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Sample records for litiasis fosa navicular

  1. CUBOID-NAVICULAR TARSAL COALITION

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Marcelo Pires; Mendes, Alberto Abussamara Moreira; Olivi, Rogério; Amodio, Daniel Tassetto

    2015-01-01

    The authors present the case of a nine-year-old female patient who presented with pain in her right foot associated with physical activities. After this case was diagnosed as cuboid-navicular tarsal coalition, the patient was treated surgically with resection of the coalition, thereby resolving the symptoms. The literature was reviewed and the importance of adequate physical examination and imaging assessment for investigating foot pain in children and adolescents was discussed. PMID:27047815

  2. Tuberculosis of Navicular Bone - A Rare Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Kadu, Vikram V; Saindane, K A; Godghate, Ninad; Godghate, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tuberculosis of Navicular bone is a rare entity. Osteoarticular tuberculosis of foot is uncommon and that of navicular bone is extremely rare. It is important to recognize skeletal tuberculosis in the initial stages as early treatment can effectively eliminate long-term morbidity. Case presentation: A 42 yrs old male presented to OPD with swelling and dull aching pain over dorsum of left foot. Radiograph of foot showed lytic puctate lesion in the navicular bone. Further investigations in the form of aspiration biopsy and ZN staining showed presence of multiple tuberculous bacilli. Anti-Kochs treatment was started immediately and patient was treated conservatively. Four drugs (HRZE) were given for a period of 12 months. Radiographs at 2 years follow-up showed a healed lesion. Conclusion: TB navicular bone is a very rare condition and can be treated conservatively unless associated with metastatic changes or any other complications. Conservative treatment with AKT has excellent results without any complications PMID:27299135

  3. The partition behavior of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanesulfonamide (FOSA) on microplastics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Shih, Kai Min; Li, Xiao Yan

    2015-01-01

    Microplastics have been recognized as transport vectors for heavy metals and organic pollutants to marine animals. Thus, the sorption behavior of contaminant on microplastic is crucial to their transport in marine system. In this study, the sorption behavior of PFOS and FOSA (two perfluorochemicals) on three kinds of microplastics (PE, PS, and PVC) are reported. The isotherm study showed that the sorption of PFOS and FOSA on microplastics is highly linear, and it indicated that partition by hydrophobic interaction is the predominant sorption mechanism. The Kd values of FOSA on three kinds of microplastics are all higher than those of PFOS, and the reason is attributed to their different functional groups. The Kd value of FOSA on three types of microplastics followed the order as: PE>PVC>PS. Such finding may indicate that the molecule composition and structure of microplastics play important roles in their sorption processes of organic pollutants. The PFOS sorption levels on PE and PS particles were increased with the increase of NaCl and CaCl2 concentrations, while the ion concentrations have no effect on FOSA sorption. The study on the pH effects on PFOS and FOSA sorption indicated FOSA could partition under various pH conditions on three types of microplastics while PFOS sorption on PE and PS were favored with lower pH. PMID:25222623

  4. Fractures and Dislocations of the Tarsal Navicular.

    PubMed

    Ramadorai, Maj Uma E; Beuchel, Matthew W; Sangeorzan, Bruce J

    2016-06-01

    Fractures of the tarsal navicular are commonly the result of trauma or chronic overload. Because of its complex anatomy and blood supply, the tarsal navicular is susceptible to osteonecrosis, and injury to this bone can lead to posttraumatic arthrosis of the surrounding joints. Diagnosis of the injury, especially in patients with stress fractures, can require a high index of suspicion and the use of advanced imaging. The treatment of stress fracture is controversial and ranges from immobilization in a non-weight-bearing cast or boot to internal fixation with or without bone grafting. Traumatic fractures are treated with open reduction and internal fixation with or without external fixation for medial and lateral column stabilization. To avoid a poor outcome, concomitant injuries must be recognized and treated. Despite appropriate treatment, patients may ultimately require fusion procedures to address ongoing pain and disability. PMID:27213621

  5. The association of hallux limitus with the accessory navicular.

    PubMed

    Evans, R D Lee; Averett, Ryan; Sanders, Stephanie

    2002-06-01

    Hallux limitus is one of the most prevalent, debilitating disorders of the first metatarsophalangeal joint, and it has many proposed etiologies. This article reviews these etiologies, focusing primarily on the pes planus foot. The pes planus foot type is often associated with symptomatic hallux limitus and the accessory navicular. This article discusses this correlation, although a causal relationship has not been proven. The prevalence and classification of the accessory navicular are also discussed. Clinical cases involving symptomatic hallux limitus occurring concomitantly with an accessory navicular are reviewed, including radiographic findings, symptoms, and surgical treatment. PMID:12070237

  6. Imaging of the symptomatic type II accessory navicular bone.

    PubMed

    Mosel, Leigh D; Kat, Evelyn; Voyvodic, Frank

    2004-06-01

    Accessory ossicles of the foot are commonly mistaken for fractures. The accessory navicular is one of the most common accessory ossicles of the foot. There is a higher incidence in women and the finding might be bilateral in 50-90%. This entity is usually asymptomatic, although populations with medial foot pain have a higher prevalence. Three types of accessory navicular bone have been described. The type II accessory navicular is the most commonly symptomatic variant with localized chronic or acute on chronic medial foot pain and tenderness with associated inflammation of overlying soft tissues. Plain radiographic identification of the accessory navicular is insufficient to attribute symptomatology. Ultrasound allows for comparison with the asymptomatic side and localization of pain. Bone scintigraphy has a high sensitivity but positive findings lack specificity. Magnetic resonance imaging is of high diagnostic value for demonstrating both bone marrow and soft tissue oedema. PMID:15230772

  7. Reevaluating the functional implications of Australopithecus afarensis navicular morphology.

    PubMed

    Prang, Thomas C

    2016-08-01

    The longitudinal arch is a unique characteristic of the human foot, yet the timing and pattern of its evolution remain controversial, in part due to the disagreement among researchers over which skeletal traits are the best indicators of its presence or absence. The small size of the human navicular tuberosity has previously been linked to the presence of a longitudinal arch, implying that the large tuberosity of early hominins such as Australopithecus afarensis reflects a flat foot. However, this hypothesis is at odds with other evidence of pedal form and function, such as metatarsal, tarsal, and footprint morphology, which show that a longitudinal arch was probably present in A. afarensis. This study reevaluates the morphometric affinities of the A. afarensis naviculars among other Plio-Pleistocene fossil hominins and anthropoid primates (N = 170). Multivariate cluster analyses show that all fossil hominin naviculars, including those attributed to A. afarensis, are most similar to modern humans. A measure of navicular tuberosity size quantified as the ratio of the tuberosity volume to the surface area of the talar facet shows that Ateles has the largest navicular tuberosity among the anthropoid sample and that there is no difference between highly arboreal and terrestrial taxa in this metric (e.g., Hylobates and Gorilla beringei). Instead, a relatively large navicular tuberosity may reflect the development of leg musculature associated with ankle plantarflexion. The functional inferences derived from the morphology of the A. afarensis naviculars are consistent with the morphology of the Laetoli footprints. PMID:27457546

  8. Stress fracture of the navicular bone. Nine cases in athletes.

    PubMed

    Hulkko, A; Orava, S; Peltokallio, P; Tulikoura, I; Walden, M

    1985-12-01

    Nine cases of stress fractures of the tarsal navicular bone were treated in athletes. The diagnosis was made with radiographs and bone scan within 6 months. Only two patients were treated surgically. The only poor result was seen in a patient in whom the fracture was only explored. PMID:4090953

  9. [Stress fractures of the navicular bone. Roentgen diagnosis of a rare fracture].

    PubMed

    Kirschberger, R; Graff, K H; Henning, A

    1985-03-01

    Stress fracture of the tarsal navicular are rare and their diagnosis is often delayed. 1982 and 1983 we found stress fractures of the os naviculare pedis in 16 patients, 8 fractures were complete and 10 incomplete. Three types of radiographic findings are sclerosis, radiolucency and radiolucency with sclerotic borders. The fractures were localized in the middle third of the tarsal navicular. Laminography is necessary to evaluate the radiographic changes and their extension. PMID:3991908

  10. Pathological changes in the navicular bone and associated structures of the horse.

    PubMed Central

    Doige, C E; Hoffer, M A

    1983-01-01

    Navicular bones from 74 horses were examined at necropsy. Animals ranged in age from eight months to 30 years. Eight horses had a clinical history of navicular disease. Degenerative lesions in the fibrocartilaginous surface of the navicular bone and of the surface of the deep flexor tendons were age related changes not necessarily related to lameness. These lesions were more extensive in horses with a history of navicular disease, and were often accompanied by adhesions and subchondral cavitation of the fibrocartilaginous surface of the navicular bone. Osteophytes, present in 12 of the 74 horses, appeared to be age-related and were uncommon in horses with a history of navicular disease. Nutrient foramina on the distal border of the navicular bone were highly variable in size and shape; in horses with a history of navicular disease they often had a small external opening that became larger as it penetrated the bone. Occlusive vascular disease (arteriosclerosis) was found in sound horses and in horses with a history of navicular disease. Thrombosis of arteries or ischemic necrosis of bone was not identified in any case. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. Fig. 16. Fig. 17. Fig. 18. Fig. 19. Fig. 20. Fig. 21. PMID:6667428

  11. Prognostic Value of the Radiologic Appearance of the Navicular Ossification Center in Congenital Talipes Equinovarus.

    PubMed

    Atanda, Abiola A; Oni, Julius K; Ramsden, David M; Yoon, Richard S; Ahmad, Alaa A; Otsuka, Norman Y

    2015-01-01

    Congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV), more commonly known as clubfoot, is a deformity of the foot that is not well understood. The tarsal navicular is at the center of the disease process and exhibits abnormal development and delayed ossification. However, its role in the pathologic process is not clear. The aim of the present study was to better understand the role of the tarsal navicular in CTEV by correlating the presence of the navicular ossification center and relapse of clubfoot deformity after surgical treatment. The medical records and radiographs of 34 patients (41 feet) with surgically treated CTEV were reviewed for the presence of the navicular ossification center and the lateral talocalcaneal angles. Of the 41 feet, 17 (41.46%) did not have the tarsal navicular ossification center present before surgery, and 24 (58.54%) did have the ossification center present. The talocalcaneal angles were similar between those with and without the navicular ossification center present. No significant difference was found in the incidence of relapse between the nonossified navicular group (17.6%) and the ossified navicular group (16.7%; p = .63). The presence of the navicular ossification center before surgery does not appear to have prognostic value for the relapse of CTEV after surgical intervention. PMID:26049641

  12. Image acquisitions, processing and analysis in the process of obtaining characteristics of horse navicular bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaborowicz, M.; Włodarek, J.; Przybylak, A.; Przybył, K.; Wojcieszak, D.; Czekała, W.; Ludwiczak, A.; Boniecki, P.; Koszela, K.; Przybył, J.; Skwarcz, J.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was investigate the possibility of using methods of computer image analysis for the assessment and classification of morphological variability and the state of health of horse navicular bone. Assumption was that the classification based on information contained in the graphical form two-dimensional digital images of navicular bone and information of horse health. The first step in the research was define the classes of analyzed bones, and then using methods of computer image analysis for obtaining characteristics from these images. This characteristics were correlated with data concerning the animal, such as: side of hooves, number of navicular syndrome (scale 0-3), type, sex, age, weight, information about lace, information about heel. This paper shows the introduction to the study of use the neural image analysis in the diagnosis of navicular bone syndrome. Prepared method can provide an introduction to the study of non-invasive way to assess the condition of the horse navicular bone.

  13. Morphologic changes associated with functional adaptation of the navicular bone of horses.

    PubMed

    Bentley, V A; Sample, S J; Livesey, M A; Scollay, M C; Radtke, C L; Frank, J D; Kalscheur, V L; Muir, P

    2007-11-01

    Failure of functional adaptation to protect the skeleton from damage is common and is often associated with targeted remodeling of bone microdamage. Horses provide a suitable model for studying loading-related skeletal disease because horses are physically active, their exercise is usually regulated, and adaptive failure of various skeletal sites is common. We performed a histologic study of the navicular bone of three groups of horses: (1) young racing Thoroughbreds (n = 10); (2) young unshod ponies (n = 10); and (3) older horses with navicular syndrome (n = 6). Navicular syndrome is a painful condition that is a common cause of lameness and is associated with extensive remodeling of the navicular bone; a sesamoid bone located within the hoof which articulates with the second and third phalanges dorsally. The following variables were quantified: volumetric bone mineral density; cortical thickness (Ct.Th); bone volume fraction, microcrack surface density; density of osteocytes and empty lacunae; and resorption space density. Birefringence of bone collagen was also determined using circularly polarized light microscopy and disruption of the lacunocanalicular network was examined using confocal microscopy. Remodeling of the navicular bone resulted in formation of transverse secondary osteons orientated in a lateral to medial direction; bone collagen was similarly orientated. In horses with navicular syndrome, remodeling often led to the formation of intracortical cysts and development of multiple tidemarks at the articular surface. These changes were associated with high microcrack surface density, low bone volume fraction, low density of osteocytes, and poor osteocyte connectivity. Empty lacunae were increased in Thoroughbreds. Resorption space density was not increased in horses with navicular syndrome. Taken together, these data suggest that the navicular bone may experience habitual bending across the sagittal plane. Consequences of cumulative cyclic loading in

  14. Dynamic in-vivo assessment of navicular drop while running in barefoot, minimalist, and motion control footwear conditions.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Scott E; Peltz, Cathryn D; Haladik, Jeffrey A; Divine, George; Nurse, Matthew A; Bey, Michael J

    2015-03-01

    Running-related injuries are common and previous research has suggested that the magnitude and/or rate of pronation may contribute to the development of these injuries. Accurately and directly measuring pronation can be challenging, and therefore previous research has often relied on navicular drop (under both static and dynamic conditions) as an indirect assessment of pronation. The objectives of this study were to use dynamic, biplane X-ray imaging to assess the effects of three footwear conditions (barefoot, minimalist shoes, motion control shoes) on the magnitude and rate of navicular drop during running, and to determine the association between static and dynamic measures of navicular drop. Twelve healthy distance runners participated in this study. The magnitude and rate of navicular drop were determined by tracking the 3D position of the navicular from biplane radiographic images acquired at 60Hz during the stance phase of overground running. Static assessments of navicular drop and foot posture were also recorded in each subject. Footwear condition was not found to have a significant effect on the magnitude of navicular drop (p=0.22), but motion control shoes had a slower navicular drop rate than running barefoot (p=0.05) or in minimalist shoes (p=0.05). In an exploratory analysis, static assessments of navicular drop and foot posture were found to be poor predictors of dynamic navicular drop in all footwear conditions (p>0.18). PMID:25791869

  15. Imaging of tarsal navicular stress injury with a focus on MRI: A pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Harris, Guy; Harris, Craig

    2016-06-01

    Predominantly diagnosed in athletes, stress fracture of the tarsal navicular is becoming increasingly recognised by clinicians as a cause of midfoot pain. Delayed diagnosis can increase the significant morbidity associated with this condition. Consequently the role of MRI is increasing, given the potential to identify a stress reaction in the navicular prior to the development of a discrete stress fracture. It is necessary for radiologists to be familiar with the typical and atypical appearances of this important condition. PMID:26748622

  16. Arch-Taping Techniques for Altering Navicular Height and Plantar Pressures During Activity

    PubMed Central

    Newell, Tim; Simon, Janet; Docherty, Carrie L.

    2015-01-01

    Context Arch tapings have been used to support the arch by increasing navicular height. Few researchers have studied navicular height and plantar pressures after physical activity. Objective To determine if taping techniques effectively support the arch during exercise. Design Crossover study. Setting Athletic training research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Twenty-five individuals (13 men, 12 women; age = 20.0 ± 1.0 years, height = 172.3 ± 6.6 cm, mass = 70.1 ± 10.2 kg) with a navicular drop of more than 8 mm (12.9 ± 3.3 mm) volunteered. Intervention(s) All individuals participated in 3 days of testing, with 1 day for each tape condition: no tape, low dye, and navicular sling. On each testing day, navicular height and plantar pressures were measured at 5 intervals: baseline; posttape; and after 5, 10, and 15 minutes of running. The order of tape condition was counterbalanced. Main Outcome Measure(s) The dependent variables were navicular height in millimeters and plantar pressures in kilopascals. Plantar pressures were divided into 5 regions: medial forefoot, lateral forefoot, lateral midfoot, lateral rearfoot, and medial rearfoot. Separate repeated-measures analyses of variance were conducted for each dependent variable. Results Navicular height was higher immediately after application of the navicular-sling condition (P = .004) but was reduced after 5 minutes of treadmill running (P = .12). We observed no differences from baseline to posttape for navicular height for the low-dye (P = .30) and no-tape conditions (P = .25). Both the low-dye and navicular-sling conditions increased plantar pressures in the lateral midfoot region compared with the no-tape condition. The low-dye condition created decreased pressure in the medial and lateral forefoot regions compared with the no-tape condition. All changes were identified immediately after application and were maintained during running. No changes were noted in plantar pressures for the no

  17. A description of the motion of the navicular bone during in vitro vertical loading of the equine forelimb.

    PubMed

    van Dixhoorn, I D E; Meershoek, L S; Huiskes, R; Schamhardt, H C

    2002-09-01

    Motion of the navicular bone might play a role in the development of navicular disease in horses but is difficult to asses. In the present study, 3-dimensional motion of this bone was determined using roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis. Tantalum pellets were inserted, in vitro, in the bones of 6 forelimbs of mature Shetland ponies and kinematics were measured during vertical loading up to 2 kN. The motions of the navicular bone and coffin joint were limited to flexion/extension, there were no substantial out-of-plane motions. There was only little flexion between the navicular bone and the coffin bone, which was correlated (r = 0.66) with coffin joint flexion. There was substantial flexion between the navicular bone and the short pastern, which was highly correlated with coffin joint flexion (r = 0.97). We conclude that the navicular bone, generally, follows the coffin bone during coffin joint flexion, although there are small but consistent motions between the navicular bone and the coffin bone. These motions might play a role in the development of navicular disease in horses. PMID:12357999

  18. Navicular tuberculosis: A rare localization of bone tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Lemnouer, Abdelhay; Frikh, Mohammed; Belfquih, Bouchra; Jaafar, Abdelwahab; Bouya, Ayoub; Jidal, Mohamed; Boussouga, Mustapha; Elouennass, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a global public health problem endemic to Morocco. While extrapulmonary TB uncommonly presents in osteoarticular anatomic locations, tarsal or metatarsal osteitis can occur when TB presents in the tarsal bones. Clinical symptoms are often insidious causing a delay in diagnosis that may lead to bone destruction. While diagnosis can be guided by X-ray imaging, bacteriologic and histologic examination of the tissue allows for pathogen isolation, identification of the bacillus and strain sensitivity to antibacillary treatment. We report a rare case of navicular osteitis associated with tarso-metatarsal arthritis caused by tuberculosis in a 68-year-old man. This case illustrates an exceptional location of osteoarticular TB and support diagnostic difficulties encountered: (i) imaging is not specific; (ii) lesions are paucibacillary which reduces conventional microbiological methods sensitivity and (iii) the peripheral location of the Koch bacillus within the lesion dictates surgical biopsy than percutaneous puncture. We recommend testing for tuberculosis in any case of chronic osteolysis and/or arthritis of the foot, especially in TB endemic countries. PMID:26793464

  19. Delayed healing of a navicular stress fracture, following limited weight-bearing activity

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Matthew; Fulcher, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a 21-year-old man, a semiprofessional football (soccer) player, with a navicular stress fracture. It highlights the difficulty in diagnosing the condition and the complications arising from inadequate management. The case discusses the optimal management of these stress fractures and the detrimental role of weight-bearing recovery. The diagnosis of navicular stress fractures is challenging, and a high index of suspicion is required. The available literature indicates that limited weightbearing is not an appropriate treatment for navicular stress injuries. Non-weight-bearing (NWB) cast immobilisation for 6–8 weeks appears to be the gold standard treatment; however, open reduction with internal fixation (ORIF) has similar success rates and an equal return-to-play time but should also be followed by a period of NWB. NWB cast immobilisation for 6 weeks remains a good second option at any time following failed limited weight-bearing activity. PMID:24618870

  20. Stress avulsion fracture of the tarsal navicular. An uncommon sports-related overuse injury.

    PubMed

    Orava, S; Karpakka, J; Hulkko, A; Takala, T

    1991-01-01

    We report nine cases of stress-related avulsion fracture of the tarsal navicular in athletes. This uncommon over-use injury is thought to occur following repetitive cyclic compressive loading secondary to an impingement of the tarsal navicular. The small dorsal triangular fragment is best seen in weightbearing lateral view radiographs and isotope scan and/or tomography help confirm the diagnosis. We feel that operative treatment is the method of choice in highly symptomatic cases and among top athletes because of the shorter recovery time. PMID:1897656

  1. Incremental value of single photon emission tomography/computed tomography in 3-phase bone scintigraphy of an accessory navicular bone.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sachin; Karunanithi, Sellam; Agarwal, Krishan Kant; Kumar, Ganesh; Roy, Shambo Guha; Tripathi, Madhavi

    2014-07-01

    Accessory navicular bone is one of the supernumerary ossicles in the foot. Radiography is non diagnostic in symptomatic cases. Accessory navicular has been reported as a cause of foot pain and is usually associated with flat foot. Increased radio tracer uptake on bone scan is found to be more sensitive. We report a case highlighting the significance of single photon emission tomography/computed tomography in methylene diphosphonate bone scan in the evaluation of symptomatic accessory navicular bone where three phase bone scan is equivocal. PMID:25210293

  2. Open reduction-internal fixation of a navicular body fracture with dorsal displacement of the first and second cuneiforms: a case report.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Robert C; Neiderer, Katherine; Martin, Billy; Dancho, James

    2013-01-01

    Body fractures of the tarsal navicular are relatively uncommon. To date, there is little literature discussing a navicular body fracture with dorsal subluxation of the first and second cuneiforms over the navicular. This case study presents a 30-year-old patient with this injury. He underwent open reduction internal fixation of the navicular body fracture successfully but failed adequate reduction of the navicular cuneiform joint after ligamentous reconstruction. After revisional surgery, he also failed 6 weeks of percutanous pinning with Kirschner-wire fixation. When comparing the literature of a similar injury, the Lisfranc fracture disclocation, the same principles may apply. One should consider rigid open reduction internal fixation or even primary fusion to treat disclocation of the naviculocuneiform joint following a navicular body fracture. PMID:23697734

  3. Neglected Foreign Body, the Cause of Navicular Osteomyelitis in A Paediatric Foot: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Chandrashekara, C.M; George, M.A; Al-Marboi, Bader Said Khamis

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Foreign body injuries with date thorns, metal and wooden splinters are common in Middle East region, as most of it is desert. Some of the injuries lead to cellulitis or abscess formation, if neglected or improperly managed results in osteomyelitis or septic arthritis of foot structures. This is the first report of isolated navicular osteomyelitis following neglected foreign body in a paediatric foot. Case Report: A 10 year old male patient presented with discharging sinus in left mid-foot 3 years after penetrating injury with wooden splinter. The diagnosis of navicular osteomelitis is confirmed with plain radio-graphs. The ultrasound of foot was done to localize the foreign bodies. Patient was treated with complete removal of foreign body (wooden splinters), surgical debridement and combination of IV and oral cloxacillin for period of 6 weeks. At 18 months follow up, patient had painless foot with no recurrence or collapse of navicular bone. Conclusion: The neglected foreign body can result in osteomyelitis of small bones of foot in pediatric patient. The ultrasound is more useful tool in localizing foreign bodies; those are not radio-opaque. Early and prompt diagnosis with adequate treatment of established osteomyelitis by complete removal of foreign body, curettage and antibiotics can give good results. PMID:27298914

  4. Relationship between navicular drop and measuring position of maximal plantar flexion torque of the first and second-fifth metatarsophalangeal joints

    PubMed Central

    Saeki, Junya; Tojima, Michio; Torii, Suguru

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between navicular drop and plantar flexion torque of the first and second-fifth metatarsophalangeal joints. [Subjects] Ten healthy young men participated in this study. [Methods] The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient was calculated to determine the relationship between navicular drop and plantar flexion torque of the first and second-fifth metatarsophalangeal joints. [Results] Significant negative correlations were observed between navicular drop and plantar flexion torques in the lengthened position of the intrinsic toe plantar flexion muscles, but no correlations were found between navicular drop and plantar flexion torques in the neutral position of the ankle and metatarsophalangeal joints. Moreover, the intrinsic toe plantar flexion muscles were found to contribute to the formation of the medial longitudinal arch. [Conclusion] Navicular drop correlates with metatarsophalangeal joint muscle strength in plantar flexion where the intrinsic toe muscles are capable of exerting force. PMID:26180323

  5. Relationship between navicular drop and measuring position of maximal plantar flexion torque of the first and second-fifth metatarsophalangeal joints.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Junya; Tojima, Michio; Torii, Suguru

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between navicular drop and plantar flexion torque of the first and second-fifth metatarsophalangeal joints. [Subjects] Ten healthy young men participated in this study. [Methods] The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient was calculated to determine the relationship between navicular drop and plantar flexion torque of the first and second-fifth metatarsophalangeal joints. [Results] Significant negative correlations were observed between navicular drop and plantar flexion torques in the lengthened position of the intrinsic toe plantar flexion muscles, but no correlations were found between navicular drop and plantar flexion torques in the neutral position of the ankle and metatarsophalangeal joints. Moreover, the intrinsic toe plantar flexion muscles were found to contribute to the formation of the medial longitudinal arch. [Conclusion] Navicular drop correlates with metatarsophalangeal joint muscle strength in plantar flexion where the intrinsic toe muscles are capable of exerting force. PMID:26180323

  6. Müller-Weiss disease of the tarsal navicular: an idiopathic case.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Eric W; Rivello, George J

    2012-01-01

    Müller-Weiss disease of the tarsal navicular is a rare condition, the etiology of which remains unclear. We present the case of a 28-year-old woman with classic radiographic findings consistent with Müller-Weiss disease. The patient was successfully treated with a talonavicular-cuneiform arthrodesis of her right foot. Radiographs at 6 months postoperatively demonstrated a successful medial arch fusion. At 38 months follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons ankle hindfoot score was 97, compared with a preoperative score of 32. PMID:22632838

  7. A comparison of the effects of local analgesic solution in the navicular bursa of horses with lameness caused by solar toe or solar heel pain.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, J; Schumacher, J; de Graves, F; Schramme, M; Smith, R; Coker, M; Steiger, R

    2001-07-01

    We hypothesised that analgesia of the navicular bursa is not selective for the navicular apparatus; and that solar pain in some horses can be temporarily abolished or attenuated by analgesia of the navicular bursa. To test this hypothesis, we caused lameness in horses by inducing pain in the dorsal margin or the angles of the sole and then evaluated the ability of a local analgesic solution administered into the navicular bursa to attenuate lameness. The response of horses with solar pain in the dorsal or palmar aspect of the foot to 3.5 ml local analgesic solution administered into the navicular bursa was examined. Lameness was induced in 6 horses by creating solar pain in the dorsal aspect of one forefoot and, at another time, the palmar aspect of the other forefoot, with set-screws inserted into a custom-made shoe. Horses were videotaped trotting before and after application of set-screws and after administering 3.5 ml local analgesic solution into the navicular bursa. Lameness scores were assigned by examining videotaped gaits. Scores were significantly lower (P<0.05) for all horses with set-screws applied to the dorsal margin of the sole after administration of local analgesic solution into the navicular bursa. In conclusion, analgesia of the navicular bursa was less effective in desensitising the angles of the sole than in desensitising the dorsal margin of the sole. Pain arising from the sole should not be excluded as a cause of lameness when lameness is attenuated by analgesia of the navicular bursa. PMID:11469772

  8. Coexistence of SFO-1 and NDM-1 β-lactamase genes and fosfomycin resistance gene fosA3 in an Escherichia coli clinical isolate.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing-yi; Zhu, Yuan-qi; Li, Yan-nian; Mu, Xiao-dong; You, Li-ping; Xu, Cha; Qin, Ping; Ma, Jin-long

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to characterize antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial resistance genetic determinants of an Escherichia coli clinical isolate HD0149 from China in 2012. This strain displayed high-level resistance to cephalosporins, carbapenems, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides and fosfomycin. A range of antimicrobial resistance genes was detected responsible for its multiple antimicrobial resistances, involving the blaCMY-2, blaCTX-M-65, blaNDM-1, blaSFO-1, blaTEM-1, fosA3, rmtB, sul1 and sul2 genes. Four amino acid substitutions were detected in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of GyrA (S83L and D87N), ParC (S80I) and ParE (S458A). Conjugation experiments revealed two multiresistance plasmids present in E. coli HD0149. The blaSFO-1 gene associated with blaNDM-1 gene was located in a 190 kb IncA/C plasmid and the blaCTX-M-65, fosA3 and rmtB genes were located in a 110 kb IncF plasmid. This is the first identification of the blaSFO-1 gene in an E. coli isolate and on a conjugative IncA/C plasmid. This may dramatically enhance the international prevalence and dissemination of blaSFO-1 among Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:25790496

  9. The effect of orthopaedic shoeing on the force exerted by the deep digital flexor tendon on the navicular bone in horses.

