge of antibiotics. Almost half of the respondents incorrectly identified antibiotics as being effective either against viral (26.0%) or mixed (bacterial and viral) infections (21.7%). The respondents with lower educational qualifications (OR = 2.515; 95% CI 1.464–4.319; p = 0.001) and those from rural areas (OR = 1.765; 95% CI 1.041–2.991; p = 0.035) were significantly less knowledgeable of antibiotics. There was no significant difference between genders, different age groups, or different parenthood status. The determined level of self–medication with antibiotics was 31.0%. The men (OR = 1.650; 95% CI 1.120–2.430; p = 0.011), the respondents from rural areas (OR = 2.002; 95% CI 1.343–2.985; p = 0.001), and those without children (OR = 2.428; 95% CI 1.477–3.991; p < 0.001) were more likely to use antibiotics in self-medication. Lithuanian residents’ knowledge of antibiotics is insufficient. More information about antibiotic use should be provided by physicians and pharmacists. Self-medication with antibiotics is a serious problem in Lithuania and requires considerable attention. PMID:26090612

  12. Rhipidocotyle fennica (Digenea: Bucephalidae) from Anodonta anatina and pike Esox lucius in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Stunžėnas, Virmantas; Petkevičiūtė, Romualda; Stanevičiūtė, Gražina; Binkienė, Rasa

    2014-10-01

    Ribosomal DNA sequences of Rhipidocotyle sp. adults from Esox lucius were shown to be identical to sequences of larval Rhipidocotyle fennica, occurring in Anodonta anatina in Lake Vilkokšnis, Lithuania. Morphological features and host specificity of this adult worm correspond with that, determinate in the first description of R. fennica in Finland. These data give the first evidence that a viable population of R. fennica exists in east central Europe. Bucephalus polymorphus which was reported in unionids in all previous publications is probably R. fennica. PMID:25190013

  13. The emigration potential of Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland and Russia: recent survey results.

    PubMed

    Brym, R J

    1992-12-01

    The author reviews recent evidence concerning the emigration potential of Russia and Eastern Europe, using data from a 1991 survey of 4,269 respondents. "It is demonstrated that the proportion of adults wishing to emigrate from each of these countries in February 1991 varied from a low of 2 per cent in Lithuania to a high of 13 per cent in Poland. Total emigration potential from the region is estimated to have been between 10.2 and 16.7 million....A multiple regression analysis indicates that age and pessimism concerning democracy are the main factors that were independently associated with desire to emigrate." PMID:12179890

  14. Hot spot analysis applied to identify ecosystem services potential in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Depellegrin, Daniel; Misiune, Ieva

    2016-04-01

    Hot spot analysis are very useful to identify areas with similar characteristics. This is important for a sustainable use of the territory, since we can identify areas that need to be protected, or restored. This is a great advantage in terms of land use planning and management, since we can allocate resources, reduce the economical costs and do a better intervention in the landscape. Ecosystem services (ES) are different according land use. Since landscape is very heterogeneous, it is of major importance understand their spatial pattern and where are located the areas that provide better ES and the others that provide less services. The objective of this work is to use hot-spot analysis to identify areas with the most valuable ES in Lithuania. CORINE land-cover (CLC) of 2006 was used as the main spatial information. This classification uses a grid of 100 m resolution and extracted a total of 31 land use types. ES ranking was carried out based on expert knowledge. They were asked to evaluate the ES potential of each different CLC from 0 (no potential) to 5 (very high potential). Hot spot analysis were evaluated using the Getis-ord test, which identifies cluster analysis available in ArcGIS toolbox. This tool identifies areas with significantly high low values and significant high values at a p level of 0.05. In this work we used hot spot analysis to assess the distribution of providing, regulating cultural and total (sum of the previous 3) ES. The Z value calculated from Getis-ord was used to statistical analysis to access the clusters of providing, regulating cultural and total ES. ES with high Z value show that they have a high number of cluster areas with high potential of ES. The results showed that the Z-score was significantly different among services (Kruskal Wallis ANOVA =834. 607, p<0.001). The Z score of providing services (0.096±2.239) were significantly higher than the total (0.093±2.045), cultural (0.080±1.979) and regulating (0.076±1.961). These

  15. "Profits to the Danes, for Us--Hog Stench?" The Campaign against Danish Swine CAFOs in Rural Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juska, Arunas

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzes a grass-roots campaign to limit the expansion of Danish-owned industrial hog operator Saerimner in Lithuania. The industrialization of livestock production as well as local responses to the restructuring of meat production are interpreted within the broader context of the incorporation of peripheral regions into global agro-food…

  16. Prevalence and genetic diversity of enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. in pigs at farms and slaughter in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Novoslavskij, Aleksandr; Šernienė, Loreta; Malakauskas, Alvydas; Laukkanen-Ninios, Riikka; Korkeala, Hannu; Malakauskas, Mindaugas

    2013-04-01

    The prevalence of enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. in pigs at farms and slaughter in relation to potential farming risk factors in Lithuania was examined. Pig faeces and carcase swab samples from 11 farms were studied at slaughterhouses. Nine of the 11 farms were visited again 3-5 months later, and pooled feacal samples and environmental samples were collected. Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica was found in 64% and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in 45% of the sampled pig farms. All obtained isolates belonged to bioserotypes 4/O:3 and 2/O:3, respectively. Low biosecurity level was associated with a high prevalence of Y. enterocolitica on farms. Characterization with PFGE of 64 Y. enterocolitica and 27 Y. pseudotuberculosis isolates revealed seven and two different genotypes, respectively. Dominant enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. genotypes were obtained in both pig feacal and carcase samples. The high contamination of pig carcases (25%) with enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. may be an important factor contributing to the high incidence of human yersiniosis in Lithuania. PMID:23102547

  17. Occupational characteristics of respiratory cancer patients exposed to asbestos in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everatt, R. Petrauskaitdot e.; Smolianskiedot n, G.; Tossavainen, A.; Cicdot enas, S.; Jankauskas, R.

    2009-02-01

    Objective: To assess characteristics of asbestos exposure in respiratory cancer patients in Lithuania. Methods. Information on occupational exposure to asbestos was collected by personal interviews and occupational characteristics were evaluated among 183 lung cancer and mesothelioma patients with cumulative asbestos exposure >=0.01 fibre years hospitalized at the Institute of Oncology, Vilnius. Additionally, some results of workplace air measurements were reviewed. Results. Cases with estimated cumulative exposure >=5 fibre years had worked mainly in the construction industry (49%), installation and maintenance (13%), foundry and metal products manufacturing (6%), heating trades and boilerhouses (6%) as fitters/maintenance technicians, construction workers, welders, electricians or foremen. Typical asbestos materials used by the patients were asbestos powder, asbestos cement sheets and pipes, asbestos cord, brake and clutch linings. Patients were exposed to asbestos when insulating boilers, furnaces, pipes in power stations, industrial facilities, ships, locomotives, buildings, while covering and repairing roofs, at the asbestos cement plant or unloading asbestos products. Most patients with estimated cumulative exposure of >=0.01-4.9 fibre years worked as lorry, bus or tractor drivers and motor vehicle mechanics. In 2002-2007 workplace air asbestos concentrations exceeded the limit value of 0.1 f/cm3 in 11 samples out of 208 measurements. Conclusion. The results of this study indicate that since the 1960s occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos was extensive in Lithuania.

  18. Few associations of candidate genes with nonsyndromic orofacial clefts in the population of Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Morkūniené, Ausra; Steponaviciūt, Danguole; Utkus, Algirdas; Kucinskas, Vaidutis

    2007-01-01

    Nonsyndromic orofacial clefting (NS-OFC) is a common complex multifactorial trait with a considerable genetic component and a number of candidate genes suggested by various approaches. Twenty biallelic and microsatellite DNA markers in the strong candidate loci TGFA, TGFB3, GABRB3, RARA, and BCL3 were analysed for allelic association with the NS-OFC phenotype in 112 nuclear families (proband + both parents) from Lithuania by using the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT). Associations were found between the TGFA gene marker rs2166975 and nonsyndromic cleft palate only (CPO) phenotype (p = 0.045, df 1) as well as between the D2S292 marker and the cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/CP) phenotype in allele-wise TDT (P = 0.005, df 9) and genotype-wise TDT (P = 0.021, df 24). A weak association (P = 0.085, df 3) of the BCL3 marker (BCL3 gene) with the risk of CPO was also found. Thus our initial results support the contribution of allelic variation in the TGFA locus to the aetiology of CL/CP in the population of Lithuania but they do not point to TGFA as a major causal gene. Different roles of the TGFA and BCL3 genes in the susceptibility to NS-OFC phenotypes are suggested. PMID:17272867

  19. Immunity from diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, measles, mumps and rubella among adults in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Rix, B A; Zhobakas, A; Wachmann, C H; Bakasenas, V; Rønne, T

    1994-01-01

    Health authorities have estimated a low immunity level against diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, measles, mumps and rubella among adults in Lithuania due to less than optimal vaccine quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of immunity by blood sampling 100 young women, 50 young men and 50 middle-aged men and from the immunization history by questionnaire. Lack of protection against diphtheria was found in 0%, 2% and 46% of the young women, young men and middle-aged men respectively. The corresponding data for tetanus were 0%, 0% and 10%. It was found that 85% of the women had antibodies to all 3 types of polioviruses vs. 80% of the young men and 56% of the middle-aged men. A sub-protective antibody level against measles was found in 12% of the women, 22% of the young men, but in none of the middle-aged men. A protective titre of rubella antibodies was found among 94% of the young, pregnant women. It can be concluded that the level of immunity in Lithuania is comparable to that in Western Europe for the same age groups and that the launching of adult vaccination programs in Eastern Europe should be preceded by sero-epidemiological studies. PMID:7984979

  20. Postgraduate Cancer Education and Training in Lithuania: Harmonization According to the EU Rules.

    PubMed

    Samalavicius, Narimantas Evaldas; Mineikyte, Ramune; Janulionis, Ernestas; Liutkeviciute-Navickiene, Jurgita; Atkocius, Vydmantas

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss Lithuanian postgraduate cancer education according to the data of 2013. In Lithuania, a specialization in an area called clinical oncology is absent; as independent specialities in oncology, there are both medical oncologists and radiation oncologists. These types of oncologists complete rigorous residency training in the clinics. Separate courses are provided in different residency programmes. Currently, there are two medical oncology and radiation oncology programmes for 3rd-, 4th- and 5th-year residents, one at the National Cancer Institute and another at the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences and Kaunas Clinics. Today, there are only 45 radiation oncologists and 56 medical oncologists licensed in Lithuania. This means that each radiation oncologist and medical oncologist is providing for 397 and 319 new cancer cases per year, respectively, or there are 0.3 practising in the major specialties of oncology per 10,000 population. Most other medical residency programmes expose their trainees to oncology for only 1 month either in the 1st or the 2nd year of residency. Due to the growing number of new cancer cases worldwide, these programmes have to be extended, especially for family and internal medicine residents. Lithuanian postgraduate cancer education and training is in the process of harmonization according to the EU rules. All the Lithuanian residency programmes are certificated by an independent public agency and are recognized by a number of countries, including all the countries of the EU. PMID:25263627

  1. Gravity change from repeated absolute measurements in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania 1994-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkinen, J.; Bilker-Koivula, M.; Falk, R.; Gitlein, O.; Kaminskis, J.; Lapushka, K.; Oja, T.; Paršeliunas, E.; Petroškevičius, P.; Timmen, L.

    2009-04-01

    Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania belong to the margin of the Fennoscandian postglacial rebound (PGR) area. Vertical rates predicted by PGR models are in the range 0 to +3 mm/yr. Our first absolute gravity campaigns in the area were performed with the JILAg-5 gravimeter in 1994-1995 when three stations were measured in each country. All three stations in Lithuania were repeated with the JILAg-5 in 2002 and one of them (Vilnius) with the FG5#221 gravimeter in 2007. In Latvia one station (Riga) was remeasured with the FG5#101 and FG5#107 (D. Stizza, NIMA) in 1986 and with the FG5#221 in 2007. In Estonia two of the stations (Suurupi and Töravere) were remeasured with the FG5#220 in 2007 and with the FG5#221 in 2008, the third (Kuressaare) was only remeasured in 2008 with the FG5#221. This amounts to seven repeated stations with time spans of 8-13 years. In interpreting gravity change, special attention must be paid to subsurface water storage, as (due to inaccessibility of crystalline bedrock) many stations are on thick sediments, the repeat measurements were partly made in different seasons, and in some cases there is evidence of strong interannual variation in hydrology. We discuss the constraints to PGR implied by the observed gravity change and compare it with PGR models and with available observations of vertical motion.

  2. Spatial probability of soil water repellency in an abandoned agricultural field in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Misiūnė, Ieva

    2015-04-01

    Water repellency is a natural soil property with implications on infiltration, erosion and plant growth. It depends on soil texture, type and amount of organic matter, fungi, microorganisms, and vegetation cover (Doerr et al., 2000). Human activities as agriculture can have implications on soil water repellency (SWR) due tillage and addition of organic compounds and fertilizers (Blanco-Canqui and Lal, 2009; Gonzalez-Penaloza et al., 2012). It is also assumed that SWR has a high small-scale variability (Doerr et al., 2000). The aim of this work is to study the spatial probability of SWR in an abandoned field testing several geostatistical methods, Organic Kriging (OK), Simple Kriging (SK), Indicator Kriging (IK), Probability Kriging (PK) and Disjunctive Kriging (DK). The study area it is located near Vilnius urban area at (54 49' N, 25 22', 104 masl) in Lithuania (Pereira and Oliva, 2013). It was designed a experimental plot with 21 m2 (07x03 m). Inside this area it was measured SWR was measured every 50 cm using the water drop penetration time (WDPT) (Wessel, 1998). A total of 105 points were measured. The probability of SWR was classified in 0 (No probability) to 1 (High probability). The methods accuracy was assessed with the cross validation method. The best interpolation method was the one with the lowest Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The results showed that the most accurate probability method was SK (RMSE=0.436), followed by DK (RMSE=0.437), IK (RMSE=0.448), PK (RMSE=0.452) and OK (RMSE=0.537). Significant differences were identified among probability tests (Kruskal-Wallis test =199.7597 p<0.001). On average the probability of SWR was high with the OK (0.58±0.08) followed by PK (0.49±0.18), SK (0.32±0.16), DK (0.32±0.15) and IK (0.31±0.16). The most accurate probability methods predicted a lower probability of SWR in the studied plot. The spatial distribution of SWR was different according to the tested technique. Simple Kriging, DK, IK and PK methods

  3. Urban land use in Natura 2000 surrounding areas in Vilnius Region, Lithuania.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Misiūnė, Ieva; Depellegrin, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Urban development is one of the major causes of land degradation and pressure on protected areas. (Hansen and DeFries, 2007; Salvati and Sabbi, 2011). The urban areas in the fringe of the protected areas are a source of pollutants considered a negative disturbance to the ecosystems services and biodiversity within the protected areas. The distance between urban and protected areas is decreasing and in the future it is estimated that 88% of the world protected areas will be affected by urban growth (McDonald et al., 2008). The surrounding or buffer areas, are lands adjacent to the Natura 2000 territories, which aim to reduce the human influence within the protected areas. Presently there is no common definition of buffer area it is not clear among stakeholders (Van Dasselaar, 2013). The objective of this work is to identify the urban land use in the Natura 2000 areas in Vilnius region, Lithuania. Data from Natura 2000 areas and urban land use (Corine Land Cover 2006) in Vilnius region were collected in the European Environmental Agency website (http://www.eea.europa.eu/). In the surroundings of each Natura 2000 site, we identified the urban land use at the distances of 500, 1000 and 1500 m. The Natura 2000 sites and the urban areas occupied a total of 13.2% and 3.4% of Vilnius region, respectively. However, the urban areas are very dispersed in the territory, especially in the surroundings of Vilnius, which since the end of the XX century is growing (Pereira et al., 2014). This can represent a major threat to Natura 2000 areas ecosystem services quality and biodiversity. Overall, urban areas occupied approximately 50 km2, in the buffer area of 500 m, 95 km2 in buffer area of 1000 m and 131 km2 in the buffer area of 1500 km2. This shows that Natura 2000 surrounding areas in Vilnius region are subjected to a high urban pressure. This is especially evident in the Vilnius city and is a consequence of the uncontrolled urban development. The lack of a clear legislation

  4. Insomnia symptoms and mortality: a register-linked study among women and men from Finland, Norway and Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Lallukka, Tea; Podlipskytė, Aurelija; Sivertsen, Børge; Andruškienė, Jurgita; Varoneckas, Giedrius; Lahelma, Eero; Ursin, Reidun; Tell, Grethe S; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2016-02-01

    Evidence on the association between insomnia symptoms and mortality is limited and inconsistent. This study examined the association between insomnia symptoms and mortality in cohorts from three countries to show common and unique patterns. The Finnish cohort comprised 6605 employees of the City of Helsinki, aged 40-60 years at baseline in 2000-2002. The Norwegian cohort included 6236 participants from Western Norway, aged 40-45 years at baseline in 1997-1999. The Lithuanian cohort comprised 1602 participants from the City of Palanga, aged 35-74 years at baseline in 2003. Mortality data were derived from the Statistics Finland and Norwegian Cause of Death Registry until the end of 2012, and from the Lithuanian Regional Mortality Register until the end of 2013. Insomnia symptoms comprised difficulties initiating sleep, nocturnal awakenings, and waking up too early. Covariates were age, marital status, education, smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, depression, shift work, sleep duration, and self-rated health. Cox regression analysis was used. Frequent difficulties initiating sleep were associated with all-cause mortality among men after full adjustments in the Finnish (hazard ratio 2.51; 95% confidence interval 1.07-5.88) and Norwegian (hazard ratio 3.42; 95% confidence interval 1.03-11.35) cohorts. Among women and in Lithuania, insomnia symptoms were not statistically significantly associated with all-cause mortality after adjustments. In conclusion, difficulties initiating sleep were associated with mortality among Norwegian and Finnish men. Variation and heterogeneity in the association between insomnia symptoms and mortality highlights that further research needs to distinguish between men and women, specific symptoms and national contexts, and focus on more chronic insomnia. PMID:26420582

  5. Morphological and molecular characterization of Sarcocystis taeniata and Sarcocystis pilosa n. sp. from the sika deer (Cervus nippon) in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Prakas, Petras; Butkauskas, Dalius; Rudaitytė, Eglė; Kutkienė, Liuda; Sruoga, Aniolas; Pūraitė, Irma

    2016-08-01

    The diaphragm muscles of eight sika deer (Cervus nippon) bred in Lithuania were examined for Sarcocystis cysts. Two Sarcocystis species, Sarcocystis taeniata, which were previously reported in Canadian moose (Alces alces) and Argentinean red deer (Cervus elaphus), and Sarcocystis pilosa n. sp. were described using light microscopy (LM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), and subunit I of cytochrome c oxidase (cox1) sequences analysis. By LM, cysts of S. taeniata were 424.8 × 57.9 (200-837 × 30-100) μm in size and had a thin (up to 1 μm) and smooth cyst wall, while short ribbon-like protrusions arising from broadened cone-shaped bases were seen under TEM. Cysts of S. pilosa (by LM) were ribbon-shaped, measured 848.5 × 63.8 (350-1700 × 30-125) μm and had thin 7-8-μm long hair-like protrusions. By TEM, cyst wall was type 7a-like; protrusions arose from 0.3 μm wide dome-shaped base with minute indentations of the parasitophorous vacuolar membrane near it, the surface of protrusions seemed to be smooth, and the ground substance layer was thin (0.18-0.22 μm). The 18S rDNA, in contrast to the cox1, lacked variability to discriminate S. pilosa from closely related Sarcocystis hjorti from the red deer and moose. S. taeniata, but not S. pilosa, showed a considerable intraspecific variation in both genes analyzed. The phylogenetic analyses based on 18S rDNA and cox1 sequences suggest that canids are definitive hosts of both S. taeniata and S. pilosa. This paper represents the first identification of Sarcocystis species in the sika deer by morphological and molecular methods. PMID:27086872

  6. Structure, formation and geochronology of the late Pleistocene and Holocene cover deposits in South-Eastern Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltrūnas, Valentinas; Karmaza, Bronislavas; Molodkov, Anatoly; Šinkūnas, Petras; Švedas, Kęstutis; Zinkutė, Rimantė

    2010-11-01

    The available data of earlier investigations ( Basalykas, 1965; Basalykas et al., 1976a,b; Kudaba, 1983) show that deposits of various origin and age are widespread in Ašmena Upland and Lyda Plateau (South-Eastern Lithuania). They overlie a polygenetic dislodged marginal formations of the penultimate Medininkai (Warthe) glaciation. Pleistocene deposits in this area are often deformed by solifluction and fluvial erosion and penetrated by cryogenic ice-wedge pseudomorphs. Granulometric, geochemical and petrographic investigations of the deposits have demonstrated that they are characterized by different sources of sedimentary material supply as well as different degrees of physical and chemical weathering. The alternate deposits preserved in the study area imply palaeoenvironmental changes associated with the different palaeoclimatic events. The Ca/Zr ratios in cover deposits testify that the upper beds usually experienced stronger chemical weathering that is associated with warmer climate. The cases of weaker weathering can be explained by different sources of material, i.e. deposit origin, which can be indicated by Zr/Ti ratio. According to the scarce geochronological data available at least 4 clusters of IR-OSL dates can be distinguished in the late Pleistocene environmental history of Ašmena Upland and Lyda Plateau: about 100 ka (marine isotope stage (MIS) 5c, Merkinė interglacial), 89-71 ka (MIS 5a, Merkinė interglacial), about 40 ka (MIS 3, Rokai interstadial) and 21-12 ka (late Nemunas). One cluster of IR-OSL dates (9.7-5.3 ka) is obtained in the first half of Holocene.

  7. Molecular identification of Sarcocystis rileyi sporocysts in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Prakas, Petras; Liaugaudaitė, Simona; Kutkienė, Liuda; Sruoga, Aniolas; Švažas, Saulius

    2015-05-01

    Despite the fact that Sarcocystis rileyi is one of the earliest described species of the genus Sarcocystis forming macrocysts in ducks, the life cycle of this species is still unknown in Europe. Sarcocystis spp. oocysts/sporocysts were observed in faeces of four of 23 (17.4 %) and in small intestine mucosal scrapings of four of 20 (20.0 %) red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and in small intestine mucosal scrapings of seven of 13 (53.8 %) raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) hunted in Lithuania. A very small number of Sarcocystis sporocysts measuring 11.9 × 8.3 μm (n = 5) was found in faecal samples, whereas considerably more sporulated Sarcocystis oocysts and free sporocysts were detected in the small intestines of red foxes and raccoon dogs. These sporocysts measured 12.9 × 8.1 μm (n = 16) and 12.1 × 8.1 μm (n = 54) in red foxes and raccoon dogs, respectively. Using species-specific PCR and subsequent sequencing, internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) region partial sequences of oocysts/sporocysts from small intestine mucosal scrapings of six raccoon dogs and three red foxes were identified as belonging to S. rileyi. The present study provides strong evidence showing that the red fox and the raccoon dog can serve as final hosts of S. rileyi in Europe; however, transmission experiments are needed for the ultimate approval. PMID:25656464

  8. Television Quiz Show Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jonnie Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

  9. Case-control study of sudden infant death syndrome in Lithuania, 1997–2000

    PubMed Central

    Bubnaitienė, Vilija; Kalėdienė, Ramunė; Kėvalas, Rimantas

    2005-01-01

    Background To identify risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome relevant in Lithuania. Methods A nationwide case-control study surveying parents of 35 infants who died from sudden infant death syndrome during the period of 1997–2000 and parents of 145 control infants matched with SIDS infants for date of birth and for region of birth was carried out. Results Deaths incidence was greater in the warm period (60%) vs. cold period (40%). Prone and side sleeping positions both carried no increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome compared with supine because of a rare prone sleeping (4.1% of controls vs. 0% of dead infants) and more prevalent side than supine sleeping (84.8% of controls vs. 94.3% of dead infants) in the controls as well as the cases. Bed sharing for the whole night as a risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome has not been confirmed, either, as bed sharing was common only for the controls (13.8% of controls vs. 0% of dead infants). Routine sleeping environment factors such as heavy wrapping (≥4 togs) of an infant (odds ratio 8.49; 95% confidence interval 2.38 to 30.32), sleeping in a bassinet (4.22; 1.16 to 15.38) and maternal factors such as maternal education ≤12 years (4.48; 1.34 to 14.94), unplanned pregnancy (5.22; 1.49 to 18.18) and ≥2 previous live births (3.90; 1.00 to 15.10) were significantly associated with sudden infant death syndrome on multivariate analysis. Conclusion The results of this first population-based case-control study have shed some light on the epidemiology of the syndrome in Lithuania. Although the mortality of sudden infant death syndrome in Lithuania is not high, it might be lowered moreover by public informing about sudden infant death syndrome and related risk factors. Special attention must be paid to mothers with low education on potentially modifiable risk factors such as routine heavy wrapping of an infant during sleep, routine sleeping in a bassinet and unplanned pregnancy. PMID:16283946

  10. Stakeholder perception about urban sprawl impacts in land degradation in Lithuania. The importance of profession and education.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Misiune, Ieva; Mierauskas, Pranas; Depellegrin, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Stakeholders have an important impact on land use planning. Their visions and culture, shape and influence the decision makers and the legislation (Schwilch et al., 2009; Fleskens and Stringer, 2014; Pereira et al., 2016; Subiros et al., 2016). Nowadays, urban sprawl is one the causes of land degradation, causing important, environmental, social and economic problems. This expansion to rural areas is caused mainly by lifestyle changes, cultural views, increase of mobility, house price in city centers, poor air quality, noise, small apartments, unsafe environments, lack of green areas, competition among municipalities, development of transport network and social problems. Urban sprawl is currently an important problem in Lithuania, especially in Vilnius. Vilnius residents are concerned about the impacts of urban sprawl in environmental, social and economic aspects. Nevertheless, this depends very much on the age of and the occupation of the residents (Pereira et al., 2014). However, very little information is available about the vision of stakeholders regarding this position. The objective of this work is to study the stakeholder's perception about urban sprawl impacts on land degradation in Lithuania. A total of 86 stakeholders from different institutions were interviewed and asked to rate from 1 to 5 according to the importance of the question (1=very low; 2=low; 3=medium; 4=high and 5=very high). The questions carried out were. Does urban sprawl have impacts on a) consumption of land and soil, b) loss of soil permeability, c) loss of soil biodiversity, d) loss of best agricultural land, e) increase in the use of water and fertilizers in less productive areas, f) increase in soil erosion in remote areas, and g) loss of natural habitats. These variables were analyzed according to the gender, age, place of residence (urban/countryside), Profession, field of studies, study level and if the participant was a member of a NGO. A general regression was carried out in

  11. Unusually well preserved casts of halite crystals: A case from the Upper Frasnian of northern Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rychliński, Tomasz; Jaglarz, Piotr; Uchman, Alfred; Vainorius, Julius

    2014-07-01

    Upper Frasnian carbonate-siliciclastics of the Stipinai Formation (northern Lithuania) comprise a bed of calcareous silty arenite with casts of halite crystals, including hopper crystals. Unusually well-preserved casts occur on the lower surface of the bed, while poorly-preserved casts are present on the upper bedding surface. The casts originated as the result of the dissolution of halite crystals which grew in the sediment. The dissolution took place during early stages of diagenesis, when host sediment was soft. Unstable cavities after crystal dissolution were filled by overlying sediment forming their casts. The collapsing sediment form sink-hole deformation structures which disturb wave-ripple cross lamination from the upper part of the bed. Dewatering pipe structures are also present. The casts and accompanying sink-hole and dewatering pipes are classified as the postdepositional deformation structures caused by haloturbation.

  12. Identification and intraspecific genetic diversity of Sarcocystis rileyi from ducks, Anas spp., in Lithuania and Finland.

    PubMed

    Prakas, P; Oksanen, A; Butkauskas, D; Sruoga, A; Kutkienė, L; Švažas, S; Isomursu, M; Liaugaudaitė, S

    2014-10-01

    Macroscopic Sarcocystis cysts were detected in the muscles of 28 Mallards ( Anas platyrhynchos ), 1 Eurasian Wigeon ( Anas penelope ), and 1 Common Teal ( Anas crecca ) hunted in Lithuania and Finland. According to the sequences of the 18S rRNA gene, 28S rRNA gene, and ITS-1 region, the macrocysts examined from all 30 ducks belonged to Sarcocystis rileyi. This parasite was found in the Eurasian Wigeon and the Common Teal for the first time. All S. rileyi isolates examined were identical to each other and differed from 2 S. rileyi isolates previously reported from 2 Mallards from the United States only by 1 nucleotide substitution within the ITS-1 region. PMID:24766223

  13. Radical scavenging activity and composition of raspberry (Rubus idaeus) leaves from different locations in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Venskutonis, P R; Dvaranauskaite, A; Labokas, J

    2007-02-01

    Raspberry (Rubus idaeus) leaves, collected in different locations of Lithuania were extracted with ethanol and the extracts were tested for their antioxidant activity (AA) by using ABTS(.)(+) decolourisation and DPPH(.) scavenging methods. All extracts were active, with radical scavenging capacity at the used concentrations from 20.5 to 82.5% in DPPH(.) reaction system and from 8.0 to 42.7% in ABTS(.)(+) reaction. The total amount of phenolic compounds in the leaves varied from 4.8 to 12.0 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE) in 1 g of plant extract. Quercetin glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-glucoside and rutin were identified in the extracts. PMID:17215088

  14. The Wordpath Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderton, Alice

    The Intertribal Wordpath Society is a nonprofit educational corporation formed to promote the teaching, status, awareness, and use of Oklahoma Indian languages. The Society produces "Wordpath," a weekly 30-minute public access television show about Oklahoma Indian languages and the people who are teaching and preserving them. The show aims to…

  15. Power politics: National energy strategies of the nuclear newly independent states of Armenia, Lithuania and Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabonis-Chafee, Theresa Marie

    The successor states of Armenia, Lithuania and Ukraine arrived at independence facing extraordinary challenges in their energy sectors. Each state was a net importer, heavily dependent on cheap energy supplies, mostly from Russia. Each state also inherited a nuclear power complex over which it had not previously exercised full control. In the time period 1991--1996, each state attempted to impose coherence on the energy sector, selecting a new course for the pieces it had inherited from a much larger, highly integrated energy structure. Each state attempted to craft national energy policies in the midst of severe supply shocks and price shocks. Each state developed institutions to govern its nuclear power sector. The states' challenges were made even greater by the fact that they had few political or economic structures necessary for energy management, and sought to create those structures at the same time. This dissertation is a systematic, non-quantitative examination of how each state's energy policies developed during the 1991--1996 time period. The theoretical premise of the analysis (drawn from Statist realism) is that systemic variables---regional climate and energy vulnerability---provide the best explanations for the resulting energy policy decisions. The dependent variable is defined as creation and reform of energy institutions. The independent variables include domestic climate, regional climate, energy vulnerability and transnational assistance. All three states adopted rhetoric and legislation declaring energy a strategic sector. The evidence suggests that two of the states, Armenia and Lithuania, which faced tense regional climates and high levels of energy vulnerability, succeeded in actually treating energy strategically, approaching energy as a matter of national security or "high politics." The third state, Ukraine, failed to do so. The evidence presented suggests that the systemic variables (regional climate and energy vulnerability) provided a

  16. Work related risk factors for musculoskeletal complaints in the spinning industry in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Gamperiene, M.; Stigum, H.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the prevalence of self reported musculoskeletal complaints in the back, arms or neck, and legs among workers in the spinning industry, and to investigate the relations between these complaints and work related variables. METHODS: An interview based questionnaire survey was carried out in two spinning industry factories in Lithuania. RESULTS: The study group consisted of all workers in production (n = 363). Symptoms of the legs were the musculoskeletal symptom reported most often (61%). Many subjects had arms or neck (55%) or back problems (28%). 20% had experienced pain from all three sites. Almost 25% had had musculoskeletal pain every day and 16% had experienced constant pain during previous year. Packers had the highest risk of arms or neck problems whereas spinners had the highest risk of back or leg problems. Working in a strained posture (bending, work with arms raised up above shoulder level, and repetitive movements of the fingers) was associated with all three complaints. Only arms or neck complaints were associated with age. CONCLUSIONS: Musculoskeletal disorders are a common problem among workers producing gobelin or synthetic thread in Lithuania and working in a strained posture is a risk factor for developing musculoskeletal disorders in three body sites: legs, arms or neck, and back. To better understand the different aspects of physical load as risk factors, a more detailed study of the frequency of postural changes as well as an observation of individually adopted postures would be necessary. This applies to intervention studies in factories of the spinning industry to prevent complaints of the legs and shoulders.   PMID:10474538

  17. Low job control and myocardial infarction risk in the occupational categories of Kaunas men, Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Malinauskiene, V; Theorell, T; Grazuleviciene, R; Malinauskas, R; Azaraviciene, A

    2004-01-01

    Study objective: To determine the association between adverse psychosocial characteristics at work and risk of first myocardial infarction in the occupational categories of Kaunas men, Lithuania. Design: The analysis was based upon a case-control study among full time working men in the general population of Kaunas. Outcome measure: First non-fatal myocardial infarction diagnosed in 2001–2002. The Swedish version of the demand-control questionnaire was used to examine the effect of job control and demands. Setting: Kaunas, the second largest city in Lithuania, a former socialist country in a transition market economy. Participants: Cases were 203 men 25–64 years of age with a first non-fatal myocardial infarction and controls were 287 men group randomly selected from the study base. Main results: Low job control had a significant effect on myocardial infarction risk in the general 25–64 year old Kaunas male population (OR = 2.68; 95% CI 1.68 to 4.28) after adjustment for age and socioeconomic status. Low job control was a risk factor in the occupational categories of the increased myocardial infarction risk (1st occupational category—legislators, senior officials and managers and the 8th—plant and machine operators and assemblers; OR = 2.78; 95% CI 1.31 to 5.93 and 2.72; 95% CI 1.56 to 4.89, respectively, after adjustment for age and socioeconomic status). Though the adjusted odds ratio estimates were significantly high for the rest of the occupational categories (2nd—professionals, 3rd—technicians and associate professionals, and 7th—craft and related trades workers). Conclusions: The association between low job control and first myocardial infarction risk was significant for all occupational categories of Kaunas men. PMID:14729894

