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Sample records for littoralis boisduval lepidoptera

  1. Biopotency of serine protease inhibitors from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds on digestive proteases and the development of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval).

    PubMed

    Abd El-latif, Ashraf Oukasha

    2015-05-01

    Serine protease inhibitors (PIs) have been described in many plant species and are universal throughout the plant kingdom, where trypsin inhibitors is the most common type. In the present study, trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory activity was detected in the seed flour extracts of 13 selected cultivars/accessions of cowpea. Two cowpea cultivars, Cream7 and Buff, were found to have higher trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory potential compared to other tested cultivars for which they have been selected for further purification studies using ammonium sulfate fractionation and DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column. Cream7-purified proteins showed two bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) corresponding to molecular mass of 17.10 and 14.90 kDa, while the purified protein from Buff cultivar showed a single band corresponding mass of 16.50 kDa. The purified inhibitors were stable at temperature below 60°C and were active at wide range of pH from 2 to 12. The kinetic analysis revealed noncompetitive type of inhibition for both inhibitors against both enzymes. The inhibitor constant (Ki ) values suggested high affinity between inhibitors and enzymes. Purified inhibitors were found to have deep and negative effects on the mean larval weight, larval mortality, pupation, and mean pupal weight of Spodoptera littoralis, where Buff PI was more effective than Cream7 PI. It may be concluded that cowpea PI gene(s) could be potential insect control protein for future studies in developing insect-resistant transgenic plants. PMID:25524889

  2. Development and validation of real-time PCR tests for the identification of four Spodoptera species: Spodoptera eridania, Spodoptera frugiperda, Spodoptera littoralis, and Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Van de Vossenberg, B T L H; Van der Straten, M J

    2014-08-01

    The genus Spodoptera comprises 31 species, 4 of which are listed as quarantine pests for the European Union: Spodoptera eridania (Cramer), Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith), Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval), and Spodoptera litura (F.). In international trade, the earlier life stages (eggs and larvae) are being intercepted at point of inspection most frequently, challenging the possibilities of morphological identification. To realize a rapid and reliable identification for all stages, we developed and validated four simplex real-time polymerase chain reaction identification tests based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene using dual-labeled hydrolysis probes. Method validation on dilutions of extracted DNA of the target organisms showed that low levels of template (up to 0.2-100 pg) can reliably be identified. No cross-reactivity was observed with 14 nontarget Spodoptera and 5 non-Spodoptera species in the specific Spodoptera tests. The tests showed to be repeatable, reproducible (both 100%), and robust. The new Spodoptera tests have proven to be suitable tools for routine identification of all life stages of S. eridania, S. frugiperda, S. littoralis, and S. litura. PMID:25195458

  3. Targeting the diuretic hormone receptor to control the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Apone, Fabio; Ruggiero, Alessandra; Tortora, Assunta; Tito, Annalisa; Grimaldi, Maria Rosaria; Arciello, Stefania; Andrenacci, Davide; Di Lelio, Ilaria; Colucci, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    The cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis Boisduval (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is one of the most devastating pests of crops worldwide. Several types of treatments have been used against this pest, but many of them failed because of the rapid development of genetic resistance in the different insect populations. G protein coupled receptors have vital functions in most organisms, including insects; thus, they are appealing targets for species-specific pest control strategies. Among the insect G protein coupled receptors, the diuretic hormone receptors have several key roles in development and metabolism, but their importance in vivo and their potential role as targets of novel pest control strategies are largely unexplored. With the goal of using DHR genes as targets to control S. littoralis, we cloned a corticotropin-releasing factor-like binding receptor in this species and expressed the corresponding dsRNA in tobacco plants to knock down the receptor activity in vivo through RNA interference. We also expressed the receptor in mammalian cells to study its signaling pathways. The results indicate that this diuretic hormone receptor gene has vital roles in S. littoralis and represents an excellent molecular target to protect agriculturally-important plants from this pest. PMID:25368043

  4. Effect of the Extracts of the Spiderflower, Cleome arabica, on Feeding and Survival of Larvae of the Cotton Leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Ladhari, Afef; Laarif, Asma; Omezzine, Faten; Haouala, Rabiaa

    2013-01-01

    Aqueous and organic (hexane, chloroform, and methanol) extracts of siliquae, stems and leaves, and seeds of Cleome arabica L. (Brassicales: Capparidaceae) were evaluated in the laboratory for their antifeeding and insecticidal effect on larvae of the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), using a leaf dipping bioassay with castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), leaf discs. The polar extracts caused significant mortality. At the highest dose, C. arabica extracts exhibited significant antifeeding and phagostimulating activities against S. littoralis larvae. Under no-choice conditions, the methanol extract of siliquae was the most active, and the antifeedant index calculated over 24 hr for 3rd instar larvae varied significantly from 16 to 37%. Using nutritional indices, it was established that there was a significant decrease in growth rate concomitant with a reduction in consumption. These results suggest the presence of anti-feeding and/or toxic substances in the extracts that may be useful in developing bio-insecticides based on C. arabica extracts for use in integrated pest management of leafworm and other agricultural pests. PMID:23906290

  5. The impact of the Bacillus subtilis SPB1 biosurfactant on the midgut histology of Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and determination of its putative receptor.

    PubMed

    Ghribi, Dhouha; Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna; Boukedi, Hanen; Elleuch, Mouna; Ellouze-Chaabouni, Semia; Tounsi, Slim

    2012-02-01

    SPB1 is a Bacillus subtilis strain producing a lipopeptide biosurfactant. The insecticidal activity of this biosurfactant was evaluated against the Egyptian cotton leaf worm (Spodoptera littoralis). It displayed toxicity with an LC(50) of 251 ng/cm(2). The histopathological changes occurred in the larval midgut of S. littoralis treated with B. subtilis SPB1 biosurfactant were vesicle formation in the apical region, cellular vacuolization and destruction of epithelial cells and their boundaries. Ligand-blotting experiments with S. littoralis brush border membrane vesicles showed binding of SPB1 biosurfactant to a protein of 45 kDa corresponding to its putative receptor. The latter differs in molecular size from those recognized by Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3A and Cry1C toxins, commonly known by their activity against S. littoralis. This result wires the application of B. subtilis biosurfactant for effective control of S. littoralis larvae, particularly in the cases where S. littoralis will develop resistance against B. thuringiensis toxins. PMID:22079884

  6. Monitoring for exotic Spodoptera species (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trapping studies were conducted in two Florida locations to determine if three Old World Spodoptera Guenée species were present. Commercially-produced lures for S. exempta (Walker), S. littoralis (Boisduval), and S. litura (F.), plus a S. litura lure made by the USDA-APHIS-CPHST laboratory at Otis ...

