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Sample records for lithuanian coastal zone

  1. Coastal zone management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, E. L., III

    1975-01-01

    A panel of federal and state representatives concerned with coastal zone affairs discussed their problems in this area. In addition, several demonstrations of the application of remote sensing technology to coastal zone management were described. These demonstrations were performed by several agencies in a variety of geographical areas.

  2. Validation of MERIS bio-optical products with in situ data in the turbid Lithuanian Baltic Sea coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaičiūtė, Diana; Bresciani, Mariano; Bučas, Martynas

    2012-01-01

    In this study bio-optical water quality indicators, chlorophyll a, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), and total suspended matter (TSM) were derived from the Envisat-MERIS satellite data and were compared with in situ measurements collected in the Lithuanian optically Case 2 coastal waters of the Baltic Sea. Eight MERIS full-resolution Level 1b images, acquired during late spring and summer 2010, were processed using five, neural network-based processors for optically Case 2 or coastal and inland waters: FUB, C2R, Eutrophic, Boreal, and standard MERIS Level 2. Results showed that the FUB processor provided the most accurate estimates of the concentration of chlorophyll a [R2=69%; mean absolute error(MAE)=7.76 mg/m3] and TSM (R2=89%; MAE=3.93 g/m3). In situ CDOM absorption was most accurately estimated using the Boreal processor (R2=69%; MAE=0.20 1/m). We analyzed the factors that were most influential in explaining the differences in the accuracy and found that the Secchi depth and the sampling time were the most important factors. The greatest differences between satellite-derived and in situ values of water quality indicators were in correspondence with the lowest Secchi depth, suggesting that the plume zone created by freshwater coming from the hyper-eutrophic lagoon was the most sensitive region for the validation. The evident match between in situ measurements and satellite-based estimates was observed when field measurements were acquired 1-2 h before to approximately 2-4 h after the satellite overpass. Results of this validation work confirmed that remote sensing techniques are suitable for monitoring the changes of optical constituents in Lithuanian coastal waters.

  3. Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) spacecraft ocean color instrument is capable of measuring and mapping global ocean surface chlorophyll concentration. It is a scanning radiometer with multiband capability. With new electronics and some mechanical, and optical re-work, it probably can be made flight worthy. Some additional components of a second flight model are also available. An engineering study and further tests are necessary to determine exactly what effort is required to properly prepare the instrument for spaceflight and the nature of interfaces to prospective spacecraft. The CZCS provides operational instrument capability for monitoring of ocean productivity and currents. It could be a simple, low cost alternative to developing new instruments for ocean color imaging. Researchers have determined that with global ocean color data they can: specify quantitatively the role of oceans in the global carbon cycle and other major biogeochemical cycles; determine the magnitude and variability of annual primary production by marine phytoplankton on a global scale; understand the fate of fluvial nutrients and their possible affect on carbon budgets; elucidate the coupling mechanism between upwelling and large scale patterns in ocean basins; answer questions concerning the large scale distribution and timing of spring blooms in the global ocean; acquire a better understanding of the processes associated with mixing along the edge of eddies, coastal currents, western boundary currents, etc., and acquire global data on marine optical properties.

  4. CHAPTER 7: COASTAL ZONES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mid-Atlantic's coastal areas, especially the Chesapeake Bay, Delaware Bay, and Albemarle/Pamlico Sounds (Figure 3), have important aesthetic and economic values. In Delaware, for example, Parsons and Powell (1998) estimated that $90,000 of the value of a $200,000 home along t...

  5. Megacities in the Coastal Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Glasow, R.; Jickells, T.; Baklanov, A.; Carmichael, G. R.; Church, T. M.; Gallardo, L.; Hughes, C.; Kanakidou, M.; Liss, P. S.; Mee, L.; Raine, R.; Ramachandran, P.; Ramesh, R.; Sundseth, K.; Tsunogai, U.; Uematsu, M.; Zhu, T.

    2012-04-01

    Megacities have long been recognised as important drivers for socioeconomic development but also as sources of environmental challenges. A large number of megacities are located in the coastal zone where land, atmosphere and ocean meet, posing additional challenges for our understanding of the interactions. The atmospheric flow is complicated not only by urban heat island effects but also topographic flows and sea breezes which also lead to profound changes in clouds and precipitation. Inflow of oceanic air (rich in sea salt) into the polluted city's atmosphere and outflow of polluted air onto a much cleaner ocean lead to very specific interactions, the net effects of which are not well understood. The addition of contaminants to the coastal waters both by atmospheric deposition and fluvial inputs can affect the coastal ecosystems dramatically, limiting their ability to function and provide ecosystem services, e.g. fisheries and aquaculture. Changes to coastal ecosystems also affect fluxes of gases and particles to the atmosphere and can lead to harmful algal blooms. The scale of influence of megacities in the coastal zone is at least hundreds if not thousands of kilometres in the atmosphere and tens to hundreds of kilometres in the ocean, the latter strongly dependent on the hydrographic setting. Coastal megacities are at risk by sea level rise, floods and storms; they are at the forefront of change and scientifically well informed planning can improve livelihoods and ecosystem health but only if we take a holistic approach to study and monitor these regions.

  6. Issues in Coastal Zone Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Derrin

    1992-01-01

    Addresses the following issues relevant to coastal zone management: overcrowding, resource exploitation, pollution, agriculture, fisheries, industrial, and other uses. Describes conflicts and trade-offs in management typified by fragmented agency decision making. Discusses implications of the greenhouse effect, sustainable development, and the…

  7. Lithuanian Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudzius, J.; Murdin, P.

    2002-01-01

    Lithuanian folklore, archaic calendars and terminology show that Lithuanians were interested in astronomy from ancient times. A lot of celestial bodies have names of Lithuanian origin that are not related to widely accepted ancient Greek mythology. For example, the Milky Way is named `Pauksciu Takas' (literally the way of birds), the constellation of the Great Bear `Didieji Grizulo Ratai' (literal...

  8. Nature, Humans, and the Coastal Zone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, H. Jesse

    1990-01-01

    Considers the interface of humans and seacoasts over time. Explains how coastal zones are formed and human attempts to defend against sea level changes. Charts the percentage of major world cities that also are ports. Postulates how the greenhouse effect could influence sea level, examining potential human responses to changes in coastal zones.…

  9. Integrated Research Approaches to Coastal Zone Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandini Menon, N.; Singh, Tanya; Pettersson, Lasse H.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal zones around the world are extremely vulnerable today because of the unprecedented pressures of industrial and urban development as well as climate change related devastations, such as the growing intensities of cyclonic storms, the rise in sea surface temperature, sea surges, and sea level rise. In India, where about 35% of the population lives within 100 kilometers of the coastline, fisheries are a major driver and safety net for economic development and coastal livelihoods. Coastal ecosystems are closely linked with socio-economic systems, which require carefully planned coastal zone management (CZM) actions.

  10. Status of coastal zone management techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, E. L., III

    1975-01-01

    Remote panchromatic imagery was applied to develop a coastal zone management atlas that provides for land cover or vegetation surveys as well as land use stereographic mapping for regional planning purposes.

  11. Coastal Zone Management program in Kerala, India

    SciTech Connect

    Mallik, T.K. )

    1987-01-01

    The physiographic setting of Kerala State, India, is unique. A narrow strip of the state contains a chain of lagoons and estuaries with a very high population density. The strip is subjected to severe coastal erosion during the monsoon season. A number of other problems are also associated with the coastal zone of Kerala, such as irregular dredging of black sands from the beaches, coastal flooding, hazards due to developmental activities, etc. A Coastal Zone Management Program was developed and administered by the Centre for Earth Science Studies, Trivandrum, to provide efficient coastal management and solve some of these problems. Various programs included under the Coastal Zone Management are the following: (1) Sedimentological, bathymetric, and geochemical studies of lagoons and estuaries; (2) monitoring of planimetric changes of beaches by profiling beaches during different seasons all along the coast; (3) studies of the nature, distribution, and provenance of black sand deposits from beaches; (4) studies of the peculiar occurrence of patchy, calm, turbid areas of water in the offshore containing high suspended sediment concentrate known as mud banks; (5) wave studies involving continuous monitoring of wave data all along the coast in order to understand wave climate and erosion; (6) sediment movement studies using fluorescent tracer to aid in the development of ports and harbors; (7) studies on various aspects of offshore. The outlines of the various programs discussed in this article will help other states and countries to develop a coastal zone management program according to the needs of the state or country and the nature of the problem occurring in the coastal zone.

  12. The wave criteria for coastal zoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnot, J. V.; Diez Gonzalez, J. J.; del Saz Cordero, S.

    2012-04-01

    THE WAVE CRITERIA FOR THE COASTAL ZONE DEFINITION Coastal nations define along their shores a strip of intense administrative intervention entailing strong restrictions to landowners domainial powers. The exact determination of the spatial extent of this zone is always blurred by coastal dynamics which cast some degree of legal uncertainty on the adjacent real rights. Criterion adopted for this determination shall seek to be practical enough to be effectively implemented, and at the same time robust enough in order to remain reliable at least in the mid term. In short, the aim of this paper is to integrate technical tools taken from coastal engineering and coastal law in order to better understand the relationship between human societies and the coastal substratum. The first step of our document aims to highlight those reasons that lead human societies to set back from the coast, and for this purpose we will proceed to a systematical scanning through the "Legal Findings" sections of several coastal laws. As a second step, we will make a review of the most common coastal features that constitute the final object of the administrative protection. Those coastal features, present in almost all coastal laws, are cliffs, dunes, wetlands and beaches, all of them closely related to waves. In this second point, the review will point out the reasons for the protection of those geomorphological elements and their role and utility for coastal human societies. The last part of this document will take advantage of the elements resulting from the first two steps in order to draw some conclusions. As a first achievement, and at the light of the fundamentals for coastal administrative protection identified in the first part, we will sort out a classification of coastal setbacks, according to the leading idea by which they are based. Finally will we will put into practice the concepts obtained from both the first and second steps - fundamentals for coastal administrative

  13. Formulating a coastal zone health metric for landuse impact management in urban coastal zones.

    PubMed

    Anilkumar, P P; Varghese, Koshy; Ganesh, L S

    2010-11-01

    The need for ICZM arises often due to inadequate or inappropriate landuse planning practices and policies, especially in urban coastal zones which are more complex due to the larger number of components, their critical dimensions, attributes and interactions. A survey of literature shows that there is no holistic metric for assessing the impacts of landuse planning on the health of a coastal zone. Thus there is a need to define such a metric. The proposed metric, CHI (Coastal zone Health Indicator), developed on the basis of coastal system sustainability, attempts to gauge the health status of any coastal zone. It is formulated and modeled through an expert survey and pertains to the characteristic components of coastal zones, their critical dimensions, and relevant attributes. The proposed metric is applied to two urban coastal zones and validated. It can be used for more coast friendly and sustainable landuse planning/masterplan preparation and thereby for the better management of landuse impacts on coastal zones. PMID:20576347

  14. 76 FR 57022 - Coastal Zone Management Program: Illinois

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... National Oceanic And Atmospheric Administration Coastal Zone Management Program: Illinois AGENCY: Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management (OCRM), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... Impact Statement (DEIS) prepared by NOAA's Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management. The...

  15. Applications of ISES for coastal zone studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, D. S.

    1990-01-01

    In contrast to the discipline- and process-oriented topics addressed, coastal zone studies are defined geographically by the special circumstances inherent in the interface between land and water. The characteristics of coastal zones which make them worthy of separate consideration are: (1) the dynamic nature of natural and anthropogenic processes taking place; (2) the relatively restricted spatial domain of the narrow land/water interface; and (3) the large proportion of the Earth's population living within coastal zones, and the resulting extreme pressure on natural and human resources. These characteristics place special constraints and priorities on remote sensing applications, even though the applications themselves bear close relation to those addressed by other elements of this report (e.g., oceans, ice, vegetation/land use). The discussion which follows first describes the suite of remote sensing activities relevant to coastal zone studies. Potential Information Sciences Experiment System (ISES) experiments will then be addressed within two general categories: applications of real-time data transmission and applications of onboard data acquisition and processing.

  16. Multimedia Delivery of Coastal Zone Management Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, M. J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes Coastal Zone Management (CZM) multimedia course modules, educational software written by the GeoData Institute at the University of Southamptom for an environmental management undergraduate course. Examines five elements that converge to create CZM multimedia teaching: course content, source material, a hardware/software delivery system,…

  17. Assessing oil spill sensitivity in unsheltered coastal environments: A case study for Lithuanian-Russian coasts, South-eastern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Depellegrin, Daniel; Pereira, Paulo

    2016-01-15

    This study presents a series of oil spill indexes for the characterization of physical and biological sensitivity in unsheltered coastal environments. The case study extends over 237 km of Lithuanian-Russian coastal areas subjected to multiple oil spill threats. Results show that 180 km of shoreline have environmental sensitivity index (ESI) of score 3. Natural clean-up processes depending on (a) shoreline sinuosity, (b) orientation and (c) wave exposure are favourable on 72 km of shoreline. Vulnerability analysis from pre-existing Kravtsovskoye D6 platform oil spill scenarios indicates that 15.1 km of the Curonian Spit have high impact probability. The highest seafloor sensitivity within the 20 m isobath is at the Vistula Spit and Curonian Spit, whereas biological sensitivity is moderate over the entire study area. The paper concludes with the importance of harmonized datasets and methodologies for transboundary oil spill impact assessment. PMID:26705575

  18. 32 CFR 643.33 - Policy-Coastal zone management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Policy-Coastal zone management. 643.33 Section... affecting land or water uses in the coastal zone of a state will include a certification that the proposed... manner consistent with the law. (c) An activity affecting land or water uses in the coastal zone of...

  19. Mapping of the coastal zone of Jamaica

    SciTech Connect

    Lindell, L.

    1997-06-01

    Uppsala University, Sweden in co-operation with Natural Resources Conservation Authority (NRCA), Jamaica have been mapping the coastal zone of Jamaica from remote sources and field inventories for planning and management purposes. All beaches were field-checked and other types of shores classified from Landsat and aerial photos and data evaluated using Excel. The sub-water environment has been classified from Landsat TM, with reference data from echo sounder, GPS and manual observations stored into a computer directly in the field. A comprehensive database was created containing important information for the planners, like coastline types, maps of land and sea-bottom cover. An ARC/INFO structure has been created allowing NRCA to continually improve and update the knowledge of the coastal zone.

  20. Soil erosion, policy and management in China coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Qingshui; Gao, Zhiqiang; Chen, Qiao; Ning, Jicai; Shi, Runhe; Gao, Wei

    2013-09-01

    The coastal zone is very important in the world. China coastal zone was granted the first priority of developing economy in the late 1980s. Since then, high population density and rapid economic development hace caused intensive changes of LUCC in this zone. Those changes have lead to land degradation. Besides, China governments launched series of projects and policy to improve such problems. Those will inevitably cause to diverse spatial dynamics of land degradtion. However, the state of land degradation in certain time is still unknown. Soil erosion is an important indicator of land degradation.Therefore, we use RS images,RUSLE model to anlyze the spatial pattern of soil erosion for 2000. By spatial analysis, we found that soil erosion in China coastal zone is not serious. Widespread soil erosion is only occurred on coastal zones in Shandong, Hainan and werstern Guangdong Province. Although rainfall eosivity factor(R) is higher in southern coastal zone, erosion tends to occur on the slopes with lower LS values in northern coastal zone than southern coastal zone. Goevernments have enforced some policy to reduce the extent of soil erosion by conversion of farmland to woodland and barren mountains to woodland. But the difference between southern and northern coastal zone is still not realized. To improve soil eorosion in those areas, we should let governments put more funds to increase vegetation cover in north. Such study will provide helpful suggestions for governments to prevent soil erosion in coastal zone.

  1. Initial coastal zone color scanner imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, H. R.; Clark, D. K.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristics of the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner are presented and the atmospheric correction and bio-optical algorithms are reviewed. Comparison of imagery before and after atmospheric correction shows that water features such as color fronts and small scale eddies can be retrieved even through a hazy and horizontally inhomogeneous atmosphere. Imagery is also presented to show that features revealed in color are sometimes completely absent from simultaneous thermal imagery implying that color and thermal imagery can provide complementary rather than redundant information.

  2. Wave statistics in a coastal focal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, T. T.; Herbers, T. H. C.; Pearman, D. W.; Van Ettinger, E.; Smit, P. B.

    2014-12-01

    Wave-current dynamics in wave focal zones in exposed coastal inlets and river mouths are still poorly understood. This is in part due to lack of observations, which are complicated due to the presence of energetic waves, strong (tidal) currents, dynamic seabed morphology, and often busy ship traffic. Conventional (fixed) instruments, such as buoys and bottom-mounted current or pressure sensors, are difficult to maintain in such areas, and the spatial variability of the wave field is difficult to capture with single point measurements, or even arrays of fixed measurements. In addition to the observational difficulties, the effects of e.g. current shear, wave blocking, statistical inhomogeneity [see Smit & Janssen, 2013, J. Phys. Ocean., 43, pp 1741-1758], and nonlinearity [see Janssen & Herbers, 2009, J. Phys Ocean., 39, pp 1948-1964] on wave statistics are not fully understood, not accounted for in operational stochastic wave models, and - as a consequence - often ignored. In this paper, we consider new observational data of waves approaching the Mouth of the Columbia River undergoing bottom refraction and strong wave-current interaction. The data were collected during the 2013 ONR RIVET experiment using an array of free drifting wave-current buoys. The Lagrangian instruments capture the spatial variability of the wave field in the inlet and, by deploying them in large ensembles, resolve the (inhomogeneous and nonlinear) wave statistics in the focal zone. We discuss the use of free-drifting instruments to measure wave statistics in a coastal wave focal zone, consider the observed effects of wave inhomogeneity, and show that non-Gaussian effects are important and affect extreme wave occurrences in the Mouth of the Columbia River.

  3. Coastal zone - Terra (and aqua) incognita - Integrated Coastal Zone Management in the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosyan, R. D.; Velikova, V. N.

    2016-02-01

    In the Black Sea coastal states (Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey, and Ukraine), Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) has no properly established legal and institutional framework. The term "coastal zone" is undefined in national (reportedly with the exception of Bulgaria) and regional legislative documents. The interface between science and policy within ICZM remains poorly developed. Policies for streamlining efforts have been ill-managed and decisions taken in functional zoning and the balanced use and protection of coastal zones have often been shown to be incorrect. The observed proliferation of consultative committees and councils has not been much helpful, public participation has been widely neglected. Illegal practices are in place, and coastal developments continue being largely unsustainable. These problems are often explained by the low awareness of ICZM benefits, and hence, a shortage of political good will, but also by the lack of appropriate Black Sea scientific research, which would ensure a fundamental knowledge-base. There are hundreds of organizations involved in collection of data and information of relevance for ICZM, although there is a distinct lack of coordination. Consequently, there is a substantial overlap of activities, whilst important scientific and policy questions remain unanswered. We review the status of ICZM or mismanagement (ICZmisM) in the Black Sea region, building links between environmental problems and policy measures in response, and providing appropriate examples. Recommendations are put forward with regard to major gaps in ICZM at levels of its theoretical development and practical implementation within the region. The review is intended to remind of major disastrous consequences of present complacency and laissez-faire in the management of the Black Sea. This paper calls for urgent implementation of ICZM in the Black Sea at national and regional levels.

  4. Lafourche Parish Coastal Zone Curriculum Resource Unit. Bulletin 1834.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daigle, Bobby; And Others

    The Louisiana coastal zone is a unique geographic feature. Soil carried by the Mississippi River has been deposited in Louisiana for the last 6,000 years to form the coastal area. All natural features in coastal Louisiana relate to materials and processes associated with the emptying of the Mississippi River into the Gulf of Mexico. The…

  5. Australian and Chinese Scientists Discuss Coastal Zone Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao Hua; Xu, Xiangmin

    2010-03-01

    Integrated Coastal Zone Management Workshop; Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia, 11-14 November 2009; A 3-day workshop was held in Australia to discuss problems and issues facing coastal zones, including degradation of coastal ecosystems and the impacts of climate change such as sea level rise and changed weather patterns, and to formulate a collaborative research strategy to improve the coastal zone management (CZM) system to tackle these problems. The workshop, which brought together experts from University of New South Wales (UNSW) and Ocean University of China (OUC), highlighted the similarities in topics important to Australia and China. This workshop focused on science, policy, and the legal framework required to manage sustainable development of these coastal zones. Many parallels exist between the difficult issues facing CZM in both countries. Significant research into changes in coastal areas and their causes has been undertaken, but this research effort has not been fully reflected in coastal zone planning and management activities. Workshop participants reviewed current progress in understanding scientific, engineering, and socioeconomic processes in the coastal zones, brainstormed challenges in developing a multidisciplinary research framework capable of integrating science into coastal zone management, and identified a cross-institutional approach to addressing these issues.

  6. Orbit analysis for coastal zone oceanography observations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, E. F.; Green, R. N.

    1973-01-01

    A study has been performed to define the orbital characteristics of a satellite dedicated to monitoring the coastal zones of the United States. The primary area of coverage is the east coast with secondary coverage of the west coast. Since no one orbital inclination fits both coasts, the inclination was determined by the east coast to be 63 deg. This inclination was found to give better coverage of the east coast than either its retrograde counterpart or a sun synchronous orbit. The two coasts require quite different orbits to maximize the coverage. The use of a small propulsive maneuver could be used to compromise the coverage between the two coastlines and change from one type orbit to the other.

  7. Coastal zone and Continental Shelf conflict resolution: improving ocean use and resource dispute management

    SciTech Connect

    Nyhart, J.D.; Harding, E.T.

    1985-11-01

    Contents include: An overview of coastal zone and continental shelf conflicts; Experience in coastal zone management conflict; Future coastal zone conflicts; Outer continental shelf conflicts; Georges Bank and Gulf of Maine; and Future considerations.

  8. Persistence of Coastal Vegetation in Supratidal Zones of Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongxiao; Chu, Jianmin

    2013-01-01

    Coastal vegetation comprises a number of coastal specialists and terrestrial generalists. It remains unclear how they persist on disturbed and undisturbed coastal conditions. We tested the hypothesis that coastal specialists may be superior to terrestrial generalists on supratidal zones of coasts, but their superiority can be influenced by human disturbances. Eight separate sandy coasts of the Shandong Peninsula were sampled, representing for disturbed and undisturbed sandy coasts. Plants growing on their supratidal zones were surveyed. On this basis, we compared the relative dominances, niche widths, and commonness of all species, and also analyzed species diversities of the coasts. Coastal specialists were found to be more common and widespread on supratidal zones of the sandy coasts than terrestrial generalists haphazardly invading from hinterlands. Coastal specialists exhibited lower Sørensen dissimilarities than terrestrial generalists among the coasts. Tourist trampling seemed more detrimental than pond fishery to coastal vegetation. Relative to terrestrial generalists, coastal specialists responded to human disturbances more deterministically, with steady decreases in species diversities. These evidences verify that coastal specialists are intrinsically superior to terrestrial generalists on supratidal zones of coasts, especially of undisturbed coasts, because their dispersal among coasts adapts well to local storm surge regime. They also validate that human disturbances can depress the superiority of coastal specialists, partly by inducing invasion of terrestrial generalists. PMID:24224026

  9. Synoptic conditions and hazards in coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surkova, Galina; Arkhipkin, Victor; Kislov, Alexsandr

    2013-04-01

    This work is an approach to the methodology of prediction of hazards in the coastal zone. For the past 60 years, according to the observations and reanalysis, meteorological conditions are rough in connection with the storm waves and strong winds resulting in catastrophic damage in the coastal zone of the Black and Caspian Seas. Forecast of similar events is taken from CMIP3 modeled for the future climate 2046-2065 by general global atmosphere and ocean circulation model MPI-ECHAM5. The research was conducted for the three types of calendar data samples: 1) storm wave and surge from observations (1948-2012), 2) storm simulations with wave height of 4 m and more (1948-2010), and 3) prognostic climate scenarios for 2046-2065. In the first sample especially rare events were chosen, accompanied by a large damage in the coastal zone. Second sample of cases was derived from modeling of SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore). The third sample was derived from projections of cases from group 1 in the MPI-ECHAM5 climate forecasts for 2046-2065. For each sample the data of large-scale fields of surface pressure, height 500 hPa isobaric surfaces, 700gPa (Reanalysis NCEP / NCAR) was analyzed. On the basis of statistical techniques (decomposition of fields in the natural orthogonal functions (EOF) and cluster analysis) the synoptic situations associated with these events were classified. Centroids of pressure fields for dominated cases show that there are two basic types of synoptic situations in case of storm waves for the Black Sea. In the first case main role play the Mediterranean cyclones located in the east of the Mediterranean Sea, they are spread over the Black Sea, and often form a local center of low pressure. Their movement is blocked by the high pressure over the European Russia and Eastern Europe. If the center of the cyclone is over Asia and the southern part of the Black Sea, the weather is dominated by the north-eastern, eastern, south-easterly winds. In some cases

  10. 77 FR 8219 - Coastal Zone Management Program: Illinois

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... ICMP was published December 23, 2011 for a 30-day comment period (76 FR 80342). The comment period... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coastal Zone Management Program: Illinois AGENCY: Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management (OCRM), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  11. 76 FR 80342 - Coastal Zone Management Program: Illinois

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... October 14, 2011 (76 FR 57022). The comment period expired on October 31, 2011. The FEIS includes... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coastal Zone Management Program: Illinois AGENCY: Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management (OCRM), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  12. Sea surface temperature of the coastal zones of France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deschamps, P. Y.; Crepon, M.; Monget, J. M.; Verger, F. (Principal Investigator); Frouin, R.; Cassanet, J.; Wald, L.

    1980-01-01

    The various thermal gradients in the coastal zones of France were mapped with regard to natural phenomena and man made thermal effluents. The mesoscale thermal features of the English Channel, the Bay of Biscay, and the northwestern Mediterranean Sea were also studied. The evolution of the thermal gradients generated by the main estuaries of the French coastal zones was investigated along with the modeling of diurnal heating of the sea surface and its influence on the oceanic surface layers.

  13. Coastal-zone biogeochemical dynamics under global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Mackenzie, F.T.; Ver, L.M.; Lerman, A.

    2000-03-01

    The coastal zone, consisting of the continental shelves to a depth of 200 meters, including bays, lagoons, estuaries, and near-shore banks, is an environment that is strongly affected by its biogeochemical and physical interactions with reservoirs in the adjacent domains of land, atmosphere, open ocean, and marine sediments. Because the coastal zone is smaller in volume and area coverage relative to the open ocean, it traditionally has been studied as an integral part of the global oceans. In this paper, the authors show by numerical modeling that it is important to consider the coastal zone as an entity separate from the open ocean in any assessment of future Earth-system response under human perturbation. Model analyses for the early part of the 21st century suggest that the coastal zone plays a significant modifying role in the biogeochemical dynamics of the carbon cycle and the nutrient cycles coupled to it. This role is manifested in changes in primary production, storage, and/or export of organic matter, its remineralization, and calcium carbonate precipitation--all of which determine the state of the coastal zone with respect to exchange of CO{sub 2} with the atmosphere. Under a scenario of future reduced or complete cessation of the thermohaline circulation (THC) of the global oceans, coastal waters become an important sink for atmospheric CO{sub 2}, as opposed to the conditions in the past and present, when coastal waters are believed to be a source of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere. Profound changes in coastal-zone primary productivity underscore the important role of phosphorus as a limiting nutrient. In addition, calculations indicate that the saturation state of coastal waters with respect to carbonate minerals will decline by {approximately}15% by the year 2030. Any future slowdown in the THC of the oceans will increase slightly the rate of decline in saturation state.

  14. Prioritising coastal zone management issues through fuzzy cognitive mapping approach.

    PubMed

    Meliadou, Aleka; Santoro, Francesca; Nader, Manal R; Dagher, Manale Abou; Al Indary, Shadi; Salloum, Bachir Abi

    2012-04-30

    Effective public participation is an essential component of Integrated Coastal Zone Management implementation. To promote such participation, a shared understanding of stakeholders' objectives has to be built to ultimately result in common coastal management strategies. The application of quantitative and semi-quantitative methods involving tools such as Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping is presently proposed for reaching such understanding. In this paper we apply the Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping tool to elucidate the objectives and priorities of North Lebanon's coastal productive sectors, and to formalize their coastal zone perceptions and knowledge. Then, we investigate the potential of Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping as tool for support coastal zone management. Five round table discussions were organized; one for the municipalities of the area and one for each of the main coastal productive sectors (tourism, industry, fisheries, agriculture), where the participants drew cognitive maps depicting their views. The analysis of the cognitive maps showed a large number of factors perceived as affecting the current situation of the North Lebanon coastal zone that were classified into five major categories: governance, infrastructure, environment, intersectoral interactions and sectoral initiatives. Furthermore, common problems, expectations and management objectives for all sectors were exposed. Within this context, Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping proved to be an essential tool for revealing stakeholder knowledge and perception and understanding complex relationships. PMID:22325583

  15. Exposing the U.S. coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratson, Lincoln; Divins, David; Butler, Tanja; Metzger, Dan; Sharman, George; Steele, Mark; Berggren, Todd; Holcombe, Troy; Ramos, Ricardo

    Overdevelopment of shores and wetlands, dwindling sites on land for the disposal of human-generated waste, contamination of estuaries and nearshore sediments, the disruption of coastal-water ecosystems by dredging, and the specter of rising sea level due to anthropogenically induced global warming are but a few of the pressures humans are exerting on coastal environments around the world. In the United States, a lot is riding on the response of its coastal environments to these pressures. The majority of the U.S. population resides in the coastal states, where the country's largest cities and most popular recreation areas are located.If the United States is to sustain the health and beauty of its coastal environments, then they must be managed, not only on the federal scale, but also on the state and local scales. One of the most fundamental types of data required to conduct this management will be detailed elevation data. On land, topography dictates the flow of water and the maximum extent of flooding. Offshore, bathymetry is a major control on shallow-water ocean currents and the dissemination of sediments eroded from the continent.

  16. Linking integrated water resources management and integrated coastal zone management.

    PubMed

    Rasch, P S; Ipsen, N; Malmgren-Hansen, A; Mogensen, B

    2005-01-01

    Some of the world's most valuable aquatic ecosystems such as deltas, lagoons and estuaries are located in the coastal zone. However, the coastal zone and its aquatic ecosystems are in many places under environmental stress from human activities. About 50% of the human population lives within 200 km of the coastline, and the population density is increasing every day. In addition, the majority of urban centres are located in the coastal zone. It is commonly known that there are important linkages between the activities in the upstream river basins and the environment conditions in the downstream coastal zones. Changes in river flows, e.g. caused by irrigation, hydropower and water supply, have changed salinity in estuaries and lagoons. Land use changes, such as intensified agricultural activities and urban and industrial development, cause increasing loads of nutrients and a variety of chemicals resulting in considerable adverse impacts in the coastal zones. It is recognised that the solution to such problems calls for an integrated approach. Therefore, the terms Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) are increasingly in focus on the international agenda. Unfortunately, the concepts of IWRM and ICZM are mostly being developed independently from each other by separate management bodies using their own individual approaches and tools. The present paper describes how modelling tools can be used to link IWRM and ICZM. It draws a line from the traditional sectoral use of models for the Istanbul Master Planning and assessment of the water quality and ecological impact in the Bosphorus Strait and the Black Sea 10 years ago, to the most recent use of models in a Water Framework Directive (WFD) context for one of the selected Pilot River Basins in Denmark used for testing of the WFD Guidance Documents. PMID:16114636

  17. Satellite-aided coastal zone monitoring and vessel traffic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    The development and demonstration of a coastal zone monitoring and vessel traffic system is described. This technique uses a LORAN-C navigational system and relays signals via the ATS-3 satellite to a computer driven color video display for real time control. Multi-use applications of the system to search and rescue operations, coastal zone management and marine safety are described. It is emphasized that among the advantages of the system are: its unlimited range; compatibility with existing navigation systems; and relatively inexpensive cost.

  18. THE NATIONAL COASTAL ASSESSMENT: PARTNERSHIP FOR SUCCESS COASTAL ZONE SYMPOSIUM, CLEVELAND, OH JULY 15-19, 2001

    EPA Science Inventory

    Partnering for Success (Abstract). Presented at Coastal Zone 01: Hands Across the Water - Linking Land, Lake, and Sea, 15-19 July 2001, Cleveland, OH. 1 p. (ERL,GB R843).

    The National Coastal Assessment (Coastal 2000) is a coastal monitoring survey that responds to the ne...

  19. Five critical questions of scale for the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaney, D. P.; Humborg, C.; Emeis, K.; Kannen, A.; Silvert, W.; Tett, P.; Pastres, R.; Solidoro, C.; Yamamuro, M.; Hénocque, Y.; Nicholls, R.

    2012-01-01

    Social and ecological systems around the world are becoming increasingly globalized. From the standpoint of understanding coastal ecosystem behavior, system boundaries are not sufficient to define causes of change. A flutter in the stock market in Tokyo or Hong Kong can affect salmon producers in Norway or farmers in Togo. The globalization of opportunistic species and the disempowerment of people trying to manage their own affairs on a local scale seem to coincide with the globalization of trade. Human-accelerated environmental change, including climate change, can exacerbate this sense of disenfranchisement. The structure and functioning of coastal ecosystems have been developed over thousands of years subject to environmental forces and constraints imposed mainly on local scales. However, phenomena that transcend these conventional scales have emerged with the explosion of human population, and especially with the rise of modern global culture. Here, we examine five broad questions of scale in the coastal zone: How big are coastal ecosystems and why should we care? Temporal scales of change in coastal waters and watersheds: Can we detect shifting baselines due to economic development and other drivers? Are footprints more important than boundaries? What makes a decision big? The tyranny of small decisions in coastal regions. Scales of complexity in coastal waters: the simple, the complicated or the complex? These questions do not have straightforward answers. There is no single "scale" for coastal ecosystems; their multiscale nature complicates our understanding and management of them. Coastal ecosystems depend on their watersheds as well as spatially-diffuse "footprints" associated with modern trade and material flows. Change occurs both rapidly and slowly on human time scales, and observing and responding to changes in coastal environments is a fundamental challenge. Apparently small human decisions collectively have potentially enormous consequences for

  20. Environmental Changes Assessment of Coastal Zones by Fuzzy Set Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, Liviu Florin; Golovanov, Carmen Ionescu; Zoran, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Fuzzy theory applied for the analysis of coastal areas changes, for which each pixel on the map is assigned a membership grade in all classes, represent reasonable alternatives to traditional fixed classifications. Mixture modeling and subpixel spectral analysis is used for the percent cover of individual cover types within a pixel assessment. These methods require a definition of spectral endmembers, which is difficult (and perhaps impossible) for complex and highly variable land cover units. Fuzzy classifications and mixture/subpixel models provide information on variations in spectral signature between pixels and not on differences in the on-the-ground content of mapped land cover. The coastal zone units are recognized on a ground truth map of an area using Landsat Thematic Mapper ™ and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) as well as SAR ERS-1 imagery for North-Western Black Sea coastal zone, Romania, over 1989-2008 period.

  1. Area contingency plan western lake Superior Coastal zone. (COTP Duluth)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-15

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Western Lake Superior Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Duluth Coastal Zone.

  2. Area contingency plan southeast Michigan coastal zone. (COTP Detroit)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-07-01

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Southeast Michigan Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Detroit Coastal Zone.

  3. Economic valuation for sustainable development in the Swedish coastal zone.

    PubMed

    Söderqvist, Tore; Eggert, Håkan; Olsson, Björn; Soutukorva, Asa

    2005-03-01

    The Swedish coastal zone is a scene of conflicting interests about various goods and services provided by nature. Open-access conditions and the public nature of many services increase the difficulty in resolving these conflicts. "Sustainability" is a vague but widely accepted guideline for finding reasonable trade-offs between different interests. The UN view of sustainable development suggests that coastal zone management should aim at a sustainable ecological, economic, and social-cultural development. Looking closer at economic sustainability, it is observed that economic analyses about whether changes in society imply a gain or a loss should take into account the economic value of the environment. Methods used for making such economic valuation in the context of the Swedish coastal zone are briefly reviewed. It is noted that the property rights context matters for the results of a valuation study. This general background is followed by a concise presentation of the design and results of four valuation studies on Swedish coastal zone issues. One study is on the economic value of an improved bathing water quality in the Stockholm archipelago. The other studies are a travel cost study about the economic value of improved recreational fisheries in the Stockholm archipelago, a replacement cost study on the value of restoring habitats for sea trout, and a choice experiment study on the economic value of improved water quality along the Swedish westcoast. PMID:15865316

  4. Sea surface temperature of the coastal zones of France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deschamps, P. Y.; Verger, F.; Monget, J. M.; Crepon, M. (Principal Investigator); Frouin, R.; Cassanet, J.; Wald, L.

    1980-01-01

    The results of an investigation to map the various thermal gradients in the coastal zones of France are presented. Paricular emphasis is given to the natural phenomena and man made thermal effluents. It is shown that a close correlation exist between wind speed direction and the offshore width of the effluent.

  5. Ecomarkets for conservation and sustainable development in the coastal zone.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Rod; Lynham, John; Micheli, Fiorenza; Feinberg, Pasha G; Bourillón, Luis; Sáenz-Arroyo, Andrea; Markham, Alexander C

    2013-05-01

    Because conventional markets value only certain goods or services in the ocean (e.g. fish), other services provided by coastal and marine ecosystems that are not priced, paid for, or stewarded tend to become degraded. In fact, the very capacity of an ecosystem to produce a valued good or service is often reduced because conventional markets value only certain goods and services, rather than the productive capacity. Coastal socio-ecosystems are particularly susceptible to these market failures due to the lack of clear property rights, strong dependence on resource extraction, and other factors. Conservation strategies aimed at protecting unvalued coastal ecosystem services through regulation or spatial management (e.g. Marine Protected Areas) can be effective but often result in lost revenue and adverse social impacts, which, in turn, create conflict and opposition. Here, we describe 'ecomarkets' - markets and financial tools - that could, under the right conditions, generate value for broad portfolios of coastal ecosystem services while maintaining ecosystem structure and function by addressing the unique problems of the coastal zone, including the lack of clear management and exclusion rights. Just as coastal tenure and catch-share systems generate meaningful conservation and economic outcomes, it is possible to imagine other market mechanisms that do the same with respect to a variety of other coastal ecosystem goods and services. Rather than solely relying on extracting goods, these approaches could allow communities to diversify ecosystem uses and focus on long-term stewardship and conservation, while meeting development, food security, and human welfare goals. The creation of ecomarkets will be difficult in many cases, because rights and responsibilities must be devolved, new social contracts will be required, accountability systems must be created and enforced, and long-term patterns of behaviour must change. We argue that efforts to overcome these obstacles

  6. Current status of coastal zone issues and management in China: a review.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wenzhi; Wong, Ming H

    2007-10-01

    This paper identifies and examines social-economic and environmental issues recently emerged in China's coastal zone. Evaluation of management scheme and progress in perspectives of coordinated legislation, institutional arrangement, public participation, capacity building, and scientific research (mainly coastal planning and functional zoning) in China's coastal zone are made. The Chinese government has made a significant effort in developing legislation for the coastal zone. Jurisdictional and zoning boundaries, and allocating use rights for coastal and marine resources have been established. State Oceanic Administration is the leading agency responsible for China's ocean policymaking and overall management of ocean and coastal affairs. A demonstrated project for integrated coastal management in Xiamen has been implemented, and is characterized as "decentralization" approach in decision-making process. In view of the above, comprehensive coastal management in China is a big challenge, facing with many difficulties. Finally, recommendations are raised for tackling these issues for China's coastal zone management. PMID:17532045

  7. Population genetics of Lithuanians.

    PubMed

    Ku inskas, V

    2001-01-01

    The primary objective of this article was to overview the present-day knowledge on genetic features of the Lithuanian population. Genetic differentiation within the Lithuanian population and the relationship between Lithuanians and other European populations was analysed by means of blood groups, serum protein polymorphisms and DNA markers including mtDNA. The results of the research have shown small differences between present-day Lithuanian ethnolinguistic groups, which probably go back to the prehistoric Baltic tribal structure. The Baltic peoples show a mixture of eastern and western genetic traits, e.g. a high frequency of the blood group B combined with a very high frequency of the Rh-negative blood group. Studies of the Baltic 'tribal gene' LWb indicate the presence of a considerable Baltic admixture in the neighbouring Finno-Ugric and Slavic populations. PMID:11201326

  8. Ocean Wave Energy Regimes of the Circumpolar Coastal Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, D. E.

    2004-12-01

    Ocean wave activity is a major enviromental forcing agent of the ice-rich sediments that comprise large sections of the arctic coastal margins. While it is instructive to possess information about the wind regimes in these regions, direct application to geomorphological and engineering needs requires knowledge of the resultant wave-energy regimes. Wave energy information has been calculated at the regional scale using adjusted reanalysis model windfield data. Calculations at this scale are not designed to account for local-scale coastline/bathymetric irregularities and variability. Results will be presented for the circumpolar zones specified by the Arctic Coastal Dynamics Project.

  9. Retention of crab larvae in a coastal null zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilburg, Charles E.; Dittel, Ana I.; Epifanio, Charles E.

    2007-05-01

    Alongshelf transport in the southern Middle Atlantic Bight is forced by buoyancy-driven currents originating in three large estuaries along the bight. These currents are strongest in the coastal ocean near the southern terminus of each estuary, while the analogous region on the northern side is characterized by weak subtidal flow. We used a combination of field observations and numerical modeling to test the hypothesis that these regions of weak subtidal flow are coastal null zones that serve as retention areas for larvae. The field study consisted of a four-day, shipboard investigation of the distribution of blue crab larvae ( Callinectes sapidus) near the mouth of Delaware Bay (˜39°N, 75°W) in late summer, 2004. Hydrographic surveys of the study site were conducted with a hull-mounted, surface-measuring system. Results showed a sharp boundary between the null zone and the buoyancy-driven current to the south. Blue crab larvae were collected in surface plankton tows along a 30-km transect that encompassed these two areas. Stations with higher densities of larvae were clustered in the null zone during both ebb and flood tides. A numerical model was used to examine the physical mechanisms responsible for the observed distribution. Model results agreed with the field survey and showed that simulated larvae are aggregated in the null zone. The simulations also demonstrated that larvae spawned within the null zone have a much greater probability of settling in juvenile nursery habitat within the bay. The close agreement between field and model results provides consistent support for the hypothesis that coastal null zones associated with the buoyancy-driven circulation of large estuaries may allow retention of larvae in the vicinity of the natal spawning population.

  10. Mapping of chlorophyll a distributions in coastal zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    It is pointed out that chlorophyll a is an important environmental parameter for monitoring water quality, nutrient loads, and pollution effects in coastal zones. High chlorophyll a concentrations occur in areas which have high nutrient inflows from sources such as sewage treatment plants and industrial wastes. Low chlorophyll a concentrations may be due to the addition of toxic substances from industrial wastes or other sources. Remote sensing provides an opportunity to assess distributions of water quality parameters, such as chlorophyll a. A description is presented of the chlorophyll a analysis and a quantitative mapping of the James River, Virginia. An approach considered by Johnson (1977) was used in the analysis. An application of the multiple regression analysis technique to a data set collected over the New York Bight, an environmentally different area of the coastal zone, is also discussed.

  11. A comprehensive risk analysis of coastal zones in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guanghui; Liu, Yijun; Wang, Hongbing; Wang, Xueying

    2014-03-01

    Although coastal zones occupy an important position in the world development, they face high risks and vulnerability to natural disasters because of their special locations and their high population density. In order to estimate their capability for crisis-response, various models have been established. However, those studies mainly focused on natural factors or conditions, which could not reflect the social vulnerability and regional disparities of coastal zones. Drawing lessons from the experiences of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), this paper presents a comprehensive assessment strategy based on the mechanism of Risk Matrix Approach (RMA), which includes two aspects that are further composed of five second-class indicators. The first aspect, the probability phase, consists of indicators of economic conditions, social development, and living standards, while the second one, the severity phase, is comprised of geographic exposure and natural disasters. After weighing all of the above indicators by applying the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Delphi Method, the paper uses the comprehensive assessment strategy to analyze the risk indices of 50 coastal cities in China. The analytical results are presented in ESRI ArcGis10.1, which generates six different risk maps covering the aspects of economy, society, life, environment, disasters, and an overall assessment of the five areas. Furthermore, the study also investigates the spatial pattern of these risk maps, with detailed discussion and analysis of different risks in coastal cities.

  12. Marine kelp: energy resource in the coastal zone

    SciTech Connect

    Ritschard, R.L.; Haven, K.F.

    1980-11-01

    An ocean farm system is described. The analysis of the ocean farm system includes a description of the types of impacts that might occur if large scale operations become available, such as the production of environmental residuals, conflicts with the fishing and shipping industries, and other legal/institutional impacts. A discussion is given of the relationship of the marine biomass concept and coastal zone management plans.

  13. Nuclear power plants in China's coastal zone: risk and safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Qingshui; Gao, Zhiqiang; Ning, Jicai; Bi, Xiaoli; Gao, Wei

    2014-10-01

    Nuclear power plants are used as an option to meet the demands for electricity due to the low emission of CO2 and other contaminants. The accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant in 2011 has forced the Chinese government to adjust its original plans for nuclear power. The construction of inland nuclear power plants was stopped, and construction is currently only permitted in coastal zones. However, one obstacle of those plants is that the elevation of those plants is notably low, ranging from 2 to 9 meters and a number of the nuclear power plants are located in or near geological fault zones. In addition, the population density is very high in the coastal zones of China. To reduce those risks of nuclear power plants, central government should close the nuclear power plants within the fault zones, evaluate the combined effects of storm surges, inland floods and tidal waves on nuclear power plants and build closed dams around nuclear power plants to prevent damage from storm surges and tidal waves. The areas without fault zones and with low elevation should be considered to be possible sites for future nuclear power plants if the elevation can be increased using soil or civil materials.

  14. Hyperspectral Imaging Sensors and the Marine Coastal Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Laurie L.

    2000-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging sensors greatly expand the potential of remote sensing to assess, map, and monitor marine coastal zones. Each pixel in a hyperspectral image contains an entire spectrum of information. As a result, hyperspectral image data can be processed in two very different ways: by image classification techniques, to produce mapped outputs of features in the image on a regional scale; and by use of spectral analysis of the spectral data embedded within each pixel of the image. The latter is particularly useful in marine coastal zones because of the spectral complexity of suspended as well as benthic features found in these environments. Spectral-based analysis of hyperspectral (AVIRIS) imagery was carried out to investigate a marine coastal zone of South Florida, USA. Florida Bay is a phytoplankton-rich estuary characterized by taxonomically distinct phytoplankton assemblages and extensive seagrass beds. End-member spectra were extracted from AVIRIS image data corresponding to ground-truth sample stations and well-known field sites. Spectral libraries were constructed from the AVIRIS end-member spectra and used to classify images using the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) algorithm, a spectral-based approach that compares the spectrum, in each pixel of an image with each spectrum in a spectral library. Using this approach different phytoplankton assemblages containing diatoms, cyanobacteria, and green microalgae, as well as benthic community (seagrasses), were mapped.

  15. Bringing the Coastal Zone into Finer Focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guild, L. S.; Hooker, S. B.; Kudela, R. M.; Morrow, J. H.; Torres-Perez, J. L.; Palacios, S. L.; Negrey, K.; Dungan, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements over extents from submeter to 10s of meters are critical science requirements for the design and integration of remote sensing instruments for coastal zone research. Various coastal ocean phenomena operate at different scales (e.g. meters to kilometers). For example, river plumes and algal blooms have typical extents of 10s of meters and therefore can be resolved with satellite data, however, shallow benthic ecosystem (e.g., coral, seagrass, and kelp) biodiversity and change are best studied at resolutions of submeter to meter, below the pixel size of typical satellite products. The delineation of natural phenomena do not fit nicely into gridded pixels and the coastal zone is complicated by mixed pixels at the land-sea interface with a range of bio-optical signals from terrestrial and water components. In many standard satellite products, these coastal mixed pixels are masked out because they confound algorithms for the ocean color parameter suite. In order to obtain data at the land/sea interface, finer spatial resolution satellite data can be achieved yet spectral resolution is sacrificed. This remote sensing resolution challenge thwarts the advancement of research in the coastal zone. Further, remote sensing of benthic ecosystems and shallow sub-surface phenomena are challenged by the requirements to sense through the sea surface and through a water column with varying light conditions from the open ocean to the water's edge. For coastal waters, >80% of the remote sensing signal is scattered/absorbed due to the atmospheric constituents, sun glint from the sea surface, and water column components. In addition to in-water measurements from various platforms (e.g., ship, glider, mooring, and divers), low altitude aircraft outfitted with high quality bio-optical radiometer sensors and targeted channels matched with in-water sensors and higher altitude platform sensors for ocean color products, bridge the sea-truth measurements to the pixels acquired

  16. SAR Altimetry in Coastal Zone: Performances, Limits, Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinardo, S.; Benveniste, J.

    2011-12-01

    Up to now, any effort to retrieve the coastal zone phenomena from the space has been hindered by the intrinsic incapacity of conventional radar altimeters to sample all but largest scales involved in the coastal processes due to its insufficient along- track resolution. However, nowadays, a new technology in Space-borne Altimetry has become reality: the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Altimeter. The acquisition of altimetric data in SAR mode ensures a higher resolving measurement power that shall enable scientists for the first time to aspire to measure even short-scale weak coastal phenomena, thanks to the 20- fold smaller along track radar resolution and 10 dB higher Signal to Noise ratio. The secondary, but significant in coastal zone, effect of the radar footprint shrinking is the expected reduced impact of land contamination on the radar waveforms in the proximity of the shore. As a consequence of this effect, the advent of SAR focusing promises to bring the satellite altimetry remote sensing closer to the shore up to around 500 meters. Anyway, this lower bound of 500 meter on coastal proximity is not always reachable, as the footprint shrinking occurs only in along track direction while the across track resolution shall remain basically unaltered. Hence, the orientation of the satellite ground-track with respect the coastline plays a role crucial for an effective filtering out of the off-nadir land-originated signals. In the present work, utilizing the current CryoSat-2 Altimeter Dataset (SAR L1b) acquired over coastal sea water, and by retracking the SAR L1b waveforms, a performances study of SAR altimetry in coastal zone will be addressed and the benefits and limits of this new technology highlighted. As particular study area, the Tyrrhenian Sea has been selected: statistics and metrics for sea surface height and significant wave height, as calculated from a cycle of passes, will be assessed, shown and interpreted. Finally, employing the Cryo

  17. Multisensor monitoring of sea surface state of the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrova, Olga; Mityagina, Marina; Bocharova, Tatina

    Results of many-year monitoring of the state of coastal zone based on a multisensor approach are presented. The monitoring is aimed at solving the following tasks: operational mapping of parameters characterizing the state and pollution (coastal, ship and biogenic) of water; analysis of meteorological state and its effect on the drift and spread of pollutants; study of coastal circulation patterns and their impact on the drift and spread of pollutants; deriving typical pollution distribution patterns in the coastal zone.Processing and analysis is performed using data in visual, infrared and microwave ranges from ERS-2 SAR, Envisat ASAR/MERIS, Terra and Aqua MODIS and NOAA AVHRR instruments. These are complimented with ground data from meteorological stations on the shore and results of satellite data processing of previous periods. The main regions of interest are the Russian sectors of the Black and Azov Seas, southeastern part of the Baltic Sea, and northern and central regions of the Caspian Sea. Adjacent coasts are extremely populated and have well-developed industry, agriculture and rapidly growing tourist sectors. The necessity of constant monitoring of the sea state there is obvious.The monitoring activities allow us to accumulate extensive material for the study of hydrodynamic processes in the regions, in particular water circulation. Detailing the occurrence, evolution and drift of smalland meso-scale vortex structures is crucial for the knowledge of the mechanisms determining mixing and circulation processes in the coastal zone. These mechanisms play an important role in ecological, hydrodynamic and meteorological status of a coastal zone. Special attention is paid to the sea surface state in the Kerch Strait, where a tanker catastrophe took place on November 11, 2007 causing a spillage of over 1.5 thousand tons of heavy oil. The Kerch Strait is characterized by a complex current system with current directions changing to their opposites depending on

  18. 77 FR 62494 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Evaluations of Coastal Zone Management Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ...; Evaluations of Coastal Zone Management Act Programs--State Coastal Management Programs and National Estuarine... Management Act of 1972, as amended (CZMA; 16 U.S.C. 1451 et seq.) requires that state coastal management... state coastal management programs be evaluated concerning the extent to which the state has...

  19. Cloud screening Coastal Zone Color Scanner images using channel 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckstein, B. A.; Simpson, J. J.

    1991-01-01

    Clouds are removed from Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) data using channel 5. Instrumentation problems require pre-processing of channel 5 before an intelligent cloud-screening algorithm can be used. For example, at intervals of about 16 lines, the sensor records anomalously low radiances. Moreover, the calibration equation yields negative radiances when the sensor records zero counts, and pixels corrupted by electronic overshoot must also be excluded. The remaining pixels may then be used in conjunction with the procedure of Simpson and Humphrey to determine the CZCS cloud mask. These results plus in situ observations of phytoplankton pigment concentration show that pre-processing and proper cloud-screening of CZCS data are necessary for accurate satellite-derived pigment concentrations. This is especially true in the coastal margins, where pigment content is high and image distortion associated with electronic overshoot is also present. The pre-processing algorithm is critical to obtaining accurate global estimates of pigment from spacecraft data.

  20. Seals as collectors of oceanographic data in the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Villar-Guerra, Diego; Cronin, Michelle; Dabrowski, Tomasz; Bartlett, Darius

    2012-12-01

    Understanding spatial and temporal variation in water temperatures in the coastal zone is generally limited, as conventional monitoring platforms often prove problematic in these areas, e.g. shallow depths limit access by research vessels, and issues of accuracy and resolution can affect the use of remotely sensed sea-surface temperature data. As a result most currently available data on sea temperature are from offshore waters while coastal areas have remained relatively unexplored. Water temperature is an important parameter to study in these coastal waters, considering its impact and influence on the timing and frequency of harmful algal blooms and their associated impacts on aquaculture. It is a significant factor in the timing of the spring bloom and primary productivity, with consequent influences on the entire marine food web. Advances in bio-logging technologies in recent years have provided opportunities for sensor deployment on a variety of marine animals, including marine mammals, sea birds, fish and turtles, to gather data from inaccessible areas. In this study, we explored the use of telemetry-derived data from instrumented seals in Kenmare Bay in southwest Irish waters to ascertain if seals can be used as sampling platforms in oceanographic studies in the coastal zone and to examine fine scale changes in water temperatures. High spatial and temporal measurements allowed the characterisation of the water dynamics in the estuarine area by the identification of processes such as thermal stratification, up/downwellings and the onset of the thermocline, and provide unique insights into the marine environment in and around the bay, where no previous oceanographic studies have been conducted. Strong correlation between the seal-derived temperature data and in situ temperature recorders and modelled data validates the use of seals as oceanographic platforms on different spatial scales.

  1. Use of SPOT images as a tool for coastal zone management and monitoring of environmental impacts in the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida-Guerra, Paola

    2002-09-01

    Modern techniques such as remote sensing have been one of the main factors leading toward the achievement of serious plans regarding coastal management. A multitemporal analysis of land use in certain areas of the Colombian Caribbean Coast is described. It mainly focuses on environmental impacts caused by anthropogenic activities, such as deforestation of mangroves due to shrimp farming. Selection of sensitive areas, percentage of destroyed mangroves, possible endangered areas, etc., are some of the results of this analysis. Recommendations for a coastal management plan in the area have also resulted from this analysis. Some other consequences of the deforestation of mangroves in the coastal zone and the construction of shrimp ponds are also analyzed, such as the increase of erosion problems in these areas and water pollution, among others. The increase of erosion in these areas has also changed part of their morphology, which has been studied by the analysis of SPOT images in previous years. A serious concern exists about the future of these areas. For this reason new techniques like satellite images (SPOT) have been applied with good results, leading to more effective control and coastal management in the area. The use of SPOT images to study changes of the land use of the area is a useful technique to determine patterns of human activities and suggest solutions for severe problems in these areas.

  2. Use of SPOT images as a tool for coastal zone management and monitoring of environmental impacts in the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida-Guerra, Paola

    2001-12-01

    Use of modern techniques like remote sensing has been without doubts one of the main factors to take a forward step towards the achievement of serious plans regarding Coastal Management. A multi-temporal analysis of the land- use, in some areas of the Colombian Caribbean Coast, was done mainly focused in environmental impacts caused by anthropogenic activities like deforestation of mangroves due to shrimp farming. Selection of sensitive areas, percentage of destroyed mangroves, possible endangered areas, etc. have been some of the results of this analysis as well as some advises for a coastal management plan in the area. Some other consequences of the deforestation of mangroves in the coastal zone and the construction of shrimp ponds were also analyzed like increase of erosion problems in these areas and water pollution among others. The increase of erosion in these areas has also changed part of their morphology, which has also been studied by the analysis of SPOT images in different years. A serious concern exists about the future of these areas, for this reason new techniques like satellite images (SPOT) have been applied with good results and in this way a more effective control and coastal management in the area is taking place. The use of SPOT images to study changes in the land-use of the area was a useful technique in order to determine patterns of human activities and suggest solutions for severe problems in these areas.

  3. 77 FR 59899 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Coastal Zone Management Act Walter B. Jones and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... Zone Management Act Walter B. Jones and NOAA Excellence Awards AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... of the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) authorized an awards program to ``implement a program to promote excellence in coastal zone management by identifying and acknowledging outstanding...

  4. Passive microwave remote sensing of salinity in coastal zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, Calvin T.; Blume, Hans-Juergen C.; Kendall, Bruce M.

    1987-01-01

    The theory of measuring coastal-zone salinity from airborne microwave radiometers is developed. The theory, as presented, shows that precision measurements of salinity favor the lower microwave frequencies. To this end, L- and S-Band systems were built, and the flight results have shown that accuracies of at least one part per thousand were achieved.The aircraft results focus on flights conducted over the Chesapeake Bay and the mouth of the Savanna River off the Georgia Coast. This paper presents no new work, but rather summarizes the capabilities of the remote sensing technique.

  5. Sea surface temperature of the coastal zones of France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deschamps, P. Y.; Crepon, M.; Monget, J. M.; Verger, F. (Principal Investigator); Frouin, R.; Cassanet, J.; Wald, L.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal gradients in French coastal zones for the period of one year were mapped in order to enable a coherent study of certain oceanic features detectable by the variations in the sea surface temperature field and their evolution in time. The phenomena examined were mesoscale thermal features in the English Channel, the Bay of Biscay, and the northwestern Mediterranean; thermal gradients generated by French estuary systems; and diurnal heating in the sea surface layer. The investigation was based on Heat Capacity Mapping Mission imagery.

  6. Application of NASA Giovanni to Coastal Zone Remote Sensing Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James; Leptoukh, Gregory; Kempler, Steven; Berrick, Stephen; Rui, Hualan; Shen, Suhung

    2007-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) provides rapid access to, and enables effective utilization of, remotely-sensed data that are applicable to investigations of coastal environmental processes. Data sets in Giovanni include precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), particularly useful for coastal storm investigations; ocean color radiometry data from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWIFS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), useful for water quality evaluation, phytoplankton blooms, and terrestrial-marine interactions; and atmospheric data from MODIS and the Advanced Infrared Sounder (AIRS), providing the capability to characterize atmospheric variables. Giovanni provides a simple interface allowing discovery and analysis of environmental data sets with accompanying graphic visualizations. Examples of Giovanni investigations of the coastal zone include hurricane and storm impacts, hydrologically-induced phytoplankton blooms, chlorophyll trend analysis, and dust storm characterization. New and near-future capabilities of Giovanni will be described.

  7. Application of NASA Giovanni to Coastal Zone Remote Sensing Search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James; Leptoukh, Gregory; Kempler, Steven; Berrick, Stephen; Rui, Hualan; Shen, Suhung

    2007-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) provides rapid access to, and enables effective utilization of, remotely-sensed data that are applicable to investigations of coastal environmental processes. Data sets in Giovanni include precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), particularly useful for coastal storm investigations; ocean color radiometry data from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWIFS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), useful for water quality evaluation, phytoplankton blooms, and terrestrial-marine interactions; and atmospheric data from MODIS and the Advanced Infrared Sounder (AIRS), providing the capability to characterize atmospheric variables. Giovanni provides a simple interface allowing discovery and analysis of environmental data sets with accompanying graphic visualizations. Examples of Giovanni investigations of the coastal zone include hurricane and storm impacts, hydrologically-induced phytoplankton blooms, chlorophyll trend analysis, and dust storm characterization. New and near-future capabilities of Giovanni will be described.

  8. Domoic acid production near California coastal upwelling zones, June 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Trainer, V L.; Adams, Nicolaus G.; Bill, Brian D.; Stehr, Carla M.; Wekell, John C.; Moeller, Peter; Busman, Mark; Woodruff, Dana L. )

    2000-01-01

    Sea lion mortalities in central California during May and June 1998 were traced to their ingestion of sardines and anchovies that had accumulated the neurotoxin domoic acid. The detection of toxin in urine, feces, and stomach contents of several sea lions represents the first proven occurrence of domoic acid transfer through the food chain to a marine mammal. The pennate diatoms, Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and P. australis, were the dominant, toxin-producing phytoplankton constituting algal blooms near Monterey Bay, Half Moon Bay, and Oceano Dunes, areas where sea lions with neurological symptoms stranded. Toxic Pseudo-nitzschia were also found near Morrow Bay, Point Conception, Point Arguello, and Santa Barbara, demonstrating that these species were widespread along the central California coast in June 1998. Measurements of domoic acid during three cruises in early June showed the highest cellular toxin levels in P. multiseries near Point A?o Nuevo and in P. australis from Morro w Bay. Maximum cellular domoic acid levels were observed within 20 km of the coast between 0 and 5 m depth, although toxin was also measured to depths of 40 m. Hydrographic data indicated that the highest toxin levels and greatest numbers of toxic cells were positioned in water masses associated with upwelling zones near coastal headlands. Nutrient levels at these sites were less than those typically measured during periods of active upwelling, due to the 1998 El Ni?o event. The flow of cells and/or nutrients from coastal headlands into embayments where cells can multiply in a stratified environment is a possible mechanism of bloom development along the central California coast. This coupling of toxic Pseudo-nitzschia growth near upwelling zones with physical processes involved in cell transport will be understood only when long-term measurements are made at several key coastal locations, aiding in our capability to predict domoic-acid producing algal blooms.

  9. Status and interconnections of selected environmental issues in the global coastal zones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shi, H.; Singh, A.

    2003-01-01

    This study focuses on assessing the state of population distribution, land cover distribution, biodiversity hotspots, and protected areas in global coastal zones. The coastal zone is defined as land within 100 km of the coastline. This study attempts to answer such questions as: how crowded are the coastal zones, what is the pattern of land cover distribution in these areas, how much of these areas are designated as protected areas, what is the state of the biodiversity hotspots, and what are the interconnections between people and coastal environment. This study uses globally consistent and comprehensive geospatial datasets based on remote sensing and other sources. The application of Geographic Information System (GIS) layering methods and consistent datasets has made it possible to identify and quantify selected coastal zones environmental issues and their interconnections. It is expected that such information provide a scientific basis for global coastal zones management and assist in policy formulations at the national and international levels.

  10. Biophysical and socio-economic assessments of the coastal zone: The LOICZ approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talaue-McManus, L.; Smith, S.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    2003-01-01

    The Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone Project of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme focused on quantifying the role of the global coastal zone in the cycling of carbon and nutrients. From 1993 to date, it has developed protocols and tools that allow for site-specific and global assessments of coastal processes and their drivers. Indicators used in coastal assessments include the contribution of population and economic activities to waste load generation, and the resulting coastal system states relative to net production and nitrogen cycling. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Review of the Team Research Progress of Dragon 3 Coastal Zones Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Y.; Ma, Y.; Cui, T.; Ren, G.; Qin, P.; Zhao, W.; Liang, J.; Wang, X.; Cai, X.; Zhou, X.; Gong, J.

    2014-11-01

    Dragon 3 Coastal zones project (10470) began from June, 2012. Its main objective is to develop the satellite-based monitoring and assessment technology and disclose the spatio-temporal variations of coastal zones. This paper briefly summarizes the research results of this project, about land use/cover change, wetlands, sea ice, macroalgal bloom, and satellite product validation.

  12. Atmospheric correction of Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, H. R.; Mueller, J. L.; Wrigley, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    The Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) on Nimbus-7 is a scanning radiometer designed to view the ocean in six spectral bands (centered at 443, 520, 550, 670, 750, and 11,500 nm) for the purpose of estimating sea surface chlorophyll and temperature distributions. In the visible bands, the atmosphere obscures the imagery to the extent that at 443 nm, at most, only 20 percent of the observed radiance originates from beneath the sea surface. Retrieving this subsurface radiance from the imagery is complicated by the highly variable nature of the aerosol's contribution. In this paper, an algorithm for the removal of these atmospheric effects from CZCS imagery is described, a preliminary application of the algorithm to an image with very strong horizontal variations in the aerosol optical thickness is presented, and retrieval of the spatial distribution of the aerosol optical thickness is discussed.

  13. Applications of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner in oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclain, C. R.

    1988-01-01

    Research activity has continued to be focused on the applications of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) imagery in oceanography. A number of regional studies were completed including investigations of temporal and spatial variability of phytoplankton populations in the South Atlantic Bight, Northwest Spain, Weddell Sea, Bering Sea, Caribbean Sea and in tropical Atlantic Ocean. In addition to the regional studies, much work was dedicated to developing ancillary global scale meteorological and hydrographic data sets to complement the global CZCS processing products. To accomplish this, SEAPAK's image analysis capability was complemented with an interface to GEMPAK (Severe Storm Branch's meteorological analysis software package) for the analysis and graphical display of gridded data fields. Plans are being made to develop a similar interface to SEAPAK for hydrographic data using EPIC (a hydrographic data analysis package developed by NOAA/PMEL).

  14. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and cocaine in a Brazilian coastal zone.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Camilo D Seabra; Maranho, Luciane A; Cortez, Fernando S; Pusceddu, Fabio H; Santos, Aldo R; Ribeiro, Daniel A; Cesar, Augusto; Guimarães, Luciana L

    2016-04-01

    The present study determined environmental concentrations of pharmaceuticals, cocaine, and the main human metabolite of cocaine in seawater sampled from a subtropical coastal zone (Santos, Brazil). The Santos Bay is located in a metropolitan region and receives over 7367m(3) of wastewater per day. Five sample points under strong influence of the submarine sewage outfall were chosen. Through quantitative analysis by LC-MS/MS, 33 compounds were investigated. Seven pharmaceuticals (atenolol, acetaminophen, caffeine, losartan, valsartan, diclofenac, and ibuprofen), an illicit drug (cocaine), and its main human metabolite (benzoylecgonine) were detected at least once in seawater sampled from Santos Bay at concentrations that ranged from ng·L(-1) to μg·L(-1). In light of the possibility of bioaccumulation and harmful effects, the high concentrations of pharmaceuticals and cocaine found in this marine subtropical ecosystem are of environmental concern. PMID:26802343

  15. Evaluation of change detection techniques for monitoring coastal zone environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weismiller, R. A.; Kristof, S. J.; Scholz, D. K.; Anuta, P. E.; Momin, S. M.

    1977-01-01

    Development of satisfactory techniques for detecting change in coastal zone environments is required before operational monitoring procedures can be established. In an effort to meet this need a study was directed toward developing and evaluating different types of change detection techniques, based upon computer aided analysis of LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) data, to monitor these environments. The Matagorda Bay estuarine system along the Texas coast was selected as the study area. Four change detection techniques were designed and implemented for evaluation: (1) post classification comparison change detection, (2) delta data change detection, (3) spectral/temporal change classification, and (4) layered spectral/temporal change classification. Each of the four techniques was used to analyze a LANDSAT MSS temporal data set to detect areas of change of the Matagorda Bay region.

  16. Hyperspectral observation of anthropogenic and biogenic pollution in coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrova, Olga; Loupian, Evgeny; Mityagina, Marina; Uvarov, Ivan

    The work presents results of anthropogenic and biogenic pollution detection in coastal zones of the Black and Caspian Seas based on satellite hyperspetral data provided by the Hyperion and HICO instruments. Techniques developed on the basis of the analysis of spectral characteristics calculated in special points were employed to address the following problems: (a) assessment of the blooming intensity of cyanobacteria and their distribution in bays of western Crimea and discrimination between anthropogenic pollutant discharge events and algae bloom; (b) detection of anthropogenic pollution in Crimean lakes utilized as industrial liquid discharge reservoirs; (c) detection of oil pollution in areas of shelf oil production in the Caspian Sea. Information values of different spectral bands and their composites were estimated in connection with the retrieval of the main sea water components: phytoplankton, suspended matter and colored organic matter, and also various anthropogenic pollutants, including oil. Software tools for thematic hyperspectral data processing in application to the investigation of sea coastal zones and internal water bodies were developed on the basis of the See the Sea geoportal created by the Space Research Institute RAS. The geoportal is focused on the study of processes in the world ocean with the emphasis on the advantages of satellite systems of observation. The tools that were introduced into the portal allow joint analysis of quasi-simultaneous satellite data, in particular data from the Hyperion, HICO, OLI Landsat-8, ETM Landsat-7 and TM Landsat-5 instruments. Results of analysis attempts combining data from different sensors are discussed. Their strong and weak points are highlighted. The study was completed with partial financial support from The Russian Foundation for Basic Research grants # 14-05-00520-a and 13-07-12017.