  18. Nosocomial dissemination of VIM-2-producing ST235 Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Mikucionyte, G; Zamorano, L; Vitkauskiene, A; López-Causapé, C; Juan, C; Mulet, X; Oliver, A

    2016-02-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa multidrug resistance, and particularly the production of carbapenemases linked to international high-risk clones, is of growing concern. While high levels of carbapenem resistance (>60 %) have been reported in Lithuania, so far, there is no information on the underlying mechanisms. Thus, the aim of this work was to determine the molecular epidemiology and prevalence of acquired carbapenemases among 73 carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates recovered in a hospital from Kaunas, Lithuania in 2011-2012. The presence of acquired carbapenemases was evaluated through phenotypic (modified Hodge test, cloxacillin inhibition test, double-disc synergy test) and genetic methods [polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing]. Clonal relatedness was assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Acquired β-lactamases were detected in 19 (26 %) of the isolates, whereas resistance was exclusively chromosomal (OprD inactivation ± AmpC hyperproduction) in the remaining 54 (74 %) isolates. The acquired β-lactamases detected included 16 VIM-2, one PER-1 and two GES enzymes. PFGE revealed that 15 of the 16 VIM-2 isolates belonged to a single clone, identified as the international high-risk clone ST235 by MLST. bla VIM-2 was preceded by aacA7 in a class I integron, similar to epidemic ST235 isolates described in nearby countries. Additionally, sequencing of bla GES revealed the presence of the carbapenem-hydrolysing enzyme GES-5 in one of the isolates and a novel GES variant, designated GES-27, in the other. GES-27 differed from GES-5 by a single amino acid substitution, proline 167, that was replaced by glutamine. Increasing emergence and dissemination of concerning resistance mechanisms and international clones warrants global surveillance and control strategies. PMID:26638216

  19. Avoidable mortality in Lithuania: 1991-199 compared with 1970-1990.

    PubMed

    Logminiene, Zeneta; Nolte, Ellen; McKee, Martin; Valius, Leonas; Gaizauskiene, Aldona

    2004-04-01

    This paper assesses the changes in avoidable mortality in Lithuania in 1991-1999 compared with 1970-1990. Causes of death were disaggregated into causes most amenable to treatment and those amenable to prevention. Trends in age-standardised death rates were calculated. In 1970-1990, avoidable causes of death accounted for 26.3% of all deaths. By 1991-1999 this figure had decreased slightly to 24.6%. At the same time, age-standardised death rates from avoidable causes increased by 8%, from 118.1 per 100000 in 1970-1990 to 127.9 in 1991-1999. Avoidable mortality among men was considerably higher than for women in both periods. There was considerable fluctuation in both treatable and preventable mortality during the 1990s, reflecting diversity in trends in different causes of death. Increases occurred in death rates from tuberculosis, cervical cancer and liver cirrhosis and, immediately after independence, also in hypertensive and cerebrovascular diseases and, among men, lung cancer, followed by subsequent declines. Deaths from chronic rheumatic heart disease, asthma and other respiratory diseases, appendicitis, abdominal hernia, cholelithiasis and maternal mortality consistently declined. In conclusion, avoidable mortality declined as a proportion of total mortality in Lithuania during 1991-1999 compared with 1970-1990. This reflected the combined impact of an initial rise in death rates from treatable and, to a lesser extent, preventable causes, followed by subsequent declines. While this indicates some success in the development of medical care, it emphasises the need for more effective public health policies directed at the major determinants of health. PMID:15003409

  20. Mapping optimal areas of ecosystem services potential in Vilnius (Lithuania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Depellegrin, Daniel; Misiune, Ieva; Cerda, Artemi

    2016-04-01

    Maps are fundamental to understand the spatial pattern of natural and human impacts on the landscape (Brevik et al., 2016; Lavado Contador et al., 2009; Pereira et al., 2010a,b). Urban areas are subjected to an intense human pressure (Beniston et al., 2015), contributing to the degradation of the ecosystems, reducing their capacity to provide services in quality and quantity (Requier-Desjardins et al., 2011; Zhang et al., 2011). Environments that can provide a high number and quality of ecosystem services (ES) must be identified and managed correctly, since are spaces that can mitigate the impacts of human settlements and improve their quality. thus is of major importance have identify the areas that can provide better ES (Deppelegrin and Pereira, 2015). The aim of this work is to identify areas with high ES potential in Vilnius city. Here, we identified a total of 4 different land uses, agricultural areas (32.48%), water bodies (1.46%), forest and semi-natural (31.91%) areas and artificial surfaces (34.16%). CORINE land cover 2006 was used as base information to classify ES potential. The assessment of each land cover potential was carried out using expert assessment. Each land use type was ranked from 0 (no potential) to 5 (High potential). In this work the sum of total regulating, providing and cultural ES were assessed. The areas with optimal ES were the ones with the sum of all ranks equal or higher than the 3rd Quartil of each distribution. After identifying these areas, data was mapped using ArcGIS software. The results showed that on average Vilnius city has a higher potential for regulating services (20.35±15.92), followed by cultural (14.43±8.81) and providing (14.26±8.87). There was a significant correlation among the different type of services. Regulating vs cultural (0.92, p<0.001), regulating vs providing (0.72, p<0.001) and providing vs cultural (0.65, p<0.001). The results of Morans I autocorrelation index showed that regulating (Z-score: 10

  1. Mapping optimal areas of ecosystem services potential in Vilnius (Lithuania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Depellegrin, Daniel; Misiune, Ieva; Cerda, Artemi

    2016-04-01

    Maps are fundamental to understand the spatial pattern of natural and human impacts on the landscape (Brevik et al., 2016; Lavado Contador et al., 2009; Pereira et al., 2010a,b). Urban areas are subjected to an intense human pressure (Beniston et al., 2015), contributing to the degradation of the ecosystems, reducing their capacity to provide services in quality and quantity (Requier-Desjardins et al., 2011; Zhang et al., 2011). Environments that can provide a high number and quality of ecosystem services (ES) must be identified and managed correctly, since are spaces that can mitigate the impacts of human settlements and improve their quality. thus is of major importance have identify the areas that can provide better ES (Deppelegrin and Pereira, 2015). The aim of this work is to identify areas with high ES potential in Vilnius city. Here, we identified a total of 4 different land uses, agricultural areas (32.48%), water bodies (1.46%), forest and semi-natural (31.91%) areas and artificial surfaces (34.16%). CORINE land cover 2006 was used as base information to classify ES potential. The assessment of each land cover potential was carried out using expert assessment. Each land use type was ranked from 0 (no potential) to 5 (High potential). In this work the sum of total regulating, providing and cultural ES were assessed. The areas with optimal ES were the ones with the sum of all ranks equal or higher than the 3rd Quartil of each distribution. After identifying these areas, data was mapped using ArcGIS software. The results showed that on average Vilnius city has a higher potential for regulating services (20.35±15.92), followed by cultural (14.43±8.81) and providing (14.26±8.87). There was a significant correlation among the different type of services. Regulating vs cultural (0.92, p<0.001), regulating vs providing (0.72, p<0.001) and providing vs cultural (0.65, p<0.001). The results of Morans I autocorrelation index showed that regulating (Z-score: 10

  2. A Holographic Road Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  3. Semiotic evaluation of Lithuania military air navigation charts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovodas, Donatas; Česnulevičius, Algimantas

    2014-06-01

    Research of semiotic aspects Lithuanian military air navigation charts was based on the semantic, graphic and information load analysis. The aim of semantic analysis was to determine how the conventional cartographical symbols, used in air navigation charts, correspond with carto-linguistic and carto-semiotic requirements. The analysis of all the markings was performed complex and collected by questionnaire were interviewed various respondents: pilots, cartographers and other chart users. The researches seek two aims: evaluate information and graphical load of military air navigation charts. Information load evaluated to calculate all objects and phenomenon, which was in 25 cm² of map. Charts analysis showed that in low flight charts (LFC) average information load are 4 - 5 times richer than in the operational maps. Map signs optimization on LFC has to be managed very carefully, choosing signs that can reduce the load of information and helps for the information transfer process. Graphical load of maps evaluated of aeronautical maps is not great (5 - 12%) and does not require reduction the information load and generalization of charts. Air navigation charts analysis pointed that not all air navigation sings correspond carto-semiotic requirements and must be improved. The authors suggested some new sings for military air navigation chart, which are simpler, equivalent to human psychophysical perception criteria, creates faster communication and less load on the chart. Badania semiotycznych aspektów litewskich wojskowych map żeglugi powietrznej bazowały na semantycznej, graficznej i informacyjnej analizie treści tych map. Celem analizy semantycznej było określenie na ile tradycyjne symbole kartograficzne stosowane na mapach nawigacji lotniczej są zgodne z wymogami języka kartograficznego oraz zasadami stosowania znaków kartograficznych. Powyższe analizy przeprowadzono w sposób kompleksowy, informacje zebrano za pomocą ankiet, przeprowadzając wywiady w r

  4. The influence of the rulings of the Constitutional Court on the development of health law in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Birmontiene, Toma

    2007-12-01

    This article highlights some recent developments in the constitutional doctrine of the right to health care in Lithuania, and more in particular the impact of the decisions of the Constitutional Court of Lithuania on the development of health law. The right to health care, enshrined in the Constitution, is both an obligation of the state and an individual right. The Constitutional Court has developed a doctrine of the right to health care, as well a doctrine of certain other constitutional social rights, which is based on the understanding of the close interrelation between the different constitutional rights, the principle of indivisibility and equal importance of these rights, and the presumption of justiciability of social rights. The analysis is based on the jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court. Two cases on the disputes of the legal regulation concerning the pharmaceutical activities are presented in more detail. PMID:18431977

  5. Show What You Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eccleston, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Big things come in small packages. This saying came to the mind of the author after he created a simple math review activity for his fourth grade students. Though simple, it has proven to be extremely advantageous in reinforcing math concepts. He uses this activity, which he calls "Show What You Know," often. This activity provides the perfect…

  6. The Ozone Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, Aaron

    2000-01-01

    Uses a talk show activity for a final assessment tool for students to debate about the ozone hole. Students are assessed on five areas: (1) cooperative learning; (2) the written component; (3) content; (4) self-evaluation; and (5) peer evaluation. (SAH)

  7. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  8. Talk Show Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  9. Stage a Water Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Debra

    2008-01-01

    In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

  10. Showing What They Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    Having students show their skills in three dimensions, known as performance-based assessment, dates back at least to Socrates. Individual schools such as Barrington High School--located just outside of Providence--have been requiring students to actively demonstrate their knowledge for years. The Rhode Island's high school graduating class became…

  11. Infant mortality gap in the Baltic region - Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania - in relation to macroeconomic factors in 1996-2010.

    PubMed

    Ebela, Inguna; Zile, Irisa; Ebela, Danute Razuka; Rozenfelde, Ingrida Rumba

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE. A constant gap has appeared in infant mortality among the 3 Baltic States - Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania - since the restoration of independence in 1991. The aim of the study was to compare infant mortality rates in all the 3 Baltic countries and examine some of the macro- and socioeconomic factors associated with infant mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The data were obtained from international databases, such as World Health Organization and EUROSTAT, and the national statistical databases of the Baltic States. The time series data sets (1996-2010) were used in the regression and correlation analysis. RESULTS. In all the 3 Baltic States, a strong and significant correlation was found: Latvia (r=-0.81, P<0.01), Lithuania (r=-0.93, P<0.01), and Estonia (r=-0.91, P<0.01). There was also a correlation between infant mortality and healthcare expenditure in local currency per capita: Latvia (r=-0.81, P<0.01); Lithuania (r=-0.90, P<0.01) and Estonia (r=-0.88, P<0.01). In Latvia (r=0.87, P<0.01) and Estonia (r=0.70; P<0.01), a significant correlation between infant mortality and unemployment levels was observed from 1996 to 2008, whereas the statistical significance disappeared in the period from 1996 to 2010. In Lithuania, the relationship was not significant. CONCLUSIONS. Higher infant mortality rates and a less stable decreasing tendency in Latvia are apparently explained by less successful adaptation to a new political and economic situation and limited skills in adjusting the healthcare system to the reality of life. PMID:24709788

  12. Taking in a Show.

    PubMed

    Boden, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    Many medical practices have cut back on education and staff development expenses, especially those costs associated with conventions and conferences. But there are hard-to-value returns on your investment in these live events--beyond the obvious benefits of acquired knowledge and skills. Major vendors still exhibit their services and wares at many events, and the exhibit hall is a treasure-house of information and resources for the savvy physician or administrator. Make and stick to a purposeful plan to exploit the trade show. You can compare products, gain new insights and ideas, and even negotiate better deals with representatives anxious to realize returns on their exhibition investments. PMID:27249887

  13. C. 1.5 Ga metamorphism of the Lazdijai 13 volcano-sedimentary sequence in southern Lithuania: its origin and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siliauskas, Laurynas; Skridlaite, Grazina

    2015-04-01

    dated at 1629±48 Ma and 1499±21 Ma. The 1685-1629 Ma ages were obtained from relic domains in the c 1.5 Ga monazites. These domains might be the relics of magmatic monazites, somewhat older than 1.69 Ga. The largest monazite group of c. 1530-1500 Ma seems to record a major metamorphic event. The c. 1450 Ma age might indicate a cooling or lead loss as in case of the oldest monazites. According to the previously obtained data, the volcano-sedimentary sequence of Lz13 might have been formed in a back arc tectonic setting c. 1.83-1.80 Ga ago. The new data shows that the rocks did not experience any stronger metamorphic reworking until c. 1.5 Ga. The nearby AMCG charnockites and host rocks were metamorphosed at 1.53-1.50 Ga (Skridlaite et al., 2008). The metamorphism might have been caused by the intrusion of the 1.54-1.50 Ga AMCG Mazury suite in N Poland and S Lithuania. The Mesoproterozoic AMCG magmatism and metamorphism in Lithuania as well as in Poland may be regarded as inboard manifestations of the accretionary Danopolonian orogeny (Bogdanova, 2008) at the present southern margin of ProtoBaltica. This is a contribution to the Open Access Centre activities Bogdanova, S.V. et al., 2008, Precambrian Research, 160, 23-45. Bogdanova, S., et al., 2014, Precambrian Research, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.precamres.2014.11.023 Skridlaite, et al., 2008. Gondwana Research, 14, 663-674.

  14. Not a "reality" show.

    PubMed

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show. PMID:23631336

  15. Public medical shows.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre. PMID:25273491

  16. Spatial distribution of soil water repellency in a grassland located in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata

    2014-05-01

    Soil water repellency (SWR) it is recognized to be very heterogeneous in time in space and depends on soil type, climate, land use, vegetation and season (Doerr et al., 2002). It prevents or reduces water infiltration, with important impacts on soil hydrology, influencing the mobilization and transport of substances into the soil profile. The reduced infiltration increases surface runoff and soil erosion. SWR reduce also the seed emergency and plant growth due the reduced amount of water in the root zone. Positive aspects of SWR are the increase of soil aggregate stability, organic carbon sequestration and reduction of water evaporation (Mataix-Solera and Doerr, 2004; Diehl, 2013). SWR depends on the soil aggregate size. In fire affected areas it was founded that SWR was more persistent in small size aggregates (Mataix-Solera and Doerr, 2004; Jordan et al., 2011). However, little information is available about SWR spatial distribution according to soil aggregate size. The aim of this work is study the spatial distribution of SWR in fine earth (<2 mm) and different aggregate sizes, 2-1 mm, 1-0.5 mm, 0.5-0.25 mm and <0.25 mm. The studied area is located near Vilnius (Lithuania) at 54° 42' N, 25° 08 E, 158 masl. A plot with 400 m2 (20 x 20 m with 5 m space between sampling points) and 25 soil samples were collected in the top soil (0-5 cm) and taken to the laboratory. Previously to SWR assessment, the samples were air dried. The persistence of SWR was analysed according to the Water Drop Penetration Method, which involves placing three drops of distilled water onto the soil surface and registering the time in seconds (s) required for the drop complete penetration (Wessel, 1988). Data did not respected Gaussian distribution, thus in order to meet normality requirements it was log-normal transformed. Spatial interpolations were carried out using Ordinary Kriging. The results shown that SWR was on average in fine earth 2.88 s (Coeficient of variation % (CV%)=44.62), 2

  17. Geology for youth in Lithuania: International Year of Planet Earth-related and other activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skridlaite, Grazina; Guobyte, Rimante; Skrinskas, Skirmantas; Nemaniene, Jurgita

    2010-05-01

    A great number of Lithuanian secondary and high schools devoted a range of activities to Earth sciences on September 22 (autumn equinox), 2008 proclaimed by the Lithuanian National Committee for IYPE and Ministry of Education and Science of Lithuania as "Earth's day". Beforehand, the 11 IYPE brochures were translated, supplemented with relevant Lithuanian data and placed on the website www.zemesmetai.lt. The activities comprised lessons, competitions, performances, field trips, seminars, excursions to museums and nature sites, meetings with geologists and naturalists etc. In many schools the 10 scientific themes were expanded, transformed and included into different school programmes such as geography, chemistry, physics, biology, Lithuanian language etc. The other schools preferred to organise discussions, performances and concerts where children expressed their concern about future of the Earth and suggested ways to save it. Several schools invited geologists, ecologists or other representatives of Earth sciences or local authorities to provide with information on environmental and geological issues in Lithuania and their own surroundings. Several museums and nature sites were visited. The "Earth's day" was advertised and broadcasted on TV and radio, reflected in the press. The reports from schools were placed on the Lithuanian IYPE website. The Board acknowledged the best participants with special letter of thanks. It turned out that despite the provided information on different subjects of geology only few of them were chosen. School teachers encountered some problems relating the Earth's interior with its surface, recognising modern geological processes etc. They found some brochures to be too complicated for non-specialists. Biodiversity was much easier to explain and present as geodiversity. Nevertheless, everybody admitted the great importance of geosciences in society and insufficient knowledge, and greatly acknowledged the initiative of the IYPE. The

  18. The Great Cometary Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave

  19. Experimental analysis of CO₂ emissions from agricultural soils subjected to five different tillage systems in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Buragienė, Sidona; Šarauskis, Egidijus; Romaneckas, Kęstutis; Sasnauskienė, Jurgita; Masilionytė, Laura; Kriaučiūnienė, Zita

    2015-05-01

    Intensive agricultural production strongly influences the global processes that determine climate change. Thus, tillage can play a very important role in climate change. The intensity of soil carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions, which contribute to the greenhouse effect, can vary depending on the following factors: the tillage system used, meteorological conditions (which vary in different regions of the world), soil properties, plant residue characteristics and other factors. The main purpose of this research was to analyse and assess the effects of autumn tillage systems with different intensities on CO₂ emissions from soils during different seasons and under the climatic conditions of Central Lithuania. The research was conducted at the Experimental Station of Aleksandras Stulginskis University from 2009 to 2012; and in 2014. The soils at the experimental site were classified as Eutric Endogleyic Planosol (Drainic). The investigations were conducted using five tillage systems with different intensities, typical of the Baltic Region. Deep conventional ploughing was performed at a depth of 230-250 mm, shallow ploughing was conducted at a depth of 120-150 mm, deep loosening was conducted at depths of 250-270 mm, and shallow loosening was conducted at depths of 120-150 mm. The fifth system was a no-tillage system. Overall, autumn tillage resulted in greater CO₂ emissions from the soil over both short- and long-term periods under the climatic conditions of Central Lithuania, regardless of the tillage system applied. The highest soil CO₂ emissions were observed for the conventional deep ploughing tillage system, and the lowest emissions were observed for the no-tillage system. The meteorological conditions greatly influenced the CO₂ emissions from the soil during the spring. Soil CO₂ emissions were enhanced as precipitation and the air and soil temperatures increased. Long-term investigations regarding the dynamics of CO₂ emissions from soils during the maize

  20. Probabilistic models for assessment of extreme temperatures and relative humidity in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alzbutas, Robertas; Šeputytė, Ilona

    2015-04-01

    Extreme temperatures are fairly common natural phenomenon in Lithuania. They have mainly negative effects both on the environment and humans. Thus there are important to perform probabilistic and statistical analyzes of possibly extreme temperature values and their time-dependant changes. This is especially important in areas where technical objects (sensitive to the extreme temperatures) are foreseen to be constructed. In order to estimate the frequencies and consequences of possible extreme temperatures, the probabilistic analysis of the event occurrence and its uncertainty has been performed: statistical data have been collected and analyzed. The probabilistic analysis of extreme temperatures in Lithuanian territory is based on historical data taken from Lithuanian Hydrometeorology Service, Dūkštas Meteorological Station, Lithuanian Energy Institute and Ignalina NNP Environmental Protection Department of Environmental Monitoring Service. The main objective of performed work was the probabilistic assessment of occurrence and impact of extreme temperature and relative humidity occurring in whole Lithuania and specifically in Dūkštas region where Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant is closed for decommissioning. In addition, the other purpose of this work was to analyze the changes of extreme temperatures. The probabilistic analysis of extreme temperatures increase in Lithuanian territory was based on more than 50 years historical data. The probabilistic assessment was focused on the application and comparison of Gumbel, Weibull and Generalized Value (GEV) distributions, enabling to select a distribution, which has the best fit for data of extreme temperatures. In order to assess the likelihood of extreme temperatures different probabilistic models were applied to evaluate the probability of exeedance of different extreme temperatures. According to the statistics and the relationship between return period and probabilities of temperatures the return period for 30

  1. Quartz cementation mechanisms between adjacent sandstone and shale in Middle Cambrian, West Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lingli; Friis, Henrik

    2013-04-01

    Quartz is an important cementing material in siliciclastic sandstones that can reduce porosity and permeability severely. For efficiently predicting and extrapolating petrophysical properties such as porosity and permeability, the controls on the occurrence and the degree of quartz cementation need to be better understood. Because it is generally difficult to identify specific sources for quartz cement, many models attempting to explain quartz cementation conclude that external sources of silica are needed to explain the observed quantity of quartz cement, such as the mass transfer between sandstone and shale. Cambrian sandstones in Lithuania have abundant quartz cement which has significant effect on reservoir properties. The detrital quartz grains have been dissolved extensively along the shale-quartz contacts zones, making it a natural laboratory to study the influence of mass transfer between sandstone and shale to quartz cementation on petrophysical properties and reservoir quality. Our Cambrian shale samples in west Lithuania are mainly silty shale or siltstone (sample locations vary from 330 to 2090 m of burial depth). They are composed of quartz, clay and traces of feldspars, sericite, calcite, and pyrite. The clay minerals are mainly illite, with variable content of kaolinite and traces of chlorite. In the sandstone lamina, authigenic illite occurs as pore-filling cement which was composed of fibrous illite; pore-filling kaolinite is generally well crystallized and occurs as hexagonal plates arranged in booklets; quartz overgrowth are obvious in these sandstone laminas, especially in the contact zones between sandstone and shale. Dolomite and pyrite cementation are also present in some sandstone laminas but with few quartz overgrowth. Depositional facies and architecture played an important role in the precipitation of silica. Three different possible sources are distinguished for the quartz overgrowths in the intercalated sandstones: 1) Pressure

  2. Atmospheric aerosol episodes over Lithuania after the May 2011 volcano eruption at Grimsvötn, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvietkus, K.; Šakalys, J.; Didžbalis, J.; Garbarienė, I.; Špirkauskaitė, N.; Remeikis, V.

    2013-03-01

    During the eruption of the volcano at Grimsvötn in Iceland (21 May 2011), an inflow of volcanic pollutants to the atmospheric surface layer of Vilnius, Lithuania from 0700 UTC 24 May until the end of 29 May 2011 was observed. A cloud of volcanic plume rose up from Grimsvötn and reached an altitude of 19 km. The analysis of possible volcanic origin PM1 aerosol sources was supplemented with forward and backward air mass trajectories, concentration and composition measurements and size distribution calculations of aerosol particles. According to the forward air mass trajectories from the volcano at Grimsvötn, the plume from the layer of 3000-4500 m was advected southeastward from Iceland towards the British Isles and the Baltic Sea. The plume reached Vilnius and descended from the troposphere to the surface after about 86 h. After data analysis, four episodes selected in the time series of the atmospheric submicron aerosol particle (PM1) concentration of chemical components (sulfate, ammonium, nitrate and organics) were analyzed with the Aerodyne Quadrupole Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, and calculations of the size-resolved distribution spectra were made. Two clear episodes were detected when the main source of aerosols was the volcano, with well-defined size distribution spectra of PM1 chemical components in the accumulation mode. The ammonium to sulfate molar ratio (ASR) during Episodes 1 and 2 is 0.81, suggesting that sulfate particles were partially neutralized by ammonium and determined by volcanic eruptions. However, during Episodes 3 and 4 the ASR was higher (1.0) and determined by both volcanic and non-volcanic origin components. This study shows that the sulfate emissions from the volcano at Grimsvötn in Iceland reached distances farther than 3000 km, and they can have an influence on the local concentration and size distribution spectra of PM1 chemical components. Over the period of the volcanic eruption (Episode 1) the sulfate concentrations increased by a

  3. Short-term spatio-temporal spring grassland fire effects on soil colour, organic matter and water repellency in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, P.; Úbeda, X.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Martin, D.; Oliva, M.; Novara, A.

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the short-term effects (first 9 months after the fire) of a low-severity spring boreal grassland fire on soil colour, soils organic matter (SOM) and soil water repellency (SWR) in Lithuania. Three days after the fire we designed a plot of 400 m2 in a control (unburned) and unburned area with the same geomorphological characteristics. Soil water repellency analysis were assessed through the 2 mm mesh (composite sample) and in the subsamples of all of the 250 samples divided into different soil aggregate fractions of 2-1, 1-0.5, 0.5-0.25 and < 0.25 mm, using the Water Drop Penetration Time (WDPT) method. The results showed that fire darkened the soil significantly during the entire study period due to the incorporation of ash/charcoal into the soil profile. Soil organic matter was significantly higher in the first two months after the fire in the burned plot, in comparison to the unburned plot. Soil water repellency (SWR) of the composite sample was higher in the burned plot during the first two months after the fire. However, considering the different aggregate fractions studied, the SWR was significantly higher until 5 months after the fire in the coarser fractions (2-1 mm, 1-0.5 mm) and 7 months after in the finer (0.5-0.25 mm and < 0.25 mm), suggesting that the leachability of organic compounds is different with respect to soil aggregate size fractions. This finding has implications for the spatio-temporal variability of fire effects on SWR. SOM was significantly negative correlated with SWR (composite sample) only in the two months after the fire. These results demonstrated that in the first two months the hydrophobic compounds produced by fire were one of the factors responsible for the increase in SWR. Subsequently repellent compounds were leached, at different rates, according to particle size. The impacts of this low severity grassland fire were limited in time, and are not considered a~threat to this ecosystem.

  4. Investigations of the unsaturated zone at two radioactive waste disposal sites in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Skuratovič, Žana; Mažeika, Jonas; Petrošius, Rimantas; Martma, Tõnu

    2016-01-01

    The unsaturated zone is an important part of the water cycle, governed by many hydrological and hydrogeological factors and processes and provide water and nutrients to the terrestrial ecosystem. Besides, the soils of the unsaturated zone are regarded as the first natural barrier to a large extent and are able to limit the spread of contaminants depending on their properties. The unsaturated zone provides a linkage between atmospheric moisture, groundwater, and seepage of groundwater to streams, lakes, or other surface water bodies. The major difference between water flow in saturated and unsaturated soils is that the hydraulic conductivity, which is conventionally assumed to be a constant in saturated soils, is a function of the degree of saturation or matrix suction in the unsaturated soils. In Lithuania, low and intermediate level radioactive wastes generated from medicine, industry and research were accumulated at the Maisiagala radioactive waste repository. Short-lived low and intermediate levels radioactive waste, generated during the operation of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) and arising after the INPP decommissioning will be disposed of in the near surface repository close to the INPP (Stabatiske site). Extensive data sets of the hydraulic properties and water content attributed to unsaturated zone soil profiles of the two radioactive waste disposal sites have been collected and summarized. Globally widespread radionuclide tritium ((3)H) and stable isotope ratio ((18)O/(16)O and (2)H/(1)H) distribution features were determined in precipitation, unsaturated zone soil moisture profiles and groundwater. PMID:26586231

  5. Age and sedimentary record of inland eolian sediments in Lithuania, NE European Sand Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalińska-Nartiša, Edyta; Thiel, Christine; Nartišs, Māris; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Murray, Andrew S.

    2015-07-01

    We present a study based on four inland eolian locations in Eastern, Central and Southeastern Lithuania belonging to the northeastern part of the 'European Sand Belt' (ESB). Although there have been several previous studies of the ESB, this north-eastern extension has not been investigated before in any detail. The sedimentary structural-textural features are investigated and a chronology was derived using optically stimulated luminescence on both quartz and feldspar. The sedimentary structures and the rounding and surface characteristics of the quartz grains argue for a predominance of eolian transport. Additionally, some structural alternations and a significant contribution of non-eolian grains are interpreted as inherited local glacial/glaciofluvial-bearing lithologies. Three main (glaciolacustrine-) eolian phases are distinguished based on the position in the landscape and the luminescence ages: (1) An older eolian series around 15 to 16 ka, possibly correlated with the cold GS-2a event according to the GRIP stratigraphy, and (2) a younger eolian series around 14.0 ka, possibly representing the GI-1d and 1c events. The older eolian series is underlain by (3) a glaciolacustrine-eolian series for which the period of deposition remains uncertain due to the significant discrepancy between the ages based on quartz and feldspar.

  6. Morbidity and mortality in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania in the 1980's.

    PubMed

    Zvidriņs, P; Krumiņs, J

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the general morbidity and mortality rates in the three Baltic republics--Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania during a decade before the collapse of the Soviet Union. Official statistical data were used to compare morbidity and mortality rates. A method of standardization and life table functions were employed. Soviet morbidity statistics were predominantly descriptive, and based mainly on crude rates registered cases of illness during a year per 100,000 population. The death rates during the Soviet period are a better indicator of the health of the populations than more specific health indicators. A general deterioration of the ecological, social and economic situation in the Baltic republics at the end of the 1980s and early 1990s may have resulted in the mortality rising and aborted any trends to increasing life expectancy in the next few years thus requiring more radical reforms in health and social policy. The study demonstrates a noticeable difference in mortality rates between demographic and socio-economic groups in the Baltic states. PMID:8235500

  7. [Distribution and growing possibilities of the medicinal woody plants in Lithuania].

    PubMed

    Baroniene, Valerija; Liagiene, Danguole

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the work was to collect and to publicize data about distribution and growing possibilities of native, introduced and suitable for introduction woody plants, containing some established medicinal properties, as a resource of material for medicinal preparations. It was established that 748 species of medicinal woody plants could be grown under Lithuanian climatic conditions: there are 65 native species of medicinal trees and shrubs, 421 introduced species and in addition 262 species of woody plants can be introduced. Out of all these plants, 368 species (49%) can be easily propagated and grown and are winter-hardy. The growing of 285 species (38%) is more difficult to some degree because of their more complicated propagation or care or less hardiness. Ninety-five species (13%) can be grown only in specialized collections. Thus, there are 262 species of woody medicinal plants, which can be introduced into Lithuania. In total 368 species of woody plants are promising as the resources of medicinal preparations in a broad scale and 285 species have medium perspectives. PMID:15299986

  8. Fan type end moraine related glaciofluvial deposits of Last Glaciation from Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šinkūnė, Eglė; Šinkūnas, Petras

    2015-04-01

    Several alluvial-fan type end moraine related sites were chosen for detailed sedimentological analyses in ice marginal zone of the last glaciation in Lithuania. Such glaciofluvial ice-marginal fans are formed close to linear ice-sheet front and have semi-conical form or represent simple asymmetric hill forms or more complex ridges with steep proximal and gentler distal slopes. Sedimentary sequences of ice-marginal fans studied consist mainly of waterlain sandy and gravelly deposits with pebbles and boulders. In some sequences a debris-flow deposits are observed as well as beds of sorted material interbedded with dominating high energy sheetflow deposits. Sediment grain size, sorting, structure and bedding characteristics dependent on ice proximity and hydrodynamic conditions were analysed. Highly pulsatory water discharge can be interpreted from depositional architecture of the end moraine related fans. The inferred character of sedimentation suggests that landforms consisting of deposits studied are genetically similar to the alluvial fans. According to the sedimentation features the investigated landforms are an intermediate between the marginal glaciofluvial ridges and sandur fans. Are they a transition zone of sedimentation between the end moraines and proximal outwash plains, or can be the end moraine related fans distinguished as a separate type of glaciofluvial deposits? This question is still open.

  9. Quantitative reconstruction of climate variability during the Eemian (Merkinė) and Weichselian (Nemunas) in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šeirienė, Vaida; Kühl, Norbert; Kisielienė, Dalia

    2014-07-01

    Little is known concerning climate changes in the Eastern Baltic region during the last interglacial-glacial cycle and in particular, climate changes during the Weichselian. In this study, a quantitative reconstruction of the mean January and July temperature for the Medininkai-117 site in Lithuania is presented. The reconstruction is based on pollen and plant macrofossils from this site, which reveal that the vegetation was characteristic of many northern Europe sites during the Eemian and Early Weichselian. Gradual evolution of the vegetation suggests that relatively uniform climate conditions existed during the Eemian. Our reconstructions support the view of a relatively stable Eemian, with short cooling phases of low amplitude. A strong increase in temperature was apparent during the beginning of the interglacial and decrease during the transition to the Weichselian. Reconstructed July temperatures of the Eemian interglacial were approximately 2 °C higher than today (18.5 °C; today: 16.2 °C) and were similar to today for January (- 5.2 °C; today: - 5.1 °C). July temperatures during the Early Weichselian were only ~ 2°C lower than during the Eemian, whereas the January temperatures gradually decreased. Winter temperatures were relatively high (above - 10 °C) during the Early Weichselian.