  7. Interaction of the Koinobiont Parasitoid Microplitis rufiventris of the Cotton Leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis, with Two Entomopathogenic Rhabditids, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema carpocapsae

    PubMed Central

    Atwa, Atwa A.; Hegazi, Esmat M.; Khafagi, Wedad E.; El-Aziz, Gehan M. Abd

    2013-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes are generally considered beneficial organisms. However, they can affect beneficial insects such as parasitoids. The interaction between the entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) and Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser, and the parasitoid Microplitis rufiventris Kokujev (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was investigated in the laboratory. In non-parasitized hosts, Spodoptera littoralis Boisduval (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae exposed to H. bacteriophora showed a higher percent mortality than those exposed to S. carpocapsae. Both nematodes were able to invade and propagate in non-parasitized S. littoralis larvae and those parasitized by M. rufiventris. Both nematode species reproduced in Microplitis-parasitized hosts, but there was a higher number of nematodes in non-parasitized larvae. S. carpocapsae yielded higher numbers of infective juveniles than H. bacteriophora. Generally, the number of nematodes harvested increased as their host's size increased. The interaction between the nematodes and parasitoid favored the nematodes when the nematodes were inoculated during the parasitoid egg stage or the young parasitoid larvae, thus giving the nematodes a better chance to grow and reproduce, resulting in the death of the parasitoid larvae. Conversely, when the nematodes were inoculated during the late larval instar of the parasitoid, the competition partially favored the wasp, thus giving approximately 50% of the wasps a better chance to develop, emerge, and reproduce, providing evidence that both nematodes and wasps could reproduce in the same host. Egg maturation of female wasps derived from nematode-infected hosts was not significantly different than those from control hosts. The combined application of nematodes and parasitoids may be beneficial if the detrimental effects of the nematodes on the parasitoid could be avoided by precisely timing the application strategies. It is clear that

  8. Effects of some botanical extracts on the midgut, integument and fat body of the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Khatter, Najat A

    2010-08-01

    Botanical extracts (8%) of four plants (Artemisia monosperma, Zygophyllum cocccineum, Lupinus termis and Brassica tournifortii) fed to the 4th larval instars of Spodoptera littoralis induced histopathological changes in the structure of the midgut, integument and fat body of the 5th instars. Zygophyllum cocci-neum and Lupinus termis induced severe damages in the midgut. The integument of treated larvae showed degeneration in the cuticle and epidermal cells which were also detached from each other. Water extracts of A. monosperma, Z. coccinieum and L. termis were the most promising in inducing shrinkage in the fat body cells and detachment of midgut muscle layers. Also, the degeneration of the midgut membrane and epithelial layer occurs in different degrees with the tested plants. This study supports the use of botanical extracts in pest control programs of lepidopterous insects. PMID:21246948

  9. Efficacy of some plant oils alone and/or combined with different insecticides on the cotton leaf-worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mesbah, H A; Mourad, A K; Rokaia, A Z M

    2006-01-01

    The present work was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of two essential oils ((Flax or "Linseed" and Sesame ), five volatile plant oils ( Camphor, Red basil, Rose, Menthol and Clove ), four pesticides (Methoxyfenozide; Permethrin; Profenofos and Spinosad) and their mixtures on the cotton leaf-worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.). This study was also devoted to minimize the usage of conventional insecticides, reduce the environmental pollution, and protect human-beings and domestic animals from hazards due to pesticides applications. In the meantime, the delayed effect of these tested plant oils on the developing immatures and moths of the cotton leaf-worm, Spodoptera littoralis was determined. Most of the evaluated plant oils were found to have an insecticidal effect on the 4th instar larvae of the cotton leaf-worm, S. littoralis. Both the essential Sesame oil and Clove volatile oil showed rather weak toxic effect corresponding to the same concentrations and periods of the bioassay tests. Comparing the toxicity of the tested plant oils, it was affirmed that both Rose and Red basil volatile oils were the highest efficient natural phytocompounds against the treated larvae and alternatively ranked either the 1st and/or the 2nd rank, throughout the different periods of the bioassay tests, followed by the other three tested oils which were more or less efficient phytocompounds. According to the toxicity index, all the tested oils were less toxic than the superior Red basil volatile oil after 48 h. post treatment followed by the gradual decrease in toxicity of Rose, Flax and Menthol, respectively. The development of the treated 4th larval instar was blocked due to treatment with the tested plant oils. With no exception, all the efficiently tested essential and/or volatile oils acted principally as Insect Growth Inhibitors (IGIs) rather than antifeedants causing disruption of the insect development, abnormal larvae, pupae and adults that were lead finally to death. The

  10. Continuous cell lines from the common white, Pieris rapae crucivora Boisduval.

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hayasaka, Shouji; Imanishi, Shigeo

    2003-01-01

    Three continuous cell lines, NIAS-PRC-819A, NIAS-PRC-819B, and NIAS-PRC-819C, were established from the pupal ovaries of the common white, Pieris rapae crucivora Boisduval (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Pieridae). The primary culture was initiated as explant cultures with ovariole fragments in MGM-464 medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum at 25 degrees C. About 6 mo after the culture was set up, the first subculture was prepared. Thereafter, cells were subcultured with decreasing passage intervals, resulting in a cell population that multiplied continuously. The karyotypes of these cell lines were similar to each other, and the majority of the cells showed about 100 microchromosomes. The population-doubling times of these cell lines were 3 to 7 d. The cell lines were susceptible to a microsporidia, Nosema bombycis. Immunodiffusion experiments proved that these cell lines derived from the common white and not from other cell lines by contamination. PMID:14505438

  11. Lycorine alkaloids from Hymenocallis littoralis.

    PubMed

    Lin, L Z; Hu, S F; Chai, H B; Pengsuparp, T; Pezzuto, J M; Cordell, G A; Ruangrungsi, N

    1995-11-01

    From Hymenocallis littoralis, one new alkaloid, named littoraline, together with 13 known lycorine alkaloids and one lignan, were isolated. The structure and NMR assignments of this new alkaloid were determined by 1D and 2D NMR techniques. Littoraline showed inhibitory activity of HIV reverse transcriptase, and lycorine and haemanthamine showed potent in vitro cytotoxicity. PMID:7492374

  12. Quantitative and ultrastructural changes in the haemocytes of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) treated individually or in combination with Spodoptera littoralis multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliMNPV) and azadirachtin.