  17. GIS applications for military operations in coastal zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, S.; Jordan, T.; Madden, M.; Usery, E. L.; Welch, R.

    In order to successfully support current and future US military operations in coastal zones, geospatial information must be rapidly integrated and analyzed to meet ongoing force structure evolution and new mission directives. Coastal zones in a military-operational environment are complex regions that include sea, land and air features that demand high-volume databases of extreme detail within relatively narrow geographic corridors. Static products in the form of analog maps at varying scales traditionally have been used by military commanders and their operational planners. The rapidly changing battlefield of 21st Century warfare, however, demands dynamic mapping solutions. Commercial geographic information system (GIS) software for military-specific applications is now being developed and employed with digital databases to provide customized digital maps of variable scale, content and symbolization tailored to unique demands of military units. Research conducted by the Center for Remote Sensing and Mapping Science at the University of Georgia demonstrated the utility of GIS-based analysis and digital map creation when developing large-scale (1:10,000) products from littoral warfare databases. The methodology employed-selection of data sources (including high resolution commercial images and Lidar), establishment of analysis/modeling parameters, conduct of vehicle mobility analysis, development of models and generation of products (such as a continuous sea-land DEM and geo-visualization of changing shorelines with tidal levels)-is discussed. Based on observations and identified needs from the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, formerly the National Imagery and Mapping Agency, and the Department of Defense, prototype GIS models for military operations in sea, land and air environments were created from multiple data sets of a study area at US Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Results of these models, along with methodologies for developing large

  18. Mapping Coastal Flood Zones for the National Flood Insurance Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlton, D.; Cook, C. L.; Weber, J.

    2004-12-01

    agencies and by FEMA. The results of the pilot study will help FEMA determine when tsunamis should be considered in mapping coastal hazards, how to predict their impact, how they should be mapped and possibly the construction standards for zones mapped as having a 1 percent or greater chance of suffering a tsunami.

  19. The dead zones: oxygen-starved coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Joyce, S

    2000-03-01

    After the great Mississippi River flood of 1993, the hypoxic (or low-oxygen) "dead zone" in the Gulf of Mexico more than doubled its size, reaching an all-time high of over 7,700 square miles in July of 1999. Scientists attribute the Gulf of Mexico dead zone largely to nutrient runoff from agriculture in the Mississippi River basin. During the warm months, these nutrients fuel eutrophication, or high organic production, causing large algal blooms. When the algae decay, the result is hypoxia. Reports of such hypoxic events around the world have been increasing since the mid 1960s. Eutrophication and hypoxia have resulted in mortality of bottom-dwelling life in dozens of marine ecosystems and have stressed fisheries worldwide. Some algal blooms can alter the function of coastal ecosystems or, potentially, threaten human health. Anthropogenic nutrient loading from sources such as agriculture, fossil fuel emissions, and climate events is believed to be related to the global increase in frequency, size, and duration of certain algal blooms. PMID:10706539

  20. ENERGY IN THE PACIFIC COASTAL ZONE DOES D.O.E. HAVE A ROLE?

    SciTech Connect

    Ritschard, Ronald L.; Haven, Kendall F.; Cherniss, Jennifer

    1980-09-01

    This paper addresses the energy-related acti ties in the Pacific Coastal Zone within the context of the absence of a coastal-specific energy policy. First, the present and projected coastal energy activities are described in order to establish a perspective of the importance of the coastal zone to energy development. transport, and use. Next, the state and federal decision-making processes relevant to coastal energy activities are summarized for the purpose of defining the institutional framework that has been constructed to respond to coastal energy issues. Finally, the functional areas not currently being adequately addressed are identified; and an associate role, which ensures both comprehensive evaluation and sound development of regional coastal energy resources, is defined for the DOE Office of Environment.

  1. GIS applications for military operations in coastal zones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, S.; Jordan, T.; Madden, M.; Usery, E.L.; Welch, R.

    2009-01-01

    In order to successfully support current and future US military operations in coastal zones, geospatial information must be rapidly integrated and analyzed to meet ongoing force structure evolution and new mission directives. Coastal zones in a military-operational environment are complex regions that include sea, land and air features that demand high-volume databases of extreme detail within relatively narrow geographic corridors. Static products in the form of analog maps at varying scales traditionally have been used by military commanders and their operational planners. The rapidly changing battlefield of 21st Century warfare, however, demands dynamic mapping solutions. Commercial geographic information system (GIS) software for military-specific applications is now being developed and employed with digital databases to provide customized digital maps of variable scale, content and symbolization tailored to unique demands of military units. Research conducted by the Center for Remote Sensing and Mapping Science at the University of Georgia demonstrated the utility of GIS-based analysis and digital map creation when developing large-scale (1:10,000) products from littoral warfare databases. The methodology employed-selection of data sources (including high resolution commercial images and Lidar), establishment of analysis/modeling parameters, conduct of vehicle mobility analysis, development of models and generation of products (such as a continuous sea-land DEM and geo-visualization of changing shorelines with tidal levels)-is discussed. Based on observations and identified needs from the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, formerly the National Imagery and Mapping Agency, and the Department of Defense, prototype GIS models for military operations in sea, land and air environments were created from multiple data sets of a study area at US Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Results of these models, along with methodologies for developing large

  2. Where the Sea Meets Land: The Coastal Zone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The first Coastal Society Conference discussed the present status of the coasts, coastal legislation, United States offshore oil policies, assessment of coastal environmental impacts and food and energy as resources or threats. The Society finds that management and legislation are needed for our coasts. (BT)

  3. Interactions of aquaculture and waste disposal in the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuemei, Zhai; Hawkins, S. J.

    2002-04-01

    Throughout the world, the coastal zones of many countries are used increasingly for aquaculture in addition to other activities such as waste disposal. These activities can cause environmental problems and health problems where they overlap. The interaction between aquaculture and waste disposal, and their relationship with eutrophication are the subjects of this paper. Sewage discharge without adequate dispersion can lead to nutrient elevation and hence eutrophication which has clearly negative effects on aquaculture with the potential for toxic blooms. Blooms may be either toxic or anoxia-causing through the decay process or simply clog the gills of filter-feeding animals in some cases. With the development of aquaculture, especially intensive aquaculture, many environmental problems appeared, and have resulted in eutrophication in some areas. Eutrophication may destroy the health of whole ecosystem which is important for sustainable aquaculture. Sewage discharge may also cause serious public health problems. Filter-feeding shellfish growing in sewage-polluted waters accumulate micro-organims, including human pathogenic bacteria and viruses, and heavy metal ion, presenting a significant health risk. Some farmed animals may also accumulate heavy metals from sewage. Bivalves growing in areas affected by toxic algae blooms may accumulate toxins (such as PSP, DSP) which can be harmful to human beings.

  4. Environmental assessment of resource development in the Alaska coastal zone based on LANDSAT imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belon, A. E.; Miller, J. M.; Stringer, W. J.

    1975-01-01

    LANDSAT imagery was interpreted to derive color coded maps of the physical parameters of the Alaskan coastal zone. Synoptic overviews depict sea surface circulation, sediment transport, and ice cover dimensions.

  5. Earth resources programs at the Langley Research Center. Part 2: Coastal zone oceanography program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressette, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    The approaches used to develop the coastal zone oceanic research program are outlined, and activities in the areas of satellite application, estuaries, continental shelf and environmental modeling are briefly described.

  6. 32 CFR 644.318 - Compliance with State Coastal Zone Management Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Compliance with State Coastal Zone Management... amended (16 U.S.C. 1451 et seq.). These provisions also apply to the disposal of land or water resources... (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal § 644.318 Compliance with State Coastal...

  7. 33 CFR 148.730 - What are the land use and coastal zone management criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the land use and coastal... Criteria for Deepwater Ports § 148.730 What are the land use and coastal zone management criteria? In... the basis of how well they: (a) Accord with existing and planned land use, including management of...

  8. 33 CFR 148.730 - What are the land use and coastal zone management criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the land use and coastal... Criteria for Deepwater Ports § 148.730 What are the land use and coastal zone management criteria? In... evaluated on the basis of how well they: (a) Accord with existing and planned land use, including...

  9. 33 CFR 148.730 - What are the land use and coastal zone management criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the land use and coastal... Criteria for Deepwater Ports § 148.730 What are the land use and coastal zone management criteria? In... evaluated on the basis of how well they: (a) Accord with existing and planned land use, including...

  10. 33 CFR 148.730 - What are the land use and coastal zone management criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the land use and coastal... Criteria for Deepwater Ports § 148.730 What are the land use and coastal zone management criteria? In... the basis of how well they: (a) Accord with existing and planned land use, including management of...

  11. 33 CFR 148.730 - What are the land use and coastal zone management criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the land use and coastal... Criteria for Deepwater Ports § 148.730 What are the land use and coastal zone management criteria? In... the basis of how well they: (a) Accord with existing and planned land use, including management of...

  12. Remote-sensing applications as utilized in Florida's coastal zone management program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worley, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    Land use maps were developed from photomaps obtained by remote sensing in order to develop a comprehensive state plan for the protection, development, and zoning of coastal regions. Only photographic remote sensors have been used in support of the coastal council's planning/management methodology. Standard photointerpretation and cartographic application procedures for map compilation were used in preparing base maps.

  13. Water pollution in estuaries and coastal zones. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the studies of water pollution in estuaries and coastal zones. Citations examine the development, management, and protection of estuary and coastal resources. Topics include pollution sources, environmental monitoring, water chemistry, eutrophication, models, land use, government policy, and laws and regulations. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  14. Middle East measurements of concentration and size distribution of aerosol particles for coastal zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendersky, Sergey; Kopeika, Norman S.; Blaunstein, Natan S.

    2005-10-01

    Recently, an extension of the Navy Aerosol Model (NAM) was proposed based on analysis of an extensive series of measurements at the Irish Atlantic Coast and at the French Mediterranean Coast. We confirm the relevance of that work for the distant eastern Meditteranean and extend several coefficients of that coastal model, proposed by Piazzola et al. for the Meditteranean Coast (a form of the Navy Aerosol Model), to midland Middle East coastal environments. This analysis is based on data collected at three different Middle East coastal areas: the Negev Desert (Eilat) Red Sea Coast, the Sea of Galilee (Tiberias) Coast, and the Mediterranean (Haifa) Coast. Aerosol size distributions are compared with those obtained through measurements carried out over the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Ocean Coasts, and Mediterranean, and Baltic Seas Coasts. An analysis of these different results allows better understanding of the similarities and differences between different coastal lake, sea, and open ocean zones. It is shown that in the coastal regions in Israel, compared to open ocean and other sea zones, larger differences in aerosol particle concentration are observed. The aerosol particle concentrations and their dependences on wind speed for these coastal zones are analyzed and discussed. We propose to classify the aerosol distribution models to either: 1. a coastal model with marine aerosol domination; 2. a coastal model with continental aerosol domination (referred to as midland coast in this work); or 3. a coastal model with balanced marine and continental conditions.

  15. Mapping coastal vegetation, land use and environmental impact from ERTS-1. [Delaware coastal zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Digital analysis of ERTS-1 imagery was used in an attempt to map and inventory the significant ecological communities of Delaware's coastal zone. Eight vegetation and land use discrimination classes were selected: (1) Phragmites communis (giant reed grass); (2) Spartina alterniflora (salt marsh cord grass); (3) Spartina patens (salt marsh hay); (4) shallow water and exposed mud; (5) deep water (greater than 2 m); (6) forest; (7) agriculture; and (8) exposed sand and concrete. Canonical analysis showed the following classification accuracies: Spartina alterniflora, exposed sand, concrete, and forested land - 94% to 100%; shallow water - mud and deep water - 88% and 93% respectively; Phragmites communis 83%; Spartina patens - 52%. Classification accuracy for agriculture was very poor (51%). Limitations of time and available class-memory space resulted in limiting the analysis of agriculture to very gross identification of a class which actually consists of many varied signature classes. Abundant ground truth was available in the form of vegetation maps compiled from color and color infrared photographs. It is believed that with further refinement of training set selection, sufficiently accurate results can be obtained for all categories.

  16. Megacities and large urban agglomerations in the coastal zone: interactions between atmosphere, land, and marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    von Glasow, Roland; Jickells, Tim D; Baklanov, Alexander; Carmichael, Gregory R; Church, Tom M; Gallardo, Laura; Hughes, Claire; Kanakidou, Maria; Liss, Peter S; Mee, Laurence; Raine, Robin; Ramachandran, Purvaja; Ramesh, R; Sundseth, Kyrre; Tsunogai, Urumu; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Zhu, Tong

    2013-02-01

    Megacities are not only important drivers for socio-economic development but also sources of environmental challenges. Many megacities and large urban agglomerations are located in the coastal zone where land, atmosphere, and ocean meet, posing multiple environmental challenges which we consider here. The atmospheric flow around megacities is complicated by urban heat island effects and topographic flows and sea breezes and influences air pollution and human health. The outflow of polluted air over the ocean perturbs biogeochemical processes. Contaminant inputs can damage downstream coastal zone ecosystem function and resources including fisheries, induce harmful algal blooms and feedback to the atmosphere via marine emissions. The scale of influence of megacities in the coastal zone is hundreds to thousands of kilometers in the atmosphere and tens to hundreds of kilometers in the ocean. We list research needs to further our understanding of coastal megacities with the ultimate aim to improve their environmental management. PMID:23076973

  17. Multispectral and multitemporal satellite data fusion for coastal zone dynamics assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, L. F. V.; Ionescu Golovanov, C.; Zoran, M. A.

    2008-10-01

    This study focuses on the assessment of coastal zone land cover changes based on fusion technique of satellite remote sensing data. The evaluation of coastal zone landscapes is based upon different sub-functions which refer to landscape features such as water, soil, land-use, buildings, groundwater, biotope types. A newly proposed sub-pixel mapping algorithm was applied to a set of multispectral and multitemporal satellite data for Constantza and Black Sea coastal zone areas in Romania. A land cover classification and subsequent environmental quality analysis for change detection was done based on satellite images over a period of time from 1986 to 2006 , from Landsat TM , Landsat ETM, MODIS , IKONOS, Quickbird. Spectral signatures of different terrain features were used to separate and classify surface units of coastal zone and sub-coastal zone area.The change in the position of the coastline in Constantza area is examined in relation with the urban expansion. A distinction is made between landfill/sedimentation processes on the one hand and dredging/erosion processes on the other. A quasi-linear model was used to model the rate of shoreline change linked to anthropogenic and coastal erosion.

  18. Arctic coastal zone mapping: Evolution of sedimentary coasts in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendixen, M.; Kroon, A.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change threatens many of the coastal areas all over the world. In the Arctic, the warming happens at a rate which is three times faster than the global average increasing the pressure on the coast. Arctic coasts differ from coasts in lower latitude in terms of the natural conditions prevailing, i.e. sea-ice, permafrost, and thermal erosion. These factors are likely to change with an increasing temperature, and thereby the erodibility of the shores and the erosivity of the coastal processes are changing. The majority of studies on arctic coasts focus on tundra coasts. Here, there is a general increase of coastal erosion rates over the last decades. However, the arctic coastal areas of Greenland differ; they are often close to hard rock protrusions and are characterized by large differences in geomorphology, erodibility of sediments, and erosivity by coastal processes. Sedimentary coasts in Greenland are only sporadically investigated, and it is thus difficult to predict the impact of climate changes in these areas. With this work we focus on sedimentary coasts in Greenland and present shoreline analysis of two sedimentary coastal sites. We show how the position of the shoreline has changed since the 1930'ies and we address the responsible factors controlling this evolution. The hotspots of coastal change are all located near delta mouths and the detected changes are coupled to dominating process occurring here.

  19. Application of remote sensors in coastal zone observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caillat, J. M.; Elachi, C.; Brown, W. E., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A review of processes taking place along coastlines and their biological consideration led to the determination of the elements which are required in the study of coastal structures and which are needed for better utilization of the resources from the oceans. The processes considered include waves, currents, and their influence on the erosion of coastal structures. Biological considerations include coastal fisheries, estuaries, and tidal marshes. Various remote sensors were analyzed for the information which they can provide and sites were proposed where a general ocean-observation plan could be tested.

  20. Coastal zone color scanner 'system calibration': A retrospective examination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Robert H.; Gordon, Howard R.

    1994-01-01

    During its lifetime the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) produced approximately 66,000 images. These have been placed in an archive of 'raw' radiance (sensor counts) in a subsampled format that is easily accessible. They have also been processed to form global fields, at reduced resolution, of normalized water-leaving radiance, phytoplankton pigments, and diffuse attenuation coefficient. Using this archive, we have tried to characterize some aspects of the 'system calibration' for the 8-year lifetime of CZCS. Specifically, we have assumed that the sensitivity of the red band decayed in a simple manner similar to the well-known long-term degradation of the shorter-wavelength bands, and we examined the sensitivity of the green and yellow bands by computing the globally averaged water-leaving radiance, over 10-day periods, for all of the imagery. The results provided evidence that in addition to the long-term degradation, short-term (2 weeks to 1 month) variations in the radiometric sensitivity of these bands started in early fall 1981 and continued for the rest of the mission. In contrast, the data suggested the absence of such variations prior to August 1981. It is reasonable to believe that the sensitivity of the blue (and probably the red) band underwent such variations as well; however our methodology cannot be used to study the other bands. Thus, after these fluctuations began, the actual values of CZCS - estimated pigment concentrations at a given location should be viewed with skepticism; however, the global patterns of derived pigment concentrations should be valid. Had an extensive set of surface measurements of water-leaving radiance, e.r., from moored buoyes or drifters, had been available during the CZCS mission, these fluctuations could have been removed from the data set, and this would have greatly increased its value. The lessons learned from CZCS that is, the requirement of good radiometric calibration and stability and the necessity of 'sea truth

  1. SEASAT economic assessment. Volume 5: Coastal zones case study and generalization. [economic benefits of weather forecasting by SEASAT satellites to the coastal plains of the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The economic losses sustained in the U.S. coastal zones were studied for the purpose of quantitatively establishing economic benefits as a consequence of improving the predictive quality of destructive phenomena in U.S. coastal zones. Improved prediction of hurricane landfall and improved experimental knowledge of hurricane seeding are discussed.

  2. Coastal Zone Color Scanner atmospheric correction algorithm: multiple scattering effects.

    PubMed

    Gordon, H R; Castaño, D J

    1987-06-01

    An analysis of the errors due to multiple scattering which are expected to be encountered in application of the current Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) atmospheric correction algorithm is presented in detail. This was prompted by the observations of others that significant errors would be encountered if the present algorithm were applied to a hypothetical instrument possessing higher radiometric sensitivity than the present CZCS. This study provides CZCS users sufficient information with which to judge the efficacy of the current algorithm with the current sensor and enables them to estimate the impact of the algorithm-induced errors on their applications in a variety of situations. The greatest source of error is the assumption that the molecular and aerosol contributions to the total radiance observed at the sensor can be computed separately. This leads to the requirement that a value epsilon'(lambda,lambda(0)) for the atmospheric correction parameter, which bears little resemblance to its theoretically meaningful counterpart, must usually be employed in the algorithm to obtain an accurate atmospheric correction. The behavior of '(lambda,lambda(0)) with the aerosol optical thickness and aerosol phase function is thoroughly investigated through realistic modeling of radiative transfer in a stratified atmosphere over a Fresnel reflecting ocean. A unique feature of the analysis is that it is carried out in scan coordinates rather than typical earth-sun coordinates allowing elucidation of the errors along typical CZCS scan lines; this is important since, in the normal application of the algorithm, it is assumed that the same value of can be used for an entire CZCS scene or at least for a reasonably large subscene. Two types of variation of ' are found in models for which it would be constant in the single scattering approximation: (1) variation with scan angle in scenes in which a relatively large portion of the aerosol scattering phase function would be examined

  3. Simple estimate of entrainment rate of pollutants from a coastal discharge into the surf zone.

    PubMed

    Wong, Simon H C; Monismith, Stephen G; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2013-10-15

    Microbial pollutants from coastal discharges can increase illness risks for swimmers and cause beach advisories. There is presently no predictive model for estimating the entrainment of pollution from coastal discharges into the surf zone. We present a novel, quantitative framework for estimating surf zone entrainment of pollution at a wave-dominant open beach. Using physical arguments, we identify a dimensionless parameter equal to the quotient of the surf zone width l(sz) and the cross-flow length scale of the discharge la = M(j) (1/2)/U(sz), where M(j) is the discharge's momentum flux and U(sz) is a representative alongshore velocity in the surf zone. We conducted numerical modeling of a nonbuoyant discharge at an alongshore uniform beach with constant slope using a wave-resolving hydrodynamic model. Using results from 144 numerical experiments we develop an empirical relationship between the surf zone entrainment rate α and l(sz)/(la). The empirical relationship can reasonably explain seven measurements of surf zone entrainment at three diverse coastal discharges. This predictive relationship can be a useful tool in coastal water quality management and can be used to develop predictive beach water quality models. PMID:24006887

  4. Coastal Zone Management Act and related legislation: Revision 3. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-15

    In recognition of the increasing pressures upon the nation`s coastal resources, Congress enacted the Coastal Zone Management Act in 1972. Its purpose is to encourage states to preserve, protect, develop, and, where possible, restore or enhance such valuable natural resources as wetlands, floodplains, estuaries, beaches, dunes, barrier islands, and coral reefs, as well as the fish and wildlife utilizing those habitats. A unique feature of the Act is that participation by states is voluntary. One key provision for encouraging states to participate is the availability of federal financial assistance to any coastal state or territory, including those on the Great Lakes, which is willing to develop and implement a comprehensive coastal management program. Additionally, the Coastal Barrier Resources Act (CBRA) was passed in 1983. This report contains the legislative history and statues associated with each Act. Regulations for implementation and other guidance are included.

  5. Impact of ERTS-1 images on management of New Jersey's coastal zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, E. B.; Yunghans, R. S.; Stitt, J. A.; Mairs, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    The thrust of New Jersey's ERTS investigation is development of procedures for operational use of ERTS-1 data by the Department of Environmental Protection in the management of the State's coastal zone. Four major areas of concern were investigated: detection of land use changes in the coastal zone; monitoring of offshore waste disposal; siting of ocean outfalls; and allocation of funds for shore protection. ERTS imagery was not useful for shore protection purposes; it was of limited practical value in the evaluation of offshore waste disposal and ocean outfall siting. However, ERTS imagery shows great promise for operational detection of land use changes in the coastal zone. Some constraints for practical change detection have been identified.

  6. Defining and Responding to Issues of Canada's Coastal Zones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Lawrence

    1984-01-01

    Defines and discusses critical issues for each of Canada's coastal regions (Pacific, Arctic, Atlantic, and Great Lakes) in environmental, technological, social, and political contexts; reviews recent efforts to obtain and use environmental information; and highlights alternative ways of achieving better stewardship. (Author/DH)

  7. A geomorphological approach to sustainable planning and management of the coastal zone of Kuwait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Bakri, Dhia

    1996-10-01

    The coastal zone in Kuwait has been under a considerable pressure from conflicting land uses since the early 1960s, as well as from the destruction and oil pollution caused by the Gulf War. To avoid further damage and to protect the coastal heritage it is essential to adopt an environmentally sustainable management process. This paper shows how the study of coastal geomorphology can provide a sound basis for sustainable planning and management. Based on coastal landforms, sediments and processes, the coastline of Kuwait was divided into nine geomorphic zones. These zones were grouped into two main geomorphic provinces. The northern province is marked by extensive muddy intertidal flats and dominated by a depositional and low-energy environment. The southern geomorphic province is characterised by relatively steep beach profiles, rocky/sandy tidal flats and a moderate to high-energy environment. The study has demonstrated that pollution, benthic ecology and other environmental conditions of the coast are a function of coastline geomorphology, sedimentology and related processes. The geomorphological information was used to determine the coastal vulnerability and to assess the environmental impacts of development projects and other human activities. Several strategies were outlined to integrate the geomorphic approach into the management of the coastal resources.

  8. Altimetry in the coastal zone: summary and outlook of the COASTALT project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipollini, Paolo; Bastos, Luisa; Benveniste, Jérôme; Byfield, Val; Challenor, Peter; Cipollini, Paolo; Dinardo, Salvatore; Joana Fernandes, M.; Gleason, Scott; Gomez-Enri, Jesus; Gom-Menginger, Christine; Lázaro, Clara; Lucas, Bruno M.; Martin-Puig, Cristina; Moreno, Laura; Nunes, Alexandra; Pires, Nelson; Quartly, Graham; Scozzari, Andrea; Snaith, Helen; Tsimplis, Mikis; Vignudelli, Stefano; Wolf, Judith; Woodworth, Philip

    In the last couple of years the major space agencies have actively supported research and development of altimetry in the coastal zone, with projects like PISTACH funded by the French Space Agency (CNES) and COASTALT funded by the European Space Agency (ESA). In this presentation we will focus on the COASTALT Project, which paves the way to the reprocessing of coastal altimetry data from ESA missions. COASTALT has delivered a number of key contributions to the advancement of the coastal altimetry and has gained visibility within the lively international community of researchers involved in the development of this novel topic. In this talk we will first review what COASTALT has achieved so far, namely: • the project has surveyed the potential user base and identified the requirements for coastal altimetry product composition, posting rate and format; • the project has reviewed the whole spectrum of corrections which need to be applied to the altimetric datum, highlighted the specific problems of some of those corrections in the Coastal Zone, and identified possible solutions and issued the relevant recommendations on which corrections should be applied or investigated further. A particular and com-pletely original contribution by COASTALT has been the research on and development of the GNSS-derived tropospheric path delay correction, which answers the pressing need for a more accurate wet tropospheric correction in the coastal zone, where the microwave radiometer-derived correction becomes inaccurate; • the project has designed and fully implemented a prototype software processor for the Envisat RA-2 SGDRs in the coastal zone, which generates an experimental Coastal GDR (CGDR) product conducive to further research and development in the topic, and also constitutes a first step towards the applications of coastal altimetry. The processor in-cludes a baseline processor that can be run on every pass, plus a User-defined Coastal Geophysical Correction (UCGC

  9. Climate change impacts on rural poverty in low-elevation coastal zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbier, Edward B.

    2015-11-01

    This paper identifies the low-elevation coastal zone (LECZ) populations and developing regions most vulnerable to sea-level rise and other coastal hazards, such as storm surges, coastal erosion and salt-water intrusion. The focus is on the rural poor in the LECZ, as their economic livelihoods are especially endangered both directly by coastal hazards and indirectly through the impacts of climate change on key coastal and near-shore ecosystems. Using geo-spatially referenced malnutrition and infant mortality data for 2000 as a proxy for poverty, this study finds that just 15 developing countries contain over 90% of the world's LECZ rural poor. Low-income countries as a group have the highest incidence of poverty, which declines somewhat for lower middle-income countries, and then is much lower for upper middle-income economies. South Asia, East Asia and the Pacific and Sub-Saharan Africa account for most of the world's LECZ rural poor, and have a high incidence of poverty among their rural LECZ populations. Although fostering growth, especially in coastal areas, may reduce rural poverty in the LECZ, additional policy actions will be required to protect vulnerable communities from disasters, to conserve and restore key coastal and near-shore ecosystems, and to promote key infrastructure investments and coastal community response capability.

  10. 15 CFR 930.98 - Federally assisted activities outside of the coastal zone or the described geographic area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Consistency for Federal Assistance to State and Local Governments § 930.98... of the coastal zone or the described geographic area. 930.98 Section 930.98 Commerce and...

  11. An inventory of wetland impoundments in the coastal zone of Louisiana, USA: Historical trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Richard H.; Holz, Robert K.; Day, John W.

    1990-03-01

    We inventoried wetland impoundments in the Louisiana, USA, coastal zone from the late 1900s to 1985. Historically, impoundment of wetlands for reclamation resulted in direct wetland loss after levees (dikes) failed and the impounded area was permanently flooded, reverting not to wetland, but to open-water habitat. A current management approach is to surround wetlands by levees and water control structures, a practice termed semi-impoundment marsh management. The purpose of this semi-impoundment is to retard saltwater intrusion and reduce water level fluctuations in an attempt to reduce wetland loss, which is a serious problem in coastal Louisiana. In order to quantify the total impounded area, we used historic data and high-altitude infrared photography to map coastal impoundments. Our goal was to produce a documented inventory of wetlands intentionally impounded by levees in the coastal zone of Louisiana in order to provide a benchmark for further research. We inventoried 370,658 ha within the coastal zone that had been intentionally impounded before 1985. This area is equal to about 30% of the total wetland area in the coastal zone. Of that total area, approximately 12% (43,000 ha) is no longer impounded (i.e., failed impoundments; levees no longer exist or only remnants remain). Of the 328,000 ha still impounded, about 65% (214,000 ha) is developed (agriculture, aquaculture, urban and industrial development, and contained spoil). The remaining 35% (114,000 ha) of impoundments are in an undeveloped state (wetland or openwater habitat). In December 1985, approximately 50% (78,000 ha) of the undeveloped and failed impoundments were open-water habitat. This inventory will allow researchers to monitor future change in land-water ratios that occur within impounded wetlands and thus to assess the utility of coastal wetland management using impoundments.

  12. 30 CFR 285.647 - How will my GAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act? 285.647 Section 285.647 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY... under the Coastal Zone Management Act? Your GAP will be processed based on how your limited lease,...

  13. 30 CFR 250.235 - If a State objects to the EP's coastal zone consistency certification, what can I do?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Appeal. Appeal the State's objection to the Secretary of Commerce using the procedures in 15 CFR part 930... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false If a State objects to the EP's coastal zone....235 If a State objects to the EP's coastal zone consistency certification, what can I do? If...

  14. Atlantic tropical forest mapping in the northern coastal zone of Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Simi, R. Jr.; Almeida, S.A.S.; Manso, A.P.

    1997-06-01

    The northern coastal zone of Sao Paulo State includes the cities of Ubatuba, Caraguatatuba, Sao Sebastiao and Ilha Bela. Large development projects, such as road and highway constructions and joint real estate exploration of susceptible coastal ecosystems have threatened the harmony and ecological stability of these ecosystems. Recently, the Atlantic tropical rain forest has been the most destructed ecosystem in the coastal zone in response to real estate investments in urban areas along the main roads. In the northern coastal zone of Sao Paulo State, 80% of the counties are included in the State Park of Serra do Mar. As tourism is a strong growing economical activity, as well as coastal production, it should be of interest to create a plan for sustainable development. The objective of this study is to map and characterize land use cover changes with emphasis on the Atlantic tropical rain forest degradation using Landsat TM images. Preliminary results for land use cover changes indicate that the Atlantic tropical rain forest was reduced by 6.1 % during the period of July 1992 and October 1995.

  15. Assessment of suitable habitat for Phragmites australis (common reed) in the Great Lakes coastal zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson Mazur, Martha L.; Kowalski, Kurt P.; Galbraith, David

    2014-01-01

    In the Laurentian Great Lakes, the invasive form of Phragmites australis (common reed) poses a threat to highly productive coastal wetlands and shorelines by forming impenetrable stands that outcompete native plants. Large, dominant stands can derail efforts to restore wetland ecosystems degraded by other stressors. To be proactive, landscape-level management of Phragmites requires information on the current spatial distribution of the species and a characterization of areas suitable for future colonization. Using a recent basin-scale map of this invasive plant’s distribution in the U.S. coastal zone of the Great Lakes, environmental data (e.g., soils, nutrients, disturbance, climate, topography), and climate predictions, we performed analyses of current and predicted suitable coastal habitat using boosted regression trees, a type of species distribution modeling. We also investigated differential influences of environmental variables in the upper lakes (Lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron) and lower lakes (Lakes St. Clair, Erie, and Ontario). Basin-wide results showed that the coastal areas most vulnerable to Phragmites expansion were in close proximity to developed lands and had minimal topographic relief, poorly drained soils, and dense road networks. Elevated nutrients and proximity to agriculture also influenced the distribution of Phragmites. Climate predictions indicated an increase in suitable habitat in coastal Lakes Huron and Michigan in particular. The results of this study, combined with a publicly available online decision support tool, will enable resource managers and restoration practitioners to target and prioritize Phragmites control efforts in the Great Lakes coastal zone.

  16. Hydrologic factors controlling groundwater salinity in northwestern coastal zone, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morad, Nahla A.; Masoud, M. H.; Moghith, S. M. Abdel

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this article is to assess the main factors influencing salinity of groundwater in the coastal area between El Dabaa and Sidi Barani, Egypt. The types and ages of the main aquifers in this area are the fractured limestone of Middle Miocene, the calcareous sandstone of Pliocene and the Oolitic Limestone of Pleistocene age. The aquifers in the area are recharged by seasonal rainfall of the order of 150 mm/year. The relationship of groundwater salinity against the absolute water level, the well drilling depth, and the ability of aquifer to recharge has been discussed in the present work. The ability of aquifer to locally recharge by direct rainfall is a measure of the vertical permeability due to lithological and structural factors that control groundwater salinity in the investigated aquifers. On the other hand, the fracturing system as well as the attitude of the surface water divide has a prime role in changing both the mode of occurrence and the salinity of groundwater in the area. Directly to the west of Matrouh, where the coastal plain is the narrowest, and east of Barrani, where the coastal plain is the widest, are good examples of this concept, where the water salinity attains its maximum and minimum limits respectively. Accordingly, well drilling in the Miocene aquifer, in the area between El Negila and Barrani to get groundwater of salinities less than 5000 mg/l is recommended in this area, at flow rate less than 10 m3/hr/well. In other words, one can expect that the brackish water is probably found where the surface water divide is far from the shore line, where the Wadi fill deposits dominate (Quaternary aquifer), acting as a possible water salinity by direct rainfall and runoff.

  17. Remote sensing techniques for support of coastal zone resource management.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piland, R. O.

    1973-01-01

    Description of remote sensing studies carried out for the purpose of developing and/or demonstrating techniques which can be employed for land use inventory, marsh vegetation classification, and water characteristics surveys. Attention is given to results obtained with (1) photo interpretation techniques and procedures for the development of land use information from high-altitude aircraft and satellite imagery, (2) computer based pattern recognition techniques utilizing multispectral scanner data for marsh vegetation classification, and (3) infrared and microwave techniques for the monitoring and surveying of coastal water temperature and salinity characteristics.

  18. Simulation of calcite dissolution and porosity changes in saltwater mixing zones in coastal aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanford, W.E.; Konikow, L.F.

    1989-01-01

    Thermodynamic models of aqueous solutions have indicated that the mixing of seawater and calcite-saturated fresh groundwater can produce a water that is undersaturated with respect to calcite. Mixing of such waters in coastal carbonate aquifers could lead to significant amounts of limestone dissolution. The potential for such dissolution in coastal saltwater mixing zones is analyzed by coupling the results from a reaction simulation model (PHREEQE) with a variable density groundwater flow and solute transport model. Idealized cross sections of coastal carbonate aquifers are simulated to estimate the potential for calcite dissolution under a variety of hydrologic and geochemical conditions. Results show that limestone dissolution in mixing zones is strongly dependent on groundwater flux and nearly independent of the dissolution kinetics of calcite. -from Authors

  19. Modeling Black Sea circulation with high resolution in the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalesnyi, V. B.; Gusev, A. V.; Agoshkov, V. I.

    2016-05-01

    We present a numerical model of Black Sea circulation based on primitive equations with improved spatial resolution in the coastal zone. The model equations are formulated in a two-pole orthogonal coordinate system with arbitrary locations of the poles and a vertical σ coordinate. Increased horizontal resolution is gained by displacing the pole into the vicinity of the separated subdomain. The problem is solved over a grid with a variable step. The northern coordinate pole is displaced to the vicinity of Gelendzhik; the grid step varies from 150 m in the coastal zone to 4.6 km in the main basin. We simulated the fields of currents, sea level, temperature, and salinity under the given atmospheric forcing in 2007. The model is capable of reproducing the large-scale Black Sea circulation and submesoscale variations in the coastal currents.

  20. Phytoplankton pigments from the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner - Comparisons with surface measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, H. R.; Clark, D. K.; Hovis, W. A.; Mueller, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Algorithms are developed for removing aerosol effects in visual data from the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS). The corrected imagery reveals eddy-like ocean circulation patterns. Pigment concentrations from CZCS are compared with surface determinations. CZCS imagery estimates pigment concentration to within 0.5 log C, where C is the sum of the concentrations of chlorophyll a and phaeopigments a

  1. Description of algorithms for processing Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zion, P. M.

    1983-01-01

    The algorithms for processing coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) data to geophysical units (pigment concentration) are described. Current public domain information for processing these data is summarized. Calibration, atmospheric correction, and bio-optical algorithms are presented. Three CZCS data processing implementations are compared.

  2. Socially cooperative choices: An approach to achieving resource sustainability in the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crance, Colin; Draper, Dianne

    1996-03-01

    Achieving resource sustainability, particularly in the coastal zone, is complicated by a variety of interdependencies and trade-offs between economic, social, and ecological variables. Although trade-offs between each of these variables are important, this paper emphasizes the social components of resource management. In this regard a distinction is made between individual and cooperative choices. Individual choices frequently are made from a shortterm, self-interested perspective, whereas cooperative choices are made from a long-term, community and resource-sustainability perspective. Typically, when presented with a spectrum of resource management decisions, individuals have a tendency to act in a self-interested manner. Thus, cooperative benefits, such as reduced conflict and improved resource certainty, are not realized. An overview of selected aspects of social dilemma theory suggests that socially cooperative choice outcomes are attainable in coastal zone management by integrating structural and behavioral solutions in resource use decision making. Three barriers to successful integration of structural and behavioral solutions are identified as self-interest, mistrust, and variable perceptions of resource amenities. Examples from coastal zone management indicate that these barriers may be overcome using approaches such as scopereduction, co-management, community education, and local participation. The paper also provides comment on the potential benefits of integrating structural and behavioral solutions in international coastal zone management efforts.

  3. Reprocessed COCORP southern Appalachian reflection data: Root zone to Coastal Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iverson, William P.; Smithson, Scott B.

    1983-07-01

    COCORP (Consortium for Continental Reflection Profiling) seismic reflection data from the Atlantic Coastal Plain and eastern Piedmont in Georgia have been reprocessed and interpreted. Dipping events correlated with the master decollement root zone may be the only features that can be correlated with other reflection lines. Farther southeast on the Coastal Plain the shallow section is improved to produce reflections corresponding to the base of the Coastal Plain. A Triassic basin is confirmed to be more than 2 km deep and is the only major basin accurately revealed by the seismic lines. Improvement of the shallow seismic data is important to understanding the deep data. Some apparently deep reflections are probably produced from within the shallow Coastal Plain. Even though these shallow data have been improved, the Augusta fault is not interpreted as a major reflective feature. *Present address: Sohio Research and Development, One Lincoln Center, Dallas, Texas, 75240

  4. Man in Louisiana's coastal zone - From reclamation to subsidence

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, D.W. )

    1990-09-01

    For more than 300 years the US marsh lands were thought to be of no economic value. They were considered useless wastelands. Today, they are recognized as valuable and highly productive environments. As a renewable resource that operates with minimum capital expenditures, the wetlands are epitomized in Louisiana. Even so, south Louisiana's first settlers were unaware of the wetlands value. These coastal lowlands were considered a nuisance. They bred yellow fever-carrying mosquitos and contributed directly and indirectly to flooding. Consequently, to overcome the hardships of being sea-level citizens, for more than 250 years the inhabitants have systematically reclaimed the marshes and swamps. As a result of the intense utilization of levees and pumps, normally wet property began to dry out, losing some of its natural buoyancy, increasing regional subsidence. Man-induced negative land surfaces are producing an urbanized population that must face the realities of subsidence caused by unregulated reclamation. New Orleans has, in fact, become North America's premier sinking city. The population has been forced to learn how to live with the problem. Nevertheless, these people are at risk, particularly if the current predicted sea-level rise of 1.2 mm/yr is correct. In the main, Louisiana's coastal issues will become those of the nation and represent the precursor of things to come. Louisiana's reaction and solutions to these issues will establish a precedent for the remainder of the country to follow.

  5. On the Potential of Surfers to Monitor Environmental Indicators in the Coastal Zone.

    PubMed

    Brewin, Robert J W; de Mora, Lee; Jackson, Thomas; Brewin, Thomas G; Shutler, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    The social and economic benefits of the coastal zone make it one of the most treasured environments on our planet. Yet it is vulnerable to increasing anthropogenic pressure and climate change. Coastal management aims to mitigate these pressures while augmenting the socio-economic benefits the coastal region has to offer. However, coastal management is challenged by inadequate sampling of key environmental indicators, partly due to issues relating to cost of data collection. Here, we investigate the use of recreational surfers as platforms to improve sampling coverage of environmental indicators in the coastal zone. We equipped a recreational surfer, based in the south west United Kingdom (UK), with a temperature sensor and Global Positioning System (GPS) device that they used when surfing for a period of one year (85 surfing sessions). The temperature sensor was used to derive estimates of sea-surface temperature (SST), an important environmental indicator, and the GPS device used to provide sample location and to extract information on surfer performance. SST data acquired by the surfer were compared with data from an oceanographic station in the south west UK and with satellite observations. Our results demonstrate: (i) high-quality SST data can be acquired by surfers using low cost sensors; and (ii) GPS data can provide information on surfing performance that may help motivate data collection by surfers. Using recent estimates of the UK surfing population, and frequency of surfer participation, we speculate around 40 million measurements on environmental indicators per year could be acquired at the UK coastline by surfers. This quantity of data is likely to enhance coastal monitoring and aid UK coastal management. Considering surfing is a world-wide sport, our results have global implications and the approach could be expanded to other popular marine recreational activities for coastal monitoring of environmental indicators. PMID:26154173

  6. On the Potential of Surfers to Monitor Environmental Indicators in the Coastal Zone

    PubMed Central

    Brewin, Robert J. W.; de Mora, Lee; Jackson, Thomas; Brewin, Thomas G.; Shutler, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    The social and economic benefits of the coastal zone make it one of the most treasured environments on our planet. Yet it is vulnerable to increasing anthropogenic pressure and climate change. Coastal management aims to mitigate these pressures while augmenting the socio-economic benefits the coastal region has to offer. However, coastal management is challenged by inadequate sampling of key environmental indicators, partly due to issues relating to cost of data collection. Here, we investigate the use of recreational surfers as platforms to improve sampling coverage of environmental indicators in the coastal zone. We equipped a recreational surfer, based in the south west United Kingdom (UK), with a temperature sensor and Global Positioning System (GPS) device that they used when surfing for a period of one year (85 surfing sessions). The temperature sensor was used to derive estimates of sea-surface temperature (SST), an important environmental indicator, and the GPS device used to provide sample location and to extract information on surfer performance. SST data acquired by the surfer were compared with data from an oceanographic station in the south west UK and with satellite observations. Our results demonstrate: (i) high-quality SST data can be acquired by surfers using low cost sensors; and (ii) GPS data can provide information on surfing performance that may help motivate data collection by surfers. Using recent estimates of the UK surfing population, and frequency of surfer participation, we speculate around 40 million measurements on environmental indicators per year could be acquired at the UK coastline by surfers. This quantity of data is likely to enhance coastal monitoring and aid UK coastal management. Considering surfing is a world-wide sport, our results have global implications and the approach could be expanded to other popular marine recreational activities for coastal monitoring of environmental indicators. PMID:26154173

  7. EPA studies distribution of terrestrial sediment in coastal zone

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fundamental to the inter-Agency effort to protect coral reefs in southwestern Puerto Rico is the assumption that soil eroded from land in the Guánica/Rio Loco watershed is carried out of Guánica Bay and into coral reef zones and may even be pushed by currents to the west, where i...

  8. Airborne Salinity Mapper Makes Debut in Coastal Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Jerry L.; Goodberlet, Mark A.; Zaitzeff, James B.

    New technology has been developed through a joint public-private partnership that could greatly improve the ocean sciences community's ability to study coastal oceanography in the same way that satellitebased infrared imaging revolutionized basinscale oceanography. Recent advances in passive microwave technologies and novel means of integrating those advances haveled to the development of the Scanning Low-Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SLFMR) for remote sensing of sea-surface salinity.Designed and built for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the SLFMR—also known as the salinity mapper—was recently used by a team of scientists from government and industry to generate the first remotely sensed image of sea-surface salinity (Figure 1). This image of salinity was obtained near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay, Virginia, during the Naval Research Laboratory's (NRL) Chesapeake Outflow Plume Experiment (COPE), elements of which were conducted in collaboration with NOAA.

  9. Coastal Zone Hazards Related to Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions and Groundwater Flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontar, Y. A.; Ozorovich, Y. R.; Salokhiddinov, A. T.

    2009-12-01

    Worldwide, as many as half a million people have died in natural and man-made disasters since the turn of the 21st century (Wirtz, 2008). Further, natural and man-made hazards can lead to extreme financial losses (Elsner et al, 2009). Hazards, hydrological and geophysical risk analysis related to groundwater-surface water interactions and groundwater flooding have been to a large extent under-emphasized for coastal zone applications either due to economical limitations or underestimation of its significance. This is particularly true for tsunamis creating salt water intrusion to coastal aquifers, even though most tsunami hazard assessments have in the past relied on scenario or deterministic type models (Geist and Parsons, 2006), and to increasing mineralization of potable water because of intensive water diversions and also the abundance of highly toxic pollutants (mainly pesticides) in water, air and food, which contribute to the deterioration of the coastal population's health (Glantz, 2007). In the wake of pressing environmental and economic issues, it is of prime importance for the scientific community to shed light onto the great efforts by hydrologists and geophysicists to quantify conceptual uncertainties and to provide quality assurances of potential coastal zone hazard evaluation and prediction. This paper proposes consideration of two case studies which are important and significant for future development and essential for feasibility studies of hazards in the coastal zone. The territory of the Aral Sea Region in Central Asia is known as an ecological disaster coastal zone (Zavialov, 2005). It is now obvious that, in order to provide reasonable living conditions to the coastal zone population, it is first of all necessary to drastically improve the quality of the water dedicated to human needs. Due to their intensive pollution by industrial wastes and by drainage waters from irrigated fields, the Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers can no longer be considered

  10. Imbalance in Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions and its Relationship to the Coastal Zone Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontar, Y. A.; Ozorovich, Y. R.; Salokhiddinov, A. T.

    2011-12-01

    We report here some efforts and results in studying the imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions and processes of groundwater-surface water interactions and groundwater flooding creating hazards in the coastal zones. Hazards, hydrological and geophysical risk analysis related to imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions and groundwater flooding have been to a large extent under-emphasized for coastal zone applications either due to economical limitations or underestimation of significance of imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions. This is particularly true for tsunamis creating salt water intrusion to coastal aquifers, even though most tsunami hazard assessments have in the past relied on scenario or deterministic type models, and to increasing mineralization of potable water because of intensive water diversions and also the abundance of highly toxic pollutants (mainly pesticides) in water, air and food, which contribute to the deterioration of the coastal population's health. In the wake of pressing environmental and economic issues, it is of prime importance for the scientific community to shed light onto the great efforts by hydrologists and geophysicists to quantify conceptual uncertainties and to provide quality assurances of potential coastal zone hazard evaluation and prediction under conditions of imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions. This paper proposes consideration of two case studies which are important and significant for future understanding of a concept of imbalance in groundwater-surface water interactions and development and essential for feasibility studies of hazards in the coastal zone. The territory of the Aral Sea Region in Central Asia is known as an ecological disaster coastal zone. It is now obvious that, in order to provide reasonable living conditions to the coastal zone population, it is first of all necessary to drastically improve the quality of the water dedicated to human needs. Due

  11. Between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea: The coastal zone in an Era of globalisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mee, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Human pressure has changed the physical and ecological characteristics of coastal zones for centuries. 'Boom and bust' development of coastal zones is a historically recurrent problem. For nearly 40 years, there have been concerted efforts to improve management of the diverse human pressures that have led to deterioration of coastal environments. Since 1992, Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) has been a dominant policy paradigm for bringing together relevant sectors of society to overcome conflicts of resource use and to pursue sustainable development. There is growing evidence that, with some exceptions, these efforts have not reversed environmental degradation. A major reason for this is that the economic and social changes leading to this decline operate increasingly at temporal and spatial scales greater than the scope of management regimes established through ICZM. Alternative approaches such as Adaptive Management are needed to deal with this mismatch of scales. Cross-scale tools including information technology and social networking may also provide vehicles for innovation. As part of a broader range of tools, ICZM helps respond to locally driven problems and adapt to global change. Effective future management must work across scales and benefit from the 'long view' of how coupled social and ecological systems operate.

  12. Sand Fences in the Coastal Zone: Intended and Unintended Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grafals-Soto, Rosana; Nordstrom, Karl

    2009-09-01

    Sand-trapping fences modify the character of the coastal landscape and change its spatial structure, image, and meaning. This paper examines the relationship between these changes and fence usage at the municipal level, where most decisions about fence deployment are made. Use of fences in 29 municipalities on the developed coast of New Jersey is examined over a 6-year period. Interviews with municipal officers indicate that wooden slat sand-trapping fences are used primarily to build dunes to provide protection against wave uprush and flooding, but they are also used to control pedestrian traffic and demarcate territory. These uses result in changes in landforms and habitats. An aerial video inventory of fences taken in 2002 indicates that 82% of the shoreline had fences and 72% had dunes. Single and double straight fence rows are the most commonly used. Fences are often built to accomplish a specific primary purpose, but they can cause many different and often unanticipated changes to the landscape. The effects of a sand fence change through time as the initial structure traps sand, creates a dune that is colonized by vegetation, and becomes integrated into the environment by increasing topographic variability and aesthetic and habitat value. Sand fences can be made more compatible with natural processes by not placing them in locations where sources of wind blown sand are restricted or in unnatural shore perpendicular orientations. Symbolic fences are less expensive, are easy to replace when damaged, are less visually intrusive, and can be used for controlling pedestrian access.

  13. Shoreline changes and its impact on activities in the coastal zone in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroon, A.; Bendixen, M.; Elberling, B.

    2015-12-01

    shorelines. The shoreline changes were estimated using the digital shoreline analysis system (DSAS) of the USGS. The spatial variability of accumulation and erosion patterns was detected and shows a surprising thread for ancient settlements and present-day activities in the coastal zone. The same patterns are finally discussed in terms of coastal risk assessment.

  14. Seismic gaps and source zones of recent large earthquakes in coastal Peru

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dewey, J.W.; Spence, W.

    1979-01-01

    The earthquakes of central coastal Peru occur principally in two distinct zones of shallow earthquake activity that are inland of and parallel to the axis of the Peru Trench. The interface-thrust (IT) zone includes the great thrust-fault earthquakes of 17 October 1966 and 3 October 1974. The coastal-plate interior (CPI) zone includes the great earthquake of 31 May 1970, and is located about 50 km inland of and 30 km deeper than the interface thrust zone. The occurrence of a large earthquake in one zone may not relieve elastic strain in the adjoining zone, thus complicating the application of the seismic gap concept to central coastal Peru. However, recognition of two seismic zones may facilitate detection of seismicity precursory to a large earthquake in a given zone; removal of probable CPI-zone earthquakes from plots of seismicity prior to the 1974 main shock dramatically emphasizes the high seismic activity near the rupture zone of that earthquake in the five years preceding the main shock. Other conclusions on the seismicity of coastal Peru that affect the application of the seismic gap concept to this region are: (1) Aftershocks of the great earthquakes of 1966, 1970, and 1974 occurred in spatially separated clusters. Some clusters may represent distinct small source regions triggered by the main shock rather than delimiting the total extent of main-shock rupture. The uncertainty in the interpretation of aftershock clusters results in corresponding uncertainties in estimates of stress drop and estimates of the dimensions of the seismic gap that has been filled by a major earthquake. (2) Aftershocks of the great thrust-fault earthquakes of 1966 and 1974 generally did not extend seaward as far as the Peru Trench. (3) None of the three great earthquakes produced significant teleseismic activity in the following month in the source regions of the other two earthquakes. The earthquake hypocenters that form the basis of this study were relocated using station

  15. Sand fences in the coastal zone: intended and unintended effects.

    PubMed

    Grafals-Soto, Rosana; Nordstrom, Karl

    2009-09-01

    Sand-trapping fences modify the character of the coastal landscape and change its spatial structure, image, and meaning. This paper examines the relationship between these changes and fence usage at the municipal level, where most decisions about fence deployment are made. Use of fences in 29 municipalities on the developed coast of New Jersey is examined over a 6-year period. Interviews with municipal officers indicate that wooden slat sand-trapping fences are used primarily to build dunes to provide protection against wave uprush and flooding, but they are also used to control pedestrian traffic and demarcate territory. These uses result in changes in landforms and habitats. An aerial video inventory of fences taken in 2002 indicates that 82% of the shoreline had fences and 72% had dunes. Single and double straight fence rows are the most commonly used. Fences are often built to accomplish a specific primary purpose, but they can cause many different and often unanticipated changes to the landscape. The effects of a sand fence change through time as the initial structure traps sand, creates a dune that is colonized by vegetation, and becomes integrated into the environment by increasing topographic variability and aesthetic and habitat value. Sand fences can be made more compatible with natural processes by not placing them in locations where sources of wind blown sand are restricted or in unnatural shore perpendicular orientations. Symbolic fences are less expensive, are easy to replace when damaged, are less visually intrusive, and can be used for controlling pedestrian access. PMID:19629579

  16. Groundwater-ocean interaction and its effects on coastal ecological processes - are there groundwater-dependant ecosystems in the coastal zone?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stieglitz, T. C.

    2013-05-01

    Hydrological land-ocean connectivity is an important driver of coastal ecosystems. Rivers are obvious and visible pathways for terrestrial runoff. The critical role of surface water discharge from rivers to coastal ecosystems has been well documented. Hidden from view, 'downstream' effects of coastal (supra-tidal, intertidal and submarine) groundwater discharge are far less well understood. Whilst hydrological and geochemical processes associated with coastal groundwater discharge have received an increasing amount of scientific attention over the past decade or so, the effects of groundwater flow on productivity, composition, diversity and functioning of coastal ecosystems along the world's shorelines have received little attention to date. Coastal groundwater discharge includes both terrestrial (fresh) groundwater fluxes and the recirculation of seawater through sediments, analogous to hyporheic flow in rivers. I will present an overview over relevant coastal hydrological processes, and will illustrate their ecological effects on examples from diverse tropical coastal ecosystems, e.g. (1) perennial fresh groundwater discharge from coastal sand dune systems permitting growth of freshwater-dependent vegetation in the intertidal zone of the Great Barrier Reef (Australia), (2) recirculation of seawater through mangrove forest floors directly affecting tree health and providing a pathway for carbon export from these ecosystems, (3) the local hydrology of groundwater-fed coastal inlets on Mexico's Yucatan peninsula affecting the movement behaviour of and habitat use by the queen conch Strombus gigas, an economically important species in the Caribbean region. These examples for hydrological-ecological coupling in the coastal zone invite the question if we should not consider these coastal ecosystems to be groundwater-dependent, in analogy to groundwater-dependency in freshwater aquatic systems.

  17. NASA COAST and OCEANIA Airborne Missions Support Ecosystem and Water Quality Research in the Coastal Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guild, L. S.; Kudela, R. M.; Hooker, S. B.; Morrow, J. H.; Russell, P. B.; Palacios, S. L.; Livingston, J. M.; Negrey, K.; Torres-Perez, J. L.; Broughton, J.

    2014-12-01

    NASA has a continuing requirement to collect high-quality in situ data for the vicarious calibration of current and next generation ocean color satellite sensors and to validate the algorithms that use the remotely sensed observations. Recent NASA airborne missions over Monterey Bay, CA, have demonstrated novel above- and in-water measurement capabilities supporting a combined airborne sensor approach (imaging spectrometer, microradiometers, and a sun photometer). The results characterize coastal atmospheric and aquatic properties through an end-to-end assessment of image acquisition, atmospheric correction, algorithm application, plus sea-truth observations from state-of-the-art instrument systems. The primary goal is to demonstrate the following in support of calibration and validation exercises for satellite coastal ocean color products: 1) the utility of a multi-sensor airborne instrument suite to assess the bio-optical properties of coastal California, including water quality; and 2) the importance of contemporaneous atmospheric measurements to improve atmospheric correction in the coastal zone. The imaging spectrometer (Headwall) is optimized in the blue spectral domain to emphasize remote sensing of marine and freshwater ecosystems. The novel airborne instrument, Coastal Airborne In-situ Radiometers (C-AIR) provides measurements of apparent optical properties with high dynamic range and fidelity for deriving exact water leaving radiances at the land-ocean boundary, including radiometrically shallow aquatic ecosystems. Simultaneous measurements supporting empirical atmospheric correction of image data are accomplished using the Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14). Flight operations are presented for the instrument payloads using the CIRPAS Twin Otter flown over Monterey Bay during the seasonal fall algal bloom in 2011 (COAST) and 2013 (OCEANIA) to support bio-optical measurements of phytoplankton for coastal zone research.

  18. Long-term trends of hypoxia in the coastal zone, north-western Baltic proper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrén, Thomas; Norbäck Ivarsson, Lena; Andrén, Elinor

    2015-04-01

    The Baltic Sea coastal zone contains over 20 % of all identified hypoxic sites worldwide and shows an increasing trend since 1950 (Conley et al. 2011). In the open Baltic Sea, hypoxia events are recorded during three time periods: about 8000-4000, 2000-800 cal. yr. BP, and from AD 1800 up to present, but in the coastal zone data on long-term trends are lacking (Zillén et al. 2008). Different views have been proposed of what caused the oscillation in the oxygen content at sea bottoms in the open Baltic Sea e.g. changes in agricultural practice, fluctuations in human population density and climate change. The role of humans and climate in driving the eutrophication and hypoxia in the Baltic Sea needs to be understood and there is an urgent need for increased knowledge of the historical extent of hypoxia and the driving forces for formation in the coastal zone. This project aims to disentangle the role of human induced and natural climate-driven processes that have resulted in times of eutrophication and hypoxia in the Baltic Sea during the last 2000 years. Research focus is put on the coastal zone and carefully selected estuaries along the Swedish east coast, where responses to changed human land-use can be expected to be first recorded. Eight sites, from the Stockholm archipelago to Bråviken, have been cored and sediments lithologically described and dated by radiocarbon using preferably terrestrial macrofossils. Preliminary results of age models, sedimentation rates, and lithologies will be presented. Lithological descriptions using laminated sediments as a proxy for hypoxic bottom water conditions will significantly increase the knowledge on the distribution of hypoxia and the extension of areas of laminated sediments in time and space in the coastal area. References: Conley, D.J., Carstensen, J., Aigars, J., Axe, P., Bonsdorff, E., Eremina, T., Haahti, B.-M., Humborg, C., Jonsson, P., Kotta, J., Lännegren, C., Larsson, U., Maximov, A., Rodriguez Medina, M

  19. Reducing PEC uncertainty in coastal zones: a case study on carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine and their metabolites.

    PubMed

    Fenet, Hélène; Arpin-Pont, Lauren; Vanhoutte-Brunier, Alice; Munaron, Dominique; Fiandrino, Annie; Martínez Bueno, Maria-Jesus; Boillot, Clotilde; Casellas, Claude; Mathieu, Olivier; Gomez, Elena

    2014-07-01

    Concentrations of the antiepileptic drugs carbamazepine (Cbz), oxcarbazepine (OxCz) and their main metabolites were predicted in a wastewater treatment plant (WTP) and in the vicinity of its submarine outfall located in a Mediterranean coastal zone. Refined predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) were calculated in effluents based on consumption data and human excretion rates. PECs were estimated in the sea using the hydrodynamic MARS 3D model integrating meteorological data, oceanic conditions (wind, tide, atmospheric pressure), freshwater and sewage inputs. Measured environmental concentrations (MECs) were compared to PECs to assess the estimation relevance. In the coastal zone, PEC and MEC were in the same magnitude range. Modeling of Cbz diffusion and advection just above the submarine outfall showed the influence of the thermocline during summer, with low diffusion of Cbz from the bottom to the surface. This work allowed understanding the dispersion of target compounds and deserved further development for a better acknowledgement of vulnerability at local scales. PMID:24742703

  20. Classifying risk zones by the impacts of oil spills in the coastal waters of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Singkran, Nuanchan

    2013-05-15

    Risk zones that could be subject to the impacts of oil spills were identified at a national scale across the 23 coastal provinces of Thailand based on the average percentage risk of critical variables, including frequency of oil spill incidents, number of ports, number of local boats, number of foreign boats, and presence of important resources (i.e., protection area, conservation area, marine park, mangrove, aquaculture, coral reef, seagrass, seagull, seabird, sea turtle, dugong, dolphin, whale, guitar fish, and shark). Risks at the local scale were determined based on the frequency of simulated oil slicks hitting the coast and/or important resources. Four zones with varied risk magnitudes (low, moderate, high, and very high) were mapped to guide the preparation of effective plans to minimize oil spill incidents and impacts in coastal waters. Risk maps with sufficient information could be used to improve regulations related to shipping and vessel navigation in local and regional seas. PMID:23518446

  1. Aerospace remote sensing of the coastal zone for water quality and biotic productivity applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchard, E. B.; Harriss, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Remote sensing can provide the wide area synoptic coverage of surface waters which is required for studies of such phenomena as river plume mixing, phytoplankton dynamics, and pollutant transport and fate, but which is not obtainable by conventional oceanographic techniques. The application of several remote sensors (aircraftborne and spacecraftborne multispectral scanners, passive microwave radiometers, and active laser systems) to coastal zone research is discussed. Current measurement capabilities (particulates, chlorophyll a, temperature, salinity, ocean dumped materials, other pollutants, and surface winds and roughness) are defined and the results of recent remote sensing experiments conducted in the North Atlantic coastal zone are presented. The future development of remote sensing must rely on an integrated laboratory research program in optical physics. Recent results indicate the potential for separation of particulates into subsets by remote sensors.

  2. Assessing deforestation in the coastal zone of the Campeche State, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Mas, J.F.; Vega, A.P.; Aponte, G.P.; Lomeli, D.Z.

    1997-06-01

    In order to determine rates of deforestation in the State of Campeche, Mexico, forest maps of 1978/80 and 1992 were compared within a geographic information system (GIS). Results indicate that more than 25 per cent of the tropical forest and mangroves were deforested and other 29 per cent were fragmented during this period. The rate of deforestation in the whole state is about 4.4 per cent per year, but the analysis showed that rates of deforestation are much higher in the coastal zone. For this reason an attempt was made to study deforestation patterns in the coastal zone. Data such as distance from roads and from settlements images were incorporated in the GIS data base and a model which represents influence of population on its environment was developed in order to establish the influence of socioeconomic factors on forest clearing. Results indicate that deforestation presents a higher correlation with levels of poverty and social abandonment than with demographic aspects.

  3. Aragonite saturation state dynamics in a coastal upwelling zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Katherine E.; Degrandpre, Michael D.; Hales, Burke

    2013-06-01

    upwelling zones may be at enhanced risk from ocean acidification as upwelling brings low aragonite saturation state (ΩAr) waters to the surface that are further suppressed by anthropogenic CO2. ΩAr was calculated with pH, pCO2, and salinity-derived alkalinity time series data from autonomous pH and pCO2 instruments moored on the Oregon shelf and shelf break during different seasons from 2007 to 2011. Surface ΩAr values ranged between 0.66 ± 0.04 and 3.9 ± 0.04 compared to an estimated pre-industrial range of 1.0 ± 0.1 to 4.7 ± 0.1. Upwelling of high-CO2 water and subsequent removal of CO2 by phytoplankton imparts a dynamic range to ΩAr from ~1.0 to ~4.0 between spring and autumn. Freshwater input also suppresses saturation states during the spring. Winter ΩAr is less variable than during other seasons and is controlled primarily by mixing of the water column.

  4. Northwestern Black Sea coastal zone environmental changes detection by satellite remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, Maria A.

    2004-02-01

    The Romanian North Western coastal and shelf zones of the Black Sea and Danube delta are a mosaic of complex, interacting ecosystems, rich natural resources and socio-economic activity. Dramatic changes in the Black Sea's ecosystem and resources are due to natural and anthropogenic causes (increase in the nutrient and pollutant load of rivers input, industrial and municipal wastewater pollution along the coast, and dumping on the open sea). A scientific management system for protection, conservation and restoration must be based on reliable information on bio-geophysical and geomorphologic processes, coastal erosion, sedimentation dynamics, mapping of macrophyte fields, water quality, climatic change effects. A multitemporal data set consisting of LANDSAT MSS, TM and SAR ERS-1 images was used for comparing and mapping landcover change via change detection. Synergetic use of quasi-simultaneously acquired multi-sensor data may therefore allow for a better approach of change detection of coastal area. The main aim of this paper is to conduct a comprehensive analysis based on existing historical and more recent in situ and remote sensing data to establish the link between phytoplankton bloom development, increasing erosion and diminishing of beaches and related coastal zone harmful phenomena.

  5. 30 CFR 250.226 - What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...)(3)(B)) and 15 CFR 930.76(d) stating that the proposed exploration activities described in detail in... required by 15 CFR 930.76(a) and 15 CFR 930.58(a)(2)) and “Analysis” as required by 15 CFR 930.58(a)(3). ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What Coastal Zone Management Act...

  6. Nimbus 7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS). Level 2 data product users' guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, S. P.; Szajna, E. F.; Hovis, W. A.

    1985-01-01

    The coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) is a scanning multispectral radiometer designed for the remote sensing of ocean color parameters from an earth orbiting space platform. A Technical Manual was designed for users of NIMBUS 7 CZCS Level 2 data products. It contains information which describes how the Level 1 data was process to obtain the Level 2 (derived) product. It contains information needed to operate on the data using digital computers and related equipment.

  7. Nimbus 7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS). Level 1 data product users' guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, S. P.; Szajna, E. F.; Hovis, W. A.

    1985-01-01

    The coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) is a scanning multispectral radiometer designed specifically for the remote sensing of Ocean Color parameters from an Earth orbiting space platform. A technical manual which is intended for users of NIMBUS 7 CZCS Level 1 data products is presented. It contains information needed by investigators and data processing personnel to operate on the data using digital computers and related equipment.

  8. ATM Coastal Topography-Texas, 2001: UTM Zone 15

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klipp, Emily S.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Yates, Xan; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Texas coastline within UTM zone 15, from Matagorda Peninsula to Galveston Island, acquired October 12-13, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative scanning lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant

  9. ATM Coastal Topography-Texas, 2001: UTM Zone 14

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klipp, Emily S.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Yates, Xan; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Texas coastline within UTM zone 14, acquired October 12-13, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative scanning lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is used

  10. Spatial variation of the aerosol concentration and deposition over the Mediterranean coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazzola, J.; Tedeschi, G.; Blot, R.

    2010-07-01

    A model for the spatial variation of aerosol concentrations and deposition along the coastal zone is of great interest for studies on air and water quality. In coastal areas, sea-spray aerosols generated at the sea surface by the interaction between wind and waves add to a continental contribution emitted from natural and/or anthropogenic sources. To include coastal effects in the model for the prediction of aerosol concentrations, Piazzola et al. (2003) developed the coastal Mediterranean aerosol model. The present paper deals with an extension of the Mediterranean coastal aerosol to a regional scale applied to the prediction of the sea surface flux deposition. This was achieved by the development of an automatic coupling process between the aerosol model and a regional meso-scale meteorological model which allows accounting for the details of the orography of the coast. The results show a non-homogeneous spatial coverage of aerosol concentrations over the northwestern Mediterranean. The simulations were then validated using aerosol size distributions recorded on board the ship "Atalante" for two kinds of meteorological conditions. Error calculations show a good performance of the coupling process since it predicts the aerosol concentration to within a maximum factor of 3 for particle radii between 0.1 to 10 µm. This process was then used to provide the spatial distribution of the particle deposition fluxes over the study area.

  11. Bimodal variation in mercury wet deposition to the coastal zone of the southern Baltic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siudek, P.; Falkowska, L.; Urba, A.