  10. The groundwater age in the Middle-Upper Devonian aquifer system, Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokrik, R.; Mažeika, J.; Baublytė, A.; Martma, T.

    2009-06-01

    3H, δ13C and hydrochemical data were used to estimate the corrected groundwater age derived from conventional 14C age of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The Middle-Upper Devonian aquifer system from the Baltic upland recharge area in eastern Lithuania towards the discharge area on the Baltic Sea coast in the west was considered. The concentration of total dissolved solids (TDS) in groundwater changes from 300 to 24,000 mg/L and increases downgradient towards the coast. The other major constituents have the same trend as the TDS. The hydrochemical facies of groundwater vary from an alkali-earth carbonates facies at the eastern upland area to an alkali-earth carbonate-sulfate and chloride facies at transit and discharge areas. Meteoric water percolating through the Quaternary and Devonian aquifers regulate the initial 14C activities of groundwater involving two main members of DIC: soil CO2 with modern 14C activity uptake and dissolution of 14C-free aquifer carbonates. Other sources of DIC are less common. 14C activity of DIC in the groundwater ranged from 60 to 108 pMC at the shallow depths. With an increase of the aquifers depth the dolomitization of aqueous solution and leakage of the “old” groundwater from lower aquifers take place, traced by lower activities (7-30 pMC).

  11. Modelling soil sodium and potassium adsorption ratio (SPAR) in the immediate period after a grassland fire in Lithuania.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerda, Artemi; Misiūnė, Ieva

    2015-04-01

    The soil sodium and potassium adsorption ratio (SPAR) is an index that measures the amount of sodium and potassium adsorbed onto clay and organic matter surfaces, in relation to calcium and magnesium. Assess the potential of soil dispersion or flocculation, a process which has implication in soil hydraulic properties and erosion (Sarah, 2004). Depending on severity and the type of ash produced, fire can changes in the immediate period the soil nutrient status (Bodi et al. 2014). Ash releases onto soil surface a large amount of cations, due the high pH. Previous works showed that SPAR from ash slurries is higher than solutions produced from litter (Pereira et al., 2014a). Normally the spatial distribution of topsoil nutrients in the immediate period after the fire is very heterogeneous, due to the different impacts of fire. Thus it is important to identify the most accurate interpolation method in order to identify with better precision the impacts of fire on soil properties. The objective of this work is to test several interpolation methods. The study area is located in near Vilnius (Lithuania) at 54° 42' N, 25° 08 E, 158 masl. Four days after the fire it was designed a plot in a burned area with near Vilnius (Lithuania) at 54° 42' N, 25° 08 E, 158 masl. Twenty five samples were collected from the topsoil. The SPAR index was calculated according to the formula: (Na++K+)/(Ca2++Mg2+)1/2 (Sarah, 2004). Data followed the normal distribution, thus no transformation was required previous to data modelling. Several well know interpolation models were tested, as Inverse Distance to a Weight (IDW) with the power of 1, 2, 3 and 4, Radial Basis Functions (RBF), Inverse Multiquadratic (IMT), Multilog (MTG), Multiquadratic (MTQ), Natural Cubic Spline (NCS) and Thin Plate Spline (TPS) and Local Polynomial (LP) with the power of 1 and 2 and Ordinary Kriging. The best interpolator was the one which had the lowest Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) (Pereira et al., 2014b). The

  12. Disease activity and health status in rheumatoid arthritis: a case-control comparison between Norway and Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Dadoniene, J; Uhlig, T; Stropuviene, S; Venalis, A; Boonen, A; Kvien, T

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To compare disease characteristics and health status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from two countries, Norway and Lithuania. Methods: Patients were recruited from the RA registers in Vilnius (Lithuania) and Oslo (Norway). For each patient from Vilnius, a patient matched for age and sex from the Oslo register was selected. Sociodemographic characteristics, disease process, and health status were compared between the patient groups. Results: 201 Lithuanian patients and 201 Norwegian patients were included. Mean (SD) age in both groups was 55.9 (10.0) years, and 83% were women. Patients from Lithuania were less often employed (27% v 42%; p=0.001), had higher disease activity expressed by the disease activity score (DAS28; mean (SD) 5.3 (1.0) v 4.4 (1.4); p<0.001), had worse physical function by the modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (MHAQ; mean (SD) 2.3 (0.8) v 1.6 (0.5); p<0.001), had more often comorbidity (73% v 53%; p<0.001) and they reported worse general health measured by Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36; mean (SD) 23.2 (13.5) v 44.5 (21.3); p<0.001). The proportions of patients who had used disease modifying drugs were similar, but the pattern of use differed. Conclusion: Important differences in employment, disease activity, physical function, and self reported health status were observed in patients with RA from two northern European countries. Socioeconomic inequalities, differences in disease management, and access to specialised health care, as well as methodological issues regarding instruments and data collection are likely explanations. These data support the view that management of RA should be adapted to country-specific needs. PMID:12594108

  13. Trends in the Attack Rates, Incidence, and Mortality of Stroke during 1986–2012: Data of Kaunas (Lithuania) Stroke Registry

    PubMed Central

    Radisauskas, Ricardas; Malinauskiene, Vilija; Milinaviciene, Egle; Kranciukaite-Butylkiniene, Daina; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Bernotiene, Gailute; Luksiene, Dalia; Milasauskiene, Zemyna; Sopagiene, Diana; Rastenyte, Daiva

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a lack of reliable epidemiological data on longitudinal trends in stroke attack rates, incidence, and mortality in the countries of the Baltic region. Aims The aim of the present study was to explore the longitudinal trends of stroke in middle-aged urban population of Lithuania during the period of 1986 through 2012. Methods All stroke events in the studied population were ascertained and validated according to the standardized criteria outlined by the WHO MONICA Project. The study included all patients in Kaunas (Lithuania) city aged 25 to 64 years who experienced a stroke between 1986 and 2012. Estimates of time-trends of the annual percentage change in stroke attack rates, incidence of stroke, and mortality from this condition were made by applying the Joinpoint regression analysis. Results During the study period, 9,992 stroke events were registered. The overall proportion of recurrent events was 25.7%. Overall, 18.9% of the events (20.0% in men, and 17.4% in women) were fatal within 28 days. During the period of 1986 to 2012, a flat trend in the incidence of stroke was observed among both male and female middle-aged inhabitants of Kaunas city, while attack rates were increasing due to the increase in recurrent strokes. Both mortality and 28-day case fatality of stroke declined significantly over the study period in both sexes. Conclusions An increase both in the incidence and recurrence of stroke among middle-aged men residing in Kaunas city and in the recurrence of stroke among women denotes the inefficiency of measures applied both for primary and secondary prevention of stroke in Lithuania. The revision of current prevention strategies and the introduction of new ones are of paramount importance in order to fight the epidemic of stroke. PMID:27124412

  14. Stakeholder perception about urban sprawl impacts in land degradation in Lithuania. The importance of profession and education.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Misiune, Ieva; Mierauskas, Pranas; Depellegrin, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Stakeholders have an important impact on land use planning. Their visions and culture, shape and influence the decision makers and the legislation (Schwilch et al., 2009; Fleskens and Stringer, 2014; Pereira et al., 2016; Subiros et al., 2016). Nowadays, urban sprawl is one the causes of land degradation, causing important, environmental, social and economic problems. This expansion to rural areas is caused mainly by lifestyle changes, cultural views, increase of mobility, house price in city centers, poor air quality, noise, small apartments, unsafe environments, lack of green areas, competition among municipalities, development of transport network and social problems. Urban sprawl is currently an important problem in Lithuania, especially in Vilnius. Vilnius residents are concerned about the impacts of urban sprawl in environmental, social and economic aspects. Nevertheless, this depends very much on the age of and the occupation of the residents (Pereira et al., 2014). However, very little information is available about the vision of stakeholders regarding this position. The objective of this work is to study the stakeholder's perception about urban sprawl impacts on land degradation in Lithuania. A total of 86 stakeholders from different institutions were interviewed and asked to rate from 1 to 5 according to the importance of the question (1=very low; 2=low; 3=medium; 4=high and 5=very high). The questions carried out were. Does urban sprawl have impacts on a) consumption of land and soil, b) loss of soil permeability, c) loss of soil biodiversity, d) loss of best agricultural land, e) increase in the use of water and fertilizers in less productive areas, f) increase in soil erosion in remote areas, and g) loss of natural habitats. These variables were analyzed according to the gender, age, place of residence (urban/countryside), Profession, field of studies, study level and if the participant was a member of a NGO. A general regression was carried out in

  15. Body Image and Weight Control among Adolescents in Lithuania, Croatia, and the United States in the Context of Global Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Petronyte, Gintare; Sumskas, Linas; Kuzman, Marina; Iannotti, Ronald J.

    2008-01-01

    Aim To compare body image and weight control behavior among adolescents in Lithuania, Croatia, and the United States (US), the countries with striking contrasts in the prevalence of overweight among adolescents. Method The study was carried out according to the methodology of the Health Behavior in School-aged Children collaborative survey. Nationally-representative samples of students, aged 13 and 15, were surveyed in Lithuania (3778 respondents), Croatia (2946 respondents), and the US (3546 respondents) in the 2001/2002 school year. Results In all three countries, girls perceived themselves as being “too fat” more frequently than boys (37.0% vs 19.7%, P<0.001, z test). The prevalence of this perception increased with age among girls (32.7% vs 41.1%, P<0.001, z test) and decreased among boys (21.4% vs 17.9%, P = 0.005, z test). Lithuanian adolescents were least likely to perceive themselves as “too fat;” this perception was significantly more frequent in Croatia and the US (24.2%, 27.5%, and 34.3%, respectively; P<0.001, χ2 test). With the exception of 15-year-old Lithuanian boys, in all respondents the proportion of adolescents with body mass index (BMI) ≥85th percentile who perceived themselves as “too fat” was significantly higher (up to 3.13 times among 15-year-old US girls) than the proportion of adolescents with BMI ≤15th percentile who perceived themselves as “too thin.” The highest proportion of overweight boys and girls on a diet or doing something else to lose weight was found in the US. Boys in Lithuania were most likely to be satisfied with their weight regardless of their weight status. Conclusion Perceived body image and weight control behavior differ among adolescents in Lithuania, Croatia, and the US. Cross-cultural, age, and sex influences moderate body image and weight control behavior in underweight and overweight adolescents. PMID:18461679

  16. Response of deciduous trees spring phenology to recent and projected climate change in Central Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juknys, Romualdas; Kanapickas, Arvydas; Šveikauskaitė, Irma; Sujetovienė, Gintarė

    2016-03-01

    The analysis of long-term time series of spring phenology for different deciduous trees species has shown that leaf unfolding for all the investigated species is the most sensitive to temperatures in March and April and illustrates that forcing temperature is the main driver of the advancement of leaf unfolding. Available chilling amount has increased by 22.5 % over the last 90 years, indicating that in the investigated geographical region there is no threat of chilling shortage. The projection of climatic parameters for Central Lithuania on the basis of three global circulation models has shown that under the optimistic climate change scenario (RCP 2.6) the mean temperature tends to increase by 1.28 °C and under the pessimistic scenario (RCP 8.5) by 5.03 °C until the end of the current century. Recently, different statistical models are used not only to analyze but also to project the changes in spring phenology. Our study has shown that when the data of long-term phenological observations are available, multiple regression models are suitable for the projection of the advancement of leaf unfolding under the changing climate. According to the RCP 8.5 scenario, the projected advancement in leaf unfolding for early-season species birch consists of almost 15 days as an average of all three used GSMs. Markedly less response to the projected far future (2071-2100), climate change is foreseen for other investigated climax species: -9 days for lime, 10 days for oak, and 11 days for maple.

  17. Incidence and direct hospitalisation costs of hip fractures in Vilnius, capital of Lithuania, in 2010

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Few epidemiological data on hip fractures were previously available in Lithuania. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and hospital costs of hip fractures in Vilnius in 2010. Methods Data were collected from the medical charts of all patients admitted to hospitals in Vilnius (population, 548,835) due to new low-energy trauma hip fracture, during 2010. The estimated costs included ambulance transportation and continuous hospitalisation immediately after a fracture, which are covered by the Lithuanian healthcare system. Results The incidence of new low-energy trauma hip fractures was 252 (308 women and 160 men) per 100,000 inhabitants of Vilnius aged 50-years or more. There was an exponential increase in the incidence with increasing age. The overall estimated cost of hip fractures in Vilnius was 1,114,292 EUR for the year 2010. The greatest part of the expenditure was accounted for by fractures in individuals aged 65-years and over. The mean cost per case was 2,526.74 EUR, and cost varied depending on the treatment type. Hip replacement did not affect the overall mean costs of hip fracture. The majority of costs were incurred for acute (53%) and long-term care (35%) hospital stays, while medical rehabilitation accounted for only 12% of the overall cost. The costs of hip fracture were somewhat lower than those found in other European countries. Conclusion The data on incidence and costs of hip fractures will help to assess the importance of interventions to reduce the number of fractures and associated costs. PMID:22747915

  18. Prevalence of Dental Erosion among the Young Regular Swimmers in Kaunas, Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Zebrauskas, Andrius; Maciulskiene, Vita

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To determine prevalence of dental erosion among competitive swimmers in Kaunas, the second largest city in Lithuania. Material and Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey, with a questionnaire and clinical examination protocols. The participants were 12 - 25 year-old swimmers regularly practicing in the swimming pools of Kaunas. Of the total of 132 participants there were 76 (12 - 17 year-old) and 56 (18 - 25 year-old) individuals; in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. Participants were examined for dental erosion, using a portable dental unit equipped with fibre-optic light, compressed air and suction, and standard dental instruments for oral inspection. Lussi index was applied for recording dental erosion. The completed questionnaires focused on the common erosion risk factors were returned by all participants. Results Dental erosion was found in 25% of the 12 - 17 year-olds, and in 50% of 18 - 25 years-olds. Mean value of the surfaces with erosion was 6.31 (SD 4.37). All eroded surfaces were evaluated as grade 1. Swimming training duration and the participants’ age correlated positively (Kendall correlation, r = 0.65, P < 0.001), meaning that older swimmers had practiced for longer period. No significant correlation between occurrence of dental erosion and the analyzed risk factors (gastroesophageal reflux disease, frequent vomiting, dry mouth, regular intake of acidic medicines, carbonated drinks) was found in both study groups. Conclusions Prevalence of dental erosion of very low degree was high among the regular swimmers in Kaunas, and was significantly related to swimmers’ age. PMID:25089178

  19. First report of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris’ subgroup 16SrI-A associated with a disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum) in Lithuania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Symptoms of little leaf, witches’-broom, and abnormally small and deformed potatoes, suggestive of possible phytoplasmal infection, were observed in diseased potato (Solanum tuberosum var. Hannibal arba Kestrel) in the Vilnius region of Lithuania. DNA extracted from symptomatic leaves and shoots we...

  20. Curriculum Change and Social Inclusion: Perspectives from the Baltic and Scandinavian Countries. Final Report of the Regional Seminar (Vilnius, Lithuania, December 5-8, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tawil, Sobhi, Ed.

    The main objectives of a Vilnius, Lithuania, seminar were to share experiences in curriculum reform to promote life skills for social inclusion. This was to be achieved through an exchange on principles, approaches and methodologies that inform processes of curriculum reform in life skills education. Most of the participants were senior education…

  1. MOLECULAR DETECTION, CLASSIFICATION, AND PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF SUBGROUP 16SRI-C PHYTOPLASMAS DETECTED IN DISEASED POA AND FESTUCA IN LITHUANIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytoplasma strains were detected in two grass species, Poa pratensis L. (common meadow grass) and Festuca arundinacea Schreb. (tall fescue), exhibiting yellows disease symptoms in Lithuania. Analysis of amplified 16S rDNAs revealed that the phytoplasmas associated with these diseases, designated as...

  2. Efficacy and tolerability of olanzapine in patients with schizophrenia in lithuania: A 13-week, multicenter, open-label, nonrandomized study☆

    PubMed Central

    Maciulis, Valentinas; Bitter, Istvan; Milasiunas, Raimundas; Dembinskas, Algirdas; Radavicius, Liaudminas; Kaunas, Algirdas; Dossenbach, Martin; Walker, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Background: The atypical antipsychotic olanzapine has been approved for the treatment of schizophrenia in Europe since 1996 but has been used primarily as a second-line treatment to the less expensive typical agents. However, similar to other atypical antipsychotic drugs, olanzapine has a lower risk of inducing extrapyramidal symptoms, tardive dyskinesia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and sexual dysfunction compared with the typical antipsychotic drugs. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether patients with schizophrenia who have a poor response to their present antipsychotic therapy would show improvement when switched to olanzapine. Methods: This 13-week, multicenter, open-label, nonrandomized trial was conducted at 5 centers in Lithuania. Patients were started on oral olanzapine 10-mg tablets once daily, which could be adjusted by 5 mg/d in the dosing range of 5 to 20 mg/d. The primary efficacy measure was the total score on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), which was extracted from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Efficacy response rate was defined a priori as the percentage of patients achieving ≥40% improvement in the BPRS total score. Secondary assessments included the PANSS total and BPRS and PANSS subscales and scores on the Clinical Global Impression-Severity of Illness (CGI-S), the CGI-Global Improvement (CGI-I), and the Patient Global Impression-Improvement (PGI-I) tests. Tolerability was primarily measured by assessing the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) according to the Udvalg fuer Kliniske Undersogelser (UKU) Side Effect Rating Scale and laboratory analyses. Results: Twenty-four patients (13 men [54.2%]; mean [SD] age, 32.4 [8.1] years) entered the study. Twenty-three (95.8%) of the 24 patients completed the study. The mean (SD) daily dosage of olanzapine was 11.40 (2.18) mg/d. The total mean (SD) BPRS score improved significantly from 37.8 (7.9) to 19.5 (13.7) (P < 0.001). The

  3. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities on seedlings and conspecific trees of Pinus mugo grown on the coastal dunes of the Curonian Spit in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Aučina, Algis; Rudawska, Maria; Leski, Tomasz; Ryliškis, Darius; Pietras, Marcin; Riepšas, Edvardas

    2011-04-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) communities of mature trees and regenerating seedlings of a non-native tree species Pinus mugo grown in a harsh environment of the coastal region of the Curonian Spit National Park in Lithuania were assessed. We established three study sites (S1, S2, and S3) that were separated from each other by 15 km. The ECM species richness was rather low in particular for mature, 100-year-old trees: 12 ectomycorrhizal taxa were identified by molecular analysis from 11 distinguished morphotypes. All 12 taxa were present on seedlings and on mature trees, with between 8-11 and 9-11 taxa present on seedlings and mature trees, respectively. Cenococcum geophilum dominated all ECM communities, but the relative abundance of C. geophilum mycorrhizas was nearly two times higher on seedlings than on mature trees. Mycorrhizal associations formed by Wilcoxina sp., Lactarius rufus, and Russula paludosa were also abundant. Several fungal taxa were only occasionally detected, including Cortinarius sp., Cortinarius obtusus, Cortinarius croceus, and Meliniomyces sp. Shannon's diversity indices for the ECM assemblages of P. mugo ranged from 0.98 to 1.09 for seedling and from 1.05 to 1.31 for mature trees. According to analysis of similarity, the mycorrhizal communities were similar between the sites (R = 0.085; P = 0.06) and only slightly separated between seedlings and mature trees (R = 0.24; P < 0.0001). An incidental fruiting body survey that was conducted weakly reflected the below-ground assessment of the ECM fungal community and once again showed that ECM and fruiting body studies commonly supply different partial accounts of the true ECM fungal diversity. Our results show that P. mugo has moved into quite distinct habitats and is able to adapt a suite of ECM symbionts that sufficiently support growth and development of this tree and allow for natural seedling regeneration. PMID:20938693

  4. Short-term temporal and spatial variability of soil hydrophobicity in an abandoned agriculture field in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Burguet, Maria; Cerdà, Artemi

    2013-04-01

    Soil water repellency (SWR) is a natural property of soils. Among other factors, SWR depends on soil moisture, mineralogy, texture, pH, organic matter, aggregate stability, fungal and microbiological activity and plant cover. It has implications on plant growth, superficial and subsurface hydrology and soil erosion. It is well known that SWR is temporarily, increasing when soils are dry and decreasing when moist. In agriculture, soil micro-topography is very heterogeneous with implications on surface water distribution and wettability. Normally, SWR studies are focused on large interval time (e.g, monthly or seasonally). The objective of this work is the study of SWR in a temporal scale and its variability in an abandoned agriculture field in Lithuania. An experimental plot with 21 m2 (07x03 m) was designed in a flat area. Inside this plot SWR was measured in the field, placing three droplets of water on the soil surface and counting the time that takes to infiltrate. A total of 105 sampling points were measured per sampling period. Soil water repellency was measured after a period of 14 days without rainfall and in the seven consequent weeks (one measurement per week between 28th May and 07th of July 2012). The results showed that in this small plot, SWR was observed in the first (May 28), third and fourth measurements (08th of June and 16th). It was observed an increasing of the percentage of hydrophobic points (Water Drop Penetration Test ≥5 seconds) between the first and the fourth measurement, decreasing thereafter. Significant differences of SWR were observed among all periods (F=78.32, p<0.0001). The coefficient of variation (CV%) changed strikingly, 361.10 % (8th of May), 151.78 % (01st of June), 83.77% (08th of June), 125.87% (16th of June), 0.45 (22nd of June), 121%(31st of June) and 67.13% (7th of July). The correlation between the mean SWR and the CV% is 0.75, p<0.05. The changes were attributed to different soil moisture conditions. The differences

  5. The preliminary data on the Aeronian (Silurian) machaerids from Lithuania (Baltic Basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radzevičius, S.; Ekleris, A.

    2012-04-01

    Machaerids are stem-Lophotrochozoans, closely related to the Annelids, and known from the Early Ordovician to Middle Permian. Machaerids is a group of worm-like benthic marine, bilaterally symmetrical, armoured invertebrate. Their body is covered by an external scleritome. The scleritome is imbricated of longitudinally arranged series of plates or sclerites. Completely articulated specimens of machaeridians are very rare, yet the systematic position of machaerids is controversial. Machaeridians had been assigned to different groups, such as barnacles, mollusks, echinoderms and annelids. The latter is prevailing, however their exact place within the annelids still remains unresolved. New findings of disarticulated Silurian machaerids have been recorded in western Lithuania, Geniai-1 core. This well has been drilled with exploration purposes regarding the Cambrian oil reservoir; therefore the biggest part of the Silurian core has not been collected. The exceptions are some parts of the Llandovery and Ludlow, which have partially recovered well core, but the identification of the precise stratigraphical position is complicated. Disarticulated sclerites of machaeridians have been found at the 1756.4 m depth, in the argillite, together with some graptolites and brachiopods. Several rhabdosome fragments of Normalograptus scalaris (Hisinger) were found together with the machaenid sclerites as well. N. scalaris has wide biostratigraphical distribution from the Rhudanian to the lower part of Telychian, which comprises the convolutus - triangulates graptolite biozones, corresponding to the 1756.8 - 1756 m depth. Convolutus - triangulates biozones represent Aeronian, and the machaeridian sclerites come from this interval, together with the Jonsea grayi (Davidson) brachiopod shells, which are very common and correspond to the BA 5-6 benthic assemblage, as well as do the graptolites found together. In previous studies, two orders of machaerids have been recognized: the

  6. FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CHILDREN'S HEIGHT AND BODY MASS INDEX IN LITHUANIA, 1990-2008.

    PubMed

    Suchomlinov, Andrej; Tutkuviene, Janina

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study was to reveal the ethnic and socioeconomic factors associated with height and body mass index (BMI) of children during the period of political and social transition in Lithuania in 1990-2008. Data were derived from the personal health records of 1491 children (762 boys and 729 girls) born in 1990 in Vilnius city and region. Height and BMI from birth up to the age of 18 years were investigated. Children were divided into groups according to their ethnicity, place of residence, father's and mother's occupation and birth order. Height and BMI were compared between the groups; a Bonferroni correction was applied. A multiple linear regression model was used to measure the effects of the independent variables on height and BMI. Girls living in Vilnius city were significantly taller in later life at the ages of 8 and 11 years. Sons of mothers employed as office workers appeared to be significantly taller at the ages of 7, 12, 14 and 15 years compared with the sons of labourers. First-born girls were taller at the age of 7 years than later-born girls of the same age (124.48±5.11 cm and 122.92±5.14 cm, respectively, p<0.001). Later-born children of both sexes had higher BMIs at birth compared with first-borns; however, first-born girls had higher BMIs at the age of 11 years compared with their later-born peers (17.78±2.87 kg/m² and 16.79±2.14 kg/m² respectively, p<0.001). In the multiple linear regression model, the five tested independent variables explained only up to 18% of total variability. Boys were more sensitive to ethnic and socioeconomic factors: ethnicity appeared to be a significant predictor of boys' height at the age of 5 years (p<0.001), while birth order (p<0.001) predicted boys' BMI at birth. In general, ethnicity, place of residence, father's and mother's occupation and birth order were not associated with children's height and BMI in most age groups. PMID:26165167

  7. Attitudes of fertile and infertile woman towards new reproductive technologies: a case study of Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This article analyzes several key issues in the debate: the acceptability of in vitro fertilization; regulation of assisted reproduction and the possibilities of reimbursement for assisted reproduction treatment in Lithuania. Method Two groups of respondents participated in the survey: fertile women and women with fertility disorders. 93 completed questionnaires from women with fertility problems and 146 from women with no fertility problems were analysed. Results Fertile respondents more frequently perceived the embryo as a human being (Fertile Individuals – 68.5%; Infertile Individuals – 35.5%; p < 0.05) and more frequently maintained that assisted reproduction treatment should be only partly reimbursed (Fertile Individuals – 71.3%; Infertile Individuals – 39.8%; p < 0.05). Respondents with fertility disorders more frequently thought that artificial insemination procedure could also be applied to unmarried couples (Fertile Individuals – 51.4%; Infertile Individuals – 76.3%; p < 0.05), and more frequently agreed that there should be no age limit for artificial insemination procedures (Fertile Individuals – 36.3%; Infertile Individuals – 67.7%; p < 0.05). The majority of respondents in both groups (Fertile Individuals – 77.4%; Infertile Individuals – 82.8%; p < 0.05) believed that donation of reproductive cells should be regulated by law. Fertile respondents more frequently considered that strict legal regulation was necessary in case of the number of transferred embryos (Fertile Individuals – 69.2%; Infertile Individuals – 39.8%; p < 0.05) and freezing of embryos (Fertile Individuals – 69.9%; Infertile Individuals – 57.0%; p < 0.05). Conclusion Fertile respondents were statistically more likely to believe that the IVF procedure should be applied only to married couples or women who had a regular partner, the age limit should be defined and the psychological assessment of the couple’s relationship and their readiness for the

  8. Studies of microstructures of deformed charnockitic rocks in Telsiai deformation zone, Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vejelyte, Irma

    2010-05-01

    The Telsiai Deformation Zone (TDZ), a regional scale Precambrian deformation zone in the crystalline basement of Lithuania, transects the WLGD in the E-W direction and is approximately 15-20 km wide as mirrored by a belt of gravity and magnetic lows. As indicated by petrological and geophysical data the TDZ crosscuts a 1.82 Ga charnockitic pluton in a ductile manner. In turn, the TDZ appears to have been intruded by or accommodated a 1.46 Ga granitoid intrusion, defining at least its age in-between of these two magmatic events. The mesoanalyses and microanalyses of drillcores have been carried out on augen mylonite and ultramylonite, which were formed at upper amphibolite facies. The temperature during the deformation was 650-750 C° at pressure between 3.0 and 4.7 kbar. The deformed charnockites have a prominent foliation marked mainly by feldspar, biotite, quartz, orthopyroxene, garnet and ± clinopyroxene. Porphyroclasts of plagioclase are elongated and banded. They are partly recrystallized to fine-grained polygonal aggregates as a result of high temperature deformation. In places, plagioclase has been truncated by plagioclase-rich microshears. Quartz grains are in three manners: large old grains with deeply indented boundaries and undulate extinction; medium polygonal grains and ribbons grains. Large biotite grains are locally kinked, some of them have been partly neocrystallized to much smaller new grains of biotite parallel to the foliation. Garnet crystals are elongated and oriented to the foliation. Individual grains of them in the highest strain areas have been recrystallized to many small garnet grains. Large crystals of orthopyroxene are deformed and elongated, on their sheared rims tails of fine grained orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene have been formed. The subgrain rotation, grain-boundary migration recrystallization and recovery processes predominate in all minerals. Near residual plagioclase also are visible myrmekites. They formed along those sides

  9. Survival of drug resistant tuberculosis patients in Lithuania: retrospective national cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Radiulyte, Birute; Davidaviciene, Edita; Hooper, Richard; Ignatyeva, Olga; Nikolayevskyy, Vladyslav; Drobniewski, Francis A

    2011-01-01

    Objective To establish risk factors influencing survival of patients with multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/XDRTB). Design All MDR/XDRTB cases (n=1809) reported from 2002 to 2008 in Lithuania with a known outcome were included in the survival analysis. Results Median survival for MDRTB and XDRTB patients was 4.1 (95% CI 3.7 to 4.4) and 2.9 (95% CI 2.2 to 3.9) years. In a multivariable analysis adjusting for other patient characteristics, the difference in survival between MDRTB and XDRTB patients was not significant (HR=1.29 (0.91 to 1.81)). Older age (HR=4.80 (3.16 to 7.29)) for 60+ vs <30 years, rural living (HR=1.20 (1.02 to 1.40)), alcohol use (HR=1.49 (1.13 to 1.96)) for alcoholic versus moderate use, unemployment (HR=1.79 (1.31 to 2.46)), lower education levels (HR=1.50 (1.08 to 2.07)) for primary level versus tertiary level, cavitary disease (HR=1.54 (1.29 to 1.83)) and being smear positive at the time of MDR/XDRTB diagnosis (HR=1.47 (1.19 to 1.82)) were associated with poorer survival. HIV positivity significantly affected survival (HR=3.44 (1.92 to 6.19)) for HIV positive versus HIV negative; HR=1.60 (1.28 to 2.01) for HIV not tested versus HIV negative). There was no difference in survival of patients who acquired MDR/XDRTB during treatment compared with patients with primary MDR/XDRTB (HR=1.01 (0.85 to 1.19)). Treatment with a second-line drug improved survival (HR=0.40 (0.34 to 0.47)). In a subgroup with genotyped TB strains, a Beijing family of strains was associated with poorer survival (HR=1.71 (1.19 to 2.47)). Conclusions Social factors, rural living, HIV infection and Beijing strain family impact on survival. Survival of MDR/XDRTB patients is short. Rapid drug resistance identification, early administration of appropriate treatment and achieving high cure rates, expansion of HIV testing and antiretroviral treatment are necessary for optimal management of MDR/XDRTB. PMID:22123922

  10. Holocene malacofauna in calcareous deposits of Dūkšta site near Maišiagala in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanko, Aleksander; Gaigalas, Algirdas; Rudnickaitė, Eugenija; Melešytė, Monika

    2008-01-01

    The paper contains results of new investigations in Lithuania of the first occurrences of terrestrial molluscs in calcareous tufa (travertine), carbonate content and radiocarbon dating. Terrestrial fossil molluscs (35 taxa) prevail in the mollusc fauna, while freshwater species are much more rare (6 taxa). The Dūkšta terrestrial mollusc fauna embraces a complex of thermophiles including such forest species as Acicula polita (Hartmann), Acanthinula aculeata (Müller), Aegopinella cf. pura (Alder), Bulgaria cana (Held) and Discus cf. rotundatus (Müller), as well as mainly South European Carychium tridentatum (Risso) and mainly West European Vertigo moulinsiana (Dupuy). The radiocarbon age of the sediments was found to correspond to the end of the Atlantic climatic period and the beginning of the Subboreal.