    PubMed

    Shaurub, El-Sayed H; Abd El-Meguid, Afaf; Abd El-Aziz, Nahla M

    2014-10-01

    The total haemocyte count (THC) and the possible ultrastructural alterations induced in the haemocytes of the fourth larval instars of the Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), 96 h post-feeding on a semi-synthetic diet, treated with the LC50 of Spodoptera littoralis multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliMNPV) and the LC50 of azadirachtin alone, and the LC25 of SpliMNPV combined with the LC25 of azadirachtin were studied and compared to the control. Single treatment with the virus and azadirachtin or combined treatment significantly decreased the THC compared to the control. There are five types of haemocytes in S. littoralis: prohaemocytes, plasmatocytes, granulocytes, spherulocytes and oenocytoids. The most common symptoms in granulocytes and plasmatocytes, the main affected cell types, due to viral infection were the presence of virogenic stroma, peripheral dispersion of the chromatin and disappearance of the nucleoli. However, the most common symptoms in these two types of haemocytes due to treatment with azadirachtin were the presence of rough endoplasmic reticulum filled with fibrous materials, due to probably apoptosis, in their cisternae and disorganization of mitochondria (looped, vacuolated and swollen). In addition, the cytoplasm of granulocytes was vacuolated with the appearance of autophagic lysosomes, while plasmatocytes showed ruptured cell membrane and folded nuclear envelope. Combined treatment with the NPV and azadirachtin induced the same pathological changes which were recorded from individual treatment with the virus or azadirachtin to the same haemocytes. It can be concluded that the change in the THC and ultrastructure of granulocytes and plasmatocytes may affect the cellular-mediated immune response in S. littoralis. Moreover, it seems likely that mitochondria were the target site of azadirachtin, as they were affected in both granulocytes and plasmatocytes treated with azadirachtin alone or in

  13. Microbial control of the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) by Egyptian Bacillus thuringiensis isolates.

    PubMed

    Alfazairy, Ahlam A; El-Ahwany, Amani M D; Mohamed, Eman A; Zaghloul, Heba A H; El-Helow, Ehab R

    2013-03-01

    Four local Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) isolates that had been serologically identified as Bt var. kurstaki (Btk2, Btk3, and Btk66) and Bt var. mexicanensis (Btm27), in addition to two reference strains (4D20 and 4AC1), were laboratory assayed as microbial control agents against the Egyptian cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification analysis revealed that each of the six experimental strains carries, at least, a cry1 type gene which expresses a protein toxin active against lepidopterous insects. Additionally, PCR amplification results demonstrated that 4D20 and Btk66 contain the Lepidoptera- and Diptera-active cry2 type gene and that Btk66 contains Coleoptera-active cry7 and cry8 genes. Among the six strains, Btk66 and Btm27 were the most promising microbial control agents against S. littoralis. The present findings were the first to report that Btm27 (classified as B. thuringiensis var. mexicanensis) is a very potent microbial control agent against S. littoralis-tested larvae. For more characterization of these two isolates, the sspO gene was investigated as a molecular chronometer. The DNA sequencing results proved that Btk66 and Btm27 carry sspO open reading frames with identical nucleotide sequences, suggesting a strong phylogenetic relationship between the two strains. PMID:22983675

  14. Comparative infectivity of homologous and heterologous nucleopolyhedroviruses against beet armyworm larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Homologous and heterologous nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs) were assayed to determine the most effective NPV against beet armyworm larvae, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)(SeMNPV). Included were three isolates from S. exigua, one isolate each from S. littoralis Boisduval, S. litura...

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome of Polymastia littoralis (Demospongiae, Polymastiidae).

    PubMed

    del Cerro, Carlos; Peñalver, Ana; Cuevas, Carmen; de la Calle, Fernando; Galán, Beatriz; García, José L

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Polymastia littoralis (Demospongiae, Polymastiidae) is reported here for the first time. The P. littoralis mitogenome is 21,719 bp base pairs in total length and includes 14 protein-coding gene sequences, small and large rRNA sequences, and 25 tRNA sequences. All genes are encoded on the heavy strand. There are two overlapping genes trnE and nad6. PMID:24617477

  16. Phytochemical and biological investigation of Hymenocallis littoralis SALISB.

    PubMed

    Abou-Donia, Amina H; Toaima, Soad M; Hammoda, Hala M; Shawky, Eman; Kinoshita, Eri; Takayama, Hiromitsu

    2008-02-01

    A phytochemical investigation of the bulbs and flowers of Hymenocallis littoralis SALISB., cultivated in Egypt, was carried out, which resulted in the isolation of four alkaloids, lycorine (1), hippeastrine (2), 11-hydroxyvittatine (3), and (+)-8-O-demethylmaritidine (4), and of two flavonoids, quercetin 3'-O-glucoside (5), and rutin (6). The volatile constituents of the plant flowers were analyzed for the first time by GC/MS, which led to the identification of 26 known compounds (Table 1). Finally, the antimicrobial activity of the petroleum ether extract of the flowers of H. littoralis was investigated. PMID:18293433

  17. Chlorantraniliprole/lambda-cyhalothrin, a new insecticide mixture to control Tuta absoluta and Spodoptera littoralis in tomato.