    2009-10-01

    In the following periods: November 2005-June 2006 and October 2007-January 2009, concentrations and deposition rates of total mercury (THg) and Hg(II) were measured in precipitation over the urbanized and industrialized area of the southern Baltic - the city of Gdynia. Rains over the coastal zone had different concentrations of total mercury, they ranged from 8.6 to 118.0 ng L-1, out of which about 32% were labile, inorganic forms, easily reducible in a SnCl2 solution. Over the southern Baltic two maxima of concentrations were observed: first, in the heating season and second, in the non-heating season. Elevated concentrations of mercury in precipitations during heating seasons were the result of the activity of local emission sources (intensive combustion of fossil fuels in domestic furnaces and individual power and heat generating plants). During the warm season, precipitation over the southern Baltic could clean the air from Hg reemitted from sea and land surfaces. Precipitations, which purified marine and continental air masses were responsible for the comparable input of mercury to the coastal zone. The wet deposition value in 2008 was estimated to be 28.9 μg m-2. In the coastal zone of the southern Baltic, acid precipitations with the elevated Hg concentrations are very frequent.

  12. Parasitic fauna of Gobiidae in Mazandaran coastal zones, north of Iran 2011.

    PubMed

    Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Roushan, Reza Habibnejad; Hosseinifard, Seyed Mehdi

    2016-06-01

    Gobiidae is considered as one of the diverse families of fishes in Caspian Sea. Due to abundant species and no harvest, this family plays an important role in ecology and feed chain of fishes in Caspian Sea. Present study was performed to determine parasitic fauna of Gobiidae in southern parts of Caspian Sea (coasts of Nowshahr, Sorkhrood, Jouybar, Sari and Amirabad). Primarily, length and weight of each fish was measured. Then, fish's various organs were examined by routine parasitology methods. From 150 fishes which were caught from six studied coastal zones, 51 (34 %) were infected. Majority of caught fishes was belonged to sand goby (Neogobius fluviatilis pallasi) and round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) was the least. Highest rate of infection was seen in N. fluviatilis pallasi while, this percentage in round goby (N. melanostomus) was low (8.57 %) and in Caspian bighead goby (Neogobius kessleri gorlap) no parasitic infection was observed. Most of infected fishes were from Jouybar coastal zone while Nowshahr coastal zone had the lowest infection rate. In present study parasites such as Dactylogyrus, Rhobdochona fortuneti and Bothrocephalus gowkogensis were diagnosed in Caspian gobies. Regarding importance of gobies in chain feed of other fishes and their indirect economic importance, need of diagnosing of gobies parasitic fauna seems to be essential. PMID:27413292

  13. Attributing the effects of climate on phenology change suggests high sensitivity in coastal zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyednasrollah, B.; Clark, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The impact of climate change on spring phenology depends on many variables that cannot be separated using current models. Phenology can influence carbon sequestration, plant nutrition, forest health, and species distributions. Leaf phenology is sensitive to changes of environmental factors, including climate, species composition, latitude, and solar radiation. The many variables and their interactions frustrate efforts to attribute variation to climate change. We developed a Bayesian framework to quantify the influence of environment on the speed of forest green-up. This study presents a state-space hierarchical model to infer and predict change in forest greenness over time using satellite observations and ground measurements. The framework accommodates both observation and process errors and it allows for main effects of variables and their interactions. We used daily spaceborne remotely sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to quantify temporal variability in the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) along a habitat gradient in the Southeastern United States. The ground measurements of meteorological parameters are obtained from study sites located in the Appalachian Mountains, the Piedmont and the Atlantic Coastal Plain between years 2000 and 2015. Results suggest that warming accelerates spring green-up in the Coastal Plain to a greater degree than in the Piedmont and Appalachian. In other words, regardless of variation in the timing of spring onset, the rate of greenness in non-coastal zones decreases with increasing temperature and hence with time over the spring transitional period. However, in coastal zones, as air temperature increases, leaf expansion becomes faster. This may indicate relative vulnerability to warming in non-coastal regions where moisture could be a limiting factor, whereas high temperatures in regions close to the coast enhance forest physiological activities. Model predictions agree with the remotely

  14. Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS): Imagery of near-surface phytoplankton pigment concentrations from the first coastal ocean dynamics experiment (CODE-1), March - July 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, M. R.; Zion, P. M.

    1984-01-01

    As part of the first Coastal Ocean Dynamics Experiment, images of ocean color were collected from late March until late July, 1981, by the Coastal Zone Color Scanner aboard Nimbus-7. Images that had sufficient cloud-free area to be of interest were processed to yield near-surface phytoplankton pigment concentrations. These images were then remapped to a fixed equal-area grid. This report contains photographs of the digital images and a brief description of the processing methods.

  15. Recurrence Times for Eartthquakes at the Coastal Region of Oaxaca - Guerrero, MEXICO (Zone 8)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunez-Cornu, F. J.

    2013-05-01

    Oaxaca is the most seismic active region in Mexico with 68 larger events, (mb > 6.5; Ms> 7.0) from 1542 to 1989, which implies roughly a large earthquake every 6.5 years; including an earthquake with M=8.5 which generate the most important historical tsunami in Mexico. It is also the most studied from a seismic point of view. Three types of earthquakes take place in the region: low angle thrust fault (associated to the subduction process) with a depth between 15 to 25 km; normal fault with a depth between 65 and 120 km with epicenters north of Oaxaca City (17°N); normal fault with a depth between 25 to 40 km with epicenters between the coast and Oaxaca City. A seismogenic zoning based in seismic, tectonic and historical seismicity studies zones was proposed in 1989; eight zones were defined, two zone along the coast, one for the isthmus and rest inland. 23 Years later, 4 larger earthquake have occurred in the region that seems agreed with the recurrence models proposed. Here the Zone 8 (Oaxaca - Guerrero coastal) is revised, 12 earthquakes have taken place in this Zone since 1655. However, special mention for the earthquakes in this Zone is the San Sixto Earthquake (March, 28, 1787, M=8.4) which is the biggest historical earthquake in Mexico, and generates the most important local tsunami in Mexico with 18 m high waves at a distance of 6 km inland (Núñez-Cornú et al, 2009). After this earthquake there was a seismic quiescence of 141 years, for the next earthquake in the Zone (1928), after that this Zone became the most seismic active Zone in Mexico (Núñez-Cornú. 1996) with 7 earthquakes in 85 years.

  16. A simulation-optimization model for effective water resources management in the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Coastal areas are the most densely-populated areas in the world. Consequently water demand is high, posing great pressure on fresh water resources. Climatic change and its direct impacts on meteorological variables (e.g. precipitation) and indirect impact on sea level rise, as well as anthropogenic pressures (e.g. groundwater abstraction), are strong drivers causing groundwater salinisation and subsequently affecting coastal wetlands salinity with adverse effects on the corresponding ecosystems. Coastal zones are a difficult hydrologic environment to represent with a mathematical model due to the large number of contributing hydrologic processes and variable-density flow conditions. Simulation of sea level rise and tidal effects on aquifer salinisation and accurate prediction of interactions between coastal waters, groundwater and neighbouring wetlands requires the use of integrated surface water-groundwater mathematical models. In the past few decades several computer codes have been developed to simulate coupled surface and groundwater flow. However, most integrated surface water-groundwater models are based on the assumption of constant fluid density and therefore their applicability to coastal regions is questionable. Thus, most of the existing codes are not well-suited to represent surface water-groundwater interactions in coastal areas. To this end, the 3D integrated surface water-groundwater model IRENE (Spanoudaki et al., 2009; Spanoudaki, 2010) has been modified in order to simulate surface water-groundwater flow and salinity interactions in the coastal zone. IRENE, in its original form, couples the 3D shallow water equations to the equations describing 3D saturated groundwater flow of constant density. A semi-implicit finite difference scheme is used to solve the surface water flow equations, while a fully implicit finite difference scheme is used for the groundwater equations. Pollution interactions are simulated by coupling the advection

  17. Nutrients Seasonal Variability and Carbonate System Dynamics in the Laptev Sea coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savelieva, Nina; Pipko, Irina; Semiletov, Igor

    2010-05-01

    The Arctic ocean has the broadest shelf in the World ocean: the continental shelves occupy about 36% of the Arctic oceanic area. Morever, greater than 90% of all organic carbon burial occurs in sediments depositing on deltas, continental shelves , and upper continental slopes, and the significant portion of organic carbon withdraw is occurred over the Siberian shelf (Macdonald et al., 2008). The coastal zone plays an important role in the East Siberian Arctic land-shelf-basin system, because the major transport of fresh water, dissolved and solid material into the Arctic Ocean is determined by 1) the riverine discharges, and 2) coastal erosion. Production in the Arctic is highly seasonal, and it is important to consider the magnitude of seasonal variations in nutrients. Here we present the results (nutrients, parameters of the carbonate system, and oxygen) obtained during ice-covered season (April of 2002 and 2007) and open water season (September of 2000 and 2005) over the south-eastern part of the Laptev Sea which is under strong influence of the Lena river and coastal erosion. High spatial-temporal variability in nutrients (ammonium, nitrates, nitrites, phosphate, and silicates) and carbonate parameters (pH, Talk, and pCO2) distributions has been found. We suggest that relatively high (vs entire oligotrophic Laptev and East Siberian seas) productivity of the coastal zone is related not only to the influence of the river inputs, but also the coastal erosion, enriching the coastal waters in nutrients and terrestrial organic matter and to the close coupling between the water and sediment, assuring a rapid reutilization of regenerated elements. Highest anomalies of all parameters (for instance: pCO2 up to 4000mkatm) are associated with the areas strongly affected by coastal erosion. References Macdonald R.W., Anderson L.G., Christensen J.P., Miller L.A., Semiletov I.P., and R. Stein, 2008. The Arctic Ocean: budgets and fluxes, In "Carbon and Nutrient Fluxes in

  18. Use of modular amphibious vehicles for conducting research in coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeziulin, Denis; Makarov, Vladimir; Belyaev, Alexander; Beresnev, Pavel; Kurkin, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    The project aims to create workable running systems of research complexes, moving along the bottom of coastal areas (in shallow waters) for investigation of waves, currents, sediment transport; investigation of ecosystems and biodiversity assessment of organisms; inspection and monitoring environmental conditions and anthropogenic load on nature; bathymetric studies. With all the variety of functional capabilities of modern robotic systems, possibilities of their application in the context of the study of coastal zones are extremely limited. Conducting research using aerial vehicles is limited to safety conditions of flight. Use of floating robotic systems in environmental monitoring and ecosystem research is only possible in conditions of relatively «soft» wave climate of the coastal zone. For these purposes, there are special amphibians such as remote-controlled vehicle Surf Rover [Daily, William R., Mark A. Johnson, and Daniel A. Oslecki. «Initial Development of an Amphibious ROV for Use in Big Surf.» Marine Technology Society 28.1 (1994): 3-10. Print.], mobile system MARC-1 [«The SPROV'er.» Florida Institute of Technology: Department of Marine and. Environmental Systems. Web. 05 May 2010.]. The paper describes methodological approaches to the selection of the design parameters of a new system.

  19. A systematic review of socio-economic assessments in support of coastal zone management (1992-2011).

    PubMed

    Le Gentil, Eric; Mongruel, Rémi

    2015-02-01

    Cooperation between the social and natural sciences has become essential in order to encompass all the dimensions of coastal zone management. Socio-economic approaches are increasingly recommended to complement integrated assessment in support of these initiatives. A systematic review of the academic literature was carried out in order to analyze the main types of socio-economic assessments used to inform the coastal zone management process as well as their effectiveness. A corpus of 1682 articles published between 1992 and 2011 was identified by means of the representative coverage approach, from which 170 were selected by applying inclusion/exclusion criteria and then classified using a content analysis methodology. The percentage of articles that mention the use of socio-economic assessment in support of coastal zone management initiatives is increasing but remains relatively low. The review examines the links between the issues addressed by integrated assessments and the chosen analytical frameworks as well as the various economic assessment methods which are used in the successive steps of the coastal zone management process. The results show that i) analytical frameworks such as 'risk and vulnerability', 'DPSIR', 'valuation', 'ecosystem services' and 'preferences' are likely to lead to effective integration of social sciences in coastal zone management research while 'integration', 'sustainability' and 'participation' remain difficult to operationalize, ii) risk assessments are insufficiently implemented in developing countries, and iii) indicator systems in support of multi-criteria analyses could be used during more stages of the coastal zone management process. Finally, it is suggested that improved collaboration between science and management would require that scientists currently involved in coastal zone management processes further educate themselves in integrated assessment approaches and participatory methodologies. PMID:25463574

  20. Methodology of Lithuanian climate atlas mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiukas, Donatas; Galvonaitė, Audronė; Česnulevičius, Algimantas

    2015-06-01

    Climate atlases summarize large sets of quantitative and qualitative data and are results of complex analytical cartographic work. These special geographical publications summarize long term meteorological observations, provide maps and figures which characterise different climate elements. Visual information is supplemented with explanatory texts. A lot of information on short and long term changes of climate elements were provided in published Lithuanian atlases (Atlas of Lithuanian SDR, 1981; Climate Atlas of Lithuania, 2013), as well as in prepared but unpublished Lithuanian Atlas (1989) and in upcoming new national atlas publications (National Atlas of Lithuania. 1st part, 2014). Climate atlases has to be constantly updated to be relevant and to describe current climate conditions. Comprehensive indicators of Lithuanian climate are provided in different cartographic publications. Different time periods, various data sets and diverse cartographic data analysis tools and visualisation methods were used in these different publications.

  1. Comparison of atmospheric correction algorithms for the Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanis, F. J.; Jain, S. C.

    1984-01-01

    Before Nimbus-7 Costal Zone Color Scanner (CZC) data can be used to distinguish between coastal water types, methods must be developed for the removal of spatial variations in aerosol path radiance. These can dominate radiance measurements made by the satellite. An assessment is presently made of the ability of four different algorithms to quantitatively remove haze effects; each was adapted for the extraction of the required scene-dependent parameters during an initial pass through the data set The CZCS correction algorithms considered are (1) the Gordon (1981, 1983) algorithm; (2) the Smith and Wilson (1981) iterative algorityhm; (3) the pseudooptical depth method; and (4) the residual component algorithm.

  2. The use of Landsat for monitoring water parameters in the coastal zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowker, D. E.; Witte, W. G.

    1977-01-01

    Landsats 1 and 2 have been successful in detecting and quantifying suspended sediment and several other important parameters in the coastal zone, including chlorophyll, particles, alpha (light transmission), tidal conditions, acid and sewage dumps, and in some instances oil spills. When chlorophyll a is present in detectable quantities, however, it is shown to interfere with the measurement of sediment. The Landsat banding problem impairs the instrument resolution and places a requirement on the sampling program to collect surface data from a sufficiently large area. A sampling method which satisfies this condition is demonstrated.

  3. Nimbus-7 coastal zone color scanner - System description and initial imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hovis, W. A.; Clark, D. K.; Anderson, F.; Austin, R. W.; Wilson, W. H.; Baker, E. T.; Ball, D.; Gordon, H. R.; Mueller, J. L.; El-Sayed, S. Z.

    1980-01-01

    Initial imagery from the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) shows subtle variations in water color. Organisms, especially phytoplankton, play a major influence on the variations in water color. Processing of the visual data is described, and in particular, the use of an algorithm to remove aerosol from the image is discussed. Data on the six spectral bands (433-12,500 nm) are presented and comparisons are made between the CZCS and the Landsat-1 multispectral scanner. The implications for management of fisheries is noted.

  4. A Study on the Analysis of Relationship between Coastal Buffer Zone and Natural Protected Area-Typical Example at Howmeiliao Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Lan, Y.; Hsu, T.; Shie, W.

    2009-12-01

    There are two purposes in this study. One is to formulate the planning process of the land boundary and the management principles of the coastal buffer zone. The other one is to analyze the relationship between the coastal buffer zone and the natural protected area. We proposed six management principles for the coastal buffer zone by reviewing the related problems in Taiwanese coast in which the successful management methods at domestic and foreign areas were collected. We also look for corresponding principles applied to the determination of coastal buffer zone. Finally, we take a typical example at Howmeiliao Coast to incorporate the coastal buffer zone and regulations of natural protected area. The results provide possible criteria for design and planning in the near future. Key words: Coastal buffer zone; Natural protected area; Management principle

  5. Across Hydrological Interfaces from Coastal Watersheds to the Open Lake: Finding Landscape Signals in the Great Lakes Coastal Zone

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past decade, our group has been working to bring coastal ecosystems into integrated basin-lakewide monitoring and assessment strategies for the Great Lakes. We have conducted a wide range of research on coastal tributaries, coastal wetlands, semi-enclosed embayments an...

  6. Color banding on Georges Bank as viewed by coastal zone color scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yentsch, C. S.; Phinney, D. A.; Campbell, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    Observations of Georges Bank by coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) show bandlike patterns that appear to be related to the large sand dunes and ridges which dominate the bottom topography there. Ship measurements of temperature and chlorophyll on Georges Bank in July 1979 also reflect the influence of the underwater dune fields. The cause of the banding in the CZCS data is unknown but is speculated to be the creation of alternating zones of divergence and convergence by tidal currents as the water flows over the underwater dune-trough configuration. The banding observed by CZCS appears to be seasonal, following the sequence of primary production in the Gulf of Maine, and is believed to be important to biological processes as a site of new production and/or as an effective transport mechanism. Any future models that attempt to interrelate tidal mixing and primary production must consider bottom topography and secondary flows.

  7. Assessing the impact of cyclones in the coastal zone of Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Judith; Bricheno, Lucy; Chowdury, Shahad; Rahman, Munsur; Ghosh, Tuhin; Kay, Susan; Caesar, John

    2014-05-01

    We review the state of knowledge regarding tropical cyclones and their impacts on coastal ecosystems, as well as the livelihood and health of the coastal communities, under the present and future climate, with application to the coastal zone of Bangladesh. This region is particularly vulnerable to tropical cyclones as it is very low-lying and densely populated. Cyclones cause damage due to the high wind speed and also the ensuing storm surge, which causes inundation and salinity intrusion into agricultural land and contaminates fresh water. The world's largest mangrove forest, the Sundarbans, protects the coast of the Brahmaputra-Ganges-Meghna (BGM) delta from these cyclonic storms but mangroves are themselves vulnerable to cyclone damage, as in 2007 when ~36% of the mangrove area was severely damaged leading to further losses of livelihood. We apply an idealised cyclone model and use the winds and pressures from this model to drive a storm surge model in the Bay of Bengal, in order to examine the impact of the intensity, track speed and landfall of the cyclones in terms of surge and inundation. The model is tested by reproducing the track and intensity of Cyclone Sidr of 2007. We also examine the projected future climate from the South Asia Regional Climate Model to understand how tropical cyclones may change under global warming and assess how this may impact the BGM Delta over the 21st century.

  8. Three-dimensional circulation in the NW Africa coastal transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benítez-Barrios, V. M.; Pelegrí, J. L.; Hernández-Guerra, A.; Lwiza, K. M. M.; Gomis, D.; Vélez-Belchí, P.; Hernández-León, S.

    2011-12-01

    High-resolution data collected southeast of the Canary Islands during late winter 2006 are analyzed to describe the hydrography and three-dimensional circulation in the coastal transition zone off NW Africa. The data are optimally interpolated over a regular grid, the geostrophic velocity field is calculated and the Q-vector formulation of the omega equation is used to compute the quasi-geostrophic (QG) mesoscale vertical velocity. The coastal transition zone is divided into upwelling, frontal and offshore regions with distinct physical and dynamic characteristics. The upwelling region is characterized by cold and weakly stratified waters flowing towards the equator, with a poleward undercurrent of approximately 0.05 m s -1 over the continental slope. The frontal region exhibits a southwestward baroclinic jet associated with cross-shore raising isopycnals; the jet transport is close to 1 Sv, with maximum velocities of 0.18 m s -1 at surface decreasing to 0.05 m s -1 at 300 db. Vertical sections across the frontal region show the presence of deep eddies probably generated by the topographic blocking of the islands to the southward current, as well as much shallower eddies that likely have arisen as instabilities of the baroclinic upwelling jet. The QG mesoscale vertical velocity field is patchy, estimated to range from -18 to 12 m day -1, with the largest absolute values corresponding to an anticyclonic eddy located south of Fuerteventura Island. These values are significantly larger than estimates for other vertical velocities: diapycnal vertical velocities associated with mixing in the frontal region (a few meters per day), and wind-induced vertical velocities (non-linear Ekman pumping arising from the interaction between the wind stress and the background vorticity, maximum values of a few meters per day; linear Ekman pumping due to the divergence of Ekman transport, a fraction of a meter per day; or the coastal constraint in the upwelling region, about 0.7 m day

  9. The dependence study between extreme rainfall and storm surge in the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Feifei; Westra, Seth; Sisson, Scott

    2013-04-01

    During flood events in coastal catchments, extreme rainfall can occur during periods of extreme storm surge as these two processes are often driven by the common meteorological forcings, such as cyclonic systems. The flood magnitude for such a joint event is normally larger than the case when flooding is caused by only an extreme rainfall or an extreme storm surge event in isolation, so that it is necessary to understand the dependence between these two variables in order to evaluate the probability of flooding for the coastal zone. Given that coastal catchments are also likely to be affected by sea level rise as a result of anthropogenic climate change, understanding the interaction of these two processes will become increasingly important in the future if we are to understand future flood risk in the coastal zone. This research quantifies the dependence strength between the extreme rainfall and extreme surge by using the most comprehensive record of storm surge collected along the Australian coastline to-date. A bivariate logistic threshold-excess model is used to conduct the dependence analysis in this study. A map of dependence values along the Australian coastline is generated and the temporal and spatial variation of the dependence strength is also examined. Based on results, the following observations can be made: 1. The dependence between extreme rainfall and storm surge along the Australian coastline is generally statistically significant, although spatial variation of the dependence strength is also observed. It was shown that the probability of an extreme storm surge event occurring during an extreme rainfall event (or vice versa) can be up to eight times greater than the situation under which there is no dependence, suggesting that failure to account for these interactions can result in a substantial underestimation of flood risk for coastal catchments. 2. The dependence decreases as the spatial distance between the rainfall gauge and tide gauge

  10. Monitoring and Management of Coastal Zones Which are Under Flooding Risk with Remote Sensing and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Direk, S.; Seker, D. Z.; Musaoglu, N.; Gazioglu, C.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal zone areas play an important role in value to the welfare of nations and provides natural, social, cultural and economic benefits and increased quality of life. A great majority of the earth population live in coastal zone areas and they are under flooding risk due to tsunamies, storm surge, typhoon, sea level rise, precipitation and dam destruction. Global warming from the grenhouse effect raises sea level by expanding seawater, melting water and causing ice sheets to melt. Based on a selection of nine long, high quality tide gauge records, Holgate analyzed that the Mean Sea Level (MSL) rise over the period of 1904-2003 was found to be 1.74 ± 0.16 mm/year. Consider the whole century showed that the high decadal rates of change in global MSL was observed during the last 20 years of the records. Based on 4 tide gauge records in Marmara Sea, Aegean Sea and Eastern Mediterranean, Yildiz analyzed that MSL rise during 1984-2002 was found to be 9.6 ± 0.9 mm/year, 5.1 ± 1 mm/year and 8.7 ± 0.8 mm/year respectively. By analyzing the whole recorded data, it is found that the annual MSL rise in eastern mediterranean was 4-7 mm/year which was higher than the global prediction. A rise in sea level would accelerate coastal erosion, aggravate flooding, threaten coastal area structures and inundate wetlands. The salinity of rivers and bays would increase. A 1 meter in sea level rise would enable a 15-20 year storm to flood many areas. Higher water levels would reduce coastal drainage which would cause an increase flooding by rain storms. Finally, a rise in sea level would raise water tables and would flood basements. Geographic Information System (GIS) is a state of art technology and operationally being used more frequently by commercial and scientific society. GIS system provides a stable platform for the integration of data from different sources, allows a large quantity of data to be stored and processed, provides a seamless geographical database and provides a

  11. Potential vulnerability implications of coastal inundation due to sea level rise for the coastal zone of Semarang city, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marfai, Muh Aris; King, Lorenz

    2008-05-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) as a result of global warming has an impact on the increasing inundation on the coastal area. Nowadays, Semarang coastal area in Indonesia is already subject to coastal hazard due to tidal inundation and land subsidence. The impact of the inundation is predicted to be even more severe with the scenario of sea level rise. This paper concentrates on the risk assessment to the population, land use, and monetary losses as a result of coastal inundation under enhanced sea level rise. This paper uses the scenario of the depth of inundation to generate coastal inundation model using GIS-Technology. Anticipatory issues including methodology development for hazard assessment would be necessary for Semarang coastal area, and therefore, geo-information technology can be considered as a useful tool to rapidly assess the impact of the coastal hazard and evaluate the economic losses.

  12. Modeling mesoscale diffusion and transport processes for releases within coastal zones during land/sea breezes

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, W.A.; Keen, C.S.; Schuh, J.A.

    1983-12-01

    This document discusses the impacts of coastal mesoscale regimes (CMRs) upon the transport and diffusion of potential accidental radionuclide releases from a shoreline nuclear power plant. CMRs exhibit significant spatial (horizontal and vertical) and temporal variability. Case studies illustrate land breezes, sea/lake breeze inflows and return flows, thermal internal boundary layers, fumigation, plume trapping, coastal convergence zones, thunderstorms and snow squalls. The direct application of a conventional Gaussian straight-line dose assessment model, initialized only by on-site tower data, can potentially produce highly misleading guidance as to plume impact locations. Since much is known concerning CMRs, there are many potential improvements to modularized dose assessment codes, such as by proper parameterization of TIBLs, forecasting the inland penetration of convergence zones, etc. A three-dimensional primitive equation prognostic model showed excellent agreement with detailed lake breeze field measurements, giving indications that such codes can be used in both diagnostic and prognostic studies. The use of relatively inexpensive supplemental meteorological data especially from remote sensing systems (Doppler sodar, radar, lightning strike tracking) and computerized data bases should save significantly on software development costs. Better quality assurance of emergency response codes could include systems of flags providing personnel with confidence levels as to the applicability of a code being used during any given CMR.

  13. The Black Sea coastal zone in the high resolution satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurovskaya, Maria; Dulov, Vladimir; Kozlov, Igor

    2016-04-01

    Landsat data with spatial resolution of 30-100 m provide the ability of regular monitoring of ocean phenomena with scale of 100-1000 m. Sentinel-1 is equipped with C-band synthetic aperture radar. The images allow recognizing the features that affect either the sea surface roughness, or its color characteristics. The possibilities of using the high spatial resolution satellite data are considered for observation and monitoring of Crimean coastal zone. The analyzed database includes all Landsat-8 (Level 1) multi-channel images from January 2013 to August 2015 and all Sentinel-1 radar images in May-August 2015. The goal of the study is to characterize the descriptiveness of these data for research and monitoring of the Crimean coastal areas. The observed marine effects are reviewed and the physical mechanisms of their signatures in the satellite images are described. The effects associated with the roughness variability are usually manifested in all bands, while the subsurface phenomena are visible only in optical data. Confidently observed structures include internal wave trains, filamentous natural slicks, which reflect the eddy coastal dynamics, traces of moving ships and the oil films referred to anthropogenic pollution of marine environment. The temperature fronts in calm conditions occur due to surfactant accumulation in convergence zone. The features in roughness field can also be manifested in Sentinel-1 data. Subsurface processes observed in Landsat-8 images primarily include transport and distribution of suspended matter as a result of floods and sandy beach erosion. The surfactant always concentrates on the sea surface in contaminated areas, so that these events are also observed in Sentinel-1 images. A search of wastewater discharge manifestations is performed. The investigation provides the basis for further development of approaches to obtain quantitative characteristics of the phenomena themselves. Funding by Russian Science Foundation under grant 15

  14. Definition and interpretation of Holocene shorelines in the south Atlantic coastal zone, southeast Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Finkl, C.W. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    There is a wide variety of contemporary shorelines in southeastern Florida. Distinctive types range from rocky platforms, tidal flats, mangroves and marshes, to sand and gravel beaches. Because the natural sequence of shorelines in the urban coastal corridor from Miami to Palm Beach is partly obscured by dredge and fill operations initiated in the early 1920's, some coastal segments are subject to re-interpretation. Analysis of early aerial photographs, old coastal charts and bore log data indicates a much more complicated sequence of Recent coastlines than is generally appreciated. Before development, much of the coastal zone contained complicated networks of fresh-water marshes and lakes with lagoons, bays, and sounds lying behind extensively developed spits. The larger spits prograded southward (downdrift) forming long coastwise sounds that eventually led into fresh-water marshes such as Lake Mabel (now Port Everglades). When new inlets were cut to link the ICW with the sea, the spits were beheaded to form what are now called barrier islands. After subsequent inlet stabilization with inadequate sand bypassing, some spits became welded to the shore and others eroded away. Extension of boundaries marking the back sides of barriers landward into the marshes, to the position of the ICW, is not only an erroneous definition of barrier island width but dangerous for emergency (storm surge) planning because the barriers were never this wide. Beach ridge plains, ridge and swale topography, dune-covered limestone ridges, and some fossil reefs such as Key Biscayne have in addition been mistakenly identified as barrier islands.

  15. Effects of Different Vegetation Zones on CH4 and N2O Emissions in Coastal Wetlands: A Model Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuhong; Wang, Lixin; Bao, Shumei; Liu, Huamin; Yu, Junbao; Wang, Yu; Shao, Hongbo; Ouyang, Yan; An, Shuqing

    2014-01-01

    The coastal wetland ecosystems are important in the global carbon and nitrogen cycle and global climate change. For higher fragility of coastal wetlands induced by human activities, the roles of coastal wetland ecosystems in CH4 and N2O emissions are becoming more important. This study used a DNDC model to simulate current and future CH4 and N2O emissions of coastal wetlands in four sites along the latitude in China. The simulation results showed that different vegetation zones, including bare beach, Spartina beach, and Phragmites beach, produced different emissions of CH4 and N2O in the same latitude region. Correlation analysis indicated that vegetation types, water level, temperature, and soil organic carbon content are the main factors affecting emissions of CH4 and N2O in coastal wetlands. PMID:24892044

  16. Godunov-Based Model of Swash Zone Dynamics to Advance Coastal Flood Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakeri Majd, M.; Sanders, B. F.

    2012-12-01

    Urbanized lowlands in southern California are defended against coastal flooding by sandy beaches that dynamically adjust to changes in water level and wave conditions, particularly during storm events. Recent research has shown that coastal flood impacts are scaled by the volume of beach overtopping flows, and an improved characterization of dynamic overtopping rates is needed to improve coastal flood forecasting (Gallien et al. 2012). However, uncertainty in the beach slope and height makes it difficult to predict the onset of overtopping and the magnitude of resulting flooding. That is, beaches may evolve significantly over a storm event. Sallenger (Sallenger, 2000) describes Impact Levels to distinguish different impact regimes (swash, collision, overwash and inundation) on dunes and barrier islands. Our goal is to model processes in different regimes as was described by him. Godunov-based models adopt a depth-integrated, two-phase approach and the shallow-water hypothesis to resolve flow and sediment transport in a tightly coupled manner that resolves shocks in the air/fluid and fluid/sediment interface. These models are best known in the context of debris flow modeling where the ability to predict the flow of highly concentrated sediment/fluid mixtures is required. Here, the approach is directed at the swash zone. Existing Godunov-based models are reviewed and shown to have drawbacks relative to wetting and drying and "avalanching"—important processes in the swash zone. This nonphysical erosion can be described as the natural tendency of the schemes to smear out steep bed slopes. To denote and reduce these numerical errors, new numerical methods are presented to address these limitations and the resulting model is applied to a set of laboratory-scale test problems. The shallow-water hypothesis limits the applicability of the model to the swash zone, so it is forced by a time series of water level and cross-shore velocity that accounts for surf zone wave

  17. An index-based method to assess risks of climate-related hazards in coastal zones: The case of Tetouan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satta, Alessio; Snoussi, Maria; Puddu, Manuela; Flayou, Latifa; Hout, Radouane

    2016-06-01

    The regional risk assessment carried out within the ClimVar & ICZM Project identified the coastal zone of Tetouan as a hotspot of the Mediterranean Moroccan coast and so it was chosen for the application of the Multi-Scale Coastal Risk Index for Local Scale (CRI-LS). The local scale approach provides a useful tool for local coastal planning and management by exploring the effects and the extensions of the hazards and combining hazard, vulnerability and exposure variables in order to identify areas where the risk is relatively high. The coast of Tetouan is one of the coastal areas that have been most rapidly and densely urbanized in Morocco and it is characterized by an erosive shoreline. Local authorities are facing the complex task of balancing development and managing coastal risks, especially coastal erosion and flooding, and then be prepared to the unavoidable impacts of climate change. The first phase of the application of the CRI-LS methodology to Tetouan consisted of defining the coastal hazard zone, which results from the overlaying of the erosion hazard zone and the flooding hazard zone. Nineteen variables were chosen to describe the Hazards, Vulnerability and Exposure factors. The scores corresponding to each variable were calculated and the weights assigned through an expert judgement elicitation. The resulting values are hosted in a geographic information system (GIS) platform that enables the individual variables and aggregated risk scores to be color-coded and mapped across the coastal hazard zone. The results indicated that 10% and 27% of investigated littoral fall under respectively very high and high vulnerability because of combination of high erosion rates with high capital land use. The risk map showed that some areas, especially the flood plains of Restinga, Smir and Martil-Alila, with distances over 5 km from the coast, are characterized by high levels of risk due to the low topography of the flood plains and to the high values of exposure

  18. An index-based method to assess risks of climate-related hazards in coastal zones: The case of Tetouan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satta, Alessio; Snoussi, Maria; Puddu, Manuela; Flayou, Latifa; Hout, Radouane

    2016-06-01

    The regional risk assessment carried out within the ClimVar & ICZM Project identified the coastal zone of Tetouan as a hotspot of the Mediterranean Moroccan coast and so it was chosen for the application of the Multi-Scale Coastal Risk Index for Local Scale (CRI-LS). The local scale approach provides a useful tool for local coastal planning and management by exploring the effects and the extensions of the hazards and combining hazard, vulnerability and exposure variables in order to identify areas where the risk is relatively high. The coast of Tetouan is one of the coastal areas that have been most rapidly and densely urbanized in Morocco and it is characterized by an erosive shoreline. Local authorities are facing the complex task of balancing development and managing coastal risks, especially coastal erosion and flooding, and then be prepared to the unavoidable impacts of climate change. The first phase of the application of the CRI-LS methodology to Tetouan consisted of defining the coastal hazard zone, which results from the overlaying of the erosion hazard zone and the flooding hazard zone. Nineteen variables were chosen to describe the Hazards, Vulnerability and Exposure factors. The scores corresponding to each variable were calculated and the weights assigned through an expert judgement elicitation. The resulting values are hosted in a geographic information system (GIS) platform that enables the individual variables and aggregated risk scores to be color-coded and mapped across the coastal hazard zone. The results indicated that 10% and 27% of investigated littoral fall under respectively very high and high vulnerability because of combination of high erosion rates with high capital land use. The risk map showed that some areas, especially the flood plains of Restinga, Smir and Martil-Alila, with distances over 5 km from the coast, are characterized by high levels of risk due to the low topography of the flood plains and to the high values of exposure

  19. Mathematical modelling of surface water-groundwater flow and salinity interactions in the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Kampanis, Nikolaos A.

    2014-05-01

    Coastal areas are the most densely-populated areas in the world. Consequently water demand is high, posing great pressure on fresh water resources. Climatic change and its direct impacts on meteorological variables (e.g. precipitation) and indirect impact on sea level rise, as well as anthropogenic pressures (e.g. groundwater abstraction), are strong drivers causing groundwater salinisation and subsequently affecting coastal wetlands salinity with adverse effects on the corresponding ecosystems. Coastal zones are a difficult hydrologic environment to represent with a mathematical model due to the large number of contributing hydrologic processes and variable-density flow conditions. Simulation of sea level rise and tidal effects on aquifer salinisation and accurate prediction of interactions between coastal waters, groundwater and neighbouring wetlands requires the use of integrated surface water-groundwater models. In the past few decades several computer codes have been developed to simulate coupled surface and groundwater flow. In these numerical models surface water flow is usually described by the 1-D Saint Venant equations (e.g. Swain and Wexler, 1996) or the 2D shallow water equations (e.g. Liang et al., 2007). Further simplified equations, such as the diffusion and kinematic wave approximations to the Saint Venant equations, are also employed for the description of 2D overland flow and 1D stream flow (e.g. Gunduz and Aral, 2005). However, for coastal bays, estuaries and wetlands it is often desirable to solve the 3D shallow water equations to simulate surface water flow. This is the case e.g. for wind-driven flows or density-stratified flows. Furthermore, most integrated models are based on the assumption of constant fluid density and therefore their applicability to coastal regions is questionable. Thus, most of the existing codes are not well-suited to represent surface water-groundwater interactions in coastal areas. To this end, the 3D integrated

  20. Holocene development of the eastern Gulf of Finland coastal zone (Baltic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabchuk, Daria; Sergeev, Alexander; Gusentsova, Tatiana; Gerasimov, Dmitry; Zhamoida, Vladimir; Amantov, Aleksey; Kulkova, Marianna; Sorokin, Peter

    2014-05-01

    In 2011-2013 geoarcheological and marine geological research of the eastern Gulf of Finland coasts and near-shore bottom were undertaken. Researches were concentrated within several key-areas (Sestroretskaya Lowland, Narva-Luga Klint Bay and southern coastal zone of the Gulf (near Bolshaya Izhora village). Study areas can provide important information about Gulf of Finland Holocene coastal development as since Ancylus time (about 10000 cal.BP). Development of numerous sand accretion forms (spits, bars, dunes) of different shape, age and genesis caused formation of lagoon systems, situated now on-land due to land uplift. Coasts of lagoons in Sestroretskaya Lowland and Narva-Luga Klint Bay were inhabited by Neolithic and Early Metal people. Analysis of coastal morphology and results of geological research (GIS relief analyses, ground penetrating radar, drilling, grain-size analyses, radiocarbon dating) and geoarcheological studies allowed to reconstruct the mechanism of large accretion bodies (bars and spits) and lagoon systems formation during last 8000 years. Geoarcheological studies carried out within eastern Gulf of Finland coasts permitted to find some features of the Neolithic - Early Metal settlements distribution. Another important features of the eastern Gulf of Finland coastal zone relief are the series of submarine terraces found in the Gulf bottom (sea water depths 10 to 2 m). Analyses of the submarine terraces morphology and geology (e.g. grain-size distribution, pollen analyses and organic matter dating) allow to suppose that several times during Holocene (including preAncylus (11000 cal.BP) and preLittorina (8500 cal.BP) regressions) the sea-water level was lower than nowadays. During the maximal stage of the Littorina transgression (7600-7200 cal. BP) several open bays connected with the Littorina Sea appeared in this area. The lagoon systems and sand accretion bodies (spits and bars) were formed during the following decreasing of the sea level. Late

  1. Evaluation of the swell effect on the air-sea gas transfer in the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Loza, Lucía; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco J.

    2016-04-01

    Air-sea gas transfer processes are one of the most important factors regarding global climate and long-term global climate changes. Despite its importance, there is still a huge uncertainty on how to better parametrize these processes in order to include them on the global climate models. This uncertainty exposes the need to increase our knowledge on gas transfer controlling mechanisms. In the coastal regions, breaking waves become a key factor to take into account when estimating gas fluxes, however, there is still a lack of information and the influence of the ocean surface waves on the air-sea interaction and gas flux behavior must be validated. In this study, as part of the "Sea Surface Roughness as Air-Sea Interaction Control" project, we evaluate the effect of the ocean surface waves on the gas exchange in the coastal zone. Direct estimates of the flux of CO2 (FCO2) and water vapor (FH2O) through eddy covariance, were carried out from May 2014 to April 2015 in a coastal station located at the Northwest of Todos Santos Bay, Baja California, México. For the same period, ocean surface waves are recorded using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (Workhorse Sentinel, Teledyne RD Instruments) with a sampling rate of 2 Hz and located at 10 m depth about 350 m away from the tower. We found the study area to be a weak sink of CO2 under moderate wind and wave conditions with a mean flux of -1.32 μmol/m2s. The correlation between the wind speed and FCO2 was found to be weak, suggesting that other physical processes besides wind may be important factors for the gas exchange modulation at coastal waters. The results of the quantile regression analysis computed between FCO2 and (1) wind speed, (2) significant wave height, (3) wave steepness and (4) water temperature, show that the significant wave height is the most correlated parameter with FCO2; Nevertheless, the behavior of their relation varies along the probability distribution of FCO2, with the linear regression

  2. Preservation of Paleoseismic and Paleogeodetic Records of mid to late Holocene Subduction Zone Earthquakes in Different Coastal Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelsey, H. M.; Horton, B.; Rubin, C. M.; Grand Pre, C.; Hawkes, A. D.; Dura, T.; Daryono, M.; Ladinsky, T.

    2009-12-01

    Dynamic variations in sea level and solid Earth properties along active subduction zones predetermine the duration and when paleoseismic and paleogeodetic records will be preserved in coastal regions. The most direct, reliable way to chronicle the history of past subduction zone earthquakes is through coastal stratigraphic sequences that preserve abrupt and gradual relative sea level changes caused by great subduction earthquake cycles. Specifically, paleoseismic timing and paleo geodetic determination of vertical displacement can be obtained through the application of litho-, bio- and chronostratigraphic analyses of selected coastal stratigraphic sequences. Such stratigraphic sequences are only preserved under a specific set of conditions wherein sea level rise, crustal loading, local crustal thickness and imposed strain accumulation and release from megathrust and upper plate faults and folds collectively conspire to provide a long-term, gradual relative sea level rise over millenia that span at least two or three subduction earthquake cycles. Given the conditions necessary to preserve stratigraphic sequences recording multiple great subduction earthquake cycles, it is not surprising that robust paleoseismic records from coastal marsh stratigraphies are rare. To illustrate the conditions under which coastal marshes preserve paleoseismic records of great subduction zone earthquakes, we present two sites with different combinations of sea level rise, crustal loading, crustal thickness and local tectonics. Although both sites preserve a paleoseismic record of subduction zone earthquakes, the length of the records and the specific time range of the records are notably different. The coastal, equatorial, island tropical setting in the Indian Ocean preserves tidal-marsh stratigraphic records of great subduction zone earthquakes in the time window 7-5 ka. In contrast, mid-latitude, North American, northeast Pacific coastal settings preserve tidal-marsh stratigraphic

  3. GIS, Geoscience, Multi-criteria Analysis and Integrated Management of the Coastal Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacimi, Y.; Barich, A.

    2011-12-01

    In this 3rd millennium, geology can be considered as a science of decision that intervenes in all the society domains. It has passed its academic dimension to spread toward some domains that until now were out of reach. Combining different Geoscience sub-disciplines emanates from a strong will to demonstrate the contribution of this science and its impact on the daily life, especially by making it applicable to various innovative projects. Geophysics, geochemistry and structural geology are complementary disciplines that can be applied in perfect symbiosis in many domains like construction, mining prospection, impact assessment, environment, etc. This can be proved by using collected data from these studies and integrate them into Geographic Information Systems (GIS), in order to make a multi-criteria analysis, which gives generally very impressive results. From this point, it is easy to set mining, eco-geotouristic and risk assessment models in order to establish land use projects but also in the case of integrated management of the coastal zone (IMCZ). Touristic projects in Morocco focus on its coast which represents at least 3500 km ; the management of this zone for building marinas or touristic infrastructures requires a deep and detailed study of marine currents on the coast, for example, by creating surveillance models and a coastal hazards map. An innovative project that will include geophysical, geochemical and structural geology studies associated to a multi-criteria analysis. The data will be integrated into a GIS to establish a coastal map that will highlight low-risk erosion zones and thus will facilitate implementation of ports and other construction projects. YES Morocco is a chapter of the International YES Network that aims to promote Geoscience in the service of society and professional development of Young and Early Career Geoscientists. Our commitment for such project will be of qualitative aspect into an associative framework that will involve

  4. Role of bacteria in organic matter fluxes in the Southern California Coastal Zone: (Progress report)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    The fate of organic matter in the sea, whether produced in situ or introduced from land, is greatly influenced by the metabolic trophic activities of the resident biota. Until recently it was thought that much of the primary production is consumed by the herbivores, making them the main determinants of fate of organic matter. It now appears that the microbial component of marine foodweb also plays a significant role in the decomposition, distribution, and vertical flux of organic material in seawater. The goal of the proposed research is to quantify this role of the microbial foodweb as part of a DOE-sponsored interdisciplinary study. We are testing the hypothesis that organic matter utilization by heterotrophic bacterioplankton represents a major sink for organic matter in the Southern California Coastal Zone.

  5. Oceanic primary production: 2. Estimation at global scale from satellite (coastal zone color scanner) chlorophyll

    SciTech Connect

    Antione, D.; Andre, J.M.; Morel, A.

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the oceanic seasonal evolution and spatial distribution of photosynthetic carbon fixation. Computation of primary production from the upper ocean chlorophyll-like pigment concentrations were made from monthly global maps from the coastal zone color scanner data archive. Relative contributions of various oceans and zonal belts were identified. Depending on the ratio used for active pigments to total pigments, the calculated global annual production ranges from 36.5 and 45.6 G tons (metric) carbon per year. These values are among the highest estimates proposed to date; although the absolute values may be somewhat questionable, the relative contribution of the various zonal belts and oceans are considered to have a high degree of accuracy. 33 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Potential applications of a high altitude powered platform in the ocean/coastal zone community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escoe, D.; Rigterink, P.; Oberholtzer, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    The results of a survey of the ocean/coastal zone community conducted for the NASA Wallops Flight Center to identify potential applications of a high altitude powered platform (HAPP) are presented. Such a platform would stationkeep at 70,000 feet for up to a year over a given location and make frequent high resolution observations, or serve as a regional communications link. The survey results indicate user interest among scientific researchers, operational agencies and private industry. It is felt that such a platform would combine the desirable characteristics of both geostationary satellites (wide area, frequent observation) and aircraft (high resolution). As a result a concept for an operational HAPP system in the form of a 'mesoscale geostationary satellite' system evolved. Such a system could employ many of the same technologies used in current NASA and NOAA geostationary satellite programs. A set of generalized instrument requirements for HAPP borne sensors is also presented.

  7. Zones of coastal hypoxia revealed by satellite scanning have implications for strategic fishing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leming, T. D.; Stuntz, W. E.

    1984-01-01

    Little is known about the spatial and temporal scales of hypoxic bottom water areas that occur along the inner continental shelf of Texas and Louisiana. Because hypoxia appears to be related to surface chlorophyll and temperature, which can both be measured with the Coastal Zone Color Scanner aboard the Nimbus 7 satellite, an attempt has been made to determine whether conditions favorable for the formation of hypoxia could be detected and monitored from space. A linear discriminant function has identified areas of bottom water hypoxia detected by research vessels up to 10 days after satellite overpass, and predicted hypoxic areas without resort to research vessel data. Such space mapping may be of consequence for marine resource management and exploitation.

  8. Clear water radiances for atmospheric correction of coastal zone color scanner imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, H. R.; Clark, D. K.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of computing the inherent sea surface radiance for regions of clear water from coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) imagery given only a knowledge of the local solar zenith angle is examined. The inherent sea surface radiance is related to the upwelling and downwelling irradiances just beneath the sea surface, and an expression is obtained for a normalized inherent sea surface radiance which is nearly independent of solar zenith angle for low phytoplankton pigment concentrations. An analysis of a data base consisting of vertical profiles of upwelled spectral radiance and pigment concentration, which was used in the development of the CZCS program, confirms the virtual constancy of the normalized inherent sea surface radiance at wavelengths of 520 and 550 nm for cases when the pigment concentration is less than 0.25 mg/cu m. A strategy is then developed for using the normalized inherent sea surface radiance in the atmospheric correction of CZCS imagery.

  9. Development of Great Lakes algorithms for the Nimbus-G coastal zone color scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanis, F. J.; Lyzenga, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    A series of experiments in the Great Lakes designed to evaluate the application of the Nimbus G satellite Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) were conducted. Absorption and scattering measurement data were reduced to obtain a preliminary optical model for the Great Lakes. Available optical models were used in turn to calculate subsurface reflectances for expected concentrations of chlorophyll-a pigment and suspended minerals. Multiple nonlinear regression techniques were used to derive CZCS water quality prediction equations from Great Lakes simulation data. An existing atmospheric model was combined with a water model to provide the necessary simulation data for evaluation of the preliminary CZCS algorithms. A CZCS scanner model was developed which accounts for image distorting scanner and satellite motions. This model was used in turn to generate mapping polynomials that define the transformation from the original image to one configured in a polyconic projection. Four computer programs (FORTRAN IV) for image transformation are presented.

  10. Phase 2 development of Great Lakes algorithms for Nimbus-7 coastal zone color scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanis, Fred J.

    1984-01-01

    A series of experiments have been conducted in the Great Lakes designed to evaluate the application of the NIMBUS-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS). Atmospheric and water optical models were used to relate surface and subsurface measurements to satellite measured radiances. Absorption and scattering measurements were reduced to obtain a preliminary optical model for the Great Lakes. Algorithms were developed for geometric correction, correction for Rayleigh and aerosol path radiance, and prediction of chlorophyll-a pigment and suspended mineral concentrations. The atmospheric algorithm developed compared favorably with existing algorithms and was the only algorithm found to adequately predict the radiance variations in the 670 nm band. The atmospheric correction algorithm developed was designed to extract needed algorithm parameters from the CZCS radiance values. The Gordon/NOAA ocean algorithms could not be demonstrated to work for Great Lakes waters. Predicted values of chlorophyll-a concentration compared favorably with expected and measured data for several areas of the Great Lakes.

  11. Dynamic freshwater-saline water interaction in the coastal zone of Jeju Island, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kue-Young; Park, Yoon-Suk; Kim, Gee-Pyo; Park, Ki-Hwa

    2009-05-01

    Freshwater-saline water interactions were evaluated in a coastal region influenced by external forces including tidal fluctuations and seasonal rainfall variations. Five different coastal zones were considered on Jeju Island, South Korea, and electrical conductivity (EC) profiles from the monitoring wells were examined to identify the configuration of the freshwater-saline water interface. There appeared to be discrepancies among EC profiles measured at different points in time. To analyze the dynamic behavior of freshwater-saline water interactions, groundwater level measurements and multi-depth EC and temperature probes were used to obtain time-series data; the data showed that water level, EC and temperature were influenced by both tidal fluctuations and heavy rainfall. The effects of oceanic tide on EC and temperature differed with depth due to hydraulic properties of geologic formations. A spectral filter was used to eliminate the effects of tidal forces and provide information on the influence of heavy rainfall on water level, EC and temperature. Heavy rainfall events caused different patterns and degrees of variation in EC and temperature with depth. The time-series data of EC and temperature in the subsurface at various depths enable greater understanding of the interaction processes between fresh and saline water.

  12. Aerosol anomalies in Nimbus-7 coastal zone color scanner data obtained in Japan area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukushima, Hajime; Sugimori, Yasuhiro; Toratani, Mitsuhiro; Smith, Raymond C.; Yasuda, Yoshizumi

    1989-01-01

    About 400 CZCS (coastal zone color scanner) scenes covering the Japan area in November 1978-May 1982 were processed to study the applicability of the Gordon-Clark atmospheric correction scheme which produces water-leaving radiances Lw at 443 nm, 520 nm, and 550 nm as well as phytoplankton pigment maps. Typical spring-fall aerosol radiance in the images was found to be 0.8-1.5 micro-W/sq cm-nm-sr, which is about 50 percent more than reported for the US eastern coastal images. The correction for about half the data resulted in negative Lw (443) values, implying overestimation of the aerosol effect for this channel. Several possible reasons for this are considered, including deviation of the aerosol optical thickness tau(a) at 443 nm from that estimated by Angstrom's exponential law, which the algorithm assumes. The analysis shows that, assuming the use of the Gordon-Clark algorithm, and for a pigment concentration of about 1 microgram/l, -40 percent to +100 percent error in satellite estimates is common. Although this does not fully explain the negative Lw (443) in the satellite data, it seems to contribute to the problem significantly, together with other error sources, including one in the sensor calibration.

  13. Integrated coastal zone management perspectives to ensure the sustainability of coral reefs in New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    David, G; Leopold, M; Dumas, P S; Ferraris, J; Herrenschmidt, J B; Fontenelle, G

    2010-01-01

    Based on a pluridisciplinary research programme on New Caledonia's lagoon (2004-2008), this paper addresses economic, ecological and political issues in order to implement integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) in this French Pacific territory. The nickel mining industry constitutes the core of the re-balancing economic and social strategy between the Northern and Southern provinces. But major impacts on the coastal environment of metal-processing plants, harbours, and decades of mine exploitation have released a controversy. A short diachronic analysis suggests that such environmental concerns prompted the emergence of collective actions to among civil society, customary and institutional stakeholders. The inscription of New Caledonia lagoon and reef areas in the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2008 would be both an outcome and a catalyst of this on-going process. Looking beyond the reefs towards the mainland and watersheds for the construction of local socio-ecological systems, we assume that the current stakes could result in the initiation of ICZM in New Caledonia. PMID:20655550

  14. Nonstationary porosity evolution in mixing zone in coastal carbonate aquifer using an alternative modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Laabidi, Ezzeddine; Bouhlila, Rachida

    2015-07-01

    In the last few decades, hydrogeochemical problems have benefited from the strong interest in numerical modeling. One of the most recognized hydrogeochemical problems is the dissolution of the calcite in the mixing zone below limestone coastal aquifer. In many works, this problem has been modeled using a coupling algorithm between a density-dependent flow model and a geochemical model. A related difficulty is that, because of the high nonlinearity of the coupled set of equations, high computational effort is needed. During calcite dissolution, an increase in permeability can be identified, which can induce an increase in the penetration of the seawater into the aquifer. The majority of the previous studies used a fully coupled reactive transport model in order to model such problem. Romanov and Dreybrodt (J Hydrol 329:661-673, 2006) have used an alternative approach to quantify the porosity evolution in mixing zone below coastal carbonate aquifer at steady state. This approach is based on the analytic solution presented by Phillips (1991) in his book Flow and Reactions in Permeable Rock, which shows that it is possible to decouple the complex set of equation. This equation is proportional to the square of the salinity gradient, which can be calculated using a density driven flow code and to the reaction rate that can be calculated using a geochemical code. In this work, this equation is used in nonstationary step-by-step regime. At each time step, the quantity of the dissolved calcite is quantified, the change of porosity is calculated, and the permeability is updated. The reaction rate, which is the second derivate of the calcium equilibrium concentration in the equation, is calculated using the PHREEQC code (Parkhurst and Apello 1999). This result is used in GEODENS (Bouhlila 1999; Bouhlila and Laabidi 2008) to calculate change of the porosity after calculating the salinity gradient. For the next time step, the same protocol is used but using the updated porosity

  15. Roles of coastal laboratories in the implementation of the nation`s emerging priorities for research in the coastal zone: Workshop proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, T.C.; Brooks, A.S.; Clegg, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    Rapid growth in the human population and related increases in consumption, depletion of natural resources, and environmental degradation are serious concerns for the quality of life and national security. Global change, biological diversity, and sustainable ecosystems were identified as priority areas of research based on their importance for the advance of the fundamental knowledge needed to manage for a sustainable biosphere. Demographic trends, global climate change, and patterns of contaminant release and transport suggest that the effects of human activity on the environment and on natural resources will be especially pronounced in the coastal zone. This report presents the results of a workshop organized by the National Association of Marine Laboratories (NAML) to evaluate the changing roles of coastal laboratories and to recommend mechanisms by which the community of coastal scientists can more effectively work together and with government agencies in defining priorities and implementing research programs that are responsive to national needs. The workshop is part of an ongoing effort to facilitate more integrated approaches to environmental research and the use of scientific information for the purposes of education and environmental management in the coastal zone.

  16. Global Distribution of Aerosols Over the Open Ocean as Derived from the Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stegmann, P. M.; Tindale, N. W.

    1999-01-01

    Climatological maps of monthly mean aerosol radiance levels derived from the coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) were constructed for the world's ocean basins. This is the first study to use the 7.5.-year CZCS data set to examine the distribution and seasonality of aerosols over the open ocean on a global scale. Examination of our satellite images found the most prominent large-scale patch of elevated aerosol radiances in each month off the coast of northwest Africa. The well-known, large-scale plumes of elevated aerosol levels in the Arabian Sea, the northwest Pacific, and off the east coast of North America were also successfully captured. Radiance data were extracted from 13 major open-ocean zones, ranging from the subpolar to equatorial regions. Results from these extractions revealed the aerosol load in both subpolar and subtropical zones to be higher in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere. Aerosol radiances in the subtropics of both hemispheres were about 2 times higher in summer than in winter. In subpolar regions, aerosol radiances in late spring/early summer were almost 3 times that observed in winter. In general, the aerosol signal was higher during the warmer months and lower during the cooler months, irrespective of location. A comparison between our mean monthly aerosol radiance maps with mean monthly chlorophyll maps (also from CZCS) showed similar seasonality between aerosol and chlorophyll levels in the subpolar zones of both hemispheres, i.e., high levels in summer, low levels in winter. In the subtropics of both hemispheres, however, chlorophyll levels were higher in winter months which coincided with a depressed aerosol signal. Our results indicate that the near-IR channel on ocean color sensors can be used to successfully capture well-known, large-scale aerosol plumes on a global scale and that future ocean color sensors may provide a platform for long-term synoptic studies of combined aerosol-phytoplankton productivity

  17. 30 CFR 285.647 - How will my GAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act? 285.647 Section 285.647 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING... Management Act? Your GAP will be processed based on how your limited lease, ROW grant, or RUE grant...

  18. Evaluation of the level of technogenic pollution in the coastal zone of the Black Sea near Gelendzhik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chasovnikov, V. K.; Chjoo, V. P.; Ocherednik, O. A.; Mar'yasova, E. S.

    2016-01-01

    The content of technogenic pollutants in the coastal zone of the northeastern part of the Black Sea was evaluated. The quantitative evaluation of the level of technogenic load on the waters of Gelendzhik and Golubaya (Rybatskaya) bays was performed. A list of pollutants exceeding MPC standards was compiled.

  19. 30 CFR 250.235 - If a State objects to the EP's coastal zone consistency certification, what can I do?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... objection to the Secretary of Commerce using the procedures in 15 CFR part 930, subpart H. The Secretary of... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false If a State objects to the EP's coastal zone... SHELF Plans and Information Review and Decision Process for the Ep § 250.235 If a State objects to...

  20. 30 CFR 285.612 - How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Contents of the Site Assessment Plan § 285.612 How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under... consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act? 285.612 Section 285.612 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE...

  1. 30 CFR 285.612 - How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act? 285.612 Section 285.612 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Requirements Contents of the Site...

  2. Implications of sea level rise scenarios on land use /land cover classes of the coastal zones of Cochin, India.

    PubMed

    Mani Murali, R; Dinesh Kumar, P K

    2015-01-15

    Physical responses of the coastal zones in the vicinity of Cochin, India due to sea level rise are investigated based on analysis of inundation scenarios. Quantification of potential habitat loss was made by merging the Land use/Land cover (LU/LC) prepared from the satellite imagery with the digital elevation model. Scenarios were generated for two different rates of sea level rise and responses of changes occurred were made to ascertain the vulnerability and loss in extent. LU/LC classes overlaid on 1 m and 2 m elevation showed that it was mostly covered by vegetation areas followed by water and urban zones. For the sea level rise scenarios of 1 m and 2 m, the total inundation zones were estimated to be 169.11 km(2) and 598.83 km(2) respectively using Geographic Information System (GIS). The losses of urban areas were estimated at 43 km(2) and 187 km(2) for the 1 m and 2 m sea level rise respectively which is alarming information for the most densely populated state of India. Quantitative comparison of other LU/LC classes showed significant changes under each of the inundation scenarios. The results obtained conclusively point that sea level rise scenarios will bring profound effects on the land use and land cover classes as well as on coastal landforms in the study region. Coastal inundation would leave ocean front and inland properties vulnerable. Increase in these water levels would alter the coastal drainage gradients. Reduction in these gradients would increase flooding attributable to rainstorms which could promote salt water intrusion into coastal aquifers and force water tables to rise. Changes in the coastal landforms associated with inundation generate concern in the background that the coastal region may continue to remain vulnerable in the coming decades due to population growth and development pressures. PMID:25043851

  3. A model reconstruction of riverine nutrient fluxes and eutrophication in the Belgian Coastal Zone since 1984

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passy, P.; Gypens, N.; Billen, G.; Garnier, J.; Thieu, V.; Rousseau, V.; Callens, J.; Parent, J.-Y.; Lancelot, C.

    2013-12-01

    The OSPAR convention signed in 1992 by 15 European states including Belgium and France pledged to reduce the nutrient (nitrogen N and phosphorus P) loads from land-based sources to the Channel and the North Sea to half of what they were in 1985. In this paper, we use a river basin-coastal sea chain model to describe the evolution of nutrient loads to the Belgian Costal Zone originating from the Seine, Somme and Scheldt watersheds from 1984 to 2007 in order to assess the N and P reduction with respect to the OSPAR goals and the resulting effect on coastal eutrophication, especially Phaeocystis blooms. Since the early 1990s, most nutrient reduction actions have been devoted to domestic and industrial wastewater treatment, resulting in a sharp P decrease between 1984 and 2007: from 260 to 90 kgP km- 2 for the Seine River and from 215 to 110 kgP km- 2 for the Scheldt River. In spite of improved N treatment of wastewater, there is no clear decrease of N loads, which mostly originate from leaching intensively cultivated arable lands. N fluxes at the outlet of the Seine and Scheldt rivers were, respectively, 1990 and 2210 kgN km- 2 in 1984 and 1830 and 1390 kgN km- 2 in 2007. However, this relatively low decrease appears to be more influenced by hydrological conditions than by better efficiency of N use in agriculture. We conclude from this analysis that the OSPAR objectives for P have been achieved, whereas for N radical changes in agricultural practices are still required. The P reduction achieved allows, for the period of concern, a 50% decrease of Phaeocystis colony blooms in the Belgian Coastal Zone, both in magnitude and duration. However, the simulated decrease, of maximum abundance, i.e., from 60 · 106 in 1984 to 30 · 106 cells l- 1 in 2007, is still insufficient when compared to the ecological-quality indicator of 4 · 106 cells l- 1. A further decrease of nutrients is still necessary to decrease undesirable blooms more satisfactorily.

  4. Fluxes of greenhouse gases at two different aquaculture ponds in the coastal zone of southeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ping; He, Qinghua; Huang, Jiafang; Tong, Chuan

    2015-08-01

    Shallow water ponds are important contributors to greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes into the atmosphere. Aquaculture ponds cover an extremely large area in China's entire coastal zone. Knowledge of greenhouse gas fluxes from aquaculture ponds is very limited, but measuring GHG fluxes from aquaculture ponds is fundamental for estimating their impact on global warming. This study investigated the magnitude of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from two coastal aquaculture ponds during 2011 and 2012 in the Shanyutan wetland of the Min River estuary, southeastern China, and determined the factors that may regulate GHG fluxes from the two ponds. The average fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O were 20.78 mgCO2 m-2h-1, 19.95 mgCH4 m-2h-1 and 10.74 μgN2O m-2h-1, respectively, in the shrimp pond. The average fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O were -60.46 mgCO2 m-2h-1, 1.65 mgCH4 m-2h-1 and 11.8 μgN2O m-2h-1, respectively, in the mixed shrimp and fish aquaculture pond during the study period. The fluxes of all three gases showed distinct temporal variations. The variations in the GHG fluxes were influenced by interactions with the thermal regime, pH, trophic status and chlorophyll-a content. Significant differences in the CO2 and N2O fluxes between the shrimp pond and the mixed aquaculture pond were observed from September to November, whereas the CH4 fluxes from the two ponds were not significantly different. The difference in the CO2 flux likely was related to the effects of photosynthesis, biological respiration and the mineralization of organic matter, whereas the N2O fluxes were controlled by the interactions between nitrogen substrate availability and pH. Water salinity, trophic status and dissolved oxygen concentration likely affected CH4 emission. Our results suggest that subtropical coastal aquaculture ponds are important contributors to regional CH4 and N2O emissions into the atmosphere, and their contribution to global warming must be considered

  5. Ground-water geology of the coastal zone, Long Beach-Santa Ana area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poland, J.F.; Piper, A.M.

    1956-01-01

    This paper is the first chapter of a comprehensive report on the ground-water features in the southern part of the coastal plain in Los Angeles and Orange Counties, Calif., with special reference to the effectiveness of the so-called coastal barrier--the Newport-Inglewood structural zone--in restraining landwar,-1 movement of saline water. The coastal plain in Los Angeles and Orange Counties, which covers some 775 square miles, sustains a large urban and rural population, diverse industries, and intensive agricultural developments. The aggregate ground-water withdrawal in 1945 was about 400,000 acre-feet a year, an average of about 360 million gallons a day. The dominant land-form elements are a central lowland plain with tongues extending to the coast, bordering highlands and foothills, and a succession of low hills and mesas aligned northwestward along the coastal edge of the central low- land plain. These low hills and mesas are the land-surface expression of geologic structure in the Newport-Inglewood zone. The highland areas that border the inland edge of the coastal plain are of moderate altitude and relief; most of the ridge crests range from 1,400 to 2,500 feet in altitude, but Santiago Peak in the Santa Ana Mountains attains a height of 5,680 feet above sea level. From these highlands the land surface descends across foothills and aggraded alluvial aprons to the central lowland, Downey Plain, here defined as the surface formed by alluvial aggradation during the post-Pleistocene time of rising base level. The Newport-Inglewood belt of hills and plains (mesas) has a maximum relief of some 500 feet but is widely underlain at a depth of about 30 feet by a surface of marine plantation. As initially formed in late Pleistocene time that surface was largely a featureless plain. Thus the present land-surface forms within the Newport-Inglewood belt measure the earth deformation that has occurred there since late Pleistocene time and so are pertinent with respect to

  6. Improved Oceanographic Measurements with CryoSat SAR Altimetry: Application to the Coastal Zone and Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotton, David; Nilo Garcia, Pablo; Cancet, Mathilde; Andersen, Ole; Stenseng, Lars; Martin, Francisco; Cipollini, Paolo; Benveniste, Jérôme; Restano, Marco; Ambrósio, Américo

    2016-04-01

    The ESA CryoSat mission is the first space mission to carry a radar altimeter that can operate in Synthetic Aperture Radar "SAR" (or delay-Doppler) and interferometric SAR (SARin) modes. Studies on CryoSat data have analysed and confirmed the improved ocean measuring capability offered by SAR mode altimetry, through increased resolution and precision in sea surface height and wave height measurements, and have also added significantly to our understanding of the issues around the processing and interpretation of SAR altimeter echoes. We present work in four themes, building on work initiated in the CryoSat Plus for Oceans project (CP4O), each investigating different aspects of the opportunities offered by this new technology. The first two studies address the coastal zone, a critical region for providing a link between open-ocean and shelf sea measurements with those from coastal in-situ measurements, in particular tide gauges. Although much has been achieved in recent years through the Coastal Altimetry community, (http://www.coastalt.eu/community) there is a limit to the capabilities of pulse-limited altimetry which often leaves an un-measured "white strip" right at the coastline. Firstly, a thorough analysis was made of the performance of "SAR" altimeter data (delay-Doppler processed) in the coastal zone. This quantified the performance, confirming the significant improvement over "conventional" pulse-limited altimetry. In the second study a processing scheme was developed with CryoSat SARin mode data to enable the retrieval of valid oceanographic measurements in coastal areas with complex topography. Thanks to further development of the algorithms, a new approach was achieved that can also be applied to SAR and conventional altimetry data (e.g., Sentinel-3, Jason series, EnviSat). The third part of the project developed and evaluated improvements to the SAMOSA altimeter re-tracker that is implemented in the Sentinel-3 processing chain. The modifications to the

  7. Dynamics of the transition zone in coastal zone color scanner-sensed ocean color in the North Pacific during oceanographic spring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, David M.; Wroblewski, J. S.; Mcclain, Charles R.

    1994-01-01

    A transition zone in phytoplankton concentration running across the North Pacific basin at 30 deg to 40 deg north latitude corresponds to a basin-wide front in surface chlorophyll observed in a composite of coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) images for May, June, and July 1979-1986. This transition zone with low chlorophyll to the south and higher chlorophyll to the north can be simulated by a simple model of the concentration of phytoplankton, zooplankton, and dissolved nutrient (nitrate) in the surface mixed layer of the ocean applied to the North Pacific basin for the climatological conditions during oceanographic springtime (May, June, and July). The model is initialized with a 1 deg x 1 deg gridded estimate of wintertime (February, March, and April) mixed layer nitrate concentrations calculated from an extensive nutrient database and a similarly gridded mixed layer depth data set. Comparison of model predictions with CZCS data provides a means of evaluating the dynamics of the transition zone. We conclude that in the North Pacific, away from major boundary currents and coastal upwelling zones, wintertime vertical mixing determines the total nutrient available to the plankton ecosystem in the spring. The transition zone seen in basin-scale CZCS images is a reflection of the geographic variation in the wintertime mixed layer depth and the nitracline, leading to a latitudinal gradient in phytoplankton chlorophyll.