  11. Impact of Beaver Dams on Abundance and Distribution of Anadromous Salmonids in Two Lowland Streams in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Virbickas, Tomas; Stakėnas, Saulius; Steponėnas, Andrius

    2015-01-01

    European beaver dams impeded movements of anadromous salmonids as it was established by fishing survey, fish tagging and redd counts in two lowland streams in Lithuania. Significant differences in abundancies of other litophilic fish species and evenness of representation by species in the community were detected upstream and downstream of the beaver dams. Sea trout parr marked with RFID tags passed through several successive beaver dams in upstream direction, but no tagged fish were detected above the uppermost dam. Increase in abundances of salmonid parr in the stream between the beaver dams and decrease below the dams were recorded in November, at the time of spawning of Atlantic salmon and sea trout, but no significant changes were detected in the sections upstream of the dams. After construction of several additional beaver dams in the downstream sections of the studied streams, abundance of Atlantic salmon parr downstream of the dams decreased considerably in comparison with that estimated before construction. PMID:25856377

  12. Impact of beaver dams on abundance and distribution of anadromous salmonids in two lowland streams in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Virbickas, Tomas; Stakėnas, Saulius; Steponėnas, Andrius

    2015-01-01

    European beaver dams impeded movements of anadromous salmonids as it was established by fishing survey, fish tagging and redd counts in two lowland streams in Lithuania. Significant differences in abundancies of other litophilic fish species and evenness of representation by species in the community were detected upstream and downstream of the beaver dams. Sea trout parr marked with RFID tags passed through several successive beaver dams in upstream direction, but no tagged fish were detected above the uppermost dam. Increase in abundances of salmonid parr in the stream between the beaver dams and decrease below the dams were recorded in November, at the time of spawning of Atlantic salmon and sea trout, but no significant changes were detected in the sections upstream of the dams. After construction of several additional beaver dams in the downstream sections of the studied streams, abundance of Atlantic salmon parr downstream of the dams decreased considerably in comparison with that estimated before construction. PMID:25856377

  13. Long-term evaluation of the needle surface wax condition of Pinus sylvestris around different industries in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Kupcinskiene, Eugenija; Huttunen, Satu

    2005-10-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the annual dynamics of needle surface wax erosion and wettability in Scots pines exposed to a gradient of industrial pollutants emitted from the main factories of Lithuania: a nitrogen fertilizer factory, an oil refinery and a cement factory. Decreased emissions (in the case of the oil refinery and the cement factory) were reflected in the increased structural surface area (SSA, i.e. area covered by tubular waxes) on the needles. The nearly constant amount of emissions from the nitrogen fertilizer factory within the 1994-2000 period corresponded to negligible annual differences in SSA. Annual changes in the hydrophobicity of needles on the investigated transects were small. Despite the decreased pollution within the 7-year period, industrial emissions are still causing significantly accelerated wax erosion and increased wettability in needles sampled from the stands most heavily affected by pollutants. PMID:16005772

  14. Cigarette smoking among school-going adolescents in Lithuania: Results from the 2005 Global Youth Tobacco Survey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The majority of people who suffer morbidity due to smoking may have initiated smoking during adolescent period. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and associated factors for cigarette smoking among school-going adolescents in Lithuania. Findings Data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) 2005 were used to conduct this study. Data were analyzed using SUDAAN software 9.03. Comparisons for categorical variables were done using the Pearson's Chi-square test. The cut of point for statistical significance was set at 5% level. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine factors associated with the outcome. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) together with their 95% confidence intervals (CI) are reported. Of the 1822 respondents, 35.8% males and 27.1% females reported being current cigarette smokers (p < 0.001). Having friends who smoke cigarettes was associated with smoking after controlling for age, gender, parental smoking status, and perception of risks of smoking (AOR = 3.76; 95% CI [2.33, 6.90] for some friends using tobacco; and AOR = 17.18; 95% CI [10.46, 28.21] for most or all friends using tobacco). Male gender and having one or both parents who smoke cigarettes were associated with smoking (AOR = 1.31; 95% CI [1.03, 1.66]) and AOR = 1.76; 95% CI [1.37, 2.27]) respectively). Conclusions There is a high prevalence of cigarette smoking among Lithuanian adolescents. Male adolescents and adolescents who have friends or parents who smoke should be the main target for tobacco control in Lithuania. PMID:20459649

  15. The sociodemographic patterning of drinking and binge drinking in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Finland, 1994–2002

    PubMed Central

    Helasoja, Ville; Lahelma, Eero; Prättälä, Ritva; Petkeviciene, Janina; Pudule, Iveta; Tekkel, Mare

    2007-01-01

    Background Despite the relatively low recorded alcohol consumption level, the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania) and neighbouring Finland suffer from similar harmful consequences related to the use of alcoholic beverages, including socio-economic inequalities in alcohol related mortality. Comparative evidence is needed to understand harmful drinking patterns and to implement preventive alcohol policies also in the Baltic countries. This study compared heavy and binge drinking by sex, age, education, urbanisation and marital status in the Baltic countries and Finland. Methods The data were nationally representative postal surveys conducted in Estonia (n = 6271), Latvia (n = 6106), Lithuania (n = 7966) and Finland (n = 15764) during 1994–2002. The criterion for heavy drinking was at least 15 portions weekly among men, and at least five among women, and for binge drinking at least six portions per one occasion. Results Heavy drinking was more common among younger participants in all countries, and in Latvia among the less-educated. Among Finnish men, and among women from all countries except Latvia, the better-educated were more often heavy drinkers. In Latvia and Finland, urban men, and in all countries, urban women, were more often heavy drinkers. Heavy drinking was more common among non-married Lithuanian and Finnish men, and Finnish women. Binge drinking was more common among less-educated Estonian and Latvian men, and among younger and less-educated women in all countries. Conclusion Our results support the continued power of traditional drinking habits in the North Eastern part of Europe. In the future the target groups for prevention of excessive drinking should also include young and less-educated women in all four countries studied. PMID:17854484

  16. VIEW SHOWING WEST ELEVATION, EAST SIDE OF MEYER AVENUE. SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SHOWING WEST ELEVATION, EAST SIDE OF MEYER AVENUE. SHOWS 499-501, MUNOZ HOUSE (AZ-73-37) ON FAR RIGHT - Antonio Bustamente House, 485-489 South Meyer Avenue & 186 West Kennedy Street, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  17. 15. Detail showing lower chord pinconnected to vertical member, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail showing lower chord pin-connected to vertical member, showing floor beam riveted to extension of vertical member below pin-connection, and showing brackets supporting cantilevered sidewalk. View to southwest. - Selby Avenue Bridge, Spanning Short Line Railways track at Selby Avenue between Hamline & Snelling Avenues, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  18. 28. MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF ARVFS FACILITY AS BUILT. SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF ARVFS FACILITY AS BUILT. SHOWS LINCOLN BOULEVARD, BIG LOST RIVER, AND NAVAL REACTORS FACILITY. F.C. TORKELSON DRAWING NUMBER 842-ARVFS-101-2. DATED OCTOBER 12, 1965. INEL INDEX CODE NUMBER: 075 0101 851 151969. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. 8. Detail showing concrete abutment, showing substructure of bridge, specifically ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail showing concrete abutment, showing substructure of bridge, specifically west side of arch and substructure. - Presumpscot Falls Bridge, Spanning Presumptscot River at Allen Avenue extension, 0.75 mile west of U.S. Interstate 95, Falmouth, Cumberland County, ME

  20. Streptococcus pneumoniae nasopharyngeal colonisation in children aged under six years with acute respiratory tract infection in Lithuania, February 2012 to March 2013.

    PubMed

    Usonis, V; Stacevičienė, I; Petraitienė, S; Vaičiūnienė, D; Alasevičius, T; Kirslienė, J

    2015-01-01

    serotypes among children in Lithuania are limited. A prospective study was carried out from February 2012 to March 2013 to evaluate the circulation of SPn serotypes among young children in five cities of Lithuania before the introduction of universal vaccination with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). A total of 900 children under six years of age who presented to primary care centres or a hospital emergency department with acute respiratory tract infection (RTI) were enrolled in the study. The SPn colonisation rate was40.8% (367/900), with a peak at two and three years old(48.8% and 45.4%, respectively). Of the 367 SPn isolates, the most common serotypes were 6B (15.8%,n = 58), 19F (13.9%, n = 51), 23F (13.9%, n = 51), 15(10.1%, n = 37), 14 (9.5%, n = 35), 6A (9.3%, n= 34),11 (4.6%, n = 17), 3 (3.0%, n = 11) and 18C (3.0%, n =11); less frequent were 23 (non-23F) (2.7%, n = 10), 19A(2.2%, n = 8) and 9V (1.6%, n = 6). Serotypes 6A and 11 were more common in children under two years-old;18C was found only in children aged two to five years.The serotypes found might be an important predictor of the likely effectiveness of the PCVs currently available in Lithuania PMID:25860394

  1. Liquid Drugs and High Dead Space Syringes May Keep HIV and HCV Prevalence High – A Comparison of Hungary and Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Neaigus, Alan; Li, Nan; Ujhelyi, Eszter; Caplinskiene, Irma; Caplinskas, Saulius; Latkin, Carl A.

    2010-01-01

    Despitevery similar political, drug policy and HIV prevention backgrounds, HIV and HCV prevalence is considerably different in Hungary (low HIV and moderate HCV prevalence) and Lithuania (high HCV and moderate HIV prevalence). Wecompared the drug use profile of Hungarian (n = 215) and Lithuanian (n = 300) injecting drug users (IDUs). Overall, compared with IDUs in Hungary, IDUs in Lithuania often injected opiates purchased in liquid form (‘shirka’), used and shared 2-piece syringes (vs. 1-piece syringes) disproportionately more often, were less likely to acquire their syringes from legal sources and had significantly more experience with injected and less experience with non-injected drugs. It may not be liquid drugs per se that contribute to a higher prevalence of HCV and/or HIV, but it is probably factors associated with the injecting of liquid drugs, such as the wide-spread use and sharing of potentially contaminated 2-piece syringes acquired often from non-legal sources, and syringe-mediated drug sharing with 2-piece syringes. Scaling up substitution therapy, especially heroin replacement, combined with reducing the supply of liquid drugs may decrease the prevalence of high-risk injecting behaviours related to the injecting of liquid drugs and drug injecting-related infections among IDUs in Lithuania. PMID:20798543

  2. Spatial models to predict ash pH and Electrical Conductivity distribution after a grassland fire in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerda, Artemi; Misiūnė, Ieva

    2015-04-01

    calculated with the Global Moran's I Index. In order to identify the best interpolator, we tested several well known techniques as inverse distance to a power (IDP), with the power of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, local polynomial (LP) with the power of 1 (LP1), 2 (LP2) and 3 (LP3), spline with tension (SPT), completely regularized spline (CRS), multiquadratic (MTQ), inverse multiquadratic (IMTQ) thin plate spline (TPS) and ordinary kriging. The best interpolator was the one with the lowest Root mean square error (RMSE). The results shown that on average ash pH was 8.01 (±0.20) and EC (1408± 513.51µm cm3). The coefficient of correlation between both variables was 0.34, p<0.05. Black ash had a significantly higher pH (F=6.29, p<0.05) and EC (F=5.25, p<0.05) than dark grey ash. According to Moran's I index, pH data was significantly (p<0.05) dispersed, while EC had a random pattern. The best spatial predictor for pH was IDW1 (RMSE=0.210), and for EC IMTQ (RMSE=0.141). In both cases the least accurate technique was TPS. pH data did not showed a specific spatial pattern and some high values are very close to high values which shows a great local spatial variability, mainly observed in the northern part of the plot. In relation to EC, the high values were identified in the central part of the plot. In conclusion it was observed that ash pH and EC were different according to fire severity (ash color) and data distribution has a different spatial pattern, despite the significant correlation. pH and EC had different spatial impacts on soil properties in the immediate period after the fire. Acknowledgments POSTFIRE (Soil quality, erosion control and plant cover recovery under different post-fire management scenarios, CGL2013-47862-C2-1-R), funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness; Fuegored; RECARE (Preventing and Remediating Degradation of Soils in Europe Through Land Care, FP7-ENV-2013-TWO STAGE), funded by the European Commission; and for the COST action ES1306

  3. Planning a Successful Tech Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikirk, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Tech shows are a great way to introduce prospective students, parents, and local business and industry to a technology and engineering or career and technical education program. In addition to showcasing instructional programs, a tech show allows students to demonstrate their professionalism and skills, practice public presentations, and interact…

  4. Hey Teacher, Your Personality's Showing!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, James R.

    1977-01-01

    A study of 30 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade teachers and 300 of their students showed that a teacher's age, sex, and years of experience did not relate to students' mathematics achievement, but that more effective teachers showed greater "freedom from defensive behavior" than did less effective teachers. (DT)

  5. What Do Blood Tests Show?

    MedlinePlus

    ... shows the ranges for blood glucose levels after 8 to 12 hours of fasting (not eating). It shows the normal range and the abnormal ranges that are a sign of prediabetes or diabetes. Plasma Glucose Results (mg/dL)* Diagnosis 70 to 99 ...

  6. Satellite Movie Shows Erika Dissipate

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of visible and infrared imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite from Aug. 27 to 29 shows Tropical Storm Erika move through the Eastern Caribbean Sea and dissipate near eastern Cuba. ...

  7. National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Jimenez Sheri Raborn, CPA; Tom Baker

    2008-03-31

    National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration created a 400KW Photovoltaic self-generation plant at the National Orange Show Events Center (NOS). The NOS owns a 120-acre state fairground where it operates an events center and produces an annual citrus fair known as the Orange Show. The NOS governing board wanted to employ cost-saving programs for annual energy expenses. It is hoped the Photovoltaic program will result in overall savings for the NOS, help reduce the State's energy demands as relating to electrical power consumption, improve quality of life within the affected grid area as well as increase the energy efficiency of buildings at our venue. In addition, the potential to reduce operational expenses would have a tremendous effect on the ability of the NOS to service its community.

  8. Quality of life in relation to social and disease factors in patients with type 2 diabetes in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Mikailiūkštienė, Aldona; Juozulynas, Algirdas; Narkauskaitė, Laura; Žagminas, Kęstutis; Sąlyga, Jonas; Stukas, Rimantas

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetic patients are more than twice as costly to manage as non-diabetic patients, due mainly to the high costs associated with management of diabetic complications. As in most nations of the world, the number of patients with DM is increasing every year in Lithuania. The aim of this study was to determine relation between quality of the life and disease and social factors of patients with type 2 diabetes in Lithuania. Material/Methods Independently prepared questions about the subjects of the survey were: gender; age; weight; education; social and marital status; duration of the disease (in years); treatment method; complications; morbidity with arterial hypertension; change in dietary habits after diagnosis of diabetes (started to eat accordingly to recommendations of the therapist); how often nourishment is taken accordingly to recommendations of the therapist; if beginning to exercise after diagnosis of the diabetes; and if exercising, exercises at least 2–3 times per week. Body mass index was calculated as the relation between body mass in kg and height m square (BMI=kg/m2). The hospital anxiety and depression (HAD) scale was used for the evaluation of depression and anxiety. Quality of life of patients was evaluated with the SF-36 questionnaire. We surveyed 1022 patients with type 2 diabetes (372 men and 650 women). Association between quality of the life and explanatory parameters (disease and social factors) were analyzed using the logistic regression analysis model. Results We found that women had lower scores than men in all fields of quality of life (p<0.001). Peroral treatment had a positive impact on the quality of life (QL) fields of the role limitations due to emotional problems (ORa 0.16. 95% CI 0.07–0.34; p<0.001). Treatment with insulin had a positive effect on restriction of activity because of emotional problems (ORa − 0.23. 95% CI 0.11–0.49; p<0.001) and mental health (ORa − 0.38. 95% CI 0.19–0.78; p=0.008), but had a

  9. Comparison of trends in ischaemic heart disease between North Karelia, Finland, and Kaunas, Lithuania, from 1971 to 1987

    PubMed Central

    Rastenyte, Daiva; Salomaa, Veikko; Mustaniemi, Harri; Rasteniene, Dalia; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Cepaitis, Zygimantas; Kankaanpää, Jari; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Torppa, Jorma; Bluzhas, Juozas; Tuomilehto, Jaakko

    1992-01-01

    Objective—To compare the long-term trends in mortality and attack rate of ischaemic heart disease in North Karelia, Finland, and in Kaunas, Lithuania, from 1971 to 1987. Design—Data on routine mortality statistics were obtained from the Central Statistical Office of Finland and from the Central City Archives of Kaunas. In addition, data from the community based myocardial infarction registers were used. The registers used similar diagnostic criteria and had operated in both areas during the entire study period. Setting—The province of North Karelia in Finland and the city of Kaunas in Lithuania. Subjects—The target populations were the people of North Karelia and Kaunas aged 35–64 years. Main outcome measures—Mortality from ischaemic heart disease and the attack rate of acute myocardial infarction. Results—In North Karelia mortality from ischaemic heart disease and the attack rate of acute myocardial infarction declined steeply both in men and women. This decline was accompanied by a decrease in total mortality. In Kaunas, both mortality and the attack rate increased in men but remained unchanged in women. In 1985 to 1987, age standardised total mortality per 100 000 inhabitants was similar in the two populations in men (1081 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1013 to 1149), in North Karelia; 1082 (95% CI 1032 to 1132), in Kaunas). The proportional mortality from ischaemic heart disease was considerably higher in North Karelia (40%) than in Kaunas (28%). In women, age standardised total mortality was lower in North Karelia (350 (95% CI 312–388)) than in Kaunas (440 (95% CI 413 to 467)). The proportional mortality from ischaemic heart disease in women was also higher in North Karelia (28%) than in Kaunas (13%). Conclusions—Despite the remarkable decline in the occurrence of ischaemic heart disease, it still remains the most important cause of premature mortality in North Karelia. In Kaunas ischaemic heart disease mortality and attack rate increased in

  10. New SHRIMP zircon age constraints on the evolution of crystalline basement in Eastern Lithuania (East European Craton)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vejelyte, I.; Bogdanova, S.; Yi, K.; Cho, M.

    2012-04-01

    The crystalline crust in Lithuania was formed between ca. 1.9 and 1.8 Ga during the Svecofennian orogeny. Major tectonic domains include the West Lithuanian Granulite Domain and the East Lithuanian Domain occupying either side of the Mid-Lithuanian Suture Zone, and in the southeast the Belarus-Podlasie-Granulite Belt. The study area is situated within the Drūkšiai-Polotsk Deformation Zone (DPDZ) in the East Lithuanian Domain, which is well defined by gravity and magnetic linear anomalies. In this study, zircons separated from two deformed granitoids of the DPDZ were dated using the Sensitive High-Resolution Ion Microprobe (SHRIMP IIe) at the Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI). The Novikai-1 granite defines two age groups of zircon. One group represents the inherited zircon cores dated at 1907, 1900, and 1887 Ma, respectively. The other comprises the magmatic age of metamictized cores and overgrowth rims that yielded a mean 207Pb/206Pb age of 1793.2±6.5 Ma (n=19, MSWD=2.4). The latter is broadly similar to the zircon 207Pb /206Pb age (1830±20 Ma) of charnockitic rocks in the West Lithuanian Granulite Domain (Claesson et al., 2001) and to 1.81-1.77 Ga of TIB-1 type granitoids in Sweden (Åhäll & Larson 2000; Andersson et al., 2004). This felsic magmatism suggests the development of an active continental margin of the East European Craton in the late Palaeoproterozoic. The Tverečius deformed grandiorite contains well-preserved and oscillatory-zoned zircon grains, which yielded a mean 207Pb/206Pb age of 1542±17 (n=20, MSWD=1.8). This age is consistent with that of the rapakivi granitoids in the Svecofennian domain and of the Mesoproterozoic AMCG granitoids in the Mazury complex, NE Poland (Wiszniewska et al., 2007). Taken together, magmatic activities in the crystalline basement of eastern Lithuania thus correlate well with those in the Baltic Shield, defined by both the Paleoproterozoic orogenic event and the Mesoproterozoic intracratonic extension. This is a

  11. Creating Slide Show Book Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Harriet G.; Stuhlmann, Janice M.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of "Kid Pix 2" software by fourth grade students to develop slide-show book reports. Highlights include collaboration with education majors from Louisiana State University, changes in attitudes of the education major students and elementary students, and problems with navigation and disk space. (LRW)

  12. Producing Talent and Variety Shows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szabo, Chuck

    1995-01-01

    Identifies key aspects of producing talent shows and outlines helpful hints for avoiding pitfalls and ensuring a smooth production. Presents suggestions concerning publicity, scheduling, and support personnel. Describes types of acts along with special needs and problems specific to each act. Includes a list of resources. (MJP)

  13. Magic Carpet Shows Its Colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The upper left image in this display is from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, showing the 'Magic Carpet' region near the rover at Gusev Crater, Mars, on Sol 7, the seventh martian day of its journey (Jan. 10, 2004). The lower image, also from the panoramic camera, is a monochrome (single filter) image of a rock in the 'Magic Carpet' area. Note that colored portions of the rock correlate with extracted spectra shown in the plot to the side. Four different types of materials are shown: the rock itself, the soil in front of the rock, some brighter soil on top of the rock, and some dust that has collected in small recesses on the rock face ('spots'). Each color on the spectra matches a line on the graph, showing how the panoramic camera's different colored filters are used to broadly assess the varying mineral compositions of martian rocks and soils.

  14. ENVITEC shows off air technologies

    SciTech Connect

    McIlvaine, R.W.

    1995-08-01

    The ENVITEC International Trade Fair for Environmental Protection and Waste Management Technologies, held in June in Duesseldorf, Germany, is the largest air pollution exhibition in the world and may be the largest environmental technology show overall. Visitors saw thousands of environmental solutions from 1,318 companies representing 29 countries and occupying roughly 43,000 square meters of exhibit space. Many innovations were displayed under the category, ``thermal treatment of air pollutants.`` New technologies include the following: regenerative thermal oxidizers; wet systems for removing pollutants; biological scrubbers;electrostatic precipitators; selective adsorption systems; activated-coke adsorbers; optimization of scrubber systems; and air pollution monitors.

  15. Root-associated fungi of Rosa rugosa grown on the frontal dunes of the Baltic Sea Coast in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Menkis, Audrius; Ihrmark, Katarina; Stenlid, Jan; Vasaitis, Rimvydas

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess fungal communities associated with fine living roots of Rosa rugosa Thunb grown on the frontal dunes of Curonian Spit at the Baltic Sea coast in Lithuania. The roots of R. rugosa were sampled at five sites (Nida, Preila, Pervalka, Juodkrante and Smiltyne) situated at a distance ca. 5-15 km from each other. Direct amplification, cloning and sequencing of fungal ITS rRNA from the fine roots resulted in 134 high-quality sequences, representing 31 fungal taxa among which saprotrophs and endophytes Mycena sp. (14.2 %), Tumularia sp. (14.2 %), Penicillium spinulosum (11.9 %) and Cadophora malorum (9.0 %) were most common. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi including Entrophospora baltica (0.7 %) and Rhizophagus irregularis (0.7 %) and potentially root pathogenic fungi--Ceratobasidium sp. (4.5 %), Fusarium oxysporum (3.0 %), Fusarium culmorum (0.7 %) and Ilyonectria crassa (0.7 %)--were also detected at low proportions. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the fine roots of R. rugosa are inhabited by various groups of fungi. Although saprotrophs and endophytes were dominant, the detection of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi indicated that these may be important for mineral nutrition of R. rugosa established on dry and poor fertility coastal dunes. PMID:24402365

  16. Cumulative Small Effect Genetic Markers and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Poland, Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Fernandez, Pablo; Dymerska, Dagmara; Kurzawski, Grzegorz; Derkacz, Róża; Sobieszczańska, Tatiana; Banaszkiewicz, Zbigniew; Roomere, Hanno; Oitmaa, Eneli; Metspalu, Andres; Janavičius, Ramūnas; Elsakov, Pavel; Razumas, Mindaugas; Petrulis, Kestutis; Irmejs, Arvīds; Miklaševičs, Edvīns; Scott, Rodney J.; Lubiński, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The continued identification of new low-penetrance genetic variants for colorectal cancer (CRC) raises the question of their potential cumulative effect among compound carriers. We focused on 6 SNPs (rs380284, rs4464148, rs4779584, rs4939827, rs6983267, and rs10795668), already described as risk markers, and tested their possible independent and combined contribution to CRC predisposition. Material and Methods. DNA was collected and genotyped from 2330 unselected consecutive CRC cases and controls from Estonia (166 cases and controls), Latvia (81 cases and controls), Lithuania (123 cases and controls), and Poland (795 cases and controls). Results. Beyond individual effects, the analysis revealed statistically significant linear cumulative effects for these 6 markers for all samples except of the Latvian one (corrected P value = 0.018 for the Estonian, corrected P value = 0.0034 for the Lithuanian, and corrected P value = 0.0076 for the Polish sample). Conclusions. The significant linear cumulative effects demonstrated here support the idea of using sets of low-risk markers for delimiting new groups with high-risk of CRC in clinical practice that are not carriers of the usual CRC high-risk markers. PMID:26101521

  17. Screening of antioxidant activity and volatile compounds composition of Chamerion angustifolium (L.) Holub ecotypes grown in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Kaškonienė, Vilma; Maruška, Audrius; Akuņeca, Ieva; Stankevičius, Mantas; Ragažinskienė, Ona; Bartkuvienė, Violeta; Kornyšova, Olga; Briedis, Vitalis; Ugenskienė, Rasa

    2016-06-01

    Since biological activity of medicinal plants is dependent on cultivation area, climatic conditions, developmental stage, genetic modifications and other factors, it is important to study flora present in different growing sites and geographical zones. This study was focused on screening of antioxidant activity of C. angustifolium harvested in six different locations in Lithuania. The total contents of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity were evaluated by spectrophotometric methods. A correlation between radical scavenging activity and total phenolic compounds content was observed (correlation coefficient 0.98). HPLC with online post-column DPPH radical scavenging reaction detection was used for the separation of extracts. Oenothein B, rutin and one unidentified compound were predominant. Volatile compounds were analysed using solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Based on the analysis of volatiles, all samples were classified into two chemotypes: (I) with predominant α- and β-caryophyllenes and (II) with predominant anethole. PMID:26222982

  18. Cumulative Small Effect Genetic Markers and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Poland, Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Fernandez, Pablo; Dymerska, Dagmara; Kurzawski, Grzegorz; Derkacz, Róża; Sobieszczańska, Tatiana; Banaszkiewicz, Zbigniew; Roomere, Hanno; Oitmaa, Eneli; Metspalu, Andres; Janavičius, Ramūnas; Elsakov, Pavel; Razumas, Mindaugas; Petrulis, Kestutis; Irmejs, Arvīds; Miklaševičs, Edvīns; Scott, Rodney J; Lubiński, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The continued identification of new low-penetrance genetic variants for colorectal cancer (CRC) raises the question of their potential cumulative effect among compound carriers. We focused on 6 SNPs (rs380284, rs4464148, rs4779584, rs4939827, rs6983267, and rs10795668), already described as risk markers, and tested their possible independent and combined contribution to CRC predisposition. Material and Methods. DNA was collected and genotyped from 2330 unselected consecutive CRC cases and controls from Estonia (166 cases and controls), Latvia (81 cases and controls), Lithuania (123 cases and controls), and Poland (795 cases and controls). Results. Beyond individual effects, the analysis revealed statistically significant linear cumulative effects for these 6 markers for all samples except of the Latvian one (corrected P value = 0.018 for the Estonian, corrected P value = 0.0034 for the Lithuanian, and corrected P value = 0.0076 for the Polish sample). Conclusions. The significant linear cumulative effects demonstrated here support the idea of using sets of low-risk markers for delimiting new groups with high-risk of CRC in clinical practice that are not carriers of the usual CRC high-risk markers. PMID:26101521

  19. Radionuclides in the ground-level atmosphere in Vilnius, Lithuania, in March 2011, detected by gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gudelis, A; Druteikienė, R; Lujanienė, G; Maceika, E; Plukis, A; Remeikis, V

    2012-07-01

    This study presents the ground-level air monitoring results obtained in Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania, on 14 March-14 April 2011 after the recent earthquake and subsequent Tsunami having a crucial impact on Japanese nuclear reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) on 11 March 2011. To collect representative diurnal aerosol samples a powerful sampling system ensuring the air filtration rate of 5500 m(3) h(-1) was used. The following artificial gamma-ray emitting radionuclides have been determined: (129m)Te, (132)Te (in equilibrium with its daughter (132)I), (131)I, (134)Cs, (136)Cs and (137)Cs. Activity concentration of the globally distributed fission product (137)Cs has increased from a background value of 1.6 μBq m(-3) to the value of 0.9 mBq m(-3) at the beginning of April. The activity ratio (134)Cs/(137)Cs was found to be close to 1, with a slightly higher activity of (134)Cs. The maximum aerosol-associated (131)I activity concentration of 3.45 mBq m(-3) was by four orders of magnitude lower than that measured at the same location in April-May 1986 as a consequence of the Chernobyl NPP accident. The estimated gaseous fraction of iodine-131 constituted about 70% of the total (131)I activity. PMID:22541992

  20. Radiological and archaeological investigation of a mummy from Roman Egypt curated in the National Museum of Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Piombino-Mascali, Dario; Jankauskas, Rimantas; Snitkuvienė, Aldona; Rutkauskas, Tadas; Sutherland, M Linda

    2016-01-01

    Among the collections belonging to the National Museum of Lithuania at Vilnius, resides an ancient Egyptian coffin containing a mummified human body. The coffin and its occupant are believed to have belonged to the King of Poland and to have been located in his palace at Warsaw. At the turn of the last century, Egyptologists dated the coffin to the end of the 21st dynasty (1070 BC-945 BC), and described the item as coming from Thebes, belonging to Hori, priest of Amun-Ra. However, no investigation was ever carried out on the human body associated with the coffin. Within the framework of the Lithuanian Mummy Project, the preserved human remains underwent computed tomographic investigation in order to reconstruct the biological profile of the subject and to determine the embalming method employed. This led to the identification of a young adult male. Additionally, the mummy shroud was stylistically assessed in order to determine the mummy's chronology in Egyptian history. Interestingly, the body could be ascribed to the Roman period of Egypt (30 BC-395 AD) due to analogies with the burial shrouds of the Soter group. This indicates a reuse of the coffin at some point in history. PMID:26954562

  1. ShowMe3D

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from themore » displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.« less

  2. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  3. Pea Plants Show Risk Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Dener, Efrat; Kacelnik, Alex; Shemesh, Hagai

    2016-07-11

    Sensitivity to variability in resources has been documented in humans, primates, birds, and social insects, but the fit between empirical results and the predictions of risk sensitivity theory (RST), which aims to explain this sensitivity in adaptive terms, is weak [1]. RST predicts that agents should switch between risk proneness and risk aversion depending on state and circumstances, especially according to the richness of the least variable option [2]. Unrealistic assumptions about agents' information processing mechanisms and poor knowledge of the extent to which variability imposes specific selection in nature are strong candidates to explain the gap between theory and data. RST's rationale also applies to plants, where it has not hitherto been tested. Given the differences between animals' and plants' information processing mechanisms, such tests should help unravel the conflicts between theory and data. Measuring root growth allocation by split-root pea plants, we show that they favor variability when mean nutrient levels are low and the opposite when they are high, supporting the most widespread RST prediction. However, the combination of non-linear effects of nitrogen availability at local and systemic levels may explain some of these effects as a consequence of mechanisms not necessarily evolved to cope with variance [3, 4]. This resembles animal examples in which properties of perception and learning cause risk sensitivity even though they are not risk adaptations [5]. PMID:27374342

  4. Casimir experiments showing saturation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Sernelius, Bo E.

    2009-10-15

    We address several different Casimir experiments where theory and experiment disagree. First out is the classical Casimir force measurement between two metal half spaces; here both in the form of the torsion pendulum experiment by Lamoreaux and in the form of the Casimir pressure measurement between a gold sphere and a gold plate as performed by Decca et al.; theory predicts a large negative thermal correction, absent in the high precision experiments. The third experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between a metal plate and a laser irradiated semiconductor membrane as performed by Chen et al.; the change in force with laser intensity is larger than predicted by theory. The fourth experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between an atom and a wall in the form of the measurement by Obrecht et al. of the change in oscillation frequency of a {sup 87}Rb Bose-Einstein condensate trapped to a fused silica wall; the change is smaller than predicted by theory. We show that saturation effects can explain the discrepancies between theory and experiment observed in all these cases.

  5. Mimas Showing False Colors #1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    False color images of Saturn's moon, Mimas, reveal variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

    During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

    The image at the left is a narrow angle clear-filter image, which was separately processed to enhance the contrast in brightness and sharpness of visible features. The image at the right is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined into a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences. This 'color map' was then superimposed over the clear-filter image at the left.

    The combination of color map and brightness image shows how the color differences across the Mimas surface materials are tied to geological features. Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

    Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of each image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in

  6. Onion is a host for two phytoplasma lineages, subgroups 16SrI-A and 16SrI-L, in Lithuania: a HinfI site revealed a SNP marking divergent branches of evolution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onions (Allium cepa.L) being grown for seed production in the Kaunas region of Lithuania exhibited symptoms including mild yellowing of leaves and stems, stunting of plants, phyllody, and proliferation of flowers. RFLP and sequence analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA, ribosomal protein, and secY gen...

  7. Influences of hydrogeomorphology and chemical water quality on fish assemblages in the Nevėžis River, Lithuania: implications for river basin management plans in the Baltics.