    PubMed

    Fanigliulo, A; Mancino, O; Fanti, P; Crescenzi, A

    2012-01-01

    A study was performed in the period May-July 2011 by Bioagritest test facility according to EPPO guidelines and Principles of Good Experimental Practice (GEP), in the land of Eboli (SA), southern Italy, with the purpose to test a new insecticide mixture in the defense strategies of processing tomato against Tuta absoluta and Spodoptera littoralis. The insecticide mixture Chlorantraniliprole 100 g/lambda-Cyhalothrin 50 g/l 0,4 It/ha was applied in a tomato field in four (A-B-C-D) application timings (a.t.) alone (treatment 2) and in two a.t. (A-B) combined with emamectin benzoate 0.5%, 1,5 Kg/ha (a.t. C-D) (treatment 3). Its effect in containing insect populations was compared with that exerted by emamectin benzoate 0.5%, 1,5 Kg/ha (a.t. A-B-C-D) (treatment 4) and the combination of chlorantraniliprole 35%, 0.115 Kg/ha (a.t. A-B) and indoxacarb 30% 0.125 Kg/ha (a.t. C-D) (treatment 5). Application of treatments (trt.) and mode of assessment (2 assessments), recording and measurements followed the guidelines foreseen by EPPO Standards PP1/150 and PP1/275. The lepidoptera infestation in the tomato crop was very high on both the leaves and fruits, and this enabled us to evaluate the efficacy of the tested products in conditions of severe pests infestation. If we consider the leaf damage, either as number of mines by T. absoluta or as % of leaf erosion by S. litteralis, all the treatments values were statistically lower than control, but with no difference among them. But when using as an infestation threshold the percentage of damaged fruits (much more relevant in economic terms), we observed statistically significant differences among treatments. Actually, treatment with chlorantraniliprole-lambda-cyhalothrin mixture was significantly more effective than the one with emamectin benzoate in reducing the attack of T. absoluta on tomato fruits, in both dates of assessments. As concerns damage by S. littoralis on the fruits, at the first assessment, trt. 2 and trt. 5

  18. Herbivore-induced maize leaf volatiles affect attraction and feeding behavior of Spodoptera littoralis caterpillars.

    PubMed

    von Mérey, Georg E; Veyrat, Nathalie; D'Alessandro, Marco; Turlings, Ted C J

    2013-01-01

    Plants under herbivore attack emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can serve as foraging cues for natural enemies. Adult females of Lepidoptera, when foraging for host plants to deposit eggs, are commonly repelled by herbivore-induced VOCs, probably to avoid competition and natural enemies. Their larval stages, on the other hand, have been shown to be attracted to inducible VOCs. We speculate that this contradicting behavior of lepidopteran larvae is due to a need to quickly find a new suitable host plant if they have fallen to the ground. However, once they are on a plant they might avoid the sites with fresh damage to limit competition and risk of cannibalism by conspecifics, as well as exposure to natural enemies. To test this we studied the effect of herbivore-induced VOCs on the attraction of larvae of the moth Spodoptera littoralis and on their feeding behavior. The experiments further considered the importance of previous feeding experience on the responses of the larvae. It was confirmed that herbivore-induced VOCs emitted by maize plants are attractive to the larvae, but exposure to the volatiles decreased the growth rate of caterpillars at early developmental stages. Larvae that had fed on maize previously were more attracted by VOCs of induced maize than larvae that had fed on artificial diet. At relatively high concentrations synthetic green leaf volatiles, indicative of fresh damage, also negatively affected the growth rate of caterpillars, but not at low concentrations. In all cases, feeding by the later stages of the larvae was not affected by the VOCs. The results are discussed in the context of larval foraging behavior under natural conditions, where there may be a trade-off between using available host plant signals and avoiding competitors and natural enemies. PMID:23825475

  19. In Vivo Pyro-SIP Assessing Active Gut Microbiota of the Cotton Leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yongqi; Arias-Cordero, Erika; Guo, Huijuan; Bartram, Stefan; Boland, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    The gut microbiota is of crucial importance for the host with considerable metabolic activity. Although great efforts have been made toward characterizing microbial diversity, measuring components' metabolic activity surprisingly hasn't kept pace. Here we combined pyrosequencing of amplified 16S rRNA genes with in vivo stable isotope probing (Pyro-SIP) to unmask metabolically active bacteria in the gut of cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis), a polyphagous insect herbivore that consumes large amounts of plant material in a short time, liberating abundant glucose in the alimentary canal as a most important carbon and energy source for both host and active gut bacteria. With 13C glucose as the trophic link, Pyro-SIP revealed that a relatively simple but distinctive gut microbiota co-developed with the host, both metabolic activity and composition shifting throughout larval stages. Pantoea, Citrobacter and Clostridium were particularly active in early-instar, likely the core functional populations linked to nutritional upgrading. Enterococcus was the single predominant genus in the community, and it was essentially stable and metabolically active in the larval lifespan. Based on that Enterococci formed biofilm-like layers on the gut epithelium and that the isolated strains showed antimicrobial properties, Enterococcus may be able to establish a colonization resistance effect in the gut against potentially harmful microbes from outside. Not only does this establish the first in-depth inventory of the gut microbiota of a model organism from the mostly phytophagous Lepidoptera, but this pilot study shows that Pyro-SIP can rapidly gain insight into the gut microbiota's metabolic activity with high resolution and high precision. PMID:24475063

  20. Laboratory evaluation of Isaria fumosorosea against Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Zemek, R; Hussein, H M; Prenerová, E

    2012-01-01

    Isaria fumosorosea (syn. Paecilomyces fumosoroseus) is potentially useful for the biological control of economically important agricultural and forest insect pests. We evaluated efficacy of two strains of this entomopathogenic fungus against last instar larvae and pupae of Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis. The first strain was Apopka 97 which is an active ingredient of commercial biopesticide PreFeRal WG (Biobest, Belgium). The second strain was isolated from Cameraria ohridella and is currently deposited under number CCM 8367 as a patent culture in the Czech Collection of Microorganisms in Brno. Blastospores of both strains were obtained after 120 hours submerged cultivation in grow media using orbital shaker. The concentration of blastospores was adjusted to 5 x 10(7) spores/ml of suspension. Soaking agent Tween 80 was added to the suspension at concentration 0.02%. Lethal effects of both fungal strains on S. littoralis were evaluated using standard dip test. Treated insects were individually placed into plastic Petri dishes (diam. 9 cm) and kept at constant laboratory conditions (temperature 23 degrees C, R.H. approx. 100%, 16L:8D photoperiod). Virulence of the strains was expressed as percentages of cumulative daily mortality corrected for mortality in the control variant. Obtained results revealed higher virulence of CCM 8367 blastospores to the last instar larvae of S. littoralis (93.1% mortality) on the 7th day after the treatment compared to Apopka 97 (65.5% mortality). Even more obvious difference was found in pupae, where corrected mortality of CCM 8367-treated pupae was 80.0% while mortality in Apopka 97-treated pupae reached only 3.3% on the 8th day after the treatment. We can conclude that the strain I. fumosorosea CCM 8367 has strong insecticidal effects on S. littoralis and has a potential to be implemented as a novel biocontrol agent. PMID:23885438

  1. Determination and analysis of the genome sequence of Spodoptera littoralis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Spodoptera littoralis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliMNPV), a pathogen of the Egyptian cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis, was subjected to sequencing of its entire DNA genome and bioassay analysis comparing its virulence to that of other baculoviruses. The annotated SpliMNPV genome of...