  8. Ethnolect Debate: Evidence from Jewish Lithuanian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verschik, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the concept of Jewish Lithuanian as a range of post-Yiddish varieties spoken by some Jews in Lithuania and seeks to synthesise findings in contemporary ethnolect studies and in the field of Jewish language research. The legitimacy of the term "ethnolect" is questioned by some researchers; however, it is argued that…

  9. Drought or humidity oscillations? The case of coastal zone of Lebanon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaban, Amin; Houhou, Rola

    2015-10-01

    There is discrepancy in classifying Lebanon according to the different climatic zones; however, it is often described as a semi-arid region. Lately, Lebanon has been witnessing climatic oscillations in the meteorological parameters. The impact of these oscillations on water sector has been reflected also on energy-food nexus. Yet, there are a number of studies obtained to identify the climate of Lebanon, and they show contradictory results; especially these studies elaborated different datasets and applied diverse methods which often modeled only on large-scale regions. Therefore, the analysis of climatic data depended on complete and long-term climatic records that can be applied to assess the existing climatic status of Lebanon, as well as to assure whether Lebanon is under drought, humidity or it is oscillating between both. This study utilized considerable datasets, from different sources including the remotely sensed systems (e.g. TRMM). These datasets were interpolated and analyzed statistically according to De Martonne Aridity Index. Aiming to affirm the climatic attribute of Lebanon; however, ten climatic stations were investigated. They are with representative geographic setting and diverse time series in the coastal zone of Lebanon were investigated. Even though, Lebanon is known as a semi-arid region, yet results in this study show that the studied zone does not evidence any drought, since around 70% of the investigated years are characterized by semi-humid to humid climate. This climatic figure is well pronounced since rainfall rate exceeds 900 mm, average temperature rate is about 19 °C, and snow remains for a couple of months annually.

  10. Development 3D model of adaptation of the Azerbaijan coastal zone at the various levels of Caspian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammadov, Ramiz

    2013-04-01

    The most characteristic feature of the Caspian Sea which difference it on relation other seas is its periodical fluctuating in its level. In many coastal regions of the world the problem of influence of change of a sea level on activities of the human is a problem of the long-term future, but in region of Caspian Sea, especially in its Azerbaijan sector, it is already actual. Also experience accumulated here, can be use at the decision of problems of optimization of wildlife management in conditions of significant change of a sea level as model of potential consequences of warming of a climate. Changeableness of the level of the Caspian sea over many years can be observed better on the basis of natural observations, a systematic basis of which has been put by the academician E. Lents in 1830 year in Baku coastal line. According these data in 1882 the average level has reached its level -25.2 m. the highest point over the observations, i.e. by 1.8 m. higher than today's level. The average level over 1830-1930 was about -25.83 m. In 1960 some stabilization in the level, about 28,4 meters, in 1970 was a sharp drop, in 1977 - sharp drop reached -29.00 rn. The drop over the whole period of observations totaled 3.8 m within diapason -25.2 -29.0 m. In 1978 the level of the sea began to increase and in 1995 its average yearly mark reach -26,62 rn. Intensiveness of the rise of the level ever that period totaled in average about 14 cm per year. As a result of this rise of a sea level about 800 km2 of a coastal zone it has been flooded, the ecological situation has worsened, and there were ecological refugees. The damage to a coastal zone of Azerbaijan was 2 billion USA dollars. Caspian sea also has within-year (seasonal) variability equal 32 sm and sleeve and pileup change of level. Its estimate in Azerbaijan coastal zone is 0.8-1.0 m. In the coastal zone also necessary take into height of the wave which in these coasts can be 3.0 m height. All these means that in the

  11. The analysis of dependence between extreme rainfall and storm surge in the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, F.; Westra, S.

    2012-12-01

    Flooding in coastal catchments can be caused by runoff generated by an extreme rainfall event, elevated sea levels due to an extreme storm surge event, or the combination of both processes occurring simultaneously or in close succession. Dependence in extreme rainfall and storm surge arises because common meteorological forcings often drive both variables; for example, cyclonic systems may produce extreme rainfall, strong onshore winds and an inverse barometric effect simultaneously, which the former factor influencing catchment discharge and the latter two factors influencing storm surge. Nevertheless there is also the possibility that only one of the variables is extreme at any given time, so that the dependence between rainfall and storm surge is not perfect. Quantification of the strength of dependence between these processes is critical in evaluating the magnitude of flood risk in the coastal zone. This may become more important in the future as the majority of the coastal areas are threatened by the sea level rise due to the climate change. This research uses the most comprehensive record of rainfall and storm surge along the coastline of Australia collected to-date to investigate the strength of dependence between the extreme rainfall and storm surge along the Australia coastline. A bivariate logistic threshold-excess model was employed to this end to carry out the dependence analysis. The strength of the estimated dependence is then evaluated as a function of several factors including: the distance between the tidal gauge and the rain gauge; the lag between the extreme precipitation event and extreme surge event; and the duration of the maximum storm burst. The results show that the dependence between the extreme rainfall and storm surge along the Australia coastline is statistically significant, although some locations clearly exhibit stronger dependence than others. We hypothesize that this is due to a combination of large-scale meteorological effects as

  12. CZMIL (coastal zone mapping and imaging lidar): from first flights to first mission through system validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feygels, Viktor I.; Park, Joong Yong; Wozencraft, Jennifer; Aitken, Jennifer; Macon, Christopher; Mathur, Abhinav; Payment, Andy; Ramnath, Vinod

    2013-06-01

    CZMIL is an integrated lidar-imagery system and software suite designed for highly automated generation of physical and environmental information products for coastal zone mapping in the framework of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) National Coastal Mapping Program (NCMP). This paper presents the results of CZMIL system validation in turbid water conditions along the Gulf Coast of Mississippi and in relatively clear water conditions in Florida in late spring 2012. Results of the USACE May-October 2012 mission in Green Bay, WI and Lake Erie are presented. The system performance tests show that CZMIL successfully achieved 7-8m depth in Mississippi with Kd =0.46m-1 (Kd is the diffuse attenuation coefficient) and up to 41m in Florida when Kd=0.11m-1. Bathymetric accuracy of CZMIL was measured by comparing CZMIL depths with multi-beam sonar data from Cat Island, MS and from off the coast of Fort. Lauderdale, FL. Validation demonstrated that CZMIL meets USACE specifications (two standard deviation, 2σ, ~30 cm). To measure topographic accuracy we made direct comparisons of CZMIL elevations to GPS-surveyed ground control points and vehicle-based lidar scans of topographic surfaces. Results confirmed that CZMIL meets the USACE topographic requirements (2σ, ~15 cm). Upon completion of the Green Bay and Lake Erie mission there were 89 flights with 2231 flightlines. The general hours of aircraft engine time (which doesn't include all transit/ferry flights) was 441 hours with 173 hours of time on survey flightlines. The 4.8 billion (!) laser shots and 38.6 billion digitized waveforms covered over 1025 miles of shoreline.

  13. Mercury in precipitation over the coastal zone of the southern Baltic Sea, Poland.

    PubMed

    Siudek, Patrycja; Falkowska, Lucyna; Brodecka, Aleksandra; Kowalski, Artur; Frankowski, Marcin; Siepak, Jerzy

    2015-02-01

    An investigation of atmospheric mercury was conducted in the urban coastal zone of the Gulf of Gdansk (Baltic Sea, Poland) in 2008. Rainwater samples were collected in bulk samplers and Hg concentration was determined using AAS method. Total mercury concentration ranged from 1.9 to 14.8 ng l(-1) (the mean was 8.3 ng l(-1) with standard deviation ±3.7), out of which about 34 % were water-soluble Hg(II) forms. Distribution of Hg species in rainwater was related to both the emission source and the atmospheric processes. During the sampling period, two maxima of Hg concentration in precipitation were observed: the first in the cold season and the second one in the warm season. Elevated concentrations of Hg in wintertime precipitation were generally the result of local urban atmospheric emission connected with the following anthropogenic sources: intensive combustion of fossil fuels in domestic furnaces, individual power/heat generating plants, and motor vehicles. During summertime, Hg° re-emitted from contaminated land and sea surfaces was photochemically oxidized by active atmospheric substances (e.g., hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen peroxide, halogens) and could be an additional source of atmospherically deposited Hg. The results presented in this work indicate that rainwater Hg concentration and deposition values are not much higher in comparison with other urban locations along the Baltic Sea basin and other coastal cities. However, the elevated mercury concentration in rainwater and, consequently, higher deposition ratio could appear occasionally as an effect of intensive anthropogenic emissions (domestic heating) and/or photochemical reactions. PMID:25189806

  14. Toward daily climate scenarios for Canadian Arctic coastal zones with more realistic temperature-precipitation interdependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gennaretti, Fabio; Sangelantoni, Lorenzo; Grenier, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    The interdependence between climatic variables should be taken into account when developing climate scenarios. For example, temperature-precipitation interdependence in the Arctic is strong and impacts on other physical characteristics, such as the extent and duration of snow cover. However, this interdependence is often misrepresented in climate simulations. Here we use two two-dimensional (2-D) methods for statistically adjusting climate model simulations to develop plausible local daily temperature (Tmean) and precipitation (Pr) scenarios. The first 2-D method is based on empirical quantile mapping (2Dqm) and the second on parametric copula models (2Dcopula). Both methods are improved here by forcing the preservation of the modeled long-term warming trend and by using moving windows to obtain an adjustment specific to each day of the year. These methods were applied to a representative ensemble of 13 global climate model simulations at 26 Canadian Arctic coastal sites and tested using an innovative cross-validation approach. Intervariable dependence was evaluated using correlation coefficients and empirical copula density plots. Results show that these 2-D methods, especially 2Dqm, adjust individual distributions of climatic time series as adequately as one common one-dimensional method (1Dqm) does. Furthermore, although 2Dqm outperforms the other methods in reproducing the observed temperature-precipitation interdependence over the calibration period, both 2Dqm and 2Dcopula perform similarly over the validation periods. For cases where temperature-precipitation interdependence is important (e.g., characterizing extreme events and the extent and duration of snow cover), both 2-D methods are good options for producing plausible local climate scenarios in Canadian Arctic coastal zones.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and black carbon in intertidal sediments of China coastal zones: Concentration, ecological risk, source and their relationship.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofei; Hou, Lijun; Li, Ye; Liu, Min; Lin, Xianbiao; Cheng, Lv

    2016-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and black carbon (BC) have attracted many attentions, especially in the coastal environments. In this study, spatiotemporal distributions of PAHs and BC, and the correlations between BC and PAHs were investigated in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. BC in sediments was measured through dichromate oxidation (BCCr) and thermal oxidation (BCCTO). The concentrations of BCCr in the intertidal sediments ranged between 0.61 and 6.32mgg(-1), while BCCTO ranged between 0.57 and 4.76mgg(-1). Spatial variations of δ(13)C signatures in TOC and BC were observed, varying from -21.13‰ to -24.87‰ and from -23.53‰ to -16.78‰, respectively. PAH contents of sediments ranged from 195.9 to 4610.2ngg(-1) in winter and 98.2 to 2796.5ngg(-1) in summer, and significantly seasonal variations were observed at most sampling sites. However, the results of potential toxicity assessment indicated low ecological risk in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. Greater concentrations of PAHs measured in the sediments of estuarine environments indicated that rivers runoff may have been responsible for the higher PAH pollution levels in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. Pearson's correlation analysis suggested that pyrogenic compounds of PAH were significantly related to BC, due to that both BC and these compounds derived mainly from the combustion process of fossil fuels and biomass. Overall, increasing energy consumptions caused by anthropogenic activities can contribute more emissions of BC as well as PAHs and thus improve the importance of BC in indicating pyrogenic compounds of PAHs in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. PMID:27266522

  16. Megacities in the coastal zone: Using a driver-pressure-state-impact-response framework to address complex environmental problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekovski, Ivan; Newton, Alice; Dennison, William C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elaborate on the role of coastal megacities in environmental degradation and their contribution to global climate change. Although only less than 4 percent of the total world's population resides in coastal megacities, their impact on environment is significant due to their rapid development, high population densities and high consumption rate of their residents. This study was carried out by implementing a Drivers-Pressures-States-Impacts-Responses (DPSIR) framework. This analytical framework was chosen because of its potential to link the existing data, gathered from various previous studies, in causal relationship. In this text, coastal megacities have been defined as cities exceeding 10 million inhabitants, situated in "near-coastal zone". Their high rates of the consumption of food, water, space and energy were observed and linked to the high performance rates of related economic activities (industry, transportation, power generation, agriculture and water extraction). In many of the studied coastal megacities, deteriorated quality of air and water was perceived, which can, in combination with global warming, lead to health problems and economic and social disturbance among residents. The extent of problems varied between developing and developed countries, showing higher rates of population growth and certain harmful emissions in megacities of developing countries, as well as more problems regarding food and water shortages, sanitation, and health care support. Although certain projections predict slowdown of growth in most coastal megacities, their future impact on environment is still unclear due to the uncertainties regarding future climate change and trajectories of consumption patterns.

  17. Global Climate Change and Its Potential Impact on Disease Transmission by Salinity-Tolerant Mosquito Vectors in Coastal Zones

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Ranjan; Surendran, Sinnathamby Noble

    2012-01-01

    Global climate change can potentially increase the transmission of mosquito vector-borne diseases such as malaria, lymphatic filariasis, and dengue in many parts of the world. These predictions are based on the effects of changing temperature, rainfall, and humidity on mosquito breeding and survival, the more rapid development of ingested pathogens in mosquitoes and the more frequent blood feeds at moderately higher ambient temperatures. An expansion of saline and brackish water bodies (water with <0.5 ppt or parts per thousand, 0.5–30 ppt and >30 ppt salt are termed fresh, brackish, and saline respectively) will also take place as a result of global warming causing a rise in sea levels in coastal zones. Its possible impact on the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases has, however, not been adequately appreciated. The relevant impacts of global climate change on the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases in coastal zones are discussed with reference to the Ross–McDonald equation and modeling studies. Evidence is presented to show that an expansion of brackish water bodies in coastal zones can increase the densities of salinity-tolerant mosquitoes like Anopheles sundaicus and Culex sitiens, and lead to the adaptation of fresh water mosquito vectors like Anopheles culicifacies, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Aedes albopictus to salinity. Rising sea levels may therefore act synergistically with global climate change to increase the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases in coastal zones. Greater attention therefore needs to be devoted to monitoring disease incidence and preimaginal development of vector mosquitoes in artificial and natural coastal brackish/saline habitats. It is important that national and international health agencies are aware of the increased risk of mosquito-borne diseases in coastal zones and develop preventive and mitigating strategies. Application of appropriate counter measures can greatly reduce the potential for

  18. Extreme N2O accumulation in the coastal oxygen minimum zone off Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kock, A.; Arévalo-Martínez, D. L.; Löscher, C. R.; Bange, H. W.

    2016-02-01

    Depth profiles of nitrous oxide (N2O) were measured during six cruises to the upwelling area and oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) off Peru in 2009 and 2012/2013, covering both the coastal shelf region and the adjacent open ocean. N2O profiles displayed a strong sensitivity towards oxygen concentrations. Open ocean profiles with distances to the shelf break larger than the first baroclinic Rossby radius of deformation showed a transition from a broad maximum close to the Equator to a double-peak structure south of 5° S where the oxygen minimum was more pronounced. Maximum N2O concentrations in the open ocean were about 80 nM. A linear relationship between ΔN2O and apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) could be found for measurements within the upper oxycline, with a slope similar to studies in other oceanic regions. In contrast, N2O profiles close to the shelf revealed a much higher variability, and N2O concentrations higher than 100 nM were often observed. The highest N2O concentration measured at the shelf was ˜ 850 nM. Due to the extremely sharp oxygen gradients at the shelf, N2O maxima occurred in very shallow water depths of less than 50 m. In the coastal area, a linear relationship between ΔN2O and AOU could not be observed as extremely high ΔN2O values were scattered over the full range of oxygen concentrations. The data points that showed the strongest deviation from a linear ΔN2O / AOU relationship also showed signals of intense nitrogen loss. These results indicate that the coastal upwelling at the Peruvian coast and the subsequent strong remineralization in the water column causes conditions that lead to extreme N2O accumulation, most likely due to the interplay of intense mixing and high rates of remineralization which lead to a rapid switching of the OMZ waters between anoxic and oxic conditions. This, in turn, could trigger incomplete denitrification or pulses of increased nitrification with extreme N2O production.

  19. Ecosystem Resilience and Threshold Response in the Galápagos Coastal Zone

    PubMed Central

    Seddon, Alistair W. R.; Froyd, Cynthia A.; Leng, Melanie J.; Milne, Glenn A.; Willis, Katherine J.

    2011-01-01

    Background The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides a conservative estimate on rates of sea-level rise of 3.8 mm yr−1 at the end of the 21st century, which may have a detrimental effect on ecologically important mangrove ecosystems. Understanding factors influencing the long-term resilience of these communities is critical but poorly understood. We investigate ecological resilience in a coastal mangrove community from the Galápagos Islands over the last 2700 years using three research questions: What are the ‘fast and slow’ processes operating in the coastal zone? Is there evidence for a threshold response? How can the past inform us about the resilience of the modern system? Methodology/Principal Findings Palaeoecological methods (AMS radiocarbon dating, stable carbon isotopes (δ13C)) were used to reconstruct sedimentation rates and ecological change over the past 2,700 years at Diablas lagoon, Isabela, Galápagos. Bulk geochemical analysis was also used to determine local environmental changes, and salinity was reconstructed using a diatom transfer function. Changes in relative sea level (RSL) were estimated using a glacio-isostatic adjustment model. Non-linear behaviour was observed in the Diablas mangrove ecosystem as it responded to increased salinities following exposure to tidal inundations. A negative feedback was observed which enabled the mangrove canopy to accrete vertically, but disturbances may have opened up the canopy and contributed to an erosion of resilience over time. A combination of drier climatic conditions and a slight fall in RSL then resulted in a threshold response, from a mangrove community to a microbial mat. Conclusions/Significance Palaeoecological records can provide important information on the nature of non-linear behaviour by identifying thresholds within ecological systems, and in outlining responses to ‘fast’ and ‘slow’ environmental change between alternative stable states. This study

  20. Rapid East Asian Monsoon change during the Last Interglacial in the Bohai Sea Coastal Zone, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, S.; Li, B.; Chen, M.; Zhang, D.; Xiang, R.; Niu, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Bohai Sea coastal zone of China faces the Pacific Ocean to the east and the Eurasian continent to the west, hence, this region is influenced by both the ocean and continental landmasses. The Bohai Sea coastal zone has significant monsoon climate characteristics and a strong sensitivity to climate change. The Miaodao stratigraphical section (MDS) contains historical information about climate features in the region, especially the high-frequency variations during the last interglacial, sea level changes, and the evolution of the East Asian monsoon. By analyzing the ages of different sedimentary facies in combination with proxy paleoclimatic indices (i.e., grain <63 μm fraction, average grain size (Mz), clay + silt/sand content (SC/D), magnetic susceptibility, and the ratios of Na2O/Al2O3 and (Al2O3+TOFe)/SiO2, in the fifth segments of the MDS from the last-interglacial (MDS5), we conclude that subsections 5a, 5c, and 5e were controlled by summer monsoons, whereas subsections 5b and 5d were formed when winter monsoons prevailed. These results were similar to oxygen isotope analyses from previous studies including the Spectral Mapping Project (SPECMAP) and the North Greenland Ice Core Project (NorthGRIP). Five and a half comparable oscillations in proxy indices that were dated to ca. 116.1, 118.3, 121.2, 122.7, 125.9, and 128.7 ka occurred within the MDS 5e subsection when winter monsoon winds strengthened. This millennial-scale climate variability during the Eemian period may have reached up to ten and a half oscillations with a quasi-periodicity of approximately a 1,470 year cycle during the late glacial period. This rapid period of climate change has been recorded in northern and central Europe, central Asia, as well as in East Asia. The climate forming mechanism was probably initiated by changes in solar activity, and driven by the East Asian monsoon and sea level oscillations. Comparison of Miaodao section records with other paleoclimatic records during the

  1. Ocean acidification in the coastal zone from an organism's perspective: multiple system parameters, frequency domains, and habitats.

    PubMed

    Waldbusser, George G; Salisbury, Joseph E

    2014-01-01

    Multiple natural and anthropogenic processes alter the carbonate chemistry of the coastal zone in ways that either exacerbate or mitigate ocean acidification effects. Freshwater inputs and multiple acid-base reactions change carbonate chemistry conditions, sometimes synergistically. The shallow nature of these systems results in strong benthic-pelagic coupling, and marine invertebrates at different life history stages rely on both benthic and pelagic habitats. Carbonate chemistry in coastal systems can be highly variable, responding to processes with temporal modes ranging from seconds to centuries. Identifying scales of variability relevant to levels of biological organization requires a fuller characterization of both the frequency and magnitude domains of processes contributing to or reducing acidification in pelagic and benthic habitats. We review the processes that contribute to coastal acidification with attention to timescales of variability and habitats relevant to marine bivalves. PMID:23987912

  2. Mapping and Assessing Variability in the Antarctic Marginal Ice Zone, the Pack Ice and Coastal Polynyas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroeve, Julienne; Jenouvrier, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    Sea ice variability within the marginal ice zone (MIZ) and polynyas plays an important role for phytoplankton productivity and krill abundance. Therefore mapping their spatial extent, seasonal and interannual variability is essential for understanding how current and future changes in these biological active regions may impact the Antarctic marine ecosystem. Knowledge of the distribution of different ice types to the total Antarctic sea ice cover may also help to shed light on the factors contributing towards recent expansion of the Antarctic ice cover in some regions and contraction in others. The long-term passive microwave satellite data record provides the longest and most consistent data record for assessing different ice types. However, estimates of the amount of MIZ, consolidated pack ice and polynyas depends strongly on what sea ice algorithm is used. This study uses two popular passive microwave sea ice algorithms, the NASA Team and Bootstrap to evaluate the distribution and variability in the MIZ, the consolidated pack ice and coastal polynyas. Results reveal the NASA Team algorithm has on average twice the MIZ and half the consolidated pack ice area as the Bootstrap algorithm. Polynya area is also larger in the NASA Team algorithm, and the timing of maximum polynya area may differ by as much as 5 months between algorithms. These differences lead to different relationships between sea ice characteristics and biological processes, as illustrated here with the breeding success of an Antarctic seabird.

  3. Interpretation of the coastal zone color scanner signature of the Orinoco River plume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochman, Herschel T.; Mueller-Karger, F. E.; Walsh, John J.

    1994-01-01

    The Caribbean Sea is an area that traditionally has been considered oligotrophic, even though the Orinoco River contributes large quantities of fresh water, nutrients, and other dissolved material to this region during the wet boreal (fall) season. Little is known about the impact of this seasonal river plume, which extends from Venezuela to Puetro Rico shortly after maximum discharge. Here, we present results from a study of the bio-optical characteristics of the Orinoco River plume during the rainy season. The objective was to determine whether the coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) and the follow-on sea-viewing wide-field-of-view sensor (SeaWiFS) satellite instrument can be used to assess the concentrations of substances in large river plumes. Recent in situ shipboard measurements were compared to values from representative historical CZCS images using established bio-optical models. Our goal was to deconvolve the signatures of colored dissolved organic carbon and phytoplankton pigments within satellite images of the Orinoco River plume. We conclude that the models may be used for case 2 waters and that as much as 50 percent of the remotely sensored chlorophyll biomass within the plume is an artifact due to the presence of dissolved organic carbon. Dissolved organic carbon originates from a number of sources, including decay of dead organisms, humic materials from the soil, and gelbstoff.

  4. Determination of Saharan dust radiance and chlorophyll from CZCS imagery. [Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Carder, K.L.; Gregg, W.W.; Costello, D.K. ); Haddad, K. ); Prospero, J.M. )

    1991-03-20

    An atmospheric correction algorithm is derived for oceanic areas of low chlorophyll a plus phaeophytin a concentrations ({l angle}C{r angle} {le} 0.25 mg/m{sup 3}). The algorithm simultaneously corrects for the radiance effects of two different aerosol types observed in coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) imagery. The algorithm, called the two-component method, is applied to data from a time series of CZCS orbits during which both Saharan dust and a bluish haze were present. The method is evaluated by comparing the ocean chlorophyll concentrations after atmospheric correction to those measured in situ and to those determined by single-component methods from CZCS imagery. Reasonable agreement is found between the chlorophyll values estimated by the two-component method and in situ values, and the derived chlorophyll values for a Sargasso Sea region varied by less than 6% during a major influx of Saharan dust to the region. Aerosol and chloropyll fields appeared confounded in imagery derived using single-component methods when multiple aerosol types were present, but no confounding was observed for imagery generated by the two-component method. The time series of aerosol radiance values due to Saharan dust was consistent with the changes in dust concentration and particle size measurements from an adjacent aerosol collection site on the Florida coast.

  5. Synthesis of benthic flux components in the Patos Lagoon coastal zone, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J. N.

    2012-12-01

    The primary objective of this work is to synthesize components of benthic flux in the Patos Lagoon coastal zone, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Specifically, the component of benthic discharge flux forced by the terrestrial hydraulic gradient is 0.8 m3 d-1; components of benthic discharge and recharge flux associated with the groundwater tidal prism are both 2.1 m3 d-1; components of benthic discharge and recharge flux forced by surface-gravity wave setup are both 6.3 m3 d-1; the component of benthic discharge flux that transports radium-228 is 350 m3 d-1; and components of benthic discharge and recharge flux forced by surface-gravity waves propagating over a porous medium are both 1400 m3 d-1. (All models are normalized per meter shoreline.) Benthic flux is a function of components forced by individual mechanisms and nonlinear interactions that exist between components. Constructive and destructive interference may enhance or diminish the contribution of benthic flux components. It may not be possible to model benthic flux by summing component magnitudes. Geochemical tracer techniques may not accurately model benthic discharge flux or submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). A conceptual model provides a framework on which to quantitatively characterize benthic discharge flux and SGD with a multifaceted approach.

  6. Data compression experiments with LANDSAT thematic mapper and Nimbus-7 coastal zone color scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.; Ramapriyan, H. K.

    1989-01-01

    A case study is presented where an image segmentation based compression technique is applied to LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) and Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) data. The compression technique, called Spatially Constrained Clustering (SCC), can be regarded as an adaptive vector quantization approach. The SCC can be applied to either single or multiple spectral bands of image data. The segmented image resulting from SCC is encoded in small rectangular blocks, with the codebook varying from block to block. Lossless compression potential (LDP) of sample TM and CZCS images are evaluated. For the TM test image, the LCP is 2.79. For the CZCS test image the LCP is 1.89, even though when only a cloud-free section of the image is considered the LCP increases to 3.48. Examples of compressed images are shown at several compression ratios ranging from 4 to 15. In the case of TM data, the compressed data are classified using the Bayes' classifier. The results show an improvement in the similarity between the classification results and ground truth when compressed data are used, thus showing that compression is, in fact, a useful first step in the analysis.

  7. Remote sensing of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of ocean water. [coastal zone color scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    A technique was devised which uses remotely sensed spectral radiances from the sea to assess the optical diffuse attenuation coefficient, K (lambda) of near-surface ocean water. With spectral image data from a sensor such as the coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) carried on NIMBUS-7, it is possible to rapidly compute the K (lambda) fields for large ocean areas and obtain K "images" which show synoptic, spatial distribution of this attenuation coefficient. The technique utilizes a relationship that has been determined between the value of K and the ratio of the upwelling radiances leaving the sea surface at two wavelengths. The relationship was developed to provide an algorithm for inferring K from the radiance images obtained by the CZCS, thus the wavelengths were selected from those used by this sensor, viz., 443, 520, 550 and 670 nm. The majority of the radiance arriving at the spacecraft is the result of scattering in the atmospheric and is unrelated to the radiance signal generated by the water. A necessary step in the processing of the data received by the sensor is, therefore, the effective removal of these atmospheric path radiance signals before the K algorithm is applied. Examples of the efficacy of these removal techniques are given together with examples of the spatial distributions of K in several ocean areas.

  8. Phytoplankton community and environmental correlates in a coastal upwelling zone along western Taiwan Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Kang, Jian-hua; Ye, You-yin; Lin, Geng-ming; Yang, Qing-liang; Lin, Mao

    2016-02-01

    Upwelling system in western Taiwan Strait is important for facilitating the fishery production. This study investigated hydro-chemical properties, phytoplankton biomass, phytoplankton species composition, three-dimensional (horizontal, vertical and transect) distribution of phytoplankton abundance, as well as phytoplankton annual variation and the correlation of phytoplankton community with the upwelling of underlying current and nutrients according to samples of Fujian-Guangdong coastal upwelling zone in western Taiwan Strait from August 27 to September 8, 2009. The results manifest that the nutrient-rich cold and high salinity current on the continental shelf of South China Sea upwells to the Fujian-Guangdong coastal waters through Taiwan Bank and the surging strength to surface is weak while strong at 30-m layer. The thermohaline center of coastal upwelling shifts to the east of Dongshan Island and expanded to offshore waters in comparison with previous records. A total of 137 phytoplankton species belonging to 59 genera in 4 phyla are identified excluding the unidentified species. Diatom is the first major group and followed by dinoflagellate. Cyanobacteria mainly composed by three Trichodesmium species account for a certain proportions, while Chrysophyta are only found in offshore waters. The dominant species include Thalassionema nitzschioides, Pseudo-nitzschia pungens, Thalassionema frauenfeldii, Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima, Rhizosolenia styliformis, Chaetoceros curvisetus, Diplopsalis lenticula and Trichodesmium thiebautii. Phytoplankton community mainly consists of eurythermal and eurytopic species, followed by warm-water species, tropic high-salinity species and oceanic eurythermic species in order. Phytoplankton abundance ranges from 1.00 × 102 ind./L ~ 437.22 × 102 ind./L with an average of 47.36 × 102 ind./L. For vertical distribution, maximum abundance is found at 30 m-depth and the surface comes second. Besides, the abundance below 30 m

  9. Satellite observation of bio-optical indicators related to North-Western Black Sea coastal zone changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, Maria

    Satellite remote sensing provides a means for locating, identifying and mapping certain coastal zone features and assessing of spatio-temporal changes.The Romanian coastal zone of the Black Sea is a mosaic of complex, interacting ecosystems, exposed to dramatic changes due to natural and anthropogenic causes (increase in the nutrient and pollutant load of rivers input, industrial and municipal wastewater pollution along the coast, and dumping on the open sea). This study focuses on the assessment of coastal zone land cover changes based on the fusion of satellite remote sensing data.The evaluation of coastal zone landscapes is based upon different sub-functions which refer to landscape features such as water, soil, land-use, buildings, groundwater, biotope types. Mixed pixels result when the sensor's instantaneous field-of-view includes more than one land cover class on the ground. Based on different satellite data (Landsat TM, ETM, SAR ERS, IKONOS, Quickbird, and MODIS) was performed object recognition for North-Western Black Sea coastal zone. Preliminary results show significant coastline position changes of North Western Black Sea during the period of 1987-2007 and urban growth of Constantza town. Also the change in the position of the coastline is examined and linked to the urban expansion in order to determine if the changes are natural or anthropogenic. A distinction is made between landfill/sedimentation processes on the one hand and dredging/erosion processes on the other. Waves play an important role for shoreline configuration. Wave pattern could induce erosion and sedimentation. A quasi-linear model was used to model the rate of shoreline change. The vectors of shoreline were used to compare with wave spectra model in order to examine the accuracy of the coastal erosion model. The shoreline rate modeled from vectors data of SAR ERS-1 has a good correlation with a quasi-linear model. Wave refraction patterns are a good index for shoreline erosion. A coast

  10. NASA COAST and OCEANIA Airborne Missions in Support of Ecosystem and Water Quality Research in the Coastal Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guild, Liane S.; Hooker, Stanford B.; Kudela, Raphael; Morrow, John; Russell, Philip; Myers, Jeffrey; Dunagan, Stephen; Palacios, Sherry; Livingston, John; Negrey, Kendra; Torres-Perez, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, coastal marine ecosystems are exposed to land-based sources of pollution and sedimentation from anthropogenic activities including agriculture and coastal development. Ocean color products from satellite sensors provide information on chlorophyll (phytoplankton pigment), sediments, and colored dissolved organic material. Further, ship-based in-water measurements and emerging airborne measurements provide in situ data for the vicarious calibration of current and next generation satellite ocean color sensors and to validate the algorithms that use the remotely sensed observations. Recent NASA airborne missions over Monterey Bay, CA, have demonstrated novel above- and in-water measurement capabilities supporting a combined airborne sensor approach (imaging spectrometer, microradiometers, and a sun photometer). The results characterize coastal atmospheric and aquatic properties through an end-to-end assessment of image acquisition, atmospheric correction, algorithm application, plus sea-truth observations from state-of-the-art instrument systems. The primary goal of the airborne missions was to demonstrate the following in support of calibration and validation exercises for satellite coastal ocean color products: 1) the utility of a multi-sensor airborne instrument suite to assess the bio-optical properties of coastal California, including water quality; and 2) the importance of contemporaneous atmospheric measurements to improve atmospheric correction in the coastal zone. Utilizing an imaging spectrometer optimized in the blue to green spectral domain enables higher signal for detection of the relatively dark radiance measurements from marine and freshwater ecosystem features. The novel airborne instrument, Coastal Airborne In-situ Radiometers (C-AIR) provides measurements of apparent optical properties with high dynamic range and fidelity for deriving exact water leaving radiances at the land-ocean boundary, including radiometrically shallow aquatic

  11. Research of the coastal zone by the airborne laser scanning data (Verbyanaya bay-bar, sea of Azov)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogorelov, Anatoliy V.; Antonenko, Mihail; Boyko, Evgeniy

    2015-06-01

    In the area Verbyanaya bay-bar (Sea of Azov) in an attempt to create large-scale cartographic base and subsequent thematic mapping of the geographical environment components airborne laser scanning and aerial photography were conducted. Airborne laser scanning data formed the basis of a comprehensive study of the coastal zone components. Methodical research apparatus includes receiving and processing technology of laser reflection points, constructing highprecision digital elevation model and raster surfaces. Mosaic of aerial photography is converted into a format mosaic - a geometrically correct image of the terrain. Set of high-precision digital surface models and thematic raster images obtained for specific dates, allows to analyze the dynamic adjustment of components of the coastal zone (shoreline, beach, shore dam with surge prism).

  12. A survey of potential users of the High Altitude Powered Platform (HAPP) in the ocean/coastal zone community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escoe, D.; Rigternik, P.

    1979-01-01

    The results of a survey of the ocean/coastal zone community to determine potential applications of a High Altitude Powered Platform (HAPP) are reported. Such a platform, capable of stationkeeping for periods up to a year over a given location, could make frequent and repeated high resolution observations over a given region or serve as a high-altitude regional communications link. Users were surveyed in person and via a questionnaire to determine the desirability of the HAPP within the ocean/coastal zone community. The results of the survey indicated that there is strong interest in all areas of the user community (research and development, operational agencies, and private industry) in having NASA develop the HAPP.

  13. Use of coastal zone color scanner imagery to identify nearshore ocean areas affected by land-based pollutants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    LaPointe, T.F.; Basta, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the analysis was to use remotely sensed satellite imagery to determine the spatial boundaries of nearshore areas or zones likely to be affected by pollutants from land-based sources, so that data collected on the presence or absence of living marine resources could be combined with information on land-based pollutant discharges in a preliminary relative assessment of potential risk. Ocean zones of impact related to East Coast estuaries and embayments were approximated using reflectance patterns from data transmitted from the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) instrument mounted on the NASA Nimbus-7 satellite. Data were transformed from numerical measures of radiance to photographic images suitable for identifying and mapping ocean impact zones through a simple enhancement technique.

  14. 30 CFR 250.260 - What Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...)(3)(B)) and 15 CFR 930.76(c) stating that the proposed development and production activities.... “Information” as required by 15 CFR 930.76(a) and 15 CFR 930.58(a)(2)) and “Analysis” as required by 15 CFR 930... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What Coastal Zone Management Act...

  15. Shapefile for Coastal Zone Management Program counties of the United States and its territories, 2009 (CZMP_counties_2009.shp)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartwell, Stephen R.; Wingfield, Dana K.; Allwardt, Alan O.; Wong, Florence L.; Lightsom, Frances L.

    2013-01-01

    A shapefile of 492 Coastal Zone Management Program counties of the United States and its territories, current for the ground condition in 2009, has been extracted from the U.S. Census Bureau MAF/TIGER database. Geospatial information systems with the capability to search user-defined, polygonal geographic areas will be able to utilize this shapefile or secondary products derived from it, such as well-known text representations of the individual polygons within the shapefile.

  16. Bio-optical profile data report coastal transition zone program, R/V Point Sur, June 15-28, 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Curtiss O.; Rhea, W. Joseph

    1990-01-01

    Twenty vertical profiles of the bio-optical properties of the ocean were made during a research cruise on the R/V Point Sur, June 15 to 28, 1987, as part of the Coastal Transition Zone Program off Point Arena, California. Extracted chlorophyll values were also measured at some stations to provide calibration data for the in situ fluorometer. This summary provides investigators with an overview of the data collected. The entire data set is available in digital form.

  17. Bio-optical profile data report coastal transition zone program, R/V Thomas Washington, June 24 - July 21, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Curtiss O.; Rhea, W. Joseph

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-three vertical profiles of the bio-optical properties of the ocean were made during a research cruise on the R/V Thomas Washington, June 24 to July 21, 1988, as part of the Coastal Transition Zone Program off Point Arena, California. A summary is given, to provide investigators with an overview of the data collected. The entire data set is available in digital form for interested researchers.

  18. Proposed Method for Disaggregation of Secondary Data: The Model for External Reliance of Localities in the Coastal Management Zone (MERLIN-CMZ)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Model for External Reliance of Localities In (MERLIN) Coastal Management Zones is a proposed solution to allow scaling of variables to smaller, nested geographies. Utilizing a Principal Components Analysis and data normalization techniques, smaller scale trends are linked to ...

  19. Testing two potential fates for coastal marshes: Greenhouse gas emissions from native, Phragmites australis-invaded, and permanently inundated zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseman-Valtierra, S.; Martin, R.; Tang, J.; Morkeski, K.; China, I.; Brannon, E.; Watson, E. B.

    2014-12-01

    Global changes such as biological invasions and sea level rise can significantly affect GHG emissions from coastal wetlands by changing plant community composition and/or environmental conditions. To first characterize GHG fluxes across major plant-defined marsh zones, CO2, N2O, and CH4 fluxes were compared between S. patens- dominated high marsh and S. alterniflora low marsh during 2012 and 2013 growing seasons in 3 New England marshes. To test how these fluxes may change in response to biological invasions and sea level rise, GHG fluxes were then compared between native, P.australis- invaded, and permanently inundated marsh zones at these sites in 2013 and 2014. GHG emissions were analyzed simultaneously from marsh ecosystems using infrared-based spectrometers connected to static flux chambers. Daytime CO2 uptake rates (ranging on average between -2 and -21 μmol CO2 m-2s-1) were generally greater in S. alterniflora low marsh zones than in S. patens high marsh among all 3 sites. Methane fluxes were generally low in both native marsh zones (< 50 μmol CH4 m-2 h-1) and N2O emissions were rare. However, CO2 uptake and CH4 emissions from P. australis zones were typically more than an order of magnitude greater than those of either native marsh zone. In contrast, permanently inundated marsh soils had similar GHG emissions to native marsh zones. . Though large, the P. australis CH4 emissions are estimated to offset less than 5% of observed CO2 uptake rates based on a global warming potential of 25 (100 years). These results suggest that two alternative fates for coastal marshes in the future- conversion to P. australis marshes or to standing water with sea level rise- will substantially affect CO2 and CH4 emissions. Net impacts on climatic forcing of these ecosystems will depend on how long term C sequestration is affected as these emissions shift.

  20. Coastal zone color scanner pigment concentrations in the southern ocean and relationships to geophysical surface features

    SciTech Connect

    Comiso, J.C.; McClain, C.R. ); Sullivan, C.W. ); Ryan, J.P. ); Leonard, C.L. )

    1993-02-15

    The spatial and seasonal distributions of phytoplankton pigment concentration over the entire southern ocean have been studied for the first time using the coastal zone color scanner historical data set (from October 1978 through June 1986). Enhanced pigment concentrations are observed between 35[degrees]S and 55[degrees]S throughout the year, with such enhanced regions being more confined to the south in the austral summer and extending further north in the winter. North and south of the polar front, phytoplankton blooms (>1 mg/m[sup 3]) are not uniformly distributed around the circumpolar region. Instead, blooms appear to be located in regions of ice retreat (or high melt areas) such as the Scotia Sea and the Ross Sea, in relatively shallow areas (e.g., the Patagonian and the New Zealand shelves), in some regions of Ekman upwelling like the Tasman Sea, and near areas of high eddy kinetic such as the Agulhas retroflection. Among all features examined by regression analysis, bathymetry appears to be the one most consistently correlated with pigments (correlation coefficient being about [minus]0.3 for the entire region). The cause of negative correlation with bathymetry is unknown but is consistent with the observed abundance of iron in shallow areas in the Antarctic region. It is also consistent with resuspension of phytoplankton cells by wind-induced mixing, especially in shallow waters. Nutrients (phosphate, nitrate, and silicate) are found to correlate significantly with pigments when the entire southern ocean is considered, but south of 55[degrees]S the correlation is poor, probably because the Antarctic waters are not nutrient limited. Large interannual variability (>30%) in average pigment concentration over the entire region during different seasons indicates possible influence of time dependent parameters. 66 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Trace element fluxes in sediments of an environmentally impacted river from a coastal zone of Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Yuri Jacques Agra Bezerra; Cantalice, José Ramon Barros; Singh, Vijay P; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo; Piscoya, Victor Casimiro; Guerra, Sérgio M S

    2015-10-01

    Data regarding trace element concentrations and fluxes in suspended sediments and bedload are scarce. To fill this gap and meet the international need to include polluted rivers in future world estimation of trace element fluxes, this study aimed to determine the trace element fluxes in suspended sediment and bedload of an environmentally impacted river in Brazil. Water, suspended sediment, and bedload from both the upstream and the downstream cross sections were collected. To collect both the suspended sediment and water samples, we used the US DH-48. Bedload measurements were carried out using the US BLH 84 sampler. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined by inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES). As and Hg were determined by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AA-FIAS). The suspended sediments contributed more than 99 % of the trace element flux. By far Pb and to a less extent Zn at the downstream site represents major concerns. The yields of Pb and Zn in suspended sediments were 4.20 and 2.93 kg km(2) year(-1), respectively. These yields were higher than the values reported for Pb and Zn for Tuul River (highly impacted by mining activities), 1.60 and 1.30 kg km(2) year(-1), respectively, as well as the Pb yield (suspended + dissolved) to the sea of some Mediterranean rivers equal to 3.4 kg km(2) year(-1). Therefore, the highest flux and yield of Pb and Zn in Ipojuca River highlighted the importance to include medium and small rivers-often overlooked in global and regional studies-in the future estimation of world trace element fluxes in order to protect estuaries and coastal zones. PMID:25989857

  2. Tiny is mighty: seagrass beds have a large role in the export of organic material in the tropical coastal zone.

    PubMed

    Gillis, Lucy G; Ziegler, Alan D; van Oevelen, Dick; Cathalot, Cecile; Herman, Peter M J; Wolters, Jan W; Bouma, Tjeerd J

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystems in the tropical coastal zone exchange particulate organic matter (POM) with adjacent systems, but differences in this function among ecosystems remain poorly quantified. Seagrass beds are often a relatively small section of this coastal zone, but have a potentially much larger ecological influence than suggested by their surface area. Using stable isotopes as tracers of oceanic, terrestrial, mangrove and seagrass sources, we investigated the origin of particulate organic matter in nine mangrove bays around the island of Phuket (Thailand). We used a linear mixing model based on bulk organic carbon, total nitrogen and δ13C and δ15N and found that oceanic sources dominated suspended particulate organic matter samples along the mangrove-seagrass-ocean gradient. Sediment trap samples showed contributions from four sources oceanic, mangrove forest/terrestrial and seagrass beds where oceanic had the strongest contribution and seagrass beds the smallest. Based on ecosystem area, however, the contribution of suspended particulate organic matter derived from seagrass beds was disproportionally high, relative to the entire area occupied by mangrove forests, the catchment area (terrestrial) and seagrass beds. The contribution from mangrove forests was approximately equal to their surface area, whereas terrestrial contributions to suspended organic matter under contributed compared to their relative catchment area. Interestingly, mangrove forest contribution at 0 m on the transects showed a positive relationship with the exposed frontal width of the mangrove, indicating that mangrove forest exposure to hydrodynamic energy may be a controlling factor in mangrove outwelling. However we found no relationship between seagrass bed contribution and any physical factors, which we measured. Our results indicate that although seagrass beds occupy a relatively small area of the coastal zone, their role in the export of organic matter is disproportional and should be

  3. Tiny Is Mighty: Seagrass Beds Have a Large Role in the Export of Organic Material in the Tropical Coastal Zone

    PubMed Central

    Gillis, Lucy G.; Ziegler, Alan D.; van Oevelen, Dick; Cathalot, Cecile; Herman, Peter M. J.; Wolters, Jan W.; Bouma, Tjeerd J.

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystems in the tropical coastal zone exchange particulate organic matter (POM) with adjacent systems, but differences in this function among ecosystems remain poorly quantified. Seagrass beds are often a relatively small section of this coastal zone, but have a potentially much larger ecological influence than suggested by their surface area. Using stable isotopes as tracers of oceanic, terrestrial, mangrove and seagrass sources, we investigated the origin of particulate organic matter in nine mangrove bays around the island of Phuket (Thailand). We used a linear mixing model based on bulk organic carbon, total nitrogen and δ13C and δ15N and found that oceanic sources dominated suspended particulate organic matter samples along the mangrove-seagrass-ocean gradient. Sediment trap samples showed contributions from four sources oceanic, mangrove forest/terrestrial and seagrass beds where oceanic had the strongest contribution and seagrass beds the smallest. Based on ecosystem area, however, the contribution of suspended particulate organic matter derived from seagrass beds was disproportionally high, relative to the entire area occupied by mangrove forests, the catchment area (terrestrial) and seagrass beds. The contribution from mangrove forests was approximately equal to their surface area, whereas terrestrial contributions to suspended organic matter under contributed compared to their relative catchment area. Interestingly, mangrove forest contribution at 0 m on the transects showed a positive relationship with the exposed frontal width of the mangrove, indicating that mangrove forest exposure to hydrodynamic energy may be a controlling factor in mangrove outwelling. However we found no relationship between seagrass bed contribution and any physical factors, which we measured. Our results indicate that although seagrass beds occupy a relatively small area of the coastal zone, their role in the export of organic matter is disproportional and should be

  4. Submarine groundwater discharge and nutrient addition to the coastal zone and coral reefs of leeward Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Street, J.H.; Knee, K.L.; Grossman, E.E.; Paytan, A.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple tracers of groundwater input (salinity, Si, 223Ra, 224Ra, and 226Ra) were used together to determine the magnitude, character (meteoric versus seawater), and nutrient contribution associated with submarine groundwater discharge across the leeward shores of the Hawai'ian Islands Maui, Moloka'i, and Hawai'i. Tracer abundances were elevated in the unconfined coastal aquifer and the nearshore zone, decreasing to low levels offshore, indicative of groundwater discharge (near-fresh, brackish, or saline) at all locations. At several sites, we detected evidence of fresh and saline SGD occurring simultaneously. Conservative estimates of SGD fluxes ranged widely, from 0.02-0.65??m3??m- 2 d- 1at the various sites. Groundwater nutrient fluxes of 0.04-40??mmol N m- 2 d- 1 and 0.01-1.6??mmol P m- 2 d- 1 represent a major source of new nutrients to coastal ecosystems along these coasts. Nutrient additions were typically greatest at locations with a substantial meteoric component in groundwater, but the recirculation of seawater through the aquifer may provide a means of transferring terrestrially-derived nutrients to the coastal zone at several sites. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Systematically variable planktonic carbon metabolism along a land-to-lake gradient in a Great Lakes coastal zone

    PubMed Central

    Weinke, Anthony D.; Kendall, Scott T.; Kroll, Daniel J.; Strickler, Eric A.; Weinert, Maggie E.; Holcomb, Thomas M.; Defore, Angela A.; Dila, Deborah K.; Snider, Michael J.; Gereaux, Leon C.; Biddanda, Bopaiah A.

    2014-01-01

    During the summers of 2002–2013, we measured rates of carbon metabolism in surface waters of six sites across a land-to-lake gradient from the upstream end of drowned river-mouth Muskegon Lake (ML) (freshwater estuary) to 19 km offshore in Lake Michigan (LM) (a Great Lake). Despite considerable inter-year variability, the average rates of gross production (GP), respiration (R) and net production (NP) across ML (604 ± 58, 222 ± 22 and 381 ± 52 µg C L−1 day−1, respectively) decreased steeply in the furthest offshore LM site (22 ± 3, 55 ± 17 and −33 ± 15 µg C L−1day−1, respectively). Along this land-to-lake gradient, GP decreased by 96 ± 1%, whereas R only decreased by 75 ± 9%, variably influencing the carbon balance along this coastal zone. All ML sites were consistently net autotrophic (mean GP:R = 2.7), while the furthest offshore LM site was net heterotrophic (mean GP:R = 0.4). Our study suggests that pelagic waters of this Great Lakes coastal estuary are net carbon sinks that transition into net carbon sources offshore. Reactive and dynamic estuarine coastal zones everywhere may contribute similarly to regional and global carbon cycles. PMID:25954055

  6. Mapping Deep Low Velocity Zones in Alaskan Arctic Coastal Permafrost using Seismic Surface Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, S.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Dreger, D. S.

    2012-12-01

    Permafrost degradation may be an important amplifier of climate change; Thawing of near-surface sediments holds the potential of increasing greenhouse gas emissions due to microbial decomposition of preserved organic carbon. Recently, the characterization of "deep" carbon pools (several meters below the surface) in circumpolar frozen ground has increased the estimated amount of soil carbon to three times higher than what was previously thought. It is therefore potentially important to include the characteristics and processes of deeper permafrost strata (on the orders of a few to tens of meters below surface) in climate models for improving future predictions of accessible carbon and climate feedbacks. This extension is particularly relevant if deeper formations are not completely frozen and may harbor on-going microbial activity despite sub-zero temperatures. Unfortunately, the characterization of deep permafrost systems is non-trivial; logistics and drilling constraints often limit direct characterization to relatively shallow units. Geophysical measurements, either surface or airborne, are often the most effective tools for evaluating these regions. Of the available geophysical techniques, the analysis of seismic surface waves (e.g. MASW) has several unique advantages, mainly the ability to provide field-scale information with good depth resolution as well as penetration (10s to 100s of m with small portable sources). Surface wave methods are also able to resolve low velocity regions, a class of features that is difficult to characterize using traditional P-wave refraction methods. As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE-Arctic) project, we conducted a three-day seismic field survey (May 12 - 14, 2012) at the Barrow Environmental Observatory, which is located within the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain. Even though permafrost at the study site is continuous, ice-rich and thick (>= 350m), our Multichannel Analysis of

  7. Recovery of coastal ecosystems after large tsunamis in various climatic zones - review of cases from tropical, temperate and polar zones (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczucinski, W.

    2013-12-01

    Large tsunamis cause significant changes in coastal ecosystems. They include modifications in shoreline position, sediment erosion and deposition, new initial soil formation, salination of soils and waters, removal of vegetation, as well as direct impact on humans and infrastructure. The processes and rate of coastal zone recovery from large tsunamis has been little studied but during the last decade a noteworthy progress has been made. This study focus on comparison of recovery processes in various climatic zones, namely in monsoonal-tropical, temperate and polar zone. It is based on own observation and monitoring in areas affected by 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami in Thailand, 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami in Japan and 2000 Paatuut landslide-generated tsunami in Vaigat Strait (west Greenland), as well as on review of published studies from those areas. The particular focus is on physical and biological recoveries of beaches, recovery of coastal vegetation, new soil formation in eroded areas and those covered by tsunami deposits, marine salt removal from soils, surface- and groundwater, as well as landscape adjustment after the tsunamis. The beach zone - typically the most tsunami-eroded zone, has been recovered already within weeks to months and has been observed to be in the pre-tsunami equilibrium stage within one year in all the climate zones, except for sediment-starved environments. The existing data on beach ecosystems point also to relatively fast recovery of meio- and macrofauna (within weeks to several months). The recovery of coastal vegetation depends on the rate of salt removal from soils or on the rate of soil formation in case of its erosion or burial by tsunami deposits. The salt removal have been observed to depend mainly on precipitation and effective water drainage. In tropical climate with seasonal rainfall of more 3000 mm the salt removal was fast, however, in temperate climate with lower precipitation and flat topography the salinities still exceeded

  8. Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA variation in Lithuanians.

    PubMed

    Kasperaviciūte, D; Kucinskas, V; Stoneking, M

    2004-09-01

    The genetic composition of the Lithuanian population was investigated by analysing mitochondrial DNA hypervariable region 1, RFLP polymorphisms and Y chromosomal biallelic and STR markers in six ethnolinguistic groups of Lithuanians, to address questions about the origin and genetic structure of the present day population. There were no significant genetic differences among ethnolinguistic groups, and an analysis of molecular variance confirmed the homogeneity of the Lithuanian population. MtDNA diversity revealed that Lithuanians are close to both Slavic (Indo-European) and Finno-Ugric speaking populations of Northern and Eastern Europe. Y-chromosome SNP haplogroup analysis showed Lithuanians to be closest to Latvians and Estonians. Significant differences between Lithuanian and Estonian Y chromosome STR haplotypes suggested that these populations have had different demographic histories. We suggest that the observed pattern of Y chromosome diversity in Lithuanians may be explained by a population bottleneck associated with Indo-European contact. Different Y chromosome STR distributions in Lithuanians and Estonians might be explained by different origins or, alternatively, be the result of some period of isolation and genetic drift after the population split. PMID:15469421

  9. Thermal regime of shallow water bodies in the coastal tundra zone of the Hudson Bay Lowlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duguay, C. R.; Soliman, A. S.; Macrae, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    Many shallow lakes and ponds of the Arctic/sub-Arctic contain thick, organic-rich sediments, which have the potential to release significant amounts of CO2 or CH4 to the atmosphere if sediment decomposition rates increase in response to warmer temperatures caused by global warming. This may be exacerbated by a deepening of the seasonal sediment thaw depth in small water bodies that are underlain by permafrost. An important step in linking climatic conditions to rates of organic matter decomposition and gas production from shallow water bodies is an improved understanding of the thermal properties of lake sediments and how sediment temperatures fluctuate in response to changing air temperatures. This knowledge is also important if the ratio of terrestrial to aquatic landscape units in cold regions changes under a warmer climate. One approach that has been used in terrestrial permafrost environments is the examination of how mean annual permafrost surface temperature deviates from mean annual 2-m screen height air temperature (MAAT). The offset between MAAT and the mean annual sediment surface temperature (MASST) has been found to be much larger in deep aquatic systems (greater than 10 m) than in terrestrial permafrost systems due to the presence of the water column that can efficiently transfer heat through mixing. However, the efficiency of heat transfer in shallow water bodies is expected to larger in summer (thawed) than in winter (frozen) conditions, when thermal energy must move by conduction alone. The present study examined the efficiency of sediment heat transfer in shallow water bodies (less than 3 m) during summer and winter periods. Air, sediment and water temperatures of three shallow water bodies in the coastal tundra zone of the Hudson Bay Lowlands near Churchill, Manitoba, Canada were monitored (December 2009-August 2011). Arrays of thermistors and heat pulse probes were placed at 10 cm increments between 20 cm above the water/sediment interface and

  10. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Roth, F; Lessa, G C; Wild, C; Kikuchi, R K P; Naumann, M S

    2016-05-15

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ(13)Corg and δ(15)N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality. PMID:27038882

  11. The numerical calculation of hydrological processes in the coastal zone of the Black Sea region in the city of Poti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghinadze, Ivane; Pkhakadze, Manana

    2016-04-01

    (The article was published with support of the Sh. Rustaveli National Science Foundation) The serious environmental problems started in Poti after transfer of the main flow of the river Rioni to the north. As a result the flooding of the city stopped, but the reduction of water consumption in the city channel, caused a decrease of the sediments carried away by the river, what leads to coastal erosion. The coast changes are connected with the movement of the waves and currents in the coastal part of the sea. In the paper, the three-dimensional mathematical model of sediment transport and coastal zone lithodynamics is developed. The finite element formulations for the problems of wave modes, coastal currents, sediment transport and evolution of the coastal zone of the sea, are given. The numerical algorithms, implemented in the form of software. Programs are allowing to bring the solutions of the tasks to numerical results. The numerical modeling was developed in three stages. In the first stage the topography of the coast and the initial geometry of the structures are considered as an input parameters. Then, coastal wave field is calculated for the conditions prescribed in the initial wave. In the second stage, the calculated wave field is used to estimate the spatial distribution of the radiation stresses near-bottom orbital velocity. In the third stage the coastal wave fields and flow fields are used in the sub-models of sediment transport and changes in the topography of the coast. In the numerical solution of basic equations of motion of the waves, coastal currents and changes in sea bottom topography we use: finite element, finite difference methods and the method of upper relaxation, Crank-Nicolson scheme. As an example, we are giving the results of research of the wave regime in the coastal area of the city of Poti (700X600m) adjacent to the port of Poti. The bottom profile, in this area is rather complicated. During the calculations of the average rise of

  12. A Model for the Transport of Sea-Spray Aerosols in the Coastal Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazzola, J.; Tedeschi, G.; Demoisson, A.

    2015-05-01

    We study the dynamics of sea-spray particles in the coastal region of La Reunion Island on the basis of numerical simulations using the transport aerosol model MACMod (Marine Aerosol Concentration Model) and a survey of the aerosol size distributions measured at four locations at two different heights in the north-west part of the island. This allows evaluation of the performance of our model in case of pure marine air masses with implementation of accurate boundary conditions. First of all, an estimate of the aerosol concentration at 10-m height at the upwind boundary of the calculation domain is obtained using a revisited version of the MEDEX (Mediterranean Extinction) model. Estimates of the vertical profile of aerosol concentrations are then provided using aerosol data obtained at two different heights at the upwind boundary of the calculation domain. A parametrization of the vertical profiles of aerosol concentrations for maritime environment is proposed. The results are then compared to the vertical profiles of 0.532 m aerosol particle extinction coefficient obtained from lidar data provided by the Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and also to the data provided by the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). This allows validation of the complete vertical profiles in the mixed layer and shows the validity of satellite data for determination of the vertical profiles. Two kinds of simulation were made: one without a particle advection flux at the upwind boundary of the numerical domain, whereas the second simulation was made with a particle advection flux. In the first case, the influence of the distance to the shoreline on the local sea-spray dynamics is investigated. In the second set of simulation, the particles issued from the local production in the surf zone near the shoreline are mixed with aerosols advected from the remote ocean. A good agreement between the model calculations using our boundary conditions and the data was found. The

  13. Coastal evidence for Holocene subduction-zone earthquakes and tsunamis in central Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dure, Tina; Cisternas, Marco; Horton, Benjamin; Ely, Lisa; Nelson, Alan R.; Wesson, Robert L.; Pilarczyk, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    The ∼500-year historical record of seismicity along the central Chile coast (30–34°S) is characterized by a series of ∼M 8.0–8.5 earthquakes followed by low tsunamis (<4 m) occurring on the megathrust about every 80 years. One exception is the AD 1730 great earthquake (M 9.0–9.5) and high tsunami (>10 m), but the frequency of such large events is unknown. We extend the seismic history of central Chile through a study of a lowland stratigraphic sequence along the metropolitan coast north of Valparaíso (33°S). At this site, higher relative sea level during the mid Holocene created a tidal marsh and the accommodation space necessary for sediment that preserves earthquake and tsunami evidence. Within this 2600-yr-long sequence, we traced six laterally continuous sand beds probably deposited by high tsunamis. Plant remains that underlie the sand beds were radiocarbon dated to 6200, 5600, 5000, 4400, 3800, and 3700 cal yr BP. Sediment properties and diatom assemblages of the sand beds—for example, anomalous marine planktonic diatoms and upward fining of silt-sized diatom valves—point to a marine sediment source and high-energy deposition. Grain-size analysis shows a strong similarity between inferred tsunami deposits and modern coastal sediment. Upward fining sequences characteristic of suspension deposition are present in five of the six sand beds. Despite the lack of significant lithologic changes between the sedimentary units under- and overlying tsunami deposits, we infer that the increase in freshwater siliceous microfossils in overlying units records coseismic uplift concurrent with the deposition of five of the sand beds. During our mid-Holocene window of evidence preservation, the mean recurrence interval of earthquakes and tsunamis is ∼500 years. Our findings imply that the frequency of historical earthquakes in central Chile is not representative of the greatest earthquakes and tsunamis that the central Chilean subduction zone has

  14. Concepts on tracking the impact of tropical cyclones through the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syvitski, J. P.; Hannon, M. T.; Kettner, A. J.; Bachman, S.

    2009-12-01

    constellation can track storm fronts and tropical cyclones and sense sediment discharged, resuspension of shoreline sediment, and be used to observe the dimensions and dynamics of delta flooding and delta-plain aggradation (Syvitski et al. 2009). An integrated workflow involving these models and data system will be presented outlining their use in characterizing sediment flux within the coastal zone.

  15. Gulf of California biogeographic regions based on coastal zone color scanner imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SantamaríA-Del-Angel, Eduardo; Alvarez-Borrego, Saúl; Müller-Karger, Frank E.

    1994-04-01

    Topographically, the Gulf of California is divided into a series of basins and trenches that deepen to the south. Maximum depth at the mouth is greater than 3000 m. Most of the northern gulf is less than 200 m deep. The gulf has hydrographic features conducive to high primary productivity. Upwelling events have been described on the basis of temperature distributions at the eastern coast during winter and spring and at the western coast during summer. Tidal amplitude may be as high as 9 m in the upper gulf. On the basis of discrete phytoplankton sampling, the gulf was previously divided into four geographic regions. This division took into consideration only the space distribution, taxonomic composition, and abundance of microphytoplankton. With the availability of the coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) imagery, we were able to include the time variability of pigments to make a more detailed biogeographic division of the gulf. With weekly composites of the imagery, we generated time series of pigment concentrations for 33 locations throughout the gulf and for the whole life span of the CZCS. The time series show a clear seasonal variation, with maxima in winter and spring and minima in summer. The effect of upwelling at the eastern coast is clearly evident, with high pigment concentrations. The effect of the summer upwelling off the Baja California coast is not evident in these time series. Time series from locations on the western side of the gulf also show maxima in winter and spring that are due to the eddy circulation that brings upwelled water from the eastern side. Principal-component analysis was applied to define 14 regions. Ballenas Channel, between Angel de la Guarda and Baja California, and the upper gulf always appeared as very distinct regions. Some of these 14 regions relate to the geographic distributions of important faunal groups, including the benthos, or their life cycles. For example, the upper gulf is a place for reproduction and the nursery of

  16. Lamb and kid mortality in village flocks in the coastal savanna zone of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Turkson, P K

    2003-12-01

    A cohort study was designed to observe and follow up mortality in lambs and kids in 88 flocks of sheep and goats under the traditional production system in five villages within the coastal savanna zone of Ghana over a 2-year period. The overall mortality rates for kids and lambs were 30.8% and 33.5%, respectively. Significantly higher proportions of kids (80.2%) and lambs (75.6%) up to 3 months of age died compared to kids and lambs from 4 to 12 months of age. The differences in mortality rates, either between male and female kids and lambs or between single-born and multiple-birth kids and lambs, were not significant. The odds ratio (OR) and relative risks (RR) for lambs and kids, on the basis of sex and birth types, were not significant; neither were the values obtained for attributable risk, attributable fraction, population attributable risk and population attributable fraction. The overall mortality rate on the basis of species of animal was not significant. At the village level, significant differences in the proportions of mortality on the basis of sex were seen in two villages. At Akotokyir, more male lambs (54.2%) died compared to females (27.6%), while at Apewosika more female lambs (42.2%) died compared to males (16.7%). The only significant difference in mortality proportions on the basis of birth type at the village level was seen at Apewosika, where more single-born kids died (52.8%) compared to kids born with sibling(s) (28.4%). The significant ORs for mortalities were 3.10 for male lambs at Akotokyir, 3.35 for female lambs at Apewosika and 2.82 for single-born kids at Apewosika. The corresponding RRs were equally significant. On the basis of species, significantly more lambs died at Akotokyir (44.2%) and Kwesimprah (44.7%) compared to kids. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:14690087

  17. Benthic Macroinvertebrate Assemblages in the Near Coastal Zone of Lake Erie

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages have been used as indicators of ecological condition because their responses integrate localized environmental conditions of the sediments and overlying water. Assemblages of benthic invertebrates in the near coastal region are of particular...

  18. Waterfowl and wetlands management in the coastal zone of the Atlantic Flyway: Meeting and summary comments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    A conference on waterfowl and wetlands along the Atlantic coast of North America was held in Wilmington, Delaware in September 1986. Discussions centered around coastal impoundments and Open Marsh Water Management as methods of mosquito control and waterfowl enhancement. Single purpose management of coastal marshes, whether for mosquito control or waterfowl, may not be the most beneficial approach. Where management options are available, the management for habitat heterogeneity may be indicated.

  19. Comment on 'Aerosol and Rayleigh radiance contributions to Coastal Zone Colour Scanner images' by Eckstein and Simpson

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, H. R.; Evans, R. H.

    1993-01-01

    In a recent paper Eckstein and Simpson describe what they believe to be serious difficulties and/or errors with the CZCS (Coastal Zone Color Scanner) processing algorithms based on their analysis of seven images. Here we point out that portions of their analysis, particularly those dealing with multiple scattered Rayleigh radiance, are incorrect. We also argue that other problems they discuss have already been addressed in the literature. Finally, we suggest that many apparent artifacts in CZCS-derived pigment fields are likely to be due to inadequacies in the sensor band set or to poor radiometric stability, both of which will be remedied with the next generation of ocean color sensors.

  20. Residence time, mineralization processes and groundwater origin within a carbonate coastal aquifer with a thick unsaturated zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoni, S.; Huneau, F.; Garel, E.; Vergnaud-Ayraud, V.; Labasque, T.; Aquilina, L.; Jaunat, J.; Celle-Jeanton, H.

    2016-09-01

    This study aims at establishing groundwater residence times, identifying mineralization processes and determining groundwater origins within a carbonate coastal aquifer with thick unsaturated zone and lying on a granitic depression. A multi-tracer approach (major ions, SiO2, Br-, Ba+, Sr2+, 18O, 2H, 13C, 3H, Ne, Ar) combined with a groundwater residence time determination using CFCs and SF6 allows defining the global setting of the study site. A typical mineralization conditioned by the sea sprays and the carbonate matrix helped to validate the groundwater weighted residence times from using a binary mixing model. Terrigenic SF6 excesses have been detected and quantified, which permits to identify a groundwater flow from the surrounding fractured granites towards the lower aquifer principally. The use of CFCs and SF6 as a first hydrogeological investigation tool is possible and very relevant despite the thick unsaturated zone and the hydraulic connexion with a granitic environment.

  1. Green reconstruction of the tsunami-affected areas in India using the integrated coastal zone management concept.

    PubMed

    Sonak, Sangeeta; Pangam, Prajwala; Giriyan, Asha

    2008-10-01

    A tsunami, triggered by a massive undersea earthquake off Sumatra in Indonesia, greatly devastated the lives, property and infrastructure of coastal communities in the coastal states of India, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Malaysia and Thailand. This event attracted the attention of environmental managers at all levels, local, national, regional and global. It also shifted the focus from the impact of human activities on the environment to the impacts of natural hazards. Recovery/reconstruction of these areas is highly challenging. A clear understanding of the complex dynamics of the coast and the types of challenges faced by the several stakeholders of the coast is required. Issues such as sustainability, equity and community participation assume importance. The concept of ICZM (integrated coastal zone management) has been effectively used in most parts of the world. This concept emphasizes the holistic assessment of the coast and a multidisciplinary analysis using participatory processes. It integrates anthropocentric and eco-centric approaches. This paper documents several issues involved in the recovery of tsunami-affected areas and recommends the application of the ICZM concept to the reconstruction efforts. PMID:17544565

  2. Computer-aided analysis of Landsat data for surveying Texas coastal zone environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kristof, S. J.; Weismiller, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of using machine-aided processing of Landsat data to inventory environmental units was studied by analyzing geometrically corrected and spatially registered Landsat data collected over the Matagorda Bay area of the Texas coastal estuarine system. A clustering algorithm (nonsupervised processor) was used to divide the data into groups of sample points of similar spectral characteristics, and correlation of spectral classes with reference data on a point-to-point basis showed the coastal features exhibit unique spectral variations. Use of a maximum likelihood algorithm permitted discrimination of 13 terrestrial and aquatic environments.