    PubMed

    Čivas, Laurynas; Kesminas, Vytautas; Sullivan, S Mažeika P

    2016-02-01

    Further resolving physicochemical-fish associations would be of considerable benefit to advancing both scientific research and monitoring programs in the Baltic states. We collected 3 years of coordinated hydrogeomorphic, water-chemistry, and fish assemblage data at 11 study reaches along the Nevėžis River of central Lithuania and assessed their relative influence on fish assemblages. Of the 23 fish species surveyed in the Nevėžis River, omnivorous and tolerant species were most common. Both water chemistry and physical, hydrogeomorphic characteristics emerged as predictors of fish assemblage descriptors. The strength of evidence for biological oyxgen demand as a strong environmental driver was compelling for both the Lithuanian Fish Index (LFI) and percentage of simple lithophils. Channel substrate emerged in multiple models as a strong predictor variable (LFI, % intolerant species, % simple lithophils, % omnivores). Measures of channel size (drainage area, mean depth) contributed to models for multiple fish metrics including percentage of lithophils, percentage of omnivores, and percentage of intolerant species. This research represents novel work in the region, and our results are an important step in supporting the development of a comprehensive physicochemical research and monitoring program in Lithuania. PMID:26797815

  8. Modelling spatial distribution of soil steady state infiltration rate in an urban park (Vingis Parkas, Vilnius, Lithuania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerda, Artemi; Depellegrin, Daniel; Misiune, Ieva; Bogunovic, Igor; Menchov, Oleksandr

    2016-04-01

    larger urban park in Vilnius, Vinguis Parkas. The studied area is located near the Neris River and occupies an area of approximately 162 hectares. Inside the park a total of 95 randomly points were selected to measure soil steady infiltration, between April and September of 2016. At each sampling point, 4 infiltration measurements were carried out using a cylinder infiltrometer with 15 cm higher and a diameter of 7 cm (Cerda, 1996). Each experiment has the duration of 1 hour and the measurements of the infiltrated water were carried out 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 minutes (Cerda, 1996). The steady state infiltration value of each sampling point corresponds to the average value of the 4 measurements. In each point, the 4 measurements were separated by 5 meters to take in account the spatial variability (Neris et al., 2013). In total 380 infiltration tests were carried out (95x4). Previous to data modelling, data normality was assessed using the shapiro wilk-test and homogeneity of the variances, using Levene test, respectively. The original data was not normally distributed and, only respected the Gaussian distribution and heteroscedasticity after a logarithmic transformation. Data modelling was carried out using transformed data. The accuracy of steady-state soil infiltration spatial distribution was carried out testing several interpolation methods, as Inverse Distance to a Weight (IDW) with the power of 1,2,3,4 and 5, Local Polynomial methods, with the power of 1 and 2 Radial Basis Functions - Spline With Tension (SPT), Completely Regularized Spline (CRS), Multiquadratic (MTQ), Inverse Multiquadratic (IMTQ) and Thin Plate Spline (TPS) - and Geostatistical methods as, Ordinary Kriging (OK), Simple Kriging (SK) and Universal Kriging (UK) (Pereira et al., 2015). Methods performance was assessed calculating the Root Square Mean Error (RMSE) from the errors obtained from cross-validation. The results showed that on average steady state

  9. Associations between neighbourhood greenness and asthma in preschool children in Kaunas, Lithuania: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Andrusaityte, Sandra; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Kudzyte, Jolanta; Bernotiene, Asta; Dedele, Audrius; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between surrounding greenness levels and asthma among children, and to explore a possible change of this association by the distance of the residence to a city park. Design A nested case–control study. Setting Children aged 4−6 years residing at their current address since birth in Kaunas, Lithuania, whose mothers were recruited in 2007–2009 to the KANC newborns cohort study. Participants The participants were 1489 children whose parents in 2012–2013 filled in the questionnaires and agreed to participate in the study. Primary and secondary outcome measures We estimated clinically diagnosed asthma risk factors. The surrounding greenness was measured as the average of the satellite-based Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) within the buffers of 100, 300 and 500 m from each child's home address, and the distance to a city park was defined as the distance to the nearest city park. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to study the relationship between the greenness exposures and asthma adjusted for relevant covariates. Results An increase in the NDVI (>median) in buffers of 100, 300 and 500 m was associated with a slightly increased risk of asthma, while an IQR increase in NDVI-100 m statistically significantly increased the risk of asthma (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.85). The stratified analysis by surrounding greenness revealed indications of stronger associations for children with higher surrounding greenness (NDVI-100>median) and those living farther away from parks (>1000 m), compared to NDVI-100≤median and the distance to a city park >1000 m (OR 1.47, 95% CI 0.56 to 3.87). Conclusions A higher level of the surrounding greenness was associated with a slightly increased relative risk of asthma in children. Further investigation is needed to elucidate the influence of city parks and neighbourhood greenness levels on asthma. PMID:27067890

  10. Regionalisation of parameters of a large-scale water quality model in Lithuania using PAIC-SWAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarrineh, Nina; van Griensven, Ann; Sennikovs, Juris; Bekere, Liga; Plunge, Svajunas

    2015-04-01

    To comply with the EU Water Framework Directive, all water bodies need to achieve good ecological status. To reach these goals, the Environmental Protection Agency (AAA) has to elaborate river basin districts management plans and programmes of measures for all catchments in Lithuania. For this purpose, a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was set up for all Lithuanian catchments using the most recent version of SWAT2012 rev627 implemented and imbedded in a Python workflow by the Center of Processes Analysis and Research (PAIC). The model was calibrated and evaluated using all monitoring data of river discharge, nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations and load. A regionalisation strategy has been set up by identifying 13 hydrological regions according to the runoff formation and hydrological conditions. In each region, a representative catchment was selected and calibrated using a combination of manual and automated calibration techniques. After final parameterization and fulfilling of calibrating and validating evaluation criteria, the same parameters sets have been extrapolated to other catchments within the same hydrological region. Multi variable cal/val strategy was implemented for the following variables: river flow and in-stream NO3, Total Nitrogen, PO4 and Total Phosphorous concentrations. The criteria used for calibration, validation and extrapolation are: Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) for flow and R-squared for water quality variables and PBIAS (percentage bias) for all variables. For the hydrological calibration, NSE values greater than 0.5 should be achieved, while for validation and extrapolation the threshold is respectively 0.4 and 0.3. PBIAS errors have to be less than 20% for calibration and for validation and extrapolation less than 25% and 30%, respectively. In water quality calibration, R-squared should be achieved to 0.5 for calibration and for validation and extrapolation to 0.4 and 0.3 respectively for nitrogen variables. Besides

  11. Plutonium isotopes and 241Am in the atmosphere of Lithuania: A comparison of different source terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lujanienė, G.; Valiulis, D.; Byčenkienė, S.; Šakalys, J.; Povinec, P. P.

    2012-12-01

    137Cs, 241Am and Pu isotopes collected in aerosol samples during 1994-2011 were analyzed with special emphasis on better understanding of Pu and Am behavior in the atmosphere. The results from long-term measurements of 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios showed a bimodal frequency distribution with median values of 0.195 and 0.253, indicating two main sources contributing to the Pu activities at the Vilnius sampling station. The low Pu atom ratio of 0.141 could be attributed to the weapon-grade plutonium derived from the nuclear weapon test sites. The frequency of air masses arriving from the North-West and North-East correlated with the Pu atom ratio indicating the input from the sources located in these regions (the Novaya Zemlya test site, Siberian nuclear plants), while no correlation with the Chernobyl region was observed. Measurements carried out during the Fukushima accident showed a negligible impact of this source with Pu activities by four orders of magnitude lower as compared to the Chernobyl accident. The activity concentration of actinides measured in the integrated sample collected in March-April, 2011 showed a small contribution of Pu with unusual activity and atom ratios indicating the presence of the spent fuel of different origin than that of the Chernobyl accident.

  12. Variability and trends in daily minimum and maximum temperatures and in the diurnal temperature range in Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia in 1951-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaagus, Jaak; Briede, Agrita; Rimkus, Egidijus; Remm, Kalle

    2014-10-01

    Spatial distribution and trends in mean and absolute maximum and minimum temperatures and in the diurnal temperature range were analysed at 47 stations in the eastern Baltic region (Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia) during 1951-2010. Dependence of the studied variables on geographical factors (latitude, the Baltic Sea, land elevation) is discussed. Statistically significant increasing trends in maximum and minimum temperatures were detected for March, April, July, August and annual values. At the majority of stations, the increase was detected also in February and May in case of maximum temperature and in January and May in case of minimum temperature. Warming was slightly higher in the northern part of the study area, i.e. in Estonia. Trends in the diurnal temperature range differ seasonally. The highest increasing trend revealed in April and, at some stations, also in May, July and August. Negative and mostly insignificant changes have occurred in January, February, March and June. The annual temperature range has not changed.

  13. Comparative study of microbiological, chemical and sensory properties of kefirs produced in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Anton, Dea; Raudsepp, Piret; Roasto, Mati; Meremäe, Kadrin; Kuusik, Sirje; Toomik, Peeter; Elias, Priit; Laikoja, Katrin; Kaart, Tanel; Lepiku, Martin; Püssa, Tõnu

    2016-02-01

    In the current study the microbiological, sensory and chemical properties of 24 kefirs (12 producers) from Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian retail market were determined using gas chromatography (GC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-MS/MS-Q-TOF and LC-ion trap MS/MS), spectrophotometry and other methods. Antihypertensive, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibiting, antioxidant and antibacterial peptides were found in the kefir samples. According to the results of principal component analysis of 200 most abundant compounds obtained with HPLC-MS/MS-Q-TOF analysis, Estonian kefirs differed from the rest. Kefirs of Latvian and Lithuanian origin showed similarities in several characteristics, probably related to the starter cultures and technological processes. The fatty acids composition of all Baltic kefirs was uniform. The antioxidant capacity of the kefirs varied slightly, whereas intermediate positive correlation (r = 0.32, P < 0.05) was found between antioxidativity and total bacterial count. The lipid oxidation level, estimated as the content of linoleic and oleic acid primary oxidation products, oxylipins, was very low in all studied kefirs. Only one third of analysed kefirs met the requirements of the minimum sum of viable microorganisms, indicated in the Codex Standard for Fermented Milks. PMID:26869114

  14. Psychosocial environment for the integrated education opportunities of the disabled in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Samsoniene, Laimute; Juozulynas, Algirdas; Surkiene, Gene; Jankauskiene, Konstancija; Lukšiene, Aloyza

    2006-01-01

    Background The policy of the diminution of the social isolation of the disabled is the main objective of the strategy of the EU new policy concerning the disabled. Lithuanian society faces this objective as well. For this reason, this study aiming at providing the theoretical basis for and predicting the possible psycho-social environment in an integrated education system, as well as at the evaluation of the reasons for the formation of a positive approach to the disabled, is especially relevant, since it creates the prerequisites for the optimisation of the process of the integration of disabled schoolchildren into the general system of education. Method The sample of the study consisted of 2471 children from the same schools: not integrated (1958), integrated (126) and special schools (382). Empirical methods: questionnaire poll, comparative analysis. The statistical analysis was carried out using SAS. Results Our study showed that the majority of schoolchildren without disabilities and disabled schoolchildren have positive intentions for interpersonal interactions (>82%) and positive emotions (>69%) independently of the discrepant character of interpersonal contacts, different conditions of education and family life, and despite of low level of knowledge. Conclusion The results of the study confirmed positive intentions for interpersonal interaction between disabled schoolchildren and schoolchildren without disabilities, as well as a positive character of emotions, and disprove the unsound myth of the opponents of the social integration of the disabled stating that disabled children in comprehensive schools would undoubtedly experience offence from their peers without disabilities. PMID:17173706

  15. T-cell-based diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in children in Lithuania: a country of high incidence despite a high coverage with bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Hansted, Edita; Andriuskeviciene, Angele; Sakalauskas, Raimundas; Kevalas, Rimantas; Sitkauskiene, Brigita

    2009-01-01

    Background Lithuania is a country with a high incidence of tuberculosis (TB), despite a high coverage with bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination. Until now the only method used to detect latent TB infection was the tuberculin skin test (TST). However, TST may have a cross reactivity to the BCG vaccine and to environmental mycobacteria. The aim of this study was to conduct assessments of the diagnostic accuracy of the T-cell based test (T SPOT TB) for TB in children who had previously been BCG vaccinated and compare these with the results of the TST. Methods Between January 2005 and February 2007, children with bacteriologically confirmed TB, children having contacts with a case of infectious pulmonary TB and children without any known risk for TB were tested with both the TST and T SPOT TB. Results The TST and T SPOT TB tests were positive for all patients in the „culture-confirmed TB“ group. Whereas, in the „high risk for TB“ group, the TST was positive for 60%, but the T SPOT TB test, only for 17.8%. Meanwhile the results for the „low risk for TB“ group were 65.4% and 9.6%, respectively. A correlation between the TST and T SPOT TB was obtained in the "culture-confirmed TB" group where the TST ≥15 mm (r = 0.35, p < 0.001). Conclusion The T-cell based method is more objective than the TST for identifying latent TB infection in children who had been previously BCG vaccinated. This method could be useful in countries like Lithuania where there is a high incidence of TB despite a high coverage with BCG vaccination. It may also help to avoid unnecessary chemoprophylaxis when TST reactions are false-positive. PMID:19689817

  16. The importance of HLA DRB1 gene allele to clinical features and disability in patients with multiple sclerosis in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The association of HLA DRB1 alleles with susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS) has been consistently reported although its effect on the clinical features and disability is still unclear probably due to diversity in ethnicity and geographic location of the studied populations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of HLA DRB1 alleles on the clinical features and disability of the patients with MS in Lithuania. Methods This was a prospective study of 120 patients with MS. HLA DRB1 alleles were genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction. Results The first symptoms of MS in patients with HLA DRB1*15 allele manifested at younger age than in those without this allele (28.32 +/− 5.49 yrs vs. 30.94 +/− 8.43 yrs, respectively, p = 0.043). HLA DRB1*08 allele was more prevalent among relapsing-remitting (RR) MS patients than among patients with progressive course of MS (25.0% vs. 8.3%, respectively, chi^2 = 6.000, p = 0.05). MS patients with this allele had lower relapse rate than those without this allele (1.00 +/− 0.97 and 1.44 +/− 0.85, respectively, p = 0.043). Degree of disability during the last visit was lower among the patients with HLA DRB1*08 allele (EDSS score 3.15 +/− 1.95 vs. 4.49 +/− 1.96, p = 0.006), and higher among those with HLA DRB1*15 allele (EDSS score 4.60 +/− 2.10 vs.4.05 +/− 1.94, p = 0.047) compared to patients without these alleles but there were no significant associations between these alleles and the duration of the disease to disability. HLA DRB1*08 allele (OR = 0.18, 95% CI 0,039-0,8, p = 0.029) was demonstradet to be independent factor to take a longer time to reach an EDSS of 6, while HLA DRB1*01 allele (OR = 5.92, 95% CI 1,30-26,8, p = 0.021) was related in a shorter time to reach and EDSS of 6. Patients with HLA DRB1*08 allele had lower IgG index compared to patients without this allele (0.58 +/− 0.17 and 0.73 +/− 0.31, respectively, p

  17. Possible insect vectors of phytoplasmas affiliated with subgroups 16SrI-B, 16SrI-C, 16SrIII-B and 16SrIII-P in Lithuania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytoplasma strains affiliated with groups 16SrI, 16SrIII, 16SrV, and 16SrXII have been found in Lithuania, but still little is known about insects that could transmit them. In this study, four phytoplasma strains belonging to phytoplasma subgroups 16SrI-B, 16SrI-C, 16SrIII-B and 16SrIII-P were id...

  18. Short-term changes in soil Munsell colour value, organic matter content and soil water repellency after a spring grassland fire in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, P.; Úbeda, X.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Oliva, M.; Novara, A.

    2014-04-01

    Fire is a natural phenomenon with important implications on soil properties. The degree of this impact depends upon fire severity, the ecosystem affected, topography of the burned area and post-fire meteorological conditions. The study of fire effects on soil properties is fundamental to understand the impacts of this disturbance on ecosystems. The aim of this work was to study the short-term effects immediately after the fire (IAF), 2, 5, 7 and 9 months after a low-severity spring boreal grassland fire on soil colour value (assessed with the Munsell colour chart), soil organic matter content (SOM) and soil water repellency (SWR) in Lithuania. Four days after the fire a 400 m2 plot was delineated in an unburned and burned area with the same topographical characteristics. Soil samples were collected at 0-5 cm depth in a 20 m × 20 m grid, with 5 m space between sampling points. In each plot 25 samples were collected (50 each sampling date) for a total of 250 samples for the whole study. SWR was assessed in fine earth (< 2 mm) and sieve fractions of 2-1, 1-0.5, 0.5-0.25 and < 0.25 mm from the 250 soil samples using the water drop penetration time (WDPT) method. The results showed that significant differences were only identified in the burned area. Fire darkened the soil significantly during the entire study period due to the incorporation of ash/charcoal into the topsoil (significant differences were found among plots for all sampling dates). SOM was only significantly different among samples from the unburned area. The comparison between plots revealed that SOM was significantly higher in the first 2 months after the fire in the burned plot, compared to the unburned plot. SWR of the fine earth was significantly different in the burned and unburned plot among all sampling dates. SWR was significantly more severe only IAF and 2 months after the fire. In the unburned area SWR was significantly higher IAF, 2, 5 and 7 months later after than 9 months later. The

  19. Metamorphism and magmatism in the western East European Craton: implications for 1.84 to 1.45 Ga evolution in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skridlaite, Grazina; Baginski, Boguslaw; Bogdanova, Svetlana; Whitehouse, Martin

    2010-05-01

    The western East European Craton (EEC) was formed by the accretion of distinct terrains at c. 1.8 Ga. Some boundaries between particular terrains and their continuation across the Baltic Sea from Lithuania to Sweden have to be justified. Recently obtained numerous U-Pb zircon ages from the Siupariai 3 (Sp3), Palukne 1 (Pl1) charnockites, Rukai 1 (Rk1), Geluva 99 (Gl99) granitoids, Bliudziai 150 (Bl150), Lauksargiai (Lk2, 5) and Pociai 3(Pc3) granulites determined using a Cameca ims1270 instrument of the Nordic high-resolution ion-microprobe facility (NORDSIM), as well as monazites of the Sp3, Pl1, Vydmantai 1 (Vd1) charnockites, Lk2, 5, Bl150 granulites dated by Cameca SX-100 electron microprobe (EPMA dating) at University of Warsaw allowed to reconstruct terrain boundaries from north to south in western Lithuania and a sequence of crust-forming events. In the north, the slightly deformed, coarse-grained Sp3, Pl1 and Vd1 (Claesson et al., 2001) charnockitoids crystallized in the time span of c. 1.84-1.81 Ga. The magmatic zircons contain a few c. 2.4-2.0 Ga inherited cores. The rocks were deformed and thermally reworked immediately after their crystallization as indicated by c. 1.79-1.74 Ga zircons and c. 1.85-1.76 Ga high-Y monazites, but the major metamorphism they underwent not earlier than c. 1.70 Ga. Thick zircon rims and rounded sector-zoned metamorphic zircons of c. 1.70 Ga likely grew together with peak garnet at 800o C, 7 kbar (Sp3) or 760o C and 6.5 kbar (Pl1). Numerous 1.62-1.56 Ga monazites recorded decompression to 2 kbar and cooling to 500o C in Sp3, mostly cooling to 450o C (at 4 kbar) in Pl1, and isothermal decompression from 650o C at 7 kbar to 500o C at 3 kbar in Vd1. In the south, the Bl150, Lk2, 5 and Pc 3 metasedimentary granulites containing a wide age range (3.0 to 1.85 Ga) of detrital zircons were deposited not earlier than 1.89 Ga. An incipient metamorphism started with the growth of relatively high-Y monazite (Y>3%) at 1.84-1.83 Ga, however

  20. Experimental Drug for Rheumatoid Arthritis Shows Promise

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_158076.html Experimental Drug for Rheumatoid Arthritis Shows Promise Baricitinib helped patients who failed other ... HealthDay News) -- An experimental drug to treat rheumatoid arthritis showed promise in a new six-month trial. ...

  1. Experimental Genital Herpes Drug Shows Promise

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159462.html Experimental Genital Herpes Drug Shows Promise Drug lowered viral activity, recurrence ... News) -- An experimental immune-boosting treatment for genital herpes shows promise, researchers report. The drug, called GEN- ...

  2. Alzheimer's Gene May Show Effects in Childhood

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159854.html Alzheimer's Gene May Show Effects in Childhood Brain scans reveal ... 2016 WEDNESDAY, July 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A gene related to Alzheimer's disease may start to show ...

  3. An evaluation of family physicians' educational needs and experiences in health promotion and disease prevention in Poland and Lithuania - a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to explore the views of family physicians/general practitioners about the most important competences in health promotion and diseases prevention and areas where these competences might be below the desired level. Methods A qualitative, descriptive study, combining two data collection techniques, was conducted in two Eastern European countries in June and July 2009. Focus groups numbering 10 and 9 physicians, respectively, practising in various clinical settings, were held in Poland and Lithuania. Seven well-informed health care experts were recruited in both countries to provide information during the in-depth interviews. In both formats, questions were devoted to three main areas of health promotion and disease prevention competences: (1) educational, (2) clinical, (3) organisational. A qualitative content analysis was performed. Results Lithuanian and Polish family physicians/general practitioners view preventive care as one of their main responsibilities. Among 3 areas of competences, participants identified clinical competences as the most important in everyday practice. They also acknowledged that organisational and educational competences might be below the level required for effective preventive care. Only clinical competences were indicated as sufficiently developed during under- and post-graduate medical education. Conclusions In addressing current health promotion and disease prevention challenges, teachers of family medicine need to critically consider the training that currently exists for physicians. Development of a high-quality preventive service is not only a matter of proper education in the clinical field but also requires training in practice organisation and patient education. PMID:21435277

  4. Somatic complaints and refrain from buying prescribed medications. Results from a cross-sectional study on people 60 years and older living in Kaunas (Lithuania)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of medicines by elderly people is a growing area of concern in social pharmacy. A significant proportion of older people do not follow the recommendations from physicians and refrain from buying prescribed medications. The aim of this study is to evaluate associations between self-rated health, somatic complaints and refraining from buying prescribed medications by elderly people. Findings Data was collected in a cross-sectional study in 2009. We received 624 completed questionnaires (response rate – 48.9%) from persons aged 60–84 years living in Kaunas (Lithuania). Somatic complaints were measured with the 24 item version of the Giessen Complaint List (GBB-24). Logistic regression (Enter model) was used for evaluation of the associations between refraining from buying medications and somatic complaints. These associations were measured using odds ratio (OR) and calculating the 95% confidence interval (CI). The mean scores in total for the GBB scale and sub-scales (exhaustion, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular) were lowest among respondents who did not refrain from buying prescribed medications (means for GBB-24 scale: 21.04 vs. 24.82; p=0.001). Logistic regression suggests that somatic complaints were associated with a increased risk of refraining from buying prescribed medications (OR=1.35, 95% CI=1.15-1.60). Conclusions Somatic complaints were significantly associated with the decision to refrain from buying prescribed medications. PMID:23351159

  5. Distinct HIV Type 1 Strains in Different Risk Groups and the Absence of New Infections by Drug-Resistant Strains in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Caplinskas, Saulius; Loukachov, Vladimir V.; Gasich, Elena L.; Gilyazova, Alla V.; Caplinskiene, Irma

    2013-01-01

    Abstract To analyze HIV-1 genotypes in Lithuania and the transmission of drug-resistant viruses, HIV-1 sequences were obtained from 138 individuals, who were diagnosed as HIV-1 infected in 1990–2008 and represented all major risk groups. Subtype A strains, dominating in the former Soviet Union (90% of cases), were found in 60% of individuals, followed by subtype B (22%) and CRF03_AB (12%) strains. The remaining 7% of the strains included variants belonging to subtype C, CRF01_AE, CRF02_AG, more complex recombinant forms, and strains that could not be reliably genotyped. Analysis of virus genotypes per risk group revealed the circulation of distinct HIV-1 strains in different risk groups: subtype A viruses were present in 82% of injecting drug users (IDUs), but less than a half of heterosexually infected individuals and cases with unknown transmission route, and none of men having sex with men (MSM). We observed no mutations causing drug resistance among 27 newly diagnosed HIV-1 cases. PMID:23186249

  6. [Evaluation of patient needs and quality of outpatient health care services in large cities, district centers, villages and townships of Lithuania].

    PubMed

    Kairys, Jonas; Zebiene, Egle; Rutkys, Balys Algimantas; Zokas, Ignas

    2004-01-01

    Opinion of patients concerning some aspects of patient needs and quality of ambulatory care services was investigated by survey, performed in ambulatory health care institutions of Lithuania in May, 2002. Results of survey included comparison of patient opinion in cities, regional centers, villages and townships. Representative number of 1003 inhabitants was selected as a study sample. Inhabitants were interviewed by means of standardized questionnaire developed by study team. According to the results of survey, patients evaluate changes in quality of the health care services more negatively that positively. Positive changes, by opinion of respondents, were in physician attitudes towards patient, this opinion was supported by 27% of respondents. Most negative changes, reported by patients, were changes in management of health care institutions, including functioning of registration office. Forty percent of inhabitants, participating in the study, expressed the opinion that accessibility of consultant services became more complicated, 35% did not notice any changes, 15% thought that procedure became easier; 38% of respondents thought that accessibility to ambulatory health care services worsened. Respondents also had different opinions concerning development of institution of family physician; 45% evaluated it as a positive change in health care system, and 42% expressed negative opinion. Main problems in functioning of ambulatory care institutions, by opinion of respondents, are long queues at the physician office, difficulties in registration in advance and out-of-pocket payments to physicians. PMID:15007278

  7. No-Show Analysis. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalsbeek, William D.; And Others

    The National Assessment of Educational Progress; Second Science Assessment No-Show Study assessed the magnitude and causation of nonresponse biases. A No-Show is defined as an individual who was selected as a sample respondent but failed to be present for regular assessment of the 17-year-old group. The procedure whereby a sample of eligible…

  8. Effects of Talk Show Viewing on Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Stacy; Mares, Marie-Louise

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the effects of talk-show viewing on high-school students' social-reality beliefs. Supports the hypothesis that viewers overestimate the frequency of deviant behaviors; does not find support for the hypothesis that viewers become desensitized to the suffering of others; and finds that talk-show viewing was positively related, among…

  9. Acculturation, Cultivation, and Daytime TV Talk Shows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Hyung-Jin; Dominick, Joseph R.

    2003-01-01

    Explores the cultivation phenomenon among international college students in the United States by examining the connection between levels of acculturation, daytime TV talk show viewing, and beliefs about social reality. Finds that students who scored low on acculturation and watched a great deal of daytime talk shows had a more negative perception…

  10. The Physics of Equestrian Show Jumping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinner, Art

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the kinematics and dynamics of equestrian show jumping. For some time I have attended a series of show jumping events at Spruce Meadows, an international equestrian center near Calgary, Alberta, often referred to as the "Wimbledon of equestrian jumping." I have always had a desire to write an article such as this…

  11. The Language of Show Biz: A Dictionary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sergel, Sherman Louis, Ed.

    This dictionary of the language of show biz provides the layman with definitions and essays on terms and expressions often used in show business. The overall pattern of selection was intended to be more rather than less inclusive, though radio, television, and film terms were deliberately omitted. Lengthy explanations are sometimes used to express…

  12. Comparison of Weather Shows in Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najman, M.

    2009-09-01

    Comparison of Weather Shows in Eastern Europe Television weather shows in Eastern Europe have in most cases in the high graphical standard. There is though a wast difference in duration and information content in the weather shows. There are few signs and regularities by which we can see the character of the weather show. The main differences are mainly caused by the income structure of the TV station. Either it is a fully privately funded TV relying on the TV commercials income. Or it is a public service TV station funded mainly by the national budget or fixed fee structure/tax. There are wast differences in duration and even a graphical presentation of the weather. Next important aspect is a supplier of the weather information and /or the processor. Shortly we can say, that when the TV show is produced by the national met office, the TV show consists of more scientific terms, synoptic maps, satellite imagery, etc. If the supplier is the private meteorological company, the weather show is more user-friendly, laical with less scientific terms. We are experiencing a massive shift in public weather knowledge and demand for information. In the past, weather shows consisted only of maps with weather icons. In todaýs world, even the laic weather shows consist partly of numerical weather model outputs - they are of course designed to be understandable and graphically attractive. Outputs of the numerical weather models used to be only a part of daily life of a professional meteorologist, today they are common part of life of regular people. Video samples are a part of this presentation.

  13. Spacecraft Image Mashup Shows Galactic Collision

    NASA Video Gallery

    This new composite image from the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the Hubble Space Telescope, and the Spitzer Space Telescope shows two colliding galaxies more than a 100 million years after they first ...

  14. Portable Zika Test Shows Promise in Monkeys

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158704.html Portable Zika Test Shows Promise in Monkeys Easy-to-use ... News) -- A fast, inexpensive test that detects the Zika virus in monkeys might be useful for doctors ...

  15. TRMM Satellite Shows Heavy Rainfall in Cristina

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's TRMM satellite rainfall data was overlaid on an enhanced visible/infrared image from NOAA's GOES-East satellite showing cloud and rainfall extent. Green areas indicate rainfall at over 20 mm...

  16. GOES Satellite Data Shows Tornado Development

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of NOAA's GOES-East satellite data shows the development and movement of the weather system that spawned tornadoes affecting the southern and eastern U.S. states on April 27-29, 2014...

  17. Lightweight magnesium-lithium alloys show promise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, W. T.; Cataldo, C. E.

    1964-01-01

    Evaluation tests show that magnesium-lithium alloys are lighter and more ductile than other magnesium alloys. They are being used for packaging, housings, containers, where light weight is more important than strength.

  18. Portable Zika Test Shows Promise in Monkeys

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158704.html Portable Zika Test Shows Promise in Monkeys Easy-to-use ... News) -- A fast, inexpensive test that detects the Zika virus in monkeys might be useful for doctors ...

  19. Malaria Vaccine Shows Promise in Small Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158765.html Malaria Vaccine Shows Promise in Small Study It protected more ... May 10, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental malaria vaccine protects a majority of adults against the mosquito- ...

  20. Malaria Vaccine Shows Promise in Small Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158765.html Malaria Vaccine Shows Promise in Small Study It protected more ... May 10, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental malaria vaccine protects a majority of adults against the mosquito- ...

  1. 47 CFR 90.505 - Showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Developmental Operation § 90.505 Showing required. (a) Except as provided in... radio art, or is investigating new unexplored concepts in radio transmission and communications; (4)...

  2. Educational Outreach: The Space Science Road Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, N. L. J.

    2002-01-01

    The poster presented will give an overview of a study towards a "Space Road Show". The topic of this show is space science. The target group is adolescents, aged 12 to 15, at Dutch high schools. The show and its accompanying experiments would be supported with suitable educational material. Science teachers at schools can decide for themselves if they want to use this material in advance, afterwards or not at all. The aims of this outreach effort are: to motivate students for space science and engineering, to help them understand the importance of (space) research, to give them a positive feeling about the possibilities offered by space and in the process give them useful knowledge on space basics. The show revolves around three main themes: applications, science and society. First the students will get some historical background on the importance of space/astronomy to civilization. Secondly they will learn more about novel uses of space. On the one hand they will learn of "Views on Earth" involving technologies like Remote Sensing (or Spying), Communication, Broadcasting, GPS and Telemedicine. On the other hand they will experience "Views on Space" illustrated by past, present and future space research missions, like the space exploration missions (Cassini/Huygens, Mars Express and Rosetta) and the astronomy missions (Soho and XMM). Meanwhile, the students will learn more about the technology of launchers and satellites needed to accomplish these space missions. Throughout the show and especially towards the end attention will be paid to the third theme "Why go to space"? Other reasons for people to get into space will be explored. An important question in this is the commercial (manned) exploration of space. Thus, the questions of benefit of space to society are integrated in the entire show. It raises some fundamental questions about the effects of space travel on our environment, poverty and other moral issues. The show attempts to connect scientific with

  3. Liquid Crystal Research Shows Deformation By Drying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    These images, from David Weitz's liquid crystal research, show ordered uniform sized droplets (upper left) before they are dried from their solution. After the droplets are dried (upper right), they are viewed with crossed polarizers that show the deformation caused by drying, a process that orients the bipolar structure of the liquid crystal within the droplets. When an electric field is applied to the dried droplets (lower left), and then increased (lower right), the liquid crystal within the droplets switches its alignment, thereby reducing the amount of light that can be scattered by the droplets when a beam is shone through them.

  4. Children's Art Show: An Educational Family Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakerlis, Julienne

    2007-01-01

    In a time of seemingly rampant budget cuts in the arts in school systems throughout the country, a children's art show reaps many rewards. It can strengthen family-school relationships and community ties and stimulate questions and comments about the benefits of art and its significance in the development of young children. In this photo essay of…

  5. Show Them You Really Want the Job

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Showing that one really "wants" the job entails more than just really wanting the job. An interview is part Broadway casting call, part intellectual dating game, part personality test, and part, well, job interview. When there are 300 applicants for a position, many of them will "fit" the required (and even the preferred) skills listed in the job…

  6. Laser entertainment and light shows in education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabaratnam, Andrew T.; Symons, Charles

    2002-05-01

    Laser shows and beam effects have been a source of entertainment since its first public performance May 9, 1969, at Mills College in Oakland, California. Since 1997, the Photonics Center, NgeeAnn Polytechnic, Singapore, has been using laser shows as a teaching tool. Students are able to exhibit their creative skills and learn at the same time how lasers are used in the entertainment industry. Students will acquire a number of skills including handling three- phase power supply, operation of cooling system, and laser alignment. Students also acquire an appreciation of the arts, learning about shapes and contours as they develop graphics for the shows. After holography, laser show animation provides a combination of the arts and technology. This paper aims to briefly describe how a krypton-argon laser, galvanometer scanners, a polychromatic acousto-optic modulator and related electronics are put together to develop a laser projector. The paper also describes how students are trained to make their own laser animation and beam effects with music, and at the same time have an appreciation of the operation of a Class IV laser and the handling of optical components.

  7. Showing Enantiomorphous Crystals of Tartaric Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade-Gamboa, Julio

    2007-01-01

    Most of the articles and textbooks that show drawings of enantiomorphous crystals use an inadequate view to appreciate the fact that they are non-superimposable mirror images of one another. If a graphical presentation of crystal chirality is not evident, the main attribute of crystal enantiomorphism can not be recognized by students. The classic…

  8. Tilapia show immunization response against Ich

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compares the immune response of Nile tilapia and red tilapia against parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) using a cohabitation challenge model. Both Nile and red tilapia showed strong immune response post immunization with live Ich theronts by IP injection or immersion. Blood serum...

  9. A Talk Show from the Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Arlene F.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a two-day activity in which elementary students examine voting rights, the right to assemble, and women's suffrage. Explains the game, "Assemble, Reassemble," and a student-produced talk show with five students playing the roles of leaders of the women's suffrage movement. Profiles Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony,…

  10. Idaho State University Physics Road Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shropshire, Steve

    2009-05-01

    The ISU Physics Road Show services over 40 schools and 12,000 students each year. Exciting and informative demonstration shows are conducted during assemblies at elementary, middle, and junior high schools. Discussion will focus on efforts taken to maximize the educational impact to students and teachers. These efforts include supplemental information and materials provided to teachers, teacher workshops, and careful catering of subject material to state and national education standards. A few sample demonstrations will be performed, including the boiling green water sucker, a magnet strongly repelled from a cooled copper disc, an artificial geyser that shoots water 6 meters, and a few liquid nitrogen tricks. This program is supported in part by a grant from the Idaho Community Foundation.