  2. Biodiversity and Activity of the Gut Microbiota across the Life History of the Insect Herbivore Spodoptera littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bosheng; Teh, Beng-Soon; Sun, Chao; Hu, Sirui; Lu, Xingmeng; Boland, Wilhelm; Shao, Yongqi

    2016-01-01

    Microbes that live inside insects play critical roles in host nutrition, physiology, and behavior. Although Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) are one of the most diverse insect taxa, their microbial symbionts are little-studied, particularly during metamorphosis. Here, using ribosomal tag pyrosequencing of DNA and RNA, we investigated biodiversity and activity of gut microbiotas across the holometabolous life cycle of Spodoptera littoralis, a notorious agricultural pest worldwide. Proteobacteria and Firmicutes dominate but undergo a structural “metamorphosis” in tandem with its host. Enterococcus, Pantoea and Citrobacter were abundant and active in early-instar, while Clostridia increased in late-instar. Interestingly, only enterococci persisted through metamorphosis. Female adults harbored high proportions of Enterococcus, Klebsiella and Pantoea, whereas males largely shifted to Klebsiella. Comparative functional analysis with PICRUSt indicated that early-instar larval microbiome was more enriched for genes involved in cell motility and carbohydrate metabolism, whereas in late-instar amino acid, cofactor and vitamin metabolism increased. Genes involved in energy and nucleotide metabolism were abundant in pupae. Female adult microbiome was enriched for genes relevant to energy metabolism, while an increase in the replication and repair pathway was observed in male. Understanding the metabolic activity of these herbivore-associated microbial symbionts may assist the development of novel pest-management strategies. PMID:27389097

  3. Biodiversity and Activity of the Gut Microbiota across the Life History of the Insect Herbivore Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bosheng; Teh, Beng-Soon; Sun, Chao; Hu, Sirui; Lu, Xingmeng; Boland, Wilhelm; Shao, Yongqi

    2016-01-01

    Microbes that live inside insects play critical roles in host nutrition, physiology, and behavior. Although Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) are one of the most diverse insect taxa, their microbial symbionts are little-studied, particularly during metamorphosis. Here, using ribosomal tag pyrosequencing of DNA and RNA, we investigated biodiversity and activity of gut microbiotas across the holometabolous life cycle of Spodoptera littoralis, a notorious agricultural pest worldwide. Proteobacteria and Firmicutes dominate but undergo a structural "metamorphosis" in tandem with its host. Enterococcus, Pantoea and Citrobacter were abundant and active in early-instar, while Clostridia increased in late-instar. Interestingly, only enterococci persisted through metamorphosis. Female adults harbored high proportions of Enterococcus, Klebsiella and Pantoea, whereas males largely shifted to Klebsiella. Comparative functional analysis with PICRUSt indicated that early-instar larval microbiome was more enriched for genes involved in cell motility and carbohydrate metabolism, whereas in late-instar amino acid, cofactor and vitamin metabolism increased. Genes involved in energy and nucleotide metabolism were abundant in pupae. Female adult microbiome was enriched for genes relevant to energy metabolism, while an increase in the replication and repair pathway was observed in male. Understanding the metabolic activity of these herbivore-associated microbial symbionts may assist the development of novel pest-management strategies. PMID:27389097

  4. Antineoplastic agents, 294. Variations in the formation of pancratistatin and related isocarbostyrils in Hymenocallis littoralis.

    PubMed

    Pettit, G R; Pettit, G R; Backhaus, R A; Boettner, F E

    1995-01-01

    By cloning Hymenocallis littoralis, a practical biosynthetic procedure was developed for producing pancratistatin [1]. The plant tissue culture-->greenhouse-->field production sequence was successively utilized for increasing an original 1.5 kg of wild H. littoralis bulbs to some 60,000 bulbs at present. In the central Arizona Sonoran Desert, the tropical H. littoralis was found to reach a maximum pancratistatin content in October and a minimum in May. Generally pancratistatin [1] was accompanied by lesser yields of narciclasine [2], 7-deoxynarciclasine [3], and 7-deoxy-trans-dihydronarcicasine [4]. Improved laboratory and pilot-plant scale techniques were also developed for the isolation of pancratistatin [1] from difficult-to-separate mixtures of narciclasine [2] and 7-deoxynarciclasine [3]occurring in H. littoralis. PMID:7760076

  5. A new chromone from Hymenocallis littoralis Salisb. (Amaryllidaceae).

    PubMed

    Anh, Dinh Thi Phuong; Duong, Tran Bach; Hoang, Vu Dinh

    2014-01-01

    A new chromone, 5,7-dihydroxy-6,8-dimethoxy-2-methyl-4H-chromen-4-one (1), together with seven known compounds, 5,7-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-2-methyl-4H-chromen-4-one (pisonin B) (2), 5,7-dihydroxy-2-methyl-4H-chromen-4-one (noreugenin) (3), 5-hydroxy-7-methoxy-2-methyl-4H-chromen-4-one (eugenin) (4), (2S)-7,4'-dihydroxyflavan (5), 3',7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-8-methylflavan (6), 3',7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavan (7) and 6,8-dimethyl-5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavanone (( - )-farrerol) (8), were isolated from Hymenocallis littoralis Salisb. (Amaryllidaceae) growing in Vietnam. Their structures were determined based on spectroscopic and physicochemical analyses. PMID:25142217

  6. High γ-aminobutyric acid content, a novel component associated with resistance to abamectin in Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval).