    PubMed

    Willemen, M A; Savelberg, H H; Barneveld, A

    1999-01-01

    This study quantifies both the intended effect of orthopaedic shoeing to decrease the load on the navicular bone and the eventual undesired effects on gait performance. The compressive force exerted by the deep digital flexor tendon on the navicular bone and on the quality of the trot and redistribution of forces over the flexor tendons and the suspensory ligament were studied as a function of orthopaedic shoeing in 12 sound Dutch Warmblood horses. A modified CODA-3 gait analysis system and a force plate were used to quantify objectively the load on the lower limb. The quality of the trot was assessed using the same gait analysis system while the horses were trotting on the treadmill. The effects of shoes with heel wedges and egg-bar shoes were compared to flat shoes and unshod feet. When heel wedges were applied, the maximal force on the navicular bone was reduced by 24% (P<0.05) in comparison with flat shoes. Egg-bar shoes did not reduce the force on the navicular bone, but in unshod feet this force appeared to be 14% lower (P<0.05) compared to flat shoes. Egg-bar shoes cause the horse's trot to be slightly less animated (P<0.05), compared to flat shoes and shoes with heel wedges. It is concluded that shoes with heel wedges reduce the force on the navicular bone as a result of a decreased moment of force at the distal interphalangeal joint in combination with a decreased angle between the deep digital flexor tendon distally and proximally of the navicular bone. Therefore it can be expected that in horses suffering from navicular disease, heel wedges will have the expected beneficial effect on the pressure on the navicular bone, while the effect of egg-bar shoes remains doubtful. PMID:9952326

  10. Phalangeal and Navicular Bone Hypoplasia and Hoof Malformation in the Hind Limbs of a Foal

    PubMed Central

    Smith, D. R. K.; Leach, D. H.; Bell, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Anatomical anomalies in the hind feet of a seven month old Appaloosa foal were identified and investigated through the use of gross anatomical dissection, radiography and angiography. Abnormalities were restricted to the distal aspect of both hind legs, the right hind leg being more severely affected. Anatomically the right foot resembled that of an equine fetus of approximately 120 days gestational age. Disruption of vascular perfusion to hoof structures was evident in both hind legs and was related to areas of abnormal bone conformation as well as to areas of abnormal ossification and calcification. Phalangeal and navicular bone hypoplasia were apparent as were soft tissue and joint anomalies. Although the etiology of the defects identified remains obscure, several theories are suggested, namely heritability, acquired defects and the possible teratogenic effects of clenbuterol. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:17422612

  11. An investigation of the dynamic relationship between navicular drop and first metatarsophalangeal joint dorsal excursion

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Nicole L; Miller, Charlotte; Schmitt, Daniel; D'Août, Kristiaan

    2013-01-01

    The modern human foot is a complex biomechanical structure that must act both as a shock absorber and as a propulsive strut during the stance phase of gait. Understanding the ways in which foot segments interact can illuminate the mechanics of foot function in healthy and pathological humans. It has been proposed that increased values of medial longitudinal arch deformation can limit metatarsophalangeal joint excursion via tension in the plantar aponeurosis. However, this model has not been tested directly in a dynamic setting. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that during the stance phase, subtalar pronation (stretching of the plantar aponeurosis and subsequent lowering of the medial longitudinal arch) will negatively affect the amount of first metatarsophalangeal joint excursion occurring at push-off. Vertical descent of the navicular (a proxy for subtalar pronation) and first metatarsophalangeal joint dorsal excursion were measured during steady locomotion over a flat substrate on a novel sample consisting of asymptomatic adult males and females, many of whom are habitually unshod. Least-squares regression analyses indicated that, contrary to the hypothesis, navicular drop did not explain a significant amount of variation in first metatarsophalangeal joint dorsal excursion. These results suggest that, in an asymptomatic subject, the plantar aponeurosis and the associated foot bones can function effectively within the normal range of subtalar pronation that takes place during walking gait. From a clinical standpoint, this study highlights the need for investigating the in vivo kinematic relationship between subtalar pronation and metatarsophalangeal joint dorsiflexion in symptomatic populations, and also the need to explore other factors that may affect the kinematics of asymptomatic feet. PMID:23600634

  12. Distal border fragments of the equine navicular bone: association between magnetic resonance imaging characteristics and clinical lameness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yorke, Elizabeth H.; Judy, Carter E.; Saveraid, Travis C.; McGowan, Conor P.; Caldwell, Fred J.

    2014-01-01

    Distal border fragments of the navicular bone are increasingly being detected due to the improved capabilities of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but their clinical significance remains unclear. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe the location, size, and frequency of fragments in a cohort of horses presented for MRI of the foot and to compare MRI findings with severity of lameness. Archived MRI studies and medical records were searched from March 2006 to June 2008. Horses were included if a distal border fragment of the navicular bone was visible in MRI scans. Confidence interval comparisons and linear regression analyses were used to test hypotheses that fragments were associated with lameness and lameness severity was positively correlated with fragment volume and biaxial location. A total of 453 horses (874 limbs) were included. Fragments were identified in 60 horses (13.25%) and 90 limbs (10.3%). Fifty percent of the horses had unilateral fragments and 50% had bilateral fragments. Fragments were located at the lateral (62.2%), medial (8.89%), or medial and lateral (28.9%) angles of the distal border of the navicular bone. There was no increased probability of being categorized as lame if a fragment was present. There was no significant difference in fragment volume across lameness severity categorizations. Confidence intervals indicated a slightly increased probability of being classified as lame if both medial and lateral fragments were present. Findings indicated that distal border fragments of the navicular bone in equine MRI studies are unlikely to be related to existing lameness.

  13. Single stage ventral onlay buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty for navicular fossa strictures

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Puskar Shyam; Nayak, Prasant; Mallick, Sujata; Gurumurthy, Srinivasan; David, Deepak; Mossadeq, A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The correction of fossa navicularis strictures poses a distinct reconstructive challenge as it requires attention to cosmesis, in addition to urethral patency. Different graft and flap based repairs have been described with variable success rates. However, the ideal management remains unclear. The feasibility and efficacy of a single stage ventral onlay buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty (VOBMGU) for navicular fossa strictures (NFS) was evaluated in the present study. Subjects and Methods: All patients with NFS attending urology out-patient department from March, 2009 onward accepting VOBMGU were evaluated prospectively. Patients with minimum 1 year of follow-up were included for analysis. The technique involves opening the diseased stenosed meatus ventrally up to the corona. The diseased mucosa is excised leaving a midline strip of native urethral mucosa on the dorsal side. The buccal mucosal graft (BMG) is fixed on either side of this strip over a 24 Fr. silicone catheter. The glans wings are apposed in midline taking anchoring bites on the mucosal graft ventrally. Post-operatively patients were reviewed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months and annually thereafter. Cosmetic acceptance and splaying of the urinary stream was assessed with individual questionnaires. Results: A total of six patients underwent VOBMGU. Average flow rate at 3 months post-operatively was 12 ml/s. The end result was cosmetically highly acceptable. There was no fistula in any of the cases. With a median follow-up of 37 months, only one patient had a recurrence of stricture in a proximal site. Conclusions: VOBMGU is a viable technique for reconstruction of NFS with promising short term results. However, long-term follow-up is necessary. PMID:24497676

  14. Is there an association between clinical features, response to diagnostic analgesia and radiological findings in horses with a magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis of navicular disease or other injuries of the podotrochlear apparatus?

    PubMed

    Parkes, Rebecca; Newton, Richard; Dyson, Sue

    2015-04-01

    Previous descriptions of the clinical features of navicular disease occurred before the widespread use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allowed a more definitive diagnosis of foot pain. The objective of this study was to compare the clinical features of horses with lesions of the podotrochlear apparatus with those with other causes of foot pain. It was hypothesised that primary navicular bone disease would be associated with more advanced radiological findings than other diagnoses. A retrospective study was performed of all horses examined at a referral centre with a definitive diagnosis of foot pain based on MRI ± post-mortem examination. Clinical examination findings, response to diagnostic analgesia and radiological grading of the navicular bone were compared among five diagnosis groups: (1) primary navicular bone pathology (NB); (2) lesions of the collateral sesamoidean ligament and/or distal sesamoidean impar ligament (CSL + DSIL); (3) primary deep digital flexor tendon injury (DDFT); (4) navicular bone pathology and other lesions of the podotrochlear apparatus ± DDFT (PTA) and (5) Other. There were 702 horses (NB, 62; CSL + DSIL, 180; DDFT, 69; PTA, 92; Other, 299). Horses with PTA injuries were more frequently unilaterally lame than other groups (P = 0.04). Horses with DDFT injury were more likely to exhibit pain on turning than other groups (P <0.01). There were no associations between response to diagnostic analgesia and diagnostic group, and no association between radiological grade and diagnostic group. Clinical examination findings generally did not discriminate between diseases of the PTA and other causes of foot pain. Overall radiological scores of the navicular bone did not accurately predict navicular bone pathology. PMID:25724857

  15. Complete Sequence of the FII Plasmid p42-2, Carrying blaCTX-M-55, oqxAB, fosA3, and floR from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiu E; Walsh, Timothy Rutland; Liu, Bao Tao; Zou, Meng Ting; Deng, Hui; Fang, Liang Xing; Liao, Xiao Ping; Sun, Jian; Liu, Ya Hong

    2016-07-01

    We sequenced a novel conjugative multidrug resistance IncF plasmid, p42-2, isolated from Escherichia coli strain 42-2, previously identified in China. p42-2 is 106,886 bp long, composed of a typical IncFII-type backbone (∼54 kb) and one distinct acquired DNA region spanning ∼53 kb, harboring 12 antibiotic resistance genes [blaCTX-M-55, oqxA, oqxB, fosA3, floR, tetA(A), tetA(R), strA, strB, sul2, aph(3')-II, and ΔblaTEM-1]. The spread of these multidrug resistance determinants on the same plasmid is of great concern and, because of coresistance to antibiotics from different classes, is therapeutically challenging. PMID:27067314

  16. Effects of analgesia of the distal interphalangeal joint and navicular bursa on experimental lameness caused by solar pain in horses.

    PubMed

    Sardari, K; Kazemi, H; Mohri, M

    2002-11-01

    It has been hypothesized that pain originating from the dorsal margin of the sole of the hoof in horses can be attenuated by analgesia of either the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint, or of the navicular bursa (NB). To test this hypothesis, an experimental lameness was induced in the toe region of the left forelimb in six adult horses. After this, both synovial structures were blocked and the effects on the lameness were semi-quantitatively scored. Lameness was induced by creating pressure on the dorsal margin of the sole with the help of set-screws that were screwed into a nut, welded to the inside of each branch of the shoe. Gaits were recorded on a videotape before and after application of the screws, and after application of either a local anaesthetic or saline into the DIP joint or NB. The gaits were independently evaluated by two blinded clinicians and scored. Lameness scores were high after application of the screws and remained high after the administration of saline, but decreased significantly (P < 0.05) after administration of the local anaesthetic. Analgesia of the DIP joint as well as the NB appeared to be able to desensitize a portion of the sole. It was concluded that pain arising from the toe region of the sole should not be excluded as a cause of lameness when lameness is attenuated by analgesia of the DIP joint, or of the NB. PMID:12489872

  17. Posterior talar fracture with dislocation of both talo-navicular and subtalar joints: a variant type II of the Sneppens classification

    PubMed Central

    Galanopoulos, Ilias; Fogg, Quentin; Ashwood, Neil

    2012-01-01

    A 63-year-old man fell from a ladder, thus causing an axial compression injury to the right ankle. Severe deformity was evident and the ankle could not be reduced by simple manipulation. The skin was tented and appearing critically contused. Radiographs revealed an oblique fracture of the posterior aspect of the talar body with dislocation of both the talo-navicular and subtalar joints, an injury previously not described in the literature. The fracture–dislocation was anatomically reduced within 3 h of presentation and stability achieved with two headless buried compression screws. CT scan confirmed anatomical reduction and the patient remained non-weight bearing in a cast for 6 weeks. One year postoperatively, the patient remains pain-free with no radiological signs of avascular necrosis of the talus. This injury is unique and despite its severity and soft tissue compromise good quality reduction and internal fixation resulted in an excellent clinical outcome. PMID:22847568

  18. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ISOTONIC PLANTAR FLEXOR ENDURANCE, NAVICULAR DROP, AND EXERCISE-RELATED LEG PAIN IN A COHORT OF COLLEGIATE CROSS-COUNTRY RUNNERS

    PubMed Central

    Reinking, Mark F.; Rauh, Mitchell J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between isotonic ankle plantar flexor endurance (PFE), foot pronation as measured by navicular drop, and exercise-related leg pain (ERLP). Background: Exercise-related leg pain is a common occurrence in competitive and recreational runners. The identification of factors contributing to the development of ERLP may help guide methods for the prevention and management of overuse injuries. Methods: Seventy-seven (44 males, 33 females) competitive runners from five collegiate cross-country (XC) teams consented to participate in the study. Isotonic ankle PFE and foot pronation were measured using the standing heel-rise and navicular drop (ND) tests, respectively. Demographic information, anthropometric measurements, and ERLP history were also recorded. Subjects were then prospectively tracked for occurrence of ERLP during the 2009 intercollegiate cross-country season. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between isotonic ankle joint PFE and ND and the occurrence of ERLP. Results: While no significant differences were identified for isotonic ankle PFE between groups of collegiate XC runners with and without ERLP, runners with a ND >10 mm were almost 7 times (OR=6.6, 95% CI=1.2–38.0) more likely to incur medial ERLP than runners with ND <10 mm. Runners with a history of ERLP in the month previous to the start of the XC season were 12 times (OR=12.3, 95% CI=3.1–48.9) more likely to develop an in-season occurrence of ERLP. Conclusion: While PFE did not appear to be a risk factor in the development of ERLP in this group of collegiate XC runners, those with a ND greater than 10 mm may be at greater odds of incurring medial ERLP. Level of Evidence: 2b. PMID:22666641

  19. Complete Sequence of pEC012, a Multidrug-Resistant IncI1 ST71 Plasmid Carrying blaCTX-M-65, rmtB, fosA3, floR, and oqxAB in an Avian Escherichia coli ST117 Strain

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yu-Shan; Zong, Zhi-Yong; Yuan, Li; Du, Xiang-Dang; Huang, Hui; Zhong, Xing-Hao; Hu, Gong-Zheng

    2016-01-01

    A 139,622-bp IncI1 ST71 conjugative plasmid pEC012 from an avian Escherichia coli D-ST117 strain was sequenced, which carried five IS26-bracketed resistance modules: IS26-fosA3-orf1-orf2-Δorf3-IS26, IS26-fip-ΔISEcp1-blaCTX-M-65-IS903D-iroN-IS26, IS26-ΔtnpR-blaTEM-1-rmtB-IS26, IS26-oqxAB-IS26, and IS26-floR-aac(3)-IV-IS26. The backbone of pEC012 was similar to that of several other IncI1 ST71 plasmids: pV408, pM105, and pC271, but these plasmids had different arrangements of multidrug resistance region. In addition, the novel ISEc57 element was identified, which is in the IS21 family. The stepwise emergence of multi-resistance regions demonstrated the accumulation of different resistance determinants through homologous recombination. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to identify a multidrug-resistant IncI1 ST71 plasmid carrying blaCTX-M-65, rmtB, fosA3, floR, and oqxAB in an avian E. coli ST117 strain. PMID:27486449

  20. Complete Sequence of pEC012, a Multidrug-Resistant IncI1 ST71 Plasmid Carrying bla CTX-M-65, rmtB, fosA3, floR, and oqxAB in an Avian Escherichia coli ST117 Strain.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yu-Shan; Zong, Zhi-Yong; Yuan, Li; Du, Xiang-Dang; Huang, Hui; Zhong, Xing-Hao; Hu, Gong-Zheng

    2016-01-01

    A 139,622-bp IncI1 ST71 conjugative plasmid pEC012 from an avian Escherichia coli D-ST117 strain was sequenced, which carried five IS26-bracketed resistance modules: IS26-fosA3-orf1-orf2-Δorf3-IS26, IS26-fip-ΔISEcp1-bla CTX-M-65-IS903D-iroN-IS26, IS26-ΔtnpR-bla TEM-1-rmtB-IS26, IS26-oqxAB-IS26, and IS26-floR-aac(3)-IV-IS26. The backbone of pEC012 was similar to that of several other IncI1 ST71 plasmids: pV408, pM105, and pC271, but these plasmids had different arrangements of multidrug resistance region. In addition, the novel ISEc57 element was identified, which is in the IS21 family. The stepwise emergence of multi-resistance regions demonstrated the accumulation of different resistance determinants through homologous recombination. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to identify a multidrug-resistant IncI1 ST71 plasmid carrying bla CTX-M-65, rmtB, fosA3, floR, and oqxAB in an avian E. coli ST117 strain. PMID:27486449

  1. The effects of gluteus maximus and abductor hallucis strengthening exercises for four weeks on navicular drop and lower extremity muscle activity during gait with flatfoot

    PubMed Central

    Goo, Young-Mi; Kim, Tae-Ho; Lim, Jin-Yong

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study is to examine the effects of abductor hallucis and gluteus maximus strengthening exercises on pronated feet. [Subjects and Methods] The present study was conducted with 18 adults without no history of surgery on the foot or ankle. One group performed both gluteus maximus strengthening exercises and abductor hallucis strengthening exercises, while the other group performed only abductor hallucis strengthening exercises five times per week for four weeks. [Results] The group that performed both gluteus maximus and abductor hallucis strengthening exercises showed smaller values in the height of navicular drop than the group that performed only abductor hallucis strengthening exercises. The muscle activity of the gluteus maximus and the vastus medialis increased during heel-strike in the group that added gluteus maximus exercises, and the muscle activity of the abductor hallucis significantly increased in both groups. [Conclusion] Given the results of the present study, it can be suggested that strengthening the gluteus maximus while also performing exercises to correct the pronated foot is an effective method for achieving normal gait. PMID:27134383

  2. Analytical (mathematical) predictive modeling in fiber optics structural analysis (FOSA): review and extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhir, Ephraim

    2015-03-01

    An updated version of the paper with revised references has been published The review part of the paper addresses analytical (mathematical) modeling in structural analysis in fiber optics engineering, mostly fiber optics interconnects, and deals with optical fibers subjected to thermal and/or mechanical loading (stresses) in bending, tension, compression, or to the combinations of such loadings. Attributes and significance of predictive modeling are indicated and discussed. The review is based mostly on the author's research conducted at Bell Laboratories, Physical Sciences and Engineering Research Division, Murray Hill, NJ, USA, during his tenure with this company, and, to a lesser extent, on his recent work in the field. The addressed structures include, but are not limited to, optical fibers of finite length: bare fibers; jacketed and dual-coated fibers; fibers experiencing thermal loading; fibers soldered into ferrules or adhesively bonded into capillaries; as well as the roles of geometric and material non-linearity; dynamic response to shocks and vibrations; and possible applications of nano-materials in new generations of coating and cladding systems. The extension part is concerned with a novel, fruitful and challenging directionprobabilistic design for reliability (PDfR) of opto-electronic and photonic products, including optical fibers and interconnects. The rationale behind the PDfR concept is that there is no such thing as zero probability of failure, that the difference between a highly reliable product and an insufficiently reliable product is "merely" in the level of the never zero probability of its failure and that when the operational performance of the product is imperative, the ability to predict, quantify, assure and, if possible and appropriate, even specify its reliability is highly desirable. Accordingly, the objective of the PDfR effort is to quantify the likelihood of an operational failure of a material, device or a system, including the field of fiber optics.

  3. Oligometastatic Prostate Cancer to the Navicular Bone: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Diane K.; Miller, James A.; Cerrato, Rebecca A.; Pienta, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    This case of oligometastatic prostate cancer to the foot highlights the importance of: 1) metastasis remaining high in the differential for unexplained malady, in the setting of a primary cancer, despite an atypical presentation, and 2) comparing sequential imaging studies to baseline images, especially when remote, because subtle findings can declare themselves over time. PMID:26029631

  4. Molecular Characterization of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Retail Meat That Harbor blaCTX-M and fosA3 Genes.

    PubMed

    Xie, Miaomiao; Lin, Dachuan; Chen, Kaichao; Chan, Edward Wai Chi; Yao, Wen; Chen, Sheng

    2016-04-01

    A total of 55 cefotaxime-resistantEscherichia coliisolates were obtained from retail meat products purchased in Shenzhen, China, during the period November 2012 to May 2013. Thirty-seven of these 55 isolates were found to harbor ablaCTX-Mgene, with theblaCTX-M-1group being the most common type.blaCMY-2was detected in 16 isolates, alone or in combination with other extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) determinants. Importantly, thefosA3gene, which encodes fosfomycin resistance, was detected in 12 isolates, with several being found to reside in the conjugative plasmid that harbored theblaCTX-Mgene. The insertion sequence IS26was observed upstream of some of theblaCTX-M-55andfosA3genes. Conjugation experiments showed thatblaCTX-Mgenes from 15 isolates were transferrable, with Inc I1 and Inc FII being the most prevalent replicons. High clonal diversity was observed among theblaCTX-Mproducers, suggesting that horizontal transfer of theblaCTX-Mgenes amongE. colistrains in retail meats is a common event and that such strains may constitute an important reservoir ofblaCTX-Mgenes, which may be readily disseminated to other potential human pathogens. PMID:26856843

  5. Comparative hepatic in vitro depletion and metabolite formation of major perfluorooctane sulfonate precursors in Arctic polar bear, beluga whale, and ringed seal.

    PubMed

    Letcher, Robert J; Chu, Shaogang; McKinney, Melissa A; Tomy, Gregg T; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune

    2014-10-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) has been reported to be among the most concentrated persistent organic pollutants in Arctic marine wildlife. The present study examined the in vitro depletion of major PFOS precursors, N-ethyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamide (N-EtFOSA) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA), as well as metabolite formation using an assay based on enzymatically viable liver microsomes for three top Arctic marine mammalian predators, polar bear (Ursus maritimus), beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), and ringed seal (Pusa hispida), and in laboratory rat (Rattus rattus) serving as a general mammalian model and positive control. Rat assays showed that N-EtFOSA (38 nM or 150 ng mL(-1)) to FOSA metabolism was >90% complete after 10 min, and at a rate of 23 pmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein. Examining all species in a full 90 min incubation assay, there was >95% N-EtFOSA depletion for the rat active control and polar bear microsomes, ∼65% for ringed seals, and negligible depletion of N-EtFOSA for beluga whale. Concomitantly, the corresponding in vitro formation of FOSA from N-EtFOSA was also quantitatively rat≈polar bear>ringed seal>beluga whale. A lack of enzymatic ability and/or a rate too slow to be detected likely explains the lack of N-EtFOSA to FOSA transformation for beluga whale. In the same assays, the depletion of the FOSA metabolite was insignificant (p>0.01) and with no concomitant formation of PFOS metabolite. This suggests that, in part, a source of FOSA is the biotransformation of accumulated N-EtFOSA in free-ranging Arctic ringed seal and polar bear. PMID:25048910

  6. Is Ongoing Sulfluramid Use in South America a Significant Source of Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS)? Production Inventories, Environmental Fate, and Local Occurrence.

    PubMed

    Löfstedt Gilljam, John; Leonel, Juliana; Cousins, Ian T; Benskin, Jonathan P

    2016-01-19

    Despite international phase-out initiatives, production and use of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and related substances continues in some countries. In Brazil, the PFOS-precursor N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamide (EtFOSA) is used in Sulfluramid, a pesticide for controlling leaf-cutting ants. New data on production, environmental fate, and occurrence of Brazilian Sulfluramid are reported herein. From 2003 to 2013, Brazilian Sulfluramid manufacturing increased from 30 to 60 tonnes yr(-1) EtFOSA. During this time <1.3 tonnes yr(-1) were imported, while exports increased from ∼0.3 to 2 tonnes yr(-1). From 2004 to 2015, most EtFOSA was exported to Argentina (7.2 tonnes), Colombia (2.07 tonnes), Costa Rica (1.13 tonnes), Equador (2.16 tonnes), and Venezuela (2.4 tonnes). Within Brazil, sales occurred primarily in the states of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul, Espírito Santo, and Bahia. Model simulations predict EtFOSA will partition to soils, while transformation products perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) and PFOS are sufficiently mobile to leach into surface waters. In support of these predictions, up to 3400 pg L(-1) of FOSA and up to 1100 pg L(-1) of PFOS were measured in Brazilian surface water, while EtFOSA was not detected. The high FOSA/PFOS ratio observed here (up to 14:1) is unprecedented in the scientific literature to our knowledge. Depending on the extent of conversion of EtFOSA, cumulative Brazilian Sulfluramid production and import from 2004 to 2015 may contribute between 167 and 487 tonnes of PFOS/FOSA to the environment. These levels are clearly nontrivial and of concern since production is continuing unabated. PMID:26653085

  7. Analysis of Perfluorinated Chemicals and Their Fluorinated Precursors in Sludge: Method Development and Initial Results

    EPA Science Inventory

    A rigorous method was developed to maximize the extraction efficacy for perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs), perfluorosulfonates (PFSAs), fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), fluorotelomer acrylates (FTAc), perfluorosulfonamides (FOSAs), and perfluorosulfonamidoethanols (FOSEs) from was...

  8. The detection of fosfomycin resistance genes in Enterobacteriaceae from pets and their owners.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hong; Wu, Dongfang; Lei, Lei; Shen, Zhangqi; Wang, Yang; Liao, Kang

    2016-09-25

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of fosfomycin resistance and molecular characteristic of fosfomycin-resistant strains isolated from companion animals and their owners. A total of 171 samples collected from pets and pet owners in a Chinese veterinary teaching hospital were screened for the presence of phenotype and genotype of fosfomycin-resistance by selective media containing fosfomycin and PCR & sequencing. Among 171 samples tested, nineteen isolates were resistant to fosfomycin. Sixteen and three of these fosfomycin-resistant isolates were positive for fosA3 and fosA genes, respectively. The fosA3 gene was detected both in chromosomes and plasmids in bacteria. All of the fosA3 gene-positive isolates except one were CTX-M producers and nearly half (7/16) of them also harbored the rmtB gene. The fosA3 gene-carrying plasmids, which were readily transferrable to recipient E. coli J53 by conjugation, conferred resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents. Genetic structures were IS26-385bp-fosA3-1810bp-IS26 (n=11) and IS26-385bp-fosA3-588bp-IS26 (n=5). Molecular typing indicated that two fosA3-positive isolates from dogs were genetically identical to the isolates from the pet owners. Our results indicated that active transmission of fosA3-mediated fosfomycin resistance has occurred among Enterobacteriaceae isolated from pets and their owners by both horizontal transfer and clonal expansion. PMID:27599932

  9. Supramolecular Hydrophobic Aggregates in Hydrogels Partially Inhibit Ice Formation.

    PubMed

    Wiener, Clinton G; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Liu, Yun; Weiss, R A; Vogt, Bryan D

    2016-06-23

    Prevention of ice crystallization is a challenging problem with implications in diverse applications, as well as examining the fundamental low temperature physics of water. Here, we demonstrate a simple route, inspired by water confinement in antifreeze proteins, to inhibit crystallization and provide high water mobility of highly supercooled water using supramolecular hydrogels of copolymers of dimethylacrylamide (DMA) and 2-(N-ethylperfluorooctane sulfonamido)ethyl acrylate (FOSA). These hydrogels can suppress or inhibit freezing of their water, depending on the copolymer composition. Dynamic and static neutron scattering indicate that hydrogels using the copolymer with 22 mol % FOSA partially inhibit ice formation. This behavior is attributed to confinement (<2 nm) of water between the hydrophobic FOSA nanodomains that prevents 45% of the water within the hydrogel from freezing even at 205 K. Very fast dynamics of the amorphous water are observed at 220 K with an effective local diffusivity decreased by only a factor of 2 from that observed at 295 K within the hydrogel using the copolymer with 22 mol % FOSA. The spacing between the hydrophobic nanodomains, tuned through the copolymer composition, appears to modulate the water that can crystallize. These fully hydrated hydrogels (at equilibrium with liquid water at 295 K) can enable a significant fraction of highly supercooled water to be stable down to at least 205 K. PMID:27228304

  10. Bilateral Foot Pain in a Collegiate Distance Runner

    PubMed Central

    Denegar, Craig R.; Siple, Bonnie J.

    1996-01-01

    A 19-year-old, white female, college freshman cross-country runner presented to the athletic training center complaining of bilateral plantar foot pain 1 week into the cross-country season. She had been treated for bilateral plantar fasciitis twice in the previous 3 years, and initial evaluation suggested a recurrence. A failure to respond to treatment led us to suspect other causes. Subsequent diagnostic imaging (bone scan, CT scan) revealed bilateral navicular stress fractures. Navicular stress fractures are probably more common than once believed. This case study describes the course of evaluation and treatment in relation to the common presentation, etiology, problems of diagnosis, and treatment of navicular stress fractures. ImagesFig 1.Fig 2.Fig 3.Fig 4. PMID:16558375

  11. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES TO SELECTED VIRUSES AND PARASITES IN INTRODUCED AND ENDEMIC CARNIVORES IN WESTERN MADAGASCAR.