  11. The Physics of Equestrian Show Jumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stinner, Art

    2014-04-01

    This article discusses the kinematics and dynamics of equestrian show jumping. For some time I have attended a series of show jumping events at Spruce Meadows, an international equestrian center near Calgary, Alberta, often referred to as the "Wimbledon of equestrian jumping." I have always had a desire to write an article such as this one, but when I searched the Internet for information and looked at YouTube presentations, I could only find simplistic references to Newton's laws and the conservation of mechanical energy principle. Nowhere could I find detailed calculations. On the other hand, there were several biomechanical articles with empirical reports of the results of kinetic and dynamic investigations of show jumping using high-speed digital cameras and force plates. They summarize their results in tables that give information about the motion of a horse jumping over high fences (1.40 m) and the magnitudes of the forces encountered when landing. However, they do not describe the physics of these results.

  12. Re-Os ages for Archean molybdenite and pyrite, Kuittila-Kivisuo, Finland and Proterozoic molybdenite, Kabeliai, Lithuania: Testing the chronometer in a metamorphic and metasomatic setting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stein, H.J.; Sundblad, K.; Markey, R.J.; Morgan, J.W.; Motuza, G.

    1998-01-01

    Seven 187Re-187Os ages were determined for molybdenite and pyrite samples from two well-dated Precambrian intrusions in Fennoscandia to examine the sustainability of the Re-Os chronometer in a metamorphic and metasomatic setting. Using a new 187Re decay constant (1.666 x 10-11y-1) with a much improved uncertainty (??0.31%), we determined replicate Re-Os ages for molybdenite and pyrite from the Kuittila and Kivisuo prospects in easternmost Finland and for molybdenite from the Kabeliai prospect in southernmost Lithuania. These two localities contain some of the oldest and youngest plutonic activity in Fennoscandia and are associated with newly discovered economic Au mineralization (Ilomantsi, Finland) and a Cu-Mo prospect (Kabeliai, Lithuania). Two Re-Os ages for veinhosted Kabeliai molybdenite average 1486 ?? 5 Ma, in excellent agreement with a 1505 ?? 11 Ma U-Pb zircon age for the hosting Kabeliai granite pluton. The slightly younger age suggests the introduction of Cu-Mo mineralization by a later phase of the Kabeliai magmatic system. Mean Re-Os ages of 2778 ?? 8 Ma and 2781 ?? 8 Ma for Kuittila and Kivisuo molybdenites, respectively, are in reasonable agreement with a 2753 ?? 5 Ma weighted mean U-Pb zircon age for hosting Kuittila tonalite. These Re-Os ages agree well with less precise ages of 2789 ?? 290 Ma for a Rb-Sr whole-rock isochron and 2771 ?? 75 Ma for the average of six Sm-Nd T(DM) model ages for Kuittila tonalite. Three Re-Os analyses of a single pyrite mineral separate, from the same sample of Kuittila pluton that yielded a molybdenite separate, provide individual model ages of 2710 ?? 27, 2777 ?? 28, and 2830 ?? 28 Ma (Re = 17.4, 12.1, and 8.4 ppb, respectively), with a mean value of 2770 ?? 120 Ma in agreement with the Kuittila molybdenite age. The Re and 187Os abundances in these three pyrite splits are highly correlated (r = 0.9994), and provide a 187Re-187Os isochron age of 2607 ?? 47 Ma with an intercept of 21 ppt 187Os (MSWD = 1.1). It appears

  13. Asteroid Ida - 6 Views Showing Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This composite image shows the asteroid 243 Ida as seen from the Galileo spacecraft during its approach on August 28, 1993. The six views were shuttered through the camera's green filter and show Ida's rotation over a period of about 3 hours 18 minutes. The asteroid makes a complete rotation every 4 hours 38 minutes; therefore, this set of images spans about 3/4 of Ida's rotation period and shows most of Ida's surface. By combining the information in these views with that from the highest resolution images returned from the spacecraft in September 1993, the size and shape of this irregular body can now be determined accurately The asteroid appears to be about 58 kilometers (36 miles) long and about 23 kilometers wide, with a very irregular shape and volume of some 16,000 cubic kilometers. The images are arranged in chronological order from a time 3 hours 51 minutes before closest approach (upper left), through upper right, middle left, middle right lower left and lower right (33 minutes before closest approach). The six images show Ida at the same scale throughout. Ida's rotation axis is roughly vertical in these images, and the rotation causes the right-hand end of Ida to move toward the viewer as time progresses. The first image was taken from a range of about 171,000 km (106,000 miles) and provides an image resolution of about 1,700 meters per pixel (the highest resolution achieved for Ida is about 25 meters per pixel). The second, taken 70 minutes later, is from 119,000 kilometers, followed by 102,000 kilometers, 85,000 kilometers, 50,000 kilometers, and 25,000 kilometers. The features on Ida are less sharp in the earlier views because of the greater distances. Prominent in the middle three views is a deep depression across the short axis of the Asteroid. This feature tends to support the idea that Ida may have originally been formed from two or more separate large objects that collided softly and stuck together. Also visible in the lower left view is an

  14. EuroPrevall survey on prevalence and pattern of self-reported adverse reactions to food and food allergies among primary schoolchildren in Vilnius, Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Kavaliūnas, Andrius; Surkienė, Genė; Dubakienė, Rūta; Stukas, Rimantas; Zagminas, Kęstutis; Saulytė, Jurgita; Burney, Peter G; Kummeling, Ischa; Mills, Clare

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the research was to assess the prevalence and pattern of self-reported adverse reactions to food and food allergies among primary schoolchildren in Vilnius. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Vilnius University was a partner in the EuroPrevall project. A total of 4333 schoolchildren from 13 primary schools participated in the study. Of all 4333 questionnaires distributed, 3084 were returned (response rate, 71.2%). This screening phase was followed by the second (clinical) part with an objective confirmative laboratory analysis of blood samples for the diagnosis of food allergy. For the research purposes, 186 blood samples for IgE were analyzed. RESULTS. Almost half of the children had an illness or a disorder caused by eating food. The prevalence of adverse reactions to food was found to be increasing with age from 6 to 10 years. Food allergy was diagnosed in 16.4% of children. Boys had food allergy more frequently than girls. Diarrhea or vomiting and a rash, urticarial rash, or itchy skin were the most commonly mentioned symptoms. Fruits, berries, and milk and dairy were found to be the most common foods to cause adverse reactions. The most relevant foods for children with IgE-mediated food allergy were cow's milk and hazelnuts. CONCLUSIONS. The prevalence of self-reported food hypersensitivity among primary schoolchildren was observed in almost half of the studied population. Fruits, berries, and milk and dairy were the most common foods to cause adverse reactions among primary schoolchildren in Lithuania. The determined differences in the prevalence of food hypersensitivity and IgE-mediated food allergy and associations with gender and age need further scientific analysis for the development of prognostic and diagnostic tools. PMID:22864274

  15. The Prognostic Value of Family History for the Estimation of Cardiovascular Mortality Risk in Men: Results from a Long-Term Cohort Study in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Radisauskas, Ricardas; Klumbiene, Jurate; Bernotiene, Gailute; Petkeviciene, Janina; Luksiene, Dalia; Virviciute, Dalia; Malinauskiene, Vilija; Vikhireva, Olga; Grabauskas, Vilius

    2015-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the additional prognostic value of family history for the estimation of cardiovascular (CVD) mortality risk in middle-aged urban Lithuanian men. Methods The association between family history of CVD and the risk of CVD mortality was examined in a population-based cohort of 6,098 men enrolled during 1972–1974 and 1976–1980 in Kaunas, Lithuania. After up to 40 years of follow-up, 2,272 deaths from CVD and 1,482 deaths from coronary heart disease (CHD) were identified. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for CVD and CHD mortality. Results After adjustment for traditional CVD risk factors, the HR for CVD mortality was 1.24 (95% CI 1.09–1.42) and for CHD mortality 1.20 (1.02–1.42) in men with first-degree relatives having a history of myocardial infarction (MI), compared to men without positive family history. A significant effect on the risk of CVD and CHD mortality was also observed for the family history of sudden cardiac death and any CVD. Addition of family history of MI, sudden death, and any CVD to traditional CVD risk factors demonstrated modest improvement in the performance of Cox models for CVD and CHD mortality. Conclusions Family history of CVD is associated with a risk of CVD and CHD mortality significantly and independently of other risk factors in a middle-aged male population. Addition of family history to traditional CVD risk factors improves the prediction of CVD mortality and could be used for identification of high-risk individuals. PMID:26630455

  16. Social differences in oral health: Dental status of individuals buried in and around Trakai Church in Lithuania (16th-17th c.c.).

    PubMed

    Miliauskienė, Žydrūnė; Jankauskas, Rimantas

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of social differences in dental health is based on the assumption that individuals belonging to a higher social class consumed a different diet than a common people. The aim of our study was to analyse and compare dental health of 16(th) - 17(th) c. individuals, buried inside and around the Roman Catholic Church in Trakai (Lithuania). All material (189 adult individuals) was divided in two samples of a presumably different social status: the Churchyard (ordinary townsmen) and the Presbytery (elite). Dental status analysis included that of tooth loss, tooth wear, caries, abscesses and calculus. Results revealed higher prevalence of dental disease in the Churchyard sample compared to the Presbytery. Individuals buried around the church had statistically higher prevalence of caries, antemortem tooth loss and abscesses compared to those who were buried inside the church. The Churchyard sample was also characterised by a higher increase in severity of caries with age, and a more rapid tooth wear. Differences in dental health between the samples the most probably reflect different dietary habits of people from different social groups: poor quality carbohydrate based diet of laymen buried in the churchyard and more varied diet with proteins and of a better quality of local elite, buried inside the church. Substantial sex differences in dental health were found only in the Churchyard sample: males had statistically higher prevalence of abscesses and calculus, while females had higher prevalence of caries and AMTL (antemortem tooth loss). Females were also characterised by a higher increase in the number of dental decay and tooth loss with age and had higher prevalence of gross caries, which indicates a more rapid progression of the disease. Worse dental health of females could be a result of culturally based dietary differences between females (more carbohydrates) and males (more proteins) and different physiological demands (hormonal fluctuations and

  17. Socioeconomic inequalities in all-cause mortality in the Czech Republic, Russia, Poland and Lithuania in the 2000s: findings from the HAPIEE Study

    PubMed Central

    Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Vikhireva, Olga; Pikhart, Hynek; Kubinova, Ruzena; Malyutina, Sofia; Pajak, Andrzej; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Peasey, Anne; Simonova, Galina; Topor-Madry, Roman; Marmot, Michael; Bobak, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Relatively large socioeconomic inequalities in health and mortality have been observed in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and the former Soviet Union (FSU). Yet comparative data are sparse and virtually all studies include only education. The aim of this study is to quantify and compare socioeconomic inequalities in all-cause mortality during the 2000s in urban population samples from four CEE/FSU countries, by three different measures of socioeconomic position (SEP) (education, difficulty buying food and household amenities), reflecting different aspects of SEP. Methods Data from the prospective population-based HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol, and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe) study were used. The baseline survey (2002–2005) included 16 812 men and 19 180 women aged 45–69 years in Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland), Kaunas (Lithuania) and seven Czech towns. Deaths in the cohorts were identified through mortality registers. Data were analysed by direct standardisation and Cox regression, quantifying absolute and relative SEP differences. Results Mortality inequalities by the three SEP indicators were observed in all samples. The magnitude of inequalities varied according to gender, country and SEP measure. As expected, given the high mortality rates in Russian men, largest absolute inequalities were found among Russian men (educational slope index of inequality was 19.4 per 1000 person-years). Largest relative inequalities were observed in Czech men and Lithuanian subjects. Disadvantage by all three SEP measures remained strongly associated with increased mortality after adjusting for the other SEP indicators. Conclusions The results emphasise the importance of all SEP measures for understanding mortality inequalities in CEE/FSU. PMID:24227051

  18. Color Voyager 2 Image Showing Crescent Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This image shows a crescent Uranus, a view that Earthlings never witnessed until Voyager 2 flew near and then beyond Uranus on January 24, 1986. This planet's natural blue-green color is due to the absorption of redder wavelengths in the atmosphere by traces of methane gas. Uranus' diameter is 32,500 miles, a little over four times that of Earth. The hazy blue-green atmosphere probably extends to a depth of around 5,400 miles, where it rests above what is believed to be an icy or liquid mixture (an 'ocean') of water, ammonia, methane, and other volatiles, which in turn surrounds a rocky core perhaps a little smaller than Earth.

  19. Star Shows It Has The Right Stuff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-01-01

    Astronomers have used an observation by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory to make the best case yet that a star can be engulfed by its companion star and survive. This discovery will help astronomers better understand how closely coupled stars, and perhaps even stars and planets, evolve when one of the stars expands enormously in its red giant phase. The binary star system known as V471 Tauri comprises a white dwarf star (the primary) in a close orbit -- one thirtieth of the distance between Mercury and the Sun -- with a normal Sun-like star (the secondary). Chandra's data showed that the hot upper atmosphere of the secondary star has a deficit of carbon atoms relative to nitrogen atoms. "This deficit of carbon atoms is the first clear observational evidence that the normal star was engulfed by its companion in the past," according to Jeremy Drake of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, MA, who coauthored an article on V471 in The Astrophysical Journal Letters with Marek Sarna of the N. Copernicus Astronomical Center in Poland. The white dwarf star was once a star several times as massive as the Sun. Nuclear fusion reactions in the core of such a star convert carbon into nitrogen over a period of about a billion years. When the fuel in the core of the star is exhausted, the core collapses, triggering more energetic nuclear reactions that cause the star to expand and transform into a red giant before eventually collapsing to become a white dwarf. The carbon-poor material in the core of the red giant is mixed with outer part of the star, so its atmosphere shows a deficit of carbon, as compared with Sun-like stars. The X-ray spectra of a red giant star (top panel) and a Sun-like star (bottom panel) show the large difference in the peaks due to carbon atoms in the two stars. Theoretical calculations indicate that a red giant in a binary system can completely envelop its companion star and dramatically affect its evolution. During this common envelope

  20. Surveys show support for green 'activities'.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2012-03-01

    Two independently conducted surveys on sustainability - one into the 'views and values' of NHS 'leaders', and the other questioning the public about the importance of the 'green agenda' in the NHS, and their opinions on how the service might most effectively reduce its carbon footprint, form the basis of Sustainability in the NHS: Health Check 2012, a new NHS Sustainable Development Unit (NHS SDU) publication. As HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie reports, the new document also presents updated data on the 'size' of the carbon footprint of the NHS in England, showing that, although good work by a number of Trusts in the past two years has seen healthcare-generated carbon emissions start to 'level off', the biggest contributors have been the current health service spending review, and the increased national availability of renewable energy. PMID:22515017

  1. Survey shows successes, failures of horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Deskins, W.G.; McDonald, W.J.; Reid, T.B.

    1995-06-19

    Industry`s experience now shows that horizontal well technology must be applied thoughtfully and be site-specific to attain technical and economic success. This article, based on a comprehensive study done by Maurer Engineering for the US Department of Energy (DOE), addresses the success of horizontal wells in less-publicized formations, that is, other than the Austin chalk. Early excitement within the industry about the new technology reached a fever pitch at times, leaving some with the impression that horizontal drilling is a panacea for all drilling environments. This work gauges the overall success of horizontal technology in US and Canadian oil and gas fields, defines the applications where horizontal technology is most appropriate, and assesses its impact on oil recovery and reserves.

  2. 832 Karin Shows No Rotational Spectral Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Clark R.; Enke, B.; Merline, W. J.; Nesvorny, D.; Tamblyn, P.; Young, E. F.

    2006-09-01

    Sasaki et al. (2004, 2005) claimed that 832 Karin, the brightest member of the very young (5.75 Myr) Karin cluster of the Koronis family, shows dramatically different colors as a function of rotational phase. It was interpreted that Karin is a fragment of the recently broken-up asteroid, showing the reddish space-weathered exterior surface of the precursor asteroid as well as an interior face, which has not had time to become space-weathered. On five nights during UT 7-14 January 2006, we observed Karin with the SpeX instrument, 0.8-2.5 microns, on the IRTF. We sampled its spectrum well throughout its rotation. We analyzed the data in 50 deg. intervals of rotational longitude; some longitudes were sampled during two different nights. We find that Karin exhibits minimal spectral variations with rotation, certainly nothing of the magnitude reported by Sasaki et al. Since our data resemble Sasaki et al.'s "blue" and "green" sets, we suggest that their "red" set is spurious. Indeed, it is difficult to understand how the reported color change could have occurred during such a modest interval ( 4%) of rotational longitude. (Note that we have not determined Karin's pole position nor the phase of the Sasaki et al. data within our own coverage, so the refutation of dramatic color change is not absolutely secure.) Karin and its family members are not quite as red as typical S-types, yet have shallow absorption bands. Perhaps the space-weathering process affecting these young asteroids has had time to reduce spectral contrast, but has not operated long enough to redden them -- an intermediate case of space weathering, which has gone to completion for older main-belt asteroids of these sizes. Supported by the NASA Planetary Astronomy Program. T. Sasaki et al. 2004. ApJ 615, L161-L164; T. Sasaki et al. 2005. LPSC XXXVI, 1590.pdf.

  3. Supreme Court unanimously okays use of RICO to combat antiabortion violence.

    PubMed

    1994-02-01

    The recent US Supreme Court decision that abortion clinics can use a federal antiracketeering law to sue anti-abortion picketers and blockaders provides the abortion rights movement with an important tool for combating escalating violence. The January 24, 1994, decision was issued only 6 weeks after the National Organization for Women vs. Scheidler case was argued. The case stated that groups such as Operation Rescue had conspired to conduct a "nationwide campaign of terror" aimed at depriving women of the right to abortion and forcing abortion clinics to close down, whether through property damage or intimidation of staff and patients. The 1970 Racketeering Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO) provides triple monetary damages and prison sentences of up to 20 years for those who engage in 2 or more incidents of extortion, arson, and kidnapping. The Court is scheduled to review a Florida case, Madsen vs Women's Health Center, and the outcome should clarify the relationship between RICO and First Amendment interests. In this case, a federal appeals court had declared an order by a state judge that prohibited anti-abortion protesters from coming within 300 feet of the abortion clinic or the homes of clinic personnel to be an unconstitutional restriction on free speech in a public form. PMID:12287617

  4. By Unanimous Decision? A Second Look at Consensus in the Film Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekker, Erwin; Popik, Zuzanna

    2014-01-01

    This article reports analyses of the verdicts of various film organizations that annually present awards to motion pictures and investigates whether they award/nominate the same movies in a given year. This research disputes previous findings that reported a high level of agreement between those juries, by the means of reliability analysis and the…

  5. NASA GIBS Use in Live Planetarium Shows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmart, C. B.

    2015-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History's Hayden Planetarium was rebuilt in year 2000 as an immersive theater for scientific data visualization to show the universe in context to our planet. Specific astrophysical movie productions provide the main daily programming, but interactive control software, developed at AMNH allows immersive presentation within a data aggregation of astronomical catalogs called the Digital Universe 3D Atlas. Since 2006, WMS globe browsing capabilities have been built into a software development collaboration with Sweden's Linkoping University (LiU). The resulting Uniview software, now a product of the company SCISS, is operated by about fifty planetariums around that world with ability to network amongst the sites for global presentations. Public presentation of NASA GIBS has allowed authoritative narratives to be presented within the range of data available in context to other sources such as Science on a Sphere, NASA Earth Observatory and Google Earth KML resources. Specifically, the NOAA supported World Views Network conducted a series of presentations across the US that focused on local ecological issues that could then be expanded in the course of presentation to national and global scales of examination. NASA support of for GIBS resources in an easy access multi scale streaming format like WMS has tremendously enabled particularly facile presentations of global monitoring like never before. Global networking of theaters for distributed presentations broadens out the potential for impact of this medium. Archiving and refinement of these presentations has already begun to inform new types of documentary productions that examine pertinent, global interdependency topics.

  6. The earliest published electrocardiogram showing ventricular preexcitation.

    PubMed

    Von Knorre, Georg H

    2005-03-01

    When in 1930, Wolff, Parkinson, and White published what is today known as the WPW, or preexcitation syndrome, they, and subsequently others, found few comparable cases in the preceding literature. Among these the report of Cohn and Fraser, published in 1913, was the earliest. However, another even earlier documentation in a 1909 article by Hoffmann escaped notice till now. The ECG of a patient with paroxysmal tachycardia reveals a short PR interval and a delta-wave-induced widening of the QRS complex, even though the reproduced tachycardia was not preexcitation related. The interpretation of this poorly reproduced ECG can be confirmed by another and more detailed description of the patient in an electrocardiography textbook published in 1914 by the same author. Thus, the earliest publication of an ECG showing ventricular preexcitation now can be dated back to 1909. Moreover, the Hoffmann monograph contains two additional examples of the WPW syndrome not noticed until now. All three cases published by Hoffmann had their first ECG recordings in 1912 or earlier. PMID:15733183

  7. Temperature Data Shows Warming in 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    TThe figure above depicts how much air temperatures near the Earth's surface changed relative to the global mean temperature from 1951 to 1980. NASA researchers used maps of urban areas derived from city lights data to account for the 'heat island' effect of cities. The red and orange colors show that temperatures are warmer in most regions of the world when compared to the 1951 to 1980 'normal' temperatures. Warming around the world has been widespread, but it is not present everywhere. The largest warming is in Northern Canada, Alaska and Siberia, as indicated by the deeper red colors. The lower 48 United States have become warmer recently, but only enough to make the temperatures comparable to what they were in the 1930s. The scale on the bottom of these temperature anomaly images represent degrees in Celsius. The negative numbers represent cooling and the positive numbers depict warming. Overall, the air temperature near the Earth's surface has warmed by 1oF (0.6oC) globally, on average, over the last century. For more information and additional images, read Satellites Shed Light on a Warmer World. Image courtesy Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS).

  8. Women showing off: notes on female exhibitionism.

    PubMed

    Balsam, Rosemary H

    2008-03-01

    The limitations of the phallocentric cast of earlier psychoanalytic formulations of "female exhibitionism" linger into the present. In part this connects to certain historical expectations for women's social behavior, and to the vicissitudes of Freud's insufficient knowledge of women in his libidinal psychosexual phasing used as a basis for analytic understanding. The contemporary fade of libido theory contributes to the neglect of such topics as they relate to the biological body. Yet ease and conflict regarding conscious and unconscious female body image representations related to that stepchild of theory-pregnancy and childbirth in particular-play a major role in female body display. Recognition of such body fantasies and female body meanings from early childhood into maturity tends to be marginalized within all of the psychoanalytic theories current today. The focus here on female exhibitionism suggests a normative spectrum for pleasurably active sex seeking and pleasurable procreative desire and fantasy that is present in a female's use of her body and which (of course, but secondarily) can become caught up in conflict. Two cases accenting analyses of female "showing off" behavior are included. PMID:18430704

  9. Fading Supernova Creates Spectacular Light Show

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This image of SN 1987A, taken November 28, 2003 by the Advanced Camera for Surveys aboard NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST), shows many bright spots along a ring of gas, like pearls on a necklace. These cosmic pearls are being produced as superior shock waves unleashed during an explosion slam into the ring at more than a million miles per hour. The collision is heating the gas ring, causing its irnermost regions to glow. Astronomers detected the first of these hot spots in 1996, but now they see dozens of them all around the ring. With temperatures surging from a few thousand degrees to a million degrees, the flares are increasing in number. In the next few years, the entire ring will be ablaze as it absorbs the full force of the crash and is expected to become bright enough to illuminate the star's surroundings. Astronomers will then be able to obtain information on how the star ejected material before the explosion. The elongated and expanding object in the center of the ring is debris form the supernova blast which is being heated by radioactive elements, principally titanium 44, that were created in the explosion. This explosion was first observed by astronomers seventeen years ago in 1987, although the explosion took place about 160,000 years ago.

  10. Bacteriophages show promise as antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Alisky, J; Iczkowski, K; Rapoport, A; Troitsky, N

    1998-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has prompted interest in alternatives to conventional drugs. One possible option is to use bacteriophages (phage) as antimicrobial agents. We have conducted a literature review of all Medline citations from 1966-1996 that dealt with the therapeutic use of phage. There were 27 papers from Poland, the Soviet Union, Britain and the U.S.A. The Polish and Soviets administered phage orally, topically or systemically to treat a wide variety of antibiotic-resistant pathogens in both adults and children. Infections included suppurative wound infections, gastroenteritis, sepsis, osteomyelitis, dermatitis, empyemas and pneumonia; pathogens included Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Klebsiella, Escherichia, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Shigella and Salmonella spp. Overall, the Polish and Soviets reported success rates of 80-95% for phage therapy, with rare, reversible gastrointestinal or allergic side effects. However, efficacy of phage was determined almost exclusively by qualitative clinical assessment of patients, and details of dosages and clinical criteria were very sketchy. There were also six British reports describing controlled trials of phage in animal models (mice, guinea pigs and livestock), measuring survival rates and other objective criteria. All of the British studies raised phage against specific pathogens then used to create experimental infections. Demonstrable efficacy against Escherichia, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus spp. was noted in these model systems. Two U.S. papers dealt with improving the bioavailability of phage. Phage is sequestered in the spleen and removed from circulation. This can be overcome by serial passage of phage through mice to isolate mutants that resist sequestration. In conclusion, bacteriophages may show promise for treating antibiotic resistant pathogens. To facilitate further progress, directions for future research are discussed and a directory of authors from the reviewed

  11. Mercury's Core Molten, Radar Study Shows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-05-01

    100 times, and showed that Mercury's spin axis is almost, but not exactly, perpendicular to the plane of its rotation around the Sun," Margot said. Margot worked with Stanton Peale of the University of California, Santa Barbara, Raymond Jurgens and Martin Slade of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and Igor Holin of the Space Research Institute in Moscow. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. The Arecibo Observatory is part of the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center, which is operated by Cornell University under a cooperative agreement with the NSF. Part of this work was supported by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, operated by Caltech under contract with NASA.

  12. Alcohol consumption and risk of gastric cancer: a cohort study of men in Kaunas, Lithuania, with up to 30 years follow-up

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer in the world. Epidemiological findings on alcohol use in relation to gastric cancer remain controversial. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of alcohol consumption on the risk of gastric cancer. Methods The association between alcohol intake and the risk of gastric cancer was examined in a population-based cohort of 7,150 men in Kaunas, Lithuania, who were enrolled during 1972–1974 or 1976–1980. After up to 30 years of follow-up, 185 gastric cancer cases were identified. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The attained age was used as a time-scale. Results After adjustment for smoking, education level and body mass index, the HR of gastric cancer was 2.00 (95% CI: 1.04–3.82) for the highest alcohol consumption frequency (2–7 times per week) compared with occasional drinking (a few times per year) and 1.90 (95% CI: 1.13–3.18) for ≥100.0 g ethanol/week versus 0.1–9.9 g ethanol/week. A stronger effect of alcohol consumption on gastric cancer risk was observed during the second half of the study (1993–2008). In the analysis of gastric cancer risk by alcoholic beverage type, all beverages were included simultaneously in the model. The multivariate HR for men who consumed ≥0.5 litre of wine per occasion (compared with those who consumed <0.5 litre) was 2.95 (95% CI: 1.30–6.68). Higher consumption of beer or vodka was not statistically significantly associated with gastric cancer risk. After adjustment for smoking, education level, body mass index and ethanol, we found no excess risk of gastric cancer in association with total acetaldehyde intake. Conclusions This study supports a link between alcohol consumption (primarily from ethanol) and the development of gastric cancer in the Lithuanian population. Although an association with heavy wine consumption was

  13. Family time, parental behaviour model and the initiation of smoking and alcohol use by ten-year-old children: an epidemiological study in Kaunas, Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Garmienė, Asta; Žemaitienė, Nida; Zaborskis, Apolinaras

    2006-01-01

    Background Family is considered to be the first and the most important child development and socialization bond. Nevertheless, parental behaviour model importance for the children, as well as family time for shared activity amount influence upon the child's health-related behaviour habit development has not been yet thoroughly examined. The aim of this paper is to indicate the advanced health-hazardous behaviour modelling possibilities in the families, as well as time spent for joint family activities, and to examine the importance of time spent for joint family activities for the smoking and alcohol use habit initiation among children. Methods This research was carried out in Kaunas, Lithuania, during the school year 2004–2005. The research population consisted of 369 fifth-grade schoolchildren (211 (57.2%) boys and 158 (42.8%) girls) and 565 parents: 323 (57.2%) mothers and 242 (48.2%) fathers. The response rate was 80.7% for children; 96.1% and 90.6% for mothers and fathers correspondingly. Results Eating a meal together was the most frequent joint family activity, whereas visiting friends or relatives together, going for a walk, or playing sports were the most infrequent joint family activities. More than two thirds (81.5%) of parents (248 (77.0%) mothers and 207 (85.9%) fathers (p < 0.05)) reported frequenting alcohol furnished parties at least once a month. About half of the surveyed fathers (50.6%) together with one fifth of the mothers (19.9%) (p < 0.001) were smokers. More frequently than girls, boys reported having tried smoking (6.6% and 23.0% respectively; p < 0.001) as well as alcohol (31.16% and 40.1% respectively; p < 0.05). Child alcohol use was associated both with paternal alcohol use, and with the time, spent in joint family activities. For instance, boys were more prone to try alcohol, if their fathers frequented alcohol furnished parties, whereas girls were more prone to try alcohol, if family members spent less time together. Conclusion

  14. Health Factors and Risk of All-Cause, Cardiovascular, and Coronary Heart Disease Mortality: Findings from the MONICA and HAPIEE Studies in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Luksiene, Dalia; Baceviciene, Migle; Bernotiene, Gailute; Radisauskas, Ricardas; Malinauskiene, Vilija; Kranciukaite-Butylkiniene, Daina; Virviciute, Dalia; Peasey, Anne; Bobak, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Aims This study investigated the trends and levels of the prevalence of health factors, and the association of all-cause and cardiovascular (CVD) mortality with healthy levels of combined risk factors among Lithuanian urban population. Methods Data from five general population surveys in Kaunas, Lithuania, conducted between 1983 and 2008 were used. Healthy factors measured at baseline include non-smoking, normal weight, normal arterial blood pressure, normal level of total serum cholesterol, normal physical activity and normal level of fasting glucose. Among 9,209 men and women aged 45–64 (7,648 were free from coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke at baseline), 1,219 death cases from any cause, 589 deaths from CVD, and 342 deaths from CHD occurred during follow up. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the association between health factors and mortality from all causes, CVD and CHD. Results Between 1983 and 2008, the proportion of subjects with 6 healthy levels of risk factors was higher in 2006–2008 than in 1983–1984 (0.6% vs. 0.2%; p = 0.09), although there was a significant increase in fasting glucose and a decline in intermediate physical activity. Men and women with normal or intermediate levels of risk factors had significantly lower all-cause, CVD and CHD mortality risk than persons with high levels of risk factors. Subjects with 5–6 healthy factors had hazard ratio (HR) of CVD mortality 0.35 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15–0.83) compared to average risk in the whole population. The hazard ratio for CVD mortality risk was significant in men (HR 0.34, 95% CI 0.12–0.97) but not in women (HR 0.38, 95% CI 0.09–1.67). Conclusions An inverse association of most healthy levels of cardiovascular risk factors with risk of all-cause and CVD mortality was observed in this urban population-based cohort. A greater number of cardiovascular health factors were related with significantly lower risk of CVD mortality, particularly

  15. Show Horse Welfare: The Viewpoints of Judges, Stewards, and Show Managers.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Melissa; Hiney, Kristina; Croney, Candace; Waite, Karen; Borron, Abigail; Brady, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of the current state of stock-type show horse welfare based on the perceptions of show officials and to identify potential means of preventing and intervening in compromises to show horse welfare. Thirteen horse show officials, including judges, stewards, and show managers, were interviewed. Findings revealed the officials had an incomplete understanding of nonhuman animal welfare and a high level of concern regarding the public's perception of show horse welfare. The officials attributed most of the frequently observed compromises to show horse welfare to (a) novices', amateurs', and young trainers' lack of experience or expertise, and (b) trainers' and owners' unrealistic expectations and prioritization of winning over horse welfare. The officials emphasized a need for distribution of responsibility among associations, officials, and individuals within the industry. Although the officials noted recent observable positive changes in the industry, they emphasized the need for continued improvements in equine welfare and greater educational opportunities for stakeholders. PMID:26742585

  16. Show Horse Welfare: Horse Show Competitors' Understanding, Awareness, and Perceptions of Equine Welfare.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Melissa A; Hiney, Kristina; Richardson, Jennifer C; Waite, Karen; Borron, Abigail; Brady, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of stock-type horse show competitors' understanding of welfare and level of concern for stock-type show horses' welfare. Data were collected through an online questionnaire that included questions relating to (a) interest and general understanding of horse welfare, (b) welfare concerns of the horse show industry and specifically the stock-type horse show industry, (c) decision-making influences, and (d) level of empathic characteristics. The majority of respondents indicated they agree or strongly agree that physical metrics should be a factor when assessing horse welfare, while fewer agreed that behavioral and mental metrics should be a factor. Respondent empathy levels were moderate to high and were positively correlated with the belief that mental and behavioral metrics should be a factor in assessing horse welfare. Respondents indicated the inhumane practices that most often occur at stock-type shows include excessive jerking on reins, excessive spurring, and induced excessive unnatural movement. Additionally, respondents indicated association rules, hired trainers, and hired riding instructors are the most influential regarding the decisions they make related to their horses' care and treatment. PMID:27029609

  17. Flashlight und Lichtorgel: Englischunterricht als Show (Flashlight and Lighting Console: English Teaching as a Show).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boettcher, Karl-Heinz

    1978-01-01

    Reports on using amateur theatricals in fifth-grade English classes as a motivating device. The project developed into a "show," which was performed publicly. Practical problems are discussed. The project is evaluated and suggestions are offered for other teachers. (IFS/WGA)

  18. Showing and Telling Farming: Agricultural Shows and Re-Imaging British Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Lewis

    2004-01-01

    Some actors in the ''mainstream'' agricultural sector are beginning to engage in strategies of influencing public perceptions of farming, responding to public anxieties over industrialised agriculture and to a supposed separation of non-farming publics from food production. This paper focuses on agricultural shows as sites and events central to…

  19. Best in show but not best shape: a photographic assessment of show dog body condition.

    PubMed

    Such, Z R; German, A J

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that owners often wrongly perceive overweight dogs to be in normal condition. The body shape of dogs attending shows might influence owners' perceptions, with online images of overweight show winners having a negative effect. This was an observational in silico study of canine body condition. 14 obese-prone breeds and 14 matched non-obese-probe breeds were first selected, and one operator then used an online search engine to identify 40 images, per breed, of dogs that had appeared at a major national UK show (Crufts). After images were anonymised and coded, a second observer subjectively assessed body condition, in a single sitting, using a previously validated method. Of 1120 photographs initially identified, 960 were suitable for assessing body condition, with all unsuitable images being from longhaired breeds. None of the dogs (0 per cent) were underweight, 708 (74 per cent) were in ideal condition and 252 (26 per cent) were overweight. Pugs, basset hounds and Labrador retrievers were most likely to be overweight, while standard poodles, Rhodesian ridgebacks, Hungarian vizslas and Dobermanns were least likely to be overweight. Given the proportion of show dogs from some breeds that are overweight, breed standards should be redefined to be consistent with a dog in optimal body condition. PMID:26169655

  20. Spatial distribution of soil moisture and hydrophobicity in the immediate period after a grassland fire in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, P.; Pundyte, N.; Vaitkute, D.; Cepanko, V.; Pranskevicius, M.; Ubeda, X.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Cerda, A.