    PubMed

    Xin-jun, Zhu; Wen-cai, Lu; Ya-ning, Feng; Lin, He

    2010-12-01

    An abamectin-resistant strain of Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) (Rf=25.3) was selected in laboratory. We compared the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content in abamectin-susceptible T. cinnabarinus individuals with that in resistant individuals and investigated its relationship to abamectin resistance. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to ascertain GABA content in abamectin-susceptible (SS) and resistant (AR) strains of T. cinnabarinus. The results indicate that GABA content in the AR was significantly higher than that in the SS (1.39-fold). AR individuals treated with a sublethal dose of abamectin did not show significant differences in GABA levels compared with AR individuals that were not treated with abamectin. However in the SS, abamectin treated individuals had a significantly higher GABA content than those that were untreated (1.52-fold). Individuals in the SS that survived from selection with LC(95) of abamectin (SS-AR) showed significantly higher GABA levels compared to SS (1.41-fold). Similarly, progenies of the SS-AR parental generation (SS-ARF(1)) also showed increased GABA levels (1.51-fold) compared to SS. In addition, behavioral observations have shown that all individuals from the AR, SS-AR and SS-ARF(1), which had more GABA content than the SS, demonstrated a significant decrease in crawling speed compared with SS individuals. This observation is consistent with excessive GABA levels had inhibitory effect on the central nervous system. Thus, we postulate that increasing GABA content in T. cinnabarinus is associated with resistance against abamectin. PMID:20713058

  7. Order Lepidoptera Linnaeus, 1758.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on two recent molecular analyses, augmented by the discovery of several published or unpublished novel morphological synapomorphies, a new classification is proposed for the order Lepidoptera. The new classification is more consistent with our growing knowledge of the phylogeny of the group an...

  8. Mechanism of entomotoxicity of the plant lectin from Hippeastrum hybrid (Amaryllis) in Spodoptera littoralis larvae.

    PubMed

    Caccia, Silvia; Van Damme, Els J M; De Vos, Winnok H; Smagghe, Guy

    2012-09-01

    Plant lectins have received a lot of attention because of their insecticidal properties. When orally administered in artificial diet or in transgenic plants, lectins provoke a wide range of detrimental effects, including alteration of the digestive enzyme machinery, fecundity drop, reduced feeding, changes in oviposition behavior, growth and development inhibition and mortality. Although many studies reported the entomotoxicity of lectins, only a few of them investigated the mode of action by which lectins exert toxicity. In the present paper we have studied for the first time the insecticidal potential of the plant lectin from Hippeastrum hybrid (Amaryllis) (HHA) bulbs against the larvae of the cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis). Bioassays on neonate larvae showed that this mannose-specific lectin affected larval growth, causing a development retardation and larval weight decrease. Using primary cell cultures from S. littoralis midguts and confocal microscopy we have elucidated FITC-HHA binding and internalization mechanisms. We found that HHA did not exert a toxic effect on S. littoralis midgut cells, but HHA interaction with the brush border of midgut cells interfered with normal nutrient absorption in the S. littoralis midgut, thereby affecting normal larval growth in vivo. This study thus confirms the potential of mannose-specific lectins as pest control agents and sheds light on the mechanism underlying lectin entomotoxicity. PMID:22677323

  9. THE EFFECTS OF LIGHT AND NUTRIENTS ON AN INVASIVE BUDDLEJA DAVIDII AND A NATIVE GRISELINIA LITTORALIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Buddleja davidii (Family: Buddlejaceae), an aggressive, highly invasive, ornamental

    shrub of Asian origin, may be suppressing slower-growing native species (e.g., Griselinia

    littoralis; Family: Griseliniaceae) on New Zealand floodplains, thus altering successional

  10. The biology and ecology of Necrodes littoralis, a species of forensic interest in Europe.

    PubMed

    Charabidze, Damien; Vincent, Benoît; Pasquerault, Thierry; Hedouin, Valéry

    2016-01-01

    Necrodes littoralis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Coleoptera: Silphidae), also known as the "shore sexton beetle," is a common silphid beetle that visits and breeds on large vertebrate cadavers. This study describes, for the first time, the involvement of N. littoralis on human corpses based on a large dataset of 154 French forensic cases. Various parameters regarding corpse location, decomposition stages, and entomofauna were extracted from each file. Compared to all of the forensic entomology cases analyzed between 1990 and 2013 (1028), N. littoralis was observed, on average, in one case out of eight; most of these cases occurred during spring and summer (73.5%). More than 90% of the cases were located outdoors, especially in woodlands, bushes, and fields. The decomposition stage of the corpse varied among cases, with more than 50% in the advanced decomposition stage, 36% in the early decomposition stage, and less than 10% in the fresh, mummified, or skeletonized stages. Regarding other necrophagous species sampled with N. littoralis, Calliphorid flies were found in 94% of the cases and Fanniidae/Muscidae in 65% of the cases. Chrysomya albiceps, a heliophilic species mostly located in the Mediterranean area, was present in 34% of the cases (only 20% in the whole dataset). The most common coleopteran species were Necrobia spp. (Coleoptera: Cleridae) and Creophilus maxillosus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae); these beetles were observed in 27% of the cases. The over-representation of these species is likely due to similar requirements regarding the climate and decomposition stage. As N. littoralis is frequently observed and tends to become more common, we conclude that the developmental data for this species would be a precious tool for forensic entomologists in Europe. PMID:26762393

  11. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of the medicinal plant Glehnia littoralis F.Schmidt ex Miq. (Apiaceae).

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Choon; Oh Lee, Hyun; Kim, Kyunghee; Kim, Soonok; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2016-09-01

    Glehnia littoralis F. Schmidt ex Miq is an oriental medicinal herb belonging to Apiaceae family, and its dried roots and rhizomes are known to show various pharmacological effects. The complete chlorplast genome of G. littoralis was generated by de novo assembly using whole genome sequencing data. The chloroplast genome of G. littoralis was 147 467 bp in length and divided into four distinct regions: large single copy region (93 493 bp), small single copy region (17 546 bp) and a pair of inverted repeat regions (18 214 bp). A total of 114 genes including 80 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes and 4 rRNA genes were predicted and accounted for 57.1% of the chloroplast genome. Phylogenetic analysis with the reported chloroplast genomes revealed that G. littoralis is an herbal species closely related to Ledebouriella seseloides, an herbal medicinal plant. PMID:26367483

  12. [Effects of P and K fertilizer on content of coumarin and yield of Glehnia littoralis].