    PubMed

    Pomerantz, Julie; Rasambainarivo, Fidisoa T; Dollar, Luke; Rahajanirina, Leon Pierrot; Andrianaivoarivelo, Radosoa; Parker, Patricia; Dubovi, Edward

    2016-07-01

    Introduced animals impact endemic populations through predation, competition, and disease transmission. Populations of endemic carnivores in Madagascar are declining, and pathogens transmitted from introduced species may further endanger these unique species. We assessed the exposure of introduced and endemic carnivores to common viral and parasitic pathogens in two national parks of Madagascar (Kirindy Mitea National Park and Ankarafantsika National Park) and their neighboring villages. We also identified variables associated with the presence of antibodies to these pathogens in fosa ( Cryptoprocta ferox ). Introduced and endemic species were exposed to canine parvovirus, canine herpesvirus, feline calicivirus, and Toxoplasma gondii . Domestic dogs ( Canis familiaris ) and cats ( Felis catus ) may be sources of infection for these pathogens. Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma in captured fosa was >93%, and adults were more likely to be exposed than immature individuals. Our data provide a basis upon which to evaluate and manage risks of pathogen transmission between species. PMID:27195685

  12. Uptake of perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctane sulfonamide by carrot and lettuce from compost amended soil.

    PubMed

    Bizkarguenaga, E; Zabaleta, I; Mijangos, L; Iparraguirre, A; Fernández, L A; Prieto, A; Zuloaga, O

    2016-11-15

    Sewage sludge, which acts like a sink for many pollutants, including metals, pathogens and organic pollutants, that are not completely removed in waste water treatment plants (WWTPs), is applied as a nutrient rich organic fertilizer in many agricultural applications. In the present work, carrot and lettuce crops were grown in two different compost amended soils fortified with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorosulfonate acid (PFOS) and perfluorosulfonamide (FOSA) and cultivated in a greenhouse. The plants were harvested and divided into root core, root peel and leaves in the case of carrots and into heart and leaves for lettuces. Concentrations for all the different compartments were determined to assess the bioconcentration factors (BCFs) and the plant distribution of the target analytes. The highest carrot BCFs for PFOA and PFOS were determined in the leaves (0.6-3.4), while lower values were calculated in the core (0.05-0.6) and the peel (0.05-1.9) compartments. However, PFOA was taken up in the translocation stream and accumulated more than PFOS in the edible part of lettuce. FOSA was totally degraded in the presence of carrot; however, a lower FOSA degradation was observed in presence of the lettuce, which was dependent on the total organic carbon (TOC) content of the soil. The higher the TOC value, the higher the FOSA degradation observed. No degradation was observed in the crop absence. In the case of the carrot experiments, different polymeric materials (polyethersulfone, PES, polyoxymethylene, and silicone rod) were tested to predict the concentration in the cultivation media. A high correlation (r(2)>0.63) was observed for the BCFs in the PES and in the carrot core and peel for PFOA and PFOS. It could be, concluded that the PES can be used as a first approach for the determination of the uptake of compounds such as PFOS and PFOA in carrot. PMID:27450950

  13. Fosfomycin Resistance in Escherichia coli, Pennsylvania, USA

    PubMed Central

    Alrowais, Hind; McElheny, Christi L.; Spychala, Caressa N.; Sastry, Sangeeta; Guo, Qinglan; Butt, Adeel A.

    2015-01-01

    Fosfomycin resistance in Escherichia coli is rare in the United States. An extended-spectrum β-lactamase–producing E. coli clinical strain identified in Pennsylvania, USA, showed high-level fosfomycin resistance caused by the fosA3 gene. The IncFII plasmid carrying this gene had a structure similar to those found in China, where fosfomycin resistance is commonly described. PMID:26488485

  14. Gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization for fluorotelomer alcohols and perfluorinated sulfonamides determination.

    PubMed

    Portolés, Tania; Rosales, Luis E; Sancho, Juan V; Santos, F Javier; Moyano, Encarnación

    2015-09-25

    Ionization and in source-fragmentation behavior of four fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOH) (4:2 FTOH, 6:2 FTOH, 8:2 FTOH and 10:2 FTOH) and four N-alkyl fluorooctane sulfonamides/-ethanols (N-MeFOSA, N-EtFOSA, N-MeFOSE and N-EtFOSE) by APCI has been studied and compared with the traditionally used EI and CI. Protonated molecule was the base peak of the APCI spectrum in all cases giving the possibility of selecting it as a precursor ion for MS/MS experiments. Following, CID fragmentation showed common product ions for all FOSAs/FOSEs (C4F7 and C3F5). Nevertheless, the different functionality gave characteristic pattern fragmentations. For instance, FTOHs mainly loss H2O+HF, FOSAs showed the losses of SO2 and HF while FOSEs showed the losses of H2O and SO2. Linearity, repeatability and LODs have been studied obtaining instrumental LODs between 1 and 5fg. Finally, application to river water and influent and effluent waste water samples has been carried out in order to investigate the improvements in detection capabilities of this new source in comparison with the traditionally used EI/CI sources. Matrix effects in APCI have been evaluated in terms of signal enhancement/suppression when comparing standards in solvent and matrix. No matrix effects were observed and concentrations found in samples were in the range of 1-100pgL(-1) far below the LODs achieved with methods previously reported. Unknown related perfluoroalkyl substances, as methyl-sulfone and methyl-sulfoxide analogues for FTOHs, were also discovered and tentatively identified. PMID:26298605

  15. Technical innovation changes standard radiographic protocols in veterinary medicine: is it necessary to obtain two dorsoproximal-palmarodistal oblique views of the equine foot when using computerised radiography systems?

    PubMed

    Whitlock, J; Dixon, J; Sherlock, C; Tucker, R; Bolt, D M; Weller, R

    2016-05-21

    Since the 1950s, veterinary practitioners have included two separate dorsoproximal-palmarodistal oblique (DPr-PaDiO) radiographs as part of a standard series of the equine foot. One image is obtained to visualise the distal phalanx and the other to visualise the navicular bone. However, rapid development of computed radiography and digital radiography and their post-processing capabilities could mean that this practice is no longer required. The aim of this study was to determine differences in perceived image quality between DPr-PaDiO radiographs that were acquired with a computerised radiography system with exposures, centring and collimation recommended for the navicular bone versus images acquired for the distal phalanx but were subsequently manipulated post-acquisition to highlight the navicular bone. Thirty images were presented to four clinicians for quality assessment and graded using a 1-3 scale (1=textbook quality, 2=diagnostic quality, 3=non-diagnostic image). No significant difference in diagnostic quality was found between the original navicular bone images and the manipulated distal phalanx images. This finding suggests that a single DPr-PaDiO image of the distal phalanx is sufficient for an equine foot radiographic series, with appropriate post-processing and manipulation. This change in protocol will result in reduced radiographic study time and decreased patient/personnel radiation exposure. PMID:27114406

  16. MR diagnosis of traumatic tear of the spring ligament in a pole vaulter.

    PubMed

    Chen, J P; Allen, A M

    1997-05-01

    The spring ligament is a significant contributor to the stability of the talar head and longitudinal arch of the foot, lending importance to accurate radiologic diagnosis of injury. Using MR, we diagnosed a spring ligament tear with associated navicular dorsal subluxation, confirmed intraoperatively. To our knowledge, there are no previous reports of MR diagnosis of tear of the spring ligament. PMID:9194234

  17. Repeated Stress Fractures in an Amenorrheic Marathoner: A Case Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, John R.; Nilson, Karen L.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a case conference by 2 experts on the relationship between a 26-year-old marathoner's amenorrhea and her sustained unusual stress fractures in 4 ribs (plus previous similar fractures of the calcaneal, navicular, metatarsal, and tibial bones). The experts conclude that she suffers many manifestations of overtraining. (SM)

  18. Observation of emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Greenland marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Gebbink, Wouter A; Bossi, Rossana; Rigét, Frank F; Rosing-Asvid, Aqqalu; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune

    2016-02-01

    The present pilot study examined emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), i.e., a suite of short chain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), PFAA precursors and replacement chemicals, and legacy PFASs (long chain length PFAAs) in livers from ringed seals, polar bears and, for the first time, killer whales from East Greenland collected in 2012-2013. Among the emerging PFASs, perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS) and F-53B (a chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonic acid) were detected in Arctic wildlife, albeit at concentrations approximately four orders of magnitude lower compared to perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS). PFOS was positively correlated with F-53B, but not PFBS in all three species. A total of 17 PFASs were detected in killer whales, including in a mother-fetus pair, demonstrating maternal transfer. ∑PFAS concentrations in killer whales (269 ± 90 ng/g) were comparable to concentrations found in ringed seals (138 ± 7 ng/g), however, an order of magnitude lower compared to concentrations found in polar bear livers (2336 ± 263 ng/g). Patterns of long chain PFAAs in killer whales differed from the pattern in ringed seals and polar bears. Of the monitored PFAA precursors, only perfluorooctanesulfonamide (FOSA) was detected in all three species, and FOSA/PFOS ratios and isomer patterns indicated that killer whales have a potential lower metabolic capacity to degrade FOSA compared to polar bears and ringed seals. PMID:26610298

  19. Perfluoroalkyl Acids (PFAAs) and Selected Precursors in the Baltic Sea Environment: Do Precursors Play a Role in Food Web Accumulation of PFAAs?

    PubMed

    Gebbink, Wouter A; Bignert, Anders; Berger, Urs

    2016-06-21

    The present study examined the presence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and selected precursors in the Baltic Sea abiotic environment and guillemot food web, and investigated the relative importance of precursors in food web accumulation of PFAAs. Sediment, water, zooplankton, herring, sprat, and guillemot eggs were analyzed for perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs; C4,6,8,10) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs; C6-15) along with six perfluoro-octane sulfonic acid (PFOS) precursors and 11 polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters (diPAPs). FOSA, FOSAA and its methyl and ethyl derivatives (Me- and EtFOSAA), and 6:2/6:2 diPAP were detected in sediment and water. While FOSA and the three FOSAAs were detected in all biota, a total of nine diPAPs were only detected in zooplankton. Concentrations of PFOS precursors and diPAPs exceeded PFOS and PFCA concentrations, respectively, in zooplankton, but not in fish and guillemot eggs. Although PFOS precursors were present at all trophic levels, they appear to play a minor role in food web accumulation of PFOS based on PFOS precursor/PFOS ratios and PFOS and FOSA isomer patterns. The PFCA pattern in fish could not be explained by the intake pattern based on PFCAs and analyzed precursors, that is, diPAPs. Exposure to additional precursors might therefore be a dominant exposure pathway compared to direct PFCA exposure for fish. PMID:27192404

  20. Fate and transport of perfluoro- and polyfluoroalkyl substances including perfluorooctane sulfonamides in a managed urban water body.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tung V; Reinhard, Martin; Chen, Huiting; Gin, Karina Y-H

    2016-06-01

    Transport and fate of perfluoro- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in an urban water body that receives mainly urban runoff was investigated. Water, suspended solids, and sediment samples were collected during the monsoon (wet) and inter-monsoon (dry) season at different sites and depths. Samples were analyzed for C7 to C12 perfluoroalkyl carboxylate homologues (PFCAs) (PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFDoA), perfluorohexane, perfluorooctane, and 6:2-fluorotelomer sulfonate (PFHxS, PFOS, and 6:2FtS, respectively), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA), N-ethyl FOSA (sulfluramid), N-ethyl sulfonamidoethanol (N-EtFOSE), and N-methyl and N-ethyl sulfonamidoacetic acid (N-EtFOSAA and N-MeFOSAA, respectively). Concentrations in wet samples were only slightly higher. The sum total PFAS (ΣPFAS) concentrations dissolved in the aqueous phase and sorbed to suspended solids (SS) ranged from 107 to 253 ng/L and 11 to 158 ng/L, respectively. PFOA, PFOS, PFNA, PFHxS, and PFDA contributed most (approximately 90 %) to the dissolved ΣPFASs. N-EtFOSA dominated the particulate PFAS burden in wet samples. K D values of PFOA and PFOS calculated from paired SS and water concentrations varied widely (1.4 to 13.7 and 1.9 to 98.9 for PFOA and PFOS, respectively). Field derived K D was significantly higher than laboratory K D suggesting hydrophobic PFASs sorbed to SS resist desorption. The ΣPFAS concentrations in the top sedimentary layer ranged from 8 to 42 μg/kg and indicated preferential accumulation of the strongly sorbing long-chain PFASs. The occurrence of the metabolites N-MeFOSAA, N-EtFOSAA and FOSA in the water column and sediments may have resulted from biological or photochemical transformations of perfluorooctane sulfonamide precursors while the absence of FOSA, N-EtFOSA and 6:2FtS in sediments was consistent with biotransformation. PMID:27146547

  1. [The anterior tarsal tunnel syndrome: a case report].

    PubMed

    Milants, C; Wang, F C; Gomulinski, L; Ledon, F; Petrover, D; Bonnet, R; Crielaard, J M; Kaux, J F

    2015-01-01

    The anterior tarsal tunnel syndrome is a rare entrapment neuropathy of the deep peroneal nerve beneath the inferior extensor retinaculum of the ankle. It is frequently unrecognized and may lead to misdiagnosis and delayed treatment. We report the case of a 77 year old patient complaining of symptoms of an anterior tarsal tunnel syndrome with neuropathic pain located at the dorsal part of the foot, without any sensorimotor loss. The ENMG was in favour of a motor impairment of the deep peroneal nerve. MRI exploration of the ankle showed a millimetric bony overgrowth of the upper pole of the navicular bone, irritative to the deep peroneal nerve. Infiltration at overgrowth of the navicular provided a partial and temporary decrease in pain symptoms. Surgical nerve decompression was then considered. PMID:26376569

  2. Jackson-Weiss syndrome: Clinical and radiological findings in a large kindred and exclusion of the gene from 7p21 and 5qter

    SciTech Connect

    Ades, L.C.; Haan, E.A.; Mulley, J.C.; Senga, I.P.; Morris, L.L.; David, D.J.

    1994-06-01

    We describe the clinical and radiological manifestations of the Jackson-Weiss syndrome (JWS) in a large South Australian kindred. Radiological abnormalities not previously described in the hands include coned epiphyses, distal and middle phalangeal hypoplasia, and carpal bone malsegmentation. New radiological findings in the feet include coned epiphyses, hallux valgus, phalangeal, tarso-navicular and calcaneo-navicular fusions, and uniform absence of metatarsal fusions. Absence of linkage to eight markers along the short arm of chromosome 7 excluded allelian between JWS and Saethre-Chotzen syndrome at 7p21. No linkage was detected to D5S211, excluding allelism to another recently described cephalosyndactyly syndrome mapping to 5qter. 35 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Diagnostic dilemmas in foot and ankle injuries

    SciTech Connect

    Keene, J.S.; Lange, R.H.

    1986-07-11

    Differential diagnosis of foot and ankle injuries should include (1) stress fractures of the great toe sesamoids, the shaft of the fifth metatarsal, and the tarsal navicular bone; (2) transchondral talar-dome fractures; (3) fractures of the os trigonum; and (4) dislocating peroneal tendons. Diagnosis of these injuries is challenging because the initial roentgenograms often are normal, and special clinical tests and ancillary studies are required.

  4. Posttraumatic posterior tibialis tendon insertional elongation with functional incompetency: a case report.

    PubMed

    Marks, R M; Schon, L C

    1998-03-01

    We present a case report and literature review of distal intrasubstance rupture of the posterior tibial tendon with progressive pes planovalgus secondary to tendon incompetence. Three months after a severe ankle sprain, a 25-year-old basketball player presented with ankle weakness and pain. Treatment by advancement of the posterior tibial tendon to the navicular and medial displacement osteotomy of the calcaneal tuberosity restored alignment, strength, and full function. PMID:9542993

  5. Treatment of athletes.

    PubMed

    DALY, J J

    1958-06-01

    Treating participants in athletics requires the coordination of coaches, trainers, administrators and physician. Often in cases of proneness to injury, a cause can be found and correction may be obtained by further training or withdrawal of the athlete from the team. Certain types of injury should be always kept in mind in the examination of athletes, particularly football players. Ligamentous tears, myositis ossificans, navicular fracture and brain injury are injuries that may not be precisely diagnosed at the initial examination. PMID:13536862

  6. The Relationship of Body Weight and Clinical Foot and Ankle Measurements to the Heel Forces of Forward and Backward Walking

    PubMed Central

    Albensi, Raymond J.; Nyland, John; Caborn, David N.M.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To compare and contrast the relationships of selected static clinical measurements with the heel forces of forward and backward walking among healthy high school athletes. Design and Setting: Single-group, cross-order-controlled, repeated-measures design. All data were collected in a high school athletic training room. Subjects: Seventeen healthy high school student-athlete volunteers. Measurements: We performed static clinical measurements of the foot, ankle, and knee using handheld goniometers. We used a metric ruler to assess navicular drop and a beam balance platform scale to measure body weight. Mean peak heel forces were measured using F-scan insole force sensors. Data were sampled for 3 5-second trials (50-Hz sampling rate). Mean peak heel forces were determined from 3 to 5 consecutive right foot contacts during forward and backward walking at approximately 4.02 to 4.83 km/h (2.5 to 3.0 mph). Subjects wore their own athletic shoes and alternated their initial walking direction. Results: Forward stepwise multiple regression analyses revealed that body weight, navicular drop, and standing foot angle predicted mean peak heel forces during forward and backward walking. Conclusions: Heel forces during forward and backward walking increase as body weight and navicular drop magnitude increase, and they decrease as standing foot angle increases. Subtle differences in foot, ankle, and knee joint postures and kinematics can affect heel forces even among normal subjects. Injury and protective bracing or taping may further affect these heel forces. PMID:16558581

  7. SALINE ARTHROGRAPHY OF THE DISTAL INTERPHALANGEAL JOINT FOR LOW-FIELD MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING OF THE EQUINE PODOTROCHLEAR BURSA: FEASIBILITY STUDY.

    PubMed

    McGill, Shannon L; Gutierrez-Nibeyro, Santiago D; Schaeffer, David J; Hartman, Susan K; O'Brien, Robert T; Joslyn, Stephen K

    2015-01-01

    Abnormalities of the deep digital flexor tendon, navicular bone, and collateral sesamoidean ligament can be difficult to visualize using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) if bursal fluid is absent. The use of saline podotrochlear bursography improves podotrochlear apparatus evaluation, however, the technique has disadvantages. The objective of this prospective feasibility study was to describe saline arthrography of the distal interphalangeal joint as an alternative technique for improving MRI visualization of the deep digital flexor tendon, navicular bone, collateral sesamoidean ligament, and podotrochlear bursa, and to compare this technique with saline podotrochlear bursography. Eight paired cadaver forelimbs were sampled. Saline podotrochlear bursography or saline arthrography techniques were randomly assigned to one limb, with the alternate technique performed on the contralateral limb. For precontrast and postcontrast studies using each technique, independent observers scored visualization of the dorsal aspect of the deep digital flexor tendon, palmar aspect of the navicular bone, collateral sesamoidean ligament, and podotrochlear bursa. Both contrast techniques improved visualization of structures over precontrast MR images and visualization scores for both techniques were similar. Findings from this study demonstrated that saline arthrography is feasible and comparable to saline podotrochlear bursography for producing podotrochlear bursa distension and separation of the structures of the podotrochlear apparatus on nonweight bearing limbs evaluated with low-field MRI. Clinical evaluation of saline arthrography on live animals is needed to determine if this technique is safe and effective as an alternative to saline podotrochlear bursography in horses with suspected pathology of the podotrochlear apparatus. PMID:25857430

  8. Characterization of Fosfomycin Resistant Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli Isolates from Human and Pig in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Sung-Pin; Wang, Sheng-Fan; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Huang, Jun-Wei; Hung, Wei-Chun; Ke, Guan-Ming; Lu, Po-Liang

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy of fosfomycin against extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli in Taiwan and the resistance mechanisms and characterization of human and pig isolates, we analyzed 145 ESBL-producing isolates collected from two hospitals (n = 123) and five farms (n = 22) in Taiwan from February to May, 2013. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined. Clonal relatedness was determined by PFGE and multi-locus sequence typing. ESBLs, ampC, and fosfomycin resistant genes were detected by PCR, and their flanking regions were determined by PCR mapping and sequencing. The fosfomycin resistant mechanisms, including modification of the antibiotic target (MurA), functionless transporters (GlpT and UhpT) and their regulating genes such as uhpA, cyaA, and ptsI, and antibiotic inactivation by enzymes (FosA and FosC), were examined. The size and replicon type of plasmids carrying fosfomycin resistant genes were analyzed. Our results revealed the susceptibility rates of fosfomycin were 94% for human ESBL-producing E. coli isolates and 77% for pig isolates. The PFGE analysis revealed 79 pulsotypes. No pulsotype was found existing in both human and pig isolates. Three pulsotypes were distributed among isolates from two hospitals. ISEcp1 carrying blaCTX-M-group 9 was the predominant transposable elements of the ESBL genes. Among the thirteen fosfomycin resistant isolates, functionless transporters were identified in 9 isolates. Three isolates contained novel amino acid substitutions (Asn67Ile, Phe151Ser and Trp164Ser, Val146Ala and His159Tyr, respectively) in MurA (the target of fosfomycin). Four isolates had fosfomycin modified enzyme (fosA3) in their plasmids. The fosA3 gene was harboured in an IncN-type plasmid (101 kbp) in the three pig isolates and an IncB/O-type plasmid (113 kbp) in the human isolate. In conclusion, we identified that 6% and 23% of the ESBL-producing E. coli from human and pigs were resistant to fosfomycin, respectively

  9. Does supplemental 18:0 alleviate fish oil-induced milk fat depression in dairy ewes?

    PubMed

    Toral, P G; Hervás, G; Carreño, D; Frutos, P

    2016-02-01

    Supplementation of dairy ewe diet with marine lipids may be an effective strategy for modulating milk fatty acid composition but induces milk fat depression (MFD). This syndrome has been associated with a shortage of 18:0 for uptake and Δ(9)-desaturation that may impair the capacity of the mammary gland to achieve an adequate fluidity for milk fat secretion. On this basis, it was suggested that supplemental 18:0 may contribute to alleviate marine lipid-induced MFD in sheep. To test this hypothesis, 12 lactating ewes were allocated to 1 of 3 lots and used in a 3×3 Latin square design with 3 periods of 28 d each and 3 experimental treatments: a total mixed ration without lipid supplementation (control) or supplemented with 20 g/kg of DM of fish oil alone (FO) or in combination with 20 g/kg of DM of 18:0 (FOSA). Diets were offered ad libitum, and animal performance and rumen and milk fatty acid composition were studied at the end of each period. After completing the Latin square trial and following a change-over design, the in vivo digestibility of supplemental 18:0 was estimated using 6 lactating sheep. As expected, diet supplementation with fish oil increased the milk content of some potentially health-promoting fatty acids (e.g., cis-9,trans-11 18:2, trans-11 18:1, 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3, and 22:6n-3), but reduced milk fat concentration and yield (-20% in both FO and FOSA treatments). Thus, although reductions in milk 18:0 and cis-9 18:1 output caused by FO (-81 and -51%, respectively) were partially reversed with FOSA diet (-49 and -27%, respectively), the addition of 18:0 to the diet did not prove useful to alleviate MFD. This response, which could not be fully accounted for by the low digestibility coefficient of supplemental 18:0, may challenge the theory of a shortage of this fatty acid as a mechanism to explain fish oil-induced MFD in sheep. Effects of FO and FOSA on rumen and milk fatty acid composition would support that increases in the concentration of some

  10. Formation of perfluorinated surfactants from precursors by indigenous microorganisms in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Michio; Nishikoori, Hiroshi; Sakai, Hiroshi; Oguma, Kumiko; Takada, Hideshige; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2013-09-01

    The formation of perfluorinated surfactants (PFSs) from their precursors in waters is of concern. In this study, the formation of PFSs through biodegradation of precursors was measured in incubation tests. Indigenous microorganisms in groundwater were able to biodegrade perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) to yield perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). The addition of nutrients and soil promoted the formation. A 42-d incubation test using sources of groundwater recharge showed that PFOS, perfluorooctanoate, and perfluorononanoate were significantly and remarkably (⩾1.5×) formed from precursors in street runoff through biodegradation, but not in rainwater or wastewater effluent. Significant formation of PFSs from precursors in street runoff was observed. PMID:23746363

  11. Polyfluorinated Compounds in Serum Linked to Indoor Air in Office Environments

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Alicia J; Webster, Thomas F; Watkins, Deborah J; Nelson, Jessica W; Stapleton, Heather M; Calafat, Antonia M; Kato, Kayoko; Shoeib, Mahiba; Vieira, Verónica M; McClean, Michael D

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the role of indoor office air on exposure to polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) among office workers. Week-long, active air sampling was conducted during the winter of 2009 in 31 offices in Boston, MA. Air samples were analyzed for fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), sulfonamides (FOSAs), and sulfonamidoethanols (FOSEs). Serum was collected from each participant (n=31) and analyzed for twelve PFCs including PFOA and PFOS. In air, FTOHs were present in the highest concentrations, particularly 8:2-FTOH (GM=9,920 pg/m3). FTOHs varied significantly by building with the highest levels observed in a newly constructed building. PFOA in serum was significantly correlated with air levels of 6:2-FTOH (r=0.43), 8:2-FTOH (r=0.60), and 10:2-FTOH (r=0.62). Collectively, FTOHs in air significantly predicted PFOA in serum (p < 0.001) and explained approximately 36% of the variation in serum PFOA concentrations. PFOS in serum was not associated with air levels of FOSAs/FOSEs. In conclusion, FTOH concentrations in office air significantly predict serum PFOA concentrations in office workers. Variation in PFC air concentrations by building is likely due to differences in the number, type, and age of potential sources such as carpeting, furniture and/or paint. PMID:22148395

  12. Behaviors of N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamide ethanol (N-EtFOSE) in a soil-earthworm system: Transformation and bioaccumulation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shuyan; Ma, Xinxin; Fang, Shuhong; Zhu, Lingyan

    2016-06-01

    N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamido ethanol (N-EtFOSE) is a typical precursor of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). In this study, the behaviors of N-EtFOSE in a soil-earthworm system, including biodegradation in soil and bioaccumulation and biotransformation in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were investigated. N-EtFOSE could be biodegraded in soil and biotransformed in earthworms to several metabolites, including n-ethylperfluorooctane sulfonamide acetate (N-EtFOSAA), perfluorooctane sulfonamide acetate (FOSAA), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) and PFOS, with N-EtFOSAA as the predominant intermediate and PFOS as the terminal product in both soil and earthworm. The uptake rate coefficients (ku, 0.746 goc gdw(-1)d(-1)), degradation rate constant in soil (k0, 0.138 d(-1)) and the biota-to-soil accumulation factor (BSAF, 0.523 goc gdw(-1)) of N-EtFOSE were estimated. For N-EtFOSE, N-EtFOSAA, FOSAA, FOSA and PFOS, their loss rate constants in earthworms were in the range of 0.467-30.2 (α) and 0.006-0.415 (β) d(-1), respectively. The results provided important information about the behaviors of N-EtFOSE in the soil-earthworm system. PMID:26950632

  13. Perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) in household dust in Central Europe and North America.

    PubMed

    Karásková, Pavlína; Venier, Marta; Melymuk, Lisa; Bečanová, Jitka; Vojta, Šimon; Prokeš, Roman; Diamond, Miriam L; Klánová, Jana

    2016-09-01

    Concentrations of 20 perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) were measured in dust samples from 41 homes in Canada, the Czech Republic, and United States in the spring-summer of 2013. The most frequently detected compounds were perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) had the highest concentrations of PFASs in all countries. PFOS median concentrations for the three countries were between 9.1 and 14.1ng/g, and PFOA medians ranged between 8.2 and 9.3ng/g. In general, concentrations in North America were higher than in the Czech Republic, which is consistent with usage patterns. No differences were found for perfluorooctane sulfonamides/sulfonamidoethanols (FOSA/Es) levels due to the low number of detections. Homologue profiles suggest that the shift from longer to shorter chain PFASs is more advanced in North America than in Europe. Significant relationships were found among individual homologues and between PFAS concentrations in dust and type of floor, number of people living in the house, and building age. PMID:27295048

  14. Characterization of two passive air samplers for per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Lutz; Harner, Tom; Shoeib, Mahiba; Koblizkova, Martina; Reiner, Eric J

    2013-12-17

    Two passive air sampler (PAS) media were characterized under field conditions for the measurement of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the atmosphere. The PASs, consisting of polyurethane foam (PUF) and sorbent-impregnated PUF (SIP) disks, were deployed for over one year in parallel with high volume active air samplers (HV-AAS) and low volume active air samplers (LV-AAS). Samples were analyzed for perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs), fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), fluorotelomer methacrylates (FTMACs), fluorotelomer acrylates (FTACs), perfluorooctane sulfonamides (FOSAs), and perfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanols (FOSEs). Sampling rates and the passive sampler medium (PSM)-air partition coefficient (KPSM-A) were calculated for individual PFASs. Sampling rates were similar for PFASs present in the gas phase and particle phase, and the linear sampling rate of 4 m(-3) d(-1) is recommended for calculating effective air sample volumes in the SIP-PAS and PUF-PAS for PFASs except for the FOSAs and FOSEs in the PUF-PAS. SIP disks showed very good performance for all tested PFASs while PUF disks were suitable only for the PFSAs and their precursors. Experiments evaluating the suitability of different isotopically labeled fluorinated depuration compounds (DCs) revealed that (13)C8-perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was suitable for the calculation of site-specific sampling rates. Ambient temperature was the dominant factor influencing the seasonal trend of PFASs. PMID:24219299

  15. Perfluoroalkyl substances and extractable organic fluorine in surface sediments and cores from Lake Ontario.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Leo W Y; De Silva, Amila O; Loi, Eva I H; Marvin, Chris H; Taniyasu, Sachi; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Mabury, Scott A; Muir, Derek C G; Lam, Paul K S

    2013-09-01

    Fourteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) including short-chain perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs, C4-C6) and perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs, C4 and C6) were measured in surface sediment samples from 26 stations collected in 2008 and sediment core samples from three stations (Niagara, Mississauga, and Rochester basins) collected in 2006 in Lake Ontario. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA) were detected in all 26 surface sediment samples, whereas perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA), perfluorododecanoate (PFDoDA) and perfluorobutanoate (PFBA) were detected in over 70% of the surface sediment samples. PFOS was detected in all of the sediment core samples (range: 0.492-30.1ngg(-1) d.w.) over the period 1952-2005. The C8 to C11 PFCAs, FOSA, and PFBA increased in early 1970s. An overall increasing trend in sediment PFAS concentrations/fluxes from older to more recently deposited sediments was evident in the three sediment cores. The known PFCAs and PFSAs accounted for 2-44% of the anionic fraction of the extractable organic fluorine in surface sediment, suggesting that a large proportion of fluorine in this fraction remained unknown. Sediment core samples collected from Niagara basin showed an increase in unidentified organic fluorine in recent years (1995-2006). These results suggest that the use and manufacture of fluorinated organic compounds other than known PFCAs and PFSAs has diversified and increased. PMID:23911339

  16. Subtalar coalition in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Mosca, Vincent S

    2015-06-01

    Subtalar tarsal coalition is an autosomal dominant developmental maldeformation that affects between 2% and 13% of the population. The most common locations are between the calcaneus and navicular and between the talus and calcaneus. If prolonged attempts at nonoperative management do not relieve the pain, surgery is indicated. The exact surgical technique(s) should be based on the location of the pain, the size and histology of the coalition, the health of the other joints and facets, the degree of foot deformity, and the excursion of the heel cord. PMID:26043243

  17. Congenital vertical talus: a review.

    PubMed

    McKie, Janay; Radomisli, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Congenital vertical talus, also known as congenital convex pes valgus, is an uncommon disorder of the foot, manifested as a rigid rocker-bottom flatfoot. Radiographically, it is defined by dorsal dislocation of the navicular on the talus. This condition requires surgical correction. If left untreated, this foot deformity results in a painful and rigid flatfoot with weak push-off power. This article provides an overview of this rare foot deformity, outlines appropriate workup of the disorder, and details current treatment options, with emphasis on the evolution of treatment of congenital vertical talus. PMID:19963176

  18. Evaluation and Surgical Management of the Overcorrected Clubfoot Deformity in the Adult Patient.

    PubMed

    Burger, Dawid; Aiyer, Amiethab; Myerson, Mark S

    2015-12-01

    Adult patients presenting with an overcorrected clubfoot often have had a posteromedial release. They present later in life and have compensated quite well despite the development of deformity. Minor trauma may lead to the onset of acute symptoms. A spectrum of deformity exists. Key features include a dorsally subluxated navicular, a dorsal bunion from overpull of the tibialis anterior tendon, valgus of the ankle or hindfoot or both, and a flattop talus. This article details the diagnostic approach to the overcorrected clubfoot patient and options for management of the various components of the deformity. PMID:26589080

  19. [Talus fractures--fractures of the most important tarsal bone].