    2012-04-01

    Fire can affect significantly soil moisture (SM) and water repellency (WR) in the immediate period after the fire due the effect of the temperatures into soil profile and ash. This impact can be very heterogeneous, even in small distances, due to different conditions of combustion (e.g. fuel and soil moisture, fuel amount and type, distribution and connection, and geomorphological variables as aspect and slope) that influences fire temperature and severity. The aim of this work it is study the spatial distribution of SM and WR in a small plot (400 m2 with a sampling distance of 5 m) immediately after the a low severity grassland fire.. This was made in a burned but also in a control (unburned) plot as reference to can compare. In each plot we analyzed a total of 25 samples. SM was measured gravimetrically and WR with the water drop penetration time test (WDPT). Several interpolation methods were tested in order to identify the best predictor of SM and WR, as the Inverse Distance to a Weight (IDW) (with the power of 1,2,3,4 and 5), Local Polynomial with the first and second polynomial order, Polynomial Regression (PR), Radial Basis Functions (RBF) as Multilog (MTG), Natural Cubic Spline (NCS), Multiquadratic (MTQ), Inverse Multiquadratic (IMTQ) and Thin Plate Spline (TPS) and Ordinary Kriging. Interpolation accuracy was observed with the cross-validation method that is achieved by taking each observation in turn out of the sample and estimating from the remaining ones. The errors produced in each interpolation allowed us to calculate the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The best method is the one that showed the lower RMSE. The results showed that on average the SM in the control plot was 13.59 % (±2.83) and WR 2.9 (±1.3) seconds (s). The majority of the soils (88%) were hydrophilic (WDPT <5s). SM in the control plot showed a weak negative relationship with WR (r=-0.33, p<0.10). The coefficient of variation (CV%) of SM was 20.77% and SW of 44.62%. In the burned plot

  1. Bilateral parotid enlargement due to malnutrition under the influence of the media in an adolescent in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Mieliauskaite, Diana; Venalis, Algirdas; Graziene, Vida; Kirdaite, Gailute

    2007-07-01

    The elimination of censorship for the media in post-communist countries in transition has contributed to increases in the prevalence of several medical problems. Children and adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the messages conveyed through the media, which influence their perceptions and behaviour. We describe a case of bilateral parotid enlargement due to malnutrition under the influence of self-prescribed diet in an adolescent. A 15-year-old girl reported to our institution under suspicion of Sjögren's syndrome for medical advice. Two months ago she developed persistent bilateral parotid enlargement and a dry mouth. Her medical history revealed a weight loss due to "self-prescribed" reduce diet. Social questioning clarified high use of the media and influence on the body concept and self image. On extra oral examination, a diffuse parotid enlargement was seen bilaterally. The examination of the mouth showed a low moisture level of the intraoral mucosa. The unstimulated whole salivary flow rate was 2 ml in 15 min. Laboratory findings evidenced anemia (107 g/l). The serum albumin concentration indicated a reduced level (28 g/l). Search for antinuclear antibodies, anti-SSA antibodies, anti-SSB, -Sm, -RNP and anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies was negative. Evaluation for antibodies against hepatitis C, cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus infection and HIV rendered negative results. A histopathologic examination of labial salivary gland biopsy revealed a picture of sialoadenosis. From the above investigations, a diagnosis of sialoadenosis due to malnutrition was made. PMID:17198741

  2. Distribution of tributyltin in surface sediments from transitional marine-lagoon system of the south-eastern Baltic Sea, Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Suzdalev, Sergej; Gulbinskas, Saulius; Blažauskas, Nerijus

    2015-02-01

    The current research paper presents the results of contamination by tributyltin (TBT) compounds in Klaipėda Port, which is situated in a unique marine-lagoon water interaction zone. One hundred fifty-four surface sediment samples have been taken along the whole transition path from lagoon to the sea and analysed in order to quantify the contamination rate in specific environment of high anthropogenic pressure. The detected TBT concentrations ranged from 1 to 5,200 ng Sn g(-1) of dry weight of sediment. The back-trace of horizontal distribution of TBT-contaminated sediments show obvious increase of tributyltin concentrations closer to port areas dealing with ship repair and places of dry-docking facilities. This is a clear indication that those activities are the main source of contamination in the study area. The estimated correlation of TBT concentration in sediments with total organic carbon and the amount of fine fraction (<0.063 mm) was significant for most of the stations. The TBT concentration in those sites varies from 1 to 100 ng Sn g(-1). This fact indicates that the most intensive accumulation of tributyltin is related to potential contamination source areas (ship repairing, dockyards) due to direct input of hazardous substances into the water. PMID:25196963

  3. Effectiveness of a Motivation and Practical Skills Development Methods on the Oral Hygiene of Orphans Children in Kaunas, Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Narbutaite, Julija

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a motivation and practical skills development methods on the oral hygiene of orphans. Material and Methods Sixty eight orphans aged between 7 and 17 years from two orphanages in Kaunas were divided into two groups: practical application group and motivation group. Children were clinically examined by determining their oral hygiene status using Silness-Löe plaque index. Questionnaire was used to estimate the oral hygiene knowledge and practices at baseline and after 3 months. Statistical analysis included: Chi-square test (χ2), Fisher‘s exact test, Student‘s t-test, nonparametric Mann-Whitney test, Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient and Kappa coefficient. Results All children had a plaque on at least one tooth in both groups: motivation 1.14 (SD 0.51), practical application 1.08 (SD 0.4) (P = 0.58). Girls in both groups showed significantly better oral hygiene than boys (P < 0.001). After 3 months educational program oral hygiene status improved in both groups significantly 0.4 (SD 0.35) (P < 0.001). Significantly better oral hygiene was determined in practical application group 0.19 (SD 0.27) in comparison with motivation group 0.55 (SD 0.32) (P < 0.001). By comparing results of first and second questionnaire surveys on use of soft drinks, the statistically significant decline of their use was in both groups (P = 0.004). Conclusions Educational programs are effective in improving oral hygiene, especially when they’re based on practical skills training. PMID:26539284

  4. CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli in Lithuania: associations between sites of infection, coresistance, and phylogenetic groups.

    PubMed

    Giedraitienė, Agnė; Vitkauskienė, Astra; Ašmonienė, Virginija; Plančiūnienė, Rita; Simonytė, Sandrita; Pavilonis, Alvydas; Arlet, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    Increasing resistance of Escherichia coli (E. coli) to antibiotics, especially to the third-generation cephalosporins, has prompted studies on widespread resistance genes such as blaCTX-M and differentiation of E. coli to phylogenetic groups. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between the CTX-M type and the phylogenetic group, the site of infection, and coresistance in Lithuanian E. coli isolates producing β-lactamases. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A total of 90 E. coli ESBL strains were recovered from the lower respiratory tract, the urinary tract, sterile body sites, wounds, and other body sites between 2008 and 2012. The E. coli isolates resistant to at least 2 antibiotics with different modes of action along with resistance to cefotaxime were considered as multiresistant. The blaCTX-M, blaTEM, blaOXA-1, and blaSHV genes, the phylogenetic groups, and the resistance profiles were analyzed. RESULTS. Of the 90 isolates, 84 (93.3%) were classified as multiresistant and 6 (6.6%) as resistant. The blaCTX-M-15 gene was the most prevalent gene followed by the blaCTX-M-14 and blaCTX-M-92 genes. The logistic regression analysis revealed the associations between CTX-M-15 and resistance to ceftriaxone, between CTX-M-14 and resistance to cefoxitin, aztreonam, ampicillin/sulbactam, ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, and tobramycin, and between CTX-M-92 and resistance to cefepime, piperacillin/tazobactam, gentamicin, and tobramycin. CONCLUSIONS. The results of this study showed a significant association between CTX-M-15, CTX-M-14, and CTX-M-92 β-lactamases and resistance to some antibiotics as well as CTX‑M-14 β-lactamase and phylogenetic group A in the Lithuanian population. The associations between the CTX-M type and the site of infection were not determined. PMID:24589574

  5. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Vijee; Gupta, Soni; Thomas, Sherinmol; Mickey, Hanjabam; Charakana, Chaitanya; Chauhan, Vineeta Singh; Sharma, Kapil; Kumar, Rakesh; Tyagi, Kamal; Sarma, Supriya; Gupta, Suresh Kumar; Kilambi, Himabindu Vasuki; Nongmaithem, Sapana; Kumari, Alka; Gupta, Prateek; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2016-01-01

    Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS), carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1) involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima’D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future. PMID:27077652

  6. Open Access Centre at the Nature Research Centre: a facility for enhancement of scientific research, education and public outreach in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šerpenskienė, Silvija; Skridlaitė, Gražina

    2014-05-01

    Open Access Centre (OAC) was established in Vilnius, Lithuania in 2013 as a subdivision of the Nature Research Centre (NRC) operating on the principle of open access for both internal and external users. The OAC consists of 15 units, i.e. 15 NRC laboratories or their branches. Forty four sets of research equipment were purchased. The OAC cooperates with Lithuanian science and studies institutions, business sector and other governmental and public institutions. Investigations can be carried in the Geosciences, Biotaxonomy, Ecology and Molecular Research, and Ecotoxicology fields. Environmental radioactivity, radioecology, nuclear geophysics, microscopic and chemical composition of natural compounds (minerals, rocks etc.), paleomagnetic, magnetic and environmental investigations, as well as ground and water contamination by oil products and other organic environment polluting compounds, identification of fossils, rocks and minerals can be studied in the Georesearch field. Ecosystems and identification of plants, animals and microorganisms are main subjects of the Biotaxonomy, Ecology and Molecular Research field. The Ecotoxicologal Research deals with toxic and genotoxic effects of toxic substances and other sources of pollution on macro- and microorganisms and cell cultures. Open access is guaranteed by: (1) providing scientific research and experimental development services; (2) implementing joint business and science projects; (3) using facilities for the training of specialists of the highest qualifications; (4) providing properly qualified and technically trained users with opportunities to carry out their scientific research and/or experiments in the OAC laboratories by themselves. Services provided in the Open Access Centre can be received by both internal and external users: persons undertaking innovative economic activities, students of other educational institutions, interns, external teams of researchers engaged in scientific research activities, teachers

  7. Short term spatio-temporal variability of soil water-extractable calcium and magnesium after a low severity grassland fire in Lithuania.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Martin, David

    2014-05-01

    Fire has important impacts on soil nutrient spatio-temporal distribution (Outeiro et al., 2008). This impact depends on fire severity, topography of the burned area, type of soil and vegetation affected, and the meteorological conditions post-fire. Fire produces a complex mosaic of impacts in soil that can be extremely variable at small plot scale in the space and time. In order to assess and map such a heterogeneous distribution, the test of interpolation methods is fundamental to identify the best estimator and to have a better understanding of soil nutrients spatial distribution. The objective of this work is to identify the short-term spatial variability of water-extractable calcium and magnesium after a low severity grassland fire. The studied area is located near Vilnius (Lithuania) at 54° 42' N, 25° 08 E, 158 masl. Four days after the fire, it was designed in a burned area a plot with 400 m2 (20 x 20 m with 5 m space between sampling points). Twenty five samples from top soil (0-5 cm) were collected immediately after the fire (IAF), 2, 5, 7 and 9 months after the fire (a total of 125 in all sampling dates). The original data of water-extractable calcium and magnesium did not respected the Gaussian distribution, thus a neperian logarithm (ln) was applied in order to normalize data. Significant differences of water-extractable calcium and magnesium among sampling dates were carried out with the Anova One-way test using the ln data. In order to assess the spatial variability of water-extractable calcium and magnesium, we tested several interpolation methods as Ordinary Kriging (OK), Inverse Distance to a Weight (IDW) with the power of 1, 2, 3 and 4, Radial Basis Functions (RBF) - Inverse Multiquadratic (IMT), Multilog (MTG), Multiquadratic (MTQ) Natural Cubic Spline (NCS) and Thin Plate Spline (TPS) - and Local Polynomial (LP) with the power of 1 and 2. Interpolation tests were carried out with Ln data. The best interpolation method was assessed using the

  8. Modelling spatial distribution of soil steady state infiltration rate in an urban park (Vingis Parkas, Vilnius, Lithuania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerda, Artemi; Depellegrin, Daniel; Misiune, Ieva; Bogunovic, Igor; Menchov, Oleksandr

    2016-04-01

    larger urban park in Vilnius, Vinguis Parkas. The studied area is located near the Neris River and occupies an area of approximately 162 hectares. Inside the park a total of 95 randomly points were selected to measure soil steady infiltration, between April and September of 2016. At each sampling point, 4 infiltration measurements were carried out using a cylinder infiltrometer with 15 cm higher and a diameter of 7 cm (Cerda, 1996). Each experiment has the duration of 1 hour and the measurements of the infiltrated water were carried out 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 minutes (Cerda, 1996). The steady state infiltration value of each sampling point corresponds to the average value of the 4 measurements. In each point, the 4 measurements were separated by 5 meters to take in account the spatial variability (Neris et al., 2013). In total 380 infiltration tests were carried out (95x4). Previous to data modelling, data normality was assessed using the shapiro wilk-test and homogeneity of the variances, using Levene test, respectively. The original data was not normally distributed and, only respected the Gaussian distribution and heteroscedasticity after a logarithmic transformation. Data modelling was carried out using transformed data. The accuracy of steady-state soil infiltration spatial distribution was carried out testing several interpolation methods, as Inverse Distance to a Weight (IDW) with the power of 1,2,3,4 and 5, Local Polynomial methods, with the power of 1 and 2 Radial Basis Functions - Spline With Tension (SPT), Completely Regularized Spline (CRS), Multiquadratic (MTQ), Inverse Multiquadratic (IMTQ) and Thin Plate Spline (TPS) - and Geostatistical methods as, Ordinary Kriging (OK), Simple Kriging (SK) and Universal Kriging (UK) (Pereira et al., 2015). Methods performance was assessed calculating the Root Square Mean Error (RMSE) from the errors obtained from cross-validation. The results showed that on average steady state

  9. Vegetation cover and land use impacts on soil water repellency in an Urban Park located in Vilnius, Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerda, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    It is strongly recognized that vegetation cover, land use have important impacts on the degree of soil water repellency (SWR). Soil water repellency is a natural property of soils, but can be induced by natural and anthropogenic disturbances as fire and soil tillage (Doerr et al., 2000; Urbanek et al., 2007; Mataix-Solera et al., 2014). Urban parks are areas where soils have a strong human impact, with implications on their hydrological properties. The aim of this work is to study the impact of different vegetations cover and urban soils impact on SWR and the relation to other soil variables as pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC) and soil organic matter (SOM) in an urban park. The study area is located in Vilnius city (54°.68' N, 25°.25' E). It was collected 15 soil samples under different vegetation cover as Pine (Pinus Sylvestris), Birch (Alnus glutinosa), Penduculate Oak (Quercus robur), Platanus (Platanus orientalis) and other human disturbed areas as forest trails and soils collected from human planted grass. Soils were taken to the laboratory, air-dried at room temperature and sieved with the <2 mm mesh in order to remove the coarse material. Subsequently were placed in petri dishes and exposed to a controlled laboratory environment (temperature of 20C and 50% of air relative humidity) for one week to avoid potential impacts of the atmospheric conditions on SWR (Doerr, 1998). The persistence of SWR was measured using the water drop penetration time (WDPT) (Wessel, 1998). The classification of WDPT was according to Bisdom et al. (1993) <5 (wettable), 5-60 (slightly water repellent), 60-600 (strongly water repellent), 600-3600 (severely water repellent) and >3600 (extremely water repellent). The results showed significant differences among the different vegetation cover (Kruskal-Wallis H=20.64, p<0.001). The WDPT soil median values collected under Pine, Birch, Penduculate Oak, forest trails and soils from planted grass were significantly higher than Platanus

  10. Gem and Mineral Shows as Geologic Teaching Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordua, William Sinclair

    1988-01-01

    Gem and mineral shows are excellent nontraditional opportunities for community education and outreach by geology teachers. Discusses initial club contacts, displays, shows, and the advantages of show participation to academic geologists. (CW)

  11. 32 CFR 552.78 - “Show cause” hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....78 “Show cause” hearing. Before suspending the solicitation privilege, the company and the agent will have a chance to show cause why the action should not be taken. “Show cause” is an opportunity for...

  12. 29 CFR 34.41 - Notice to Show Cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Notice to Show Cause. 34.41 Section 34.41 Labor Office of... Show Cause. (a) The Director may issue a Notice to Show Cause to a recipient failing to comply with the... compliance review. (b) The Notice to Show Cause shall contain: (1) A description of the violation and...

  13. 42 CFR 456.655 - Validation of showings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Validation of showings. 456.655 Section 456.655... Showing of an Effective Institutional Utilization Control Program § 456.655 Validation of showings. (a) The Administrator will periodically validate showings submitted under § 456.654. Validation...

  14. 42 CFR 456.655 - Validation of showings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Validation of showings. 456.655 Section 456.655... Showing of an Effective Institutional Utilization Control Program § 456.655 Validation of showings. (a) The Administrator will periodically validate showings submitted under § 456.654. Validation...

  15. "The George Lopez Show": The Same Old Hispano?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markert, John

    2007-01-01

    "The George Lopez Show" is the first successful television show with a Latino in a leading role that features Hispanic material since Freddie Prinze's thirty-year-old sitcom, "Chico and the Man." This study seeks to assess how Latinos are presented on "The George Lopez Show." A content analysis reveals that the show perpetuates some of the…

  16. View looking southwest showing northeast corner, with northwest corner of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking southwest showing northeast corner, with northwest corner of building no. 1015 (ice house/storage shed) showing at the left. - McGraw Ranch, Eagle's Nest Cabin, McGraw Ranch Road, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  17. Stem Cell Therapy Shows Promise Against Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158122.html Stem Cell Therapy Shows Promise Against Heart Failure A second ... 4, 2016 MONDAY, April 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Stem cell therapy shows promise for people battling heart failure, ...

  18. 2. VIEW SHOWING WEST ELEVATION, EAST SIDE OF MEYER AVENUE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SHOWING WEST ELEVATION, EAST SIDE OF MEYER AVENUE. Shows 499-501, Munoz House (AZ-73-37) on far right. - Antonio Bustamente House, 485-489 South Meyer Avenue & 186 West Kennedy Street, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  19. TRMM Satellite Shows Bertha's Heavy Rain Pushed From Wind Shear

    NASA Video Gallery

    TRMM Satellite Shows Bertha's Heavy Rain Pushed From Wind Shear This 3-D flyby of Tropical Storm Bertha on Aug. 1 was created from TRMM satellite data. It shows (from the south) intense thunderstor...

  20. 78. VIEW OF UNCOMPLETED RESERVOIR, SHOWING FOREBAY AND FLUME; ALSO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    78. VIEW OF UNCOMPLETED RESERVOIR, SHOWING FOREBAY AND FLUME; ALSO SHOWING POOL ARRANGEMENT FOR TEMPORARILY UTILIZING WATER WITHOUT FILLING THE RESERVOIR, Print No. 232, April 1904 - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

  1. 22. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING FISH LADDER AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING FISH LADDER AT NORTH END OF DAM/SPILLWAY; VIEW SHOWS SECTION OF FISH LADDER NEAR WHERE IT ENTERS THE COLUMBIA RIVER. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  2. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING COVERED BARGE (VESSEL 37) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING COVERED BARGE (VESSEL 37) IN CENTER OF PICTURE WITH FOUR HATCHES SHOWING IN SUPERSTRUCTURE Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 37, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  3. Southeast upstairs room of northwest wing showing southeast masonry wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southeast upstairs room of northwest wing showing southeast masonry wall shared with Federal addition. note angled cracks showing original 1 1/2 story gable. - Scheetz Farm, House, 7161 Camp Hill Road, Fort Washington, Montgomery County, PA

  4. 77. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING RIVERFRONT SIDE OF THE PROPERTY, FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    77. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING RIVERFRONT SIDE OF THE PROPERTY, FROM WEST 77. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING RIVERFRONT SIDE OF THE PROPERTY, FROM WEST 77. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING RIVERFRONT SIDE OF THE PROPERTY, FROM WEST - Westover, State Route 633, Westover, Charles City, VA

  5. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey UNDATED EXTERIOR SHOWING NORTH AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey UNDATED EXTERIOR SHOWING NORTH AND EAST FACADES (View B) This view shows clapboards on gable end and therefore, predates View A which shows shingles in upper gable From the collection of Mrs. L. T. Hazall, descendent of Rev. Woodward - Reverend John Woodward House, 409 Forbes Avenue, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  6. 20. MEMBER 'A' SHOWS TENON AS USED IN POST 'A' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. MEMBER 'A' SHOWS TENON AS USED IN POST 'A' (TN-159A-19), MEMBER 'B' IS BEAM 'B' IN TN-159A-19 AND SHOWS METHOD OF JOINING THESE MEMBERS. MEMBER 'C' SHOWS MORTISE IN BEAM 'B'. - Caleb Crosby Threshing Barn, Noeton (moved to Norris Dam State Park, Lake City), Morristown, Hamblen County, TN

  7. 47 CFR 1.701 - Show cause orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Show cause orders. 1.701 Section 1.701..., and Reports Involving Common Carriers General § 1.701 Show cause orders. (a) The Commission may... order to show cause. The order shall contain a statement of the particulars and matters concerning...

  8. 41 CFR 60-1.28 - Show cause notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Show cause notices. 60-1... Procedure § 60-1.28 Show cause notices. When the Deputy Assistant Secretary has reasonable cause to believe... contractor to show cause, within 30 days, why monitoring, enforcement proceedings or other appropriate...

  9. 25 CFR 141.56 - Show cause procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Show cause procedures. 141.56 Section 141.56 Indians... NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS Enforcement Powers, Procedures and Remedies § 141.56 Show cause... from the date of receipt of notice in which to show cause why the contemplated remedial action...

  10. 21 CFR 1309.46 - Order to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Order to show cause. 1309.46 Section 1309.46 Food... Or Suspension of Registration § 1309.46 Order to show cause. (a) If, upon examination of the... upon the applicant an order to show cause why the application for registration should not be denied....

  11. 46 CFR 502.66 - Order to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Order to show cause. 502.66 Section 502.66 Shipping... Proceedings; Pleadings; Motions; Replies § 502.66 Order to show cause. The Commission may institute a proceeding by order to show cause. The order shall be served upon all persons named therein, shall...

  12. 21 CFR 1301.37 - Order to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Order to show cause. 1301.37 Section 1301.37 Food... Suspension of Registration § 1301.37 Order to show cause. (a) If, upon examination of the application for... Administrator shall serve upon the applicant an order to show cause why the registration should not be...

  13. 21 CFR 1314.150 - Order To show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Order To show cause. 1314.150 Section 1314.150 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Order to Show Cause § 1314.150 Order To show cause. (a) If, upon information gathered...

  14. 22 CFR 1421.16 - Showing of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Showing of interest. 1421.16 Section 1421.16... TERMS AS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 1421.16 Showing of interest. Showing of interest means evidence of... forms executed by an employee and the labor organization's authorized official; current dues...

  15. 56. View looking east. Detail showing an end of three ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. View looking east. Detail showing an end of three crib side walls, being flown by the derrick. The upper part of the fourth member, marked with an identifying tag, shows evidence of burning. Notice how well the lower members fit together. This view shows that individual timber members were worked, in part, after assembly. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  16. 52. View from ground level showing lower radar scanner switch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. View from ground level showing lower radar scanner switch with open port door in radar scanner building 105 showing emanating waveguides from lower switch in vertical run; photograph also shows catwalk to upper scanner switch in upper left side of photograph and structural supports. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  17. 34 CFR 300.193 - Request to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Request to show cause. 300.193 Section 300.193... show cause. An SEA, LEA or other public agency in receipt of a notice under § 300.192 that seeks an opportunity to show cause why a by-pass should not be implemented must submit a written request for a...

  18. 1. Southeast elevation of Oil House showing loading platform. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Southeast elevation of Oil House showing loading platform. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Oil House, 650 feet Southeast of Cliff & Mechanic Streets, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  19. 11. Exterior detail view of northeast corner, showing stucco finish ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Exterior detail view of northeast corner, showing stucco finish and woodwork details - American Railway Express Company Freight Building, 1060 Northeast Division Street, Bend, Deschutes County, OR

  20. 3. Photocopy of 1932 photograph showing another general view of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopy of 1932 photograph showing another general view of the mansion, looking northwest. Original photograph at the Philadelphia Museum of Art. - Strawberry Mansion, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. RIVERSIDE AVE. FROM SOUTH, SOUTHEAST OF BUILDINGS #433 SHOWING BUILDINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RIVERSIDE AVE. FROM SOUTH, SOUTHEAST OF BUILDINGS #433 SHOWING BUILDINGS #434 AND #435, LOOKING EAST-SOUTHEAST - Fort Leavenworth, Metropolitan Avenue & Seventh Street, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

  2. 1. DELAWARE AVE. (right, looking north) AND WASHINGTON AVE. SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. DELAWARE AVE. (right, looking north) AND WASHINGTON AVE. SHOWING GLORIA DEI CHURCH (note steeple) - Independence National Historical Park, Walnut, Sixth, Chestnut & Second Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. 10. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, OF MAIN LOBBY, FIRST FLOOR, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, OF MAIN LOBBY, FIRST FLOOR, SHOWING PORTALS TO NEW LOBBY - Pennsylvania Railroad, Harrisburg Station & Trainshed, Market & South Fourth Streets, Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

  4. 2. VIEW SOUTH SHOWING NORTHEAST ELEVATION; BRICK CORBELLING, BUTTRESSES AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTH SHOWING NORTHEAST ELEVATION; BRICK CORBELLING, BUTTRESSES AND ART DECO STAINED GLASS - Poletown Historic District, St. Michael's Greek Catholic Church, 2390 East Grand Boulevard, Detroit, MI

  5. 6. SOUTHEAST ABUTMENT AT CALVERT STREET, SHOWING LEON HERMANT ALLEGORICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. SOUTHEAST ABUTMENT AT CALVERT STREET, SHOWING LEON HERMANT ALLEGORICAL RELIEF OF TRANSPORTATION BY AUTOMOBILE - Calvert Street Bridge, Spanning Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. 24. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS VIEW TO NORTHWEST, SHOWING BLOWER BUILDING. INEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS VIEW TO NORTHWEST, SHOWING BLOWER BUILDING. INEEL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-60-4407. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. 26. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST INSIDE TRANSFORMER ROOM, SHOWING OIL FILLED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST INSIDE TRANSFORMER ROOM, SHOWING OIL- FILLED TRANSFORMER POTS - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  8. 25. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST INSIDE TRANSFORMER ROOM, SHOWING TRANSFORMERS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST INSIDE TRANSFORMER ROOM, SHOWING TRANSFORMERS AND KNIFE SWITCHES - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  9. 10. View along North Plant Southwest Elevation, Showing Loading Dock ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View along North Plant Southwest Elevation, Showing Loading Dock and Powerhouse (right rear) - Atwater Kent Manufacturing Company, North Plant, 5000 Wissahickon Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. 7. Photocopy of photograph (from Broome County Historical Society) showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of photograph (from Broome County Historical Society) showing SWIMMERS, PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN FACING NORTHEAST - Charles F. Johnson Pool, Charles F. Johnson Park, Johnson City, Broome County, NY

  11. 13. VIEW INTO BLOCK AREA SHOWING KEY MECHANISM, NOTE FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW INTO BLOCK AREA SHOWING KEY MECHANISM, NOTE FLOOR SEPARATION AT THRESHOLD AND KEY-WINDING MECHANISM - Montgomery County Jail, Washington & Spring Streets, Crawfordsville, Montgomery County, IN

  12. Interior view, detail of the staircase to show the burnished ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, detail of the staircase to show the burnished aluminum and brass balustrade - Departmental Auditorium, Constitution Avenue between Twelfth and Fourteenth Streets, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. INTERIOR VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO LABORATORY, SHOWING HANDHAMMERED ALUMINUM DOORS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO LABORATORY, SHOWING HAND-HAMMERED ALUMINUM DOORS AND MARBLE. NOTE ALUMINUM LIGHT FIXTURE - Alcoa Research Laboratory, Freeport Road, New Kensington, Westmoreland County, PA

  14. INTERIOR OF COLD STORAGE ROOM, SHOWING MOVABLE HANGING RACKS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF COLD STORAGE ROOM, SHOWING MOVABLE HANGING RACKS. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Aircraft Storehouse, Between Midway & Card Streets at Enterprise Avenue intersection, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  15. 6. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING STRUCTURAL DESIGN AND SAWN REPLACEMENT EYEBROW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING STRUCTURAL DESIGN AND SAWN REPLACEMENT EYEBROW RAFTERS - Camp Cleawox, Adirondack Sleeping Shelter, Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area, Siuslaw National Forest, Florence, Lane County, OR

  16. 54. VIEW SHOWING THE PLACEMENT OF SPIDER WEB BRACING, SHOOFLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. VIEW SHOWING THE PLACEMENT OF SPIDER WEB BRACING, SHOOFLY BRIDGE, January 1935 - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  17. 2. GENERAL VIEW FROM SOUTH SHOWING SOUTHWEST AND SOUTHEAST SIDES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL VIEW FROM SOUTH SHOWING SOUTHWEST AND SOUTHEAST SIDES AND CLERESTORY ARRANGEMENT - Sulphur Springs Methodist Campground, Sulphur Springs Road (Sulphur Springs), Sulphur Springs, Washington County, TN

  18. New rain shed (Building No. 241) interior showing posts, braces, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    New rain shed (Building No. 241) interior showing posts, braces, and roof structure. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  19. North elevation, showing watergate and bridge plaza at left. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North elevation, showing watergate and bridge plaza at left. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. General view, showing eastern view from atop hemi circle. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view, showing eastern view from atop hemi circle. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. Interior room within eastern lift span, showing auxiliary electric generator. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior room within eastern lift span, showing auxiliary electric generator. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. 29. Detail view north showing amperage and voltage meters, operator's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Detail view north showing amperage and voltage meters, operator's room, west operator's house. - Yellow Mill Bridge, Spanning Yellow Mill Channel at Stratford Avenue, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

  3. Experimental Therapy Shows Promise for Type 1 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Relief Health Capsules Experimental Therapy Shows Promise for Type 1 Diabetes Complementary Approaches for Depression Featured Website: Prescription Drug Abuse Past Issues Most Viewed June 2016 Print RSS ...