    PubMed

    Sun, Chuang-shu; Zheng, Kan; Li, Wei; Chen, Gui-lin; Yu, Rong; Yu, Jian-guo

    2015-09-01

    By a orthogonal experiment, the influence of different ratio of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers on imperatorin, isoimperatorin and psoralen contents and yield of Glehnia littoralis were studied. The results showed that root dry weight and the yield of G. littoralis increased when reasonably applied phosphorus fertilizer combined with potassium fertilizer within a certain range. And the influence of phosphorus fertilizer was greater than that of potassium fertilizer. The optimal value of root dry weight and yield achieved at both P2O5 360 kg x hm(-2), K2O 270 kg x hm(-2) and P2O5 360 kg x hm(-2), K2O 180 kg x hm(-2). The effects of different phosphorus and potassium treatments on the content of imperatorin, isoimperatorin and psoralen in G. littoralis were determined, which shows that the content increased with the moderate increase of phosphorus and potassium. And the effects of phosphorus fertilizer were more significantly. The isoimperatorin content achieved the largest value at P2O5 360 kg x hm(-2), K2O 270 kg x hm(-2), also a larger content of imperatorin and psoralen. The imperatorin content is the largest when applied P2O5 360 kg x hm(-2), K2O 180 kg x hm(-2), and the isoimperatorin content was higher as well. So that the treatment of P2O5 360 kg x hm(-2), K2O 180 kg x hm(-2) are suitable for promote to the agricultural production, which could improve the quality and yield of G. littoralis. PMID:26983197

  13. Spodoptera littoralis detoxifies neurotoxic 3-nitropropanoic acid by conjugation with amino acids.

    PubMed

    Novoselov, Alexey; Becker, Tobias; Pauls, Gerhard; von Reuß, Stephan H; Boland, Wilhelm

    2015-08-01

    Spodoptera littoralis is a phytophagous generalist. Its host range includes more than 40 plant species, some of which produce 3-nitropropanoic acid (3-NPA), an irreversible inhibitor of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase. Growth in larvae fed an artificial diet with a sublethal admixture of 3-NPA (4.2 μmol per g) was slowed significantly, but larvae experienced no increase in mortality. In contrast, larvae injected with 25.2 μmol/g (bodyweight) 3-NPA experienced acute toxicity and death. To study the detoxification mechanism of 3-NPA in S. littoralis, the insect frass was analyzed by HPLC-MS. Comparative analysis of 3-NPA-treated and -untreated control samples using HR-MS(2) revealed a group of differential signals that were identified as amino acid amides of 3-NPA with glycine, alanine, serine, and threonine. When sublethal amounts of stable isotope-labeled 3-NPA were injected into a larva's hemolymph, 3-NPA amino acid conjugates were identified as putative detoxification products. Bioassays with synthetic standards confirmed that the toxicity of the amides was negligible in comparison to the toxicity of free 3-NPA, demonstrating that amino acid conjugation in S. littoralis represents an efficient way to detoxify 3-NPA. Furthermore, biosynthetic studies using crude fractions of the gut tissue indicated that conjugation of 3-NPA with amino acids occurs in epithelial cells of the insect's gut. Taken together, these results suggest that the detoxification of 3-NPA in S. littoralis proceeds via conjugation to specific amino acids within the epithelial cells followed by export of the nontoxic amino acid conjugates to the hemolymph via as yet uncharacterized mechanisms, most likely involving the Malpighian tubules. PMID:26092560

  14. Growth profile and SEM analyses of Candida albicans and Escherichia coli with Hymenocallis littoralis (Jacq.) Salisb leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Rosli, N; Sumathy, V; Vikneswaran, M; Sreeramanan, S

    2014-12-01

    Hymenocallis littoralis (Jacq.) Salisb (Melong kecil) commonly known as 'Spider Lily' is an herbaceous plant from the family Amaryllidaceae. Study was carried out to determine the effect of H. littoralis leaf extract on the growth and morphogenesis of two pathogenic microbes, Candida albicans and Escherichia coli. The leaf extract displayed favourable anticandidal and antibacterial activity with a minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of 6.25 mg/mL. Time kill study showed both microbes were completely killed after treated with leaf extract at 20 h. Both microbes' cell walls were heavily ruptured based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The significant anticandidal and antibacterial activities showed by H. littoralis leaf extract suggested the potential antimicrobial agent against C. albicans and E. coli. PMID:25776614

  15. Dynamics of Membrane Potential Variation and Gene Expression Induced by Spodoptera littoralis, Myzus persicae, and Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Bricchi, Irene; Bertea, Cinzia M.; Occhipinti, Andrea; Paponov, Ivan A.; Maffei, Massimo E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Biotic stress induced by various herbivores and pathogens invokes plant responses involving different defense mechanisms. However, we do not know whether different biotic stresses share a common response or which signaling pathways are involved in responses to different biotic stresses. We investigated the common and specific responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to three biotic stress agents: Spodoptera littoralis, Myzus persicae, and the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Methodology/Principal Findings We used electrophysiology to determine the plasma membrane potential (Vm) and we performed a gene microarray transcriptome analysis on Arabidopsis upon either herbivory or bacterial infection. Vm depolarization was induced by insect attack; however, the response was much more rapid to S. littoralis (30 min −2 h) than to M. persicae (4–6 h). M. persicae differentially regulated almost 10-fold more genes than by S. littoralis with an opposite regulation. M. persicae modulated genes involved in flavonoid, fatty acid, hormone, drug transport and chitin metabolism. S. littoralis regulated responses to heat, transcription and ion transport. The latest Vm depolarization (16 h) was found for P. syringae. The pathogen regulated responses to salicylate, jasmonate and to microorganisms. Despite this late response, the number of genes differentially regulated by P. syringae was closer to those regulated by S. littoralis than by M. persicae. Conclusions/Significance Arabidopsis plasma membranes respond with a Vm depolarization at times depending on the nature of biotic attack which allow setting a time point for comparative genome-wide analysis. A clear relationship between Vm depolarization and gene expression was found. At Vm depolarization timing, M. persicae regulates a wider array of Arabidopsis genes with a clear and distinct regulation than S. littoralis. An almost completely opposite regulation was observed between the aphid and the pathogen, with the former

  16. Seven invasive owlet moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Israel and their potential parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over a 10 year period, collections from light traps placed at 88 locations throughout Israel were examined for tropical species of noctuid pest species and associated parasitoids. Tropical noctuidae pest species collected included Spodoptera mauritia (Boisduval), Trichoplusia vittata (Wallengren), A...