    PubMed

    Klaue, K

    2004-07-01

    The talus is the key bone of the foot due to its location between the ankle and the subtalar joints. Through the flexion and extension of the ankle joint, the talus is the "propulsive bone" situated at the root of the first ray and the hallux. Through the subtalar and talo-navicular joints, the talus allows the foot to be "suspended" using a fancy spring mechanism involving ligaments and tendons. The talus thus transmits forces through two important joints without any direct muscular constraint. The talo-calcaneo-navicular joint may be called the "coxa pedis" due to the anatomical and functional similitudes with the coxofemoral joint ("coxa pelvis"). Fractures of the talus are rare. Talus fractures can be classified in "central" and "peripheral" fractures. Central fractures occur through a strong axial blow provided that the ankle and coxa pedis are locked by extrinsic muscular contraction. Peripheral fractures instead occur in an extreme position of the ankle or the coxa pedis, with a subluxation or complete dislocation of one or more of those joints. Central fractures produce a bony solution of continuity in between at least two of the ankle, subtalar and talo-navicular joints. Peripheral fractures mostly do implement joint surfaces which are sheared off. Aim of treating talus fractures is precise and stable reduction of the fragments because most often, the fractures cross the articular layers. The surgical approaches are critical, especially in displaced central fractures, because the reduction may require visual control all around the bone. There are three approaches which might be used as single approaches or combined simultaneously: the anteromedial approach along the subtalar joint from the navicular to the retro-malleolar region, the anterolateral approach centered on the sinus tarsi (Ollier) and the postero-lateral approach (Gallie). In many cases, a joint distraction device may help visualization of the different joint spaces as well as assist reduction

  20. Risk factors associated with medial tibial stress syndrome in runners: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Phil; Witchalls, Jeremy; Waddington, Gordon; Adams, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Background Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) affects 5%–35% of runners. Research over the last 40 years investigating a range of interventions has not established any clearly effective management for MTSS that is better than prolonged rest. At the present time, understanding of the risk factors and potential causative factors for MTSS is inconclusive. The purpose of this review is to evaluate studies that have investigated various risk factors and their association with the development of MTSS in runners. Methods Medical research databases were searched for relevant literature, using the terms “MTSS AND prevention OR risk OR prediction OR incidence”. Results A systematic review of the literature identified ten papers suitable for inclusion in a meta-analysis. Measures with sufficient data for meta-analysis included dichotomous and continuous variables of body mass index (BMI), ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, navicular drop, orthotic use, foot type, previous history of MTSS, female gender, hip range of motion, and years of running experience. The following factors were found to have a statistically significant association with MTSS: increased hip external rotation in males (standard mean difference [SMD] 0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.29–1.04, P<0.001); prior use of orthotics (risk ratio [RR] 2.31, 95% CI 1.56–3.43, P<0.001); fewer years of running experience (SMD −0.74, 95% CI −1.26 to −0.23, P=0.005); female gender (RR 1.71, 95% CI 1.15–2.54, P=0.008); previous history of MTSS (RR 3.74, 95% CI 1.17–11.91, P=0.03); increased body mass index (SMD 0.24, 95% CI 0.08–0.41, P=0.003); navicular drop (SMD 0.26, 95% CI 0.02–0.50, P=0.03); and navicular drop >10 mm (RR 1.99, 95% CI 1.00–3.96, P=0.05). Conclusion Female gender, previous history of MTSS, fewer years of running experience, orthotic use, increased body mass index, increased navicular drop, and increased external rotation hip range of motion in males are all significantly

  1. Neutral polyfluoroalkyl substances in the global atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Gawor, A; Shunthirasingham, C; Hayward, S J; Lei, Y D; Gouin, T; Mmereki, B T; Masamba, W; Ruepert, C; Castillo, L E; Shoeib, M; Lee, S C; Harner, T; Wania, F

    2014-03-01

    Concentrations of neutral per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (nPFAS) in the atmosphere are of interest because nPFAS are highly mobile percursors for perfluoroalkyl acids. Two calibration studies in Ontario, Canada and Costa Rica established the feasibility of using XAD 2-resin based passive air samplers (XAD-PAS) to reliably determine long term average air concentrations of nPFAS under temperate and tropical climatic conditions. The temporal and spatial distribution of nPFAS was investigated by analyzing XAD-PAS deployed for one year at between 17 and 46 sites on six continents between 2006 and 2011 as part of the Global Atmospheric Passive Sampling (GAPS) study. Higher levels of fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) compared to fluorinated sulfonamides (FOSAs), and fluorinated sulfonamidoethanols (FOSEs) were observed at all sites. Urban sites had the highest levels of nPFAS compared to rural and remote sites, which is also apparent in a positive correlation of nPFAS levels with the proximity of a sampling site to areas of high population density. Levels of FOSAs and FOSEs tended to decrease during the six years of measurements, whereas an initial decline in the concentrations of FTOHs from 2006 to 2008 did not continue in 2009 to 2011. A comparison of nPFAS levels measured in national XAD-PAS networks in Costa Rica and Botswana revealed that the GAPS sites in Tapanti and the Kalahari are representative of the more remote regions in those countries. XAD-PAS derived absolute nPFAS levels at GAPS sites are lower than those measured using another PAS, but are within the range of levels measured with active air samplers. Agreement of relative nPFAS composition is better between samplers, suggesting that the discrepancy is due to uncertain sampling rates. PMID:24232015

  2. A Rare Case Report of A Young Male Patient Presenting with Osteoblastoma of the Talus

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Kiran S; Somayaji, Haridas M; Nandi, Santhosh S

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Osteoblastoma is a rare (incidence <1%) benign locally aggressive osteoblastic lesion of bone with rare malignant transformation. Benign osteoblastoma is the term used by Jaffe to denote an uncommon neoplasm of bone characterized by vascular osteoid and bone forming matrix rich in osteoblasts. Case Report: Here we report a case of osteoblastoma of talus in eighteen year old male patient from Bijapur with complaints of pain and difficulty in walking for one year. Relevant investigations and radiographs were taken. It was treated with wide excision and bone grafting from ipsilateral ilium and talo-navicular fusion with cannulated cancellous screw fixation. Histopathology of the biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. Patient was immobilized with below knee plaster cast for six weeks later with gradual mobilization. Guarded weight bear was allowed after three months. Patient achieved satisfactory range of movements and full weight bear mobilization after six months. Symptoms relieved with no evidence of any recurrence in one year follow up. Conclusion: Osteoblastoma of talus is a rare benign tumor, if suspected surgical wide excision and talo-navicular fusion with cannulated cancellous screw fixation, with bone grafting is the better treatment of choice. The condition can only be confirmed after histopathological examination.

  3. Naviculocuneiform Coalition: Case Reports of Two Sibling Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Amol; Fournier, Magali

    2016-01-01

    Tarsal coalitions are an abnormal union between 2 tarsal bones. They occur most commonly between the calcaneus and talus or the calcaneus and navicular but can also arise from other joints in the foot. Isolated cases of coalitions between the medial cuneiform and navicular are extremely rare, and only a few cases have been reported. Treatment recommendations are, therefore, sparse, and no long-term follow-up data have been reported. We present the case of 2 sisters, each diagnosed with a symptomatic naviculocuneiform coalition. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case in 2 first-degree relatives. Both sisters were involved in sports and presented with pain during physical activities. After conservative treatment had failed, they were both treated successfully with surgical excision of the coalition and arthrodiastasis, followed by a progressive return to activities. At the last follow-up examination at 5 and 3 years postoperatively, they remained pain free and fully involved in college soccer, making excision of a naviculocuneiform coalition with arthrodiastasis a valid treatment in the young athletic population. PMID:26489490

  4. Sagittal plane blockage of the foot, ankle and hallux and foot alignment-prevalence and association with low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Brantingham, James W.; Lee Gilbert, Joanne; Shaik, Junaid; Globe, Gary

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Some practitioners believe mechanical low back pain may be caused or aggravated by a stiff ankle, stiff great toe or flat feet. This study investigates subjects with and without mechanical low back pain and measures ankle and great toe range of motion and flattening of the medial longitudinal arch in both groups. Methods The study was a blinded, 2-arm, non- randomized clinical study involving 100 subjects with chronic or recurrent mechanical low back pain (intervention group) and 104 subjects without chronic mechanical low back pain (control group) between the ages of 18 and 45. A blind assessor performed weight-bearing goniometry of the ankle and big toe and the navicular drop test on all subjects in both groups. Results An independent t-test (inter-group) revealed a statistically significant decrease (p ≤ 0.05) in ankle dorsiflexion range of motion in individuals with chronic mechanical low back pain. The independent t-test suggested individuals with chronic mechanical low back pain have a significantly smaller navicular drop and higher arches (p < 0.05). Conclusion This study supports previous reports suggesting decreased ankle dorsiflexion may be a factor in chronic mechanical low-back pain. Further research and replication of this study is necessary before firm conclusions or recommendations can be made. PMID:19674683

  5. Biomechanical behavior of valgus foot in children with cerebral palsy: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Junchao; Wang, Lizhen; Mo, Zhongjun; Chen, Wei; Fan, Yubo

    2015-09-18

    Valgus foot (VF) is the most common foot deformity in children with cerebral palsy (CP), which seriously affects the foot balance in standing and posture control in walking. Little information about the locus and stress of internal bones was available. To accurately describe the biomechanical behavior of the internal bones of VF in CP, we compared the locus and stress of internal bones between the normal foot (NF) and VF by finite element models. Compared with the NF, displacement of the talus and navicular drop in VF increased by 109% and 171% in vertical direction respectively, and the locus of talus had a tendency to clockwise rotation and downward movement in coronal plane. In addition, the abduction angle of forefoot in VF increased up to 10.3°, which was twice more than that in the NF. Moreover, the lateral metatarsophalangeal joints were upward tilted 6.3° comparing with touchdown posture of NF, and peak von Mises stress of the internal bones in VF model concentrated on the fourth metatarsal. The simulation showed that locus of the forefoot, downward rotation of talus head and navicular drop were meaningful to quantify the collapse of medial longitudinal arch. It would provide some suggestions to the rehabilitation treatments of the CP children's VF. PMID:26209085

  6. Stress fractures in athletes.

    PubMed

    Hulkko, A; Orava, S

    1987-06-01

    During the 14-year period of 1971-1985, 368 stress fractures in 324 athletes were treated. The series contained 268 fractures in males and 100 fractures in females; 32 fractures occurred in children (less than 16 years), 117 in adolescents (16-19 years), and 219 in adults. Forty-six fractures were incurred by athletes at an international level, 274 by athletes at a national or district level and 48 by recreational athletes. Of the total cases, 72% occurred to runners and a further 12% to athletes in other sports after running exercises. The distribution of the stress fractures by site was: tibia 182, metatarsal bones 73, fibula 44, big toe sesamoid bones 15, femoral shaft 14, femoral neck 9, tarsal navicular 9, pelvis 7, olecranon 5 and other bones 10. Of the total fractures, 342 were treated conservatively and 26 fractures required surgical treatment. The operative indication was dislocation in 5 cases and delayed union/nonunion in 21 cases. The sites most often affected by delayed union were: anterior midtibia, sesamoid bones of the big toe, base of the fifth metatarsal, olecranon, and tarsal navicular. The athletes at an international level experienced the greatest risk of multiple separate fractures, protracted healing, or fractures requiring surgery. PMID:3623785

  7. Delayed unions and nonunions of stress fractures in athletes.

    PubMed

    Orava, S; Hulkko, A

    1988-01-01

    From 1971 to 1985, 369 athletes presented to us with stress fractures. Of these patients, 10% (37) were treated for development of delayed unions or nonunions. Twenty-seven of the patients were male and 10 were female. Their mean age was 23.1 years (range, 17 to 39). About half of the athletes were involved in endurance sports. The diagnostic criteria for a delayed union or nonunion were clinical and radiological evidence. There was a diagnostic delay of about 3.5 months in the series. Plain radiographs, tomography, and isotope scans were used in the diagnosis. Special radiographic views were also used. In 15 cases (10 hallux sesamoid bone fractures, 1 midtibial shaft fracture, 1 metatarsal V base fracture, 1 tarsal navicular fracture, 1 olecranon fracture, and 1 proximal tibial shaft fracture) nonoperative treatment was used. Operative treatment was used 22 times (5 sesamoid fractures, 5 midtibial fractures, 5 metatarsal V base fractures, 3 tarsal navicular fractures, 3 olecranon fractures, and 1 proximal tibial shaft fracture). Results were good or excellent in 32 cases (86.5%), moderate in 4 cases, and poor in 1 case. PMID:3189662

  8. Pneumococcal meningitis in an adolescent with fever and foot ache.

    PubMed

    Dias, Catarina; Pedrosa, Cláudia; Romariz, Jorge; Santos, Mafalda; Rodrigues, Lúcia

    2013-01-01

    Invasive pneumococcal disease predominantly affects younger children, elderly, and immunocompromised patients. Pneumococcal meningitis is a particularly important form of presentation, considering its high rate of morbimortality. We present the case of a previously healthy 12-year-old adolescent male who was hospitalized due to suspicion of osteoarticular infection in his left foot. A few hours later, he developed meningeal signs, exhibiting slight pleocytosis and Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in both cerebrospinal fluid and blood. Imaging studies were inconclusive regarding the nature of the foot disorder. We considered the hypothesis of osteomyelitis of the navicular bone as the most likely, for which he completed six weeks of antibiotic therapy. There was a favorable clinical evolution, along with complete absence of osteoarticular or neurological sequelae. The relevance of this clinical case resides in the unusual presentation of invasive pneumococcal disease in this age group, as well as in the rare form of orthopedic involvement. PMID:23956909

  9. Aneurysmal bone cyst of medial cuneiform and a novel surgical technique for mid-foot reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Sampath Kumar, Venkatesan; Jalan, Divesh; Khan, Shah Alam; Mridha, Asit Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    Aneurysmal bone cyst of the foot is extremely rare and the involvement of medial cuneiform has never been reported in the literature. In this report, we describe a 15-year-old boy who presented with a 6-month history of pain and swelling in his left foot. Radiograph demonstrated a lytic lesion in the medial cuneiform extending on to the middle cuneiform, the navicular bone and the base of the first metatarsal. En bloc resection of the lesion was performed using a dorsal longitudinal incision along the first ray. Tricortical iliac crest graft was harvested and shaped to fill the defect. Two drill holes were made and the tibialis anterior tendon was attached to the graft. Prepared, morcellised allograft was placed along the junction of autograft and host bone. At 1-year follow-up, the patient was pain free, the medial arch of the foot was maintained and the graft had united with the host bone. PMID:24563041

  10. [Element Analysis of a Chinese Yagen Bearing the Inscription of "Product of the Ming-Zhengde Period" [Property of the Naito Memorial Museum of Pharmaceutical Science and Industry, Gifu] using an X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Okuda, Jun; Morita, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Yagen (see text) is an oriental grinder for crude plant medicines. It consists of a disk and navicular mortar. A Chinese yagen with the inscription, "Product of the Ming-Zhengde Period (See text), (1506-1521 A.D.)" has been housed for 40 years in the Naito Memorial Museum of Pharmaceutical Science and Industry (Kakamigahara, Gifu Prefecture, Japan). To identify the district that produced this yagen, the authors analyzed the elements using an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. The results showed that the blue design and blue Chinese characters on the yagen were enameled with elements of cobalt, manganese, and iron. Therefore, it is believed that the yagen was made in an old porcelain kiln near Zhangzhou in Fujian Province, China. However, as the period of production could not determined in the present study, further research is needed in the future. PMID:26427097

  11. On the history and definition of Preiser's disease.

    PubMed

    Kallen, A M; Strackee, S D

    2014-09-01

    In 1910, Georg Preiser (1876-1913) described five cases of rarifying osteitis. Based on his imaging studies, he diagnosed post-traumatic avascular necrosis (AVN) of the scaphoid without any sign of primary fracture. This was followed by an article in 1911 in which Preiser related his findings to Kienböck's disease and Köhler's disease of the tarsal navicular. Upon searching the literature, we found descriptions and discussions of Preiser's imaging; however, the original images have never been published. We reproduce Preiser's original imaging in this current review. All of these appear to show a fracture and no signs of AVN, suggesting that Georg Preiser misinterpreted his findings. There is no apparent uniformity in the literature regarding the definition, description, or aetiology of Preiser's disease, and it is for this reason that we find the use of eponyms to be confusing. PMID:24027134

  12. [Congenital rocker-bottom foot (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schulitz, K P; Schumacher, G; Parsch, K

    1977-02-01

    A report was made of 19 patients with rocker-bottom foot operated on during the last 10 years in the Orthopedic Hospital and Out-Patient Clinic of the University of Heidelberg. No additional bone anomalies were present in 6 cases. The remaining malformations occurred together with multiple contractures and in the context of spina bifida cystica. The various malformations of the foot were divided into three groups. This study is particularly concerned with therapy for rocker-bottom foot. Conservative measures are not suitable for types I and Ia while conservative therapy should be attempted in type II. The surgical procedure involves 4 steps: development of the calcancal part of the foot, repositioning of the navicular bone, new adjustment of the ankle and various stabilization measures including the Grice operation and transposition of various tendons. The surgical procedure and the results were discussed. PMID:320773

  13. Pneumococcal Meningitis in an Adolescent with Fever and Foot Ache

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Catarina; Pedrosa, Cláudia; Romariz, Jorge; Santos, Mafalda; Rodrigues, Lúcia

    2013-01-01

    Invasive pneumococcal disease predominantly affects younger children, elderly, and immunocompromised patients. Pneumococcal meningitis is a particularly important form of presentation, considering its high rate of morbimortality. We present the case of a previously healthy 12-year-old adolescent male who was hospitalized due to suspicion of osteoarticular infection in his left foot. A few hours later, he developed meningeal signs, exhibiting slight pleocytosis and Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in both cerebrospinal fluid and blood. Imaging studies were inconclusive regarding the nature of the foot disorder. We considered the hypothesis of osteomyelitis of the navicular bone as the most likely, for which he completed six weeks of antibiotic therapy. There was a favorable clinical evolution, along with complete absence of osteoarticular or neurological sequelae. The relevance of this clinical case resides in the unusual presentation of invasive pneumococcal disease in this age group, as well as in the rare form of orthopedic involvement. PMID:23956909

  14. An unusual presentation of arteriovenous malformation as an erosive midfoot lesion.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Hasan Raza; Bhatti, Waqar; Pillai, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Erosive bony lesions are radiographic findings where localized bone resorption and cortical line breakage occurs. One less common cause of bone erosions is arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). This should always be included in the differentials for foot pain.A 33-year-old gentleman presented with a 5-year history of chronic left foot pain. Clinical examination was unremarkable. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computerized tomography demonstrated erosive bone changes in the navicular, the intermediate and lateral cuneiforms bones and their corresponding metatarsal bases. An ultrasound and magnetic resonance angiogram demonstrated high signal showing the abnormal communication between metatarsal artery and vein at the site of most pain confirming the AVM. This was subsequently successfully treated with sclerotherapy.Clinicians should be aware of the history, symptoms and signs of AVMs and consider the use of MRI with or without digital subtraction angiography in making a definitive diagnosis. PMID:27605662

  15. RADIOGRAPHIC ABNORMALITIES OF THE TALUS IN PATIENTS WITH CLUBFOOT AFTER SURGICAL RELEASE USING THE MCKAY TECHNIQUE

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, José Antonio; Hernandes, Andréa Canizares; Buchaim, Thais Paula; Blumetti, Francesco Camara; Chertman, Carla; Yamane, Patrícia Corey; da Rocha Corrêa Fernandes, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze morphological abnormalities of the talus in patients with clubfoot after surgical treatment using the McKay technique. Method: Lateral standing-position radiographs of the feet of 14 patients with unilateral clubfoot who underwent treatment by means of the doubleincision McKay technique were retrospectively analyzed. All the patients were operated by the same surgeon, with an average of 6.53 years between surgery and the radiograph. We compared the radiographic characteristics of the talus between the operated and the contralateral foot. We assessed the presence of deformity of the talar dome and head (sphericity evaluation); the talar length and height; the percentage and degree of navicular subluxation; abnormalities of the Gissane angle; and the trabecular bone pattern. Results: Abnormalities of the talar head occurred in 92.8% of the patients; of the talar dome in 92.8%; and of the trabecular pattern in 100%. The talar length ratio between the operated and the contralateral foot ranged from 0.61 to 0.88 (mean 0.79; SD = 0.09), while the height ratio ranged from 0.57 to 0.98 (mean 0.82; SD = 0.12). The Gissane angle was greater in all of the operated feet, and all of them also showed navicular subluxation, at a rate ranging from 6.43 to 59.75% (mean 26.34%; SD = 16.66%). Conclusion: Talar abnormalities occurred in 100% of the feet treated using the McKay technique. It was shown that establishing radiographic parameters to describe and quantify these deformities was feasible, through simple and easy-to-perform techniques. PMID:27047821

  16. The Relationships between Foot Arch Volumes and Dynamic Plantar Pressure during Midstance of Walking in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hsun-Wen; Chieh, Hsiao-Feng; Lin, Chien-Ju; Su, Fong-Chin; Tsai, Ming-June

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between the foot arch volume measured from static positions and the plantar pressure distribution during walking. Methods A total of 27 children, two to six years of age, were included in this study. Measurements of static foot posture were obtained, including navicular height and foot arch volume in sitting and standing positions. Plantar pressure, force and contact areas under ten different regions of the foot were obtained during walking. Results The foot arch index was correlated (r = 0.32) with the pressure difference under the midfoot during the foot flat phase. The navicular heights and foot arch volumes in sitting and standing positions were correlated with the mean forces and pressures under the first (r = −0.296∼−0.355) and second metatarsals (r = −0.335∼−0.504) and midfoot (r = −0.331∼−0.496) during the stance phase of walking. The contact areas under the foot were correlated with the foot arch parameters, except for the area under the midfoot. Conclusions The foot arch index measured in a static position could be a functional index to predict the dynamic foot functions when walking. The foot arch is a factor which will influence the pressure distribution under the foot. Children with a lower foot arch demonstrated higher mean pressure and force under the medial forefoot and midfoot, and lower contact areas under the foot, except for the midfoot region. Therefore, children with flatfoot may shift their body weight to a more medial foot position when walking, and could be at a higher risk of soft tissue injury in this area. PMID:24736650

  17. Genetic correlations between conformation traits and radiographic findings in the limbs of German Warmblood riding horses.

    PubMed

    Stock, Kathrin Friederike; Distl, Ottmar

    2006-01-01

    Studbook inspection (SBI) data of 20 768 German Warmblood mares and radiography results (RR) data of 5102 Hanoverian Warmblood horses were used for genetic correlation analyses. The scores on a scale from 0 to 10 were given for conformation and basic quality of gaits, resulting in 14 SBI traits which were used for the correlation analyses. The radiographic findings considered included osseous fragments in fetlock (OFF) and hock joints (OFH), deforming arthropathy in hock joints (DAH) and distinct radiographic findings in the navicular bones (DNB) which were analyzed as binary traits, and radiographic appearance of the navicular bones (RNB) which was analyzed as a quasi-linear trait. Genetic parameters were estimated multivariately in linear animal models with REML using information on 24 448 horses with SBI and/or RR records. The ranges of heritability estimates were h2 = 0.14-0.34 for the RR traits and h2 = 0.09-0.50 for the SBI traits. Negative additive genetic correlations of r(g) = -0.19 to -0.56 were estimated between OFF and conformation of front and hind limbs and walk at hand, and between DNB and hind limb conformation. There were indications of negative additive genetic correlations between DAH and all SBI traits, but because of low prevalence and low heritability of DAH, these results require further scrutiny. Positive additive genetic correlations of r(g) = 0.37-0.52 were estimated between OFF and withers height and between OFH and withers height, indicating that selection for taller horses will increase disposition to develop OFF and OFH. Selection of broodmares with regards to functional conformation will assist, but cannot replace possible selection against radiographic findings in the limbs of young Warmblood riding horses, particularly with regards to OFF. PMID:17129565

  18. Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in indoor dust and food packaging materials in Egypt: Trends in developed and developing countries.

    PubMed

    Shoeib, Tamer; Hassan, Yasmeen; Rauert, Cassandra; Harner, Tom

    2016-02-01

    PFASs concentrations in dust samples collected from three microenvironments in Cairo ranged from 1.3 to 69 ng g(-1) with FTOHs being dominant. The 8:2 FTOH was detected in all samples. Among the FOSAs and FOSEs the MeFOSE was dominant while among ionic PFASs, PFOS and PFOA were most prominent. The concentrations of PFASs were among the lowest worldwide. Correlations between worldwide concentrations of PFOS + PFOA and country development indexes highlight higher usage and human exposure in more developed countries. Food packaging was analyzed for PFSAs, PFCAs and PAPs. The 6:2 and 8:2 monoPAPs were found to be above the MDL in 18% of the samples. PFOA was detected in 79% of the samples with median concentration of 2.40 ng g(-1). PFOS was detected in 58% of the samples with median concentration of 0.29 ng g(-1) while PFHxS and PFDS were below detection limit. Different human exposure scenarios were estimated. PMID:26517384

  19. Complete Sequences and Characterization of Two Novel Plasmids Carrying aac(6')-Ib-cr and qnrS Gene in Shigella flexneri.