  3. Calculation of the climate dynamics characteristics in the coastal sea zone by the methods of hydrodynamic and probabilistic modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronov, G. F.; Zilberstein, O. I.

    1996-02-01

    For successful approach to economical problems related to natural resources operation in the shelf and coastal sea zones it is necessary to have various characteristics of current regime state and its possible changes. Their variability results from sophisticated hydrodynamic processes and their interaction in natural conditions. An estimation of the extreme sea characteristics and ones with return period of 25, 50 and 100 years for the regions with lack of observations becomes of great importance now. It becomes possible on the basis of joint methods which include computer generation of ecological characteristics using observation data available and thermodynamic and probabilistic models. Methods of evaluation of sea regime main elements (wind, waves, currents, sea level) including characteristics with long return periods for coastal zone and offshore regions have been developed in the State Oceanographic Institute. They consist of the hydrodynamic models and estimation methods of the above-mentioned hydrometeorological elements in meso-scale and synoptical variability ranges, and also of probabilistic models of hydrometeorological phenomena, including rare events.

  4. Wet and Dry Atmospheric Depositions of Inorganic Nitrogen during Plant Growing Season in the Coastal Zone of Yellow River Delta

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yunzhao; Du, Siyao; Han, Guangxuan; Xing, Qinghui; Wu, Huifeng; Wang, Guangmei

    2014-01-01

    The ecological problems caused by dry and wet deposition of atmospheric nitrogen have been widespread concern in the world. In this study, wet and dry atmospheric depositions were monitored in plant growing season in the coastal zone of the Yellow River Delta (YRD) using automatic sampling equipment. The results showed that SO42− and Na+ were the predominant anion and cation, respectively, in both wet and dry atmospheric depositions. The total atmospheric nitrogen deposition was ~2264.24 mg m−2, in which dry atmospheric nitrogen deposition was about 32.02%. The highest values of dry and wet atmospheric nitrogen deposition appeared in May and August, respectively. In the studied area, NO3−–N was the main nitrogen form in dry deposition, while the predominant nitrogen in wet atmospheric deposition was NH4+–N with ~56.51% of total wet atmospheric nitrogen deposition. The average monthly attribution rate of atmospheric deposition of NO3−–N and NH4+–N was ~31.38% and ~20.50% for the contents of NO3−–N and NH4+–N in 0–10 cm soil layer, respectively, suggested that the atmospheric nitrogen was one of main sources for soil nitrogen in coastal zone of the YRD. PMID:24977238

  5. Wet and dry atmospheric depositions of inorganic nitrogen during plant growing season in the coastal zone of Yellow River Delta.

    PubMed

    Yu, Junbao; Ning, Kai; Li, Yunzhao; Du, Siyao; Han, Guangxuan; Xing, Qinghui; Wu, Huifeng; Wang, Guangmei; Gao, Yongjun

    2014-01-01

    The ecological problems caused by dry and wet deposition of atmospheric nitrogen have been widespread concern in the world. In this study, wet and dry atmospheric depositions were monitored in plant growing season in the coastal zone of the Yellow River Delta (YRD) using automatic sampling equipment. The results showed that SO4 (2-) and Na(+) were the predominant anion and cation, respectively, in both wet and dry atmospheric depositions. The total atmospheric nitrogen deposition was ~2264.24 mg m(-2), in which dry atmospheric nitrogen deposition was about 32.02%. The highest values of dry and wet atmospheric nitrogen deposition appeared in May and August, respectively. In the studied area, NO3 (-)-N was the main nitrogen form in dry deposition, while the predominant nitrogen in wet atmospheric deposition was NH4 (+)-N with ~56.51% of total wet atmospheric nitrogen deposition. The average monthly attribution rate of atmospheric deposition of NO3 (-)-N and NH4 (+)-N was ~31.38% and ~20.50% for the contents of NO3 (-)-N and NH4 (+)-N in 0-10 cm soil layer, respectively, suggested that the atmospheric nitrogen was one of main sources for soil nitrogen in coastal zone of the YRD. PMID:24977238

  6. Organic tracers in sediments from the coastal zone of Ras Abu el-Darag, Gulf of Suez

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushdi, Ahmed I.; Kassim, Tarek A. T. A.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    2009-10-01

    Sediment samples from the coastal zone of the Gulf of Suez contain a variety of organic compounds from anthropogenic and natural sources. A total of 12 surface samples of bottom sediments were collected with an Ekman grab sampler along an off-shore transect south of Ras Abu el-Darag. The samples were extracted with a mixture of dichloromethane and methanol (3:1 v/v) after drying and sieving through 250 μm mesh. The extracts were derivatized and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in order to characterize the chemical composition and sources of the organic components. Marine with minor terrestrial biota were the major natural sources of organic tracers and included n-alkanoic acids, sterols and saccharides (5.7-76.7%). Anthropogenic sources, from petroleum related activities, detergent usage for spill cleaning and littering, are indicated by the presence of n-alkanes with carbon preference index ≤1.0, hopanes, steranes, unresolved complex mixture of branched and cyclic hydrocarbons, alkyl nitriles, alkamides and plasticizers. Their total relative concentrations ranged from 23.3 to 97.3% of the total extracts. Petroleum residues from natural seepage may also be part of these hydrocarbons. The levels of anthropogenic inputs decrease from about 94% in coastal zone sediments to about 20% in sediments from the reef front.

  7. Carbon sequestration and Jerusalem artichoke biomass under nitrogen applications in coastal saline zone in the northern region of Jiangsu, China.

    PubMed

    Niu, Li; Manxia, Chen; Xiumei, Gao; Xiaohua, Long; Hongbo, Shao; Zhaopu, Liu; Zed, Rengel

    2016-10-15

    Agriculture is an important source of greenhouse gases, but can also be a significant sink. Nitrogen fertilization is effective in increasing agricultural production and carbon storage. We explored the effects of different rates of nitrogen fertilization on biomass, carbon density, and carbon sequestration in fields under the cultivation of Jerusalem artichoke as well as in soil in a coastal saline zone for two years. Five nitrogen fertilization rates were tested (in guream(-2)): 4 (N1), 8 (N2), 12 (N3), 16 (N4), and 0 (control, CK). The biomass of different organs of Jerusalem artichoke during the growth cycle was significantly higher in N2 than the other treatments. Under different nitrogen treatments, carbon density in organs of Jerusalem artichoke ranged from 336 to 419gCkg(-1). Carbon sequestration in Jerusalem artichoke was higher in treatments with nitrogen fertilization compared to the CK treatment. The highest carbon sequestration was found in the N2 treatment. Soil carbon content was higher in the 0-10cm than 10-20cm layer, with nitrogen fertilization increasing carbon content in both soil layers. The highest soil carbon sequestration was measured in the N2 treatment. Carbon sequestration in both soil and Jerusalem artichoke residue was increased by nitrogen fertilization depending on the rates in the coastal saline zone studied. PMID:27317133

  8. PC-SEAPAK - ANALYSIS OF COASTAL ZONE COLOR SCANNER AND ADVANCED VERY HIGH RESOLUTION RADIOMETER DATA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclain, C. R.

    1994-01-01

    PC-SEAPAK is a user-interactive satellite data analysis software package specifically developed for oceanographic research. The program is used to process and interpret data obtained from the Nimbus-7/Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), and the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). PC-SEAPAK is a set of independent microcomputer-based image analysis programs that provide the user with a flexible, user-friendly, standardized interface, and facilitates relatively low-cost analysis of oceanographic satellite data. Version 4.0 includes 114 programs. PC-SEAPAK programs are organized into categories which include CZCS and AVHRR level-1 ingest, level-2 analyses, statistical analyses, data extraction, remapping to standard projections, graphics manipulation, image board memory manipulation, hardcopy output support and general utilities. Most programs allow user interaction through menu and command modes and also by the use of a mouse. Most programs also provide for ASCII file generation for further analysis in spreadsheets, graphics packages, etc. The CZCS scanning radiometer aboard the NIMBUS-7 satellite was designed to measure the concentration of photosynthetic pigments and their degradation products in the ocean. AVHRR data is used to compute sea surface temperatures and is supported for the NOAA 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 satellites. The CZCS operated from November 1978 to June 1986. CZCS data may be obtained free of charge from the CZCS archive at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. AVHRR data may be purchased through NOAA's Satellite Data Service Division. Ordering information is included in the PC-SEAPAK documentation. Although PC-SEAPAK was developed on a COMPAQ Deskpro 386/20, it can be run on most 386-compatible computers with an AT bus, EGA controller, Intel 80387 coprocessor, and MS-DOS 3.3 or higher. A Matrox MVP-AT image board with appropriate monitor and cables is also required. Note that the authors have received some reports of

  9. Diffusion in coastal and harbour zones, effects of Waves,Wind and Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diez, M.; Redondo, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    As there are multiple processes at different scales that produce turbulent mixing in the ocean, thus giving a large variation of horizontal eddy diffusivities, we use a direct method to evaluate the influence of different ambient parameters such as wave height and wind on coastal dispersion. Measurements of the diffusivity are made by digital processing of images taken from from video recordings of the sea surface near the coast. The use of image analysis allows to estimate both spatial and temporal characteristics of wave fields, surface circulation and mixing in the surf zone, near Wave breakers and inside Harbours. The study of near-shore dispersion [1], with the added complexity of the interaction between wave fields, longshore currents, turbulence and beach morphology, needs detailed measurements of simple mixing processes to compare the respective influences of forcings at different scales. The measurements include simultaneous time series of waves, currents, wind velocities from the studied area. Cuantitative information from the video images is accomplished using the DigImage video processing system [3], and a frame grabber. The video may be controlled by the computer, allowing, remote control of the processing. Spectral analysis on the images has also used n order to estimate dominant wave periods as well as the dispersion relations of dominant instabilities. The measurements presented here consist mostly on the comarison of difussion coeficients measured by evaluating the spread of blobs of dye (milk) as well as by measuring the separation between different buoys released at the same time. We have used a techniques, developed by Bahia(1997), Diez(1998) and Bezerra(2000)[1-3] to study turbulent diffusion by means of digital processing of images taken from remote sensing and video recordings of the sea surface. The use of image analysis allows to measure variations of several decades in horizontal diffusivity values, the comparison of the diffusivities

  10. Scientific concepts for hydroacoustic seafloor mapping in the coastal zone and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hass, H. Christian; Bartholomä, Alexander; Bürk, Dietmar; Holler, Peter; Mielck, Finn; Reimers, Hans-Christian

    2013-04-01

    usually single-beam systems that need suitable interpolation routines. We present a workflow for on-survey visualization of hydroacoustic data using color interpolation and present a method to combine the hydroacoustic and ground-truth data sets. Eventually, we suggest a way to interpret the data in a most objective manner. The results from the coastal zone of the North Sea reveal that for scientific purposes it is mostly sufficient to maintain transect-line distances of two or three times the SSS swath width. It is suggested to build gray-scale SSS mosaics during the survey. As a general rule a classification into 20% gray-scale classes should be carried out and 5 samples per class should be taken as a minimum requirement. We recommend to apply two SSS frequencies synchronously to enable the discrimination between backscatter due to grain size and backscatter due to small bedforms. This information is also most important for the interpretation of roughness and hardness data provided by the AGDS. The synopsis of both, SSS and AGDS in combination with multibeam and ground-truth data reveals the most reliable results.

  11. High Holocene coastal uplift gives insight into the seismic behavior at the Arica Bend (Peru-Chile subduction zone)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madella, Andrea; Delunel, Romain; Szidat, Sönke; Schlunegger, Fritz

    2016-04-01

    KEYWORDS: northern Chile, coastal uplift, plate coupling, seismic cycle The Peru-Chile subduction zone offshore of the Arica Bend (18.3° S) is characterized by a seaward-concave geometry, which represents a very uncommon tectonic setting. Several published estimates of plate coupling suggest that the locking degree in the curved segment may be significantly lower than to the north and south of it, however, the lack of historical slip events hinders a full understanding of the seismic behavior in this particular portion of plate interface. We have mapped a terrace located at 35 m a.s.l. ca. 3 km onshore from the mouth of the Lluta river, which debouches immediately to the north of Arica. The sedimentology of the terrace has been described and three wood fragments embedded therein have been collected for radiocarbon dating. In addition, we compared the long stream profile of the Lluta river with its modeled steady-state profile, aiming to detect any possible tectonic perturbation along the trunk stream. Results show that the dated terrace consists of a thin storm deposit embedded within fluvial delta conglomerates, which have been most likely deposited near sea-level at ~10 ka. We thus infer that the coast of the Arica Bend, although characterized by long-term quiescence, has undergone remarkable uplift (~5 mm/y) throughout the Holocene. The vertical displacement has been inferred at roughly 175 km from the trench, which corresponds to the landward termination of the locked zone. Considering this structural position and the long-term absence of coseismic events in this trench segment, we propose that the inferred uplift signal might be related to interseismic flexural buckling, which does not result in permanent crustal deformation. Contrariwise, in the adjacent coastal regions north and south of the Arica Bend, repeated seismic cycles have resulted in long-term permanent crustal deformation, as observable in the uplifted Coastal Cordillera.

  12. Sensitivity of Tsunami Waves and Coastal Inundation/Runup to Seabed Displacement Models: Application to the Cascadia Subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalali Farahani, R.; Fitzenz, D. D.; Nyst, M.

    2015-12-01

    Major components of tsunami hazard modeling include earthquake source characterization, seabed displacement, wave propagation, and coastal inundation/run-up. Accurate modeling of these components is essential to identify the disaster risk exposures effectively, which would be crucial for insurance industry as well as policy makers to have tsunami resistant design of structures and evacuation planning (FEMA, 2008). In this study, the sensitivity and variability of tsunami coastal inundation due to Cascadia megathrust subduction earthquake are studied by considering the different approaches for seabed displacement model. The first approach is the analytical expressions that were proposed by Okada (1985, 1992) for the surface displacements and strains of rectangular sources. The second approach was introduced by Meade (2006) who introduced analytical solutions for calculating displacements, strains, and stresses on triangular sources. In this study, the seabed displacement using triangular representation of geometrically complex fault surfaces is compared with the Okada rectangular representations for the Cascadia subduction zone. In the triangular dislocation algorithm, the displacement is calculated using superposition of two angular dislocations for each of the three triangle legs. The triangular elements could give a better and gap-free representation of the fault surfaces. In addition, the rectangular representation gives large unphysical vertical displacement along the shallow-depth fault edge that generates unrealistic short-wavelength waves. To study the impact of these two different algorithms on the final tsunami inundation, the initial tsunami wave as well as wave propagation and the coastal inundation are simulated. To model the propagation of tsunami waves and coastal inundation, 2D shallow water equations are modeled using the seabed displacement as the initial condition for the numerical model. Tsunami numerical simulation has been performed on high

  13. Numerical studies of geomagnetically induced electric field on seafloor and near coastal zones incorporated with heterogeneous conductivity distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Tada-nori

    2015-12-01

    Abrupt changes of geomagnetic field can make large induced electric field and resultant electric current on the earth, which is called as geomagnetically induced current (GIC). It can yield damages to pipelines, cables, and other architectures. For understanding the phenomena and future risks of GIC, it is necessary to evaluate how the sub-surface electrical conductivity structure is important for the GIC because the heterogeneous conductivity structure in the crust and mantle affects the induced electrical current locally. The hazard prediction based on the homogeneous earth may result in the underestimation. Here, I introduce possible cases of geomagnetically induced electric field (GIE) on seafloor and near coastal areas, based on numerical forward simulations on one-, two-, and three-dimensional (1-D, 2-D, and 3-D) earth's structure including the sea layer. On the 1-D case, I show the possible amplitude of GIE on the seafloor, far from the coastal area. The second case study comes from 2-D forward simulation, in which the straightly elongated coastal line is assumed, and various sub-surface and sub-seafloor conductivity structures are imposed. The numerical results suggest that the amplitude of GIE on land becomes more than two times larger than that of the homogeneous earth without the sea layer. The width of land zone with larger GIE is about 20 km from the coast. In forward modeling with a simplified 3-D bathymetry, land electric field near the bay area increases with about ten times larger than that of the inland one. The seafloor GIE near the peninsula area also indicates about four times larger value than that of the other area at the same water depth. These phenomena can be explained by the boundary charge along the coastal area. I conclude that 3-D earth's conductivity structure including the realistic bathymetry and sub-surface and sub-seafloor structures should be essential and focused for the hazard assessment of GIC.

  14. Recent Evolution of Western Pacific Coastal Zones: Human-Induced Changes Documented by Remotely-Sensed Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, C. A.; Robinson, J. A.

    2002-12-01

    Even as we struggle to understand the processes instrumental in the Cenozoic evolution of the Pacific plate, the rates and magnitudes of some fundamental geologic agents are changing due to human interactions with the Earth. Coastal landscapes of the western Pacific convergent margins have experienced unprecedented changes in the past 50 years due to human activities. Abundant natural resources created by convergent margin processes (for example, rich volcanic soils supporting hardwood forests and agriculture; economically viable mineral deposits; and natural harbors) attract large human populations and development. Populations are growing especially rapidly along Pacific coastal zones; their increasing demands for water and electricity drive developments such as large dam construction that become key agents of geomorphologic change. For example, all of East Asia's major rivers are controlled by large dams, and hundreds of new dams are in stages of planning or construction. These developments dramatically change the water and sediment fluxes along the coast. Impacts include changing rates of deposition, shifting salinity balances in coastal waters, coastal erosion and subsidence, changing ecosystems and biogeochemical balances and controls. Another important change agent is coastline modification through land reclamation and development using dikes, levees, channel construction and dredge and fill activities. Using remotely sensed imagery -- astronaut images of Earth -- we provide examples of human activities currently modifying landscapes along East Asian coasts. Here, natural and human factors are interactive, and combine to create some of the largest rates of change along coasts anywhere in the world. In a sense, these events provide a laboratory for viewing natural processes at accelerated rates. The outstanding question is: Where will these changes in geomorphologic process take us in the larger context of the biogeochemical evolution of the margin of the

  15. Differential dissolution of a Pleistocene reef in the groundwater mixing zone of coastal Yucatan, Mexico.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Back, W.; Hanshaw, B.B.; Herman, J.S.; Van Driel, J. N.

    1986-01-01

    Mixing of fresh groundwater with subterranean Caribbean seawater generates a highly reactive geochemical zone that enhances aragonite and calcite dissolution and permits neomorphism of aragonite.-from Authors

  16. Atrazine fate and transport within the coastal zone in southeastern Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herbicide transport from crop-land to coastal waters may adversely impact water quality. This work examined potential atrazine impact from use on a farm field adjacent to the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve on Puerto Rico’s southeastern coast. Atrazine application was linked to residu...

  17. Remotely-sensed sea surface temperatuares (SST) of Northeaster Pacific Coastal Zones

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sea surface temperature (SST) is an important indicator of long-term trends and geographical temperature patterns; however there have been relatively few long-term records of SST in near-coastal habitats. In situ SST measurements are irregular in both space and time. Therefore, w...

  18. Controls on groundwater dynamics and root zone aeration of a coastal fluvial delta island, Wax Lake, Louisiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, M.; Hardison, A. K.; Moffett, K. B.

    2013-12-01

    Louisiana coastal wetlands are thought to function as buffers, filtering nutrient-rich terrestrial runoff as it travels to the Gulf of Mexico. While surface water filtration by these wetlands is a large and active area of research, flow through subsurface portions of the wetlands and possible nutrient cycling in the root zone has been largely overlooked. Specifically for Louisiana's coastal deltas, the physics and chemistry of island groundwater systems is unknown.To characterize these subsurface hydraulic dynamics at Pintail Island in the Wax Lake Delta, Louisiana, we collected sediment core samples and penetrometer measurements, monitored surface water and groundwater levels and chemistry, and analyzed meteorological, tidal, and river discharge data. As a first step, we focused on identifying wetland sediment properties and the relative influence of the major hydrologic controls, tides, delta outlet discharge, rainfall, and evapotranspiration, on water table dynamics. Pintail Island is a two-layer system with fine sediments and organic matter overlying sandy deltaic deposits. The sediment layer interface occurs approximately 60 cm below ground surface, around the mean surface water level. The vegetation root zone is concentrated in the surficial layer, although willow roots can extend into the deeper, higher-permeability sandy layer. Groundwater data from the upper portion of this sandy layer (~1m deep) is most strongly influenced by tides but also responds to long-term changes in discharge. While the tides are damped as they propagate into the island sediments, they also flood interior island lagoons, setting up groundwater gradients to potentially drive fluid and nutrient fluxes through the islands. Although the tidally oscillating water table causes significant temporal variation in root zone fluid potentials, evapotranspiration dynamics do not appear to strongly influence groundwater dynamics at depth, consistent with the shallow concentration of roots

  19. Time-series variations of the short-lived Ra in coastal waters: implying input of SGD to the coastal zone of Da-Chia River, Taichung, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Feng-Hsin; Su, Chih-Chieh; Lin, In-Tain; Huh, Chih-An

    2015-04-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been recognized as an important pathway for materials exchanging between land and sea. Input of SGD carries the associated nutrients, trace metals, and inorganic carbon that may makes great impacts on ecosystem in the coastal zone. Due to the variability of SGD magnitude, it is difficult to estimate the flux of those associated materials around the world. Even in the same area, SGD magnitude also varies in response to tide fluctuation and seasonal change on hydraulic gradient. Thus, long-term investigation is in need. In Taiwan, the SGD study is rare and the intrusion of seawater in the coastal aquifer is emphasized in previous studies. According to the information from Hydrogeological Data Bank (Central Geological Survey, MOEA), some areas still show potentiality of SGD. Here, we report the preliminary investigation result of SGD at Gaomei Wildlife Conservation Area which located at the south of the Da-Chia River mouth. This study area is characterized by a great tidal rang and a shallow aquifer with high groundwater recharge rate. Time-series measurement of the short-lived Ra in surface water was done in both dry and wet seasons at a tidal flat site and shows different trends of excess Ra-224 between dry and wet seasons. High excess Ra-224 activities (>20 dpm/100L) occurred at high tide in dry season but at low tide in wet season. The plot of salinity versus excess Ra-224, showing non-conservative curve, suggests that high excess Ra-224 activities derive from desorption in dry season but from SGD input in wet season.

  20. Impacts of climate change on the Senegalese coastal zones: Examples of the Cap Vert peninsula and Saloum estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niang, Isabelle; Dansokho, Mamadou; Faye, Serigne; Gueye, Khadim; Ndiaye, Pape

    2010-07-01

    Following a first study made to assess the impacts of sea level rise on the Senegalese coastline ( Dennis et al., 1995), this vulnerability and adaptation (V&A) study tried to determine the impacts of climate change on two representative coastal zones, the Cap Vert peninsula and the Saloum estuary as well as potential adaptation options. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Methodology ( Carter et al., 1994), completed by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Handbook ( Feenstra et al., 1998), were used together with different models (like the Bruun rule, the FEFLOW model), geographical information system and economic data to determine the physical and socio-economic impacts of different climate change scenarios on these coastal zones. Land losses are expected due to sea level rise that will enhance coastal erosion and increase inundation levels, the second phenomenon being responsible for most of these losses, especially in low lying areas like the Saloum estuary (27% of the total area lost with a 1 m inundation level). The combination of sea level rise and decreased precipitation will increase the salt water intrusion in a number of coastal aquifers, especially around Dakar and in the Saloum estuary. Population at risk of inundation in the Cap Vert peninsula could represent between 1 and 12% of the total population of this area. Economic values at risk were estimated by considering socio-economic scenarios and discount rates. For a 1 m inundation level by 2050, this could represent (for the two areas) 14.1% of the actual Gross Domestic Product. While housings represent more than 90% of this value in the Cap Vert peninsula, in the Saloum estuary, it is the agricultural production which represents the dominant form of value at risk (55%). Only two adaptation options, protection works (sea walls and groins) and afforestation of littoral dunes, were evaluated and costed. For a 1 m inundation level by 2050, this will represent 7.3% of the

  1. Sea surface temperature of the coastal zones of France. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deschamps, P. Y.; Frouin, R.; Cassanet, G.; Verger, F. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. HCMM data analysis shows some mesoscale features which were previously expected to occur: summer coastal upwellings in the Gulf of Lions, tidal fronts bordering the English Channel, and cooler surface waters at the continental shelf break. The analysis of the spectral variance density spectra show that the interpretation of the data usually is limited by the HCMM radiometric performance (noise levels) at wavenumbers below 5 km in the oceanic areas; from this analysis it may also be concluded that a decrease of the radiometric noise level down to 0.1 k against an increase of the ground resolution up to 2 km would give a better optimum of the radiometric performances in the oceanic areas. HCMM data appear to be useful for analysis of the sea surface temperature field, particularly in the very coastal area by profiting from the ground resolution of 500 m.

  2. Data Requirements for Oceanic Processes in the Open Ocean, Coastal Zone, and Cryosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagler, R. G.; Mccandless, S. W., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The type of information system that is needed to meet the requirements of ocean, coastal, and polar region users was examined. The requisite qualities of the system are: (1) availability, (2) accessibility, (3) responsiveness, (4) utility, (5) continuity, and (6) NASA participation. The system would not displace existing capabilities, but would have to integrate and expand the capabilities of existing systems and resolve the deficiencies that currently exist in producer-to-user information delivery options.

  3. Environmental application of remote sensing methods to coastal zone land use and marine resources management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodell, H. G.

    1970-01-01

    The interrelationships of biophysical environmental systems are investigated. Social decision-making affecting the environments of a coastal megapolis are examined. Remote sensing from high altitude aircraft and satellites afforded a powerful and indepensible tool for inventory and planning for urban development. Repetitive low to medium altitude photography is also used for studying environmental dynamics, and to document the cultural impact of man on his environment.

  4. Ocean Carbon Flux, Transport, and Burial Within the Western and Eastern US Coastal Zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McWilliams, James C.; Moisan, John R.; Haidvogel, Dale B.; Miller, Arthur J.; Cornuelle, Bruce; Stolzenbach, Keith D.

    2004-01-01

    This project has been to develop and apply a regional. eddy-resolving circulation and biogeochemistry model of both the western and eastern U.S. coastal regions, capable of simulating the processes that control the carbon cycle. Validation has been by statistical comparison with analyses from various satellite measurements, including those from EOS sensors, as well as from in situ measurements. Sensitivity studies were carried out to investigate how the coastal ecosystem and biogeochemical cycles respond to changes in climate, large-scale eutrophication from indus- trial pollution, and other anthropogenic induced changes. The research has been conducted in collaboration with research groups at UCLA. NASA/GSFC (Wallops), Rutgers, and SIO. Overall. the project was focused on several key modeling issues, each of which tie back into completing the primary task of developing a coastal carbon model for both the eastern and western US. coasts. Individual groups within the entire program are still collaborating to address these specific tasks. These include: implementation of the coupled circulation/biogeochemical model within the U.S. West Coast. including high-resolution, embedded subdomains for the Southern California Bight and Monterey Bay region; development of a biogeochemical model with resolved carbon, nitrogen and oxygen cycles; development of data assimilation techniques for use of satellite data sets; reconfiguration of the model domain to U.S. East Coast; development of coastal forcing fields: development of methods to compare the model against remotely sensed data; and, the test of model sensitivity to environmental conditions. Below, we present a summary of the progress made toward achieving these soak. Because this has been a multi-institutional, collaborative effort, we note the groups involved with particular activities.

  5. Editorial - Climate change impacts on rural poverty in low-elevation coastal zones, Edward B. Barbier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Michael; Wolanski, Eric

    2015-11-01

    In the Invited Feature Article in this issue of Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, we are extremely grateful to Edward Barbier for performing the major task of increasing our awareness of the hazards and risks faced by all communities on low lying coasts but especially the poor, rural communities (Barbier, 2015). Against a background of climate-induced change, we now have a good and increasing evidence of the way the natural estuarine, coastal and marine system will respond (Elliott et al, 2015). However, more importantly Barbier (2015) highlights the way in which poor, rural coastal communities will be affected and will need to respond or will need help from the developed world to respond. It is axiomatic that while those communities are having less impact than more developed countries on the causes of climate change they are more affected and so have to respond to its consequences, what have been called exogenic unmanaged pressures. Hence they need to rely on mechanisms, techniques, technologies and approaches to help them cope with such change (see also Wolanski and Elliott 2015).

  6. Comparison of model predicted to observed winds in the coastal zone

    SciTech Connect

    Garstang, M.; Pielke, R.A.; Snow, J.W.

    1982-06-01

    Predictions of near-surface (10 to 100 m) wind velocities made by a mesoscale numerical model on a 10 km grid over and near the coastline are checked against observations. Two comparisons are made. The first is between observed and model-estimated mean annual wind power density at locations where surface observations exist in three coastal areas: the Chesapeake Bay, the Apalachee Bay and the South Texas coastal area. The second comparison is made between model predictions over the Delmarva Peninsula and adjacent ocean and observations made over a 120 x 30 km rectangle extending across the peninsula and out to sea. It is concluded that the unbiased error analysis skill ratings of 81% and 76% are attained for two days of prediction-observation comparisons. In the meantime, the skill of the model in duplicating individual coastal wind fields is taken as 78%. In addition, a qualitative comparison is made between the predicted fields of wind and the observed wind field. The predicted wind field unquestionably reproduces the observed field.

  7. Pollution from organic contaminants in Greek marine areas, receiving anthropogenic pressures from intense activities in the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzianestis, Ioannis

    2014-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread pollutants in marine sediments, receiving the pressures from various anthropogenic activities in the coastal zone. Due to their mutagenic and carcinogenic behaviour, PAHs are classified as priority contaminants to be monitored in environmental quality control schemes. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of PAHs in coastal areas of Greece directly influenced from the operation of major industrial units in the coastal zone, investigate their sources and evaluate their potential toxicity by comparison against effect - based sediment quality guidelines. Thirty two surface sediment samples were collected from three areas of the Hellenic coastline: a) Antikyra bay in Korinthiakos gulf, influenced from the operation of an alumina and aluminium production plant b) Larymna bay in Noth Evoikos gulf, influenced from the operation of a nickel production plant and c) Aliveri bay in South Evoikos Gulf, influenced from a cement production plant. In all the areas studied, aquaculture and fishing activities have been also developed in the coastal zone. PAH concentrations were determined by GC-MS, after soxhlet extraction and fractionation by silica column chromatography. PAH sources and origin were investigated by applying several isomeric ratio diagnostic criteria. The mean quotient Effect- Range Median (m-ERM) was used to evaluate the potential of adverse effects posed to benthic organisms. Three m-ERM-q values were used to differentiate the probability of observing toxicity and classify sites into four categories: sediments with m-ERM<0.1 have the lowest probability (9%) of being toxic, those with m-ERM from 0.11 to 0.5 have a 21% probability of toxicity, those with m-ERM from 0.51 to 1.5 a 49% probability of toxicity, while sediments with m-ERM >1.5 have the highest probability (76%) of toxicity. Extremely high PAH concentrations more than 100,000 ng/g were found in the close vicinity of the alumina

  8. NIMBUS-7 CZCS. Coastal Zone Color Scanner Imagery for Selected Coastal Regions. North America - Europe. South America - Africa - Antarctica. Level 2 Photographic Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) is the first spacecraft instrument devoted to the measurement of ocean color. Although instruments on other satellites have sensed ocean color, their spectral bands, spatial resolution, and dynamic range were optimized for geographical or meteorological use. In the CZCS, every parameter is optimized for use over water to the exclusion of any other type of sensing. The signal-to-noise ratios in the spectral channels sensing reflected solar radiance are higher than those required in the past. These ratios need to be high because the ocean is such a poor reflecting surface that the majority of the signal seen by the reflected energy channels at spacecraft altitudes is backscattered solar radiation from the atmosphere rather than reflected solar energy from the ocean. The CZCS is a conventional multichannel scanning radiometer utilizing a rotating plane mirror at a 45 deg angle to the optic axis of a Cassegrain telescope. The mirror scans 360 deg; however, only 80 deg of data centered on the spacecraft nadir is collected for ocean color measurements. Spatial resolution at spacecraft nadir is 825x825 m with some degradation at the edges of the scan swath. The useful swath width from a spacecraft altitude of 955 km is 1600 km.

  9. Development of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner for NIMBUS 7. Volume 2: Test and performance data, revision A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The results of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner protoflight tests are examined in detail while some of the test results are evaluated with respect to expected performance. Performance characteristics examined include spectral response, signal to noise ratio as a function of radiance input, radiance response, the modulation transfer function, and the field of view and coregistration. The results of orbital sequence tests are also included. The in orbit performance or return of radiometric data in the six spectral bands is evaluated along with the data processing sequence necessary to derive the final data products. Examples of the raw data are given and the housekeeping or diagnostic data which provides information on the day to day health or status of the instrument are discussed.

  10. Estimation of time averages from irregularly spaced observations - With application to coastal zone color scanner estimates of chlorophyll concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chelton, Dudley B.; Schlax, Michael G.

    1991-01-01

    The sampling error of an arbitrary linear estimate of a time-averaged quantity constructed from a time series of irregularly spaced observations at a fixed located is quantified through a formalism. The method is applied to satellite observations of chlorophyll from the coastal zone color scanner. The two specific linear estimates under consideration are the composite average formed from the simple average of all observations within the averaging period and the optimal estimate formed by minimizing the mean squared error of the temporal average based on all the observations in the time series. The resulting suboptimal estimates are shown to be more accurate than composite averages. Suboptimal estimates are also found to be nearly as accurate as optimal estimates using the correct signal and measurement error variances and correlation functions for realistic ranges of these parameters, which makes it a viable practical alternative to the composite average method generally employed at present.

  11. Concentration, composition and sources of PAHs in the coastal sediments of the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of Qatar, Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Y S; Al Ansari, E M S; Wade, T L

    2014-08-30

    Surface sediments were collected from sixteen locations in order to assess levels and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments of Qatar exclusive economic zone (EEZ). Samples were analyzed for 16 parent PAHs, 18 alkyl homologs and for dibenzothiophenes. Total PAHs concentration (∑PAHs) ranged from 2.6 ng g(-1) to 1025 ng g(-1). The highest PAHs concentrations were in sediments in and adjacent to harbors. Alkylated PAHs predominated most of the sampling locations reaching up to 80% in offshore locations. Parent PAHs and parent high molecular weight PAHs dominated location adjacent to industrial activities and urban areas. The origin of PAHs sources to the sediments was elucidated using ternary plot, indices, and molecular ratios of specific compounds such as (Ant/Phe+Ant), (Flt/Flt+Pyr). PAHs inputs to most coastal sites consisted of mixture of petroleum and combustion derived sources. However, inputs to the offshore sediments were mainly of petroleum origin. PMID:24798421

  12. Development and application of operational techniques for the inventory and monitoring of resources and uses for the Texas coastal zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harwood, P. (Principal Investigator); Malin, P.; Finley, R.; Mcculloch, S.; Murphy, D.; Hupp, B.; Schell, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Four LANDSAT scenes were analyzed for the Harbor Island area test sites to produce land cover and land use maps using both image interpretation and computer-assisted techniques. When evaluated against aerial photography, the mean accuracy for three scenes was 84% for the image interpretation product and 62% for the computer-assisted classification maps. Analysis of the fourth scene was not completed using the image interpretation technique, because of poor quality, false color composite, but was available from the computer technique. Preliminary results indicate that these LANDSAT products can be applied to a variety of planning and management activities in the Texas coastal zone.

  13. PREFACE: 1st METECH workshop - From deep-sea to coastal zones: Methods and Techniques for studying Palaeoenvironments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veiga-Pires, C.; St-Onge, G.

    2008-10-01

    Reconstructing past climate and past ocean circulation demands the highest possible precision and accuracy which urges the scientific community to look at different sediment records such as the ones from coastal zones to deep-sea with a more complete set of technical and methodological tools. However, the information given by each tool varies in precision, accuracy and in significance according to their environmental settings. It is therefore essential to compare tools. With that in mind, and as part of the International year of Planet Earth, a workshop entitled `From deep-sea to coastal zones: Methods and Techniques for studying palaeoenvironments' took place in Faro (Portugal), from 25-29 February 2008 in order to: present several methods and techniques that can be used for studying sediments from deep-sea to coastal zones, namely for reconstructing palaeoenvironments in order to document past climatic changes and short to long-term environmental processes; allow cross experience between different fields and specialties, either from deep-sea to coastal zones or from micropaleontology to geochemistry; give the opportunity to students from different universities and countries to attend the workshop; publish a special volume on the presented methods and techniques during the workshop. The workshop was organized in four non-parallel sessions dealing with the use of micropaleontology, isotopes, biogeochemistry and sedimentology, as tools for palaeoenvironmental studies. The present IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science proceedings reflect this organization and papers are published in each theme. The papers are either short reviews or case studies and are highlighted below. The remains of microorganisms found in sediments are the main proxies used in micropaleontological studies. However, the link between fossilized remains and their living origin is not easy to reconstruct only based on the geologic/sedimentary record. Accordingly, Barbosa presents a

  14. Integrated Observations From Fixed and AUV Platforms in the Littoral Zone at the SFOMC Coastal Ocean Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanak, M. R.

    2001-12-01

    A 12-hour survey of the coastal waters off the east coast of Florida at the South Florida Ocean Measurement Center (SFOMC) coastal ocean observatory, during summer 1999, is described to illustrate the observatory's capabilities for ocean observation. The facility is located close to the Gulf Stream, the continental shelf break being only 3 miles from shore and is therefore influenced by the Gulf Stream meanders and the instability of the horizontal shear layer at its edge. As a result, both cross-shelf and along-shelf components of currents in the littoral zone can undergo dramatic +/- 0.5 m/s oscillations. Observations of surface currents from an OSCR, and of subsurface structure from an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) platform, a bottom-mounted ADCP and CT-chain arrays during the survey will be described and compared. The AUV on-board sensors included upward and downward looking 1200kHz ADCP, a CTD package and a small-scale turbulence package, consisting of two shear probes and a fast-response thermistor. Prevailing atmospheric conditions were recorded at an on-site buoy. The combined observations depict flows over a range of scales. Acknowledgements: The observations from the OSCR are due to Nick Shay and Tom Cook (University of Miami), and from the bottom-mounted ADCP, CT chain arrays and the surface buoy are due to Alex Soloviev (Nova Southeastern University) and Mark Luther and Bob Weisberg (University of South Florida).

  15. Circulation in the French mediterranean coastal zone near Marseilles: the influence of wind and the Northern Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albérola, C.; Millot, C.

    2003-04-01

    Current meters were moored for a year both in and beyond the Cassis Bay to study the dispersion of muds discharged at a depth of ˜300 m, through a pipe, a few km from the coast and at the head of a submarine canyon. The east-west orientation of the coastline and a marked orography constrain the major winds to easterlies or westerlies. Empirical orthogonal function analysis shows that both wind regimes create a significant down-wind circulation, with the latter inducing also intense upwelling. Characteristics of the Northern Current, which flows along the slope, have been defined using a fine-grid hydrological survey. A narrow continental shelf allows the Northern Current to reach often the coastal zone in the study area; thus, the overall water circulation in the embayment is westward. In winter, this current develops steep mesoscale meanders and penetrates easily through the canyon, into the bay. Hence, although the coastal circulation near Marseilles is partly down-wind, it is dependent mainly on the Northern Current (on both general and meso-scales). The mesoscale variability cannot be predicted without monitoring the Northern Current itself.

  16. Circulation in the French Mediterranean coastal zone near Marseilles: the influence of wind and the Northern Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albérola, C.; Millot, C.

    2003-04-01

    Current meters were moored for a year both in and beyond the Cassis Bay to study the dispersion of muds discharged at a depth of about 300 m, through a pipe, a few km from the coast and at the head of a submarine canyon. The east-west orientation of the coastline and a marked orography constrain the major winds to easterlies or westerlies. Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis shows that both wind regimes create a significant down-wind circulation, with the latter inducing also intense upwelling. Characteristics of the Northern Current, which flows along the slope, have been defined using a fine-grid hydrological survey. A narrow continental shelf allows the Northern Current to reach often the coastal zone in the study area; thus, the overall water circulation in the embayment is westward. In winter, this current develops steep mesoscale meanders and penetrates easily through the canyon, into the bay. Hence, although the coastal circulation near Marseilles is partly down-wind, it is dependent mainly on the Northern Current (on both general and meso- scales). The mesoscale variability cannot be predicted without monitoring the Northern Current itself.

  17. A comparison of ship and Coastal Zone Color Scanner mapped distribution of phytoplankton in the southeastern Bering Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclain, C. R.; Sambrotto, R. N.; Ray, G. C.; Muller-Karger, F. E.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-one Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) images of the southeastern Bering Sea are examined in order to map the near-surface distribution of phytoplankton during 1979 and 1980. The information is compared with the mesoscale (100-1000 km) distribution of phytoplankton inferred from pooled ship sampling obtained during the Processes and Resources of the Bering Shelf (PROBES) intensive field study during the late 1970s and early 1980s. The imagery indicates that open-water phytoplankton blooms occur first in late April in coastal waters, peak in early May over the middle shelf, and decay rapidly afterwards, reaching concentration minima in June in both regions. These patterns show that the earlier ship observations are valid for most of the eastern Bering shelf. A very tight correlation is found between the PROBES surface chlorophyll a concentrations and mean mixed-layer chlorophyll concentrations. The significant discrepancies between CZCS and ship-based chlorophyll estimates may be due to aliasing in time by the CZCS. It is concluded that neither satellite nor ship alone can do an adequate job of characterizing the physics or biological dynamics of the ocean.

  18. Occurrence of halogenated flame retardants in sediment off an urbanized coastal zone: association with urbanization and industrialization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui-Hui; Hu, Yuan-Jie; Luo, Pei; Bao, Lian-Jun; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2014-01-01

    To examine the impacts of urbanization and industrialization on the coastal environment, sediment samples were collected from an urbanized coastal zone (i.e., Daya Bay and Hong Kong waters of South China) and analyzed for 20 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and 10 alternative halogenated flame retardants (AHFRs). The sum concentration of PBDEs was in the range of 1.7-55 (mean: 17) ng g(-1), suggesting a moderate pollution level compared to the global range. The higher fractions of AHFRs (i.e., TBB+TBPH, BTBPE and DBDPE) than those of legacy PBDEs (i.e., penta-BDE, octa-BDE and deca-BDE) corresponded with the phasing out of PBDEs and increasing demand for AHFRs. Heavy contamination occurred at the estuary of Dan'ao River flowing through the Daya Bay Economic Zone, home to a variety of petrochemicals and electronics manufacturing facilities. The concentrations of HFRs in surface sediments of Hong Kong were the highest in Victoria Harbor, which receives around 1.4 million tons of primarily treated sewage daily, and a good relationship (r(2) = 0.80; p < 0.0001) between the HFR concentration and population density in each council district was observed, highlighting the effect of urbanization. Moreover, the AHFR concentrations were significantly correlated (r(2) > 0.73; p < 0.05) with the production volume of electronic devices, production value of electronic industries and population size, demonstrating the importance of industrializing and urbanizing processes in dictating the historical input patterns of AHFRs. PMID:24988362

  19. Overview about polluted sites management by mining activities in coastal-desertic zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Arturo; Letelier, María Victoria; Arenas, Franko; Cuevas, Jacqueline; Fuentes, Bárbara

    2016-04-01

    In Chile the main mining operations as well as artisanal and small-scale mining (copper, gold and silver) are located in desert areas. A large number of abandoned polluted sites with heavy metals and metalloids (Hg, Pb, Cu, Sb, As) remain in coastal areas close to human centers. The aim of this work was to identify the best remediation alternatives considering the physic-chemical characteristics of the coastal-desertic soils. The concentrations of above mentioned pollutants as well as soil properties were determined. The results showed variable concentration of the pollutants, highest detected values were: Hg (46.5 mg kg-1), Pb (84.7 mg kg-1), Cu (283.0 mg kg-1), Sb (90 mg kg-1), As (2,691 mg kg-1). The soils characteristic were: high alkalinity with pH: 7.75-9.66, high electric conductivity (EC: 1.94-118 mScm-1), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR: 5.07-8.22) and low permeability of the soils. Coastal-desertic sites are potential sources of pollution for population, and for terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Exposure routes of pollution for the population include: primary, by incidental ingestion and inhalation of soil and dust and secondary, by the ingestion of marine sediments, sea food and seawater. Rehabilitation of coastal-desertic sites, by using techniques like soil washing in situ, chemical stabilization, or phytostabilization, is conditioned by physic-chemical properties of the soils. In these cases the recommendation for an appropriate management, remediation and use of the sites includes: 1) physic chemical characterization of the soils, 2) evaluation of environmental risk, 3) education of the population and 3) application of a remediation technology according to soil characteristic and the planned use of the sites. Acknowledgments: Funding for this study was supported by the Regional Council of Antofagasta under Project Estudio de ingeniería para la remediación de sitios abandonados con potencial presencia de contaminantes identificados en la comuna de

  20. Balanus eburneus: a sensitive indicator of copper and zinc pollution in the coastal zone

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, S.; Trefry, J.H.

    1981-12-01

    Barnacles were collected in the Eau Gallie Harbor waters, Florida, and were examined for copper and zinc by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results suggest that a 1 ppb increase in dissolved copper brings about a 36 ppm increase in tissue copper levels and that B. eburneus a sensitive indicator of copper and zinc pollution. However, this pollution is non-detectable 1 km away in the barnacles of Indian River Lagoon. This suggests minimal input or rapid dilution of the metals in the Indian River waters and raises concern for pollutant enrichment in restricted coastal embayments. (JMT)

  1. Late Cenozoic stages and molluscan zones of the U.S. Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blackwelder, B. W.

    1981-01-01

    Pliocene to Holocene deposits of the U.S.Atlantic Coastal Plain from Maryland to Georgia are divided into four stages and four substages using molluscan biostratigraphic data. These divisions are the Wiltonian and Burwellian Stages (early Pliocene), Gouldian and Windyan Substages of the Colerainian Stage (late Pliocene to early Pleistocene), and Myrtlean and Yongesian Substages of the Longian Stage (late Pleistocene to Holocene). These stages may be recognized from Florida to as far north as Massachusetts and will facilitate correlation with other regions.-Author

  2. 30 CFR 250.272 - If a State objects to the DPP's or DOCD's coastal zone consistency certification, what can I do?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... objection to the Secretary of Commerce using the procedures in 15 CFR part 930, subpart H. The Secretary of... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false If a State objects to the DPP's or DOCD's... Process for the Dpp Or Docd § 250.272 If a State objects to the DPP's or DOCD's coastal zone...

  3. 30 CFR 250.272 - If a State objects to the DPP's or DOCD's coastal zone consistency certification, what can I do?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the procedures in 15 CFR part 930, subpart H. The Secretary of Commerce will either: (1) Grant your... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false If a State objects to the DPP's or DOCD's... objects to the DPP's or DOCD's coastal zone consistency certification, what can I do? If an affected...

  4. Dissolved methane concentration and flux in the coastal zone of the Southern California Bight-Mexican sector: Possible influence of wastewater

    EPA Science Inventory

    We measured dissolved methane concentrations ([CH4]) in the coastal zone of the Southern California Bight-Mexican sector (SCBMex) during two cruises: S1 in the USA–Mexico Border Area (BA) during a short rainstorm and S2 in the entire SCBMex during a drier period a few days later....

  5. Environmental application of remote sensing methods to coastal zone land use and marine resource management, Appendices A to E. [in southeastern Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Important data were compiled for use with the Richmond-Cape Henry Environmental Laboratory (RICHEL) remote sensing project in coastal zone land use and marine resources management, and include RICHEL climatological data and sources, a land use inventory, topographic and soil maps, and gaging records for RICHEL surface waters.

  6. Environmental application of remote sensing methods to coastal zone land use and marine resource management, appendices G to J. [in southeastern Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Important data were compiled for use with the Richmond-Cape Henry Environmental Laboratory (RICHEL) remote sensing project in coastal zone land use and marine resources management, and include analyses and projections of population characteristics, formulation of soil loss prediction techniques, and sources and quantity analyses of air and water effluents.

  7. A catalogue of Lithuanian beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Tamutis, Vytautas; Tamutė, Brigita; Ferenca, Romas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the first complete and updated list of all 3597 species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) belonging to 92 familiesfound and published in Lithuania until 2011, with comments also provided on the main systematic and nomenclatural changes since the last monographic treatment in two volumes (Pileckis and Monsevičius 1995, 1997). The introductory section provides a general overview of the main features of the territory of Lithuania, the origins and formation of the beetle fauna and their conservation, the faunistic investigations in Lithuania to date revealing the most important stages of the faunistic research process with reference to the most prominent scientists, an overview of their work, and their contribution to Lithuanian coleopteran faunal research. Species recorded in Lithuania by some authors without reliable evidence and requiring further confirmation with new data are presented in a separate list, consisting of 183 species. For the first time, analysis of errors in works of Lithuanian authors concerning data on coleopteran fauna has been conducted and these errors have been corrected. All available published and Internet sources on beetles found in Lithuania have been considered in the current study. Over 630 literature sources on species composition of beetles, their distribution in Lithuania and neighbouring countries, and taxonomic revisions and changes are reviewed and cited. An alphabetical list of these literature sources is presented. After revision of public beetle collections in Lithuania, the authors propose to remove 43 species from the beetle species list of the country on the grounds, that they have been wrongly identified or published by mistake. For reasons of clarity, 19 previously noted but later excluded species are included in the current checklist with comments. Based on faunal data from neighbouring countries, species expected to occur in Lithuania are matnioned. In total 1390 species are attributed to this

  8. An Assessment of Oil Pollution in the Coastal Zone of Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Commendatore, Marta Graciela; Esteves, José Luis

    2007-11-01

    The Patagonian coast is considered a relatively pristine environment. However, studies conducted along coastal Patagonia have showed hydrocarbon pollution mostly concentrated at ports that have fishing, oil loading, general merchant, and/or tourist activities. A high value of total aliphatic hydrocarbons (TAH) was found at the Rawson fishing port (741 μg/g dw). In other ports with and without petroleum-related activities, hydrocarbon values were approximately 100 μg/g dw. The highest values for TAH and total aromatic hydrocarbons (TArH) were found in Faro Aristizábal, north of San Jorge gulf (1304 and 737 μg/g dw, respectively). This is very likely the result of petroleum-related activities at the Comodoro Rivadavia, Caleta Cordova, and Caleta Olivia ports located within this gulf. In other coastal areas away from potential anthropogenic sources, hydrocarbon values were less than 2 and 3 μg/g dw for TAH and TArH, respectively. This review of published and unpublished information suggests that ports are important oil pollution sources in the Patagonian coast. More detailed studies are needed to evaluate the area affected by port activities, to understand the mechanisms of hydrocarbon distribution in surrounding environments, and to assess bioaccumulation in marine organisms. Despite that some regulations exist to control oil pollution derived from port and docked vessel activities, new and stricter management guidelines should be implemented.

  9. Metal discharges by Sinaloa Rivers to the coastal zone of NW Mexico.

    PubMed

    Frías-Espericueta, M G; Mejía-Cruz, R; Osuna López, I; Muy-Rangel, M D; Rubio-Carrasco, W; Aguilar-Juárez, M; Voltolina, D

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this work was to survey the discharges of dissolved and particulate Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn of the eight main rivers of Sinaloa State to the Mexican coastal environment. Zn was the most abundant dissolved metal and Fe was the most abundant particulate (8.02-16.90 and 51.8-1,140.3 μg/L, respectively). Only particulate Mn had significantly (p = 0.028) higher values in summer-fall (rainy season), whereas the significantly (p = 0.036) higher values of dissolved Zn were observed in winter and spring. The highest annual total discharges to Sinaloa coastal waters were those of the rivers San Lorenzo and Piaxtla (>2 × 10(3) m.t.) and the lowest those of rivers Baluarte and El Fuerte (349 and 119 m.t., respectively). Pb concentrations may become of concern, because they are higher than the value recommended for the welfare of aquatic communities of natural waters. PMID:24240662

  10. Ecosystem-based management and refining governance of wind energy in the Massachusetts coastal zone: A case study approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumin, Enid C.

    the successful governance of such projects, including any that may involve development of wind energy in the Massachusetts coastal zone or beyond. Three supplemental files of coded data accompany this dissertation.

  11. Stable isotopes in Lithuanian bioarcheological material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skipityte, Raminta; Jankauskas, Rimantas; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2015-04-01

    Investigation of bioarcheological material of ancient human populations allows us to understand the subsistence behavior associated with various adaptations to the environment. Feeding habits are essential to the survival and growth of ancient populations. Stable isotope analysis is accepted tool in paleodiet (Schutkowski et al, 1999) and paleoenvironmental (Zernitskaya et al, 2014) studies. However, stable isotopes can be useful not only in investigating human feeding habits but also in describing social and cultural structure of the past populations (Le Huray and Schutkowski, 2005). Only few stable isotope investigations have been performed before in Lithuanian region suggesting a quite uniform diet between males and females and protein intake from freshwater fish and animal protein. Previously, stable isotope analysis has only been used to study a Stone Age population however, more recently studies have been conducted on Iron Age and Late medieval samples (Jacobs et al, 2009). Anyway, there was a need for more precise examination. Stable isotope analysis were performed on human bone collagen and apatite samples in this study. Data represented various ages (from 5-7th cent. to 18th cent.). Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis on medieval populations indicated that individuals in studied sites in Lithuania were almost exclusively consuming C3 plants, C3 fed terrestrial animals, and some freshwater resources. Current investigation demonstrated social differences between elites and country people and is promising in paleodietary and daily life reconstruction. Acknowledgement I thank prof. dr. G. Grupe, Director of the Anthropological and Palaeoanatomical State Collection in Munich for providing the opportunity to work in her laboratory. The part of this work was funded by DAAD. Antanaitis-Jacobs, Indre, et al. "Diet in early Lithuanian prehistory and the new stable isotope evidence." Archaeologia Baltica 12 (2009): 12-30. Le Huray, Jonathan D., and Holger

  12. Sedimentation across the central California oxygen minimum zone: an alternative coastal upwelling sequence.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vercoutere, T.L.; Mullins, H.T.; McDougall, K.; Thompson, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    Distribution, abundance, and diversity of terrigenous, authigenous, and biogenous material provide evidence of the effect of bottom currents and oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) on continental slope sedimentation offshore central California. Three major OMZ facies are identified, along the upper and lower edges of OMZ and one at its core.-from Authors

  13. Microbial community structure across a wastewater-impacted riparian buffer zone in the southeastern Coastal Plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Riparian buffer zones are important for both natural and developed ecosystems throughout the world. However, their microbial community structure is only beginning to be defined and understood. Our objectives for this study were to characterize the microbial populations found in the soils of this rip...

  14. Dissolved organic matter dynamics in the oligo/meso-haline zone of wetland-influenced coastal rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maie, Nagamitsu; Sekiguchi, Satoshi; Watanabe, Akira; Tsutsuki, Kiyoshi; Yamashita, Youhei; Melling, Lulie; Cawley, Kaelin M.; Shima, Eikichi; Jaffé, Rudolf

    2014-08-01

    Wetlands are key components in the global carbon cycle and export significant amounts of terrestrial carbon to the coastal oceans in the form of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Conservative behavior along the salinity gradient of DOC and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) has often been observed in estuaries from their freshwater end-member (salinity = 0) to the ocean (salinity = 35). While the oligo/meso-haline (salinity < 10) tidal zone of upper estuaries has been suggested to be more complex and locally influenced by geomorphological and hydrological features, the environmental dynamics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and the environmental drivers controlling its source, transport, and fate have scarcely been evaluated. Here, we investigated the distribution patterns of DOC and CDOM optical properties determined by UV absorbance at 254 nm (A254) and excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) along the lower salinity range (salinity < 10) of the oligo/meso-haline zone for three distinct wetland-influenced rivers; namely the Bekanbeushi River, a cool-temperate river with estuarine lake in Hokkaido, Japan, the Harney River, a subtropical river with tidally-submerged mangrove fringe in Florida, USA, and the Judan River, a small, acidic, tropical rainforest river in Borneo, Malaysia. For the first two rivers, a clear decoupling between DOC and A254 was observed, while these parameters showed similar conservative behavior for the third. Three distinct EEM-PARAFAC models established for each of the rivers provided similar spectroscopic characteristics except for some unique fluorescence features observed for the Judan River. The distribution patterns of PARAFAC components suggested that the inputs from plankton and/or submerged aquatic vegetation can be important in the Bekanbeushi River. Further, DOM photo-products formed in the estuarine lake were also found to be transported upstream. In the Harney River

  15. Evolution of a Mediterranean coastal zone: human impacts on the marine environment of Cape Creus.

    PubMed

    Lloret, Josep; Riera, Victòria

    2008-12-01

    This study presents an integrated analysis of the evolution of the marine environment and the human uses in Cape Creus, a Mediterranean coastal area where intense commercial fisheries and recreational uses have coexisted over the last fifty years. The investigation synthesizes the documented impacts of human activities on the marine environment of Cap de Creus and integrates them with new data. In particular, the evolution of vulnerable, exploited species is used to evaluate the fishing impacts. The effects of area protection through the establishment of a marine reserve in the late 1990s and the potential climate change impacts are also considered. The evolution of the human uses is marked by the increasing socioeconomic importance of recreational activities (which affect species and habitats) in detriment to artisanal and red coral fisheries (which principally affect at a species level). Overall, populations of sedentary, vulnerable exploited species, hard sessile benthic invertebrates, and ecologically fragile habitats, such as seagrass meadows, the coralligenous and infralittoral algal assemblages have been the most negatively impacted by anthropogenic activities. Albeit human uses currently constitute the largest negative impact on the marine environment of Cap de Creus, climate change is emerging as a key factor that could have considerable implications for the marine environment and tourism activities. The establishment of the marine reserve appears to have had little socioeconomic impact, but there is some evidence that it had some positive biological effects on sedentary, littoral fishes. Results demonstrate that the declaration of a marine reserve alone does not guarantee the sustainability of marine resources and habitats but should be accompanied with an integrated coastal management plan. PMID:18800202

  16. Translating Knowledge into Action: Supporting Adaptation in Australia's Coastal Zone through Information Provision and Decision Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palutikof, J. P.; Rissik, D.; Tonmoy, F. N.; Boulter, S.

    2015-12-01

    Adaptation to risks from climate change and sea-level rise is particularly important in Australia, where 70% of the population live in major coastal cities and 85% within 50km of the coast. Adaptation activity focuses at local government level and, in the absence of strong leadership from central government, the extent to which local councils have taken action to adapt is highly variable across the nation. Also, although a number of councils have proceeded as far as identifying their exposure to risk and considering adaptation options, this fails to translate into action. A principal reason for this is concern over the response from coastal residents to actions which may affect property values, and fear of litigation. A project is underway to support councils to understand their risks, evaluate adaptation options and proceed to action. This support will consist of a three-pronged framework: provision of information, a tool to support decision-making, and a community forum. Delivery involves research to understand the barriers to adaptation and how these may be overcome, optimal methods for delivery of information, and the information needs of organizations, action-takers and communities. The presentation will focus on the results of consultation undertaken to understand users' information needs around content and delivery, and how understanding of these needs has translated into design of the framework. A strongly preference was expressed to learn from peers, and a challenge for the framework is to understand how to inject adaptation knowledge which is up-to-date and accurate into peer-to-peer conversations. The community forum is one mechanism to achieve this. The basic structure and delivery mechanisms of the framework are shown in the attached.

  17. Coastal Zone Ecosystem Services: from science to values and decision making; a case study.

    PubMed

    Luisetti, T; Turner, R K; Jickells, T; Andrews, J; Elliott, M; Schaafsma, M; Beaumont, N; Malcolm, S; Burdon, D; Adams, C; Watts, W

    2014-09-15

    This research is concerned with the following environmental research questions: socio-ecological system complexity, especially when valuing ecosystem services; ecosystems stock and services flow sustainability and valuation; the incorporation of scale issues when valuing ecosystem services; and the integration of knowledge from diverse disciplines for governance and decision making. In this case study, we focused on ecosystem services that can be jointly supplied but independently valued in economic terms: healthy climate (via carbon sequestration and storage), food (via fisheries production in nursery grounds), and nature recreation (nature watching and enjoyment). We also explored the issue of ecosystem stock and services flow, and we provide recommendations on how to value stock and flows of ecosystem services via accounting and economic values respectively. We considered broadly comparable estuarine systems located on the English North Sea coast: the Blackwater estuary and the Humber estuary. In the past, these two estuaries have undergone major land-claim. Managed realignment is a policy through which previously claimed intertidal habitats are recreated allowing the enhancement of the ecosystem services provided by saltmarshes. In this context, we investigated ecosystem service values, through biophysical estimates and welfare value estimates. Using an optimistic (extended conservation of coastal ecosystems) and a pessimistic (loss of coastal ecosystems because of, for example, European policy reversal) scenario, we find that context dependency, and hence value transfer possibilities, vary among ecosystem services and benefits. As a result, careful consideration in the use and application of value transfer, both in biophysical estimates and welfare value estimates, is advocated to supply reliable information for policy making. PMID:24992461

  18. Evolution of a Mediterranean Coastal Zone: Human Impacts on the Marine Environment of Cape Creus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloret, Josep; Riera, Victòria

    2008-12-01

    This study presents an integrated analysis of the evolution of the marine environment and the human uses in Cape Creus, a Mediterranean coastal area where intense commercial fisheries and recreational uses have coexisted over the last fifty years. The investigation synthesizes the documented impacts of human activities on the marine environment of Cap de Creus and integrates them with new data. In particular, the evolution of vulnerable, exploited species is used to evaluate the fishing impacts. The effects of area protection through the establishment of a marine reserve in the late 1990s and the potential climate change impacts are also considered. The evolution of the human uses is marked by the increasing socioeconomic importance of recreational activities (which affect species and habitats) in detriment to artisanal and red coral fisheries (which principally affect at a species level). Overall, populations of sedentary, vulnerable exploited species, hard sessile benthic invertebrates, and ecologically fragile habitats, such as seagrass meadows, the coralligenous and infralittoral algal assemblages have been the most negatively impacted by anthropogenic activities. Albeit human uses currently constitute the largest negative impact on the marine environment of Cap de Creus, climate change is emerging as a key factor that could have considerable implications for the marine environment and tourism activities. The establishment of the marine reserve appears to have had little socioeconomic impact, but there is some evidence that it had some positive biological effects on sedentary, littoral fishes. Results demonstrate that the declaration of a marine reserve alone does not guarantee the sustainability of marine resources and habitats but should be accompanied with an integrated coastal management plan.

  19. Evolution of the Permeability Architecture of the Baton Rouge Fault Zone, Louisiana Gulf Coastal Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanor, J. S.; Chamberlain, E. L.; Tsai, F. T.

    2011-12-01

    The Baton Rouge fault is a west-east trending, south-dipping listric fault in Louisiana, which offsets a thick sequence of unconsolidated siliciclastic sediments, the upper kilometer of which includes the Baton Rouge aquifer system. The Baton Rouge aquifer system consists of a series of complexly interbedded fluvial-deltaic sands and mudstones ranging in age from the late Miocene to the Pleistocene and dipping to the south. The high proportion of mudstones in the stratigraphic section, approximately 55 percent, reflects deposition in a rapidly aggrading setting. The fault was reactivated in the early Pleistocene, and the aquifer sands are offset by the same slip, 120 m. The fault is of significant hydrogeologic and environmental importance because it marks a sharp boundary between fresh water sands to the north and brackish water sands to the south. Large withdrawal of fresh water has resulted in the migration of brackish waters to the north from the fault and the progressive salinization of the groundwater supply. Migration of salt water up the fault and/or across the fault have been proposed as causes. Understanding the permeability architecture of the fault zone is of critical importance in developing strategies for controlling salinization. We have made an evaluation of the possible present permeability of the fault zone using an algorithm developed by Bense and Person [2006] which is based on the amount of slip on a fault and the clay-content of the sedimentary units flanking a fault. The algorithm provides an estimation of the present width and permeability of the fault zone and how the permeability architecture has evolved with time as offset on the fault has progressively increased. The basic geologic input is lithostratigraphy derived from SP-resistivity logs from wells immediately north and south of the fault over a 425 m high by 34 km wide area of the fault plane. The results of our calculations are as follows: the average fault zone width increases as a

  20. Quantifying Organic Matter in Surface Waters of the United States and Delivery to the Coastal Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, E. W.; Alexander, R. B.; Smith, R. A.; Shih, J.

    2012-12-01

    Organic carbon (OC) is a critical water quality characteristic in surface waters. It is an important component of the energy balance and food chains in freshwater and estuarine aquatic ecosystems, is significant in the mobilization and transport of contaminants along flow paths, and is associated with the formation of known carcinogens in drinking water supplies. The importance of OC dynamics on water quality has been recognized, but challenges remain in quantitatively addressing processes controlling OC fluxes over broad spatial scales in a hydrological context, and considering upstream-downstream linkages along flow paths. Here, we: 1) quantified lateral OC fluxes in rivers, streams, and reservoirs across the nation from headwaters to the coasts; 2) partitioned how much organic carbon that is stored in lakes, rivers and streams comes from allochthonous sources (produced in the terrestrial landscape) versus autochthonous sources (produced in-stream by primary production); 3) estimated the delivery of dissolved and total forms of organic carbon to coastal estuaries and embayments; and 4) considered seasonal factors affecting the temporal variation in OC responses. To accomplish this, we developed national-scale models of organic carbon in U.S. surface waters using the spatially referenced regression on watersheds (SPARROW) technique. The modeling approach uses mechanistic formulations, imposes mass balance constraints, and provides a formal parameter estimation structure to statistically estimate sources and fate of OC in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We calibrated and evaluated the model with statistical estimates of OC loads that were observed at a network of monitoring stations across the nation, and further explored factors controlling seasonal dynamics of OC based on these long term monitoring data. Our results illustrate spatial patterns and magnitudes OC loadings in rivers, highlighting hot spots and suggesting origins of the OC to each location

  1. Quantitative evaluation of water quality in the coastal zone by remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, W. P.

    1971-01-01

    Remote sensing as a tool in a waste management program is discussed. By monitoring both the pollution sources and the environmental quality, the interaction between the components of the exturaine system was observed. The need for in situ sampling is reduced with the development of improved calibrated, multichannel sensors. Remote sensing is used for: (1) pollution source determination, (2) mapping the influence zone of the waste source on water quality parameters, and (3) estimating the magnitude of the water quality parameters. Diffusion coefficients and circulation patterns can also be determined by remote sensing, along with subtle changes in vegetative patterns and density.

  2. Mapping benthic macroalgal communities in the coastal zone using CHRIS-PROBA mode 2 images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casal, G.; Kutser, T.; Domínguez-Gómez, J. A.; Sánchez-Carnero, N.; Freire, J.

    2011-09-01

    The ecological importance of benthic macroalgal communities in coastal ecosystems has been recognised worldwide and the application of remote sensing to study these communities presents certain advantages respect to in situ methods. The present study used three CHRIS-PROBA images to analyse macroalgal communities distribution in the Seno de Corcubión (NW Spain). The use of this sensor represent a challenge given that its design, build and deployment programme is intended to follow the principles of the "faster, better, cheaper". To assess the application of this sensor to macroalgal mapping, two types of classifications were carried out: Maximum Likelihood and Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM). Maximum Likelihood classifier showed positive results, reaching overall accuracy percentages higher than 90% and kappa coefficients higher than 0.80 for the bottom classes shallow submerged sand, deep submerged sand, macroalgae less than 5 m and macroalgae between 5 and 10 m depth. The differentiation among macroalgal groups using SAM classifications showed positive results for green seaweeds although the differentiation between brown and red algae was not clear in the study area.

  3. A combined experimental-modelling method for the detection and analysis of pollution in coastal zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limić, Nedzad; Valković, Vladivoj

    1996-04-01

    Pollution of coastal seas with toxic substances can be efficiently detected by examining toxic materials in sediment samples. These samples contain information on the overall pollution from surrounding sources such as yacht anchorages, nearby industries, sewage systems, etc. In an efficient analysis of pollution one must determine the contribution from each individual source. In this work it is demonstrated that a modelling method can be utilized for solving this latter problem. The modelling method is based on a unique interpretation of concentrations in sediments from all sampling stations. The proposed method is a synthesis consisting of the utilization of PIXE as an efficient method of pollution concentration determination and the code ANCOPOL (N. Limic and R. Benis, The computer code ANCOPOL, SimTel/msdos/geology, 1994 [1]) for the calculation of contributions from the main polluters. The efficiency and limits of the proposed method are demonstrated by discussing trace element concentrations in sediments of Punat Bay on the island of Krk in Croatia.