  4. Detail view to show northwestern section of the building with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view to show northwestern section of the building with its modified mansard roof - Internal Revenue Service Headquarters Building, 1111 Constitution Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. 3. GENERAL VIEW OF COMPLEX, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING THE 1959 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW OF COMPLEX, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING THE 1959 GENERATING STATION. - Commonwealth Electric Company, Fisk Street Electrical Generating Station, 1111 West Cermak Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  6. Contextual view showing northeastern eucalyptus windbreak and portion of citrus ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view showing northeastern eucalyptus windbreak and portion of citrus orchard. Camera facing 118" east-southeast. - Goerlitz House, 9893 Highland Avenue, Rancho Cucamonga, San Bernardino County, CA

  7. 12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH FROM PAVILION, SHOWING SOUTH ENTRANCE HOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH FROM PAVILION, SHOWING SOUTH ENTRANCE HOUSE, SOUTH WING, AND ENGINE HOUSE - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. View looking south from pavilion, showing south entrance house, south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking south from pavilion, showing south entrance house, south wing, and engine house - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. View looking south, showing portico of north wing with pavilion ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking south, showing portico of north wing with pavilion and engine house in background - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. 11. SECOND FLOOR INTERIOR, SHOWING EAST BALCONY AND BASKETBALL COURT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. SECOND FLOOR INTERIOR, SHOWING EAST BALCONY AND BASKETBALL COURT. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Fort David A. Russell, Gymnasium, Randall Avenue between Fourth & Fifth Streets, Cheyenne, Laramie County, WY

  11. 13. FOURTH FLOOR ROASTING ROOM, SHOWING CLERESTORY. VIEW TO SOUTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. FOURTH FLOOR ROASTING ROOM, SHOWING CLERESTORY. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, McFadden Coffee & Spice Company, Factory & Warehouse, 145 First Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  12. 23. VIEW SHOWING SALT RIVER PROJECT CREWS SLIPFORMING LATERAL DURING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW SHOWING SALT RIVER PROJECT CREWS SLIPFORMING LATERAL DURING REHABILITATION AND BETTERMENT PROGRAM Photographer: unknown. April 1968 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  13. 8. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF FISH HATCHERY BUILDING, SHOWING INCUBATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF FISH HATCHERY BUILDING, SHOWING INCUBATION TANKS. - Bonneville Project, Fish Hatchery, On Columbia River bordered on South by Union Pacific, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  14. 1. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING FRONT FACADE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING FRONT FACADE OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. - Bonneville Project, Administration Building, South side of main entrance, Bonneville Project, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  15. 5. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING EAST FACADE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING EAST FACADE OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. - Bonneville Project, Administration Building, South side of main entrance, Bonneville Project, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  16. 4. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, SHOWING REAR WING OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, SHOWING REAR WING OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. - Bonneville Project, Administration Building, South side of main entrance, Bonneville Project, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  17. 1. Aerial view, looking northeast up Newark Bay, showing entire ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Aerial view, looking northeast up Newark Bay, showing entire island Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  18. Underside of span over Pickering Creek, showing highly skewed piers, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Underside of span over Pickering Creek, showing highly skewed piers, looking south. - Pennsylvania Railroad, Pickering Creek Trestle, Spanning Pickering Creek, south of Buckwalter Road, Pickering, Chester County, PA

  19. 10. Detail, northerly spans, west side, showing deterioration; note spalls, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Detail, northerly spans, west side, showing deterioration; note spalls, cracks, and efflorescence; view to southeast. - Fordway Bridge, Spanning Concord River at Pollard Street, Billerica, Middlesex County, MA

  20. 4. View facing southwest showing the Silvertop Diner, Providence Fruit ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View facing southwest showing the Silvertop Diner, Providence Fruit & Produce Building, and Merchants' Cold Storage Warehouse. - Provisions Warehouse Historic District, Kinsley & Harris Avenues, Providence, Providence County, RI

  1. Contextual view showing west elevation; camera facing southeast. Mare ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view showing west elevation; camera facing southeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Ordnance Warehouse, Blake Avenue, northeast corner of Blake Avenue & Railroad Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  2. 7. SOUTHEAST REAR DETAIL, SHOWING WINDOWS. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. SOUTHEAST REAR DETAIL, SHOWING WINDOWS. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Key City Electric Street Railroad, Powerhouse & Storage Barn, Eighth & Washington Streets, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  3. 15. FIRST FLOOR WAREHOUSE SPACE, SHOWING COLUMN / BEAM CONNECTION. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. FIRST FLOOR WAREHOUSE SPACE, SHOWING COLUMN / BEAM CONNECTION. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Dubuque Seed Company Warehouse, 169-171 Iowa Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  4. 12. TRANSMISSION GEARING SHOWING RELATION TO SEGMENT GEAR ON WATERWHEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. TRANSMISSION GEARING SHOWING RELATION TO SEGMENT GEAR ON WATERWHEEL william E. Barrett, photographer, 1973 (copy negative) - Thomas Shepherd's Grist Mill, High Street Vicinity, Shepherdstown, Jefferson County, WV

  5. Time dependent patient no-show predictive modelling development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Li; Hanauer, David A

    2016-05-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop evident-based predictive no-show models considering patients' each past appointment status, a time-dependent component, as an independent predictor to improve predictability. Design/methodology/approach - A ten-year retrospective data set was extracted from a pediatric clinic. It consisted of 7,291 distinct patients who had at least two visits along with their appointment characteristics, patient demographics, and insurance information. Logistic regression was adopted to develop no-show models using two-thirds of the data for training and the remaining data for validation. The no-show threshold was then determined based on minimizing the misclassification of show/no-show assignments. There were a total of 26 predictive model developed based on the number of available past appointments. Simulation was employed to test the effective of each model on costs of patient wait time, physician idle time, and overtime. Findings - The results demonstrated the misclassification rate and the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic gradually improved as more appointment history was included until around the 20th predictive model. The overbooking method with no-show predictive models suggested incorporating up to the 16th model and outperformed other overbooking methods by as much as 9.4 per cent in the cost per patient while allowing two additional patients in a clinic day. Research limitations/implications - The challenge now is to actually implement the no-show predictive model systematically to further demonstrate its robustness and simplicity in various scheduling systems. Originality/value - This paper provides examples of how to build the no-show predictive models with time-dependent components to improve the overbooking policy. Accurately identifying scheduled patients' show/no-show status allows clinics to proactively schedule patients to reduce the negative impact of patient no-shows. PMID:27142954

  6. Survey Shows Blacks Not Concerned Enough about Kidney Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Health officials may have an uphill battle in educating Blacks about a disease that's being called a "silent killer," a recent survey shows. Kidney disease is an illness that's become more prevalent, especially in the nation's Black population, but a survey conducted in Jackson, Atlanta, Baltimore and Cleveland shows only 15 percent of those…

  7. The Easy Way to Create Computer Slide Shows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Mary Alice

    1995-01-01

    Discusses techniques for creating computer slide shows. Topics include memory; format; color use; HyperCard and CD-ROM; font styles and sizes; graphs and graphics; the slide show option; special effects; and tips for effective presentation. (Author/AEF)

  8. 2. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING WOODEN CRIBBING WITH LOWERED LAKE LEVEL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DETAIL VIEW SHOWING WOODEN CRIBBING WITH LOWERED LAKE LEVEL, EAST DAM, LOOKING NORTHEAST (View is middle of the perimeter showing in MT-88-A-1 above.) - Three Bears Lake & Dams, East Dam, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  9. 13. VIEW SHOWING MOST OF THE PERIMETER FROM SPILLWAY BOX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW SHOWING MOST OF THE PERIMETER FROM SPILLWAY BOX TO END OF EAST DAM. FOREGROUND VIEW SHOWS TRIPLE WALL CONSTRUCTION OF TONGUE AND GROOVE PLANKING USED IN CRIBBING - Three Bears Lake & Dams, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  10. 15. BALD MOUNTAIN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRECIPITATION AREA FROM NORTH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. BALD MOUNTAIN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRECIPITATION AREA FROM NORTH, c. 1934. SHOWS PRECIPITATION TANK No. 1 (NOTE LOCKS), ZINC FEEDER WITH MIXING CONE, VACUUM RECEIVER AND PIPING. CREDIT WR. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  11. 28. VIEW SOUTHWEST, EAST ABUTMENT SHOWING BASCULE LEAF IN RAISED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. VIEW SOUTHWEST, EAST ABUTMENT SHOWING BASCULE LEAF IN RAISED POSITION WITH THE EXTREME UPPER PORTION OF THE BASCULE RACK GEAR SHOWING IN THE LOWER RIGHT PORTION OF THE PHOTOGRAPH - Tomlinson Bridge, Spanning Quinnipiac River at Forbes Street (U.S. Route 1), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  12. 27. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING SOUTH CORNER OF SHED WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING SOUTH CORNER OF SHED WITH ONE-STORY OFFICES, SHOWING TYPICAL COLUMN BASE WITH TIMBER BOLTED TO STEEL 'L' SHOE - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  13. The Daily Show with Jon Stewart: Part 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trier, James

    2008-01-01

    "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is one of the best critical literacy programs on television, and in this Media Literacy column the author suggests ways that teachers can use video clips from the show in their classrooms. (For Part 1, see EJ784683.)

  14. 8. INTERIOR OF KERN RIVER No. 1 POWERHOUSE BUILDING SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR OF KERN RIVER No. 1 POWERHOUSE BUILDING SHOWING EXCITER No 1. SIDE VIEW OF LOMBARD GOVERNOR SHOWING BELT ATTACHMENT TO EXCITER SHAFT. GENERATOR UNIT No. 2 IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Kern County No. 1 Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse Exciters, Kern River Canyon, Bakersfield, Kern County, CA

  15. 35. Ca. 1930 historic view facing northeast, showing Yellow Mill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Ca. 1930 historic view facing northeast, showing Yellow Mill Bridge and inset showing former ca. 1901 Yellow Mill Bridge. Photo located at the Bridgeport Public Library, Bridgeport, CT. - Yellow Mill Bridge, Spanning Yellow Mill Channel at Stratford Avenue, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

  16. 21 CFR 1314.150 - Order To show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Order To show cause. 1314.150 Section 1314.150 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED... should not be prohibited from selling scheduled listed chemical products. (b) The order to show...

  17. 21 CFR 1314.150 - Order To show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Order To show cause. 1314.150 Section 1314.150 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED... should not be prohibited from selling scheduled listed chemical products. (b) The order to show...

  18. 21 CFR 1314.150 - Order To show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Order To show cause. 1314.150 Section 1314.150 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED... should not be prohibited from selling scheduled listed chemical products. (b) The order to show...

  19. 21 CFR 1314.150 - Order To show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Order To show cause. 1314.150 Section 1314.150 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED... should not be prohibited from selling scheduled listed chemical products. (b) The order to show...

  20. 108. View showing storage yard where material is received and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    108. View showing storage yard where material is received and sorted: also shows derrick framed to raise material from tracks and land on deck of approach. Material is then moved by narrow gage locomotive out to erection traveler. - Carquinez Bridge, Spanning Carquinez Strait at Interstate 80, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  1. 7. Photocopy of house, circa 1910. It shows small original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of house, circa 1910. It shows small original details which have been changed and also shows how little the exterior appearence has been altered. Original photograph at Nebraska State Historical Society. - Chambers-Mayberry House, Northwest corner of Oak Street & Fifth Avenue (moved to Crofton, NE), Niobrara, Knox County, NE

  2. Showing and Telling: The Difference That Makes a Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, David

    2001-01-01

    Attempts to clarify an essential difference between the ways in which pictures and words convey meaning. Examines one attempt to differentiate and characterize various types of picture books and concludes by showing how Anthony Browne exploits the distinction between showing and telling to create the atmosphere of uncertainty and mystery in his…

  3. 14 CFR 314.14 - Show-cause order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Show-cause order. 314.14 Section 314.14 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS EMPLOYEE PROTECTION PROGRAM Determination of Qualifying Dislocation § 314.14 Show-cause...

  4. 28. DETAIL: View looking southwest from inside the chamber, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. DETAIL: View looking southwest from inside the chamber, showing the west gate sill, south corner. This photograph shows the most complete gate corner assembly in Lock No. 2. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  5. 31. Photographic copy of drawing showing profile of bridge after ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Photographic copy of drawing showing profile of bridge after the 1888-1889 and 1899-1900 reconstructions; also shows profile of bridge before 1888 (Martin Sigvart Grytbak, Wabasha St. Bridge, Formerly St. Paul Bridge, 1919); profile of Wabasha street bridge - Wabasha Street Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River at Wabasha Street, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  6. 47 CFR 73.33 - Antenna systems; showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antenna systems; showing required. 73.33... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.33 Antenna systems; showing required. (a) An application for authority to install a broadcast antenna shall specify a definite site and include...

  7. 47 CFR 73.33 - Antenna systems; showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Antenna systems; showing required. 73.33... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.33 Antenna systems; showing required. (a) An application for authority to install a broadcast antenna shall specify a definite site and include...

  8. 47 CFR 73.33 - Antenna systems; showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna systems; showing required. 73.33... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.33 Antenna systems; showing required. (a) An application for authority to install a broadcast antenna shall specify a definite site and include...

  9. 47 CFR 73.33 - Antenna systems; showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antenna systems; showing required. 73.33... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.33 Antenna systems; showing required. (a) An application for authority to install a broadcast antenna shall specify a definite site and include...

  10. 47 CFR 73.33 - Antenna systems; showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Antenna systems; showing required. 73.33... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.33 Antenna systems; showing required. (a) An application for authority to install a broadcast antenna shall specify a definite site and include...

  11. 77 FR 1513 - Air Show and Air Races; Public Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Air Show and Air Races; Public Hearing TIME AND DATE: 9 a.m., Tuesday, January 10, 2012... hearing is to examine current regulations and oversight practices for air shows and air races,...

  12. 15. Photocopy of historic view No. 31001 showing expansion of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopy of historic view No. 31001 showing expansion of Building 461 (9/4/56) showing Building 463 tanks to the right of the photo. Original is on file Mare Island Naval Shipyard-Photography Lab. Photographer unknown. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Acid Mixing Facility, California Avenue & E Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  13. 47 CFR 101.411 - Supplementary showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Supplementary showing required. 101.411 Section 101.411 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Developmental Authorizations § 101.411 Supplementary showing required....

  14. 47 CFR 101.411 - Supplementary showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplementary showing required. 101.411 Section 101.411 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Developmental Authorizations § 101.411 Supplementary showing required....

  15. 16 CFR 5.57 - Order to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Practice. 16 CFR 4.7. ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Order to show cause. 5.57 Section 5.57... CONDUCT Disciplinary Actions Concerning Postemployment Conflict of Interest § 5.57 Order to show cause....

  16. 41 CFR 60-300.64 - Show cause notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Show cause notices. 60... VETERANS General Enforcement and Complaint Procedures § 60-300.64 Show cause notices. When the Deputy Assistant Secretary has reasonable cause to believe that the contractor has violated the Act or this...

  17. 14 CFR 303.44 - Show cause proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Show cause proceedings. 303.44 Section 303... cause proceedings. If the Assistant Secretary determines that an application, or review of a previously granted application, will be considered in a show cause proceeding, a tentative decision shall be...

  18. 10 CFR 110.62 - Order to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Order to show cause. 110.62 Section 110.62 Energy NUCLEAR... Enforcement § 110.62 Order to show cause. (a) In response to an alleged violation, described in § 110.60, the... cause: (1) Stating the alleged violation and proposed enforcement action; and (2) Informing the...

  19. 41 CFR 60-250.64 - Show cause notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Show cause notices. 60... VETERANS General Enforcement and Complaint Procedures § 60-250.64 Show cause notices. When the Deputy Assistant Secretary has reasonable cause to believe that the contractor has violated the Act or this...

  20. 18 CFR 808.15 - Show cause proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Show cause proceeding... HEARINGS AND ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS Compliance and Enforcement § 808.15 Show cause proceeding. (a) The... cause why a penalty should not be assessed in accordance with the provisions of this chapter and...

  1. 41 CFR 60-741.64 - Show cause notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Show cause notices. 60... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES General Enforcement and Complaint Procedures § 60-741.64 Show cause notices. When the Deputy Assistant Secretary has reasonable cause to believe that the contractor has...

  2. The Presentation of Science in Everyday Life: The Science Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watermeyer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This paper constitutes a case-study of the "science show" model of public engagement employed by a company of science communicators focused on the popularization of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) subject disciplines with learner constituencies. It examines the potential of the science show to foster the interest…

  3. View of Lake Sabrina Dam showing wooden planks along the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Lake Sabrina Dam showing wooden planks along the upstream face and concrete base added in 1916/1917 and showing the iron grating covering upstream side of outlet structure is visible at lower photo center, view northeast - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 2, Lake Sabrina Dam, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  4. "The Daily Show with Jon Stewart": Part 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trier, James

    2008-01-01

    Comedy Central's popular program "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is the best critical media literacy program on television, and it can be used in valuable ways in the classroom as part of a media literacy pedagogy. This Media Literacy column provides an overview of the show and its accompanying website and considers ways it might be used in the…

  5. TV shows on Light Pollution Education for the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigore, Valentin

    2015-03-01

    TV shows have the biggest impact for the public, so we can use them to inform and educate the public about light pollution and the importance of the dark sky for humanity and for the contemporary society. Some examples used in the TV show Us and the Sky at Columna TV, Romania, are presented.

  6. 36 CFR 14.24 - Showing as to citizenship required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Showing as to citizenship... INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Procedures § 14.24 Showing as to citizenship required. (a) Individuals. An...-955), as amended, must state whether he is native born or naturalized, and, if naturalized, the...

  7. 36 CFR 14.24 - Showing as to citizenship required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Showing as to citizenship... INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Procedures § 14.24 Showing as to citizenship required. (a) Individuals. An...-955), as amended, must state whether he is native born or naturalized, and, if naturalized, the...

  8. 36 CFR 14.24 - Showing as to citizenship required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Showing as to citizenship... INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Procedures § 14.24 Showing as to citizenship required. (a) Individuals. An...-955), as amended, must state whether he is native born or naturalized, and, if naturalized, the...

  9. Computer Slide Shows: A Trap for Bad Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemm, W. R.

    2007-01-01

    Slide shows presented with software such as PowerPoint or WordPerfect Presentations can trap instructors into bad teaching practices. Research on memory suggests that slide-show instruction can actually be less effective than traditional lecturing when the teacher uses a blackboard or overhead projector. The author proposes a model of classroom…

  10. 5. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CLUB MODERNE LOUNGE SHOWING EXAMPLES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CLUB MODERNE LOUNGE SHOWING EXAMPLES OF THE LEATHER COVERED BOOTHS INSTALLED IN 19486. FACADE OF THE CLUB MODERNE, SHOWING THE ORIGINAL CURVED CORNER PROFILE AND TRI-COLOR CARRERE GLASS FACADE. - Anaconda Historic District, Club Moderne, 801 East Park Avenue, Anaconda, Deer Lodge County, MT

  11. 47 CFR 101.411 - Supplementary showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Supplementary showing required. 101.411 Section 101.411 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Developmental Authorizations § 101.411 Supplementary showing required....

  12. Dolphin shows and interaction programs: benefits for conservation education?

    PubMed

    Miller, L J; Zeigler-Hill, V; Mellen, J; Koeppel, J; Greer, T; Kuczaj, S

    2013-01-01

    Dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs are two types of education programs within zoological institutions used to educate visitors about dolphins and the marine environment. The current study examined the short- and long-term effects of these programs on visitors' conservation-related knowledge, attitude, and behavior. Participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs demonstrated a significant short-term increase in knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. Three months following the experience, participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs retained the knowledge learned during their experience and reported engaging in more conservation-related behaviors. Additionally, the number of dolphin shows attended in the past was a significant predictor of recent conservation-related behavior suggesting that repetition of these types of experiences may be important in inspiring people to conservation action. These results suggest that both dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs can be an important part of a conservation education program for visitors of zoological facilities. PMID:22622768

  13. ShowFlow: A practical interface for groundwater modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Tauxe, J.D.

    1990-12-01

    ShowFlow was created to provide a user-friendly, intuitive environment for researchers and students who use computer modeling software. What traditionally has been a workplace available only to those familiar with command-line based computer systems is now within reach of almost anyone interested in the subject of modeling. In the case of this edition of ShowFlow, the user can easily experiment with simulations using the steady state gaussian plume groundwater pollutant transport model SSGPLUME, though ShowFlow can be rewritten to provide a similar interface for any computer model. Included in this thesis is all the source code for both the ShowFlow application for Microsoft{reg sign} Windows{trademark} and the SSGPLUME model, a User's Guide, and a Developer's Guide for converting ShowFlow to run other model programs. 18 refs., 13 figs.

  14. Snacking on Television: A Content Analysis of Adolescents’ Favorite Shows

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Nicole I.; Gollust, Sarah E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Snacking is a complex behavior that may be influenced by entertainment media. Research suggests that snacking and unhealthy foods are commonly shown in programming that targets young audiences, but shows selected for study have been limited. We conducted a content analysis on shows that were named as favorites by adolescents to characterize portrayals of snacking on popular television. Methods A diverse sample of 2,130 adolescents (mean age, 14.3 y) listed 3 favorite television shows in a 2010 school-based survey. Three episodes each of the 25 most popular shows were coded for food-related content, including healthfulness, portion size, screen time use, setting, and social context. We also analyzed the characteristics of characters involved in eating incidents, the show type, and the show rating. We used χ2 tests, binomial tests, and multilevel regression models to compare incidence of snacks versus meals, the characteristics of those involved, and snacking across show characteristics. Results Almost half of food incidents on television shows were snacks. Snacks were significantly more likely than meals to be “mostly unhealthy” (69.3% vs 22.6%, P < .001) and were more likely to include screen time use (25.0% of snacking incidents vs 4.0% of meals, P < .001). Young characters and those coded as being of low socioeconomic status or overweight were overrepresented in snacking incidents. Sitcoms and shows rated for a youth audience were significantly more likely to portray snacking than were shows for adult audiences. Conclusion Media awareness and literacy programs should include foods and snacking behaviors among the issues they address. More healthful portrayals of food and dietary intake in entertainment shows’ content would create a healthier media environment for youth. PMID:27197079

  15. Ultraviolet imaging spectroscopy shows an active saturnian system.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Larry W; Colwell, Joshua E; Larsen, Kristopher; McClintock, William E; Stewart, A Ian F; Hallett, Janet Tew; Shemansky, Donald E; Ajello, Joseph M; Hansen, Candice J; Hendrix, Amanda R; West, Robert A; Keller, H Uwe; Korth, Axel; Pryor, Wayne R; Reulke, Ralf; Yung, Yuk L

    2005-02-25

    Neutral oxygen in the saturnian system shows variability, and the total number of oxygen atoms peaks at 4 x 10(34). Saturn's aurora brightens in response to solar-wind forcing, and the auroral spectrum resembles Jupiter's. Phoebe's surface shows variable water-ice content, and the data indicate it originated in the outer solar system. Saturn's rings also show variable water abundance, with the purest ice in the outermost A ring. This radial variation is consistent with initially pure water ice bombarded by meteors, but smaller radial structures may indicate collisional transport and recent renewal events in the past 10(7) to 10(8) years. PMID:15604361

  16. Satellite Movie Shows Three Tropical Cyclones in Eastern Pacific

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of NOAA's GOES-Wast satellite imagery from August 2 through 4 shows the movement of Tropical Depression Genevieve (left) southwest of Hawaii, Hurricane Iselle (center) in the Eastern...

  17. 2. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SOUTHWEST SHOWING DOLPHIN MANUFACTURING CO., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SOUTHWEST SHOWING DOLPHIN MANUFACTURING CO., BARBOUR FLAX SPINNING CO. -- SPRUCE ST. MILL, ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS -- MILLWRIGHT SHOP AND FITTING SHOP. - Great Falls S. U. M. Historic District, Oliver Street, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  18. 6. VIEW SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE AND TOE OF DAM, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE AND TOE OF DAM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  19. 2. VIEW SHOWING NATURAL SAND BEACH ON KIDNEY LAKE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SHOWING NATURAL SAND BEACH ON KIDNEY LAKE, LOOKING WEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  20. 4. VIEW SHOWING UPSTREAM FACE OF DAM, LOOKING NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW SHOWING UPSTREAM FACE OF DAM, LOOKING NORTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  1. 3. OVERALL VIEW OF DAM, SHOWING UPSTREAM FACE, LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. OVERALL VIEW OF DAM, SHOWING UPSTREAM FACE, LOOKING EAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  2. 5. VIEW SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE AND TOE OF DAM, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW SHOWING DOWNSTREAM FACE AND TOE OF DAM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Kidney Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.7 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  3. 5. VIEW NORTHWEST SHOWING AQUEDUCT PRISM. NOTE INTERIOR STONE WORK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW NORTHWEST SHOWING AQUEDUCT PRISM. NOTE INTERIOR STONE WORK OF THE PARAPET WALL AND REMAINS OF 1920 TIMBER AND CONCRETE FLOORING SYSTEM. - Chesapeake & Ohio Canal, Conococheague Creek Aqueduct, Milepost 99.80, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  4. 5. INTERIOR VIEW OF WEST END OF BUILDING, SHOWING CEILING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR VIEW OF WEST END OF BUILDING, SHOWING CEILING BRIDGE CRANE. - Oakland Army Base, Vehicle Maintenance Shop, Tobruk Street, between Warehouse Road & Ukraine Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  5. 8. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING OUTRIGGERS FOR LATERAL BRACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING OUTRIGGERS FOR LATERAL BRACING FOR TRUSSES AND BOTTOM CHORD CONNECTIONS. - White Bowstring Arch Truss Bridge, Spanning Yellow Creek at Cemetery Drive (Riverside Drive), Poland, Mahoning County, OH

  6. 5. DETAIL VIEW OF TWO PANEL POINTS OF TRUSS, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL VIEW OF TWO PANEL POINTS OF TRUSS, SHOWING OVAL, TUBULAR UPPER CHORD MEMBER, VERTICALS, DIAGONALS, AND LOWER CHORD. - White Bowstring Arch Truss Bridge, Spanning Yellow Creek at Cemetery Drive (Riverside Drive), Poland, Mahoning County, OH

  7. 9. DETAIL OF UNITEDTOD TWINTANDEM STEAM ENGINE, SHOWING HIGHPRESSURE CYLINDER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL OF UNITED-TOD TWIN-TANDEM STEAM ENGINE, SHOWING HIGH-PRESSURE CYLINDER AND EXTENSION OF HOUSING. - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Blooming Mill & Blooming Mill Engines, North of Poland Avenue, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  8. 14. BALD MOUNTAIN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING GOLD TANKS FROM WEST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. BALD MOUNTAIN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING GOLD TANKS FROM WEST, c. 1937. DATE BASED ON USE IN PUBLICATION. CREDIT WR. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  9. 53. VIEW SHOWING GRAFFITI ON EAST WALL OF STAIRWELL INSIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. VIEW SHOWING GRAFFITI ON EAST WALL OF STAIRWELL INSIDE 'CATFISH' SILO Everett Weinreb, photographer, April 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. 55. VIEW SHOWING GRAFFITI IN STAIRWELL INSIDE 'CATFISH' SILO Everett ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. VIEW SHOWING GRAFFITI IN STAIRWELL INSIDE 'CATFISH' SILO Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 41. OVERALL VIEW SHOWING ENTRANCE TO 'CATFISH' SILO, LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. OVERALL VIEW SHOWING ENTRANCE TO 'CATFISH' SILO, LOOKING SOUTH Marilyn Ziemer, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. 38. VIEW SHOWING 'CATFISH' SILO ELEVATOR IN UP POSITION, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. VIEW SHOWING 'CATFISH' SILO ELEVATOR IN UP POSITION, LOOKING NORTHWEST Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. 57. VIEW SHOWING GRAFFITI IN STAIRWELL INSIDE 'CATFISH' SILO Everett ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. VIEW SHOWING GRAFFITI IN STAIRWELL INSIDE 'CATFISH' SILO Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 56. VIEW SHOWING GRAFFITI IN STAIRWELL INSIDE 'CATFISH' SILO Everett ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. VIEW SHOWING GRAFFITI IN STAIRWELL INSIDE 'CATFISH' SILO Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. 40. VIEW SHOWING TOP OF 'CATFISH' SILO, LOOKING SOUTH Everett ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. VIEW SHOWING TOP OF 'CATFISH' SILO, LOOKING SOUTH Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. 58. VIEW SHOWING GRAFFITI IN STAIRWELL INSIDE 'CATFISH' SILO Everett ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. VIEW SHOWING GRAFFITI IN STAIRWELL INSIDE 'CATFISH' SILO Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. 54. VIEW SHOWING GRAFFITI ON WEST WALL OF STAIRWELL INSIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. VIEW SHOWING GRAFFITI ON WEST WALL OF STAIRWELL INSIDE 'CATFISH' SILO Everett Weinreb, photographer, April 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. 12. VIEW OF ELEVATOR MACHINE ROOM, SHOWING LOW CABINET TEAT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF ELEVATOR MACHINE ROOM, SHOWING LOW CABINET TEAT HOUSES HYDRAULIC CYLINDER AND CLOSET AT LEFT THAT HOUSES OPERATING VALVE, LOOKING NORTHEAST - 72 Marlborough Street, Residential Hydraulic Elevator, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  19. Interior view of space in north wing, showing main entry; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of space in north wing, showing main entry; camera facing east. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Smithery, California Avenue, west side at California Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  20. View of west elevation showing connection to building 521; camera ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of west elevation showing connection to building 521; camera facing south. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Old Administrative Offices, Eighth Street, north side between Railroad Avenue & Walnut Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  1. Interior detail of main entry lobby showing arched hallways and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of main entry lobby showing arched hallways and staircase; camera facing north. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Old Administrative Offices, Eighth Street, north side between Railroad Avenue & Walnut Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  2. View of east side north elevation from across courtyard, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of east side north elevation from across courtyard, showing building 47A at left; camera facing south. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Old Administrative Offices, Eighth Street, north side between Railroad Avenue & Walnut Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  3. Contextual view showing new wing and north portion of building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view showing new wing and north portion of building 46, looking down California Avenue; camera facing northwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Smithery, California Avenue, west side at California Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  4. Contextual view showing northwest corner of building 46, looking down ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view showing northwest corner of building 46, looking down California Avenue; camera facing southwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Smithery, California Avenue, west side at California Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  5. Detail of front south wall section showing pediment with triangular ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of front south wall section showing pediment with triangular inset molding; camera facing north. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Old Administrative Offices, Eighth Street, north side between Railroad Avenue & Walnut Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  6. 84. VIEW FROM CAMERA TOWER LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING VAL FIRING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    84. VIEW FROM CAMERA TOWER LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING VAL FIRING RANGE WITH OVERHEAD CAMERA AND CABLES, Date unknown, circa 1949. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. Interior detail of first floor room on north side showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of first floor room on north side showing wainscoting and decorative grillwork; camera facing southwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Old Administrative Offices, Eighth Street, north side between Railroad Avenue & Walnut Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  8. 17. DETAIL OF STILLCAMERA CONTROL PANEL SHOWING PATCHBOARD FOR SELECTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. DETAIL OF STILL-CAMERA CONTROL PANEL SHOWING PATCHBOARD FOR SELECTING TIMING OF CAMERAS - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  9. Interior view of north wall showing roof trusses & monitor; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of north wall showing roof trusses & monitor; camera facing northeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Smithery, California Avenue, west side at California Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  10. 12. DETAIL VIEW OF NORTHEAST CORNER, SHOWING HIP VERTICAL, INCLINED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL VIEW OF NORTHEAST CORNER, SHOWING HIP VERTICAL, INCLINED END POST, AND UPPER CHORD - Kennan-Jump River Bridge, Spanning South fork of Jump River on County Highway "N", Kennan, Price County, WI

  11. MAGAZINE # B10. OBLIQUE VIEW FROM RIGHT SIDE SHOWING LOADING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MAGAZINE # B-10. OBLIQUE VIEW FROM RIGHT SIDE SHOWING LOADING PLATFORM AND PART OF MAGAZINE B-9 IN BACKGROUND. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, Tunnel Magazine Type, Waikakalaua & Kipapa Gulches, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. E SERIES MAGAZINES FROM HASTINGS ST. SHOWING ACCESS DRIVE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    E SERIES MAGAZINES FROM HASTINGS ST. SHOWING ACCESS DRIVE AND LOADING PLATFORMS. E 103 MAGAZINES IN FORGROUND. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Magazine Type, Eleventh, Thirteenth, Fifteenth, Sixteenth, & Seventeenth Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. MAGAZINE # B11. OBLIQUE VIEW FROM RIGHT SIDE SHOWING LOADING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MAGAZINE # B-11. OBLIQUE VIEW FROM RIGHT SIDE SHOWING LOADING PLATFORM AND ENTRY. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Waikele Branch, Tunnel Magazine Type, Waikakalaua & Kipapa Gulches, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. 27. View within machine room showing water tank, tool chest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. View within machine room showing water tank, tool chest and oil/grease cans used for maintenance. (Nov. 25, 1988) - University Heights Bridge, Spanning Harlem River at 207th Street & West Harlem Road, New York County, NY

  15. 113. INTERIOR COMMUNICATIONS COMPARTMENT PORT LOOKING TO STARBOARD SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    113. INTERIOR COMMUNICATIONS COMPARTMENT - PORT LOOKING TO STARBOARD SHOWING MASTER GYRO AND INTERIOR COMMUNICATIONS SWITCHBOARD. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  16. 35. PILOT HOUSE PORT LOOKING TO STARBOARD SHOWING HELM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. PILOT HOUSE - PORT LOOKING TO STARBOARD SHOWING HELM, ENGINE ORDER TELEGRAPH, SPEED INDICATOR, AFT GYRO REPEATER AND FORWARD GYRO REPEATER. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  17. 14. POWERHOUSE FOREMAN'S BUNGALOW. VIEW OF ENTRY HALL SHOWING STAIRWAY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. POWERHOUSE FOREMAN'S BUNGALOW. VIEW OF ENTRY HALL SHOWING STAIRWAY. VIEW TO SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - Thompson Falls Hydroelectric Project, Power Foreman's Bungalow, On island between Forebay Channel & ClarkFord River, Thompson Falls, Sanders County, MT

  18. 3. CONTEXT VIEW SHOWING SUSPENSION BRIDGE, NORTHEAST AND NORTHWEST FACADES. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. CONTEXT VIEW SHOWING SUSPENSION BRIDGE, NORTHEAST AND NORTHWEST FACADES. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Thompson Falls Hydroelectric Project, Power Foreman's Bungalow, On island between Forebay Channel & ClarkFord River, Thompson Falls, Sanders County, MT

  19. 4. CONTEXT VIEW SHOWING SOUTHWEST FACADE, SOUTHEAST FACADE, PEDESTRIAN APPROACH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. CONTEXT VIEW SHOWING SOUTHWEST FACADE, SOUTHEAST FACADE, PEDESTRIAN APPROACH AND GARAGE (IN THE BACKGROUND). VIEW TO NORTH. - Thompson Falls Hydroelectric Project, Power Foreman's Bungalow, On island between Forebay Channel & ClarkFord River, Thompson Falls, Sanders County, MT

  20. 1. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING THE ORIGINAL STAIRWAY. BOTTOM OF STAIRS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING THE ORIGINAL STAIRWAY. BOTTOM OF STAIRS FACE THE DOCK AREA. THE ELEVATOR ON THE RIGHT DOES NOT APPEAR TO BE ORIGINAL. - U. S. Coast Guard Headquarters Building, Ketchikan, Ketchikan Gateway Borough, AK