    PubMed

    Pu, Xiao-Ying; Pan, Jing-Cao; Gu, Ya-Ming; Zheng, Wei; Li, Jun; Yu, Hua

    2016-03-01

    The complete sequences of two previously reported plasmids carrying plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes from Shigella flexneri in China have not been available. The present study using the p5-C3 assembly method revealed that (1) the plasmid pSF07201 with aac(6')-Ib-cr had 75,335 bp with antibiotic resistance genes CTX-M-3, TEM-1, and FosA3; (2) seven fragments of pSF07201 had more than 99% homology with the seven corresponding plasmids; (3) the other plasmid pSF07202 with qnrS had 47,669 bp with antibiotic resistance gene TEM-1 and 99.95% homology with a segment of pKF362122, which has the qnrS gene from location 162,490 to 163,146. A conjugation and electrotransformation experiment suggested that these two plasmids might horizontally transfer between and coexist in Escherichia coli J53 and S. flexneri 2a 301. Either the aac(6')-Ib-cr or qnrS gene contributed to, but only the coexistence of the two genes conferred to the resistance to ciprofloxacin in these two strains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the complete sequences of the aac(6')-Ib-cr- and qnrS-positive plasmids in Shigella isolates. Our findings indicate that two genes probably evolve through horizontal plasmid transfer between the different bacterial types. PMID:26469217

  20. Optimization of dynamic roughness elements for reducing drag in a laminar boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayadi, Taraneh; Sayadi, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Roughness elements can serve as controllers in both laminar and turbulent regimes to, for example, reduce the skin friction or drag. In this study, adjoint-based optimization is employed to extract the optimal shape of roughness elements for reducing drag, in a laminar setting, given an initial condition. The roughness elements considered here are of the ``dynamic'' type, varying both in space and time, which allows control over the spatial distribution of the roughness but also the inherent timescales of the flow. Dynamic roughness is modeled here using the linearized boundary conditions previously introduced by McKeon (2008), where the no-slip and impermeability boundary conditions are replaced by stream-wise and wall-normal distributions at the wall. The adjoint equation is then implemented using the discretized approach by Fosas et al. (2012). This approach is particularly efficient, since the linearized operators are computed simply by using the local differentiation technique, without explicitly forming the resulting matrices for both forward and adjoint operators. Using the described framework we investigate the effect of the initial condition on the spatial distribution of the roughness elements and their variation in time as the drag coefficient is minimized.

  1. Perfluoroalkyl contaminants in the Canadian Arctic: evidence of atmospheric transport and local contamination.

    PubMed

    Stock, Naomi L; Furdui, Vasile I; Muir, Derek C G; Mabury, Scott A

    2007-05-15

    Perfluorosulfonates (PFSAs) and perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) have been hypothesized to reach remote locations such as the Canadian Arctic either indirectly as volatile precursor chemicals that undergo atmospheric transport and subsequent degradation, or directly via oceanic and atmospheric transport of the PFSAs and PFCAs themselves. Water, sediment, and air samples were collected from three Arctic lakes (Amituk, Char, and Resolute) on Cornwallis Island, Nunavut, Canada. Samples were analyzed for PFSAs and PFCAs, precursor chemicals including the fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and polyfluorinated sulfonamides (FSAs), and precursor degradation products such as the fluorotelomer unsaturated carboxylates (FTUCAs). PFSAs and PFCAs were detected in water and sediment of all three Arctic lakes (concentrations ranged from nondetect to 69 ng/L and nondetect to 85 ng/g dry weight, respectively). FTOHs and FSAs were observed in air samples (mean concentrations ranged from 2.8 to 29 pg/m3), and confirm that volatile precursors are reaching Arctic latitudes. The observation of degradation products, including FTUCAs observed in sediment and atmospheric particles, and N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamide (NEtFOSA) and perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA) in air samples, indicate that degradation of the FTOHs and FSAs is occurring in the Arctic environment. PFSAs and PFCAs were also observed on atmospheric particles (mean concentrations ranged from < 0.1 to 5.9 pg/m3). In addition, results of this study also indicate that local perfluoroalkyl contamination of Resolute Lake, which is located downstream of an airport wastewater input, has occurred. PMID:17547174

  2. Potential exposure routes and accumulation kinetics for poly- and perfluorinated alkyl compounds for a freshwater amphipod: Gammarus spp. (Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Bertin, Delphine; Labadie, Pierre; Ferrari, Benoît J D; Sapin, Alexandre; Garric, Jeanne; Geffard, Olivier; Budzinski, Hélène; Babut, Marc

    2016-07-01

    Gammarids were exposed to sediments from a deposition site located on the Rhône River (France) downstream of a fluoropolymer manufacturing plant. Gammarids accumulated to various extents four long-chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) from C9 to C13, one sulfonate, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and three of its precursors (the perflurooctane sulfonamide (FOSA), the N-methyl perfluorooctane sulfonamidoacetic acid (MeFOSAA), the N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamidoacetic acid (EtFOSAA) and the 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (6:2 FTSA). Whatever the compound, the steady state was not achieved after a 3-week exposure; elimination was almost complete after a 3-week depuration period for perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), PFOS, the three precursors and the 6:2FTSA. However, this was not the case for long-chain PFCAs, whose elimination rates decreased with increasing chain length. PFAS accumulation in gammarids occurred via the trophic and respiratory pathways, in proportions varying with the carbon chain length and the terminal moiety. PMID:27139118

  3. Spatial and temporal trends in perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in ringed seals (Pusa hispida) from Svalbard.

    PubMed

    Routti, Heli; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Herzke, Dorte; Kovacs, Kit M; Lydersen, Christian

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates concentrations of perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) and perfluoroalkane sulfonamides (FASA) in plasma from ringed seals sampled in the period 1990-2010 (n = 71) in Svalbard, Norway. Perfluorooctane sulfonate was dominant among the perfluoroalkyl substances. PFCAs were dominated by perfluoroundecanoate followed by perfluorononanoate. C4C8 PFCAs and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) were detected in ≤42% of the samples. PFSA and PFCA concentrations were higher in seals sampled from Kongsfjorden, a fjord influenced by strong inflows of Atlantic Water compared to seals from fjords dominated by Arctic Water (e.g. Billefjorden). Sex, age and body condition of the seals did not influence PFAS concentrations. Due to the confounding effect of year and sampling area, temporal trends were assessed only in seals sampled from Kongsfjorden (5 years, n = 51). PFHxS and PFOS concentrations did not show significant linear trends during the whole study period, but a decrease was observed since 2004. Concentrations of all of the detected PFCAs (C9C13 PFCAs) increased until 2004 after which they have declined or stabilized. PMID:27089420

  4. Perfluorooctane sulfonate: a review of human exposure, biomonitoring and the environmental forensics utility of its chirality and isomer distribution.

    PubMed

    Miralles-Marco, Ana; Harrad, Stuart

    2015-04-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) found extensive use for over 60 years up until its restriction in the early 2000s, culminating in its listing under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in 2009. Efforts to minimise human body burdens are hindered by uncertainty over their precise origins. While diet appears the principal source for the majority of western populations (with other pathways like dust ingestion, drinking water and inhalation also important contributors); the role played by exposure to PFOS-precursor compounds followed by in vivo metabolism to PFOS as the ultimate highly stable end-product is unclear. Such PFOS-precursor compounds include perfluorooctane sulfonamide derivates, e.g., perfluorooctane sulfonamides (FOSAs) and sulfonamidoethanols (FOSEs). Understanding the indirect contribution of such precursors to human body burdens of PFOS is important as a significant contribution from this pathway would render the margin of safety between the current exposure limits and estimates of external exposure to PFOS alone, narrower than hitherto appreciated. Estimates derived from mathematical modelling studies, put the contribution of so-called "precursor exposure" at between 10% and 40% of total PFOS body burdens. However, there are substantial uncertainties associated with such approaches. This paper reviews current understanding of human exposure to PFOS, with particular reference to recent research highlighting the potential of environmental forensics approaches based on the relative abundance and chiral signatures of branched chain PFOS isomers to provide definitive insights into the role played by "precursor exposure". PMID:25728452

  5. Genetic correlations between performance traits and radiographic findings in the limbs of German Warmblood riding horses.

    PubMed

    Stock, K F; Distl, O

    2007-01-01

    Results of mare performance tests in the field (MPT-F) of 10,949 mares, mare performance tests at station (MPT-S) of 1,712 mares, and inspections of horses intended for sale at riding horse auctions (AU) of 4,772 horses were used to investigate genetic correlations between corresponding performance traits. Mare performance tests were held in 1995 to 2004 and auction inspections in 1999 to 2004. Scores on a scale from 0 to 10 were given for gaits under rider (walk, trot, canter), rideability (evaluated by judging commission and test rider), free-jumping (ability, style, total), and character. Radiography results of 5,102 Hanoverian Warmblood horses were used to investigate genetic correlations between performance traits and particular radiographic findings. The radiographic findings included osseous fragments in fetlock and hock joints, deforming arthropathy in hock joints, and distinct radiographic findings in the navicular bones, which were analyzed as binary traits, and radiographic appearance of the navicular bones, which was analyzed as a quasi-linear trait. Genetic parameters were estimated multivariately in linear animal models with REML using information on the horses radiographed and their contemporaries (n = 18,609). Heritability of performance traits ranged between 0.14 and 0.61, and heritability of radiographic findings between 0.14 and 0.33. Additive genetic correlations between corresponding performance traits were close to unity for MPT-F and MPT-S, ranged from 0.81 to 0.90 for MPT-F and AU, and were 0.75 to 0.92 for MPT-S and AU. Genetic correlations between performance and radiography results were mostly close to zero. Indications of negative additive genetic correlations were observed for deforming arthropathy in hock joints and canter, rideability evaluated by test rider, jumping traits and character, and osseous fragments in hock joints and character. Selection of horses for radiological health of their limbs will assist further genetic

  6. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in snow, lake, surface runoff water and coastal seawater in Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Cai, Minghong; Yang, Haizhen; Xie, Zhiyong; Zhao, Zhen; Wang, Feng; Lu, Zhibo; Sturm, Renate; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2012-03-30

    The multi-matrices samples from snow (n=4), lake water (n=4), surface runoff water (SRW) (n=1) and coastal seawater (n=10) were collected to investigate the spatial distribution and the composition profiles of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica in 2011. All samples were prepared by solid-phase extraction and analyzed by using high performance liquid chromatography/negative electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/(-)ESI-MS/MS). 14 PFASs in snow, 12 PFASs in lake water, 9 PFASs in SRW and 13 PFASs in coastal seawater were quantified, including C(4), C(7), C(8), C(10) PFSAs, C(4)-C(9), C(11)-C(14), C(16) PFCAs, and FOSA. PFOA was detected in all samples with the highest concentration (15,096 pg/L) in coastal seawater indicating a possible influence of local sewage effluent. High concentration and mostly frequency of PFBA occurred in snow (up to 1112 pg/L), lake water (up to 2670 pg/L) and SRW (1431 pg/L) while detected in the range of method detection limited (MDL) in the coastal seawaters indicate that PFBA is mainly originated from atmospheric dust contamination and also affected by the degradation of their precursors. No geographical differences in PFOS concentrations (n=8, 18 ± 3 pg/L) were measured in all snow and lake water samples also suggests that PFOS could be originated from the degradation of their precursors which can transported by long-range atmospheric route, but in a very low level. PMID:22305203

  7. New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase 1(NDM-1), the Dominant Carbapenemase Detected in Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacter cloacae from Henan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuchun; Lang, Shaolei; Feng, Xianju; Liu, Hong-Min

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) has become established as a major public health threat and represents a new challenge in the treatment of infectious diseases. In this study, we report a high incidence and endemic spread of NDM-1-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter cloacae isolates in Henan province, China. Eight (72.7%) out of eleven non-duplicated carbapenem-resistant E. cloacae isolates collected between June 2011 and May 2013 were identified as NDM-1 positive. The blaNDM-1 gene surrounded by an entire ISAba125 element and a bleomycin resistance gene bleMBL in these isolates were carried by diverse conjugatable plasmids (IncA/C, IncN, IncHI2 and untypeable) ranging from ~55 to ~360 kb. Molecular epidemiology analysis revealed that three NDM-1-producing E. cloacae belonged to the same multilocus sequence type (ST), ST120, two of which were classified as extensively drug-resistant (XDR) isolates susceptible only to tigecycline and colistin. The two XDR ST120 E. cloacae isolates co-harbored blaNDM-1, armA and fosA3 genes and could transfer resistance to carbapenems, fosfomycin and aminoglycosides simultaneously via a conjugation experiment. Our study demonstrated NDM-1 was the most prevalent metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) among carbapenem-resistant E.cloacae isolates and identified a potential endemic clone of ST120 in Henan province. These findings highlight the need for enhanced efforts to monitor the further spread of NDM-1 and XDR ST120 E. cloacae in this region. PMID:26263489

  8. Occurrence and source characterization of perfluorochemicals in an urban watershed.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Viet Tung; Reinhard, Martin; Karina, Gin Yew-Hoong

    2011-02-01

    Perfluorochemicals (PFCs) are used in numerous applications, mainly as surfactants, and occur ubiquitously in the environment as complex mixtures. This study was undertaken to characterize the occurrence and sources of commonly detected PFC compounds in surface waters of the Marina catchment, a watershed that drains an urbanized section of Singapore. Of the 19 target PFCs, 13 were detected with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (5-31 ng L(-1)) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (1-156 ng L(-1)) being the dominant components. Other compounds detected included perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (C7-C12) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (C6 and C8). Sulfonamide compounds detected 2-(N-ethylperfluorooctanesulfonamido) acetic acid (N-EtFOSAA), 2-(N-methylperfluorooctanesulfonamido) acetic acid (N-MeFOSAA), perfluorooctanesulfonamido acetic acid (FOSAA) and perfluorooctanesulfonamide (FOSA) were putative transformation products of N-EtFOSE and N-MeFOSE, the N-ethylated and N-methylated ethyl alcohol derivatives, respectively. Surface water concentrations were generally higher during dry weather than during storm water flow: the median concentrations of total PFCs in dry and wet weather were 57 and 138 ng L(-1) compared to 42 and 79 ng L(-1), respectively, at Stamford and Alexandra canal, suggesting the presence of a continuous source(s) which is subject to dilution during storm events. In rain water, median concentrations were 6.4 ng L(-1), suggesting rain contributed from 12-25% to the total PFC load for non-point source sites. The longitudinal concentration profile along one of the canals revealed a point source of sulfonated PFCs (PFOS), believed to originate from aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF). Sources were characterized using principal component analysis (PCA) and by plotting PFHxS/PFOA against PFOS/PFOA. Typical surface waters exhibit PFOS/PFOA and PFHxS/PFOA ratios below 0.9 and 0.5, respectively. PCA plots reveal waters impacted by "non-typical" PFC sources in Alexandra

  9. Co-spread of metal and antibiotic resistance within ST3-IncHI2 plasmids from E. coli isolates of food-producing animals

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Liangxing; Li, Xingping; Li, Liang; Li, Shumin; Liao, Xiaoping; Sun, Jian; Liu, Yahong

    2016-01-01

    Concerns have been raised in recent years regarding co-selection for antibiotic resistance among bacteria exposed to heavy metals, particularly copper and zinc, used as growth promoters for some livestock species. In this study, 25 IncHI2 plasmids harboring oqxAB (20/25)/blaCTX-M (18/25) were found with sizes ranging from ∼260 to ∼350 kb and 22 belonged to the ST3-IncHI2 group. In addition to blaCTX-M and oqxAB, pcoA-E (5/25) and silE-P (5/25), as well as aac(6′)-Ib-cr (18/25), floR (16/25), rmtB (6/25), qnrS1(3/25) and fosA3 (2/25), were also identified on these IncHI2 plasmids. The plasmids carried pco and sil contributed to increasing in the MICs of CuSO4 and AgNO3. The genetic context surrounding the two operons was well conserved except some variations within the pco operon. The ~32 kb region containing the two operons identified in the IncHI2 plasmids was also found in chromosomes of different Enterobacteriaceae species. Further, phylogenetic analysis of this structure showed that Tn7-like transposon might play an important role in cross-genus transfer of the sil and pco operons among Enterobacteriaceae. In conclusion, co-existence of the pco and sil operons, and oqxAB/blaCTX-M as well as other antibiotic resistance genes on IncHI2 plasmids may promote the development of multidrug-resistant bacteria. PMID:27143648

  10. The 2013 September-October seismic sequence offshore Spain: a case of seismicity triggered by gas injection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesca, Simone; Grigoli, Francesco; Heimann, Sebastian; González, Álvaro; Buforn, Elisa; Maghsoudi, Samira; Blanch, Estefania; Dahm, Torsten

    2014-08-01

    A spatially localized seismic sequence originated few tens of kilometres offshore the Mediterranean coast of Spain, close to the Ebro river delta, starting on 2013 September 5, and lasting at least until 2013 October. The sequence culminated in a maximal moment magnitude Mw 4.3 earthquake, on 2013 October 1. The most relevant seismogenic feature in the area is the Fosa de Amposta fault system, which includes different strands mapped at different distances to the coast, with a general NE-SW orientation, roughly parallel to the coastline. However, no significant known historical seismicity has involved this fault system in the past. The epicentral region is also located near the offshore platform of the Castor project, where gas is conducted through a pipeline from mainland and where it was recently injected in a depleted oil reservoir, at about 2 km depth. We analyse the temporal evolution of the seismic sequence and use full waveform techniques to derive absolute and relative locations, estimate depths and focal mechanisms for the largest events in the sequence (with magnitude mbLg larger than 3), and compare them to a previous event (2012 April 8, mbLg 3.3) taking place in the same region prior to the gas injection. Moment tensor inversion results show that the overall seismicity in this sequence is characterized by oblique mechanisms with a normal fault component, with a 30° low-dip angle plane oriented NNE-SSW and a subvertical plane oriented NW-SE. The combined analysis of hypocentral location and focal mechanisms could indicate that the seismic sequence corresponds to rupture processes along shallow low-dip surfaces, which could have been triggered by the gas injection in the reservoir, and excludes the activation of the Amposta fault, as its known orientation is inconsistent with focal mechanism results. An alternative scenario includes the iterated triggering of a system of steep faults oriented NW-SE, which were identified by prior marine seismics

  11. The 2013 seismic sequence close to gas injection platform of the Castor project, offshore Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesca, Simone; Grigoli, Francesco; Heimann, Sebastian; Gonzalez, Alvaro; Buforn, Elisa; Maghsoudi, Samira; Blanch, Estefania; Dahm, Torsten

    2014-05-01

    A spatially localized seismic sequence has originated few tens of kilometres offshore the Mediterranean coast of Spain, starting on September 5, 2013, and lasting at least until October 2013. The sequence culminated in a maximal moment magnitude Mw 4.3 earthquake, on October 1, 2013. The epicentral region is located near the offshore platform of the Castor project, where gas is conducted through a pipeline from mainland and where it was recently injected in a depleted oil reservoir, at about 2 km depth. We analyse the temporal evolution of the seismic sequence and use full waveform techniques to derive absolute and relative locations, estimate depths and focal mechanisms for the largest events in the sequence (with magnitude mbLg larger than 3), and compare them to a previous event (April 8, 2012, mbLg 3.3) taking place in the same region prior to the gas injection. Moment tensor inversion results show that the overall seismicity in this sequence is characterized by oblique mechanisms with a normal fault component, with a 30° low-dip angle plane oriented NNE-SSW and a sub- vertical plane oriented NW-SE. The combined analysis of hypocentral location and focal mechanisms could indicate that the seismic sequence corresponds to rupture processes along sub- horizontal shallow surfaces, which could have been triggered by the gas injection in the reservoir,. An alternative scenario includes the iterated triggering of a system of steep faults oriented NW-SE, which were identified by prior marine seismics investigations. The most relevant seismogenic feature in the area is the Fosa de Amposta fault system, which includes different strands mapped at different distances to the coast, with a general NE-SW orientation, roughly parallel to the coastline. No significant known historical seismicity has involved this fault in the past. Our both scenarios exclude its activation, as its known orientation is inconsistent with focal mechanism results.

  12. Altitudinal transect of atmospheric and aqueous fluorinated organic compounds in Western Canada.

    PubMed

    Loewen, Mark; Wania, Frank; Wang, Feiyue; Tomy, Gregg

    2008-04-01

    Neutral perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs), which are thought to be volatile precursors of environmentally ubiquitous perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), were quantified in XAD-2 resin based passive air samplers deployed along an altitudinal transect from 800 to 2740 m above sea level (asl) in Western Canada (based at N51degrees 20' W117degrees 00') over the spring and summer seasons of 2004. The amounts of fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and perfluorinated sulfonamido alcohols (FOSEs) sequestered in the samplers increased with altitude, being lowest at an elevation of 1300 m asl and highest at either the 2340 or the 2740 m asl sites. A variety of potential reasons for these gradients are discussed, including changes in sampler uptake kinetics and phase capacity caused by changes in atmospheric pressure,temperature, and wind speed. Vapor phase concentrations were estimated to range from 3.7 to 19 pg m(-3) for perfluorinated sulfonamides (FOSAs) and from below detection limits (25 pg m(-3)) to 88 pg m(-3) for FOSEs. Over a similar altitudinal range (800-2350 m asl), 9 L lake water samples were collected in stainless steel cans, extracted with solid phase extraction columns, and analyzed for PFCAs and PFOS. Aqueous concentrations in lake water, ranging from 0.07 to 1.0 ng L(-1) for single PFCAs and from 0.04 to 0.1 ng L(-1) for PFOS, were more constant with altitude and were not correlated with the amount of the precursor compounds in the atmosphere. The relative abundance of FTOHs in air and PFCAs in water supports atmospheric FTOH degradation as the source of PFCAs in the mountain lakes. PMID:18504968

  13. Ecology and conservation of the crowned lemur, Lemur coronatus, at Ankarana, n. Madagascar. With notes on Sanford's lemur, other sympatrics and subfossil lemurs.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J M; Stewart, P D; Ramangason, G S; Denning, A M; Hutchings, M S

    1989-01-01

    Forests of Ankarana limestone massif in northern Madagascar support one of the largest and least disturbed populations of Crowned Lemurs, Lemur coronatus. This paper reports a preliminary study of the ecology of this species in the Ankarana Special Reserve conducted at the end of the dry season in 1986, with additional information collected a year later. Crowned Lemurs occur in very high densities in the semi-deciduous canopy forest and this probably represents a dry season refuge for the species. They also use more open habitats, including sparsely vegetated limestone and degraded forest. Sanford's Lemur, Lemur fulvus sanfordi, also inhabits the Ankarana forests but is most abundant in degraded habitats. Crowned and Sanford's Lemurs had similar patterns of activity, which included nocturnal travelling and feeding bouts. Crowned Lemurs proved to be unusual among Lemur species in displaying low spatial troop cohesion and a lack of obvious troop hierarchy. Stronglyoides-like enteric helminths infested about one third of Crowned Lemurs but were apparently not causing disease. Crowned Lemurs fall prey to the Fosa, Cryptoprocta ferox, and the young possibly also to the largest raptors. A total of seven living lemur species (including the very rare Propithecus diadema perrieri and Daubentonia madagascariensis) were confirmed at Ankarana by the authors, and three further species have been reported by other observers. In addition to these ten extant lemurs, four subfossil species have been discovered: three of them (Hapalemur simus, Palaeopropithecus and Mesopropithecus) by the authors. The possibility that all 14 lemurs were once sympatric is discussed. For the present, the lemurs of Ankarana are protected from hunting by local taboo. Nevertheless they are under severe threat from habitat destruction, despite Ankarana's Special Reserve status. Given the very restricted distributions of Crowned and Sanford's Lemurs, both must be considered as threatened with extinction

  14. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and perfluorinated compounds in the atmosphere of North Greenland.

    PubMed

    Bossi, Rossana; Vorkamp, Katrin; Skov, Henrik

    2016-10-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and neutral per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been measured at Villum Research Station, Station Nord (North Greenland) in the period 2008-2013. Atmospheric concentrations of OCPs at the same site have been previously reported for the years 2008-2010. The detection frequency and the average concentrations of OCPs have not significantly changed since the previous study. PBDE congeners (∑13PBDEs) were measured for the first time in North Greenland at concentrations similar to those observed for other remote sites, confirming that these compounds are ubiquitous in the Northern Hemisphere. The ∑13PBDEs concentration ranged from not detected (n.d.) to 6.26 pg m(-3). The BDE congeners found in more than 30% of the samples were BDE-17, BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-71, BDE-99 and BDE-100. Also for neutral PFAS we present for the first time a multiyear series of measurements for North Greenland. The average sum of the seven measured neutral PFAS (∑7PFAS) ranged from 1.82 to 32.1 pg m(-3). The most abundant compound was 8:2 FTOH (44% of ∑7PFAS), followed by 6:2 FTOH and 10:2 FTOH. Perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides (FOSA) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonamidoethanols (FOSE) were also detected but at much lower concentrations than FTOHs. Temporal trends were investigated for all measured compounds but no significant trend in concentration was observed. Monthly average concentrations for the six years were calculated for each compound and the seasonal variation was investigated. Some OCPs and FTOHs showed seasonal variations, and in most cases a maximum was found during summer. PMID:26809479

  15. Spatial distribution and loading amounts of particle sorbed and dissolved perfluorinated compounds in the basin of Tokyo Bay.

    PubMed

    Zushi, Yasuyuki; Ye, Feng; Motegi, Mamoru; Nojiri, Kiyoshi; Hosono, Shigeo; Suzuki, Toshinari; Kosugi, Yuki; Yaguchi, Kumiko; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2012-09-01

    In this study, we analyzed over 30 types of PFCs, including precursors in both the dissolved phase and particle solid phase, in 50 samples of river water collected from throughout the Tokyo Bay basin. PFCs were detected in suspended solids (SSs) at levels ranging from <0.003-4.4 ng L(-1) (0.11-2470 ng g(-1) dry weight). The concentrations of PFCs in the SS were one to two order(s) of magnitude lower than those of PFCs in the dissolved phase. Relatively high levels of PFCs (total of 35 PFCs) in SS were observed in urbanized areas. The concentration of PFCAs, including PFOA and PFNA, were significantly correlated with the geographic index as artificial area (R(2) of the linear regression curve in a double logarithmic plot: 0.09-0.55). Conversely, PFOS and FOSA were significantly correlated with the arterial traffic area (R(2) in a double logarithmic plot: 0.29-0.55). Those spatial trends were similar to the trends in dissolved PFCs. We estimated the loading amount of PFCs into Tokyo Bay from six main rivers and found that more than 90% of the total PFCs reached Tokyo Bay in the dissolved phase. However, 40.0-83.5% of the long chain PFCAs (C12-C15), were transported as particle sorbed PFCs. Rain runoff events might increase the loading amount of PFCs in SS. Overall, the results presented herein indicate that greater attention should be given to PFCs, especially for longer chain PFCs in SS in addition to dissolved PFCs. PMID:22698375

  16. Neutral polyfluoroalkyl substances in the atmosphere over the northern South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Lai, Senchao; Song, Junwei; Song, Tianli; Huang, Zhijiong; Zhang, Yingyi; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Guicheng; Zheng, Junyu; Mi, Wenying; Tang, Jianhui; Zou, Shichun; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Xie, Zhiyong

    2016-07-01

    Neutral Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the atmosphere were measured during a cruise campaign over the northern South China Sea (SCS) from September to October 2013. Four groups of PFASs, i.e., fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), fluorotelomer acrylates (FTAs), fluorooctane sulfonamides (FOSAs) and fluorooctane sulfonamidoethanols (FASEs), were detected in gas samples. FTOHs was the predominant PFAS group, accounting for 95.2-99.3% of total PFASs (ΣPFASs), while the other PFASs accounted for a small fraction of ΣPFASs. The concentrations of ΣPFASs ranged from 18.0 to 109.9 pg m(-3) with an average of 54.5 pg m(-3). The concentrations are comparable to those reported in other marine atmosphere. Higher concentrations of ΣPFASs were observed in the continental-influenced samples than those in other samples, pointing to the substantial contribution of anthropogenic sources. Long-range transport is suggested to be a major pathway for introducing gaseous PFASs into the atmosphere over the northern SCS. In order to further understand the fate of gaseous PFASs during transport, the atmospheric decay of neutral PFASs under the influence of reaction with OH radicals and atmospheric physical processes were estimated. Concentrations of 8:2 FTOH, 6:2 FTOH and MeFBSE from selected source region to the atmosphere over the SCS after long-range transport were predicted and compared with the observed concentrations. It suggests that the reaction with OH radicals may play an important role in the atmospheric decay of PFAS during long-range transport, especially for shorted-lived species. Moreover, the influence of atmospheric physical processes on the decay of PFAS should be further considered. PMID:27112727

  17. High Incidence and Endemic Spread of NDM-1-Positive Enterobacteriaceae in Henan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Shangshang; Fu, Ying; Zhang, Qijing; Qi, Hui; Wen, Jian Guo; Xu, Hui; Xu, Lijuan; Zeng, Li; Tian, Hao; Rong, Lijuan; Li, Yonghong; Shan, Lihong; Xu, Hongde; Yu, Yunsong

    2014-01-01

    The emergence and spread of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1)-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) present an urgent threat to human health. In China, the blaNDM-1 gene has been reported mostly in Acinetobacter spp. but is rarely found in Enterobacteriaceae. Here, we report a high incidence and endemic spread of NDM-1-producing CRE in Henan Province in China. Sixteen (33.3%) of the 48 CRE isolates obtained from patients during June 2011 to July 2012 were positive for blaNDM-1, and the gene was found to be carried on plasmids of various sizes (∼55 to ∼360 kb). These plasmids were readily transferrable to recipient Escherichia coli by conjugation, conferred resistance to multiple antibiotics, and belonged to multiple replicon types. The blaNDM-1-positive CRE isolates were genetically diverse, and six new multilocus sequence typing (MLST) sequence types were linked to the carriage of NDM-1. Five of the isolates were classified as extensively drug-resistant (XDR) isolates, four of which also carried the fosA3 gene conferring resistance to fosfomycin, an alternative drug for treating infections by CRE. In each blaNDM-1-positive CRE isolate, the blaNDM-1 gene was downstream of an intact ISAba125 element and upstream of the bleMBL gene. Furthermore, gene environment analysis suggested the possible transmission of blaNDM-1-containing sequences from Acinetobacter spp. to Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca. These findings reveal the emergence and active transmission of NDM-1-positive CRE in China and underscore the need for heightened measures to control their further spread. PMID:24777095

  18. Hunting, Exotic Carnivores, and Habitat Loss: Anthropogenic Effects on a Native Carnivore Community, Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Farris, Zach J; Golden, Christopher D; Karpanty, Sarah; Murphy, Asia; Stauffer, Dean; Ratelolahy, Felix; Andrianjakarivelo, Vonjy; Holmes, Christopher M; Kelly, Marcella J

    2015-01-01

    The wide-ranging, cumulative, negative effects of anthropogenic disturbance, including habitat degradation, exotic species, and hunting, on native wildlife has been well documented across a range of habitats worldwide with carnivores potentially being the most vulnerable due to their more extinction prone characteristics. Investigating the effects of anthropogenic pressures on sympatric carnivores is needed to improve our ability to develop targeted, effective management plans for carnivore conservation worldwide. Utilizing photographic, line-transect, and habitat sampling, as well as landscape analyses and village-based bushmeat hunting surveys, we provide the first investigation of how multiple forms of habitat degradation (fragmentation, exotic carnivores, human encroachment, and hunting) affect carnivore occupancy across Madagascar's largest protected area: the Masoala-Makira landscape. We found that as degradation increased, native carnivore occupancy and encounter rates decreased while exotic carnivore occupancy and encounter rates increased. Feral cats (Felis species) and domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) had higher occupancy than half of the native carnivore species across Madagascar's largest protected landscape. Bird and small mammal encounter rates were negatively associated with exotic carnivore occupancy, but positively associated with the occupancy of four native carnivore species. Spotted fanaloka (Fossa fossana) occupancy was constrained by the presence of exotic feral cats and exotic small Indian civet (Viverricula indica). Hunting was intense across the four study sites where hunting was studied, with the highest rates for the small Indian civet (mean=90 individuals consumed/year), the ring-tailed vontsira (Galidia elegans) (mean=58 consumed/year), and the fosa (Cryptoprocta ferox) (mean=31 consumed/year). Our modeling results suggest hunters target intact forest where carnivore occupancy, abundance, and species richness, are highest. These various

  19. Co-spread of metal and antibiotic resistance within ST3-IncHI2 plasmids from E. coli isolates of food-producing animals.