  4. Seasonal dynamics and long-term trend of hypoxia in the coastal zone of Emilia Romagna (NW Adriatic Sea, Italy).

    PubMed

    Alvisi, Francesca; Cozzi, Stefano

    2016-01-15

    Long-term series of meteorological, hydrological and oceanographic data were compared with hypoxia occurrence, in order to define characteristics and trends of this phenomenon in the Emilia Romagna Coastal Zone (ERCZ) in 1977-2008. During this period, hypoxia was recorded at all sampling stations, up to 20 km offshore. In winter, spring and late autumn, hypoxia appearance was matched to significant positive anomalies of air and surface seawater temperatures (up to +3.6 °C), whereas this effect was less pronounced in August-October. Hypoxia generally occurred with scarce precipitation (0-2 dm(3)m(2)d(-1)) and low wind velocity (0-2 ms(-1)), suggesting the importance of stable meteo-marine conditions for the onset of this phenomenon. Nevertheless, wind direction emerged as an indicator of hydrodynamic seasonal changes in the area and is thus a hypoxia regulator. In winter, spring and autumn, hypoxia was favored by large increases of biomass induced by river freshets. In contrast, summer hypoxia occurred during periods of low runoff, suggesting that pronounced stratification and weak circulation of coastal waters were more important in this season. Since the 1990s, a shift from widespread summer hypoxia to local hypoxia irregularly distributed across the year has occurred. This process was concomitant to long-term increases of air temperature (+0.14 °C yr(-1)), wind speed (+0.03 ms(-1) yr(-1)) and salinity (+0.09 yr(-1)), and decreases of Po River flow (-0.54 km(3) yr(-1)), oxygen saturation (-0.2% yr(-1)) and PO4(3-) (-0.004 μmol P L(-1) yr(-1)) and NH4(+) (-0.04 μmol N L(-1) yr(-1)) concentrations in surface coastal waters. Despite that several of these changes suggest an ERCZ trophic level positive reduction, similar to that reported for the N Adriatic, the concomitant climate warming might further exacerbate hypoxia in particularly shallow shelf locations. Therefore, in order to avoid hypoxia development a further mitigation of anthropogenic pressure is still

  5. Seasonality of coastal zone scanner phytoplankton pigment in the offshore oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banse, K.; English, D. C.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Global Ocean Data Set of plant pigment concentrations in the upper euphotic zone is evaluated for diserning geographical and temporal patterns of seasonality in the open sea. Monthly medians of pigment concentrations for all available years are generated for fields of approximately 77,000 sq km. For the climatological year, highest and lowest medians, month of occurence of the highest median, ratio of highest to lowest medians, and absolute range between the highest and lowest medians are mapped ocean-wide between 62.5 deg N and 62.5 deg S. Seasonal cycles are depicted for 48 sites. In much of the offshore ocean, seasonality of pigment is inferred to be driven almost equally by the interaction of the abiotic environment with phytoplankton physiology and the loss of cells from grazing. Special emphasis among natural domains or provinces is given to the Subantarctic water ring, with no seasonality in its low chlorophyll concentrations in spite of strong environmental forcing, and the narrow Transition Zones, a few degrees of latitude on the equatorial sides of the Subtropical Convergences of the southern hemisphere and their homologs in the northern hemisphere, which have late winter blooms caused by nutrient injection into the upper layers.

  6. The role of the invasive bivalve Ensis directus as food source for fish and birds in the Dutch coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulp, Ingrid; Craeymeersch, Johan; Leopold, Mardik; van Damme, Cindy; Fey, Frouke; Verdaat, Hans

    2010-12-01

    The razor clam Ensis directus was introduced to Europe presumably as larvae in ballast water around 1978. Starting in the German Bight it spread northward and southward along the continental coastline. Currently it is the most common shellfish species in the Dutch coastal zone, where it mainly occurs in the Voordelta and off the Wadden Sea islands. The mean density of E. directus in the Dutch coastal zone increased from around 2-5 individuals m -2 in the late '90's to around 12-19 individuals m -2 from 2002 onwards. Diet studies show that E. directus makes up a significant proportion in the current diet of plaice, sole, dab, flounder and dragonet and in the diet of eider and common scoter. In recent years E. directus contributed 20-100% of the total wet weight in fish stomachs. The proportion E. directus in the diet increases with fish length. Based on stomach contents of oiled and beached birds and of faeces samples the recent frequency of occurrence is 85-90% in eider and 26% in common scoter. Also waders, gulls and corvids prey on E. directus but the contribution to the diet is still unquantified. Because of its great burying depth the species is not easily accessible. Fish either profit from massive die-offs that regularly occur, or they extract (probably only the smaller) individuals from the sediment. Sea ducks can extract E. directus from the sediment, while shorebirds and gulls feed on dying E. directus washing up on the shore. E. directus is possibly an important food item for fish and seabirds when they occur in high densities and in the right size classes. Since the availability depends greatly on massive die-offs, shell size, burying depth and water depth, it is probably not a very reliable food source. Judging from the role E. directus currently plays for the higher trophic levels, its introduction must have caused a major change in the food relations in its distribution area.

  7. Pigment distribution and primary production in the western Mediterranean as derived and modeled from coastal zone color scanner observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel, André; André, Jean-Michel

    1991-07-01

    A set of 114 coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) images of the western Mediterranean (mainly in the year 1981) have been processed and analyzed to describe the algal biomass evolution and estimate its potential carbon fixation. For that, the pigment concentration in the top layer, Csat, is used through empirical relationships to infer the depth-integrated pigment content of the productive column, tot. A spectral light-photosynthesis model driven by tot is operated with additional information, namely, about sea temperature and photosynthetically available radiation (computed from astronomical and atmospherical parameters then combined with a cloud climatology). This model also includes a standard set of physiological parameters which account for the light capture by algae and for the use of this radiant energy in photosynthesis. This model allows a climatology of ψ* the cross section for photosynthesis per unit of areal chlorophyll, to be produced and then convoluted with the biomass maps after they have been averaged and composited. On average and for the whole western Mediterranean, the pigment concentration in the upper layer is about 0.25 mg Chl m-3, leading to an areal mean concentration of 21 mg Chl m-2. The maximum (bloom) occurs in early May in all zones. Seasonal variations in algal biomass are much more marked in the northern part than in the southern part (apart from Alboran Sea); the south Tyrrhenian basin and the central part of the Algerian basin are steadily oligotrophic. The mean annual carbon fixation rate for the whole basin is about 94 g C m-2 yr-1, or 106 and 87, for the northern and southern basins when separately considered. The seasonality is expressed by a six-fold change in the production rate (between February and May) within the northern zone, whereas only a two-fold change occurs in the southern zone between the same months. These estimates, which compare well with previous episodic field data, considerably extend our knowledge of

  8. Measurements of the Balance of Subsidence and Sedimentation in the Coastal Zone of Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steckler, M. S.; Mondal, D. R.; Akhter, S. H.; Davis, J. L.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Wilson, C.; Bulbul, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    In the face of rising sea levels, the balance of land subsidence, sea level rise and sedimentation is critical for low-lying deltaic regions. Deltas commonly experience subsidence due to compaction of their thick sediment accumulations and other processes. Many are susceptible to growth faulting and seaward collapse of the sediment pile on detachment layers (salt and/or shales) leading to even greater subsidence. We present evidence for moderate subsidence rates and continuing active sedimentation at the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta in Bangladesh. Subsidence rates are based on continuous GPS, including three new coastal stations established in 2012, hourly tide gauge data for 1977-2012 at 16 sites, two historical sites with ages of 300 years (salt-making kilns) and 400 years (Hindu temple), and sedimentation accumulation rates of near-sea-level deposits from hand-drilled tube wells. Results so far suggest that most sites are subsiding at 3-4 mm/y, although some higher rates are recorded. Updated estimates for subsidence will be presented. Two sets of vertical optical strainmeters record sediment compaction and inform its variation with depth. Sedimentation estimates based on sedimentation plots, marker horizons, and surface elevation tables (SETs) suggest that accumulation rates in natural areas near the coast currently compensate for relative subsidence, whereas human-modified areas farther inland receive insufficient sediment and are at risk. We hypothesize that the moderate subsidence rate of the delta is due to buttressing of the margin by the continental rise. The slope-rise break is shallow at 1 km water depth due to the high sediment supply feeding the Bengal Fan. Thus the thick wedge of continental rise sediments rise higher than the top of the weak overpressured sediments in the delta that could act as a décollement surface. This prevents the seaward collapse of the delta and associated higher rates of subsidence.

  9. Acoustic measurement of sediment dynamics in the coastal zones using wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhakaran, A., II; Paramasivam, A.; Seshachalam, S.; A, C.

    2014-12-01

    Analyzing of the impact of constructive or low energy waves and deconstructive or high energy waves in the ocean are very much significant since they deform the geometry of seashore. The deformation may lead to productive result and also to the end of deteriorate damage. Constructive waves results deposition of sediment which widens the beach where as deconstructive waves results erosion which narrows the beach. Validation of historic sediment transportation and prediction of the direction of movement of seashore is essential to prevent unrecoverable damages by incorporating precautionary measurements to identify the factors that influence sediment transportation if feasible. The objective of this study is to propose a more reliable and energy efficient Information and communication system to model the Coastal Sediment Dynamics. Various factors influencing the sediment drift at a particular region is identified. Consequence of source depth and frequency dependencies of spread pattern in the presence of sediments is modeled. Property of source depth and frequency on sensitivity to values of model parameters are determined. Fundamental physical reasons for these sediment interaction effects are given. Shallow to deep water and internal and external wave model of ocean is obtained intended to get acoustic data assimilation (ADA). Signal processing algorithms are used over the observed data to form a full field acoustic propagation model and construct sound speed profile (SSP). The inversions of data due to uncertainties at various depths are compared. The impact of sediment drift over acoustic data is identified. An energy efficient multipath routing scheme Wireless sensor networks (WSN) is deployed for the well-organized communication of data. The WSN is designed considering increased life time, decreased power consumption, free of threats and attacks. The practical data obtained from the efficient system to model the ocean sediment dynamics are evaluated with remote

  10. Modelling accumulation of marine plastics in the coastal zone; what are the dominant physical processes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Critchell, Kay; Lambrechts, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    Anthropogenic marine debris, mainly of plastic origin, is accumulating in estuarine and coastal environments around the world causing damage to fauna, flora and habitats. Plastics also have the potential to accumulate in the food web, as well as causing economic losses to tourism and sea-going industries. If we are to manage this increasing threat, we must first understand where debris is accumulating and why these locations are different to others that do not accumulate large amounts of marine debris. This paper demonstrates an advection-diffusion model that includes beaching, settling, resuspension/re-floating, degradation and topographic effects on the wind in nearshore waters to quantify the relative importance of these physical processes governing plastic debris accumulation. The aim of this paper is to prioritise research that will improve modelling outputs in the future. We have found that the physical characteristic of the source location has by far the largest effect on the fate of the debris. The diffusivity, used to parameterise the sub-grid scale movements, and the relationship between debris resuspension/re-floating from beaches and the wind shadow created by high islands also has a dramatic impact on the modelling results. The rate of degradation of macroplastics into microplastics also have a large influence in the result of the modelling. The other processes presented (settling, wind drift velocity) also help determine the fate of debris, but to a lesser degree. These findings may help prioritise research on physical processes that affect plastic accumulation, leading to more accurate modelling, and subsequently management in the future.

  11. Microbial Production in the Hyporheic Zone of a Coastal Floodplain River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clinton, S. M.; Edwards, R. T.

    2001-12-01

    Microbes living on saturated sediments influence stream ecosystem processes by altering the amount and chemical composition of materials delivered from the watershed to the river. Although many factors control rates of microbial processes, available dissolved organic matter (DOM) is often limiting. This limitation is of key interest in the hyporheic (subsurface) zone where microorganisms are dependent upon allochthonous sources of DOM for respiration and production. In floodplain rivers, long hyporheic flowpaths (hundreds of meters) occur beneath productive riparian terraces. At this scale, advecting DOM is rapidly utilized at the head of the flowpath leaving a large proportion of the hyporheic microbial community potentially DOM limited. An alternative source of labile DOM however, is the infiltration of DOM from overlying riparian soils. I investigated how variation in DOM and microbial activity was related to differences among the successional stages of overlying vegetation and positions along flowpaths in the hyporheic zone of a floodplain terrace on the Queets River, WA. Samples for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and microbial production were collected seasonally from 30 wells during 2000-2001. Dissolved organic carbon ranged from 0.5-2.0 mg/L over the year and was higher in wells overlain by mixed old-growth conifer than young alder. There was insufficient DOC in advecting surface water to support hyporheic respiration in the terrace, suggesting that riparian soils were a potential DOM source for microbial metabolism. Microbial growth experiments demonstrated that hyporheic microorganisms were capable of metabolizing riparian soil leachates. Microbial production was higher at the head of the flowpaths than the end of the flowpaths; however it did not decrease in a fashion predicted from other studies. Although microbial production was higher in wells overlain by older trees, production was not statistically related to the overlying patch structure. The

  12. Features of hydrocarbon distribution in the coastal zone of the northeastern Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemirovskaya, I. A.; Onegina, V. D.; Konovalov, B. V.

    2015-09-01

    Data on the content and composition of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface water and bottom sediments are reported as compared to the distribution of total organic carbon, suspended particulate matter, lipids, and chlorophyll for the Greater Sochi area and the Gelendzhik and Blue bays. It is established that an influx of oil products leads to the increase of hydrocarbon concentrations in the water and bottom sediments, thus providing the present-day hydrocarbon background. Active transformation of organic matter in the water succession and on the water-bottom interface results in the prevalence of natural components in alkanes in spite of the high hydrocarbon concentrations (119-262 μg/g). The river-seawater mixing zone serves as a geochemical barrier preventing the influx of most pollutants delivered by rivers into open sea.

  13. Lithuanian women physicists: Current situation and involvement in gender projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šatkovskienė, Dalia; Ruželė, Živilė; Rutkūnienė, Živilė; Kupliauskienė, Alicija

    2015-12-01

    The changes in the situation of women in physics since the last Lithuanian country report are discussed on the basis of available statistics. The overall percentage of women physicists in research is 28%. Results show that there is a noticeable increase in female scientists in most phases of the academic career progression except in the highest positions. The results also show a permanent change in the awareness of gender-related issues in research. We also discuss the initiatives taken by Lithuanian women scientists to change the situation during three last years and their outcomes.

  14. Microbial degradation rates of small peptides and amino acids in the oxygen minimum zone of Chilean coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantoja, Silvio; Rossel, Pamela; Castro, Rodrigo; Cuevas, L. Antonio; Daneri, Giovanni; Córdova, Candy

    2009-07-01

    We found similar microbial degradation rates of labile dissolved organic matter in oxic and suboxic waters off northern Chile. Rates of peptide hydrolysis and amino acid uptake in unconcentrated water samples were not low in the water column where oxygen concentration was depleted. Hydrolysis rates ranged from 65 to 160 nmol peptide L -1 h -1 in the top 20 m, 8-28 nmol peptide L -1 h -1 between 100 and 300 m (O 2-depleted zone), and 14-19 nmol peptide L -1 h -1 between 600 and 800 m. Dissolved free amino acid uptake rates were 9-26, 3-17, and 6 nmol L -1 h -1 at similar depth intervals. Since these findings are consistent with a model of comparable potential activity of microbes in degrading labile substrates of planktonic origin, we suggest, as do other authors, that differences in decomposition rates with high and low oxygen concentrations may be a matter of substrate lability. The comparison between hydrolysis and uptake rates indicates that microbial peptide hydrolysis occurs at similar or faster rates than amino acid uptake in the water column, and that the hydrolysis of peptides is not a rate-limiting step for the complete remineralization of labile macromolecules. Low O 2 waters process about 10 tons of peptide carbon per h, double the amount processed in surface-oxygenated water. In the oxygen minimum zone, we suggest that the C balance may be affected by the low lability of the dissolved organic matter when this is upwelled to the surface. An important fraction of dissolved organic matter is processed in the oxygen minimum layer, a prominent feature of the coastal ocean in the highly productive Humboldt Current System.

  15. Recent Monitoring of Suspended Sediment Patterns along Louisiana's Coastal Zone using ER-2 based MAS Data and Terra Based MODIS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moeller, Christopher C.; Gunshor, M. M.; Menzel, W. P.; Huh, O. K.; Walker, N. D.; Rouse, L. J.

    2001-01-01

    The University nf Wisconsin and Louisiana State University have teamed to study the forcing of winter season cold frontal wind systems on sediment distribution patterns and geomorphology in the Louisiana coastal zone. Wind systems associated with cold fronts have been shown to model coastal circulation and resuspend sediments along the micro tidal Louisiana coast (Roberts et at. 1987, Moeller et al. 1993). Remote sensing data is being used to map and track sediment distribution patterns for various wind conditions. Suspended sediment is a building material for coastal progradation and wetlands renewal, but also restricts access to marine nursery environments and impacts oyster bed health. Transferring a suspended sediment concentration (SSC) algorithm to EOS MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS; Barnes et al. 1998) observations may enable estimates of SSC globally.

  16. Concentration of heavy metals in ash produced from Lithuanian forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltrenaite, Edita; Pereira, Paulo; Butkus, Donatas; Úbeda, Xavier

    2010-05-01

    Wood ash contains important amounts of heavy metals. This quantity depends on burned specie, temperature of exposition and heat duration time. Due the high mineralization imposed by the temperatures, ash is used as lime product in agriculture and forests. Also, after a forest fire large quantities of ash are produced and distributed in soil surface. This mineralized organic matter can induce important environmental problems, including soil toxicity provoked by heavy metals leachates from ash. There is an extensive literature about heavy metals contents on ash in different species. However, it recently highlighted that the same species placed in different environments can respond diversely to same temperatures. This question is of major importance because temperature effects on severity can be a function of the plant communities instead of specie characteristics. These findings add a higher degree of complexity in the understanding of temperature effects on ash composition and consequent availability of heavy metals. The aim of this study is to compare the ash chemical heavy metal composition, Cobalt (Co), Chromium (Cr), Cooper (Cu), Silver (Ag), Lead (Pb), Nickel (Ni), Manganese (Mn) and Zinc (Zn), from Pinus sylvestris and Betula pendula, collected in key and representative areas of Lithuanian forests, located in southern, coastal and central part. Samples were collected from alive trees, taken to laboratory and air dried. Subsequently were crushed and submitted to muffle furnace at temperature of 550°C during two hours. The ash samples were digested and in a HNO3-HCl solution and then analysed with AAS. Comparisons between species and sites were performed with a Non-parametric one-way ANOVA‘s on rank transformed data followed by Tukey‘s HSD, significant at a p<0.05. Results showed significant difference between Co and Ag concentrations between Pinus sylvestris and Betula pendula. Also, significantly different concentrations of Pb, Cu, Ni and Mn were

  17. Minimizing systematic errors from atmospheric multiple scattering and satellite viewing geometry in coastal zone color scanner level IIA imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, D. L.; Perry, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    Water-leaving radiances and phytoplankton pigment concentrations are calculated from coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) radiance measurements by removing atmospheric Rayleigh and aerosol radiances from the total radiance signal measured at the satellite. The single greatest source of error in CZCS atmospheric correction algorithms in the assumption that these Rayleigh and aerosol radiances are separable. Multiple-scattering interactions between Rayleigh and aerosol components cause systematic errors in calculated aerosol radiances, and the magnitude of these errors is dependent on aerosol type and optical depth and on satellite viewing geometry. A technique was developed which extends the results of previous radiative transfer modeling by Gordon and Castano to predict the magnitude of these systematic errors for simulated CZCS orbital passes in which the ocean is viewed through a modeled, physically realistic atmosphere. The simulated image mathematically duplicates the exact satellite, Sun, and pixel locations of an actual CZCS image. Errors in the aerosol radiance at 443 nm are calculated for a range of aerosol optical depths. When pixels in the simulated image exceed an error threshhold, the corresponding pixels in the actual CZCS image are flagged and excluded from further analysis or from use in image compositing or compilation of pigment concentration databases. Studies based on time series analyses or compositing of CZCS imagery which do not address Rayleigh-aerosol multiple scattering should be interpreted cautiously, since the fundamental assumption used in their atmospheric correction algorithm is flawed.

  18. Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight - Comparison of ship determinations and CZCS estimates. [Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, H. R.; Brown, J. W.; Clark, D. K.; Brown, O. B.; Evans, R. H.; Broenkow, W. W.

    1983-01-01

    The processing algorithms used for relating the apparent color of the ocean observed with the Coastal-Zone Color Scanner on Nimbus-7 to the concentration of phytoplankton pigments (principally the pigment responsible for photosynthesis, chlorophyll-a) are developed and discussed in detail. These algorithms are applied to the shelf and slope waters of the Middle Atlantic Bight and also to Sargasso Sea waters. In all, four images are examined, and the resulting pigment concentrations are compared to continuous measurements made along ship tracks. The results suggest that over the 0.08-1.5 mg/cu m range, the error in the retrieved pigment concentration is of the order of 30-40% for a variety of atmospheric turbidities. In three direct comparisons between ship-measured and satellite-retrieved values of the water-leaving radiance, the atmospheric correction algorithm retrieved the water-leaving radiance with an average error of about 10%. This atmospheric correction algorithm does not require any surface measurements for its application.

  19. DOC and UVA attenuation with soil aquifer treatment in the saturated zone of an artificial coastal sandfill.

    PubMed

    Chua, Lloyd H C; Lo, Edmond Y M; Shuy, Eng Ban; Robertson, Alexander P; Lim, Teik Thye; Tan, Soon Keat

    2010-01-01

    Results from a direct recharge experiment conducted in the field to investigate DOC and UVA(254) attenuation rates during the direct injection of UF treated wastewater into a artificial coastal sandfill are presented in this paper. Approximately 500 m(3) of ultra-filtered wastewater was injected into the saturated zone, over a period of 9 days. The movement of the plume was tracked over 80 days, during which time samples were obtained from multilevel samplers installed in transects across the drift axis of the plume. An analysis of fluorescein in the samples obtained during the drift of the UF plume showed that DOC and UVA were attenuated beyond rates predicted by conservative mixing, by up to a maximum of 45%. A degradation coefficient of 0.0175 day(-1) was found to be applicable for DOC degradation. After a drift period of 80 days, DOC and UVA reduced to approximately 4.5 mg/l and 0.100 cm(-1), respectively, from initial values of 8.06 mg/l and 0.199 cm(-1). PMID:20705995

  20. Fluxes of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide in two contrastive fringing zones of coastal lagoon, Lake Nakaumi, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Mitsuru; Senga, Yukiko; Seike, Yasushi; Nohara, Seiichi; Kunii, Hidenobu

    2007-06-01

    We measured fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO(2)), methane (CH(4)), and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) simultaneously in two typical fringing zones, sandy shore and salt marsh, of coastal lagoon, Lake Nakaumi, Japan, in mid-summer 2003. Our aim was to quantify net the greenhouse gases (GHGs) fluxes and examine key factors, which control variation of the GHGs fluxes in the two sites. Net CO(2) and CH(4) fluxes were markedly different between the two sites; magnitudes and variations of the both fluxes in sandy shore were lower than those of salt marsh. Meanwhile, magnitude and variation of net N(2)O flux in the two sites were similar. In sandy shore, temporal and spatial variation of the three GHGs fluxes were highly controlled by water level fluctuation derived from astronomic tide. In salt marsh, spatial variation of the three GHGs fluxes were correlated with aboveground biomass, and temporal variation of CO(2) and CH(4) fluxes were correlated with soil temperature. The sum of global warming potential, which was roughly estimated using the observed GHGs fluxes, was ca. 174-fold higher in salt marsh than in sandy shore. PMID:17292942

  1. Estuarine and coastal zone marine pollution by the nonionic alkylphenol ethoxylates endocrine disrupters: is there a potential ecotoxicological problem?

    PubMed

    Zoller, Uri

    2006-02-01

    The nonionic biodegradation-resistant ("hard") alkylphenol ethoxylate (APEO) surfactants and their degradation products are known endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). We report here the findings concerning the APEOs concentrations and homologic distribution profiles in Israel's estuarine and coastal zone seawater to serve as a case study. The concentrations in sewage-containing rivers, estuaries and 50-60-m offshore sea (Mediterranean) water were found to be 12.5-75.1, 4.2-25.0 and 0.9-2.6 microg/L, respectively. The corresponding homologic distribution profiles were found to be within the range of 1-10% each, somewhat skewing, as expected, towards the more toxic shorter-chain ethoxylates. Egg production by zebrafish, exposed to 75, 25 and 10 microg/L of a typical industrial APEOs was reduced up to 89.6%, 84.7% and 76.9%, respectively, between the 8th and 28th days of exposure. Apparently, there is a potential APEOs-related ecotoxicological health risk problem. PMID:16225920

  2. Assessment of surface water pollutant models of estuaries and coastal zone of Quang Ninh - Hai Phong using Spot-5 images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Luong Chinh; Van Trang, Ho Thi; Liem, Vu Huu; Tuong, Tran Ngoc; Duyen, Pham Thi

    2015-06-01

    The coastal zone and estuaries of Quang Ninh and Hai Phong have great potential not only for economic development but also for protection and conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem. Nowadays, due to industrial, agricultural and anthropogenic activities signs of water pollution in the region have been found. The level of surface water pollution can be determined by traditional methods through observatory stations. However, a traditional approach to determine water contamination is discontinuous, and thereby makes pollution assessment of the entire estuary very difficult. Nowadays, remote sensing technology has been developed and widely applied in many fields, for instance, in monitoring water environments. Remote sensing data combined with information from in-situ observations allow for extraction of polluted components in water and accurate measurements of pollution level in the large regions ensuring objectivity. According to results obtained from Spot-5 imagery of Quang Ninh and Hai Phong, the extracted pollution components, like BOD, COD and TSS can be determined with the root mean square error, the absolute mean error and the absolute mean percentage error (%): ±4.37 (mg/l) 3.86 (mg/l), 27%; ±55.32 (mg/l), 48.30 (mg/l), 14%; and ±32.90 (mg/l), 23.38 (mg/l), 28%; respectively. Obtained outcomes guarantee objectivity in assessing water contaminant levels in the investigated regions and show the advantages of remote sensing applications in Resource and Environmental Monitoring in relation to Water - Air - Land.

  3. An investigation of atmospheric mercury accumulated in the snow cover from the urbanized coastal zone of the Baltic Sea, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siudek, P.; Falkowska, L.; Frankowski, M.; Siepak, J.

    2014-10-01

    The preliminary research on Hg snow chemistry was conducted in the industrially-impacted region of the southern Baltic Sea during winter campaigns in 2008 and 2009. Mercury content in urban snow samples was quantitatively determined through the use of an atomic absorption technique. The average total Hg concentration value in shallow snow cover from the urbanized coastal zone of the Baltic Sea was calculated to be 8.6 ng L-1. A strong relationship between the anthropogenic emission factors (contribution from local and regional coal combustion processes) and low temperature was identified for all the examined snow episodes. The highest Hg concentration in the urban snow samples was observed during the southern advection, which indicated that local/regional anthropogenic emission predominantly affected the Hg deposition. Other environmental variables (meteorological and chemical) were also investigated to establish the most important atmospheric processes and sources of Hg in the urban snow cover and to assess the changes in atmospheric Hg chemistry during the winter season.

  4. The Influence of Land Subsidence, Quarrying, Drainage, Irrigation and Forest Fire on Groundwater Resources and Biodiversity Along the Southern Po Plain Coastal Zone (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonellini, M. A.; Mollema, P. N.

    2014-12-01

    The coastal zone of the southern Po plain is characterized by low lying land, which is reclaimed to permit settlements and agriculture. The history, tourism resorts and peculiar coastal environments make this territory attractive and valuable. Natural and fluid-extraction-induced land subsidence along with coastal erosion are major problems. Touristic development has strongly modified the landscape; coastal dunes have been in part removed to make room for hotels and quarrying has caused the formation of gravel pit lakes close to the shoreline. Protected natural areas include a belt of coastal dunes, wetlands, and the internal historical forests of San Vitale and Classe. The dunes have largely lost their original vegetation ecosystem, because years ago they have been colonized with pine trees to protect the adjacent farmland from sea spray. These pine forests are currently a fire hazard. Land reclamation drainage keeps the water table artificially low. Results of these anthropogenic disturbances on the hydrology include a decrease in infiltration rates, loss of freshwater surface bodies, encroachment of saltwater inland from the river estuaries, salinization of the aquifer, wetlands and soil with a loss in plant and aquatic species biodiversity. Feedback mechanisms are complex: as land subsidence continues, drainage increases at the same pace promoting sea-water intrusion. The salinity of the groundwater does not allow for plant species richness nor for the survival of large pine trees. Farmland irrigation and fires in the pine forests, on the other hand, allow for increased infiltration and freshening of the aquifer and at the same time promote plant species diversity. Our work shows that the characteristics of the southern Po coastal zone require integrated management of economic activities, natural areas, and resources. This approach is different from the ad hoc measures taken so far, because it requires long term planning and setting a priority of objectives.

  5. Temporal variation in copepod abundance and composition in a strong, persistent coastal upwelling zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, Rachel E.; Elliott, Meredith L.; Largier, John L.; Jahncke, Jaime

    2016-03-01

    Zooplankton abundance and species composition provide information on environmental variability in the ocean. While zooplankton time series span the west coast of North America, less data exist off north-central California. Here, we investigated a zooplankton time series, focusing specifically on copepods, collected within the Gulf of the Farallones-Cordell Bank area (37.5° to 38.5°N) from 2004 to 2009. Impacted by seasonally strong, persistent upwelling, this study area is located downstream of a major upwelling center (Point Arena). We found copepod abundance and species composition differed significantly, particularly between the first three years (2004-2006) and the latter three years (2007-2009) of the study. These changes were mainly observed as changes in abundance of boreal copepod species, Pseudocalanus mimus and Acartia longiremis. These taxa showed increasing abundances for the latter three years of the study (2007-2009). During the first three years of the time series, environmental measurements in the region showed lower alongshore wind stress, weaker upwelling, minimal surface alongshore flow, and warmer surface ocean temperatures. Temporal variations in copepod abundance and species composition correlated with several of these environmental measurements (e.g., surface cross-shore and alongshore flows, upwelling, and alongshore wind stress), indicating environmental forcing of primary consumers and ecosystem productivity in this strong, persistent upwelling zone.

  6. Coastal zone management. Hearing before the National Ocean Policy Study of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session on S. 2324, March 28, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    A hearing on S. 2324, which amends the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972, focused on federal activities because of a Supreme Court interpretation excluding oil and gas leases from activities affecting the coastal zone and from complying with the Act. The Court also stated that States did not have control over federal activities outside the coastal zone. Of particular concern was the potential for degrading the coastal environment and the subsequent economic loss to the country. The legislation reinforces congressional intent in the original Act. Following the text of S.2324, the hearing record covers the testimony of six witnesses speaking on behalf of the petroleum industry, agencies which administer coastal regions, environmental groups, and others. Additional articles, letters, and statements submitted for the record follow the testimony.

  7. Earthquake-induced liquefaction features in the coastal setting of South Carolina and in the fluvial setting of the New Madrid seismic zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Obermeier, S.F.; Jacobson, R.B.; Smoot, J.P.; Weems, R.E.; Gohn, G.S.; Monroe, J.E.; Powars, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    Many types of liquefaction-related features (sand blows, fissures, lateral spreads, dikes, and sills) have been induced by earthquakes in coastal South Carolina and in the New Madrid seismic zone in the Central United States. In addition, abundant features of unknown and nonseismic origin are present. Geologic criteria for interpreting an earthquake origin in these areas are illustrated in practical applications; these criteria can be used to determine the origin of liquefaction features in many other geographic and geologic settings. In both coastal South Carolina and the New Madrid seismic zone, the earthquake-induced liquefaction features generally originated in clean sand deposits that contain no or few intercalated silt or clay-rich strata. The local geologic setting is a major influence on both development and surface expression of sand blows. Major factors controlling sand-blow formation include the thickness and physical properties of the deposits above the source sands, and these relationships are illustrated by comparing sand blows found in coastal South Carolina (in marine deposits) with sand blows found in the New Madrid seismic zone (in fluvial deposits). In coastal South Carolina, the surface stratum is typically a thin (about 1 m) soil that is weakly cemented with humate, and the sand blows are expressed as craters surrounded by a thin sheet of sand; in the New Madrid seismic zone the surface stratum generally is a clay-rich deposit ranging in thickness from 2 to 10 m, in which case sand blows characteristically are expressed as sand mounded above the original ground surface. Recognition of the various features described in this paper, and identification of the most probable origin for each, provides a set of important tools for understanding paleoseismicity in areas such as the Central and Eastern United States where faults are not exposed for study and strong seismic activity is infrequent.

  8. Environmental application of remote sensing methods to coastal zone land use and marine resource management. Appendix F: User's guide for advection, convection prototype. [southeastern Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A user's manual is provided for the environmental computer model proposed for the Richmond-Cape Henry Environmental Laboratory (RICHEL) application project for coastal zone land use investigations and marine resources management. The model was developed around the hydrologic cycle and includes two data bases consisting of climate and land use variables. The main program is described, along with control parameters to be set and pertinent subroutines.

  9. ATM Coastal Topography - Louisiana, 2001: UTM Zone 16 (Part 2 of 2)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, Xan; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, Asbury H.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Louisiana coastline beach face within UTM Zone 16, from Grand Isle to the Chandeleur Islands, acquired September 7 and 9, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative scanning lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and

  10. ATM Coastal Topography-Louisiana, 2001: UTM Zone 15 (Part 1 of 2)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, Xan; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Louisiana coastline beach face within UTM Zone 15, from Isles Dernieres to Grand Isle, acquired September 7 and 10, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative scanning lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last

  11. Application of Sedimentologic-Geophysical Analysis for Coastal Zone Management in Albania.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavaja, V. S.; Durmishi, C.; Alikaj, P.; Jata, I.

    2004-12-01

    The areas under investigation encompassing a large expense of land of south- western part of Albanian coast zone. The paper examines the Quaternary history of dual (sedimentologic models and the evaluation impact of the geological environment in expansion of ancient civilization in this region). The work presented here is result of continued study about four last years and goes on in our days. The neotectonic structure of Butrint region is consisted off horst- graben structure, E-W trending. The Quaternary formations fill the lowest part of the region and have different origins and consisted of alluvial and lagoon deposits, about 80-m thickness. The lagoonal deposits are common around Butrint lake wile ancient town (Hellenistic- Roman- Byzantine) was extended mainly on the soft Holocene sediments. The soundings data, particularly resistivity variation are the base of sedimentologic and lithological studies due to the lack of boreholes. Two cycles of sedimentation can be observed within the thickness of 40- 50m: the first, gravel and sands and second mainly of clays in upper part of the cross section. In addition to, V.E.S. data and resistivity maps point out the features of sedimentologic environment distinguishing Pleistocene and Holocene deposits, delineated of water-bearing coarse-grained sands and gravels and land-sea interaction separating salty waters areas. Based on the sedimentologic and structural factors studied and geophysical maps and cross-sections, plenty of geomorphic problems are obvious now. This studies show the evidence to the advancement of the coastline is still occurring and the shoreline is still on the move.

  12. Improving the Evaluation Model for the Lithuanian Informatics Olympiads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skupiene, Jurate

    2010-01-01

    The Lithuanian Informatics Olympiads (LitIO) is a problem solving programming contest for students in secondary education. The work of the student to be evaluated is an algorithm designed by the student and implemented as a working program. The current evaluation process involves both automated (for correctness and performance of programs with the…

  13. "Talking through Letters": Collaborative Writing in Early Lithuanian Immigrant Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markelis, Daiva

    2003-01-01

    The emphasis on the individual in Western culture has blinded us to how social relationships affect literacy acquisition and, conversely, how literacy transforms these relationships. This article deals with the literacy practices, specifically, letter writing, of Lithuanian immigrants who arrived in the United States during the end of the 19th…

  14. Interannual Variability in Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotopic Signatures of Size-Fractionated POM from the South Florida Coastal Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, S. L.; Anderson, W. T.; Jochem, F. J.; Fourqurean, J. W.

    2004-12-01

    Environmental conditions in South Florida coastal waters have been of local and national concern over the past 15 years. Attention has focused on the ecosystem impacts of salinity increases, seagrass die-off, increased algal bloom frequency, waste water influence, groundwater discharge, and exchange between Florida Bay, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic Ocean. Changes in water quality and productivity levels may be reflected in the isotopic signatures of coastal zone primary producers. Recent work with seagrasses in South Florida has demonstrated high seasonal and spatial variability in C and N isotopic signatures and decoupling between the two isotopic systems as they vary. To better understand the sources of seasonal and spatial fluctuation, size fractionated POM (particulate organic matter) samples have been collected on a quarterly basis since Sept. 2002. Fractions collected include >150μ m, 50-150μ m, and 0.1-50μ m using Nitex mesh sieves and a portable pump system deployed from a small boat at 10 sites around the Florida Keys and Florida Bay. It was hypothesized that planktonic groups respond more quickly to changes in water quality then seagrasses, and thus variations may be more clearly attributed to environmental parameters. Significant spatial and temporal variability is evident both within site between size fractions and between sites. Seasonal oscillations of up to 4‰ were observed in N isotopic values and 6‰ in C isotopic values of the 50-150μ m size fraction, which is dominated by diatoms and dinoflagellates. δ 13C values are depleted in the late winter/early spring sampling period possibly reflecting decreased productivity stress on available C pools. 13C depletion is generally coincident with δ 15N enrichment in the late winter/early spring, possibly demonstrating changes in DIN pools (NO3- and NH4+ concentrations) or changes in decomposition or denitrification rates. Broad groupings appear to separate Atlantic coral reef sites

  15. Using Mixed Morphometrics and Near-Surface Geophysics to Characterize Geomorphic Evolution of the South Texas Coastal Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weymer, B. A.; Barrineau, C. P.; Bishop, M. P.; Everett, M. E.; Tchakerian, V. P.; Houser, C.

    2013-12-01

    This work explores the utility of combining non-invasive EM induction and DEM-derived surface parameters to reconstruct the geomorphic history of Padre Island, Laguna Madre wind-tidal flats, and the South Texas Sand Sheet. Over the years, the wind-tidal flats of Laguna Madre, Texas have been the focus of several important geological investigations, mainly because they represent an anomaly compared to other coastal depositional environments. High evaporation rates, low rainfall and isolation from tidal passes combine to produce a unique set of hydrologic and geomorphic conditions along the South Texas coast. Thus, this landscape offers a unique opportunity to test the application of spectral stratigraphy to differentiate various coastal depositional environments. We aim to develop a novel approach for utilizing various remote sensing technologies to reveal linkages between stratigraphy and surface conditions. For this study, we used a multi-frequency GSSI EMP-400 EM Profiler™ to conduct three shore-normal surveys along the southern, central and northern portions of the sand sheet at a total distance of ~10 km, 9 km and 7 km, respectively. In addition, a ~20 km long shore-parallel survey intersected the three shore-normal transects. Responses were recorded at three discrete frequencies (1 kHz, 3 kHz and 15 kHz) corresponding to skin depths of ~16 m, 10 m, and 5 m, respectively. To invert the EM data, we used a Markov Chain Monte Carlo 1D inversion model to distinguish different geoelectric layers, which can provide information regarding sediment thickness. An airborne LiDAR-derived elevation model was used to generate parameters including slope, aspect, curvature, and roughness to classify the landscape according to surface characteristics. Moisture and vegetation indices were computed from Landsat Thematic Mapper data to include soil and biological conditions. Preliminary results suggest that inverse modeling of EM data reveals inflection points corresponding to

  16. Magnitudes and sources of dissolved inorganic phosphorus inputs to surface fresh waters and the coastal zone: A new global model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, John A.; Bouwman, A. F.; Mayorga, Emilio; Seitzinger, Sybil

    2010-03-01

    by the year 2000, human activities such as dam construction and consumptive water use have somewhat moderated the effect of humans on P transport by preventing (conservatively) 0.35 Tg P yr-1 (˜20% of P inputs to surface waters) from reaching coastal zones globally.

  17. Landscape paintings of the 17th and 19th century as a tool for coastal zone management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungerius, P. D.; van den Ancker, J.

    2012-04-01

    For more than fifty years many Dutch landscapes suffered severe damage. For their management, it is valuable to know what they looked like in the past. Historic maps give inadequate information, and landscape and aerial photographs are scarcely available until the 1940s. Before then landscapes have been documented chiefly by landscape painters. Interpreted with care, Dutch landscape paintings of the 17th and 19th century are an invaluable geoheritage archive and also hold information that is relevant for present-day landscape management. We present paintings of the Dutch coastal zone as an example. The coastal zone of the Netherlands is geomorphologically well developed, with beaches, foredunes, medieval 'Young dunes', and 5000 year old beach ridges with several anthropic modifications. Each of these terrains attracted landscape painters. Representative paintings can be found in museums and art galleries. We evaluated hundreds of paintings of the collection of Simonis & Buunk, an art gallery in Ede specialised in 19th and early 20th century landscape paintings, for the geoheritage information they contain. The collection, which is the largest on the subject on¬line available in Europe, can be freely consulted (www.simonis--buunk.com). The freedom taken by the painters to adjust reality for compositional or stylistic reasons is still subject of discussion. The paintings became more realistic in the middle of the 19th century when paints became available in tubes and the painters could leave their studio to work in the field. We selected paintings that are sufficiently realistic to be translated in real landscape features, including geomorphological processes and elements. Some insights: • Because of the overriding control of marine and eolian processes, the appearance of the beaches has not changed since the 16th century. • The difference between the flat beaches of the Netherlands and the steeper beaches is accurately registered by the painters. • On a coast

  18. 76 FR 39857 - Alaska Coastal Management Program Withdrawal From the National Coastal Management Program Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration Alaska Coastal Management Program Withdrawal From the National Coastal Management Program Under the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) AGENCY: Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management (OCRM), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic...

  19. Evolution of porosity in the saltwater freshwater mixing zone of coastal carbonate aquifers: An alternative modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanov, Douchko; Dreybrodt, Wolfgang

    2006-10-01

    SummaryDissolution of calcium carbonate in the saltwater-freshwater mixing zone in carbonate islands and coastal aquifers up to now has been treated by coupling geochemical equilibrium programmes to a reactive-transport model. The result is a complex nonlinearly coupled set of differential transport-advection equations, which need high computational efforts. If dissolution rates of calcite are sufficiently fast, such that one can assume the solution to be in equilibrium with respect to calcite a highly simplified modelling approach can be used. By use of the concept of Phillips in his book: Flow and Reactions in Permeable Rock, Cambridge University Press, New York (1991) and its more general formulation by De Simoni et al. [De Simoni, M., Carrera, J., Sánchez-Vila, X., Guadagnini, A., 2005. A procedure for the solution of multicomponent reactive transport problems, Water Resource Research, 41, W11410.], it is possible to decouple the complex set of equations. To calculate initial changes of porosity in the rock matrix one needs solely to solve the advection-transport equation for salinity s. Current codes on density driven flow such as SEAWAT can be used. To obtain the dissolution capacity of the mixed saltwater-freshwater solution the calcium equilibrium concentration ceq( s) is obtained as a function of salinity by PHREEQC-2. Initial porosity changes can then be calculated by a simple analytical expression of the gradient of the spatial distribution s( x, y) of salinity, the distribution of flow fluxes q( x, y) and the second derivative of the calcium equilibrium concentration ceq( s) with respect to salinity s. This approach does no longer require large dispersivities on the order of meters; but reasonable results are obtained with dispersivity on the scale of the pore size of the porous rock, which correctly describes mixing on the molecular scale. The method is applied to a simple 1-D-domain without convective flow and a constant gradient of salinity as

  20. Roseovarius marisflavi sp. nov., isolated from an amphioxus breeding zone in the coastal region of the Yellow Sea, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhao; Zhao, Rui; Ji, Shiqi; Shi, Xiaochong; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2013-09-01

    A novel Gram stain-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, strictly aerobic bacterium, designated strain H50(T), was isolated from an amphioxus breeding zone in the coastal region of the Yellow Sea, China. Cells were observed to be ovoid or short rods, lacked flagella and were found to contain bacteriochlorophyll a. Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate was found to be accumulated. The temperature range for growth was determined to be 0-37 °C (optimum 28-37 °C). The halotolerance range for growth is 1-15 % NaCl (optimum 2-7 %). The pH range for growth is 6.0-8.0 (optimum 7.0). The major fatty acids were identified as C18:1ω7c and C16:0. The following polar lipids were found to be present: diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and a lipid. The predominant respiratory quinone was determined to be Q-10. DNA G+C content was determined to be 57.7 mol%. Strain H50(T) exhibited the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Pelagicola litoralis DSM 18290(T) (96.1 %), Roseovarius mucosus DSM 17069(T) (95.8 %) and Roseovarius tolerans DSM 11457(T) (95.7 %). In the phylogenetic trees, strain H50(T) was clustered with the genus Roseovarius but not Pelagicola. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic data, strain H50(T) is considered to represent a novel species in the genus Roseovarius, for which the name Roseovarius marisflavi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is H50(T) (=CGMCC 1.10799(T)=JCM 17553(T)). PMID:23828179

  1. Litorilituus sediminis gen. nov. sp. nov., isolated from coastal sediment of an amphioxus breeding zone in Qingdao, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Zhao, Rui; Ji, Shiqi; Li, Zhao; Yu, Tong; Li, Bingyu; Shi, Xiaochong; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2013-09-01

    A Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, catalase- and oxidase-positive, aerobic, curved-rod shaped bacterium with polar or subpolar flagellum, designated strain JYr2(T), was isolated from a sediment sample collected from an amphioxus breeding zone in the coastal region of Qingdao, China. The organism grew optimally at 37 °C, pH 8-9 and in the presence of 3 % (w/v) NaCl or 3-4 % sea salts (w/v; Sigma). Salt was required for growth. The strain contained isoprenoid quinone 8 (Q-8, 100 %) as the predominant isoprenoid quinone and C16:0 (24.1 %) and C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1 ω6c (35.8 %) as major fatty acids. Phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, aminophospholipid (PN) and two aminolipid (AL1, AL2) were the major constituents of the phospholipids. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain JYr2(T) formed a distinct evolutionary lineage within the family Colwelliaceae. It showed <95.0 % sequence similarities to all validly published species in the family Colwelliaceae, except 95.2 % to Thalassomonas viridans DSM 13754(T) and 95.0 % to Colwellia polaris JCM 537(T). The G+C content of the DNA was 42.7 mol%. On the basis of the polyphasic taxonomic study, strain JYr2(T) (= CGMCC 1.10794(T) = JCM 17549(T)) was considered to represent a novel genus and species in Gammaproteobacteria, for which the name Litorilituus sediminis gen. nov. sp. nov. was proposed. PMID:23839057

  2. Photophysiological variability and its influence on primary production in the NW Africa-Canary Islands coastal transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiras, F. G.; Arbones, B.; Montero, M. F.; Barton, E. D.; Arístegui, J.

    2016-05-01

    Photophysiological variability and its influence on primary production were studied in the NW Africa-Canary Islands coastal transition zone. The region showed strong mesoscale activity, in which upwelling filaments and island eddies interacted to cause significant vertical displacements of the deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM). Oligotrophic stations both in the open ocean and within anticyclonic eddies were characterised by low values of integrated chlorophyll (33 ± 4 mg chl a m- 2) and dominance of pico- and nanophytoplankton, while stations associated with filaments and cyclonic eddies showed moderate chl a values (50 ± 17 mg m- 2). Shelf stations affected by upwelling exhibited the highest chl a (112 ± 36 mg m- 2) with microphytoplankton dominance. Photosynthetic variables in the three groups of stations showed similar depth gradients, with maximum photosynthetic rates (PmB) decreasing with depth and maximum quantum yields (ϕm) increasing with depth. However, the increase with depth of ϕm was not so evident in shelf waters where nutrients were not depleted at the surface. Primary production (PP) displayed a coast-ocean gradient similar to that of chl a, with highest values (2.5 ± 1.2 g C m- 2 d- 1) at the eutrophic shelf stations and lowest (0.36 ± 0.11 g C m- 2 d- 1) at the oligotrophic stations. Nevertheless, integrated PP at the oligotrophic stations was not related to integrated chl a concentration but was positively (r = 0.95) correlated to carbon fixation at the DCM and negatively (r = - 0.85) correlated to the depth of the DCM, suggesting that light, and not phytoplankton biomass, was the main factor controlling PP in oligotrophic environments. It is concluded that downward displacements of the DCM, either by convergence fronts or downwelling at the core of anticyclones can significantly reduce PP in the oligotrophic ocean.

  3. Pollution status of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from the Yangtze River Estuary and its adjacent coastal zone.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenglong; Zou, Xinqing; Gao, Jianhua; Zhao, Yifei; Yu, Wenwen; Li, Yali; Song, Qiaochu

    2016-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are mainly produced by incomplete combustion and are used as indicators of anthropogenic activities on the environment. This study analyses the PAHs level in the Yangtze River Estuary (YRE), an important component of Yangtze River and a developed and populated region in China. Surface sediments were collected from 77 sites at the YRE and its adjacent coastal zone (IACZ) for a comprehensive study of PAHs. Kriging interpolation technology and Positive matrix factorization (PMF) model were applied to explore the spatial distribution and sources of PAHs. Concentrations of 16 PAHs (ΣPAHs) varied from 27.2 ng g(-1) to 621.6 ng g(-1) dry weight, with an average value of 158.2 ng g(-1). Spatially, ΣPAHs exhibited wide fluctuation and exhibited an increasing tendency from north to south. In addition, ΣPAHs exhibited a decreasing trend with increasing distance between the estuary and IACZ. The deposition flux of PAHs indicated that more than 107.8 t a(-1) PAHs was deposited in the study area annually. The results of the PMF model revealed that anthropogenic activities were the main sources of PAHs in the study area. Vehicle emissions and marine engines were the most important sources and accounted for 40.9% of the pollution. Coal combustion, petrogenic sources, and wood combustion were other sources that contributed 23.9%, 23.6%, and 11.5%, respectively. The distribution patterns of PAHs in the YRE and IACZ were influenced by many complicated factors such as sediment grain size, hydrodynamics and so on. PMID:27485799

  4. The impact of land use and season on the riverine transport of mercury into the marine coastal zone.

    PubMed

    Saniewska, Dominika; Bełdowska, Magdalena; Bełdowski, Jacek; Saniewski, Michał; Szubska, Marta; Romanowski, Andrzej; Falkowska, Lucyna

    2014-11-01

    In Mediterranean seas and coastal zones, rivers can be the main source of mercury (Hg). Catchment management therefore affects the load of Hg reaching the sea with surface runoff. The major freshwater inflows to the Baltic Sea consist of large rivers. However, their systems are complex and identification of factors affecting the outflow of Hg from its catchments is difficult. For this reason, a study into the impact of watershed land use and season on mercury biogeochemistry and transport in rivers was performed along two small rivers which may be considered typical of the southern Baltic region. Neither of these rivers are currently impacted by industrial effluents, thus allowing assessment of the influence of catchment terrain and season on Hg geochemistry. The study was performed between June 2008 and May 2009 at 13 sampling points situated at different terrain types within the catchments (forest, wetland, agriculture and urban). Hg analyses were conducted by CVAFS. Arable land erosion was found to be an important source of Hg to the aquatic system, similar to urban areas. Furthermore, inflows of untreated storm water discharge resulted in a fivefold increase of Hg concentration in the rivers. The highest Hg concentration in the urban runoff was observed with the greatest amount of precipitation during summer. Moderate rainfalls enhance the inflow of bioavailable dissolved mercury into water bodies. Despite the lack of industrial effluents entering the rivers directly, the sub-catchments with anthropogenic land use were important sources of Hg in the rivers. This was caused by elution of metal, deposited in soils over the past decades, into the rivers. The obtained results are especially important in the light of recent environmental conscience regulations, enforcing the decrease of pollution by Baltic countries. PMID:25085426

  5. Near-Surface Phytoplankton Pigment from the Coastal Zone Color Scanner in the Subantarctic Region Southeast of New Zealand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banse, Karl; English, David C.

    1997-01-01

    Primarily based on satellite images, the phytoplankton concentration southeast (down- stream) of New Zealand in the High Nitrate - Low Chlorophyll (HNLC) Subantarctic water between the Subtropical Convergence (STC) and the Polar Front (PF) is believed to be higher than in the remainder of the Pacific Sector. Iron enrichment is assumed to be the reason, To study the question, near-surface phytoplankton pigment estimates from the Coastal Zone Color Scanner for up to 7 yr were reprocessed with particular attention to interference by clouds. Monthly mean images were created for the U,S. JGOFS Box along 170 deg W and means for individual dates calculated for 7 large areas between 170 deg E and 160 deg W, 45 deg and 58 deg S, well offshore of New Zealand and principally between and away from the STC and PF. The areal means are about as low as in other HNLC regions (most values between 0.1 and 0.4 or 0.5 mg/ sq m, with very few winter images; median of seasonal means, 0.26 mg/sq m) except at times near the STC, The higher means tend to occur in late summer and autumn, However, contrary to expectations, neither the PF nor the environs of the Subantarctic Front are distinguished by a zone of increased pigment. Also, of 24 spring-summer images of oceanic islands in mostly pigment-poor water, 17 yielded no recognizable elevated pigment; islands were 5 times surrounded by approximately doubled concentrations (ca 100 km in diameter), and 2 cases may have been associated with an extensive bloom. Inspection of offshore images showed concentrations of 1 greater than or equal to(up to 5) mg/sq m in rare patches of 65 to 200 km size on approximately one-tenth of the dates; such patches were not seen in Sub-antarctic waters of the eastern Pacific Sector. A case is made for Australian airborne iron supply being the cause that, presumably, would enhance large-celled phytoplankton. Since, however, the putative iron supply from the seabed around the oceanic islands or the near

  6. The Abundance of Pink-Pigmented Facultative Methylotrophs in the Root Zone of Plant Species in Invaded Coastal Sage Scrub Habitat

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Irina C.; Brigham, Christy A.; Suding, Katharine N.; Martiny, Jennifer B. H.

    2012-01-01

    Pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacteria (PPFMs) are associated with the roots, leaves and seeds of most terrestrial plants and utilize volatile C1 compounds such as methanol generated by growing plants during cell division. PPFMs have been well studied in agricultural systems due to their importance in crop seed germination, yield, pathogen resistance and drought stress tolerance. In contrast, little is known about the PPFM abundance and diversity in natural ecosystems, let alone their interactions with non-crop species. Here we surveyed PPFM abundance in the root zone soil of 5 native and 5 invasive plant species along ten invasion gradients in Southern California coastal sage scrub habitat. PPFMs were present in every soil sample and ranged in abundance from 102 to 105 CFU/g dry soil. This abundance varied significantly among plant species. PPFM abundance was 50% higher in the root zones of annual or biennial species (many invasives) than perennial species (all natives). Further, PPFM abundance appears to be influenced by the plant community beyond the root zone; pure stands of either native or invasive species had 50% more PPFMs than mixed species stands. In sum, PPFM abundance in the root zone of coastal sage scrub plants is influenced by both the immediate and surrounding plant communities. The results also suggest that PPFMs are a good target for future work on plant-microorganism feedbacks in natural ecosystems. PMID:22383990

  7. GIS-based vulnerability assessment to sea level rise of Al Hoceima Bay (Moroccan Mediterranean): towards an integrated coastal zone management (ICZM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khouakhi, A.; Snoussi, M.

    2013-12-01

    In the context of coastal vulnerability to climate change and human impacts, integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) is an increasingly relevant process for the sustainable development of coastal areas, in which scientific input plays a vital role. In the Mediterranean Basin, projected increases in sea level rise and in the magnitude and frequency of extreme weather events pose a major challenge for the management of low-lying coastal ecosystems and human settlements. The bay of Al Hoceima is one of the least studied and largest low-lying coastal areas of the Moroccan Mediterranean coast, and is exposed to the effects of sea level rise and storms. The coast is also a touristic area and one of the most important economic assets in the region. Physical coastal vulnerability assessments, determination of setback lines, and evaluation of coastal aquifer vulnerability to sea level rise are among the principal tools used to help decision makers in such a context. Here we quantified, in the context of sea level rise: (1) the physical vulnerability of the coastline, by developing a standard index methodology based on the five most relevant physical indices for local-scale vulnerability analysis, for a total of 822 50m/50m coastal cells; (2) coastal setback lines, based on shoreline evolutionary trends adjusted to sea level rise scenarios using a digital shoreline Analysis System (DSAS); and (3) the vulnerability to sea water intrusion in the coastal aquifer, using a modified GALDIT index (ground water occurrence, aquifer hydraulic conductivity, depth to groundwater level above the sea; distance from the shore; impact of existing status of sea water intrusion in the area; and thickness of the aquifer), following an integrated GIS approach. We find that 41% of the studied coastline is highly vulnerable to the effects of sea level rise and extreme weather events; 60% of the coastline is in retreat (with rates varying between -2m and -0.2m/y), 30% is in dynamic equilibrium

  8. Beach ridges as paleoseismic indicators of abrupt coastal subsidence during subduction zone earthquakes, and implications for Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone paleoseismology, southeast coast of the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelsey, Harvey M.; Witter, Robert C.; Engelhart, Simon E.; Briggs, Richard; Nelson, Alan R.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Corbett, D. Reide

    2015-01-01

    The Kenai section of the eastern Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone straddles two areas of high slip in the 1964 great Alaska earthquake and is the least studied of the three megathrust segments (Kodiak, Kenai, Prince William Sound) that ruptured in 1964. Investigation of two coastal sites in the eastern part of the Kenai segment, on the southeast coast of the Kenai Peninsula, identified evidence for two subduction zone earthquakes that predate the 1964 earthquake. Both coastal sites provide paleoseismic data through inferred coseismic subsidence of wetlands and associated subsidence-induced erosion of beach ridges. At Verdant Cove, paleo-beach ridges record the paleoseismic history; whereas at Quicksand Cove, buried soils in drowned coastal wetlands are the primary indicators of paleoearthquake occurrence and age. The timing of submergence and death of trees mark the oldest earthquake at Verdant Cove that is consistent with the age of a well documented ∼900-year-ago subduction zone earthquake that ruptured the Prince William Sound segment of the megathrust to the east and the Kodiak segment to the west. Soils buried within the last 400–450 years mark the penultimate earthquake on the southeast coast of the Kenai Peninsula. The penultimate earthquake probably occurred before AD 1840 from its absence in Russian historical accounts. The penultimate subduction zone earthquake on the Kenai segment did not rupture in conjunction with the Prince William Sound to the northeast. Therefore the Kenai segment, which is presently creeping, can rupture independently of the adjacent Prince William Sound segment that is presently locked.

  9. Development of a 3D Coupled Physical-Biogeochemical Model for the Marseille Coastal Area (NW Mediterranean Sea): What Complexity Is Required in the Coastal Zone?

    PubMed Central

    Fraysse, Marion; Pinazo, Christel; Faure, Vincent Martin; Fuchs, Rosalie; Lazzari, Paolo; Raimbault, Patrick; Pairaud, Ivane

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial inputs (natural and anthropogenic) from rivers, the atmosphere and physical processes strongly impact the functioning of coastal pelagic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to develop a tool for the examination of these impacts on the Marseille coastal area, which experiences inputs from the Rhone River and high rates of atmospheric deposition. Therefore, a new 3D coupled physical/biogeochemical model was developed. Two versions of the biogeochemical model were tested, one model considering only the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles and a second model that also considers the phosphorus (P) cycle. Realistic simulations were performed for a period of 5 years (2007–2011). The model accuracy assessment showed that both versions of the model were able of capturing the seasonal changes and spatial characteristics of the ecosystem. The model also reproduced upwelling events and the intrusion of Rhone River water into the Bay of Marseille well. Those processes appeared to greatly impact this coastal oligotrophic area because they induced strong increases in chlorophyll-a concentrations in the surface layer. The model with the C, N and P cycles better reproduced the chlorophyll-a concentrations at the surface than did the model without the P cycle, especially for the Rhone River water. Nevertheless, the chlorophyll-a concentrations at depth were better represented by the model without the P cycle. Therefore, the complexity of the biogeochemical model introduced errors into the model results, but it also improved model results during specific events. Finally, this study suggested that in coastal oligotrophic areas, improvements in the description and quantification of the hydrodynamics and the terrestrial inputs should be preferred over increasing the complexity of the biogeochemical model. PMID:24324589

  10. Exogenous processes study in the coastal zone of the large reservoirs in the archaeological monuments placement (Volga-Kama region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaynullin, Iskander; Usmanov, Bulat

    2014-05-01

    The problem of conservation of archaeological heritage is highly relevant for the Republic of Tatarstan (RT), because in its territory identified, studied and registered around 4,300 archaeological sites. Most of archaeological sites from the Mesolithic to the late Middle Ages, now situated in the coastal zone of reservoirs where archaeological objects destroying because of intensive abrasion processes. The Volga and Kama rivers region attracted people for millennia. This territory of the Russian Plain is abounding in archaeological sites of various ages. During the Upper Paleolithic study region was quite convenient for living activity of the first inhabitants because of its situation out of the glacier limits. The sites on the banks are deposited within deluvial sediments of the Late Valday glaciation which have been accumulated on the slope of the Volga and Kama valleys, placing the third terrace and the segmentations of the second terrace over the flood-plain and now completely or fragmentary destroyed by reservoir waters. The analysis of remote sensing (1958-2013) and field survey (2011-2013) data performed. Georeferencing and alignment of the historical maps with remote sensing data makes possible to reveal mistakes in old site plans and re-create the shape of the destroyed archaeological objects, as well to get the exact size of the monument and its correct orientation. Results showed also that the studying sites caused a great rate of destruction of coastline. Cultural heritage sites monitoring, with information about the chronology, cultural layer value, settlement specifics, etc., taking into account the methods used in landscape ecology and field archaeological survey, allows to evaluate damage and the intensity of archaeological sites destruction through the dangerous exogenous processes estimation. Exogenous processes data and archaeological GIS integration will form unified system of archaeological rescue works, will provide analysis of large amount

  11. Mapping of coastal aquifer vulnerable zone in the south west coast of Kanyakumari, South India, using GIS-based DRASTIC model.

    PubMed

    Kaliraj, S; Chandrasekar, N; Peter, T Simon; Selvakumar, S; Magesh, N S

    2015-01-01

    The south west coast of Kanyakumari district in Tamil Nadu, India, is significantly affected by seawater intrusion and diffusion of pollutants into the aquifers due to unregulated beach placer mining and other anthropogenic activities. The present study investigates the vulnerability of the coastal aquifers using Geographic Information System (GIS)-based DRASTIC model. The seven DRASTIC parameters have been analyzed using the statistical equation of this model to demarcate the vulnerable zones for aquifer contamination. The vulnerability index map is prepared from the weighted spatial parameters, and an accounting of total index value ranged from 85 to 213. Based on the categorization of vulnerability classes, the high vulnerable zones are found near the beach placer mining areas between Manavalakurichi and Kodimanal coastal stretches. The aquifers associated with settlements and agricultural lands in the middle-eastern part have experienced high vulnerability due to contaminated water bodies. Similarly, the coastal areas of Thengapattinam and Manakudi estuary and around the South Tamaraikulam have also been falling under high vulnerability condition due to backwater and saltpan. In general, the nearshore region except the placer mining zone and the backwater has a moderately vulnerable condition, and the vulnerability index values range from 149 to180. Significantly, the northern and northeastern uplands and some parts of deposition zones in the middle-south coast have been identified as low to no vulnerable conditions. They are structurally controlled by various geological features such as charnockite, garnet biotite gneiss and granites, and sand dunes, respectively. The aquifer vulnerability assessment has been cross-verified by geochemical indicators such as total dissolved solids (TDS), Cl(-), HCO₃(-), and Cl(-)/HCO₃(-) ratio. The high ranges of TDS (1,842--3,736 mg/l) and Cl(-) (1,412--2,112 mg/l) values are well correlated with the observed high

  12. Experimental investigation of change of energy of infragavity waves in dependence on spectral characteristics of an irregular wind waves in coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saprykina, Yana; Divinskii, Boris

    2013-04-01

    An infragravity waves are long waves with periods of 20 - 300 s. Most essential influence of infragarvity waves on dynamic processes is in a coastal zone, where its energy can exceed the energy of wind waves. From practical point of view, the infragravity waves are important, firstly, due to their influence on sand transport processes in a coastal zone. For example, interacting with group structure of wind waves the infragravity waves can define position of underwater bars on sandy coast. Secondly, they are responsible on formation of long waves in harbors. Main source of infragravity waves is wave group structure defined by sub-nonlinear interactions of wind waves (Longuet-Higgins, Stewart, 1962). These infragravity waves are bound with groups of wind waves and propagate with wave group velocity. Another type of infragravity waves are formed in a surf zone as a result of migration a wave breaking point (Symonds, et al., 1982). What from described above mechanisms of formation of infragravity waves prevails, till now it is unknown. It is also unknown how energy of infragravity waves depends on energy of input wind waves and how it changes during nonlinear wave transformation in coastal zone. In our work on the basis of the analysis of data of field experiment and numerical simulation a contribution of infragravity waves in total wave energy in depending on integral characteristics of an irregular wave field in the conditions of a real bathymetry was investigated. For analysis the data of field experiment "Shkorpilovtsy-2007" (Black sea) and data of numerical modeling of Boussinesq type equation with extended dispersion characteristics (Madsen et al., 1997) were used. It was revealed that infragravity waves in a coastal zone are defined mainly by local group structure of waves, which permanently changes due to nonlinearity, shoaling and breaking processes. Free infragravity waves appearing after wave breaking exist together with bound infragravity waves. There are

  13. Phytoplankton and nutrient distributions in a front-eddy area adjacent to the coastal upwelling zone off Concepcion (Chile): implications for ecosystem productivity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Carmen; Anabalón, Valeria; Hormazábal, Samuel; Cornejo, Marcela; Bento, Joaquim; Silva, Nelson

    2016-04-01

    The impact that sub-mesoscale (1-10 km) to mesocale (50-100 km) oceanographic variability has on plankton and nutrient distributions (horizontal and vertical) in the coastal upwelling and transition zones off Concepcion was the focus of this study. Satellite time-series data (wind, sea-surface temperature (SST), and altimetry) were used to understand the dynamic context of in situ data derived from a short-term front survey (3 d) during the upwelling period (3-6 February, 2014). The survey included two transects perpendicular to the coast, covering the shelf and shelf-break areas just north of Punta Lavapie, a main upwelling center (˜37° S). Wind and SST time-series data indicated that the survey was undertaken just after a moderate upwelling event (end of January) which lead to a relaxation phase during early February. A submesoscale thermal front was detected previous to and during the survey and results from an eddy tracking algorithm based on altimetry data indicated that this front (F1) was flanked on its oceanic side by an anticyclonic, mesoscale eddy (M1), which was ˜25 d old at the sampling time. M1 strengthened the thermal gradient of F1 by bringing warmer oceanic water nearer to the colder coastal upwelling zone. The distributions of hydrographic variables and nutrients in the water column (<300 m depth) also denoted these two features. Phytoplankton biomass (Chl-a) and diatom abundance were highest in the surface layer (<20 m depth) between the coast and F1, with primary maxima in the latter, whereas they were highest at the subsurface (20-40 m depth) towards M1 and associated with secondary maxima. The distribution of dominant diatoms in the top layer (<100 m depth) indicated that both coastal and oceanic species were aggregated at F1 and in M1. These results suggest that the front-eddy interaction creates a complex field of submesoscale processes in the top layer, including vertical nutrient injections and lateral stirring, which contributes to the

  14. Development of the coastal zone color scanner for NIMBUS 7. Volume 1: Mission objectives and instrument description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    An Earth scanning six channel (detector) radiometer using a classical Cassegrain telescope and a Wadsworth type grating spectrometer was launched aboard Nimbus 7 in order to determine the abundance or density of chlorophyll at or near the sea surface in coastal waters. The instrument also measures the sediment or gelbstroffe (yellow stuff) in coastal waters, detects surface vegetation, and measures sea surface temperature. Block diagrams and schematics are presented, design features are discussed and each subsystem of the instrument is described. A mission overview is included.