    PubMed

    Fang, Liangxing; Li, Xingping; Li, Liang; Li, Shumin; Liao, Xiaoping; Sun, Jian; Liu, Yahong

    2016-01-01

    Concerns have been raised in recent years regarding co-selection for antibiotic resistance among bacteria exposed to heavy metals, particularly copper and zinc, used as growth promoters for some livestock species. In this study, 25 IncHI2 plasmids harboring oqxAB (20/25)/blaCTX-M (18/25) were found with sizes ranging from ∼260 to ∼350 kb and 22 belonged to the ST3-IncHI2 group. In addition to blaCTX-M and oqxAB, pcoA-E (5/25) and silE-P (5/25), as well as aac(6')-Ib-cr (18/25), floR (16/25), rmtB (6/25), qnrS1(3/25) and fosA3 (2/25), were also identified on these IncHI2 plasmids. The plasmids carried pco and sil contributed to increasing in the MICs of CuSO4 and AgNO3. The genetic context surrounding the two operons was well conserved except some variations within the pco operon. The ~32 kb region containing the two operons identified in the IncHI2 plasmids was also found in chromosomes of different Enterobacteriaceae species. Further, phylogenetic analysis of this structure showed that Tn7-like transposon might play an important role in cross-genus transfer of the sil and pco operons among Enterobacteriaceae. In conclusion, co-existence of the pco and sil operons, and oqxAB/blaCTX-M as well as other antibiotic resistance genes on IncHI2 plasmids may promote the development of multidrug-resistant bacteria. PMID:27143648

  20. Plasmid metagenomics reveals multiple antibiotic resistance gene classes among the gut microbiomes of hospitalised patients.

    PubMed

    Jitwasinkul, Tossawan; Suriyaphol, Prapat; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Hansen, Martin Asser; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Sørensen, Søren Johannes; Permpikul, Chairat; Rongrungruang, Yong; Tribuddharat, Chanwit

    2016-09-01

    Antibiotic resistance genes are rapidly spread between pathogens and the normal flora, with plasmids playing an important role in their circulation. This study aimed to investigate antibiotic resistance plasmids in the gut microbiome of hospitalised patients. Stool samples were collected from seven inpatients at Siriraj Hospital (Bangkok, Thailand) and were compared with a sample from a healthy volunteer. Plasmids from the gut microbiomes extracted from the stool samples were subjected to high-throughput DNA sequencing (GS Junior). Newbler-assembled DNA reads were categorised into known and unknown sequences (using >80% alignment length as the cut-off), and ResFinder was used to classify the antibiotic resistance gene pools. Plasmid replicon modules were used for plasmid typing. Forty-six genes conferring resistance to several classes of antibiotics were identified in the stool samples. Several antibiotic resistance genes were shared by the patients; interestingly, most were reported previously in food animals and healthy humans. Four antibiotic resistance genes were found in the healthy subject. One gene (aph3-III) was identified in the patients and the healthy subject and was related to that in cattle. Uncommon genes of hospital origin such as blaTEM-124-like and fosA, which confer resistance to extended-spectrum β-lactams and fosfomycin, respectively, were identified. The resistance genes did not match the patients' drug treatments. In conclusion, several plasmid types were identified in the gut microbiome; however, it was difficult to link these to the antibiotic resistance genes identified. That the antibiotic resistance genes came from hospital and community environments is worrying. PMID:27530840

  1. Astragalar Morphology of Selected Giraffidae.

    PubMed

    Solounias, Nikos; Danowitz, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    The artiodactyl astragalus has been modified to exhibit two trochleae, creating a double pullied structure allowing for significant dorso-plantar motion, and limited mediolateral motion. The astragalus structure is partly influenced by environmental substrates, and correspondingly, morphometric studies can yield paleohabitat information. The present study establishes terminology and describes detailed morphological features on giraffid astragali. Each giraffid astragalus exhibits a unique combination of anatomical characteristics. The giraffid astragalar morphologies reinforce previously established phylogenetic relationships. We find that the enlargement of the navicular head is a feature shared by all giraffids, and that the primitive giraffids possess exceptionally tall astragalar heads in relation to the total astragalar height. The sivatheres and the okapi share a reduced notch on the lateral edge of the astragalus. We find that Samotherium is more primitive in astragalar morphologies than Palaeotragus, which is reinforced by tooth characteristics and ossicone position. Diagnostic anatomical characters on the astragalus allow for giraffid species identifications and a better understanding of Giraffidae. PMID:27028515

  2. Astragalar Morphology of Selected Giraffidae

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The artiodactyl astragalus has been modified to exhibit two trochleae, creating a double pullied structure allowing for significant dorso-plantar motion, and limited mediolateral motion. The astragalus structure is partly influenced by environmental substrates, and correspondingly, morphometric studies can yield paleohabitat information. The present study establishes terminology and describes detailed morphological features on giraffid astragali. Each giraffid astragalus exhibits a unique combination of anatomical characteristics. The giraffid astragalar morphologies reinforce previously established phylogenetic relationships. We find that the enlargement of the navicular head is a feature shared by all giraffids, and that the primitive giraffids possess exceptionally tall astragalar heads in relation to the total astragalar height. The sivatheres and the okapi share a reduced notch on the lateral edge of the astragalus. We find that Samotherium is more primitive in astragalar morphologies than Palaeotragus, which is reinforced by tooth characteristics and ossicone position. Diagnostic anatomical characters on the astragalus allow for giraffid species identifications and a better understanding of Giraffidae. PMID:27028515

  3. The effect of a prefabricated foot orthotic on frontal plane joint mechanics in healthy runners.

    PubMed

    Almonroeder, Thomas G; Benson, Lauren C; O'Connor, Kristian M

    2015-06-01

    The mechanism of action of a foot orthotic is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to use principal components analysis (PCA) to analyze the effects of a prefabricated foot orthotic on frontal plane knee and ankle mechanics during running. Thirty-one healthy subjects performed running trials with and without a foot orthotic and PCA was performed on the knee and ankle joint angles and moments to identify the dominant modes of variation. MANOVAs were conducted on the retained principal components of each waveform and dependent t tests (P < .05) were performed in the case of significance. Mechanics of the ankle were not affected by the foot orthotic. However, mechanics of the knee were significantly altered as subjects demonstrated an increase in the magnitude of the knee abduction moment waveform in an orthotic condition. Subjects also demonstrated a significant shift in the timing of the knee abduction moment waveform toward later in the stance phase in the orthotic condition. These orthotic effects were not related to subject's foot mobility, measured using the navicular drop test. The mechanism of action of a foot orthotic may be related to their effect on the timing of frontal plane knee loading. PMID:25536274

  4. Staged reconstruction of a multiplane post-traumatic deformity: a case report.

    PubMed

    Brosky, Thomas A; Mann, Joshua J; Dunn, Sean Patrick; Gonzalez, Grant W

    2014-01-01

    Damaging effects of joint function can occur after fractures of the lower extremity that have healed with an angular malunion. Surgical techniques have been described to restore the normal mechanics and establish a plantigrade foot, including osteotomy and fusion. In the present report, we describe a unique case of a 17-year-old male who had initially experienced a severe injury to his left lower extremity and foot when he had been run over by a jeep. Originally, a Lisfranc injury with navicular and cuboid fractures were surgically corrected. He had also sustained an extra-articular distal tibial and fibular fracture, which had been conservatively managed. Seven months after the initial incident, he underwent 3-staged reconstructive surgery because of a malaligned valgus ankle with fibular malunion and a painful collapsing pes planovalgus deformity. A supramalleolar tibial osteotomy with fibular lengthening was first performed, followed by triple arthrodesis with removal of hardware and then syndesmosis repair. The present report discusses our clinical evaluation and surgical technique for this multiplanar post-traumatic deformity. PMID:24796887

  5. Management of High-Energy Foot and Ankle Injuries in the Geriatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Herscovici, Dolfi; Scaduto, Julia M.

    2012-01-01

    By the year 2035 almost 20% of the US population of 389 million people will be 65 years and older. What this group has, compared with aged populations in the past, is better health, more mobility, and more active lifestyles. From January 1989 through December 2010, a total of 494 elderly patients with 536 foot and ankle injuries were identified. Within this group, 237 (48%) patients with 294 injuries were sustained as a result of a high-energy mechanism. These mechanisms consisted of 170 motor vehicle accidents, 30 as a result of high (not ground level) energy falls, 2 from industrial accidents, and 35 classified as other, which included sports, blunt trauma, bicycle, airplane or boating accidents, crush injuries, and injuries resulting from a lawn mower. The injuries produced were 17 metatarsal fractures, 9 Lisfranc injuries, 10 midfoot (navicular, cuneiform, or cuboid) fractures, 23 talus fractures, 63 calcaneal fractures, 73 unimalleolar, bimalleolar, or trimalleolar ankle fractures, 45 pilon fractures, and 3 pure dislocations of the foot or ankle. Overall, 243 (83%) of these injuries underwent surgical fixation and data have shown that when surgery is used to manage high-energy injuries of the foot and ankle in the elderly individuals, the complications and outcomes are similar to those seen in younger patients. Therefore, the decision for surgical intervention for high-energy injuries of the foot and ankle should be based primarily on the injury pattern and not solely on the age of the patient. PMID:23569695

  6. Midterm functional outcome after operative management of midfoot injuries.

    PubMed

    Latoo, Irfan A; Wani, Iftikhar H; Farooq, Munir; Wali, G R; Kamal, Younis; Gani, Naseem Ul

    2014-01-01

    Background. Injuries of the midfoot are often missed and therefore underestimated. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for the final outcome. The primary aim of this study was to assess the pattern and results of early operative management of mid-foot injuries after a midterm follow up. Material and methods. This study was conducted on 25 patients (19 Males, 6 Females ) with mean age of 34.6 years (range 18-60 years) with mid-foot fracture dislocations who were admitted consecutively at our centre from May 2008 through November 2010. 25 patients fulfilling our inclusion criteria with mid-foot fracture dislocations were included in this study. Mechanism of injury, its pattern and results of operative management of midfoot injuries were assessed after acute management of these fractures on urgent basis. Evaluation of results was done by AOFAS Score. Results. Most common mode of injury was indirect trauma due to fall (n=12) followed by road traffic accident (n=9). Males (n=19) outnumbered females (n=6). The pattern of injuries requiring operative treatment as per our criteria were Lisfranc fracture dislocations (n=22) and navicular fractures (n=3). The mean follow up was 3.2 years and mean AOFAS score at 3.2 years was 78.36, with most patients losing points to pain and decreased recreational function. Conclusion. The Lisfranc fracture dislocations are the most common injuries around midfoot requiring operative treatment, and we believe that operative treatment considerably improves functional outcome in these injuries. PMID:25694378

  7. Anatomical reconstruction of the spring ligament using peroneus longus tendon graft.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyungjin; Lee, Samuel; Otis, James C; Deland, Jonathan T

    2003-05-01

    Posterior tibial tendon insufficiency is often associated with failure of the spring ligament and flatfoot deformity. Arch correction procedures involving bony realignment, such as lateral column lengthening or joint fusions, can predispose to arthritis. Soft tissue reconstruction may provide a more anatomical correction without these complications. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the ability of three different spring ligament reconstruction procedures to correct flatfoot deformity. A deformity model of 5 degrees - 15 degrees talonavicular abduction was created in 10 cadaver foot-ankle specimens. Three reconstructions utilizing the peroneus longus tendon were evaluated for their ability to correct talonavicular abduction and subtalar eversion under 357 N vertical GRF load. A superomedial/plantar passage of the tendon through the calcaneus and navicular was shown to be more effective than either of the other two approaches, correcting the talonavicular joint from 9.1 degrees +/- 8.1 degrees abducted to 1.0 degree +/- 6.8 degrees adducted, and the subtalar joint from 3.1 degrees +/- 3.3 degrees everted to 0.4 degrees +/- 4.2 degrees inverted. Thus, an anatomical reconstruction of a model of a failed spring ligament was demonstrated to be effective in the correction of a flatfoot deformity produced in cadaver foot-ankle specimens. PMID:12801201

  8. The effects of hip external rotator exercises and toe-spread exercises on lower extremity muscle activities during stair-walking in subjects with pronated foot

    PubMed Central

    Goo, Young-Mi; Kim, Da-Yeon; Kim, Tae-Ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of toe-spread (TS) exercises and hip external rotator strengthening exercises for pronated feet on lower extremity muscle activities during stair-walking. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 20 healthy adults with no present or previous pain, no past history of surgery on the foot or the ankle, and no foot deformities. Ten subjects performed hip external rotator strengthening exercises and TS exercises and the remaining ten subjects performed only TS exercises five times per week for four weeks. [Results] Less change in navicular drop height occurred in the group that performed hip external rotator exercises than in the group that performed only TS exercises. The group that performed only TS exercises showed increased abductor hallucis muscle activity during both stair-climbing and -descending, and the group that performed hip external rotator exercises showed increased muscle activities of the vastus medialis and abductor hallucis during stair-climbing and increased muscle activity of only the abductor hallucis during stair-descending after exercise. [Conclusion] Stair-walking can be more effectively performed if the hip external rotator muscle is strengthened when TS exercises are performed for the pronated foot. PMID:27134364

  9. Generation and activity of equine osteoclasts in vitro: effects of the bisphosphonate pamidronate (APD).

    PubMed

    Gray, A W; Davies, M E; Jeffcott, L B

    2002-04-01

    Equine osteoclast-like cells (OCLs) were generated from the bone marrow (BM) of two ponies and one horse in the presence of RANKL, the receptor activator of NF kappa B ligand and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). The phenotype of these cells was confirmed by demonstration of characteristics typical of osteoclasts (OCs) including: the expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), the vitronectin receptor (VNR) and the calcitonin receptor (CTR), the demonstration of responsiveness to calcitonin (CT) and the ability to form resorption lacunae on ivory slices and calcium phosphate films. The bisphosphonate pamidronate (APD) dose-dependently inhibited resorption of calcium phosphate films by equine OCLs with an IC(50) of 5.8 x 10(-7) M in one horse. APD also dose-dependently inhibited the number of OCLs present in BM cultures after 7 days. However, this effect is most likely attributable to increased OCL death rather than decreased OCL formation. Paradoxically, ADP appeared to cause an early, transient, increase in OCL formation in BM cultures, however, this effect was reversed after 7 days. These preliminary in vitro data support the potential use of APD in clinical conditions characterised by increased bone turnover such as osteomyelitis, osteitis, septic osteoarthritis, navicular disease, cystic bone lesions and immobilisation-induced osteoporosis and provide useful information for future pharmacokinetic studies and clinical trials in vivo. PMID:12027590

  10. Isolated dorsal dislocation of the tarsal naviculum

    PubMed Central

    Hamdi, Kaziz; Hazem, Ben Ghozlen; Yadh, Zitoun; Faouzi, Abid

    2015-01-01

    Isolated dislocation of the tarsal naviculum is an unusual injury, scarcely reported in the literature. The naviculum is surrounded by the rigid bony and ligamentous support hence fracture dislocation is more common than isolated dislocation. The mechanism and treatment options remain unclear. In this case report, we describe a 31 year old man who sustained an isolated dorsal dislocation of the left tarsal naviculum, without fracture, when he was involved in a motor vehicle collision. The reported mechanism of the dislocation is a hyper plantar flexion force applied to the midfoot, resulting in a transient disruption of the ligamentous support of the naviculum bone, with dorsal displacement of the bone. The patient was treated with open reduction and Krischner-wire fixation of the navicular after the failure of closed reduction. The wires were removed after 6 weeks postoperatively. Physiotherapy for stiffness and midfoot pain was recommended for 2 months. At 6 months postoperatively, limping, midfoot pain and weakness were reported, no X-ray abnormalities were found. The patient returned to his obvious activities with a normal range of motion. PMID:26806978

  11. 3D morphology of the rear foot from MRI data: technical validation and clinical description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stindel, Eric; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Hirsch, Bruce E.; Odhner, Dewey; Couture, Christine

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize the 3D morphology of the bones of the rear foot using MR data. This work has two subaims: (1) to study the variability of the various computed architectural measures as a result of the subjectivity and variations in the various processing operations; (2) to study the morphology of the bones included in the peritalar complex. Each image data set utilized in this study consists of 60 longitudinal slices of the foot acquired on a 1.5 T commercial GE MR system. Our description of the rear foot morphology is based mainly on the principal axes, which represent the inertia axes of the bones, as well as on the bone surfaces. We use the live-wire method for segmenting and forming the surfaces of the bones. In the first part of this work, we focus on the dependence of the principal axes system on segmentation and on scan orientation. In the second part, we describe the normal morphology of the rear foot considering the four bones (calcaneus, cuboid, navicular, talus) and compare them to a population from the Upper Pleistocene. We conclude that this non-invasive method can be used in live patients to characterize the bone morphology or as a comparative method to classify population of bones. in spite of the variations involved in the various processing operations.

  12. Comparison of dynamic balance ability in healthy university students according to foot shape.

    PubMed

    Hyong, In Hyouk; Kang, Jong Ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to compare dynamic balance ability according to foot shape, defined as normal, pronated, or supinated on the basis of the height of the medial arch. [Subjects] In this study, 14 subjects for the pronated foot group, 14 for the supinated foot group, and 14 for the normal foot group were selected from among 162 healthy university students by using the navicular drop test proposed by Brody. To measure dynamic balance ability, a star excursion balance test (SEBT) was conducted for each group, in which a cross-shaped line and lines at 45° in eight directions were drawn on the floor. In this study, only three directions were used, namely anterior, posterolateral, and posteromedial. The mean of the SEBT was calculated by measuring three times for each group, and the values were standardized using the following equation: measured value/leg length × 100. [Results] No significant differences in dynamic balance ability were found between the normal, pronated, and supinated foot groups. [Conclusion] No significant differences in dynamic balance ability according to the foot shape were found among the healthy university students with normal, pronated, and supinated feet. PMID:27065560

  13. Pharmacokinetics of gallium nitrate after oral administration in adult horses--pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pollina, G F; Zagotto, G; Maritan, P; Iacopetti, I; Busetto, R

    2012-10-01

    Gallium (Ga), a metal in group IIIA of the periodic table, has shown a remarkable activity against bone resorption and could therefore possibly prove useful in the treatment of certain diseases in sport horses, for example navicular disease. The aim of this study was to gain more information concerning the kinetics of Ga after oral administration of gallium nitrate (GaN) in adult horses. Six horses received a single dose of 10 mg/kg of GaN mixed with the food ration. Absorption was slow (T(max) = 10 ± 3 h, T(½abs) = 2 ± 0.8 h), and a C(max) of 26 ± 11 μg/L was achieved. Excretion followed a one-phase elimination model, with a long half-life (T(½el) = 52 ± 14 h). By means of a mathematical model, we estimated that the plasmatic levels should reach 93 μg/L (1.33 μm) at steady state, following the repeated daily administration of 10 mg/kg of GaN. A three times lower concentration has been demonstrated as effective in inhibiting the osteolytic activity of osteoclasts in vitro. The results of this study suggest that the administration of oral GaN at a rate of 10 mg/kg per day may be considered for future clinical studies. PMID:21913939

  14. [Vertical talus: current diagnostic and therapy options].

    PubMed

    Arbab, D; Rath, B; Quack, V; Lüring, C; Tingart, M

    2013-06-01

    Congenital vertical talus is a rare condition which presents as an isolated deformity or in association with neuromuscular and/or genetic disorders. Pathoanatomically the deformity shows a dislocated talonavicular and subtalar joint. The etiology and pathogenesis are still not finally determined although in some cases a genetic basis has been identified. The clinical picture is that of a flat, convex longitudinal arch with abduction and dorsiflexion of the forefoot and an elevated heel. Clinical diagnosis is confirmed by plain radiographic imaging. Congenital vertical talus should not be confused with other deformities of the foot, such as congenital oblique talus, flexible flat feet or pes calcaneus. The object of treatment of congenital vertical talus is to restore a normal anatomical relationship between the talus, navicular and calcaneus to obtain a pain-free foot. Major reconstructive surgery has been reported to be effective but is associated with substantial complications. Good early results of a modified non-operative treatment using serial manipulation, cast treatment and minimally invasive surgery may change therapeutic concepts. PMID:23685500

  15. Reconstruction of large defect of foot with extensive bone loss exclusively using a latissimus dorsi muscle free flap: a potential new indication for this flap.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Manuel Macemino; Casal, Diogo

    2012-01-01

    In cases of extensive damage to the foot, with significant bone loss, it is generally accepted that reconstruction must include bone flaps or grafts either in the emergency setting or subsequently. In this report, we describe the case of an 18-year-old student with an avulsion injury of the dorsum of his right foot. Consequently, he lost most of the soft tissue over the dorsum of the foot and the cuboid, navicular, and cuneiform bones. A latissimus dorsi free flap was used to reconstruct the defect. A functional pseudoarthrosis developed between the remaining bones of the foot, and the patient experienced satisfactory foot function after rehabilitation. For this reason, no additional reconstructive procedure was undertaken. This case suggests that it might be adequate to use the latissimus dorsi muscle flap more liberally than previously reported in the reconstruction of extensive defects of the dorsum of the foot, including cases with significant bone loss. This option could avoid the morbidity and inconvenience of a second surgery and the need to harvest a bone flap or graft. PMID:21945400

  16. Monocystis metaphirae sp. nov. (Protista: Apicomplexa: Monocystidae) from the earthworm Metaphire houlleti (Perrier).

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Probir K; Mallik, Partha; Göçmen, Bayram; Mitra, Amlan Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Biodiversity studies in search of endoparasitic acephaline gregarines revealed a new species of the genus Monocystis Stein, 1848 in the seminal vesicles of the earthworm Metaphire houlleti (Perrier) residing in alluvial soil of the district of North 24 Parganas. The new species is characterized by having bean-shaped gamonts measuring 94.0-151.0 (119.0+/-16.0) microm x 53.0-81.0(66.0+/-8.0) microm. The anterior end of the gamont is always wider than the posterior end. The mucron is always present at the wider end. The occurrence of syzygy (end to end, cauda-frontal) is a very rare feature which has been observed in the life cycle of the new species. The gametocyst is ovoid consisting of two unequal gamonts, measuring 85.0-102.0 microm (93.0+/-6.0). Oocysts are navicular in shape, measuring 6.5-11.0 (9.0+/-1.1) microm x 4.0-7.5 (5.5+/-1.9) microm. PMID:17106857

  17. A new species of Monocystis stein, 1848 (Protista: Apicomplexa: Eugregarinida) from the Indian earthworm, Amynthas Hawayanus Rosa, 1891 (Annelida: Oligochaeta).

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Probir K; Göçmen, Bayram; Bhowmik, Biplab; Mitra, Amlan Kumar

    2006-01-01

    As a part of an ongoing biodiversity survey of aseptate gregarine fauna of oligochaete hosts of West Bengal, an expedition was carried out in the Darjeeling district of West Bengal and most of the earthworms collected were found to be infested with a species of Monocystis Stein, 1848. The monocystid species was collected from the seminal vesicles of the earthworm and was identified as a new species, Monocystis amynthae sp. nov. The gamont of the new species is characterized by having an elongated body with broad anterior end, separated from the narrow posterior end by a prominent constriction measuring 49.0-77.0 (66.0+/-1.3) microm x 32.0-41.0 (37.0+/-2.8) microm. The gametocysts are oval-shaped, measuring 40.0-65.0 (58.0+/-2.1) microm. The oocysts are navicular, measuring 8.0-12.0 (10.5+/-1.1) microm x 4.0-6.0 (5.5+/-1.1) microm. PMID:17124669

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of the congenital clubfoot treated with the French functional (physical therapy) method.

    PubMed

    Richards, B Stephens; Dempsey, Molly

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes that occur in clubfeet after nonoperative treatment with the French functional method, specifically pertaining to the chondro-osseous anatomy and the joint relationships. The magnetic resonance images were obtained in 6 infants before treatment and 3 months later. The MRI protocol described previously for clubfeet which were treated by the Ponseti method (J Pediatr Orthop. 2001;21:719) was closely adhered to, except that no sedation was allowed by our institutional review board. The severity of the clubfoot deformities before treatment made assessment of the tibiotalar, talonavicular, and talocalcaneal joint relationships difficult in some feet. Despite this, improvements were noted after treatment in tibiotalar plantarflexion, the talonavicular relationship, the calcaneocuboid relationship, and the varus position of the calcaneus. The wedge shape of both the navicular and distal end of the calcaneus that occasionally was noted on the MRI before treatment improved after therapy. Although improved clinically, persistent equinus of the calcaneus on MRI was significant in 2 feet and was associated with slight dorsal displacement of the cuboid on the calcaneus (MRI evidence of rocker bottom). As noted with use of the Ponseti nonoperative treatment method, the chondro-osseous abnormalities seen on MRI studies in congenital clubfoot improve after treatment with the French functional (physical therapy) method, with the exception of equinus. PMID:17314649

  19. Burst Fractures as a Result of Attempted Suicide by Jumping

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Young; Park, Jeong Yoon; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Kuh, Sung Uk; Chin, Dong Kyu; Kim, Keun Su; Cho, Yong Eun; Jin, Byoung Ho

    2014-01-01

    Objective Jumping from high place for the purpose of suicide results in various damages to body area. A burst fracture of vertebrae is representative of them and we reviewed eight patients who were diagnosed with spinal burst fracture following suicide falling-down. The demographics, characteristics, performed operation, combined injuries, psychological past histories of the patients were analyzed. Methods A retrospective study was made of patients who are diagnosed with vertebral burst fracture from falling-down with the purpose of suicide admitted to department of neurosurgery of the author's hospital, covering the period between 2003 and 2012. Results Total eight patients were suicidal jumper. There were eleven vertebral burst fractures in eight patients and mean age was 26.5 years old. Seven patients already had psychological past history and there were various combined injuries except vertebrae burst fracture. The ankle fracture such as calcaneus, talus, navicular and malleolus was the most common injury and there were also various combined injury. Conclusion Suicidal jumper is different from incidental faller in some aspects because of different injury mechanism. For managing suicidal jumper, physician had to consider patients' age, affected site, psychiatric problem and combined injuries. Each department related to the injuries of patient have to cooperate each other with departments of psychiatry and rehabilitation from beginning to end. PMID:27169037

  20. Comparison of dynamic balance ability in healthy university students according to foot shape

    PubMed Central

    Hyong, In Hyouk; Kang, Jong Ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to compare dynamic balance ability according to foot shape, defined as normal, pronated, or supinated on the basis of the height of the medial arch. [Subjects] In this study, 14 subjects for the pronated foot group, 14 for the supinated foot group, and 14 for the normal foot group were selected from among 162 healthy university students by using the navicular drop test proposed by Brody. To measure dynamic balance ability, a star excursion balance test (SEBT) was conducted for each group, in which a cross-shaped line and lines at 45° in eight directions were drawn on the floor. In this study, only three directions were used, namely anterior, posterolateral, and posteromedial. The mean of the SEBT was calculated by measuring three times for each group, and the values were standardized using the following equation: measured value/leg length × 100. [Results] No significant differences in dynamic balance ability were found between the normal, pronated, and supinated foot groups. [Conclusion] No significant differences in dynamic balance ability according to the foot shape were found among the healthy university students with normal, pronated, and supinated feet. PMID:27065560

  1. [Stress fractures in athletes. role of magnetic resonance imaging in predicting injury morbidity].

    PubMed

    Maquirriain, Javier; Ghisi, Juan Pablo

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is a useful tool for stress fractures (SF) diagnosis, allowing the estimation of injury severity. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between the severity of SF in athletes determined by magnetic resonance imaging and the morbidity estimated as the time to return to sport. Thirty-four cases of stress fractures, (29 athletes; 12 female, 17 male; age 26.3 +/- 12.5), were studied by radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging. Injuries were classified according to Arendt's scale and they were analyzed according to site, activity level, delay in diagnosis and time needed to return to sports. The tibia was the most affected bone (n=12; 35.2%), followed by the tarsal navicular (n=5; 14.7%), and the metatarsals (n=4; 11.7%). Injury severity according to magnetic resonance imaging appearance was: grade 1=14.7%; grade 2=14.7%; grade 3=38.2%; grade 4=32.4%. The main finding was the positive significant correlation between injury severity and recovery time (r=0.66, p=0.0002). In conclusion, significant correlation exists between stress fracture injury severity determined by magnetic resonance image and recovery time in athletes. The use of a systematic graded magnetic resonance image evaluation may assist the physician to define clinical management, supervise the rehabilitation program and estimate the return to sport activity. PMID:17628914

  2. Annealing condition influences thermal hysteresis of fungal type ice-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Nan; Hanada, Yuichi; Seki, Haruhiko; Kondo, Hidemasa; Tsuda, Sakae; Hoshino, Tamotsu

    2014-02-01

    The Antarctic sea ice diatom Navicular glaciei produced ice-binding protein (NagIBP) that is similar to the antifreeze protein (TisAFP) from snow mold Typhula ishikariensis. In the thermal hysteresis range of NagIBP, ice growth was completely inhibited. At the freezing point, the ice grew in a burst to 6 direction perdicular to the c-axis of ice crystal. This burst pattern is similar to TisAFP and other hyperactive AFPs. The thermal hysteresis of NagIBP and TisAFP could be increased by decreasing a cooling rate to allow more time for the proteins to bind ice. This suggests the possible second binding of proteins occurs on the ice surface, which might increase the hysteresises to a sufficient level to prevent freezing of the brine pockets which habitat of N. glaciei. The secondary ice binding was described as that after AFP molecules bind onto the flat ice plane irreversibly, which was based on adsorption-inhibition mechanism model at the ice-water interface, convex ice front was formed and overgrew during normal TH measurement (no annealing) until uncontrolled growth at the nonequilibrium freezing point. The results suggested that NagIBP is a hyperactive AFP that is expressed for freezing avoidance. PMID:24201106

  3. Relationship between foot posture measurements and force platform parameters during two balance tasks in older and younger subjects

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Carlos E.; da Silva, Rubens A.; Gil, André W.; Oliveira, Márcio R.; Nascimento, Juliana A.; Pires-Oliveira, Deise A. A.

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to compare age-related differences in balance and anthropometric posture measurements of the foot and to determine any relationship between them. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-eight older and 42 younger adults participated in this study. Foot posture was tested for four domains: 1) hallux flexion and extension range of motion using a goniometer, 2) navicular height and 3) length of the foot using a pachymeter, and 4) footprint (width of forefoot, arch index and hallux valgus). Balance was tested under two conditions on a force platform: bipodal in 60-s trials and unipodal in 30-s trials. The sway area of the center of pressure and velocity in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions were computed. [Results] Older individuals showed significantly poorer balance compared with younger adults under in the unipodal condition (center of pressure area 9.97 vs. 7.72 cm2). Older people presented a significantly lower hallux mobility and higher values for width of the forefoot and transverse arch index than younger adults. The correlations between all foot posture and center of pressure parameters varied across groups, from weak to moderate (r −0.01 to −0.46). Low hallux mobility was significantly related to higher center of pressure values in older people. [Conclusion] These results have clinical implications for balance and foot posture assessments. PMID:25931713

  4. A unique presentation, and management, of acute urinary retention in a young boy with underlying vesicoureteral reflux.

    PubMed

    Patel, Chirag; Modgil, Vaibhav; Luscombe, Christopher; Liu, Samson

    2013-01-01

    Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) affects ∼1% of children. We present an unusual case of urinary retention secondary to an obstructing urethral stone, underlying reflux, and its management. A 7-year-old boy presenting with acute urinary retention had a palpable penile shaft swelling and patent urethral meatus on examination. Cysto-urethroscopy with a 6.6Fr ureteroscope, due to unavailability of paediatric instruments, revealed an obstructing calculus impacted in the navicular fossa. This was laser fragmented and extracted. Cystoscopy revealed multiple bladder calculi with a patulous right ureteric orifice. Post-operative investigations revealed a small, scarred right kidney (ultrasound), bilateral ureteric reflux (micturating-cystourethrogram), 4 cm by 0.8 cm right ureteric calculus (CT-KUB) and 4% right split renal function (DMSA). Right laparoscopic nephroureterectomy was subsequently performed. Our case highlights the variety with which VUR can present and the effectiveness of a ureteroscope in an emergency setting as an alternative to a paediatric cystoscope to visualize the urethra and the bladder. PMID:24963900

  5. Clinico-radiological assessment and their correlation in clubfeet treated with postero-medial soft-tissue release.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Prabhudev; Sen, Ramesh K; Gill, Shivender S; Wardak, Emal; Saini, Raghav

    2009-02-01

    The controversy regarding the radiographic parameter which best represents the various deformities of clubfoot continues. The aim of our study was to clear up this controversy. Fifty surgically treated (soft-tissue release) congenital clubfeet were studied clinically using Laaveg and Ponseti score and radiologically using twelve different radiographic parameters in weight-bearing AP and lateral views. The talo-calcaneal angle (TCA) in AP and lateral view showed statistically significant correlation with the functional rating, but significant variation in the dimension of the angles among the different functional groups was found with AP angle only. The talo-first metatarsal angle in AP and lateral view averaged 10 degrees and 19 degrees respectively, and showed significant correlation with the functional rating. The talo-navicular subluxation in AP, the calcaneo-fifth metatarsal angle and the first-fifth metatarsal angle in lateral view did not show any significant correlation with function. Talo-calcaneal index averaged 44 degrees in the clubfeet and showed significant correlation. The wide range of parameters representing each of the deformities gives a better radiological assessment of the clubfoot than any single parameter. PMID:17768623

  6. The Effect of Adhesive Strapping on Medial Longitudinal Arch Support before and after Exercise.

    PubMed

    Ator, R; Gunn, K; McPoil, T G; Knecht, H G

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the ability of two methods of adhesive strapping to provide support to the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) before and after a standardized exercise of 10 minutes of jogging. Ten females, 19 to 35 years of age, were subjects. To determine the position of the MLA, the height of the navicular tuberosity from the floor was measured bilaterally while each subject was standing. Measurements were taken for the following three conditions: barefoot (BARE), before exercise with arches taped (PREEX), and after exercise with arches taped (POSTEX). Methods for taping the MLA were: 1) LowDye and 2) double X. Results of a two-way, within-subjects ANOVA were significant for conditions (F = 45.3, p < 0.0001) and tape methods x conditions interaction (F = 3.6, p < 0.05) but not for tape methods. The Tukey test resulted in a significant difference (p < 0.05) between BARE and PREEX and PREEX and POSTEX but not between BARE and POSTEX. Results indicate that support of the MLA by adhesive strapping was significantly diminished after exercise. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1991;14(1):18-23. PMID:18796830

  7. Template-based automatic extraction of the joint space of foot bones from CT scan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Eunbi; Kim, Taeho; Park, Jinah

    2016-03-01

    Clean bone segmentation is critical in studying the joint anatomy for measuring the spacing between the bones. However, separation of the coupled bones in CT images is sometimes difficult due to ambiguous gray values coming from the noise and the heterogeneity of bone materials as well as narrowing of the joint space. For fine reconstruction of the individual local boundaries, manual operation is a common practice where the segmentation remains to be a bottleneck. In this paper, we present an automatic method for extracting the joint space by applying graph cut on Markov random field model to the region of interest (ROI) which is identified by a template of 3D bone structures. The template includes encoded articular surface which identifies the tight region of the high-intensity bone boundaries together with the fuzzy joint area of interest. The localized shape information from the template model within the ROI effectively separates the bones nearby. By narrowing the ROI down to the region including two types of tissue, the object extraction problem was reduced to binary segmentation and solved via graph cut. Based on the shape of a joint space marked by the template, the hard constraint was set by the initial seeds which were automatically generated from thresholding and morphological operations. The performance and the robustness of the proposed method are evaluated on 12 volumes of ankle CT data, where each volume includes a set of 4 tarsal bones (calcaneus, talus, navicular and cuboid).

  8. Effects of hallux valgus deformity on rear foot position, pain, function, and quality of life of women

    PubMed Central

    Coşkun, Gürsoy; Talu, Burcu; Bek, Nilgün; Bayramlar, Kezban Yigiter

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the relationship between hallux valgus (HV) deformity and the position of rearfoot joints, and its effects on the quality of life, pain, and related functional status of women with bilateral hallux valgus (HV). [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 27 right-dominant women. Demographic data, HV angle, weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing subtalar pronation (SP), and navicular height were recorded. Visual Analog Pain Scale, Foot Function Index (FFI), and the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) first metatarsophalangeal- interphalangeal (MTP-IP) and AOFAS Mid foot (MF) Scales, and SF-36 were also used. [Results] HV angle, weight-bearing SP, and pain intensity of the left foot were higher. HV angle of left foot was correlated with all sub-scales of FFI, the pain parameter of AOFAS MTP-IP, and pain and total scores of AOFAS-MF Scale. HV angle of the left foot correlated with physical role, pain, and social function sub-domains of SF-36. Right HV angles were correlated with right foot pain and non-weight-bearing SP. [Conclusion] Increasing HV angle and pathomechanical changes in the rear foot are correlated, resulting in increasing pain and thus decreasing functional status as well as decreasing quality of life. Although all the participants were right-dominant, their left foot problems were more prominent. PMID:27134358

  9. Effects of hallux valgus deformity on rear foot position, pain, function, and quality of life of women.

    PubMed

    Coşkun, Gürsoy; Talu, Burcu; Bek, Nilgün; Bayramlar, Kezban Yigiter

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the relationship between hallux valgus (HV) deformity and the position of rearfoot joints, and its effects on the quality of life, pain, and related functional status of women with bilateral hallux valgus (HV). [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 27 right-dominant women. Demographic data, HV angle, weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing subtalar pronation (SP), and navicular height were recorded. Visual Analog Pain Scale, Foot Function Index (FFI), and the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) first metatarsophalangeal- interphalangeal (MTP-IP) and AOFAS Mid foot (MF) Scales, and SF-36 were also used. [Results] HV angle, weight-bearing SP, and pain intensity of the left foot were higher. HV angle of left foot was correlated with all sub-scales of FFI, the pain parameter of AOFAS MTP-IP, and pain and total scores of AOFAS-MF Scale. HV angle of the left foot correlated with physical role, pain, and social function sub-domains of SF-36. Right HV angles were correlated with right foot pain and non-weight-bearing SP. [Conclusion] Increasing HV angle and pathomechanical changes in the rear foot are correlated, resulting in increasing pain and thus decreasing functional status as well as decreasing quality of life. Although all the participants were right-dominant, their left foot problems were more prominent. PMID:27134358

  10. Diagnosis and treatment of delayed and non-union stress fractures in athletes.

    PubMed

    Hulkko, A; Orava, S

    1991-01-01

    Stress fractures in athletes usually heal well with merely rest and conservative treatment. It has been estimated that in Finland 400-500 athletic stress fractures occur annually per year. In sports clinic series stress fractures comprise 3.3 to 4.6 per cent of all overuse injuries. Delayed and non-union have been reported to occur in athletes quite often, up to 10 per cent of athletic stress fractures in Finland. The reason is on the one hand delayed diagnosis due to late consultation of expert physicians, and on the other hand too short a rest from hard physical activity. Delayed and non-union are most often seen in the hallux sesamoids, mid-tibial staft, base of fifth metatarsal, tarsal navicular and olecranon. The pars articularis of the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebra is a site of stress fracture and spondylolysis. In this report the diagnosis, symptoms and findings as well as the operative treatment of these overuse injuries is discussed. PMID:1897885

  11. The Tarsal Bone Test: A Basic Test of Health Sciences Students' Knowledge of Lower Limb Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-López, José Manuel; Díaz-Mancha, Juan Antonio; Heredia-Rizo, Alberto Marcos; Fernández-Seguín, Lourdes María; Polo-Padillo, Juan; Domínguez-Maldonado, Gabriel; Munuera, Pedro V.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the present study was to design an easy-to-use tool, the tarsal bone test (TBT), to provide a snapshot of podiatry students' basic anatomical knowledge of the bones of the lower limb. Methods. The study included 254 podiatry students from three different universities, 145 of them were first-year students and 109 were in their fourth and final years. The TBT was administered without prior notice to the participants and was to be completed in 5 minutes. Results. The results show that 97.2% of the subjects (n = 247) correctly labelled all tarsal bones, while the other 2.8% (n = 7) incorrectly labelled at least one bone, that was either the cuboid (7 times) or the navicular (6 times). Although only one fourth-year student inaccurately identified one bone, no significant differences in the distribution of the correct and incorrect responses were found between first and fourth-year students. Conclusions. The TBT seems to be a straightforward and easy-to-apply instrument, and provides an objective view of the level of knowledge acquired at different stages of podiatry studies. PMID:25110712

  12. [Assessment of hereditary defects and dispositions of the horse under animal welfare aspects].

    PubMed

    Mählmann, Ch; Steiger, A

    2009-04-01

    Persons involved in equine breeding, namely veterinarians, horse breeders and breeding association judges, often lack of an apropriate consciousness about the relevance of heritability or supposed heritability of common horses diseases, which might play a distinctive role in the aetiology of numerous of these diseases. Executing animal welfare rights in equine breeding, the major concern should focus on an objective evaluation of pain, suffering and damages caused by different hereditary diseases. The basis of assessment for hygienic breeding has to be defi ned according to the actual animal welfare rights throughout guidelines, established by the state and by breeding associations. Hereditary diseases scientifi cally proven as relevant for animal welfare matters or including a potential risk of pain, suffering or damage, should be regarded as essential criterion in horse breeding. In this context following diseases have to be mentioned in particular: Osteochondritis dissecans, deep fl exor tendon contracture in the foal, navicular disease, tarsal osteoarthritis, hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, Overo-lethal-white- foal-syndrome. PMID:19333900

  13. Subtalar arthrodesis with flexor digitorum longus transfer and spring ligament repair for treatment of posterior tibial tendon insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J E; Cohen, B E; DiGiovanni, B F; Lamdan, R

    2000-09-01

    The surgical treatment of flexible pes planovalgus deformities resulting from Stage 2 posterior tibial tendon insufficiency is controversial and many techniques have been proposed. We retrospectively reviewed the results of subtalar arthrodesis combined with spring ligament repair/reefing and flexor digitorum longus (FDL) transfer to the navicular. There were sixteen patients (seventeen feet) with an average follow-up of 27 months (9-52). All deformities were passively correctable. The average age was 56 yrs (39-78). All patients had failed conservative management, 88% had previously been treated with orthotics, and 53% had lateral pain from subfibular impingement. Two patients were noted to have degenerative changes of the subtalar joint. Successful subtalar joint fusion occurred in all patients with an average time to radiographic union of 10.1 weeks (5-24). The average AOFAS hindfoot score and Maryland foot score postoperatively was 82 and 86 respectively. Standing radiographic analysis demonstrated an average improvement in the AP talo-1st metatarsal angle of 6 degrees (24 degrees preoperative, 18 degrees postoperative). The talonavicular coverage angle improved an average of 17 degrees (34 degrees preoperative, 17 degrees postoperative). The lateral talo-1st metatarsal angle improved an average of 10 degrees (18 degrees preoperative, 8 degrees postoperative). The lateral talocalcaneal angle decreased an average of 21o (55 degrees preoperative, 34 degrees postoperative). The distance of the medial cuneiform to the floor on the lateral radiograph averaged 12mm preoperatively and 18mm postoperatively (avg. improvement 6mm). The combination of the flexor digitorum longus tendon transfer and spring ligament repair with subtalar arthrodesis is an effective and reliable procedure which provides excellent correction of hindfoot valgus as well as forefoot abduction and restoration of the height of the longitudinal arch. These results compare favorably with flexor

  14. Functional anatomy of the limbs of erethizontidae (Rodentia, Caviomorpha): Indicators of locomotor behavior in Miocene porcupines.

    PubMed

    Candela, Adriana M; Picasso, Mariana B J

    2008-05-01

    Functional analysis of the limb bones of the erethizontid Steiromys duplicatus, one of the most abundant Miocene porcupines from Patagonia, provides evidence to infer their locomotor behavior. Remains of the giant Neosteiromys pattoni (Late Miocene of Northeast Argentina) are also analyzed. Osteological and myological features of extant porcupines were evaluated and used as a model to interpret the functional significance of Miocene species' limbs. Several features in erethizontids are compatible with the ability to climb: the low humeral tuberosities indicate a mobile gleno-humeral joint; the prominent and distally extended deltopectoral crest indicates a powerful pectoral muscle, which is particularly active when climbing; the humero-ulnar and humero-radial joints are indicative of pronation-supination movements; the well-developed lateral epicondylar ridge and the medially protruding entepicondyle are in agreement with an important development of the brachioradialis, supinator, flexor digitorum profundus, and pronator teres muscles, acting in climbing and grasping functions; the mechanical advantage of the biceps brachii would be emphasized because of its distal attachment on the bicipital tuberosity. As with extant porcupines, in Miocene species, the large femoral head would have permitted a broad range of abduction of the femur, and the medially protruding lesser trochanter would have emphasized the abduction and outward rotation of the femur by the action of the ilio-psoas complex. In S. duplicatus, the shape of the hip, knee, and cruro-astragalar, calcaneo-astragalar, and astragalo-navicular joints would have allowed lateral and rotational movements, although probably to a lesser degree than in extant porcupines. Foot features of S. duplicatus (e.g., great medial sesamoid bone, medial astragalar head, complete hallux) indicate that this species would have had grasping ability, but would not have achieved the high degree of specialization of Coendou

  15. The first complete 3D reconstruction of a Spanish fly primary larva (Lytta vesicatoria, Meloidae, Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Ge, Si-Qin; Wipfler, Benjamin; Pohl, Hans; Hua, Yi; Slipiński, Adam; Yang, Xing-Ke; Beutel, Rolf Georg

    2012-01-01

    The first detailed anatomical study of a primary larva of Meloidae is presented. Thereby techniques such as three-dimensional reconstructions, microtome sections, SEM (scanning electronic microscopy) and CLSM (confocal laser scanning microscopy) are applied. The structural features are discussed in the context of phylogeny, but also possible correlations with parasitism, phoresy and miniaturisation. The triungulin first instar larva is likely an apomorphy of Meloidae excl. Eleticinae and linked with a specialisation on acridoid eggs or larvae and provisions of bees. The campodeid body shape of Lytta and Meloinae is a groundplan feature of Meloidae, whereas a navicular body is an autapomorphy of the generally phoretic larvae of Nemognathinae. Head structures of Lytta and features of the postcephalic body are largely plesiomorphic. The musculature of the head is only moderately simplified while the one of the postcephalic body is well developed. Its thorax is largely characterised by plesiomorphies. The characteristics of the legs suggest phoretic habits, even though this does not apply to larvae of Lytta. It is conceivable that a phoretic behaviour is secondarily lost, together with some but not all morphological modifications related to it. Derived features of the abdomen of Meloidae are the complete loss of the fixed urogomphi (also missing in Rhipiphoridae and other related groups) and the presence of one or two conspicuous caudal bristles. Only few features of Lytta are shared with the parasitic larvae of Rhipiphoridae and Strepsiptera. These characteristics, which are possibly linked with specialised life habits, have obviously evolved independently. Miniaturisation effects are minimal in the larvae of Lytta. PMID:23300692

  16. The First Complete 3D Reconstruction of a Spanish Fly Primary Larva (Lytta vesicatoria, Meloidae, Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Si-Qin; Wipfler, Benjamin; Pohl, Hans; Hua, Yi; Ślipiński, Adam; Yang, Xing-Ke; Beutel, Rolf Georg

    2012-01-01

    The first detailed anatomical study of a primary larva of Meloidae is presented. Thereby techniques such as three-dimensional reconstructions, microtome sections, SEM (scanning electronic microscopy) and CLSM (confocal laser scanning microscopy) are applied. The structural features are discussed in the context of phylogeny, but also possible correlations with parasitism, phoresy and miniaturisation. The triungulin first instar larva is likely an apomorphy of Meloidae excl. Eleticinae and linked with a specialisation on acridoid eggs or larvae and provisions of bees. The campodeid body shape of Lytta and Meloinae is a groundplan feature of Meloidae, whereas a navicular body is an autapomorphy of the generally phoretic larvae of Nemognathinae. Head structures of Lytta and features of the postcephalic body are largely plesiomorphic. The musculature of the head is only moderately simplified while the one of the postcephalic body is well developed. Its thorax is largely characterised by plesiomorphies. The characteristics of the legs suggest phoretic habits, even though this does not apply to larvae of Lytta. It is conceivable that a phoretic behaviour is secondarily lost, together with some but not all morphological modifications related to it. Derived features of the abdomen of Meloidae are the complete loss of the fixed urogomphi (also missing in Rhipiphoridae and other related groups) and the presence of one or two conspicuous caudal bristles. Only few features of Lytta are shared with the parasitic larvae of Rhipiphoridae and Strepsiptera. These characteristics, which are possibly linked with specialised life habits, have obviously evolved independently. Miniaturisation effects are minimal in the larvae of Lytta. PMID:23300692

  17. Clinical diagnosis of symptomatic midfoot osteoarthritis: cross-sectional findings from the Clinical Assessment Study of the Foot

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, M.J.; Roddy, E.; Rathod, T.; Marshall, M.; Moore, A.; Menz, H.B.; Peat, G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective To derive a multivariable diagnostic model for symptomatic midfoot osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Information on potential risk factors and clinical manifestations of symptomatic midfoot OA was collected using a health survey and standardised clinical examination of a population-based sample of 274 adults aged ≥50 years with midfoot pain. Following univariable analysis, random intercept multi-level logistic regression modelling that accounted for clustered data was used to identify the presence of midfoot OA independently scored on plain radiographs (dorso-plantar and lateral views), and defined as a score of ≥2 for osteophytes or joint space narrowing in at least one of four joints (first and second cuneometatarsal, navicular-first cuneiform and talonavicular joints). Model performance was summarised using the calibration slope and area under the curve (AUC). Internal validation and sensitivity analyses explored model over-fitting and certain assumptions. Results Compared to persons with midfoot pain only, symptomatic midfoot OA was associated with measures of static foot posture and range-of-motion at subtalar and ankle joints. Arch Index was the only retained clinical variable in a model containing age, gender and body mass index. The final model was poorly calibrated (calibration slope, 0.64, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.89) and discrimination was fair-to-poor (AUC, 0.64, 95% CI: 0.58, 0.70). Final model sensitivity and specificity were 29.9% (95% CI: 22.7, 38.0) and 87.5% (95% CI: 82.9, 91.3), respectively. Bootstrapping revealed the model to be over-optimistic and performance was not improved using continuous predictors. Conclusions Brief clinical assessments provided only marginal information for identifying the presence of radiographic midfoot OA among community-dwelling persons with midfoot pain. PMID:26093213

  18. Differences in plantar loading between flat and normal feet during different athletic tasks.

    PubMed

    Queen, Robin M; Mall, Nathan A; Nunley, James A; Chuckpaiwong, Bavornrit

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if foot type (flat or normal) resulted in loading differences during four sport-specific tasks (cross-cut, side-cut, shuttle run, and landing from a simulated lay-up). Twenty-two healthy subjects (12 normal feet and 10 flat feet) completed five trials in each condition, while in-shoe pressure data was collected at 50 Hz. Contact area, maximum force, and the force time integral were analyzed under the entire foot and in eight-foot regions. Foot type was determined by examining navicular height, arch angle, rearfoot angle, and a clinical score. A series of independent sample t-tests were used to determine statistical differences (alpha<0.05). During the cross-cut, flat feet demonstrated an increase in medial midfoot contact area. During the side-cut, flat feet demonstrated an increase in contact area, force time integral and maximum force in both the medial and lateral midfoot. During the shuttle run, flat feet demonstrated an increase in force time integral in the lateral midfoot and increases in maximum force in both the medial and lateral midfoot. During the landing task, flat feet demonstrated an increase in maximum force in the medial midfoot. However, flat feet demonstrate a decrease in middle forefoot maximum force. All results were statistically significant (p<0.05). Therefore, individuals with a normal foot could be at a lower risk for medial and lateral midfoot injuries such as metatarsal stress fractures, indicating that foot type should be assessed when determining an individual's risk for metatarsal stress fractures. PMID:19157878

  19. Congenital vascular malformations in scintigraphic evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Pilecki, Stanisław; Gierach, Marcin; Gierach, Joanna; Świętaszczyk, Cyprian; Junik, Roman; Lasek, Władysław

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Congenital vascular malformations are tumour-like, non-neoplastic lesions caused by disorders of vascular tissue morphogenesis. They are characterised by a normal cell replacement cycle throughout all growth phases and do not undergo spontaneous involution. Here we present a scintigraphic image of familial congenital vascular malformations in two sisters. Material/Methods A 17-years-old young woman with a history of multiple hospitalisations for foci of vascular anomalies appearing progressively in the upper and lower right limbs, chest wall and spleen. A Parkes Weber syndrome was diagnosed based on the clinical picture. Due to the occurrence of new foci of malformations, a whole-body scintigraphic examination was performed. A 12-years-old girl reported a lump in the right lower limb present for approximately 2 years, which was clinically identified as a vascular lesion in the area of calcaneus and talus. Phleboscintigraphy visualized normal radiomarker outflow from the feet via the deep venous system, also observed in the superficial venous system once the tourniquets were released. In static and whole-body examinations vascular malformations were visualised in the area of the medial cuneiform, navicular and talus bones of the left foot, as well as in the projection of right calcaneus and above the right talocrural joint. Conclusions People with undiagnosed disorders related to the presence of vascular malformations should undergo periodic follow-up to identify lesions that may be the cause of potentially serious complications and to assess the results of treatment. Presented scintigraphic methods may be used for both diagnosing and monitoring of disease progression. PMID:24567769

  20. Update on acute ankle sprains.

    PubMed

    Tiemstra, Jeffrey D

    2012-06-15

    Ankle sprains are a common problem seen by primary care physicians, especially among teenagers and young adults. Most ankle sprains are inversion injuries to the lateral ankle ligaments, although high sprains representing damage to the tibiofibular syndesmosis are becoming increasingly recognized. Physicians should apply the Ottawa ankle rules to determine whether radiography is needed. According to the Ottawa criteria, radiography is indicated if there is pain in the malleolar or midfoot zone, and either bone tenderness over an area of potential fracture (i.e., lateral malleolus, medial malleolus, base of fifth metatarsal, or navicular bone) or an inability to bear weight for four steps immediately after the injury and in the emergency department or physician's office. Patients with ankle sprain should use cryotherapy for the first three to seven days to reduce pain and improve recovery time. Patients should wear a lace-up ankle support or an air stirrup brace combined with an elastic compression wrap to reduce swelling and pain, speed recovery, and protect the injured ligaments as they become more mobile. Early mobilization speeds healing and reduces pain more effectively than prolonged rest. Pain control options for patients with ankle sprain include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, acetaminophen, and mild opioids. Because a previous ankle sprain is the greatest risk factor for an acute ankle sprain, recovering patients should be counseled on prevention strategies. Ankle braces and supports, ankle taping, a focused neuromuscular training program, and regular sport-specific warm-up exercises can protect against ankle injuries, and should be considered for patients returning to sports or other high-risk activities. PMID:22962897