  15. The results of monitoring of hazardous natural processes in the coastal shelf zone of the gulf of Peter the Great in 2012-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anokhin, Vladimir; Shcherbakov, Victor; Motychko, Victor; Sokolov, Georgy; Kotov, Sergey; Kartashov, Alexander; Anokhina (1)(2), Zoya

    2014-05-01

    The monitoring of hazardous natural processes In coastal and shelf zone of the gulf of Peter the Great (sea of Japan) in 2012-2013 was made by staff of the Gramberg Institute VNIIOKEANGEOLOGIA . The complex of field researches are: - laser scanning beaches (tachometer Leica HDS 3000); - echosounding underwater coastal slope (sounder-Navigator LCX-37C); - high-frequency acoustic profiling (GeoPulse Subbotom Profilier); - hydromagnetic shooting magnetometer SeaSPY Marine Magnetics; - sonar shooting (complex GEO-CM-MAX); - research of the water column (sounding and sampling); - bottom sampling, including gasgeochemical shooting. The result of this work is the following conclusions: 1. As the shore, and the underwater slope of the district are experiencing the preemptive destruction, the areas of which are quantitative and spatially prevail over the stable and accumulate zones (except the shores of the inland parts of bays and gulfs). 2. The rate of destruction of coast in the Gulf of Peter the Great is 1-20 meters for 100 years, that could pose a serious danger to the population and infrastructure. 3. Number of gasgeochemical anomalies on the shelf of the Gulf of Peter the Great spatially associated with fault lines, limiting blocks of the earth's crust within shelf. 4. Perhaps it is these faults are of the greatest seismic hazard in the moment. 5. Danger of themselves gas emissions The following significant hazards and risks to the region have been studied: seismic and tsunami destruction of shore, gas emissions, technogenic pollution.

  16. Three decadal inputs of total organic carbon from four major coastal river basins to the summer hypoxic zone of the Northern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    He, Songjie; Xu, Y Jun

    2015-01-15

    This study investigated long-term (1980-2009) yields and variability of total organic carbon (TOC) from four major coastal rivers in Louisiana entering the Northern Gulf of Mexico where a large-area summer hypoxic zone has been occurring since the middle 1980s. Two of these rivers drain agriculture-intensive (>40%) watersheds, while the other two rivers drain forest-pasture dominated (>50%) watersheds. The study found that these rivers discharged a total of 13.0×10(4)t TOC annually, fluctuating from 5.9×10(4) to 22.8×10(4)t. Seasonally, the rivers showed high TOC yield during the winter and early spring months, corresponding to the seasonal trend of river discharge. While river hydrology controlled TOC yields, land use has played an important role in fluxes, seasonal variations, and characteristics of TOC. The findings fill in a critical information gap of quantity and quality of organic carbon transport from coastal watersheds to one of the world's largest summer hypoxic zones. PMID:25475441

  17. Assessment of mercury mobility and bioavailability by fractionation method in sediments from coastal zone inundated by the 26 December 2004 tsunami in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boszke, Leonard; Kowalski, Artur; Szczuciński, Witold; Rachlewicz, Grzegorz; Lorenc, Stanisław; Siepak, Jerzy

    2006-12-01

    The 26 December 2004 tsunami covered significant portion of a coastal zone with a blanket of potentially contaminated sediments. In this report are presented results on mercury concentrations in sediments deposited by the tsunami in a coastal zone of Thailand. Since the total mercury concentrations are insufficient to assess mercury mobility and bioavailability in sediment, its fractionation was applied. Sediments were sampled within 50 days after the event and analyzed by sequential extraction method. The procedure of sequential extraction involved five subsequent stages performed with solutions of chloroform, deionized water, 0.5 M HCl, 0.2 M NaOH, and aqua regia. The mean concentration of total mercury in sediments was 119 ± 50 ng g-1 dry mass (range 66-230). The fractionation revealed that mercury is mainly bound to the least bioavailable sulphides 75 ± 6% (range 62-86), organomercury compounds 14 ± 7% (range 4-26), and humic matter 9 ± 7% (range 1-27). The lowest contributions bring fractions of water-soluble mercury 0.8 ± 1.0% (range 0.1-3.6) and acid soluble mercury 0.9 ± 0.5% (range 0.2-2.1). Although, the total mercury content is similar in a reference sample and in the tsunami sediments, the highly toxic organomercury fraction contribution is higher in the latter. The results were compared with chemical and sedimentological properties of the sediments but no significant correlations were obtained between them.

  18. Analysis of X-band radar images for the detection of the reflected and diffracted waves in coastal zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludeno, Giovanni; Natale, Antonio; Soldovieri, Francesco; Vicinanza, Diego; Serafino, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    The observation of nearshore waves and the knowledge of the sea state parameters can play a crucial role for the safety of harbors and ocean engineering. In the last two decades, different algorithms for the estimation of sea state parameters, surface currents and bathymetry from X-band radar data have been developed and validated [1, 2]. The retrieval of ocean wave parameters such as significant height, period, direction and wavelength of the dominant wave is based on the spectral analysis of data sequences collected by nautical X-band radars [3]. In particular, the reconstruction of the wave motion is carried out through the inversion procedure explained in [1-3], which exploits the dispersion relationship to define a band pass filter used to separate the energy associated with the ocean waves from the background noise. It is worth to note that the shape of such a band pass filter depends upon the value of both the surface currents and bathymetry; in our reconstruction algorithm these parameters are estimated through the (Normalized Scalar Product) procedure [1], which outperforms other existing methods (e.g., the Least Squares) [4]. From the reconstructed wave elevation sequences we can get the directional spectrum that provides useful information (i.e., wavelength, period, direction and amplitude) relevant to the main waves contributing to the wave motion. Of course, in coastal zones a number of diffraction and reflection phenomena can be observed, due to sea-waves impinging obstacles as jetties, breakwaters and boats. In the present paper we want to show the capability to detect reflected and diffracted sea-waves offered by the processing of X-band radar data. Further details relevant to the obtained results will be provided in the full paper and at the conference time. References [1] F. Serafino, C. Lugni, F. Soldovieri, "A novel strategy for the surface current determination from marine X-Band radar data", IEEE Geosci. and Remote Sensing Letters, vol. 7, no

  19. 15 CFR 921.4 - Relationship to other provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., and implementing regulations at 15 CFR part 930, subpart C. In accordance with section 1456(c)(1) of...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE... environment as National Marine Sanctuaries to protect or restore such areas for their...

  20. 15 CFR 921.4 - Relationship to other provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., and implementing regulations at 15 CFR part 930, subpart C. In accordance with section 1456(c)(1) of...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE... environment as National Marine Sanctuaries to protect or restore such areas for their...

  1. 15 CFR 921.4 - Relationship to other provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., and implementing regulations at 15 CFR part 930, subpart C. In accordance with section 1456(c)(1) of...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE... environment as National Marine Sanctuaries to protect or restore such areas for their...

  2. 15 CFR 921.4 - Relationship to other provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., and implementing regulations at 15 CFR part 930, subpart C. In accordance with section 1456(c)(1) of...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE... environment as National Marine Sanctuaries to protect or restore such areas for their...

  3. 15 CFR 921.4 - Relationship to other provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., and implementing regulations at 15 CFR part 930, subpart C. In accordance with section 1456(c)(1) of...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE... environment as National Marine Sanctuaries to protect or restore such areas for their...

  4. Use of statistical and conceptual path models to predict corn yields across management-zones on the Southeast coastal plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn, cotton and peanuts dominate the highly irregular agricultural landscape of the U.S. southeastern Coastal Plain, and efficient management of soil, water and nutrients is crucial for successful crop production. In this research, Path Analysis is investigated as a diagnostic tool to separate the ...

  5. COASTAL ZONES, A REPORT OF THE MID-ATLANTIC REGIONAL ASSESSMENT TEAM FOR THE GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Impacts of climate change on coastal areas can be expected to have a regional signature that depends on the local climate change and the local geomorphological, biogeochemical, ecological and social factors that affect the sensitivity to climate. Here we present an assessment of...

  6. A Leesburg, Virginia, Service Club Introduces Lithuanian Communities to American Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raflo, Alan

    1993-01-01

    Describes how Kiwanis club members in Leesburg, Virginia, organized a successful trip to two Lithuanian communities without government support. U.S. visitors spoke to Lithuanians about the role of small businesses and civic clubs in the United States. Possible outcomes of the trip include continuing connections between businesses and between…

  7. Lithuanian female physicists: Reality and plans for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šatkovskienė, Dalia; Giriunienė, Ramutė; Ruželė, Živilė; Rutkunienė, Živilė

    2013-03-01

    Changes in the issue of women in physics in Lithuanian in the three years since the 3rd IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics are discussed on the basis of statistics as well as an exploratory study recently conducted among women physicists. The situation has changed slowly since 2008. However, the study shows that women physicists more clearly understand the inequities and the need for changes, including an active European Union mainstreaming policy targeted to ensure gender equality in the sciences, which gives hope for accelerating changes. Continued plans for improving women physicists' situation in Lithuania are discussed.

  8. Integrated assessment of socio-economic risks of dangerous hydrological phenomena in Russian coastal zones of the Baltic, the Azov and the Black Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemtsov, Stepan; Baburin, Vyacheslav; Goryachko, Mariya; Krylenko, Inna; Yumina, Natalya

    2013-04-01

    In 2012, an integrated damage from floods in Russia was about 1 billion euros, floods have caused the death of over 200 people. It is one of the most pressing scientific topics, but most of the works devoted to natural risks assessment. The main purpose of this work is to estimate the influence of dangerous hydrological phenomena (e.g. floods, underflooding and surges) on society, using vulnerability and damage assessment techniques. The objectives are to examine domestic and foreign methodologies, to integrate them and to test on specific Russian territory. Foreign training was organized at UNU-EHS (Bonn, Germany). Three different methods were used for each stage of research. The first part of the research was devoted to estimation of potential damage for population and economy of the Baltic Sea coastal zones. The authors used a model, which takes into account direct damage (loss of life, destruction of buildings, etc.) as well as indirect effects of the first, second, etc. orders (loss of profits, loss of the budget, etc.). A database, based on satellite images, maps, yearbooks of Russian Statistical Service and reports of entities, has been prepared. The database is a matrix, in which the rows are coastal zones, and the columns are given indicators: number of people in port areas (people), cost of fixed assets (million rubles), investment (million rubles.), revenue / profit (million rubles.), etc. The authors identified zones with different depth of flooding, using satellite images, and calculated the direct and indirect costs, using the methodology of EMERCOM. Maximum direct potential damage for the Baltic coast is about 15,7 billion euros, but indirect damage is more than 25,5 billion euros. The second part of research was devoted to vulnerability assessment of coastal municipalities of Krasnodar Region. A database, as a matrix of 252 parameters from 2007 to 2009 for 14 coastal municipalities, was developed. The parameters were divided into several blocks

  9. Vertical and Horizontal Analysis of Crustal Structure of Southeastern Mediterranean and the Egyptian Coastal Zone, from Bouguer and Satellite Mission Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Salah

    2016-07-01

    The present Tectonic system of Southeastern Mediterranean is driven by the collision of the African and Eurasian plates, the Arabian Eurasian convergence and the displacement of the Anatolian Aegean microplate, which generally represents the characteristic of lithospheric structure of the region. In the scope of this study, Bouguer and the satellite gravity (satellite altimetry) anomalies of southeastern Mediterranean and North Eastern part of Egypt were used for investigating the lithospheric structures. Second order trend analyses were applied firstly to Bouguer and satellite altimetry data for examining the characteristic of the anomaly. Later, the vertical and horizontal derivatives applications were applied to the same data. Generally, the purpose of the applying derivative methods is determining the vertical and horizontal borders of the structure. According to the results of derivatives maps, the study area could mainly divided into important four tectonic subzones depending on basement and Moho depth maps. These subzones are distributed from south to the north as: Nile delta-northern Sinai zone, north Egyptian coastal zone, Levantine basin zone and northern thrusting (Cyprus and its surroundings) zone. These zones are separated from each other by horizontal tectonic boundaries and/or near-vertical faults that display the block-faulting tectonic style of this belt. Finally, the gravity studies were evaluated together with the seismic activity of the region. Consequently, the geodynamical structure of the region is examined with the previous studies done in the region. Thus, the current study indicates that satellite gravity mission data is a valuable source of data in understanding the tectonic boundary behavior of the studied region and that satellite gravity data is an important modern source of data in the geodynamical studies.

  10. New Cascadia subduction zone tsunami inundation modeling to guide relocation of coastal infrastucture for Indian tribes on the northern Washington coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, T. J.; LeVeque, R. J.; Adams, L. M.; Schelling, J.; Gonzalez, F. I.; Cakir, R.

    2015-12-01

    There have been advances in understanding the potential for great tsunamigenic earthquakes on the Cascadia Subduction Zone, motivating an effort to update the assessment of tsunami hazards on the Washington coast. Fine resolution (1/3 arc-second) digital elevation models (DEMs) of the Strait of Juan de Fuca and northern Olympic Peninsula have recently been made available, and coastal Indian tribes (Quinault, Hoh, and Quileute) have made plans to move important infrastructure out of their tsunami hazard zones. We have made numerical simulations of tsunamis incident on the Quinault, Hoh, Quileute, and Makah Reservations and adjacent coast with the GeoClaw numerical model [http://depts.washington.edu/clawpack/geoclaw/] for a local tsunami generated by a 9.1M Cascadia Subduction Zone earthquake, designated L1 by Witter and others (DOGAMI Special Paper 43). This scenario is estimated to have `2% probability of nonexceedance in 50 years, which would be comparable to the International Building Code standard for seismic loading on structures of high importance, and provides appropriate guidance to the affected communities for siting of their significant infrastructure.

  11. Detection of ground deformation over Sharm El-Sheikh-Ras Nasrani coastal zone, South Sinai (Egypt), by using time series SAR interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seleem, Tarek A.; Parcharidis, Issaak; Foumelis, Michael; Kourkouli, Penelope

    2011-03-01

    The investigation area is located in the most southern part of Sinai Peninsula boarded from the west by the Gulf of Suez and from the east by the Gulf of Aqaba. The present study concerns the application of stacking and persistent scattering of SAR interferometry in order to monitor ground deformation in the southern part of Sharm El-Shiekh area. The specific techniques were applied in order to reduce the influence of atmospheric effects on the ground deformation estimates. For this purpose a total number of 26 ENVISAT ASAR scenes covering the period between 2003 and 2009 were processed and analyzed. Interferometric processing results show both patterns of uplift and downlift in the study area. Specifically an area along the coastline with a N-S direction, corresponding to the build up zone of Sharm El-Sheikh, shows annual average subsidence rates between 5 and 7 mm/yr along the line of sight (LOS). On the contrary, Sharm El-Maya, an inner zone, parallel to the above subsided area; shows maximum slant range uplift of 5 mm/yr. The obtained results of both stacking and persistent scattering indicate that the ground deformation in Sharm El-Sheikh-Ras Nasrani coastal zone is attributed to several effecting factors compromising water pumping, lithology, seismicity, and possible active fracture. The contribution of all these factors is discussed in the context.

  12. Tracing of submarine groundwater discharge in the Siberian Arctic coastal zone: the case study in the Buor-Khaya Bay, Laptev Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charkin, A. N.; Dudarev, O.; Semiletov, I. P.; Shakhova, N. E.; Rutgers van der Loeff, M.; Salyuk, A.

    2015-12-01

    That is suggested and widely accepted that a significant portion of the Great Siberian Rivers discharge comes to the Arctic ocean via submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). However, that statement was never proofed by observations. When groundwater discharges from the coastal aquifer to the ocean, the radium isotopes are transported with the groundwater, and they can be measured to trace and quantify SGD, and the flux of constituents associated with SGD. The primary goal of this study is to use radium isotopes to proof that SGD is existing in the Laptev Sea coastal zone close to the Lena River delta, which supposed to be characterized by continuous permafrost with thickness up to 600-800m. If so, we supposed to quantify methane fluxes to the coastal ocean through SGD. Discrete seawater, and Lena river water samples were collected from different horizons from the holes made in fast ice using submerged pump and Niskin bottle in the western part of Buor- Khaya Bay in March-April 2014 and 2015. We identified and traced SGD using short-lived radium (224Ra and 223Ra) and radon (222Rn) isotopes in complex with geophysical (electromagnetic technique) , geological (sediment core results from 16 boreholes), hydrological (temperature, salinity), and hydrochemical (total alkalinity, dissolved methane and oxygen) data. It was found that the SGD is controlled by the processes associated with changing state of the subsea permafrost. Thus, this technique can give an unique information about the location of SGD "leakage" sites across the East Siberian Arctic Shelf, which represents > 80% of subsea permafrost existing in the entire Arctic ocean.

  13. Composition and variation of sediment bacterial and nirS-harboring bacterial communities at representative sites of the Bohai Gulf coastal zone, China.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xiangyu; Zhu, Lingling; Li, Youxun; Xie, Yuxuan; Zhao, Mingzhang; Luo, Ximing

    2014-04-01

    With rapid urbanization, anthropogenic activities are increasingly influencing the natural environment of the Bohai Bay. In this study, the composition and variation of bacterial and nirS-harboring bacterial communities in the coastal zone sediments of the Bohai Gulf were analyzed using PCR-based clone libraries. A total of 95 genera were detected in the bacterial communities, with Proteobacteria (72.1 %), Acidobacteria (10.5 %), Firmicutes (1.7 %), Bacteroidetes (1.4 %), Chloroflexi (0.7 %) and Planctomycetes (0.7 %) being the dominated phyla. The NirS sequences were divided into nine Clusters (A-I). Canonical correlation analysis showed that the bacterial or denitrifying communities were correlated with different environmental factors, such as total organic carbon, total nitrogen, ammonium, sulfate, etc. Furthermore, bacterial communities' composition and diversity are influenced by oil exploration, sewage discharge and other anthropogenic activities in the coastal area of the Bohai Sea. Thus, this study provided useful information on further research on regional or global environmental control and restore. PMID:24214680

  14. Spatial Change in the Geometry and Kinematics of the Trinity River, TX, USA, Defining the Morphodynamics of the Fluvial Coastal Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohrig, D. C.; Smith, V. B.; Mason, J.

    2015-12-01

    Changes to the geomorphology of meandering rivers as they approach the coast are now recognized as being connected to a transition from quasi-normal flow upstream to a zone of gradually varying flow near the shoreline. In spite of this recognition, there remains a great deal to learn regarding the morphodynamics of coastal rivers. Here we present data from repeat bathymetric and topographic surveys, aerial photo analyses, and bed-material sampling that are aimed at defining the morphodynamics of the coastal Trinity River. Initial change in the geomorphology of the river channel is coincident with the average elevation of the river bottom dropping below mean sea level. Over the next 50 river km downstream of this point, the vegetated channel width systematically decreases by 44 percent and channel depth systematically increases 1.95 times. The net result is a 66 percent reduction in the width-to-depth ratio, which is not evenly distributed in the downstream direction. All of the change occurs in the first 28 river km, with the channel maintaining a statistically constant value of 17 for the next 22 river km. The size of point bars also begins to systemically decrease at the point where the river bottom drops below sea level. Over the next 50 river km the surface area of these bars decreases by an order of magnitude. This substantial reduction is not only a function of the decrease in channel width, but also a decrease in point-bar length. At about 23 km downstream the bars undergo a change in their cross-sectional shape. Upstream they occupy roughly 80 percent of the channel, while downstream they occupy only 70 percent of the channel width. This coincides with the point where lateral migration rates for channel bends drop by roughly 75 percent. We show how these changes in channel geometry and kinematics are connected to time and space changes in hydrology and sediment transport in the backwater zone.

  15. Simulations and Observations of Circulation in the Oregon Coastal Transition Zone during the 2002-2003 Downwelling Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springer, S. R.; Allen, J. S.; Samelson, R. M.; Kurapov, A. L.; Egbert, G. D.; Miller, R. N.; de Rada, S.

    2008-12-01

    In comparison with summertime, relatively little is known about the circulation off Oregon during wintertime. We conducted a hindcast simulation of the period from October 1, 2002 to May 1, 2003, which coincided with a major observational field program. A non-assimilating, one-way nested model obtained initial conditions and boundary conditions from a larger scale, assimilating California Current model, and it was forced by wind stress from a regional mesoscale model, rainfall and heat fluxes calculated from a coarse resolution atmospheric model, and observed coastal river flows. At the beginning of the period, an upwelling circulation established by predominantly southward winds during the previous summer is in place. Vigorous storms in December deepen, freshen, and cool the mixed layer in the simulation, consistent with measurements along the Newport hydrographic line (44.65° N). Sensitivity studies demonstrate the importance of both rainfall and coastal river freshwater input to upper ocean stratification. Predominantly northward wind stress near the coast establishes a downwelling circulation with onshore Ekman transport, which holds freshwater input by rivers near the coast. When the wind reverses to southward for several days in early February, offshore Ekman transport spreads this freshwater feature seaward in both model simulations and high resolution hydrographic observations. During the mid to late winter, wind stress switches between strongly downwelling-favorable and weakly upwelling-favorable intervals of approximately 10-14 day duration. Comparison with moored current meters on the outer and midshelf shows that the model reproduces the corresponding reversals of the depth-averaged alongshore currents. Coastal trapped wave energy originating to the south passes into the domain and contributes to the strength of the upwelling response on the central Oregon coast.

  16. Impact of global and climate stresses on fresh water resources in the coastal zone: a Dutch example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oude Essink, G.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal groundwater systems throughout the world are under stress. It is expected that fresh water resources in these systems will be jeopardized by a combination of climate change, sea level rise and especially anthropogenic activities, such as increasing extraction rates. In addition, operational water management and man-induced land-subsidence will indirectly lead to upconing of saline groundwater and salinisation of fresh water aquifers and surface water systems. As such, sectors such as agriculture, drinking water supply and nature are threatened. In this presentation, the focus is on a coastal groundwater system that is already be jeopardized by a relatively high sea water level: the low-lying Dutch Delta. This delta can be considered as a blueprint for other deltas in future times as ground surface is already some meters below mean sea level. Numerical variable-density groundwater models are made for national, regional and local salinisation problems, related top sea level rise. They are used to quantify possible effects of sea level rise on hydraulic heads, seepage fluxes, salt loads to surface waters, and changes in fresh groundwater resources as a function of time. Our results show that the impact of sea level rise is limited to areas within 10 km of the coastline and main rivers because the increased head in the groundwater system at the coast can easily be released though the highly permeable Holocene confining layer. In addition, measures to compensate the effects of salinisation are shown. The solutions will be in delta, water as well as agro technologies.one of influence of a sea level rise in the groundwater system, South-Holland, The Netherlands odelling results show that a drier climate in combination with a sea level rise will reduce the fresh water resources in the Dutch coastal lowlands

  17. Illustration of the emerging capabilities of SARAL/AltiKa in the coastal zone using a multi-platform approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troupin, Charles; Pascual, Ananda; Valladeau, Guillaume; Pujol, Isabelle; Lana, Arancha; Heslop, Emma; Ruiz, Simón; Torner, Marc; Picot, Nicolas; Tintoré, Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    Satellite altimetry measurements from SARAL-AltiKa are analysed in the coastal ocean using the results of the G-AltiKa mission (1-5 August 2013), which combined altimeter, HF radar and glider data coincident with the satellite track, south-west of Ibiza Island, in the Western Mediterranean Sea. The absolute dynamic topography, computed from 1 Hz and 40 Hz altimetry data, and the dynamic height, computed from glider temperature and salinity, both exhibited a weak signal with amplitudes of order 2 cm. The resulting geostrophic and HF radar velocities along the track depicted a north-westward coastal current with a maximal velocity larger than 20 cm s-1. This demonstrates that the AltiKa altimeter is able to resolve SLA signals of more than 2 cm, and gradients in those signals over several tens of kilometres. After filtering, the 40 Hz data depicted a signal consistent with the other platforms, up to a distance of order 10 km from the coast.

  18. Ontogeny of behavioural adaptations in beach crustaceans: some temporal considerations for integrated coastal zone management and conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naylor, E.; Kennedy, F.

    2003-10-01

    So-called "typical" behavioural responses of coastal animals to particular stimuli have previously been shown often to vary cyclically in phase with diel or tidal cycles in the environment. Less well-studied are differences in the behaviour of adults and juveniles of the same species at the same time of day or tidal state, or in response to the same stimulus. Experimental studies of such differences in behaviour are reviewed and compared for three species of beach crustaceans, namely, the crab Carcinus maenas, the isopod Eurydice pulchra and the amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata. Juvenile, but not adult, Carcinus will entrain circatidal rhythmicity after exposure to artificial tidal cycles of immersion/emersion; juvenile, but not adult, Eurydice express pronounced free-running circatidal swimming rhythms at neap tides as well as at springs; and, in Orchestoidea, juveniles and adults express patterns of daily locomotor activity that are complementary, both on the shore and in the laboratory. These ontogenetic differences are discussed in relation to distributional and behavioural differences between adults and juveniles in each species, drawing attention to their adaptive significance and wider implications for coastal management and conservation.

  19. Ice Sheet Meltwater Impacts on Biological Productivity in High-Latitude Coastal Zones - Observations and Model Results for West Antarctica and Southwest Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager, P. L.; Oliver, H.; Sherrell, R. M.; Stammerjohn, S. E.; St-Laurent, P.; Hofmann, E. E.; Mote, T. L.; Castelao, R. M.; Rennermalm, A. K.; Tedesco, M.; Arrigo, K. R.

    2015-12-01

    Surface mass balance observations and models confirm that both the west Antarctic and Greenland Ice Sheets have undergone accelerating ice mass losses during the past decade. These losses enhance freshwater discharge to the ocean and have important implications for ocean circulation and sea level, but they can also impact marine ecosystems and carbon cycling. High-latitude primary productivity is limited by light or nutrients (or both), and phytoplankton access to these limiting factors can be altered by freshwater additions. Mechanisms for delivering meltwater to the ocean are complex and depend in part on whether the melt occurs at the ice-atmosphere or ice-ocean interface. Marine-terminus glaciers may generate buoyant plumes at depth, similar to upwelling whereas runoff from glacial termini on land will behave more like a riverine point source at the ocean surface. Here, we present preliminary results from two ongoing efforts to understand these impacts: one from the Amundsen Sea Polynya (ASP) in west Antarctica (NSF-funded INSPIRE), and another from NASA-IDS Ice Sheet Impact Study in coastal Greenland. Field observations from the Amundsen Sea Polynya International Research Expedition (ASPIRE) showed how the enormous phytoplankton bloom in the central ASP depends on an iron supply from the Dotson Ice Shelf (DIS). This outcome implied a three-dimensional pathway for iron, from the DIS cavity to the euphotic zone of the ASP bloom region located 20-100 km offshore. Such a pathway differs from the traditional one-dimensional view, where nutrients are injected into the euphotic zone by vertical mixing. Mesoscale structures and eddies may play a central role. A ROMS model is used to investigate key physical and biogeochemical processes in the ASP region. A similar effort is underway to investigate the fate of extreme melt from Greenland and its impact on primary productivity. In coastal Greenland, meltwater is modeled as surface runoff and the resulting shallower

  20. Soil sustainability study in Lithuanian alien forest stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čiuldiene, Dovile; Skridlaite, Grazina; Žalūdiene, Gaile; Askelsson, Cecilia; Armolaitis, Kestutis

    2016-04-01

    Tree species are shifting their natural ranges in response to climate changes (Saltré et al., 2013). Northern red oak has originated from North America, but was planted in Europe already in twentieth century. At present, it is considered as invasive species in Poland and at invasive stage in the Lithuanian forests (Riepsas and Straigyte, 2008). European larch naturally grows in Central Europe, but its range has been extended by planting it as far as the Nordic countries. According to a pollen study in peat soils, European larch naturally grew in Lithuania in the sixteenth century and was reintroduced 200 years ago (Jankauskas, 1954). Therefore, the global warming could accelerate the expansion of European larch and Northern red oak into Lithuanian forests. An urgent need appeared to evaluate an impact of those warmth-tolerant species on soil mineral chemistry and quality. New results on the determination of mineral weathering rates in alien forest stands using a PROFILE soil chemistry model were obtained during a doctoral study at the Institute of Forestry. Soil minerals were studied by a Scanning Electron Microscopy at the Institute of Geology and Geography. The results provided a lot of new information on soil weathering rates in Lithuania. The 47 and 157-year-old European larch (Larix decidua Mill.), 45 and 55-year-old Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) plantations and adjacent perennial grasslands were chosen for this study. The soils were classified as Luvisols and were developed from glaciofluvial deposits. The PROFILE model requires data of climate conditions (mean annual temperature and precipitation), chemical parameters of atmospheric deposition, forest plantation dendrometric and chemical (wood, foliage litter fall) characteristics, soil physical characteristics and mineral composition. A cation weathering rate (sum of Ca+Mg+ K) is 30% higher in a soil under the Northern red oak than in adjacent perennial grassland. Meanwhile, cation weathering rates

  1. Mesopelagic prokaryotic bulk and single-cell heterotrophic activity and community composition in the NW Africa-Canary Islands coastal-transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasol, Josep M.; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Vaqué, Dolors; Baltar, Federico; Calleja, Maria Ll.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Arístegui, Javier

    2009-12-01

    Mesopelagic prokaryotic communities have often been assumed to be relatively inactive in comparison to those from epipelagic waters, and therefore unresponsive to the presence of nearby upwelled waters. We have studied the zonal (shelf-ocean), latitudinal, and depth (epipelagic-mesopelagic) variability of microbial assemblages in the NW Africa-Canary Islands coastal-transition zone (CTZ). Vertical profiles of bacterial bulk and single-cell activity through the epi- and mesopelagic waters were combined with point measurements of bacterial respiration, leucine-to-carbon conversion factors and leucine-to-thymidine incorporation ratios. The overall picture that emerges from our study is that prokaryotes in the mesopelagic zone of this area are less abundant than in the epipelagic but have comparable levels of activity. The relationship between prokaryotes and heterotrophic nanoflagellates, their main predators, remains constant throughout the water column, further contradicting the assumption that deep ocean bacterial communities are mostly inactive. Both bulk and single-cell activity showed clear differences between stations, with higher mesopelagic activities closer to the shelf or affected by upwelling features. We also tested whether differences in microbial function between stations could be related to differences in bacterial community structure, and conclude that bacterial communities are very similar at similar depths in the deep ocean, even if the stations present order-of-magnitude differences in bacterial function.

  2. Thermohaline structure and hydrochemical characteristics under the fast ice in the south-eastern Laptev Sea coastal zone (the Buor-Khaya Bay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savelieva, N.; Salyuk, A.; Semiletov, I.; Spivak, E.

    2009-04-01

    The Lena River input in the Laptev Sea creates specific oceanographic conditions, which in turn play a key role in ice formation and heat exchange in the Arctic Basin. The summertime thermohaline conditions in the Lena-Laptev sea system were studied well, but the reliable wintertime data are absent. Thus we focus our attention on the Buor-Khaya Gulf where processes of interaction between the Lena River and adjacent part of the Laptev Sea are most pronounced. Observations in the estuarine zone of the Lena River have been carried out in April, 2007. CTD profiles (temperature, salinity, turbidity) and hydrochemistry sampling (silica, phosphate, nitrite, nitrate) were fulfilled under the fast ice at 53 oceanographic stations. Winter oceanographic conditions in the Buor-Khaya Bay are characterized by significant spatial variability. Below ice-cover in the central part of the Bay frontal zone are revealed. It crossed the Bay in north-south direction. Two general type of water masses are recognized: (1) surface water mass, which formed as a result of mixing river and coastal water of the Laptev Sea with high turbidity, high concentration of nutrients, low oxygen saturation; (2) near bottom water mass with negative temperature high salinity and low turbidity and less concentration of nutrients. The latter is subdivided on two modifications due to the nutrients content and oxygen saturation. Two-layer structure observed in the deeper eastern part of the Bay. The surface layer is ~ 6 m thickness (temperature 0

  3. Evaluation of ShARP Passive Rainfall Retrievals over Snow-Covered Land Surfaces and Coastal Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebtehaj, Ardeshir M.; Bras, Rafael L.; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    2016-04-01

    For precipitation retrievals over land, using satellite measurements in microwave bands, it is important to properly discriminate the weak rainfall signals from strong and highly variable background surface emission. Traditionally, land rainfall retrieval methods often rely on a weak signal of rainfall scattering on high-frequency channels (85 GHz) and make use of empirical thresholding and regression-based techniques. Due to the increased ground surface signal interference, precipitation retrieval over radiometrically complex land surfaces, especially over snow-covered lands, deserts and coastal areas, is of particular challenge for this class of retrieval techniques. This paper evaluates the results by the recently proposed Shrunken locally linear embedding Algorithm for Retrieval of Precipitation (ShARP), over a radiometrically complex terrain and coastal areas using the data provided by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. To this end, the ShARP retrieval experiments are performed over a region in Southeast Asia, partly covering the Tibetan Highlands, Himalayas, Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna river basins and its delta. We elucidate promising results by ShARP over snow covered land surfaces and at the vicinity of coastlines, in comparison with the land rainfall retrievals of the standard TRMM-2A12 product. Specifically, using the TRMM-2A25 radar product as a reference, we provide evidence that the ShARP algorithm can significantly reduce the rainfall over estimation due to the background snow contamination and markedly improve detection and retrieval of rainfall at the vicinity of coastlines. During the calendar year 2013, we demonstrate that over the study domain the root mean squared difference can be reduced up to 38% annually, while the reduction can reach up to 70% during the cold months.

  4. [Academician Vladas Lasas -- distinguished Lithuanian scientist, organizer and educator].

    PubMed

    Padegimas, Bernardas; Abraitis, Romualdas

    2002-01-01

    The material of this publication is dedicated to the memory of Professor Vladas Lasas, honored scientist of Lithuania, member of Lithuanian Academy of Sciences and corresponding member of the Academy of Medicine of the USSR. V. Lasas was born on January 13th, 1892, on a farmstead in Rokiskis region, Lithuania. He died on January 2nd, 1966 in Kaunas. V. Lasas studied medicine at the Faculty of Medicine of Tartu (Dorpat) University and graduated from it in 1918. In 1921 he was invited to deliver lectures on physiology at the newly organized Higher Courses in Kaunas. During 1920-1924 he attended higher educational establishments of Prague, Berlin, Lausanne and Paris. In 1924 V. Lasas worked on probation in Lausanne under supervision of famous scientist M. Arthus, the founder of experimental allergy--anaphylaxis, in the field of experimental anaphylaxis, desensibilization, enteral sensibilization and resorption of native albumins, transfer of allergic state from mother to fetus, the role of interoceptors and biologically active substances in the formation and development of anaphylaxis. Over 40 scientific papers were published and 12 doctoral these were maintained, dealing with these problems. From 1924 to 1940 and from 1944 to 1946 V. Lasas acted as dean of the Faculty of Medicine at Kaunas University. During this period he displayed great organizational talent, and on his initiative three basic clinical buildings were built for the Faculty of Medicine. In 1946 V. Lasas was elected as academician and appointed as secretary-in-charge of natural mathematical and applied science of the Academy of Sciences of Lithuania. V. Lasas was the founder and longstanding chairman of the Lithuanian Physiological Society. Alone and with coauthors he has published 16 original textbooks. The list of his bibliography accounts to 229 publications. PMID:12474745

  5. Profile of a modern coastal mixing zone in Tertiary carbonate rocks of the Floridan aquifer, Pasco County, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Jee, J.L.; Randazzo, A.F. ); Wicks, C.M.; Herman, J.S. )

    1991-03-01

    Rock-core and ground-water samples from the Floridan aquifer mixing zone water were studied to assess diagenesis and porosity and permeability development. This zone occurs in the Ocala Limestone (Eocene) and Suwannee Limestone (Oligocene); shallow-marine lithofacies thereof are grouped into eight informal lithologic units, five in the Ocala and three in the Suwannee. Most diagenetic features relate to episodic sea-level fluctuations throughout the {le} 50 my post depositional history. Paragenesis includes marine micritization and cementation, meteoric mineralogic stabilization, dissolution enhancement of porosity, and phreatic, equant calcite cements and echinoderm overgrowths. Dolomitization of selected intervals occurred relatively late in the paragenetic sequence and dolomite crystals show no evidence of subsequent alteration. Calcite cements are noncathodoluminescent and have {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O values higher in the Ocala and lower in the Suwannee. Dolomite crystals are nonstoichiometric and thinly zoned, alternating noncathodoluminescent and red-orange cathodoluminescent. Microprobe analysis revealed no systematic variations in Ca and Mg and concentrations of Mn, Fe, Sr and Na below reliable limits. Dolomite stable isotope value ranges are {minus}1.30 to +0.85 {delta}{sup 13}C (PDB) and +0.274 to +2.651 {delta}{sup 18}O (PDB). The modern regional meteoric aquifer is a mature, mineralogically stable carbonate sequence. Aqueous geochemical data indicate supersaturation with respect to stoichiometric calcite and dolomite, and slight supersaturation with respect to aragonite. Bulk solubility measurements show that observed water compositions are in approximate equilibrium with respect to aquifer rocks and there is little evidence of water/rock interaction in this modern mixing zone.

  6. A numerical analysis of shipboard and coastal zone color scanner time series of new production within Gulf Stream cyclonic eddies in the South Atlantic Bight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pribble, J. Raymond; Walsh, John J.; Dieterle, Dwight A.; Mueller-Karger, Frank E.

    1994-01-01

    Eddy-induced upwelling occurs along the western edge of the Gulf Stream between Cape Canaveral, Florida, and Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, in the South Atlantic Bight (SAB). Coastal zone color scanner images of 1-km resolution spanning the period April 13-21, 1979, were processed to examine these eddy features in relation to concurrent shipboard and current/temperature measurements at moored arrays. A quasi-one-dimensional (z), time dependent biological model, using only nitrate as a nutrient source, has been combined with a three-dimensional physical model in an attempt to replicate the observed phytoplankton field at the northward edge of an eddy. The model is applicable only to the SAB south of the Charleston Bump, at approximately 31.5 deg N, since no feature analogous to the bump exists in the model bathymetry. The modeled chlorophyll, nitrate, and primary production fields of the euphotic zone are very similar to those obtained from the satellite and shipboard data at the leading edges of the observed eddies south of the Charleston Bump. The horizontal and vertical simulated fluxes of nitrate and chlorophyll show that only approximately 10% of the upwelled nitrate is utilized by the phytoplankton of the modeled grid box on the northern edge of the cyclone, while approximately 75% is lost horizontally, with the remainder still in the euphotic zone after the 10-day period of the model. Loss of chlorophyll due to sinking is very small in this strong upwelling region of the cyclone. The model is relatively insensitive to variations in the sinking parameterization and the external nitrate and chlorophyll fields but is very sensitive to a reduction of the maximum potential growth rate to half that measured. Given the success of this model in simulating the new production of the selcted upwelling region, other upwelling regions for which measurements or successful models of physical and biological quantities and rates exist could be modeled similarly.

  7. Quantifying spatiotemporal dynamics of root-zone soil water in a mixed forest on subtropical coastal sand dune using surface ERT and spatial TDR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Junliang; Scheuermann, Alexander; Guyot, Adrien; Baumgartl, Thomas; Lockington, David A.

    2015-04-01

    We jointly used surface electrical resistivity tomography (surface ERT) and spatial time domain reflectometry (spatial TDR) to quantify spatial patterns and seasonal dynamics of root-zone soil water under three contrasting vegetation covers in a sand dune forest of subtropical coastal Australia. We wanted to obtain a better understanding of the applicability of both techniques in these environments as well as investigate vegetation-soil water interactions. Soil temperature and topographic changes were taken into account in soil resistivity interpretation. The results demonstrated the capability of both surface ERT and spatial TDR to spatially monitor root-zone soil water dynamics, with root mean square error (RMSE) <0.018 cm3 cm-3 and absolute deviation <0.034 cm3 cm-3 between gravimetrically derived water content and those derived by the two geophysical techniques. Soil water was depleted to low levels during the dry season but quickly replenished with onset of the wet season. Soil water content profiles revealed obvious differences in water dynamics of the dune sands under different vegetation covers, with highest infiltration and deep drainage under the grassland compared with tree cover. The spatial variation in soil water content due to rainfall interception by trees, root water uptake and preferential infiltration associated with stemflow could be detected by the joint use of surface ERT and spatial TDR. We conclude that surface ERT can be an effective method for quantifying two-dimensional root-zone soil water dynamics and understanding the hydrological processes in these sand dune environments, if complemented by the one-dimensional high-resolution soil water measurements from spatial TDR.

  8. A new algorithm for retrieval of tropospheric wet path delay over inland water bodies and coastal zones using Brightness Temperature Deflection Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliam, Kyle L.

    As part of former and current sea-surface altimetry missions, brightness temperatures measured by nadir-viewing 18-34 GHz microwave radiometers are used to determine apparent path delay due to variations in index of refraction caused by changes in the humidity of the troposphere. This tropospheric wet-path delay can be retrieved from these measurements with sufficient accuracy over open oceans. However, in coastal zones and over inland water the highly variable radiometric emission from land surfaces at microwave frequencies has prevented accurate retrieval of wet-path delay using conventional algorithms. To extend wet path delay corrections into the coastal zone (within 25 km of land) and to inland water bodies, a new method is proposed to correct for tropospheric wet-path delay by using higher-frequency radiometer channels from approximately 50-170 GHz to provide sufficiently small fields of view on the surface. A new approach is introduced based on the variability of observations in several millimeter-wave radiometer channels on small spatial scales due to surface emissivity in contrast to the larger-scale variability in atmospheric absorption. The new technique is based on the measurement of deflection ratios among several radiometric bands to estimate the transmissivity of the atmosphere due to water vapor. To this end, the Brightness Temperature Deflection Ratio (BTDR) method is developed starting from a radiative transfer model for a downward-looking microwave radiometer, and is extended to pairs of frequency channels to retrieve the wet path delay. Then a mapping between the wet transmissivity and wet-path delay is performed using atmospheric absorption models. A frequency selection study is presented to determine the suitability of frequency sets for accurate retrieval of tropospheric wet-path delay, and comparisons are made to frequency sets based on currently-available microwave radiometers. Statistical noise analysis results are presented for a number

  9. Dissolved methane concentration and flux in the coastal zone of the Southern California Bight-Mexican sector: Possible influence of wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Morales, Karel; Macías-Zamora, J. Vinicio; Canino-Herrera, S. Raúl; Burke, Roger A.

    2014-05-01

    We measured dissolved methane concentrations ([CH4]) in the coastal zone of the Southern California Bight-Mexican sector (SCBMex) during two cruises: S1 in the USA-Mexico Border Area (BA) during a short rainstorm and S2 in the entire SCBMex during a drier period a few days later. High spatial variability in surface mixed layer (ML) [CH4] was observed, ranging from 2.2 nmol L-1 to 17.8 nmol L-1. ML-[CH4] was supersaturated at all BA stations during both cruises. The highest [CH4] was 72.4 nmol L-1 (2819 % supersaturated) measured at 10 m depth during S2, about 3 km southwest of the discharge point of the South Bay Ocean Outfall (SBOO). Our results show an apparent connection between wastewater treatment discharges and [CH4]. Application of a sewer CH4 production model suggests that the SBOO may be a large source of CH4 to the BA and points to the need to consider point sources in developing coastal marine CH4 budgets for highly populated areas. Based on our data, the SCBMex appears to be a relatively strong source of CH4 to the atmosphere compared to other Pacific Basin areas. The average BA sea-to-air CH4 flux (F) during S1 was (15.5 ± 8.6) × 10-2 nmol m-2 s-1, about 1.5 times higher than F during S2, which had a flux of (9.5 ± 6.9) × 10-2 nmol m-2 s-1 mainly due to the higher wind speed during S1.

  10. Monitoring land use/land cover changes using CORINE land cover data: a case study of Silivri coastal zone in Metropolitan Istanbul.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Rüya

    2010-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess changes in land use/land cover patterns in the coastal town of Silivri, a part of greater Istanbul administratively. In the assessment, remotely sensed data, in the form of satellite images, and geographic information systems were used. Types of land use/land cover were designated as the percentage of the total area studied. Results calculated from the satellite data for land cover classification were compared successfully with the database Coordination of Information on the Environment (CORINE). This served as a reference to appraise the reliability of the study presented here. The CORINE Program was established by the European Commission to create a harmonized Geographical Information System on the state of the environment in the European Community. Unplanned urbanization is causing land use changes mainly in developing countries such as Turkey. This situation in Turkey is frequently observed in the city of Istanbul. There are only a few studies of land use-land cover changes which provide an integrated assessment of the biophysical and societal causes and consequences of environmental degradation in Istanbul. The research area comprised greater Silivri Town which is situated by the coast of Marmara Sea, and it is located approximately 60 km west of Istanbul. The city of Istanbul is one of the largest metropolises in Europe with ca. 15 million inhabitants. Additionally, greater Silivri is located near the terminal point of the state highway connecting Istanbul with Europe. Measuring of changes occurring in land use would help control future planning of settlements; hence, it is of importance for the Greater Silivri and Silivri Town. Following our evaluations, coastal zone of Silivri was classified into the land use groups of artificial surfaces agricultural areas and forests and seminatural areas with 47.1%, 12.66%, and 22.62%, respectively. PMID:19496006

  11. Linking river, floodplain, and vadose zone hydrology to improve restoration of a coastal river affected by saltwater intrusion.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, D; Muñoz-Carpena, R; Wan, Y; Hedgepeth, M; Zheng, F; Roberts, R; Rossmanith, R

    2010-01-01

    Floodplain forests provide unique ecological structure and function, which are often degraded or lost when watershed hydrology is modified. Restoration of damaged ecosystems requires an understanding of surface water, groundwater, and vadose (unsaturated) zone hydrology in the floodplain. Soil moisture and porewater salinity are of particular importance for seed germination and seedling survival in systems affected by saltwater intrusion but are difficult to monitor and often overlooked. This study contributes to the understanding of floodplain hydrology in one of the last bald cypress [Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.] floodplain swamps in southeast Florida. We investigated soil moisture and porewater salinity dynamics in the floodplain of the Loxahatchee River, where reduced freshwater flow has led to saltwater intrusion and a transition to salt-tolerant, mangrove-dominated communities. Twenty-four dielectric probes measuring soil moisture and porewater salinity every 30 min were installed along two transects-one in an upstream, freshwater location and one in a downstream tidal area. Complemented by surface water, groundwater, and meteorological data, these unique 4-yr datasets quantified the spatial variability and temporal dynamics of vadose zone hydrology. Results showed that soil moisture can be closely predicted based on river stage and topographic elevation (overall Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency = 0.83). Porewater salinity rarely exceeded tolerance thresholds (0.3125 S m(-1)) for bald cypress upstream but did so in some downstream areas. This provided an explanation for observed vegetation changes that both surface water and groundwater salinity failed to explain. The results offer a methodological and analytical framework for floodplain monitoring in locations where restoration success depends on vadose zone hydrology and provide relationships for evaluating proposed restoration and management scenarios for the Loxahatchee River. PMID:21043263

  12. Comparison of phosphorus fractions and phosphatase activities in coastal wetland soils along vegetation zones of Yancheng National Nature Reserve, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lidong; Zhang, Yaohong; Shi, Yiming; Liu, Yibo; Wang, Lin; Yan, Ning

    2015-05-01

    Phosphorus (P) fractions and phosphatase activities were measured in 22 coastal wetland soils with typical vegetation successions in Yancheng National Nature Reserve, China. P forms and phosphatase activities varied greatly from site to site even under the same vegetation cover. NH4Cl-P, bicarbonate/dithionite extracted P and NaOH-P were remarkably higher (p < 0.05) in soils with exotic invasive plants, Spartina alterniflora, than in soils with the native species Suaeda salsa, Scirpus mariquete and Phragmites australis. HCl-P and refractory P showed little variation. No significant differences were detected for either alkaline phosphatase (ALAP) or acid phosphatase (ACAP) among the soils. All of the above properties were much higher in soils with plant growth compared to bare flat soils. Regression analysis demonstrated that organic matter (OM), Al, Ca, Fe and total P (TP) were able to explain more than 70% of the variations in the P fractions (except 29% of NH4Cl-P), and OM was the most important contributing factor. ALAP and ACAP were irrelevant to P but were significantly related to TOC, suggesting that carbon was a limiting factor for P mineralization in this area. Owing to its huge biomass and densities, Spartina alterniflora displayed great potential for carbon input, thus facilitating P mineralization and cycling. The results enhance our understanding of P availability differences in this area covered by invasive and native vegetation.

  13. Polynuclear aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons in mussels from the coastal zone of Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Amin, Oscar A; Comoglio, Laura I; Sericano, José L

    2011-03-01

    Mussels (Mytilus edulis chilensis) were collected from 12 coastal locations in Ushuaia Bay, Argentina, and the surrounding area in October 1999 and again in October 2003. Concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and selected chlorinated pesticides were determined to assess the impact of a fast-growing population in the area. Total PAH concentrations ranged from 2.24 to an extremely high concentration of 2,420 µg/g lipid measured in mussels collected near an oil jetty used to discharge to shore storage tanks. The composition of PAHs in these samples indicates that the source of these compounds inside Ushuaia Bay is predominantly petrogenic, with some pyrogenic background, whereas mostly pyrogenic-related PAHs were evident in areas outside the bay. Total concentrations of PCBs ranged between 12.8 and 8,210 ng/g lipid, with the highest concentration, detected inside Ushuaia harbor, representing a 10-fold increase when compared with historical data. Chlorinated pesticides were detected at comparatively lower concentrations, with 4-4'- 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene being the most common. The aggressive increase in population and related activities observed in the city of Ushuaia over the last two decades might have affected the environmental quality of the local bay. Moreover, the oceanographic and atmospheric conditions existing in Ushuaia Bay and surrounding areas may favor the accumulation and long-term presence of these organic pollutants in all compartments of this fragile environment. PMID:21128271

  14. Effects of age and stand density of mother trees on early Pinus thunbergii seedling establishment in the coastal zone, China.

    PubMed

    Mao, Peili; Han, Guangxuan; Wang, Guangmei; Yu, Junbao; Shao, Hongbo

    2014-01-01

    Effects of age and stand density of mother tree on seed germination, seedling biomass allocation, and seedling growth of Pinus thunbergii were studied. The results showed that age of mother tree did not have significant influences on seed germination, but it was significant on seedling biomass allocation and growth. Seedlings from the minimum and maximum age of mother tree had higher leaf mass ratio and lower root mass ratio than from the middle age of mother tree. Moreover, they also had higher relative height growth rate and slenderness, which were related to their biomass allocation. Stand density of mother tree mainly demonstrated significant effects on seed germination and seedling growth. Seed from higher stand density of mother tree did not decrease germination rate, but had higher mean germination time, indicating that it delayed germination process. Seedlings of higher stand density of mother tree showed higher relative height growth rate and slenderness. These traits of offspring from higher stand density of mother tree were similar to its mother, indicating significant environmental maternal effects. So, mother tree identity of maternal age and environments had important effects on natural regeneration of the coastal P. thunbergii forest. PMID:24955404

  15. Effects of Age and Stand Density of Mother Trees on Early Pinus thunbergii Seedling Establishment in the Coastal Zone, China

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Peili; Han, Guangxuan; Wang, Guangmei; Yu, Junbao; Shao, Hongbo

    2014-01-01

    Effects of age and stand density of mother tree on seed germination, seedling biomass allocation, and seedling growth of Pinus thunbergii were studied. The results showed that age of mother tree did not have significant influences on seed germination, but it was significant on seedling biomass allocation and growth. Seedlings from the minimum and maximum age of mother tree had higher leaf mass ratio and lower root mass ratio than from the middle age of mother tree. Moreover, they also had higher relative height growth rate and slenderness, which were related to their biomass allocation. Stand density of mother tree mainly demonstrated significant effects on seed germination and seedling growth. Seed from higher stand density of mother tree did not decrease germination rate, but had higher mean germination time, indicating that it delayed germination process. Seedlings of higher stand density of mother tree showed higher relative height growth rate and slenderness. These traits of offspring from higher stand density of mother tree were similar to its mother, indicating significant environmental maternal effects. So, mother tree identity of maternal age and environments had important effects on natural regeneration of the coastal P. thunbergii forest. PMID:24955404

  16. Coastal laws strike a balance

    SciTech Connect

    Dennison, M.S.

    1993-04-01

    Although the coastal zone comprises less than 10% of the nation`s land mass, more than 75% of the population lives within 50 miles of coastal areas. Commercial enterprises, including manufacturing facilities, industrial plants, resort hotels and marinas, are built in coastal areas along with the usual beachfront homes condominiums. These enterprises can adversely impact coastal environment through pollution-generation activities. Government regulators have sought to curtail activities that give rise to pollution.

  17. Characteristic ichthyoplankton taxa in the separation zone of the East Australian Current: Larval assemblages as tracers of coastal mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syahailatua, Augy; Roughan, Moninya; Suthers, Iain M.

    2011-03-01

    Ichthyoplankton assemblages were compared between regions dominated by the oligotrophic East Australian Current (EAC) and the inner-shelf waters off southeastern Australia, to determine if the early life history of fish was related to the separation of the EAC from the coast, producing different water masses as well as characteristic taxa. Samples were collected at the surface and in sub-surface waters, at 50 and 100 m isobath stations, during two summer research voyages in November 1998 and January 1999. On both voyages the study region was characterized by coastal and EAC waters in the north (˜31°S), and in the south by topographically induced upwelling (˜31°S), associated with narrowing of the continental shelf and separation of the EAC from the coast. Among the 111 families of larval fish, we observed distinctive assemblages of ichthyoplankton associated with the two different water masses. A greater abundance of the Carangidae, Labridae, Lutjanidae, Microcanthidae, Myctophidae and Scombridae was associated with the nutrient poor EAC water mass, while the Callionymidae, Clupeidae, Platycephalidae and Sillaginidae were mostly found in the cooler and/or fresher inner-shelf water mass. We assessed these patterns with opportunistic samples from an unusual, wind-driven upwelling event in the north (˜31°S) earlier in the November voyage. The relative abundance of these 10 characteristic families distinguished this wind-driven upwelling event from the subsequent relaxation and predominance of the EAC assemblage at this location just 6 d later. Distinctive and abundant families such as larval clupeids, relative to larval carangids, could be a useful marker of inner-shelf, EAC and mixed water masses in the absence of robust hydrographic data. This and related studies indicate contrast in early life histories of Sardinops sagax and Trachurus spp., which appear to spawn respectively in the inner-shelf and outer-shelf waters. The post-flexion stages of S. sagax

  18. Coastal mapping handbook

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Ellis, Melvin Y., (Edited By)

    1978-01-01

    Passage of the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 focused attention on the Nation's coastal land and water areas. As plans for more effective management of the coastal zone evolved, it soon became apparent that improved maps and charts of these areas were needed. This handbook was prepared with the requirements of the entire coastal community in mind, giving greatest attention to the needs of coastal zone managers and planners at the State and local levels. Its principal objective is to provide general information and guidance; it is neither a textbook nor a technical manual, but rather a primer on coastal mapping. This handbook should help planners and managers of coastal programs to determine their mapping requirements, select the best maps and charts for their particular needs, and to deal effectively with personnel who gather data and prepare maps. The sections on "Sources of Assistance and Advice" and "Product and Data Sources" should be especially useful to all involved in mapping the coastal zone. Brief summaries of the mapping efforts of several State coastal zone management programs are included. "Future outlook" discusses anticipated progress and changes in mapping procedures and techniques. Illustrations are inserted, where appropriate, to illustrate the products and equipment discussed. Because of printing restrictions, the colors in map illustrations may vary from those in the original publication. The appendixes include substantial material which also should be of interest. In addition a glossary and an index are included to provide easy and quick access to the terms and concepts used in the text. For those interested in more technical detail than is provided in this handbook, the "Selected references" will be useful. Also, the publications of the professional societies listed in appendix 4 will provide technical information in detail.

  19. Use of environmental isotopes and hydrochemistry as indicators for the origin of groundwater resources in El Dabaa area, northwestern coastal zone of Egypt.

    PubMed

    Awad, M A; Hammad, F A; Aly, A I; Sadek, M A

    1994-03-01

    The EI-Dabaa area is located on the northwestern coastal zone of Egypt and is considered to be one of the most important regions for land reclamation and agriculture. In addition, it has been selected as a potential site for constructing Egypt's first nuclear power plant.In April 1989, 14 groundwater samples were collected from the area as well as collecting samples from the Mediterranean sea and from local rainwater. These samples were subjected to chemical and environmental isotope analyses. The results of the analyses for stable isotopes (oxygen-18 and deuterium) indicate that the main recharge source of the groundwater in El-Dabaa is the local precipitation during the rainy season. Variation of the environmental tritium content as well as in the chemical composition of both major cations (Na,K,Ca,Mg) and major anions (Cl,SO4,HCO3) between different groundwaters in the studied area reflect the high degree of inhomogeneity of the aquifer and different recharging conditions due to permeability of the water bearing formation.The chemical water type of the El-Dabaa groundwater is sodium sulphate (Na2SO4) and the SAR values illustrate the suitability of these groundwaters for agricultural purposes. PMID:24198175

  20. Variability in pigment concentration in warm-core rings as determined by coastal zone color scanner satellite imagery from the Mid-Atlantic Bight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia-Moliner, Graciela; Yoder, James A.

    1994-01-01

    A time series of coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) derived chlorophyll (CZCS-chl) and sea surface temperature (SST) satellite imagery was developed for the Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB). Warm-core rings (WCR) were identified by both the warmer SST signal as well as the low pigment concentrations of their cores. The variation in pigment concentrations and SST observed in satellite imagery over the geographic range and life span of four WCRs is investigated. The hypotheses are that pigment concentration increase during the lifetime of the WCR is a response to processes such as convective overturn, upwelling, edge enhancement due to increased vertical mixing, active convergence, or lateral exchange. Empirical orthogonal function analysis (EOF) is used to investigate the relationship between SST and pigment patterns observed in the presence of a WCR. The first two EOF modes explain more than 80% of the variability observed in all four WCRs and in both (SST and pigment) data sets. The results of this study show that, at the synoptic scales of staellite data, the variability observed in the WCRs is greater at the periphery of the rings. These results show that advective entrainment, rather than processes at ring center (e.g., shoaling of the pycnocline/nutricline in response to frictional decay) or at the periphery due to other processes such as vertical mixing, is the mechanism responsible for the observed variability.

  1. Cenomanian sealevel rise, oxygen minmum zone development and biotic response in the Tarfaya Basin: evidence from the "Mohammed Plage" coastal section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, H.; Kuhnt, W.; Holbourn, A.; Kolonic, S.; Kawamura, H.

    2003-04-01

    Cenomanian sediments are exposed along a continuous 10-km-long transect (i.e., the "Mohammed Plage" coastal section) between Tarfaya and Tan Tan in southern Morocco. They reflect the transition from marginal marine to outer shelf environments. A total of about 150 samples were studied from the 60 m thick section. Total organic carbon (TOC), sulfur and calcium carbonate content, and other derived organochemical parameter (e.g., Tmax, HI, OI etc.) were measured and plotted together with the planktic benthic foraminiferal ratio (P/B-ratio) and quantitative benthic foraminiferal records. Our data show that the P/B-ratio is not a simple proxy for water-depth (or sealevel change) but is also strongly influenced by nutrient fluxes (potential productivity). 3rd-order-cyclic variations in P/B-ratio correspond closely with fluctuations in TOC and reflect the onlap of the sea and development of an intensified oxygen minimum zone on the shelf. Generally, principal benthic foraminiferal biofacies are dominated either by Gabonita-species, indicating high sealevel and high surface productivity, or by agglutinated taxa pointing to low sealevel or lower productivity. We present a model of the complex interaction between waterdepth, productivity and the resulting faunal assemblage.

  2. Seasonal and interannual changes in zooplankton community in the coastal zone of the North-Eastern Black Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikishina, A. B.; Arashkevich, E. G.; Louppova, N. E.; Soloviev, K. A.

    2009-04-01

    The phenological response of zooplankton community is a result of simultaneous effect of several factors: feeding conditions, predation abundance, periods of reproduction of common species and hydrodynamic regime. The Black sea ecosystem is one of the best studied in the world, otherwise there is still some illegibility about ecosystem functioning and especially about environmental factors influence on zooplankton dynamics. For the last twenty years pelagic system of the Black Sea has changed dramatically. The invasion of ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the middle of eighties caused significant decrease in zooplankton biomass. It also altered plankton structure and shifted periods of mass reproduction of the abundant species and biomass maximums. For instance, before the invasion of Mnemiopsis the maximum of zooplankton biomass was observed in autumn (data by A. Pasternak, 1983), and after that the maximum moved to the spring (data by V.S. Khoroshilov, 1999). The incursion of ctenophore Beroe ovata feeding on Mnemiopsis in the nineties has led to the enhancement of zooplankton community. Although the detailed analysis of seasonal zooplankton dynamics wasn't performed in the recent years. The object of our research was to study seasonal and interannual changes in zooplankton community in the coastal area of the North-Eastern Black Sea. Analysis of interannual, seasonal and spatial changes in zooplankton distribution, abundance and species composition along with age structure of dominant populations were performed based on investigations during 2005-2008 years in the North-Eastern Black Sea. Plankton samples were obtained monthly since June 2005 till December 2008. Plankton was collected at three stations at depths 25m, 50m and 500-1000m along the transect from the Blue Bay to the open sea. Sampling of gelatinous animals was conducted in parallel to the zooplankton sampling. Simultaneously with plankton sampling CTD data were obtained. The feeding conditions were

  3. Time scales of pattern evolution from cross-spectrum analysis of advanced very high resolution radiometer and coastal zone color scanner imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denman, Kenneth L.; Abbott, Mark R.

    1994-01-01

    We have selected square subareas (110 km on a side) from coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) and advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) images for 1981 in the California Current region off northern California for which we could identify sequences of cloud-free data over periods of days to weeks. We applied a two-dimensional fast Fourier transformation to images after median filtering, (x, y) plane removal, and cosine tapering. We formed autospectra and coherence spectra as functions of a scalar wavenumber. Coherence estimates between pairs of images were plotted against time separation between images for several wide wavenumber bands to provide a temporal lagged coherence function. The temporal rate of loss of correlation (decorrelation time scale) in surface patterns provides a measure of the rate of pattern change or evolution as a function of spatial dimension. We found that patterns evolved (or lost correlation) approximately twice as rapidly in upwelling jets as in the 'quieter' regions between jets. The rapid evolution of pigment patterns (lifetime of about 1 week or less for scales of 50-100 km) ought to hinder biomass transfer to zooplankton predators compared with phytoplankton patches that persist for longer times. We found no significant differences between the statistics of CZCS and AVHRR images (spectral shape or rate of decorrelation). In addition, in two of the three areas studied, the peak correlation between AVHRR and CZCS images from the same area occurred at zero lag, indicating that the patterns evolved simutaneously. In the third area, maximum coherence between thermal and pigment patterns occurred when pigment images lagged thermal images by 1-2 days, mirroring the expected lag of high pigment behind low temperatures (and high nutrients) in recently upwelled water. We conclude that in dynamic areas such as coastal upwelling systems, the phytoplankton cells (identified by pigment color patterns) behave largely as passive scalars at the

  4. The nearshore zone during coastal upwelling: Daily variability and coupling between primary and secondary production off central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, William T.; Arcos, Dagoberto F.; McManus, George B.; Dam, Hans; Bellantoni, Diane; Johnson, Thomas; Tiselius, Peter

    , egg production was usually suboptimal, despite high nutritional quality of the phytoplankton, as indicated by protein/carbohydrate ratios. Food availability, due to either small phytoplankton size or spatial and temporal uncoupling of phyto- and zooplankton populations, was probably most important in limiting copepod production. Event-scale advection, both zonal and alongshore, can be important in uncoupling primary and secondary production and probably determines the degree to which upwelling-generated pulses of phytoplankton production are utilized by herbivorous plankton in the nearshore zone.

  5. Prospects for Coastal Resource Conservation in the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, John; McCreary, Scott

    1980-01-01

    Evaluates the implementation of the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 and postulates future trends in the development and protection of these areas. Emphasis is upon approaches used by various states in carrying out their coastal zone management programs. (WB)

  6. Variability of the human mitochondrial DNA control region sequences in the Lithuanian population.

    PubMed

    Kasperaviciūte, Dalia; Kucinskas, Vaidutis

    2002-01-01

    The Lithuanians and Latvians are the only two Baltic cultures that survived until today. Since the Neolithic period the native inhabitants of the present-day Lithuanian territory have not been replaced by any other ethnic group. Therefore the genetic characterization of the present-day Lithuanians may shed some light on the early history of the Balts. We have analysed 120 DNA samples from two Lithuanian ethnolinguistic groups (Aukstaiciai and Zemaiciai) by direct sequencing of the first hypervariable segment (HVI) of the control region of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and restriction enzyme digestion for polymorphic site 00073. On the basis of specific nucleotide substitutions the obtained sequences were classified to mtDNA haplogroups. This revealed the presence of almost all European haplogroups (except X) in the Lithuanian sample, including those that expanded through Europe in the Palaeolithic and those whose expansion occurred during the Neolithic. Molecular diversity indices (gene diversity 0.97, nucleotide diversity 0.012 and mean number of pairwise differences 4.5) were within the range usually reported in European populations. No significant differences between Aukstaiciai and Zemaiciai subgroups were found, but some slight differences need further investigation. PMID:12080181

  7. Acquisition of Gender Agreement in Lithuanian: Exploring the Effect of Diminutive Usage in an Elicited Production Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savickiene, Ineta; Kempe, Vera; Brooks, Patricia J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines Lithuanian children's acquisition of gender agreement using an elicited production task. Lithuanian is a richly inflected Baltic language, with two genders and seven cases. Younger (N = 24, mean 3 ; 1, 2 ; 5-3 ; 8) and older (N = 24, mean 6 ; 3, 5 ; 6-6 ; 9) children were shown pictures of animals and asked to describe them…

  8. Geochemical reactivity in the mixing zone of a coastal salt lake and its effect on microbialite formation, Lake Clifton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warden, J. G.; Breecker, D.; Bennett, P.

    2013-12-01

    The hydrochemistry of Lake Clifton, Western Australia was investigated to evaluate the effects of mixing on geochemical reactions occurring at or near the groundwater-surface water interface. Lake Clifton is a coastal salt lake located along Australia's southwest coast known for both its value as a wetland habitat and for containing modern microbialite structures. The microbialites occur near zones of groundwater input along the eastern and northeastern lakeshore. Composed of aragonite and predominantly thrombolytic in texture, the microbialites form isolated conical structures nearly 1 m in height and a seasonally submerged reef that is 5 km long and up to 30 m wide. Microbialite structures in Lake Clifton have been subjected to an approximately 3-fold increase in salinity from hyposaline lake water in the early 1990s to hypersaline at present. Recent measurements of total dissolved solids at the Lake Clifton boardwalk varied between 56132 ppm in August, 2012 and 73707 ppm in June, 2011. The mixing of carbonate waters can cause nonlinear effects that might result in either mineral dissolution or precipitation. PHREEQC was used to model geochemical reactivity in the Lake Clifton mixing zone in order to better understand the current geochemical impact of the salinity increase. The mixing model suggests that if mixing is the only process influencing water chemistry, mixtures of supersaturated, hypersaline lake water and saturated, fresh groundwater will be supersaturated above (and undersaturated below) 14-22% lake water, with respect to aragonite. The transition between waters saturated and undersaturated with respect to aragonite depended on fluctuations in the chemistry of the lake water end member. The minimum saturation index occurred at 4% lake water and indicated weakly undersaturated (SI = -0.12) waters. Data from seepage meters, pore-waters (7-50 mm depth), and piezometers (41.6-80.5 cm depth) were compared to the mixing model based on chloride

  9. Community ecology of the metazoan parasites of Atlantic moonfish, Selene setapinnis (Osteichthyes: Carangidae) from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, A S; Luque, J L

    2004-08-01

    Eighty-nine specimens of Selene setapinnis (Mitchill, 1815) collected from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro (21-23 degrees S, 41-45 degrees W and 23 degrees 05'S, 44 degrees 30'W), Brazil, from August 2001 to May 2002, were necropsied to study their metazoan parasites. Eighty-one (91%) specimens of S. setapinnis were parasitized by one or more metazoan species. Twenty-one species of parasites were collected: 8 digeneans, 3 monogeneans, 2 cestodes, 5 nematodes, and 3 copepods. The endoparasites (digeneans, cestodes, and nematodes) were 74.1% of total number of parasite specimens collected. The monogenean Pseudomazocraes selene (Hargis, 1957) was the most dominant species with the highest prevalence in the parasite community of S. setapinnis. The metazoan parasites of this host species showed the typical aggregated pattern of distribution. Only one parasite species (Acanthocolpoides pauloi Travassos, Freitas & Buhrnheim, 1955) showed positive correlation between the host total length and parasite abundance in S. setapinnis. Caligus robustus Bassett-Smith, 1898, P. selene, and Terranova sp. demonstrated positive correlation between the host total length and prevalence. Larvae of Terranova sp. showed influence of the host sex on its prevalence. A pair of ectoparasite species, P. selene-C. robustus, exhibited positive covariation between their abundances. Two pairs of endoparasite species, L. microstomum-P. merus and A. pauloi-P. merus showed significant covariation among their abundances; and the pair Terranova sp.-Raphidascaris sp. had positive co-ocorrence and covariation in the infracommunities of S. setapinnis. Like the parasite communities of the other carangid fishes from Rio de Janeiro, the parasite community of S. setapinnis is apparently only a slightly ordered species complex, characterized by dominance of endoparasite species. PMID:15622838

  10. Temporal fluctuations of the Sea Surface Temperature and Chlorophyll-a along of coral reef systems located on the Western coastal zone of the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jesús Salas Pérez, José; Ocaña Valencia, Angel; González Gandara, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    On the coastal zone of the western Gulf of Mexico (GM), there are a variety of coral reef systems which are influenced by river discharge and macro-scale circulation of the GM. The goal of this study is determine if the main fluctuations of the chlorophyll-a and sea surface temperature values (measured from monthly satellite images of sensors Aqua Modis and NOAA-AVHRR in the period of 2008-2011) in coral reef systems, are determined by river discharges or macro-scale circulation of the basin. Moreover determine if the temporal fluctuations of those parameters are correlated between them and thus asses the relationship between them. The most norther coral reef system (Lobos) is classified as mesotrophic-eutrophic. The middle coral reef system (Tuxpan) is ranked as oligotrophic-mesotrophic. Toward the southern region of the western littoral of the GM the coral reefs systems (PNSAV and Coatzacoalcos) are classified as eutrophic. Regarding to Sea Surface Temperature (SST) fluctuations, all coral reef systems showed an almost similar behavior, winter is the season with cool waters (19-23°C). Then in spring, the temperature values increases to about 25°C. Summer season have warm waters (29-30°C). Slightly different, fall decrease their water temperatures to 28°C. The northern coral reef systems (Lobos-Tuxpan) are colder than that the coral reef systems of the southern region (PNSAV-Coatzacoalcos). Those fluctuations, in chlorophyll-a and SST are induced by cyclonic and anticyclonic gyres generated in the Loop current, which impact in the northern region, while the southern region is influenced by river discharge and the presence of a cyclonic gyre of the Campeche bay. But northern and southern coral reef systems are mainly affected by waters of the northern GM advected by winds blowing from the north, mainly in winter.

  11. Can Satellite-derived Chlorophyll Imagery Be Used to Trace Surface Dynamics in Coastal Zone? A Case Study in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Forget, Philippe; André, Gael

    2007-01-01

    A comparison of chlorophyll data from SeaWiFS imagery and modeling results from a 3D hydrodynamical model was performed over the northwestern Mediterranean for the entire year of 2001. The study aims at investigating the information content brought by satellite-derived chlorophyll concentration ([Chl]) maps concerning surface dynamics in coastal zone. The study is mainly focused on the Gulf of Lions (GoL) and its outer region, which are mainly influenced by the Rhône River, local winds and the Northern Current (NC) flowing from the East along the continental slope. The physical hydrodynamical model was continuously run and 40 SeaWiFS images, presenting a significant coverage of the studied area, were selected. The comparison between [Chl] and sea surface salinity (SSS) fields on a pixel basis showed no definite correlation trends. Three reasons are given in discussion for that result. However, the comparison emphasized areas close to the coasts which were under the influence of different inputs not considered in the model and also of upwellings. A qualitative analysis of the data performed out of these regions exhibited significant similarities between [Chl] and SSS features. The signature of the Rhône ROFI (Region of Fresh Water Influence) and, in some cases, of the NC, was evidenced on [Chl] maps. We found that the intensity of this signature is seasonally modulated, e.g., it is low in open sea during the summer, oligotrophic, season. In addition, the signature of the Rhône ROFI in the western part of the GoL can be only partial due to local chlorophyll deficits. We conclude that, for the regional case studied, chlorophyll imagery can be used as a tracer of surface dynamics through surface salinity but with limitations, especially near the coasts.

  12. Spatial variation in phytoplankton dynamics in the Belgian coastal zone of the North Sea studied by microscopy, HPLC-CHEMTAX and underway fluorescence recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muylaert, Koenraad; Gonzales, Rhia; Franck, Melanie; Lionard, Marie; Van der Zee, Claar; Cattrijsse, André; Sabbe, Koen; Chou, Lei; Vyverman, Wim

    2006-05-01

    Spatial variation in the succession of phytoplankton in the Belgian Coastal Zone (BCZ) was investigated by monitoring phytoplankton biomass and community composition using microscopical cell counts, HPLC pigment analyses and in vivo fluorescence recordings. Monthly monitoring of phytoplankton community composition at five stations revealed a succession of three distinct diatom communities. The succession of these three communities was the same at each site, but the succession from the winter-spring to the summer community occurred one month earlier and the succession from the summer to the autumn community one month later at the SW than at the NE stations of the BCZ. Monthly monitoring of chlorophyll a at ten fixed sites and inspection of in vivo fluorescence recordings during various cruises of RV 'Zeeleeuw' indicated that the spring bloom started about one month earlier in the SW part of the BCZ than in the NE part. The spatial difference in the onset of the spring bloom was ascribed to the higher water column turbidity at the NE coast compared to the SW coast. Although a Phaeocystis bloom occurred at all monitoring stations, a clear spatial variation in the magnitude of such blooms was observed, with more intense blooms at the NE coast than at the SW coast. A close relation was observed between the intensity of the Phaeocystis bloom and the availability of inorganic nutrients (N and P) before the onset of the bloom. Comparison of microscopical cell counts and CHEMTAX analysis of accessory pigment data indicated that HPLC analysis may be a useful tool for monitoring Phaeocystis in the North Sea. The presence of chlorophyll c3 containing diatoms, however, probably resulted in the detection of small quantities of Phaeocystis by HPLC-CHEMTAX analysis when microscopical analyses showed that the species was absent.

  13. The potential of coastal lakes in the Winter-Rainfall-Zone of South Africa for paleoenvironmental reconstructions - an example from Verlorenvlei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasper, Thomas; Haberzettl, Torsten; Lederer, Martin; Wündsch, Michael; Frenzel, Peter; Zabel, Matthias; Kirsten, Kelly; Carr, Andrew; Daut, Gerhard; Cawthra, Hayley; Baade, Jussi; Meadows, Michael; Quick, Lynne; Mäusbcher, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Verlorenvlei is a coastal lake in the winter rainfall zone of the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Up to now, several attempts have been made to recover sediment cores from this lake. However, no continuous high-resolution record covering the entire Holocene has been acquired. Within the project RAiN (Regional Archives for Integrated iNvestigations) a 14.2 m paired parallel core from the central part of Verlorenvlei was recovered. Based on analyses of surface sediment samples, recent elemental and grain size distributions indicate that this sediment core is well suited for paleoenvironmental reconstructions. Using a set of 23 radiocarbon ages, a chronology was established for the past 9,400 cal BP suggesting continuous sediment deposition throughout the entire period. Preliminary lithological and geochemical investigations show that this record can be used for sea level reconstructions as the lake was periodically inundated by the ocean during the past 9,400 cal BP. This is recorded in distinctly elevated Ca and Sr contents as well as the occurrence of marine indicator species (gastropods) in parts of the sediment core. Thin, pale grey layers of fine sediment occurring at various sediment depths seem to reflect event-related deposits, but do not showing erosional structures. In terms of lithology, geochemical and magnetic composition, the upper 50 cm (ca. 100 cal BP) clearly differ from the rest of the record indicating increased sediment supply from the catchment, which is likely linked to anthropogenic activities. The presented sediment record from Verlorenvlei offers excellent potential for a detailed, high-resolution reconstruction of sea level changes, climate variations and anthropogenic impact during the past 9,400 cal BP in an area in which natural archives are very scarce or poorly dated.

  14. Environmental hazards and distribution of radioactive black sand along the Rosetta coastal zone in Egypt using airborne spectrometric and remote sensing data.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, M F; Aziz, A M; Ghieth, B M

    2014-11-01

    High-resolution airborne gamma ray spectrometry, conducted in 2003, was used to estimate radioactive elements spatial abundance along the Rosetta coastal zone area. It was noticed that both Uranium and Thorium are concentrated in the black sand deposits along the beach. In contrary, Potassium was observed in high level abundance at the cultivated Nile Delta lands due to the accumulated usage of fertilizers. Exposure Rate (ER), Absorbed Dose Rate (ADR) and Annual Effective Dose Rate (AEDR) were calculated to evaluate the radiation background influence in human. Results indicated that the human body in the study sites is subjected to radiation hazards exceeds the accepted limit for long duration exposure. In addition, the areas covered by the highest concentration of Uranium and Thorium show the highest level of radiogenic heat production. Detection the environmental hazards of the radioactive black sands in the study site encouraged this research to monitor the spatial and temporal distribution of these sediments. The Landsat Thematic Mapper images acquired in 1990, 2003 and 2013 were analyzed using remote sensing image processing techniques. Image enhancements, classification and changes detection indicated a positive significant relationship between the patterns of coastline changes and distribution of the radioactive black sand in the study sites. The radioactive black sands are usually concentrated in the eroded areas. Therefore, in 1990 high concentration of the radioactive black sands were observed along the eastern and western flanks of the Rosetta promontory. Distribution of these sediments decreased due to the construction of the protective sea walls. Most of the radioactive black sands are transported toward the east in Abu Khashaba bay under the effect of the longshore currents and toward the west in Alexandria and Abu Quir bay under the action of the seasonal reverse currents. PMID:25011074

  15. Using radium isotopes to estimate cross-shelf mixing rates: Spatial and temporal variability of radium isotopes in the surf zone and coastal ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbert, S. L.; Hammond, D. E.

    2002-12-01

    Evaluating the impact and fate of surface water runoff and associated contaminants requires knowledge of the rates of mixing and transport in the coastal zone. The distribution of naturally-occurring radium isotopes is being explored as a tracer to evaluate these rates. Two types of sampling have been utilized to study these processes: shore-based sampling in the surf zone and offshore sampling on transects from 0.5 to 15 km from the coast. Shoreline samples were collected every other hour for 10-12 hours at several locations between Huntington Beach and Santa Monica, California, during a range of seasons and tidal amplitudes. The 223Ra and 224Ra concentrations are related to the tides, with higher concentrations during low tide and lower concentrations at high tide. However, the 223Ra/223Ra ratio remains relatively constant. This indicates that the two isotopes co-vary and probably have a coherent source. As the tidal range while sampling increased, the average isotope concentration decreased, apparently reflecting increased offshore mixing rates. Six offshore transects have been obtained in the Huntington Beach area. Vertical profiles indicate that in most cases, the short-lived radium isotopes are primarily confined to the mixed layer. Results show that on the time scale of a few days, the system appears to be in steady state. During spring, higher concentrations in offshore surface waters were observed. This difference appears to result from confinement of the radium input to a shallower mixed layer, because integrated isotope inventories are remarkably consistent and suggest that the input does not vary greatly with time. Fits to a one-dimensional exponential function indicate that the two short-lived isotopes have quite similar horizontal scale distances. This is unexpected because a 1-D diffusion-reaction formulation predicts that scale distances should differ by a factor of 1.6. In contrast to the Huntington Beach region, three transects at Hermosa Beach

  16. Mortality and cancer incidence among Lithuanian cement producing workers

    PubMed Central

    Smailyte, G; Kurtinaitis, J; Andersen, A

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To investigate mortality and cancer incidence of cement producing workers. Methods: A total of 2498 cement workers who have been employed at Portland cement producing departments for at least one year from 1956 to 2000 were followed up from 1 January 1978 to 31 December 2000. The cohort contributed 43 490 person-years to the study. Standardised incidence ratios (SIR) and standardised mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated as ratios between observed and expected numbers of cancers and deaths. The expected numbers were based on sex specific incidence and mortality rates for the total Lithuanian population. Results: Significantly increased SMRs were found for all malignant neoplasms (SMR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.5) and for lung cancer (SMR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.9) among male cement workers. SIR for all cancer sites was 1.2 (95% CI 1.0 to 1.4). Excess risk was found for cancer of the lung (SIR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.1). The SIR for urinary bladder cancer was also increased (SIR 1.8, 95% CI 0.9 to 3.5). The overall cancer incidence was not increased among females (SIR 0.8, 95% CI 0.6 to 1.1). With increasing cumulated exposure to cement dust, there were indications of an increasing risk of lung and stomach cancers among males. Conclusions: This study supported the hypothesis that exposure to cement dust may increase the lung and bladder cancer risk. A dose related risk was found for stomach cancer, but no support was found for an increased risk of colorectal cancer. PMID:15150393

  17. Coastal biodiversity and bioresources: variation and sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Song; Liu, Zhengyi; Yu, Roger Ziye

    2016-03-01

    The 1st International Coastal Biology Congress (1st ICBC) was held in Yantai, China, in Sep. 26-30, 2014. Eighteen manuscripts of the meeting presentations were selected in this special issue. According to the four themes set in the ICBC meeting, this special issue include four sections, i.e., Coastal Biodiversity under Global Change, Adaptation and Evolution to Special Environment of Coastal Zone, Sustainable Utilization of Coastal Bioresources, and Coastal Biotechnology. Recent advances in these filed are presented.

  18. Coastal Hazards: Hurricanes, Tsunamis, Coastal Erosion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandas, Steve

    1998-01-01

    Details an ocean-based lesson and provides background information on the designation of 1998 as the "Year of the Ocean" by the United Nations. Contains activities on the poster insert that can help raise student awareness of coastal-zone hazards. (DDR)

  19. Analysis of Land Cover Change in a Coastal Area using Remotely Sensed Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaunzeme, I.; Kaļinka, M.; Reiniks, M.; Kaminskis, J.

    2015-11-01

    Coastal area monitoring is a significant task in the national development and environmental protection. Study area of this work is the Baltic Sea Region, particularly focusing on the land cover changes in the coastal area from Cape Kolka to the Latvian-Lithuanian border. The aim of this research is to estimate and illustrate different examples of monitoring and mapping land cover changes in the coastal area using remotely sensed data - orthophoto, multispectral data and radar data. The results of the research include vector maps created from satellite images and comparison between different land cover value identification methods.

  20. Oceanography: Coastal oceanic nitrogen loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thamdrup, Bo

    2013-03-01

    Oxygen minimum zones crop up along the eastern boundaries of ocean basins in the low latitudes. A survey of the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern South Pacific points to the coastal zone as a hotspot for anammox-driven marine nitrogen loss.

  1. High concentration episodes of PM10 in the air over the urbanized coastal zone of the Baltic Sea (Gdynia — Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowska, Anita Urszula; Falkowska, Lucyna Mirosława

    2013-02-01

    During the years 2008-2009, studies were conducted on PM10 in the atmosphere over Gdynia. The basic chemical composition of PM10 aerosols (inorganic species, organic and elemental carbon) was measured during periods of heightened health risk. As the quality of air depends on natural as well as anthropogenic factors, it was important to specify which of these factors prevail under different synoptic conditions and at different times, and which have the greatest influence on human health. In the course of the 24-month research period, the daily PM10 limit value (50 μg·m- 3) in the coastal zone of the Gulf of Gdansk, was exceeded 25 times. High concentration episodes invariably occurred in the cold months of the year. The first kind of episode was related to sea activity and the highest share of sea salt in aerosols (NaCl = 46.5%). A second type of high PM10 concentration occurred at south-eastern advection when secondary aerosols, aging on the way from the source, were carried over Gdynia. In the spring of 2009, as a result of biomass combustion (fires and grass burning) in Ukraine and Southern Russia, the PM10 mass concentration climbed to 117.1 μg·m- 3 and was accompanied by substantial increases in nitrogen, sulfur and carbon compounds (reaching 32.5 μg·m- 3, 20.0 μg·m- 3, and 6.0 μg·m- 3, respectively). The third kind of high PM10 concentration was related to local sources, mostly within the communal sector, the harbor area and the transshipment base, and was the consequence of low dispersion of pollution at a wind speed of 1 m·s- 1. At such times there was a rapid increase of carbon compound concentrations (53.8%). Elemental carbon, an air pollution indicator which originates from means of transport, had the highest proportion in such instances, reaching 15.8% of the total PM10 mass concentration.

  2. Attenuation of landscape signals through the coastal zone: A basin-wide analysis for the US Great Lakes shoreline, circa 2002-2010

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compare statistical models developed to describe a) the relationship between watershed properties and Great Lakes coastal wetlands with b) the relationship developed between watershed properties and the Great Lakes nearshore. Using landscape metrics from the GLEI project (Dan...

  3. Harmonisation of the Educational Concept "Learning Outcome" in the Lithuanian Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pukelis, Kestutis; Smetona, Antanas

    2011-01-01

    In this article, an example of translation of the English term "learning outcome" into the Lithuanian system of educational terms is used to discuss semantic peculiarities of translating professional terms. Consistency of a concept signifier and content of a concept, as well as their tune with already existing systems of educational terms are…

  4. PRF Cross-Cultural Psychological Study of Lithuanian Students, Teachers, and Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illovsky, Michael E.; Gintiliene, Grazina; Bulotaite, Laima; Rickman, Jacqueline; Belekiene, Marijona; Janowitz, Karl

    2008-01-01

    The Personality Research Form (PRF) was used to study the psychological traits of Lithuanian college of education students, teachers, and special education teachers. A sample of American college students was also used for comparison. Chi-square results indicated no statistical differences among the groups. Interpretations of the lack of…

  5. What Lithuanian Pupils Learn about Disability: Analysis of Attitudes and Content of Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruskus, Jonas; Poceviciene, Rasa

    2006-01-01

    (Purpose) The purpose of this paper was to reveal how stereotyped representations of disability are manifested in school curriculum through the textbook content and the attitudes of participants of education. Research questions of this study were: How is disability represented in Lithuanian textbooks? What is the real discourse--that of…

  6. Changes in Lithuanian Pre-School and Pre-Primary Education Quality over the Last Decade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monkeviciene, Ona; Stankeviciene, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, the changes in Lithuanian pre-school and pre-primary education have been predetermined by changes in paradigms of children's education and strategic education documents that provided for guidelines of high quality children's (self-)education, an increasing attention of society to the quality of children's education, training…

  7. [150th birth anniversary of Izidor Brennsohn, Latvian historian of medicine and researcher of Lithuanian anthropology].

    PubMed

    Andriusis, Aurimas; Viksna, Arnis

    2004-01-01

    This publication is dedicated to the 150th birth anniversary of a famous German-writing Latvian physician, historian of medicine, and anthropologist of Jewish descent Izidor Brennsohn, and to his ties with Lithuania. I. Brennsohn's works on physicians and the development of health care in Kurland, Livland, and Estland laid the foundations for the contemporary historiography of medicine in Latvia and Estonia. To a certain extent, these works could also be viewed as a digest of the sources of Lithuanian history of medicine, especially in regard to the regions on the boarder with Latvia, as well as to various personalities. However, Brennsohn's most important link with Lithuania was his doctoral thesis "On Lithuanian anthropology" ("Zur Anthropologie der Litauer"), defended at Dorpat (Tartu) University in 1883. It was one of the first works dealing with Lithuanian ethnic anthropology as a whole. Although, material of thesis could not be used for wider generalizations, still, it is one of rare and valuable 19th century sources of Lithuanian anthropology. Brennsohn's legacy deserves greater attention from people researching medical history in Lithuania. PMID:15456980

  8. Sensor to User - NASA/EOS Data for Coastal Zone Management Applications Developed from Integrated Analyses: Verification, Validation and Benchmark Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Callie; Arnone, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Applied Sciences Program seeks to transfer NASA data, models, and knowledge into the hands of end-users by forming links with partner agencies and associated decision support tools (DSTs). Through the NASA REASoN (Research, Education and Applications Solutions Network) Cooperative Agreement, the Oceanography Division of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRLSSC) is developing new products through the integration of data from NASA Earth-Sun System assets with coastal ocean forecast models and other available data to enhance coastal management in the Gulf of Mexico. The recipient federal agency for this research effort is the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The contents of this report detail the effort to further the goals of the NASA Applied Sciences Program by demonstrating the use of NASA satellite products combined with data-assimilating ocean models to provide near real-time information to maritime users and coastal managers of the Gulf of Mexico. This effort provides new and improved capabilities for monitoring, assessing, and predicting the coastal environment. Coastal managers can exploit these capabilities through enhanced DSTs at federal, state and local agencies. The project addresses three major issues facing coastal managers: 1) Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs); 2) hypoxia; and 3) freshwater fluxes to the coastal ocean. A suite of ocean products capable of describing Ocean Weather is assembled on a daily basis as the foundation for this semi-operational multiyear effort. This continuous realtime capability brings decision makers a new ability to monitor both normal and anomalous coastal ocean conditions with a steady flow of satellite and ocean model conditions. Furthermore, as the baseline data sets are used more extensively and the customer list increased, customer feedback is obtained and additional customized products are developed and provided to decision makers. Continual customer feedback and response with new improved

  9. Trends in the spatial and temporal distribution of metals (Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb) and organic compounds (PCBs and PAHs) in Dutch coastal zone sediments from 1981 to 1996: a model case study for Cd and PCBs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laane, R. W. P. M.; Sonneveldt, H. L. A.; Van der Weyden, A. J.; Loch, J. P. G.; Groeneveld, G.

    1999-03-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of trace metals (Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was studied to assess trends in the sediment of the Dutch coastal zone (<63-μm fraction) from 1981 to 1996. In general, the distributions showed a distinct zonation, with highest concentrations close to the coast near freshwater outlets and where dredged material had been dumped. Over time, the zone with high concentrations narrowed and moved towards the coast. The median of the percentage of the <63-μm fraction in the surface sediments did not change significantly in the Dutch coastal zone between 1981 and 1996. In that period, the median concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb fell by 71, 38, 49 and 53%, respectively, in the area close to the coast (<20 km) north of the outlet of the Rhine. South of this outlet the median Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations fell by 45, 29 and 17%, respectively, and in the open sea area (>20 km offshore) the median concentrations for Cu and Zn fell by 35 and 18%, respectively. The largest reduction (80%) of the median concentration of PCBs occurred in the surface sediment in the open sea area (>20 km offshore) between 1986 and 1996. During this period the median PCBs concentration fell by nearly 70% close to the coast. The median PAH concentration fell by only 26% north of the outlet of the Rhine (<20 km from the coast) between 1986 and 1996. In the other areas there was no significant change. Possible reasons are that the main sources of PAHs are in the North Sea itself and that the load of PAHs from dredged material dumped in the Dutch coastal zone increased during the period studied. The reduction of the concentrations of metals and organic micropollutants in the surface sediments of the Dutch coastal zone is explained by a conservative physical mixing model, in which the previously polluted silt fraction in the surface sediments is replaced by less polluted suspended matter. There is a

  10. Mobilizing Lithuanian Health Professionals as Community Peer Leaders for AIDS Prevention: An International Primary Health Care Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norr, Kathleen F.; McElmurry, Beverly J.; Slutas, Frances M.; Christiansen, Carol D.; Misner, Susan J.; Marks, Beth A.

    2001-01-01

    Using primary health care and peer leadership models, U.S. nurses trained Lithuanian health professionals as community peer leaders in AIDS prevention. A national continuing education program is in place to sustain the initiative in Lithuania. (SK)

  11. Effects of Human Alterations on Global River Basins and their Associated Coastal Zones: focus on River-dominated Ocean Margins (RiOMars)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dürr, H. H.; Van Cappellen, P.; Meybeck, M.; Laruelle, G. G.; Mayorga, E.; Hartmann, J.; Maavara, T.; Bouwman, L.; Seitzinger, S.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal systems connected to large rivers, mostly major delta systems or river-dominated ocean margins (RiOMars), make up <1% of the worldwide shoreline. Yet, they comprise 28% of the exorheic terrestrial river basins area, and host 26.4% of the population connected via rivers to coastal systems (Dürr et al. 2011). These systems receive 41.6% of the discharge delivered to oceans. 25.7% of the suspended sediment load is processed, with comparable amounts for the total nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loads. The filter function for incoming riverine nutrients (N, P, C, Si) in these coastal environments is very different from other near-shore environments such as macro-tidal estuaries, lagoons or fjords. In this type, the major biogeochemical transformation of incoming river fluxes takes place in a plume on the continental margins (RiOMars). This effect is even more pronounced at high flow stages when the highest volumes of water and material are delivered. The filtering efficiency of delta systems is highest during low flows, and some of the systems may be influenced by tides when ebb and flood might flow through different channels, creating a braided network of streams and many islands (Dürr et al. 2011). Here, we discuss controls on the different nutrient forms delivered to different coastal environments, and how they are assessed (Global-NEWS and other approaches), with a special focus on large deltas and RiOMars. Drivers and impacts of global change will be explored through the Millenium Assessment Scenarios and how the fluxes to these different coastal systems might change. An increasing role is also played by aquaculture in different coastal types as a non-insignificant source of nutrients. World-wide distribution of coastal types and their related river basins (Dürr et al. 2011). Characteristics of types of near-shore coastal areas and their associated river basins Greenland and Antarctica excepted. Data from Dürr et al. (2011) and the Global-NEWS program

  12. Energy-related perturbations of the northeast coastal zone: five years (1974-1979) of oceanographic research at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, J.J.

    1980-03-01

    Since inception of oceanographic research at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1974, over 75 cruises and 150 papers and reports have been completed. In comparison of shelf ecosystems at high, mid, and low latitudes, an understanding of the natural variability of US coastal waters has been derived. Annual carbon and nitrogen budgets suggest that the energy flow is diverted to a pelagic food web in summer-fall and a demersal food web in winter-spring within the Mid-Atlantic Bight. The impact of energy-related perturbations can now be assessed within the context of natural oscillation of the coastal food web.

  13. Hydrocarbons and trace metals in mussels in the Macaé coast: Preliminary assessment for a coastal zone under influence of offshore oil field exploration in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Igor U; Molisani, Mauricio M; Nudi, Adriana H; Scofield, Artur L; Wagener, Angela de L R; Limaverde Filho, Aricelso M

    2016-02-15

    Concentrations of PAHs and metals were obtained from mussels collected in beaches, coastal island and estuary of the Macaé coast, the main operational basin for offshore oil exploration in Brazil. This survey provides reference levels for scenarios of increasing exploration, as well as for other areas of the coast undergoing urbanization to support exploration. As expected, urban areas such as the Macaé river estuary presented high concentrations of PAHs, although unsuspected sites such the island also presented signs of contamination. PAH in mussels originated from pyrolytic and petrogenic sources. Metals were typical of non-contaminated coastal environments, although Cr concentrations were above Brazilian Reference Levels. PMID:26763324

  14. Time trends in social differences in nutrition habits of a Lithuanian population: 1994-2010

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background During the post-communist transition period, political, economic, and social changes affected the lifestyles of the Lithuanian population, including their nutritional habits. However, people of lower socio-economic position were more vulnerable to these changes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the trends in selected food habits of the Lithuanian adult population by their level of education and place of residence from 1994 to 2010. Methods The data were obtained from nine biannual cross-sectional postal surveys of Lithuanian health behaviours, beginning in 1994. Each survey used a randomly selected nationally representative sample of 3000 inhabitants aged 20-64 drawn from the population register. In total, 7358 men and 9796 women participated in these surveys. Questions about food consumption were included within all health behaviour questionnaires. Results During the transition period, use of vegetable oil in cooking and the frequency of consumption of fresh vegetables increased, use of butter on bread decreased, and the proportion of women drinking high-fat milk declined. Lithuanians with higher education reported more frequent use of vegetable oil in cooking as well as daily consumption of fresh vegetables than those with a lower level of education. Consumption of high-fat milk was inversely associated with educational background. In addition, the proportion of persons spreading butter on bread increased with higher education level. The greatest urban-rural difference was observed in high-fat milk consumption. The increase in the use of vegetable oil in cooking, and the reduction of spreading butter on bread was more evident among less educated and rural inhabitants. Meanwhile, a greater proportion of the rural population, compared to urban, reduced their use of butter on bread. Daily consumption of fresh vegetables increased most among highly educated Lithuanians. Conclusions The data from our study indicate beneficial dietary changes

  15. 2D and 3D modelling of the Linking Zone between the Iberian and the Catalan Coastal Ranges (NE Spain): Characterizing basement and cover deformation from geological and geophysical cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izquierdo-Llavall, Esther; Ayala, Concepción; Rubio, Félix Manuel; Pueyo, Emilio; Casas, Antonio; Oliva-Urcia, Belén; Rodríguez-Pintó, Adriana; Rey-Moral, Carmen

    2015-04-01

    New geological, geophysical and petrophysical information is presented in this work in order to improve the understanding of the Linking Zone, an E-W-trending fold and thrust system that connects the northeastern part of the Iberian Range (WNW-ESE-striking) and the Catalan Coastal Ranges (NNE-SSW-striking). It was formed during the Alpine Orogeny and it is characterized by (1) thick-skinned tectonics, partly controlled by reactivation of faults inherited from Mesozoic times and (2) thin-skinned tectonics, affecting the cover sequences above the regional detachment levels (Triassic gypsum and shales). The present study aims to obtain a 3D image of the structure of this area through the construction of balanced geological and geophysical cross sections. In the Linking Zone scarce subsurface information is available. Therefore, we have conducted data acquisition campaigns to improve this knowledge: A) about 3000 gravity stations distributed along 8 main profiles were measured, and these new stations were complemented with gravity data from IGME databases. These data were analyzed and processed to obtain a Bouguer anomaly map and a residual gravity map with reasonably good coverage; B) a petrophysical survey was also carried out; rock samples were acquired and analyzed obtaining density and susceptibility values of the main lithologies. The statistics of these physical properties is of key importance during the combined geophysical/geological modelling. Petrophysical data indicate a weak, progressive increase of density mean values from the top to the base of the stratigraphic pile with the exception of Triassic gypsum and shales, where the lowest density was obtained. The modelling has been made in three steps: First, a set of eight geological cross-sections based on surface geology and structural information were built, controlled and improved through gravity modelling and balanced to make them geometrically correct, consistent throughout the sections and closer to

  16. ASSESSING NEW ENGLAND COASTAL WETLANDS USING A SYSTEMATIC REFERENCE-BASED APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency, Atlantic Ecology Division is working collaboratively with Massachusetts Coastal Zone Management to implement landscape and rapid assessments of coastal salt marshes in Rhode Island and Massachusetts. Using a 3-tiered approach, the coastal ...

  17. Development of the hidden Markov models based Lithuanian speech recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringeliene, Z.; Lipeika, A.

    2010-09-01

    The paper presents a prototype of the speaker-independent Lithuanian isolated word recognition system. The system is based on the hidden Markov models, a powerful statistical method for modeling speech signals. The prototype system can be used for Lithuanian words recognition investigations and is a good starting point for the development of a more sophisticated recognition system. The system graphical user interface is easy to control. Visualization of the entire recognition process is useful for analyzing of the recognition results. Based on this recognizer, a system for Web browser control by voice was developed. The program, which implements control by voice commands, was integrated in the speech recognition system. The system performance was evaluated by using different sets of acoustic models and vocabularies.

  18. Evaluation of leadership competencies of executives in Lithuanian public health institutions.

    PubMed

    Stankūnas, Mindaugas; Sauliūnė, Skirmantė; Smith, Tony; Avery, Mark; Šumskas, Linas; Czabanowska, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE. Lithuanian and international public health experts emphasize the importance of leadership in public health. The aim of this study was to explore the self-assessed level of leadership competencies of executives in Lithuanian public health institutions. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Data were collected in a cross-sectional survey of executives of Lithuanian public health institutions in 2010. The total number of returned questionnaires was 55 (response rate, 58.5%). Respondents were asked about their competencies in leadership, teamwork, communication, and conflict management. The evaluation was carried out by analyzing the answers provided in the survey, which used a 5-point rating scale. In addition, the Belbin Team-Role Self-Perception Inventory and the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument were used. RESULTS. The results showed that respondents were reserved or limited in their individual capacities through this evaluation of their leadership competencies. The mean score was 3.47 (SD, 0.71). Skills in competency areas of communication, teamwork, and conflict management were scored higher (3.73 [SD, 0.67], 3.73 [SD, 0.62], and 3.53 [SD, 0.63], respectively). Most of executives preferred to choose action-oriented roles (76.2%). The most common role was "implementer" (69.1%). "Avoiding" (52.7%) was the most common conflict solving strategy. The results showed that 89.1% of executives wanted to improve teamwork; 83.6%, leadership competencies; 81.8%, communication; and 80.0%, conflict management. CONCLUSIONS. The study results suggest that the executives of Lithuanian public health institutions evaluate their leadership competencies moderately. These results indicate the value of leadership training for public health executives. PMID:23455893

  19. Application of Pont‘s Index to Lithuanian Individuals: a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Smailiene, Dalia

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives A variety of diagnostic indices in orthodontics have been proposed to help in diagnosis and treatment planning. Pont’s Index was established to predict ideal maxillary dental arch width from the sum of mesiodistal widths of four upper incisors. The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of Pont’s Index to Lithuanian individuals. Material and Methods The sample comprised 52 subjects (age range from 18 to 35 years) with normal occlusion. Measurements were obtained directly from plaster casts using a digital calliper. Ideal arch widths were calculated for each subject according to Pont’s formulae, and the correlation coefficients were calculated between the measured and the calculated arch width values. Results Correlation between the measured width values and the corresponding values calculated according to Pont’s Index was moderate in all cases, with correlation coefficients values ranging from 0.59 (mandible) to 0.64 (maxilla) in first premolar’s area and 0.49 in both maxilla and mandible in first molar’s area (P < 0.05). Appropriate index values for Lithuanian individuals were assessed to be 85.57 in premolars and 66.24 in molars area. Conclusions According to the results of this study, there was no strong evidence to suggest that Pont’s Index could be reliably used to predict ideal arch width values in Lithuanian individuals. PMID:26904181

  20. Development and application of operational techniques for the inventory and monitoring of resources and uses for the Texas coastal zone. Volume 1: Text

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harwood, P. (Principal Investigator); Finley, R.; Mcculloch, S.; Malin, P. A.; Schell, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Image interpretation and computer-assisted techniques were developed to analyze LANDSAT scenes in support of resource inventory and monitoring requirements for the Texas coastal region. Land cover and land use maps, at a scale of 1:125,000 for the image interpretation product and 1:24,000 for the computer-assisted product, were generated covering four Texas coastal test sites. Classification schemes which parallel national systems were developed for each procedure, including 23 classes for image interpretation technique and 13 classes for the computer-assisted technique. Results indicate that LANDSAT-derived land cover and land use maps can be successfully applied to a variety of planning and management activities on the Texas coast. Computer-derived land/water maps can be used with tide gage data to assess shoreline boundaries for management purposes.

  1. 75 FR 16747 - Evaluation of State Coastal Management Programs and National Estuarine Research Reserves

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ...The NOAA Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management (OCRM) announces its intent to evaluate the performance of the Louisiana Coastal Management Program and the Great Bay (New Hampshire) National Estuarine Research Reserve. The Coastal Zone Management Program evaluation will be conducted pursuant to section 312 of the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972, as amended (CZMA) and regulations......

  2. Coastal sediment dynamics in Spitsbergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deloffre, J.; Lafite, R.; Baltzer, A.; Marlin, C.; Delangle, E.; Dethleff, D.; Petit, F.

    2010-12-01

    In arctic knowledge on coastal sediment dynamics and sedimentary processes is limited. The studied area is located in the microtidal Kongsfjorden glacial fjord on the North-western coast of Spitsbergen in the Artic Ocean (79°N). In this area sediment contributions to the coastal zone is provided by small temporary rivers that flows into the fjord. The objectives of this study are to (i) assess the origin and fate of fine-grained particles (<63µm) from the piedmont glacier to the coastal zone (0-30m depth), (ii) establish the role of this coastal zone in sediment transfer and (iii) identify the impact of sea ice cover on sediment dynamics. The sampling strategy is based on characterization of sediment and SPM (grain-size, X-rays diffraction, SEM images, carbonates and organic matter contents) from the glacier to the coastal zone completed by a bottom-sediment map on the nearshore using side-scan sonar validated with Ekman binge sampling. River inputs (i.e. river plumes) to the coastal zone were punctually followed using CTD (conductivity, temperature, depth and turbidity) profiles. OBS (water level, temperature and turbidity) operating at high-frequency and during at least 1 years (including under sea ice cover) was settled at the mouth of rivers at 10m depth. In the coastal zone the fine-grained sediment deposit is limited to mud patches located at river mouths that originate the piedmont glacier. However a significant amount of sediment originates the coastal glacier located in the eastern part of the fjord via two processes: direct transfer and ice-drop. Results from turbidity measurements show that the sediment dynamics is controlled by river inputs in particular during melting period. During winter sediment resuspension can occurs directly linked to significant wind-events. When the sea ice cover is present (January to April) no sediment dynamics is observed. Sediment processes in the coastal zone of arctic fjords is significant however only a small amount of

  3. Psychometric Properties of the Lithuanian Adlerian Parental Assessment of Child Behavior Scale (LAPACBS) in Parents of 6- to 12-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Roy M.; Jonyniene, Jolita

    2012-01-01

    The structure-related validity and internal consistency reliability of the translated version of the Adlerian Parental Assessment of the Child Behavior Scale (APACBS) which would be referred to as the Lithuanian APACBS (LAPACBS) was the focus of the research study. A factor analysis was performed using a sample of 246 Lithuanian parents. It…

  4. The new data on the seasonal distribution of diatoms in the Southern Baltic coastal lakes as a basis for diatom-based transfer functions to reconstruct past environmental changes in the Baltic coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rzodkiewicz, Monika; Szpikowska, Grażyna; Woszczyk, Michał; Suchińska, Anita; Burchardt, Lubomira; Messyasz, Beata

    2016-04-01

    Lakes ecosystems are very sensitive to climate and environment changes. In lake sediments there are preserved remains of plant and animals that lived in the lake and its surroundings in the past. The species composition of past assemblages is a basis for quantitative and qualitative reconstruction of the past environmental changes (climate changes). One of the most commonly used bio-proxy for the reconstruction of lake development are subfossil diatoms which are sensitive to lake water pH, nutrient status, salinity and temperature. In this poster we present the new data from the coastal lakes on the Southern Baltic coast. The main goal of this research was to quantify the relationships between modern diatom assemblages and present-day environmental conditions. These relationships will be used to develop diatom-based transfer functions that will be applied to future studies of environmental change on the Polish Baltic coast. Water samples for diatom and chemical analyses were collected a few times per year between 2012 and 2014 from 12 coastal lakes located along the Polish Baltic coast as well as from the Baltic Sea. We analysed the whole phytoplankton composition. However the special focus was put on diatoms. At each site, a suite of important water quality parameters was collected, including chemical (e.g., chlorides, phosphorous and sulphur) and physical (e.g., Secchi depth) variables. Diatom assemblages from each site were counted and identified to the most specific taxonomic level possible. Diatom data were compiled for comparison to corresponding environmental data and development of indicator models. The results of the analysis show seasonal changes in diatom distribution as well as the chemical and physical water propertieswhich are mainly related to saltwater ingressions to the lakes. Lake Koprowo, Lake Resko Przymorskie, Lake Bukowo and Lake Łebsko are under the constant of seawater influence, which makes them similar to lagoons. In Lake Gardno seawater

  5. Bio-indicator bacteria & environmental variables of the coastal zones: The example of the Güllük Bay, Aegean Sea, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kalkan, Samet; Altuğ, Gülşen

    2015-06-15

    In this study bio-indicator bacteria and environmental variable parameters were investigated in the coastal areas of the Güllük Bay, Aegean Sea, Turkey. The seawater samples which were taken from surface (0-30cm) were tested regarding total and fecal coliform, streptococci and nutrients from May to February in 2012-2013. The primary hydrographic parameters were recorded using multiparameter (YSI 556) in situ at the sampling stations. The highest fecal pollution stress and indicator bacteria values were observed in the period between June and August. The finding showed that bacterial pollution sources of the study area, especially in the summer season, under the control of increasing anthropogenic activities. The finding showed that terrestrial pollution sources carry a potential risk for public and ecosystem health and the sustainable use of living sources. Precautions should be formulated and put into action immediately in order to protect the region from bacteriological risks. PMID:25956440

  6. Why, how, and how far should microbiological contamination in a coastal zone be mitigated? An application of the systems approach to the Thau lagoon (France).

    PubMed

    Mongruel, Rémi; Vanhoutte-Brunier, Alice; Fiandrino, Annie; Valette, François; Ballé-Béganton, Johanna; Pérez Agúndez, José A; Gallai, Nicola; Derolez, Valérie; Roussel, Sébastien; Lample, Michel; Laugier, Thierry

    2013-03-30

    This paper describes the building of an integrated simulation tool based on a systems approach, and its contribution to local political discussion of the mitigation of microbiological contamination of the water in a coastal area. Local management schemes view water quality as a high-priority environmental objective. In practice, how far this objective is achieved depends on trade-offs between the costs of improved water treatment facilities and the acceptable impacts of water contamination. An in-the-field experiment in collaboration with local managers was carried out in the Thau lagoon on the French Mediterranean coast during the SPICOSA (Science and Policy Integration for Coastal System Assessment) project, from 2007 through 2011. It consisted of building a modeling platform and an integrated assessment framework for simulating exploratory scenarios. The modeling platform combines a dynamic contamination model, which represents the sources of microbiological contamination, wastewater treatment facilities, and physical mechanisms of lagoon contamination, with a prospective economic model, which estimates the patterns of development of economic activities in the area through a holistic approach. Exploratory scenarios are used to assess the risk of water contamination and the efficiency of management measures, under various assumptions about the evolution of the system. The contamination simulations suggest that the work currently planned by local authorities will be inadequate for preventing increased water pollution, and that additional but fairly inexpensive management measures for maintaining the current level of water quality should be considered. The integrated assessment framework estimates the ecological and socio-economic impacts of the various pollution mitigation policies in the broader context of possible local development patterns. The results illustrate how the systems approach may aid in the design of an applicable water policy based on operational

  7. The effect of acidity on the distribution and symbiotic efficiency of rhizobia in Lithuanian soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapinskas, E. B.

    2007-04-01

    The distribution and symbiotic efficiency of nodule bacteria Rhizobium leguminosarum_bv. trifolii F., Sinorhizobium meliloti D., Rhizobium galegae L., and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae F. in Lithuanian soils as dependent on the soil acidity were studied in the long-term field, pot, and laboratory experiments. The critical and optimal pH values controlling the distribution of rhizobia and the symbiotic nitrogen fixation were determined for every bacterial species. The relationship was found between the soil pH and the nitrogen-fixing capacity of rhizobia. A positive effect of liming of acid soils in combination with inoculation of legumes on the efficiency of symbiotic nitrogen fixation was demonstrated.

  8. Carbon-14 levels in the vicinity of the Lithuanian nuclear power plant Ignalina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnusson, Å.; Stenström, K.; Adliene, D.; Adlys, G.; Dias, C.; Rääf, C.; Skog, G.; Zakaria, M.; Mattsson, S.

    2007-06-01

    Carbon-14 levels in the vicinity of the Lithuanian nuclear power plant Ignalina have been investigated. During 2001-2004, approximately 70 samples were collected and analysed using accelerator mass spectrometry. The study included samples of leaves, grass, moss, soil and aquatic plants, covering a distance up to 32 km from the power plant. The highest 14C specific activities were found in soil samples from moss-covered sites close to the power plant, probably indicating the release of particulate material. The results are compared with those from studies around other types of reactors also investigated within the project.

  9. Right-lateral displacements and the Holocene slip rate associated with prehistoric earthquakes along the southern Panamint Valley fault zone: Implications for southern Basin and Range tectonics and coastal California deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Peizhen Zhang; Ellis, M.; Slemmons, D.B.; Fengying Mao )

    1990-04-10

    The N 20{degree}W-trending Panamint Valley fault zone is linked to the N 60{degree}W-trending Hunter Mountain strike-slip fault and the Saline Valley fault system, which represents on of the three major fault systems accommodating active crustal extension in the southern Great Basin. The displacement associated with the most recent event, determined through six detailed topographic maps of offset features, is 3.2 {plus minus} 0.5 m, and a number of larger offsets, in range of 6-7 m and 12 m, are also observed. If the larger displacements represent, respectively, two and three events, each of {approximately} 3 m, then the fault zone appears to be associated with a characteristic earthquake, which the authors estimate from the length of the rupture zone and the displacement to be between (Ms) 6.5 and 7.2. The Holocene slip rate is 2.36 {plus minus} 0.79 mm/yr, is determined from the displacement of two alluvial features whose maximum age is estimated from pluvial shorelines. Assuming a characterisitc earthquake model, the recurrence interval is between 860 and 2,360 years. The total slip vector of the southern Panamint Valley fault system is oriented toward {approximately} N 35{degree}W, making this a predominately strike-slip fault. In conjunction with the N 60{degree}W orientation of the Hunter mountain strike-slip fault, the authors suggest that the displacement vector for the southern Great Basin is toward the NW, consistent with results from VLBI data, rather than WNW as determined by combining VLBI and geological data. This is turn suggests that the coastal California deformation component involves, respectively, less shortening and more strike-slip displacement perpendicular and parallel to the San Andreas fault than is currently proposed.

  10. Assessment of heavy metal and bacterial pollution in coastal aquifers from SIPCOT industrial zones, Gulf of Mannar, South Coast of Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvam, S.; Antony Ravindran, A.; Venkatramanan, S.; Singaraja, C.

    2015-06-01

    Heavy metals and microbiological contamination were investigated in groundwater in the industrial and coastal city of Thoothukudi. The main sources of drinking water in this area are water bores which are dug up to the depth of 10-50 m in almost every house. A number of chemical and pharmaceutical industries have been established since past three decades. Effluents from these industries are reportedly being directly discharged onto surrounding land, irrigation fields and surface water bodies forming point and non-point sources of contamination for groundwater in the study area. The study consists of the determination of physico-chemical properties, trace metals, heavy metals and microbiological quality of drinking water. Heavy metals were analysed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and compared with the (WHO in Guidelines for drinking water quality, 2004) standards. The organic contamination was detected in terms of most probable number (MPN) test in order to find out faecal coliforms that were identified through biochemical tests. A comparison of the results of groundwater samples with WHO guidelines reveals that most of the groundwater samples are heavily contaminated with heavy metals like arsenic, selenium, lead, boron, aluminium, iron and vanadium. The selenium level was higher than 0.01 mg/l in 82 % of the study area and the arsenic concentration exceeded 0.01 mg/l in 42 % of the area. The results reveal that heavy metal contamination in the area is mainly due to the discharge of effluents from copper industries, alkali chemical industry, fertiliser industry, thermal power plant and sea food industries. The results showed that there are pollutions for the groundwater, and the total Coliform means values ranged from 0.6-145 MPN ml-1, faecal Coliform ranged from 2.2-143 MPN ml-1, Escherichia coli ranged from 0.9 to 40 MPN ml-1 and faecal streptococci ranged from 10-9.20 × 102 CFU ml-1. The coastal regions are highly contaminated with total

  11. Remote sensing of coastal processes and resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V.

    1981-01-01

    The use of remote sensors and multispectral analysis techniques in solving environmental and resource management problems in the coastal zone is illustrated. The specific applications discussed include the analysis of coastal vegetation and productivity, remote sensing of estuarine fronts and their effects on oil dispersion, drift and dispersion of ocean-dumped wastes, and multispectral analysis of water pollutants and suspended sediment concentration.

  12. Assessing the impact of dairy waste lagoons on groundwater quality using a spatial analysis of vadose zone and groundwater information in a coastal phreatic aquifer.

    PubMed

    Baram, S; Kurtzman, D; Ronen, Z; Peeters, A; Dahan, O

    2014-01-01

    Dairy waste lagoons are considered to be point sources of groundwater contamination by chloride (Cl(-)), different nitrogen-species and pathogens/microorganisms. The objective of this work is to introduce a methodology to assess the past and future impacts of such lagoons on regional groundwater quality. The method is based on a spatial statistical analysis of Cl(-) and total nitrogen (TN) concentration distributions in the saturated and the vadose (unsaturated) zones. The method provides quantitative data on the relation between the locations of dairy lagoons and the spatial variability in Cl(-) and TN concentrations in groundwater. The method was applied to the Beer-Tuvia region, Israel, where intensive dairy farming has been practiced for over 50 years above the local phreatic aquifer. Mass balance calculations accounted for the various groundwater recharge and abstraction sources and sinks in the entire region. The mass balances showed that despite the small surface area covered by the dairy lagoons in this region (0.8%), leachates from lagoons have contributed 6.0% and 12.6% of the total mass of Cl(-) and TN (mainly as NO3(-)-N) added to the aquifer. The chemical composition of the aquifer and vadose zone water suggested that irrigated agricultural activity in the region is the main contributor of Cl(-) and TN to the groundwater. A low spatial correlation between the Cl(-) and NO3(-)-N concentrations in the groundwater and the on-land location of the dairy farms strengthened this assumption, despite the dairy waste lagoon being a point source for groundwater contamination by Cl(-) and NO3(-)-N. Mass balance calculations, for the vadose zone of the entire region, indicated that drying of the lagoons would decrease the regional groundwater salinization process (11% of the total Cl(-) load is stored under lagoons). A more considerable reduction in the groundwater contamination by NO3(-)-N is expected (25% of the NO3(-)-N load is stored under lagoons). Results

  13. See the Sea: multi-user information system for investigating processes and phenomena in coastal zones via satellite remotely sensed data, particularly hyperspectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mityagina, Marina I.; Lavrova, Olga Yu.; Uvarov, Ivan A.

    2014-10-01

    The functionality, the goals and the current state of the distributed information system "See the Sea" (STS) are presented and discussed. This system is designed for investigating various processes and phenomena in the ocean and marine atmosphere using different types of satellite remotely sensed data. The STS system provides researchers with the possibilities to deal with the satellite remote sensing data as well as with the result of its analysis. The key feature of STS is the ability to work simultaneously with satellite information of different types. STS provides tools for joint analysis of different types of satellite data, as well as data of ground meteorological stations, cartographic data etc. This paper gives an overview of the system and data processing use cases. Some example cases are described including processing and joint analysis of various satellite data. The data from different sensors (obtained by Envisat ASAR, Landsat-8 OLI, Landsat-7 ETM+, Landsat-5 TM, Terra/Aqua MODIS as well as Hyperion and HICO hyperspectral data) was analyzed jointly for differentiation between different types of coastal waters, and for reconstruction of suspended matter distribution in the test areas of the Azov and Black Seas.

  14. Education, survival, and avoidable deaths in Lithuanian cancer patients, 2001-2009.

    PubMed

    Smailyte, Giedre; Jasilionis, Domantas; Vincerzevskiene, Ieva; Shkolnikov, Vladimir M

    2016-07-01

    Background Our aim in this study is to provide a systematic assessment of the site-specific cancer survival rates of patients with different educational levels, using population-based census-linked registry data covering the entire population of Lithuania. Material and methods The study is based on the linkage between all records of the 2001 population census and all records from Lithuanian Cancer Registry (cancer incidence) and Statistics Lithuania (deaths) for the period between 6 April 2001 and 31 December 2009. Results For the vast majority of cancer sites we found an inverse gradient in survival, with the worst survival indicators in the lowest educational group. We estimated that 18.6% of the deaths in Lithuanian cancer patients could have potentially been postponed, if all the patients had the same cancer mortality as the patients with the highest educational level. Conclusion Our findings offer a warning that although the survival rates of cancer patients are improving, this progress hides disparities between different groups of patients. PMID:27070947

  15. Mesoscale changes in the water column in response to fish farming zones in three coastal areas in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitta, P.; Apostolaki, E. T.; Giannoulaki, M.; Karakassis, I.

    2005-11-01

    The hypothesis that the presence of fish farming zones affects the water quality and plankton communities at large spatial scales was investigated through sampling carried out in three regions of the Aegean Sea during May and September. In each region, two sub-areas were sampled: one with fish farming zones (within 2-3 nm) and one without fish farms ('reference site', more than 20 nm). Replicated water samples at different depths were taken in each sub-area for each of the investigated regions. Samples were analysed for nutrients, chlorophyll a, phaeopigments, POC and PON as well as for heterotrophic bacteria, cyanobacteria, flagellates and ciliates. Statistically significant changes in some nutrient species were found during September, which is in the period of maximal supply of feed to caged fish and nutrient loss to a highly stratified oligotrophic environment. Most of the significant changes of nutrients as well as chlorophyll a or PON were found at the deepest layer of the water column below the thermocline, indicating that it is related to the remineralization of benthic organic material. The data support previously published results in this area indicating that there is a rapid transfer of nutrients up the food web. This study also showed the need for studying the effects of fish farms on water quality at larger spatial scales.

  16. Coastal Evolution in a Mediterranean Microtidal Zone: Mid to Late Holocene Natural Dynamics and Human Management of the Castelló Lagoon, NE Spain.

    PubMed

    Ejarque, Ana; Julià, Ramon; Reed, Jane M; Mesquita-Joanes, Francesc; Marco-Barba, Javier; Riera, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    We present a palaeoenvironmental study of the Castelló lagoon (NE Spain), an important archive for understanding long-term interactions between dynamic littoral ecosystems and human management. Combining geochemistry, mineralogy, ostracods, diatoms, pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, charcoal and archaeo-historical datasets we reconstruct: 1) the transition of the lagoon from a marine to a marginal environment between ~3150 cal BC to the 17th century AD; 2) fluctuations in salinity; and 3) natural and anthropogenic forces contributing to these changes. From the Late Neolithic to the Medieval period the lagoon ecosystem was driven by changing marine influence and the land was mainly exploited for grazing, with little evidence for impact on the natural woodland. Land-use exploitation adapted to natural coastal dynamics, with maximum marine flooding hampering agropastoral activities between ~1550 and ~150 cal BC. In contrast, societies actively controlled the lagoon dynamics and become a major agent of landscape transformation after the Medieval period. The removal of littoral woodlands after the 8th century was followed by the expansion of agrarian and industrial activities. Regional mining and smelting activities polluted the lagoon with heavy metals from the ~11th century onwards. The expansion of the milling industry and of agricultural lands led to the channelization of the river Muga into the lagoon after ~1250 cal AD. This caused its transformation into a freshwater lake, increased nutrient load, and the infilling and drainage of a great part of the lagoon. By tracking the shift towards an anthropogenically-controlled system around ~750 yr ago, this study points out Mediterranean lagoons as ancient and heavily-modified systems, with anthropogenic impacts and controls covering multi-centennial and even millennial timescales. Finally, we contributed to the future construction of reliable seashell-based chronologies in NE Spain by calibrating the Banyuls-sur-Mer

  17. Coastal Evolution in a Mediterranean Microtidal Zone: Mid to Late Holocene Natural Dynamics and Human Management of the Castelló Lagoon, NE Spain

    PubMed Central

    Ejarque, Ana; Julià, Ramon; Reed, Jane M.; Mesquita-Joanes, Francesc; Marco-Barba, Javier; Riera, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    We present a palaeoenvironmental study of the Castelló lagoon (NE Spain), an important archive for understanding long-term interactions between dynamic littoral ecosystems and human management. Combining geochemistry, mineralogy, ostracods, diatoms, pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, charcoal and archaeo-historical datasets we reconstruct: 1) the transition of the lagoon from a marine to a marginal environment between ~3150 cal BC to the 17th century AD; 2) fluctuations in salinity; and 3) natural and anthropogenic forces contributing to these changes. From the Late Neolithic to the Medieval period the lagoon ecosystem was driven by changing marine influence and the land was mainly exploited for grazing, with little evidence for impact on the natural woodland. Land-use exploitation adapted to natural coastal dynamics, with maximum marine flooding hampering agropastoral activities between ~1550 and ~150 cal BC. In contrast, societies actively controlled the lagoon dynamics and become a major agent of landscape transformation after the Medieval period. The removal of littoral woodlands after the 8th century was followed by the expansion of agrarian and industrial activities. Regional mining and smelting activities polluted the lagoon with heavy metals from the ~11th century onwards. The expansion of the milling industry and of agricultural lands led to the channelization of the river Muga into the lagoon after ~1250 cal AD. This caused its transformation into a freshwater lake, increased nutrient load, and the infilling and drainage of a great part of the lagoon. By tracking the shift towards an anthropogenically-controlled system around ~750 yr ago, this study points out Mediterranean lagoons as ancient and heavily-modified systems, with anthropogenic impacts and controls covering multi-centennial and even millennial timescales. Finally, we contributed to the future construction of reliable seashell-based chronologies in NE Spain by calibrating the Banyuls-sur-Mer

  18. Application of ISO 9000 Series Quality Management Standards at a Higher Education Institution: A Case of Lithuanian Maritime College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sencila, Viktoras; Skipariene, Ingrida

    2007-01-01

    The European education standards assurance and pursuit of quality in education have been announced as strategic aims of the Lithuanian education system in the light of new challenges the society is facing and opportunities offered by democracy, development of market economy and globalization. One of the ways to achieve the aims mentioned above is…

  19. Tracking a northern fulmar from a Scottish nesting site to the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone: Evidence of linkage between coastal breeding seabirds and Mid-Atlantic Ridge feeding sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Ewan W. J.; Quinn, Lucy R.; Wakefield, Ewan D.; Miller, Peter I.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2013-12-01

    The seas above mid-ocean ridges are biodiversity hotspots in an otherwise largely oligotrophic environment, but the nature and extent of linkage between these offshore regimes and coastal ecosystems remains uncertain. Using a combination of GPS and geolocation tracking data, we show that a male fulmar, breeding on the Scottish coast, foraged over areas of persistent thermal fronts along the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone (CGFZ) of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge during the incubation period. The bird travelled over 6200 km in 14.9 days. First-passage time analysis identified seven areas of restricted search, four on the shelf and three in the vicinity of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Previous studies of incubation foraging trip durations at this site suggest that a trip of this duration is unusual, and further work is required to assess the extent to which different individuals use these offshore resources. Nevertheless, these data highlight the potential importance of high sea areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction when considering the management and conservation of seabirds breeding in NW Europe, and raises the potential for even greater linkage between the CGFZ and seabirds breeding colonies in other regions.

  20. Degradation of sec-hexylbenzene and its metabolites by a biofilm-forming yeast Trichosporon asahii B1 isolated from oil-contaminated sediments in Quangninh coastal zone, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nhi-Cong, Le Thi; Mai, Cung Thi Ngoc; Minh, Nghiem Ngoc; Ha, Hoang Phuong; Lien, Do Thi; Tuan, Do Van; Quyen, Dong Van; Ike, Michihiko; Uyen, Do Thi To

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the ability of yeast Trichosporon asahii B1 biofilm-associated cells, compared with that of planktonic cells, to transform sec-hexylbenzene and its metabolites. This B1 strain was isolated from a petroleum-polluted sediment collected in the QuangNinh coastal zones in Vietnam, and it can transform the branched aromatic hydrocarbons into a type of forming biofilm (pellicle) more efficiency than that the planktonic forms can. In the biofilm cultivation, seven metabolites, including acetophenone, benzoic acid, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, β-methylcinnamic acid, 2-phenylpropionic acid, 3-phenylbutyric acid, and 5-phenylhexanoic acid were extracted by ethyl acetate and analyzed by HPLC and GC-MS. In contrast, in the planktonic cultivation, only three of these intermediates were found. An individual metabolite was independently used as an initial substrate to prove its degradation by biofilm and planktonic types. The degradation of these products indicated that their inoculation with B1 biofilms was indeed higher than that observed in their inoculation with B1 planktonic cells. This is the first report on the degradation of sec-hexylbenzene and its metabolites by a biofilm-forming Trichosporon asahii strain. These results enhance our understanding of the degradation of branched-side-chain alkylbenzenes by T. asahii B1 biofilms and give a new insight into the potential role of biofilms formed by such species in the bioremediation of other recalcitrant aromatic compounds. PMID:26654204

  1. Temporal changes of environmental impact in the coastal marine area in front of a former mining zone, detected by means of benthic foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Elena; Bergamin, Luisa; Maggi, Chiara; Ausili, Antonella

    2016-04-01

    Benthic foraminifera are increasingly used to assess environmental quality of present and past marine environments. They are suitable for the study of ancient environments because their hard and small shells are preserved and abundant in sediment and an adequate number of them can be collected by small samples of sediment cores, supplying reliable data for a statistical approach. The study of foraminiferal assemblages, associated to sediment abiotic parameters, allows to define the anthropogenic impact along the time; reference conditions may be recognized in deep uncontaminated levels. The Sulcis Iglesiente Guspinese area (SW Sardinia, Italy) was affected in past times by intensive mining, which started in mid 19th century and ceased in 1990s. The marine area of Cala Domestica is located few kilometers from the mining district, where mainly galena and sphalerite were exploited. The area houses buildings for storage of minerals receives drainage material from mineral dumps determining a strong enrichment for several metals in the coastal sediments. Sediment core SI/69 was collected by means of vibrocorer in front of Cala Domestica beach, during a vast sampling survey aimed to environmental characterization of marine sediments. The core was subsampled in the laboratory, and a total of 28 levels were collected. Microfaunal, grain size and chemical (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) analyses were carried out on different aliquots of the same level. The quantitative analysis on benthic foraminifera was based on the count of at least 300 specimens per sample. Faunal parameters such as Foraminiferal Number (FN i.e. number of specimens / 1 g dry sediment) and species diversity (- index and H-index) were considered as potential indicators of environmental status. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed a group of strongly correlated metals (Ba, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mn, Pb and Zn), associated to the superficial samples. These elements displayed a typical profile along

  2. Butyltins, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments and bivalve mollusks in a mid-latitude environment from the Patagonian coastal zone.

    PubMed

    Commendatore, Marta G; Franco, Marcos A; Gomes Costa, Patricia; Castro, Italo B; Fillmann, Gilberto; Bigatti, Gregorio; Esteves, José L; Nievas, Marina L

    2015-12-01

    Butyltins (BTs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were assessed in a mid-latitude environment of the Patagonian coast, distant from significant pollutant sources. Bioaccumulation processes through bottom sediment resuspension were suggested by BTs level (expressed as ng of tin [Sn] g(-1) dry wt) found in surface sediment (zones. PMID:26118658

  3. Monitoring the Condition of the Estuaries of the United States: The National Coastal Assessment Experience

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal waters in the United States include estuaries, bays, sounds, coastal wetlands, coral reefs, intertidal zones, mangrove and kelp forests, seagrass meadows, and coastal ocean and upwelling areas (i.e. deep water rising to surface). These coastal areas encompass a wide diver...

  4. Variation in the ACE, PPARGC1A and PPARA genes in Lithuanian football players.

    PubMed

    Gineviciene, Valentina; Jakaitiene, Audrone; Tubelis, Linas; Kucinskas, Vaidutis

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of ACE (I/D), PPARGC1A (G/A) and PPARA (G/C) polymorphisms on footballers performance among 199 Lithuanian professional footballers and 167 sedentary, healthy men (controls). Genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism methods on DNA from leucocytes. Results revealed that the angiotensin-1-coverting enzyme gene (ACE) genotype distribution was significantly different between total football players group (II 23.6%, ID 46.7% and DD 29.6%) and the controls (II 24.6%, ID 29.9% and DD 45.5%; P=0.002). Although investigating PPARGC1A (G/A) and PPARA (G/C) polymorphisms no significant results were obtained in the total football players group, however, significant differences were determined between forwards and controls [PPARGC1A: GG 54.6%, GA 29.5%, AA 15.9% vs. GG 49.7%, GA 44.3% and AA 6.0% (P = 0.044); PPARA: GG 52.3%, GC 40.9%, CC 6.8% vs. GG 72.4%, GC 24.6% and CC 3.0% (P = 0.034)]. In the whole cohort, the odds ratio of the genotype [ACE ID + PPARA GG] being a footballer was 1.69 (95% CI 1.04-2.74), and of [ACE ID + PPARGC1A GG] 1.93 (95% CI 1.10-3.37) and of [ACE II + PPARA GC] 2.83 (95% CI 1.02-7.91) compared to controls. It was revealed that ACE ID genotype together with PPARA GG and PPARGC1A GG as well as ACE II genotype with PPARA GC is probably the 'preferable genotype' for footballers. Summing up, the present study suggests that the ACE, PPARGC1A and PPARA polymorphisms genotypes are associated, separately and in combination, with Lithuanian footballers' performance. PMID:24444220

  5. CLASSIFYING COASTAL WATERS: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AND CURRENT FOCUS ON AQUATIC STRESSORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal ecosystems are ecologically and commercially productive habitats that are experiencing significant impacts associated with accelerated population growth in coastal zones. The Clean Water Act requires identification of impaired water bodies and determination of the causes ...

  6. Coastal Upwelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Steve

    1998-01-01

    Features a three-part activity designed to teach students about coastal upwelling, the upward movement of cooler, more nutrient-rich water along a coast. Activity includes a mapping exercise, a graphing exercise, and questions for analyzing the map and graph. (Author/WRM)

  7. COASTAL GUIDELINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:Developed to support effluent guidelines for the coastal subcategory of the oil and gas extraction industry. Data were used to develop environmental impacts, potential regulatory limits, and the cost of regulation.
    Legislation/Enabling Authority:...

  8. Coastal-ocean uptake of anthropogenic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgeois, Timothée; Orr, James C.; Resplandy, Laure; Terhaar, Jens; Ethé, Christian; Gehlen, Marion; Bopp, Laurent

    2016-07-01

    Anthropogenic changes in atmosphere-ocean and atmosphere-land CO2 fluxes have been quantified extensively, but few studies have addressed the connection between land and ocean. In this transition zone, the coastal ocean, spatial and temporal data coverage is inadequate to assess its global budget. Thus we use a global ocean biogeochemical model to assess the coastal ocean's global inventory of anthropogenic CO2 and its spatial variability. We used an intermediate resolution, eddying version of the NEMO-PISCES model (ORCA05), varying from 20 to 50 km horizontally, i.e. coarse enough to allow multiple century-scale simulations but finer than coarse-resolution models (˜ 200 km) to better resolve coastal bathymetry and complex coastal currents. Here we define the coastal zone as the continental shelf area, excluding the proximal zone. Evaluation of the simulated air-sea fluxes of total CO2 for 45 coastal regions gave a correlation coefficient R of 0.8 when compared to observation-based estimates. Simulated global uptake of anthropogenic carbon results averaged 2.3 Pg C yr-1 during the years 1993-2012, consistent with previous estimates. Yet only 0.1 Pg C yr-1 of that is absorbed by the global coastal ocean. That represents 4.5 % of the anthropogenic carbon uptake of the global ocean, less than the 7.5 % proportion of coastal-to-global-ocean surface areas. Coastal uptake is weakened due to a bottleneck in offshore transport, which is inadequate to reduce the mean anthropogenic carbon concentration of coastal waters to the mean level found in the open-ocean mixed layer.

  9. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and validation of the sino-nasal outcome test (SNOT)-22 for Lithuanian patients.

    PubMed

    Vaitkus, Saulius; Padervinskis, Evaldas; Balsevicius, Tomas; Siupsinskiene, Nora; Staikuniene, Jurate; Ryskiene, Silvija; Lisauskaite, Laura; Vaitkus, Justinas

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to perform translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and validation of the SNOT-22 in the Lithuanian language. This is a prospective case-control study. The study was conducted at the University clinic. The sino-nasal outcome test 22 (SNOT-22) was translated into the Lithuanian language; the pilot study involved 34 patients, the test-retest group consisted of 34 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), and the control group of 115 patients with no CRS complaints; 36 patients were evaluated before surgery and 3 months after surgery. The results showed a good internal correlation with Cronbach's alpha-0.89 in the initial test, and 0.93 in the retest; both values suggesting good internal consistency within the SNOT-22. Pearson's correlation coefficient was 0.72 (p < 0.001), revealing good correlation between the initial scores and the retests scores. Our sample of healthy individuals had a median score of 12 points, and the instrument was capable of differentiating between the healthy and the patient group, demonstrating its validity (p < 0.0001). The statistically significant reduction in the post-operative scores, vis-à-vis pre-operative values, demonstrates the responsiveness of the instrument. The minimally important difference was 13 points in the SNOT-22 score. The Lithuanian version of the SNOT-22 is a valid instrument for assessing patients with CRS. It demonstrated good internal consistency, reproducibility, validity, and responsiveness. PMID:23203242

  10. The Coastal Ocean Prediction Systems program: Understanding and managing our coastal ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Eden, H.F.; Mooers, C.N.K.

    1990-06-01

    The goal of COPS is to couple a program of regular observations to numerical models, through techniques of data assimilation, in order to provide a predictive capability for the US coastal ocean including the Great Lakes, estuaries, and the entire Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). The objectives of the program include: determining the predictability of the coastal ocean and the processes that govern the predictability; developing efficient prediction systems for the coastal ocean based on the assimilation of real-time observations into numerical models; and coupling the predictive systems for the physical behavior of the coastal ocean to predictive systems for biological, chemical, and geological processes to achieve an interdisciplinary capability. COPS will provide the basis for effective monitoring and prediction of coastal ocean conditions by optimizing the use of increased scientific understanding, improved observations, advanced computer models, and computer graphics to make the best possible estimates of sea level, currents, temperatures, salinities, and other properties of entire coastal regions.