  1. Autograft versus sterilized allograft for lateral calcaneal lengthening osteotomies: Comparison of 50 patients.

    PubMed

    Müller, Sebastian A; Barg, Alexej; Vavken, Patrick; Valderrabano, Victor; Müller, Andreas M

    2016-07-01

    Sterilized allografts may be less resistant to collapse and prone to nonunion leading to loss of correction in open wedge osteotomies. These adverse events usually occur at early time points (i.e., < 9 months postoperatively). The goal of this study was to compare sterilized allografts to autologous grafts in respect to secondary loss of hindfoot alignment and graft incorporation after lateral calcaneal lengthening osteotomies.Fifty patients (22 F/ 28 M, age: 16-69 years) who had undergone 50 lateral calcaneal lengthening osteotomies for adult flatfoot deformity were included in this retrospective study. Cortical sterilized allografts were used in 25 patients, autologous grafts in the remaining 25. Patients' preoperative, 6 and 12 weeks, and 6 to 9 months follow-up weight-bearing radiographs of the affected foot were analyzed by 2 blinded radiologists: on each radiograph, graft incorporation, the talo-first metatarsal angle (TFMA), the talo-navicular coverage angle (TNCA), and the calcaneal pitch angle (CPA) were assessed. Loss of hindfoot alignment was defined as an increase of the TFMA or the TNCA or a decrease of the CPA, each by 5°.Inter- and intraclass correlation coefficients for TFMA, TNCA, and CPA measurements ranged from 0.93 to 0.99. At all follow-up visits, the ratio of patients with loss of hindfoot alignment and graft incorporation was not significantly different between the allograft and autograft group. However, loss of correction was associated with failure of graft incorporation.Compared with autografts, sterilized allografts do not increase the risk for loss of hindfoot alignment in lateral column lengthening of the calcaneus. With respect to mechanical resistance, allografts thus mean an equal and valid alternative without risk of donor site morbidities. PMID:27472719

  2. Estimated operator exposure for hand holding portable X-ray units during imaging of the equine distal extremity.

    PubMed

    Tyson, Reid; Smiley, Douglas C; Pleasant, Robert S; Daniel, Gregory B

    2011-01-01

    Hand holding of portable X-ray units is common in large animal ambulatory veterinary practice. Portable X-ray equipment manuals, veterinary teaching institutions, and state regulations discourage, or prohibit, hand holding of portable X-ray units. Our goal was to quantify surface radiation leakage of a typical portable X-ray unit and to measure operator exposure at simulated hand and collar positions during imaging of the equine distal extremity. Each exposure for the study was performed at 80 kVp and 7.5 mAs and repeated 10 times. Measurement of tube radiation leakage was performed along each surface of the portable X-ray unit. To determine the operator exposure more accurately, an equine cadaver limb was used to generate scatter radiation for the following views: lateral carpus, lateral foot, palmaroproximal-palmarodistal, and dorsal 60° proximal-palmarodistal obliques of the navicular region. A Pancake Ion Chamber was placed at the handle and at simulated collar position to record estimated occupational exposure. To estimate the effect of lead shielding, exposure measurements were performed within the primary beam and behind a 0.5 mm lead equivalent apron and within an >0.5 mm lead equivalent glove. The average hand and collar dose was 0.471 and 0.327 mR/exposure, respectively. The lead apron and glove attenuated the primary beam 96.9 and 99.2%, respectively. This reduced average hand and collar exposures to 0.0038 and 0.0101 mR/exposure, respectively. Theoretical occupational limits are reached for the collar (whole body) before the hand (extremity). PMID:21388461

  3. Studying the Relation Between Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome and Anatomic and Anthropometric Characteristics of Military Male Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Sobhani, Vahid; Shakibaee, Abolfazl; Khatibi Aghda, Amidoddin; Emami Meybodi, Mohammad Kazem; Delavari, Abbasali; Jahandideh, Dariush

    2015-01-01

    Background: Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome (MTSS) is common among military recruits and to our knowledge; the factors that might put the military recruits at higher risk of incidence of MTSS are not well known. Objectives: This study was done to investigate the association between some anthropometric and anatomical factors and the prevalence of MTSS among military recruits. Patients and Methods: One hundred and eighty one randomly selected military recruits were included in this cross sectional study. Using history taking and physical examinations they were tested for MTSS. Accordingly the subjects were assigned to the case (those with MTSS) and control groups (normal healthy subjects). Using standard guidelines, the anthropometric and anatomical criteria of the subjects were measured. The correlation between the measurements and the prevalence of MTSS was tested using statistical analysis. Results: Data of all the 181 subjects with the mean age of 30.7 ± 4.68 years were Included in the final analysis. The prevalence of MTSS was found to be 16.6% (30 people). Internal and external rotation range of motion, iliospinale height, the score of navicular drop test, and the trochanteric tibial lateral length were significantly different between healthy subjects and patients with MTSS (P < 0.05). Discussion: The prevalence of MTSS was relatively lower in this study comparing to other studies on military personnel. It was not probably due to type of military shoes or exercise area surface (none of them were standardized); it could be due to low intensity trainings and the long intervals between training sessions. PMID:26448835

  4. Midterm Follow-Up of Talectomy for Severe Rigid Equinovarus Feet.

    PubMed

    El-Sherbini, Mostafa H; Omran, Ahmed A

    2015-01-01

    Rigid equinovarus foot is a challenging problem. Talectomy has been advocated as a salvage procedure to achieve a plantigrade painless foot in the treatment of rigid equinovarus deformity. The present prospective observational study evaluated the effectiveness of talectomy in the treatment of Dimeglio grade IV rigid equinovarus feet. Nineteen feet in 13 patients were treated by talectomy from September 2001 through January 2012 (10-year, 2-month period). Of the 13 patients, 9 (69.23%) had a foot deformity due to arthrogryposis multiplex congenita and 1 (7.69%) each due to sacral agenesis, spastic cerebral palsy, neglected congenital talipes equinovarus, and post-traumatic contracture. Of the 13 patients, 9 (69.23%) were male and 4 (30.77%) were female. Their mean age was 7.7 (range 3 to 26) years. The mean follow-up duration was 6.4 (range 2 to 11) years. Along with talectomy, excision of the navicular was performed in 8 feet (42.11%), calcaneal osteotomy with a laterally based wedge in 8 (42.11%), and calcaneocuboid fusion in 3 feet (15.79%). Postoperatively, all the feet improved to Dimeglio grade II and were painless, and 16 feet (84.22%) were plantigrade; 1 foot (5.26%) had residual equinus resulting from incomplete removal of the talus and 2 (10.53%) had residual varus. Also, 3 feet (15.79%) had forefoot adduction (2 residual and 1 recurrent) that required a second surgery to correct the deformity. From our experience, talectomy is an effective procedure for correction of severe rigid equinovarus feet, provided that the talus is completely removed and the calcaneus is positioned correctly in the ankle mortise. PMID:26359619

  5. The Effects of Rearfoot Position on Lower Limb Kinematics during Bilateral Squatting in Asymptomatic Individuals with a Pronated Foot Type

    PubMed Central

    Power, Valerie; Clifford, Amanda M.

    2012-01-01

    Clinicians frequently assess movement performance during a bilateral squat to observe the biomechanical effects of foot orthotic prescription. However, the effects of rearfoot position on bilateral squat kinematics have not been established objectively to date. This study aims to investigate these effects in a population of healthy adults with a pronated foot type. Ten healthy participants with a pronated foot type bilaterally (defined as a navicular drop >9mm) performed three squats in each of three conditions: barefoot, standing on 10mm shoe pitch platforms and standing on the platforms with foam wedges supporting the rearfoot in subtalar neutral. Kinematic data was recorded using a 3D motion analysis system. Between-conditions changes in peak joint angles attained were analysed. Peak ankle dorsiflexion (p=0.0005) and hip abduction (p=0.024) were significantly reduced, while peak knee varus (p=0.028) and flexion (p=0.0005) were significantly increased during squatting in the subtalar neutral position compared to barefoot. Peak subtalar pronation decreased by 5.33° (SD 4.52°) when squatting on the platforms compared to barefoot (p=0.006), but no additional significant effects were noted in subtalar neutral. Significant changes in lower limb kinematics may be observed during bilateral squatting when rearfoot alignment is altered. Shoe pitch alone may significantly reduce peak pronation during squatting in this population, but additional reductions were not observed in the subtalar neutral position. Further research investigating the effects of footwear and the subtalar neutral position in populations with lower limb pathology is required. PMID:23486735

  6. Investigations of Potential Phenotypes of Foot Osteoarthritis: Cross‐Sectional Analysis From the Clinical Assessment Study of the Foot

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Michelle; Thomas, Martin J.; Menz, Hylton B.; Myers, Helen L.; Thomas, Elaine; Downes, Thomas; Peat, George; Roddy, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the existence of distinct foot osteoarthritis (OA) phenotypes based on pattern of joint involvement and comparative symptom and risk profiles. Methods Participants ages ≥50 years reporting foot pain in the previous year were drawn from a population‐based cohort. Radiographs were scored for OA in the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint, first and second cuneometatarsal, navicular first cuneiform, and talonavicular joints according to a published atlas. Chi‐square tests established clustering, and odds ratios (ORs) examined symmetry and pairwise associations of radiographic OA in the feet. Distinct underlying classes of foot OA were investigated by latent class analysis (LCA) and their association with symptoms and risk factors was assessed. Results In 533 participants (mean age 64.9 years, 55.9% female) radiographic OA clustered across both feet (P < 0.001) and was highly symmetrical (adjusted OR 3.0, 95% confidence interval 2.1, 4.2). LCA identified 3 distinct classes of foot OA: no or minimal foot OA (64%), isolated first MTP joint OA (22%), and polyarticular foot OA (15%). After adjustment for age and sex, polyarticular foot OA was associated with nodal OA, increased body mass index, and more pain and functional limitation compared to the other classes. Conclusion Patterning of radiographic foot OA has provided insight into the existence of 2 forms of foot OA: isolated first MTP joint OA and polyarticular foot OA. The symptom and risk factor profiles in individuals with polyarticular foot OA indicate a possible distinctive phenotype of foot OA, but further research is needed to explore the characteristics of isolated first MTP joint and polyarticular foot OA. PMID:26238801

  7. Bone Mineral Density of the Tarsals and Metatarsals With Reloading

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, Mary Kent; Gelber, Judy; Commean, Paul K; Prior, Fred; Sinacore, David R

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Bone mineral density (BMD) decreases rapidly with prolonged non–weight bearing. Maximizing the BMD response to reloading activities after NWB is critical to minimizing fracture risk. Methods for measuring individual tarsal and metatarsal BMD have not been available. This case report describes tarsal and metatarsal BMD with a reloading program, as revealed by quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Case Description: A 24-year-old woman was non–weight bearing for 6 weeks after right talocrural arthroscopy. Tarsal and metatarsal BMD were measured with QCT 9 weeks (before reloading) and 32 weeks (after reloading) after surgery. A 26-week progressive reloading program was completed. Change scores were calculated for BMD before reloading and BMD after reloading for the total foot (average of all tarsals and metatarsals), tarsals, metatarsals, bones of the medial column (calcaneus, navicular, cuneiforms 1 and 2, and metatarsal 1), and bones of the lateral column (calcaneus, cuboid, cuneiform 3, and metatarsals 2–5). The percent differences in BMD between the involved side and the uninvolved side were calculated. Outcomes: Before reloading, BMD of the involved total foot was 9% lower than that on the uninvolved side. After reloading, BMD increased 22% and 21% for the total foot, 16% and 14% for the tarsals, 29% and 30% for the metatarsals, 14% and 15% for the medial column bones, and 28% and 26% for the lateral column bones on the involved and uninvolved sides, respectively. After reloading, BMD of the involved total foot remained 8% lower than that on the uninvolved side. Discussion: The increase in BMD with reloading was not uniform across all pedal bones; the metatarsals showed a greater increase than the tarsals, and the lateral column bones showed a greater increase than the medial column bones. PMID:18388153

  8. Wastewater treatment plant and landfills as sources of polyfluoroalkyl compounds to the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Lutz; Shoeib, Mahiba; Harner, Tom; Lee, Sum Chi; Guo, Rui; Reiner, Eric J

    2011-10-01

    Polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) were determined in air around a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and two landfill sites using sorbent-impregnated polyurethane foam (SIP) disk passive air samplers in summer 2009. The samples were analyzed for five PFC classes (i.e., fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), perfluorooctane sulfonamides (FOSAs), sulfonamidoethanols (FOSEs), perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs), and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs)) to investigate their concentration in air, composition and emissions to the atmosphere. ∑PFC concentrations in air were 3-15 times higher within the WWTP (2280-24 040 pg/m(3)) and 5-30 times higher at the landfill sites (2780-26 430 pg/m(3)) compared to the reference sites (597-1600 pg/m3). Variations in the PFC pattern were observed between the WWTP and landfill sites and even within the WWTP site. For example, FTOHs were the predominant PFC class in air for all WWTP and landfill sites, with 6:2 FTOH as the dominant compound at the WWTP (895-12 290 pg/m(3)) and 8:2 FTOH dominating at the landfill sites (1290-17 380 pg/m(3)). Furthermore, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was dominant within the WWTP (43-171 pg/m(3)), followed by perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) (55-116 pg/m(3)), while PFBA was dominant at the landfill sites (101-102 pg/m(3)). It is also noteworthy that the PFCA concentrations decreased with increasing chain length and that the emissions for the even chain length PFCAs outweighed emissions for the odd chain length compounds. Furthermore, highly elevated PFC concentrations were found near the aeration tanks compared to the other tanks (i.e., primary and secondary clarifier) and likely associated with increased volatilization during aeration that may be further enhanced through aqueous aerosol-mediated transport. ∑PFC yearly emissions estimated using a simplified dispersion model were 2560 g/year for the WWTP, 99 g/year for landfill site 1, and 1000 g/year for landfill site 2. These results

  9. Hunting, Exotic Carnivores, and Habitat Loss: Anthropogenic Effects on a Native Carnivore Community, Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Farris, Zach J.; Golden, Christopher D.; Karpanty, Sarah; Murphy, Asia; Stauffer, Dean; Ratelolahy, Felix; Andrianjakarivelo, Vonjy; Holmes, Christopher M.; Kelly, Marcella J.

    2015-01-01

    The wide-ranging, cumulative, negative effects of anthropogenic disturbance, including habitat degradation, exotic species, and hunting, on native wildlife has been well documented across a range of habitats worldwide with carnivores potentially being the most vulnerable due to their more extinction prone characteristics. Investigating the effects of anthropogenic pressures on sympatric carnivores is needed to improve our ability to develop targeted, effective management plans for carnivore conservation worldwide. Utilizing photographic, line-transect, and habitat sampling, as well as landscape analyses and village-based bushmeat hunting surveys, we provide the first investigation of how multiple forms of habitat degradation (fragmentation, exotic carnivores, human encroachment, and hunting) affect carnivore occupancy across Madagascar’s largest protected area: the Masoala-Makira landscape. We found that as degradation increased, native carnivore occupancy and encounter rates decreased while exotic carnivore occupancy and encounter rates increased. Feral cats (Felis species) and domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) had higher occupancy than half of the native carnivore species across Madagascar’s largest protected landscape. Bird and small mammal encounter rates were negatively associated with exotic carnivore occupancy, but positively associated with the occupancy of four native carnivore species. Spotted fanaloka (Fossa fossana) occupancy was constrained by the presence of exotic feral cats and exotic small Indian civet (Viverricula indica). Hunting was intense across the four study sites where hunting was studied, with the highest rates for the small Indian civet (x¯ = 90 individuals consumed/year), the ring-tailed vontsira (Galidia elegans) (x¯ = 58 consumed/year), and the fosa (Cryptoprocta ferox) (x¯ = 31 consumed/year). Our modeling results suggest hunters target intact forest where carnivore occupancy, abundance, and species richness, are

  10. Structural and chemical aspects of resistance to the antibiotic fosfomycin conferred by FosB from Bacillus cereus.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Matthew K; Keithly, Mary E; Harp, Joel; Cook, Paul D; Jagessar, Kevin L; Sulikowski, Gary A; Armstrong, Richard N

    2013-10-15

    The fosfomycin resistance enzymes, FosB, from Gram-positive organisms, are M(2+)-dependent thiol tranferases that catalyze nucleophilic addition of either L-cysteine (L-Cys) or bacillithiol (BSH) to the antibiotic, resulting in a modified compound with no bacteriacidal properties. Here we report the structural and functional characterization of FosB from Bacillus cereus (FosB(Bc)). The overall structure of FosB(Bc), at 1.27 Å resolution, reveals that the enzyme belongs to the vicinal oxygen chelate (VOC) superfamily. Crystal structures of FosB(Bc) cocrystallized with fosfomycin and a variety of divalent metals, including Ni(2+), Mn(2+), Co(2+), and Zn(2+), indicate that the antibiotic coordinates to the active site metal center in an orientation similar to that found in the structurally homologous manganese-dependent fosfomycin resistance enzyme, FosA. Surface analysis of the FosB(Bc) structures show a well-defined binding pocket and an access channel to C1 of fosfomycin, the carbon to which nucleophilic addition of the thiol occurs. The pocket and access channel are appropriate in size and shape to accommodate L-Cys or BSH. Further investigation of the structures revealed that the fosfomycin molecule, anchored by the metal, is surrounded by a cage of amino acids that hold the antibiotic in an orientation such that C1 is centered at the end of the solvent channel, positioning the compound for direct nucleophilic attack by the thiol substrate. In addition, the structures of FosB(Bc) in complex with the L-Cys-fosfomycin product (1.55 Å resolution) and in complex with the bacillithiol-fosfomycin product (1.77 Å resolution) coordinated to a Mn(2+) metal in the active site have been determined. The L-Cys moiety of either product is located in the solvent channel, where the thiol has added to the backside of fosfomycin C1 located at the end of the channel. Concomitant kinetic analyses of FosB(Bc) indicated that the enzyme has a preference for BSH over L-Cys when

  11. Tiludronate concentrations and cytologic findings in synovial fluid after intravenous regional limb perfusion with tiludronate in horses

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Barbara G.; Larson, Maureen K.

    2015-01-01

    Anecdotal accounts of tiludronate administration via intravenous regional limb perfusion (IVRLP) exist despite a lack of information regarding safety for synovial structures in the perfused area. The objective of this study was to determine whether tiludronate concentrations in synovial structures after IVRLP with low dose (0.5 mg, LDT) or high dose (50 mg, HDT) tiludronate remain below a value demonstrated in vitro to be safe for articular cartilage (<19,000 ng/ml), and to determine effects of tiludronate on synovial fluid cytology variables compared to saline perfused control limbs. Using a randomized controlled experimental study design, horses received IVRLP with LDT (n = 6) or HDT (n = 6) in one forelimb and IVRLP with saline in the contralateral limb. Synovial fluid cytology variables and tiludronate concentrations were evaluated in navicular bursae (NB), and distal interphalangeal (DIP) and metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints one week before and 30–45 min after IVRLP, and in DIP and MCP joints 24 h after IVRLP. Data were analyzed with 2-way rmANOVA (p < 0.05). Highest measured synovial fluid tiludronate concentrations occurred 30–45 min post-perfusion. Mean tiludronate concentrations were lower in LDT limbs (MCP = 39.6 ± 14.3 ng/ml, DIP = 118.1 ± 66.6 ng/ml, NB = 82.1 ± 30.2 ng/ml) than in HDT limbs (MCP = 3,745.1 ± 1,536.6 ng/ml, DIP = 16,274.0 ± 5,460.2 ng/ml, NB = 6,049.3 ± 1,931.7 ng/ml). Tiludronate concentration was >19,000 ng/ml in DIP joints of two HDT limbs. Tiludronate was measurable only in synovial fluid from HDT limbs 24 h post-perfusion. There were no differences in synovial fluid cytology variables between control and treated limbs. Conclusions. In some horses, IVRLP with HDT may result in synovial fluid concentrations of tiludronate that may have adverse effects on articular cartilage, based on in vitro data. IVRLP with LDT is unlikely to promote articular cartilage degradation. Further studies to determine a safe and effective dose

  12. Expected Time to Return to Athletic Participation Following Stress Fracture in Division I Collegiate Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Jamieson, Marissa; Everson, Sonsecharae; Siegel, Courtney; Miller, Timothy Lee

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate and determine the expected time to return to athletic participation in Division I collegiate Track and Field athletes. Methods: All stress fractures diagnosed in athletes on a single Division I collegiate men’s and women’s track and field/ cross-country team were recorded over a 4-year period. Site and severity of the injury were recorded and graded based on the Kaeding-Miller Classification System for stress fractures. Time to return to full unrestricted athletic participation was recorded for each athlete and correlated with the site and severity grade of the injury. Time to return to athletic participation was also analyzed for gender differences. Results: Fifty-seven stress fractures were diagnosed in 38 athletes over a 4-year period. Thirty-seven of these injuries occurred in women; twenty in men. Mean time to return to participation in women was 13.9 weeks and 11.2 weeks in men. There were 10 athletes who sustained recurrent or multiple stress fractures. Thirty-three stress fractures occurred in the tibia, and 10 occurred in the 2nd through 4th metatarsals. Three occurred in the 5th metatarsal, 6 in the tarsal bones (2 navicular), and 5 in the pelvis. Mean times to return to athletic activity based on site of injury and with extreme outliers removed were as follows: tibia- 13.3 weeks, 2nd through 4th metatarsals- 11.7 weeks, 5th metatarsal- 11.7 weeks, tarsals- 12.1 weeks, and pelvis- 13.0 weeks. There were 31 grade 2 stress fractures, 11 grade 3 stress fractures, and two grade 5 stress fractures that occurred bilaterally in the same patient. Mean times to return to athletic participation again with extreme outliers excluded were as follows: Grade 2- 12.3 weeks, Grade 3- 14.1 weeks, and Grade 5- 17 weeks. There were no Grade 4 (displaced) stress fractures diagnosed in this cohort of patients. Conclusion: Stress injuries to bone occur frequently in track and field athletes. Based on data collected

  13. Multiple-trait selection for radiographic health of the limbs, conformation and performance in Warmblood riding horses.

    PubMed

    Stock, K F; Distl, O

    2008-12-01

    Information on 26 434 German Warmblood horses born between 1992 and 2001 was used for multivariate genetic analyses of radiographic health, conformation and performance traits to compare different modes of single- and multiple-trait selection of sires. Results of standardized radiological examinations of 5155 Hanoverian Warmblood horses, conformation evaluations from studbook inspections of 20 603 mares, and performance evaluations from mare performance tests and auction horse inspections of 16 098 horses were used for multivariate genetic analyses. Genetic parameters were estimated with restricted maximum likelihood (REML), and relative breeding values (RBV) were predicted with best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) in multivariate linear animal models for four radiographic health traits, three conformation traits and five performance traits. Heritability estimates for osseous fragments in fetlock joints (OFF), osseous fragments in hock joints (OFH), deforming arthropathy in hock joints (DAH) and distinct radiographic findings in the navicular bones (DNB) ranged between 0.15 and 0.35 after transformation to the liability scale. Front limb conformation, hind limb conformation, withers height, walk, trot, canter, rideability and free jumping showed heritabilities between 0.09 and 0.49 and additive genetic correlations with OFF, OFH, DAH and DNB ranging between -0.53 and +0.52. Selection of sires was based on RBV or combinations of RBV, with selection for individual traits or traits from one of the three considered trait groups being considered as single-trait selection, and selection for traits from more than one trait group being considered as multiple-trait selection. The selection modes were compared by means of the expected selection response after one generation, calculated as the relative change in the prevalences of the radiographic findings or the mean conformation or performance scores in the offspring of the selected sires when compared with the offspring

  14. The 5- or 10-km Marikenloop Run: A Prospective Study of the Etiology of Running-Related Injuries in Women.

    PubMed

    van der Worp, Maarten P; de Wijer, Anton; van Cingel, Robert; Verbeek, André L M; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G; Staal, J Bart

    2016-06-01

    Study Design Prospective cohort. Background The popularity of running events is still growing, particularly among women; however, little is known about the risk factors for running-related injuries in female runners. Objectives The aims of this study were to determine the incidence and characteristics (site and recurrence) of running-related injuries and to identify specific risk factors for running-related injuries among female runners training for a 5- or 10-km race. Methods Four hundred thirty-five women registered for the Marikenloop run of 5 or 10 km were recruited. Follow-up data were collected over 12 weeks using questionnaires, starting 8 weeks before the event and ending 4 weeks after the event. Two orthopaedic tests (navicular drop test and extension of the first metatarsophalangeal joint) were performed in the 8 weeks before the event. Running-related injuries, defined as running-related pain of the lower back and/or the lower extremity that restricted running for at least 1 day, were assessed at 1-, 2-, and 3-month follow-ups. Results Of 417 female runners with follow-up data (96%), 93 runners (22.3%) reported 109 running-related injuries, mainly of the hip/groin, knee, and lower leg. Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that a weekly training distance of more than 30 km (hazard ratio = 3.28; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23, 8.75) and a previous running injury longer than 12 months prior (hazard ratio = 1.88; 95% CI: 1.03, 3.45) were associated with the occurrence of running-related injuries. Conclusion Hip/groin, knee, and lower-leg injuries were common among female runners. Only weekly training distance (greater than 30 km) and previous running injury (greater than 12 months prior) were associated with running-related injuries in female runners training for a 5- or 10-km event. Level of Evidence Etiology, 2b. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(6):462-470. Epub 26 Apr 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6402. PMID:27117730

  15. Foot posture influences the electromyographic activity of selected lower limb muscles during gait

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Some studies have found that flat-arched foot posture is related to altered lower limb muscle function compared to normal- or high-arched feet. However, the results from these studies were based on highly selected populations such as those with rheumatoid arthritis. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare lower limb muscle function of normal and flat-arched feet in people without pain or disease. Methods Sixty adults aged 18 to 47 years were recruited to this study. Of these, 30 had normal-arched feet (15 male and 15 female) and 30 had flat-arched feet (15 male and 15 female). Foot posture was classified using two clinical measurements (the arch index and navicular height) and four skeletal alignment measurements from weightbearing foot x-rays. Intramuscular fine-wire electrodes were inserted into tibialis posterior and peroneus longus under ultrasound guidance, and surface EMG activity was recorded from tibialis anterior and medial gastrocnemius while participants walked barefoot at their self-selected comfortable walking speed. Time of peak amplitude, peak and root mean square (RMS) amplitude were assessed from stance phase EMG data. Independent samples t-tests were performed to assess for significant differences between the normal- and flat-arched foot posture groups. Results During contact phase, the flat-arched group exhibited increased activity of tibialis anterior (peak amplitude; 65 versus 46% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction) and decreased activity of peroneus longus (peak amplitude; 24 versus 37% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction). During midstance/propulsion, the flat-arched group exhibited increased activity of tibialis posterior (peak amplitude; 86 versus 60% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction) and decreased activity of peroneus longus (RMS amplitude; 25 versus 39% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction). Effect sizes for these significant findings ranged from 0.48 to 1.3, representing moderate to

  16. 3D automatic anatomy segmentation based on iterative graph-cut-ASM

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xinjian; Bagci, Ulas

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: This paper studies the feasibility of developing an automatic anatomy segmentation (AAS) system in clinical radiology and demonstrates its operation on clinical 3D images. Methods: The AAS system, the authors are developing consists of two main parts: object recognition and object delineation. As for recognition, a hierarchical 3D scale-based multiobject method is used for the multiobject recognition task, which incorporates intensity weighted ball-scale (b-scale) information into the active shape model (ASM). For object delineation, an iterative graph-cut-ASM (IGCASM) algorithm is proposed, which effectively combines the rich statistical shape information embodied in ASM with the globally optimal delineation capability of the GC method. The presented IGCASM algorithm is a 3D generalization of the 2D GC-ASM method that they proposed previously in Chen et al.[Proc. SPIE, 7259, 72590C1-72590C-8 (2009)]. The proposed methods are tested on two datasets comprised of images obtained from 20 patients (10 male and 10 female) of clinical abdominal CT scans, and 11 foot magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. The test is for four organs (liver, left and right kidneys, and spleen) segmentation, five foot bones (calcaneus, tibia, cuboid, talus, and navicular). The recognition and delineation accuracies were evaluated separately. The recognition accuracy was evaluated in terms of translation, rotation, and scale (size) error. The delineation accuracy was evaluated in terms of true and false positive volume fractions (TPVF, FPVF). The efficiency of the delineation method was also evaluated on an Intel Pentium IV PC with a 3.4 GHZ CPU machine. Results: The recognition accuracies in terms of translation, rotation, and scale error over all organs are about 8 mm, 10 deg. and 0.03, and over all foot bones are about 3.5709 mm, 0.35 deg. and 0.025, respectively. The accuracy of delineation over all organs for all subjects as expressed in TPVF and FPVF is 93.01% and 0.22%, and