  17. 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulphate synthesis and involvement in sulphotransferase reactions in the insect, Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed Central

    Isaac, R E; Phua, K K; Rees, H H

    1982-01-01

    1. Synthesis of 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulphate from ATP and 35SO4(-2) was demonstrated by homogenates of gut. Malpighian tubules and fat body of Spodoptera littoralis. 2. The enzyme system was most active in the gut tissue, and was primarily located in the cytosol fraction of the cell. Gut cytosol preparations were used as a source of the 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulphate generating system for more detailed studies. 3. Maximum synthesis required an incubation mixture containing Tris/HCl buffer (pH 7.5), ATP (20 mM), MgCl2 (13.0 mM) and K2SO4 (3 mM). 4. The specific activity of 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulphate synthesizing activity in gut cytosol increased during development of the sixth instar larva, reaching a peak at day 4. A sudden fall in specific activity was observed in the prepupal stage. 5. 3'-Phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulphate formation is the rate limiting process in the overall sulphation of p-nitrophenol in the gut cytosol preparations from S. littoralis. 6. It is concluded that the properties of the sulphate-activating system in this insect are similar to those reported for vertebrates. PMID:6956335

  18. Effect of ace inhibitors and TMOF on growth, development, and trypsin activity of larval Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Lemeire, Els; Borovsky, Dov; Van Camp, John; Smagghe, Guy

    2008-12-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is a zinc metallopeptidase capable of cleaving dipeptide or dipeptideamide moieties at the C-terminal end of peptides. ACE is present in the hemolymph and reproductive tissues of insects. The presence of ACE in the hemolymph and its broad substrate specificity suggests an important role in processing of bioactive peptides. This study reports the effects of ACE inhibitors on larval growth in the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis. Feeding ACE inhibitors ad lib decreased the growth rate, inhibited ACE activity in the larval hemolymph, and down-regulated trypsin activity in the larval gut. These results indicate that S. littoralis ACE may influence trypsin biosynthesis in the larval gut by interacting with a trypsin-modulating oostatic factor (TMOF). Injecting third instar larvae with a combination of Aea-TMOF and the ACE inhibitor captopril, down-regulated trypsin biosynthesis in the larval gut indicating that an Aea-TMOF gut receptor analogue could be present. Injecting captopril and enalapril into newly molted fifth instar larvae stopped larval feeding and decreased weight gain. Together, these results indicate that ACE inhibitors are efficacious in stunting larval growth and ACE plays an important role in larval growth and development. PMID:18949805

  19. Quantitative gene expression analysis of some sodium ion transporters under salinity stress in Aeluropus littoralis.

    PubMed

    Rezaei Moshaei, Masoumeh; Nematzadeh, Ghorban Ali; Askari, Hossein; Mozaffari Nejad, Amir Sasan; Pakdin, Ali

    2014-11-01

    Plant sodium transporters activity is one of the most important salt tolerance mechanisms to keep normal status of cytosolic sodium content. In the present study, expression pattern of genes encoding Na(+)/H(+) antiporters in the plasma membrane (SOS1 gene), vacuolar membrane (NHX1 gene) and H(+)-ATPase pump (VHA gene) in Aeluropus littoralis under different treatments of NaCl was measured by the semi-quantitative RT-PCR method. Our results indicated that root and shoot sodium contents were increased along with increasing salinity pressure. In response to 200 and 400 mM NaCl, mRNA level of SOS1 and NHX1 was increased in the shoot and root tissues, while VHA transcripts were increased only under 400 mM of NaCl. Transcripts of VHA-c and NHX1 in root were higher than shoot in all treatments. In general, our results indicated that transcriptional level of SOS1, and NHX1 genes induced in parallel with VHA expression may be involved in controlling cytosolic Na(+) concentration in A. littoralis. PMID:25313273

  20. Global and local modulatory supply to the mushroom bodies of the moth Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Sinakevitch, Irina; Sjöholm, Marcus; Hansson, Bill S; Strausfeld, Nicholas J

    2008-07-01

    The moth Spodoptera littoralis, is a major pest of agriculture whose olfactory system is tuned to odorants emitted by host plants and conspecifics. As in other insects, the paired mushroom bodies are thought to play pivotal roles in behaviors that are elicited by contextual and multisensory signals, amongst which those of specific odors dominate. Compared with species that have elaborate behavioral repertoires, such as the honey bee Apis mellifera or the cockroach Periplaneta americana, the mushroom bodies of S. littoralis were originally viewed as having a simple cellular organization. This has been since challenged by observations of putative transmitters and neuromodulators. As revealed by immunocytology, the spodopteran mushroom bodies, like those of other taxa, are subdivided longitudinally into discrete neuropil domains. Such divisions are further supported by the present study, which also demonstrates discrete affinities to different mushroom body neuropils by antibodies raised against two putative transmitters, glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid, and against three putative neuromodulatory substances: serotonin, A-type allatostatin, and tachykinin-related peptides. The results suggest that in addition to longitudinal divisions of the lobes, circuits in the calyces and lobes are likely to be independently modulated. PMID:18406668

  1. Global and Local Modulatory Supply to the Mushroom Bodies of the Moth Spodoptera Littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Sinakevitch, Irina; Sjöholm, Marcus; Hansson, Bill S.; Strausfeld, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    The moth Spodoptera littoralis, is a major pest of agriculture whose olfactory system is tuned to odorants emitted by host plants and conspecifics. As in other insects, the paired mushroom bodies are thought to play pivotal roles in behaviors that are elicited by contextual and multisensory signals, amongst which those of specific odors dominate. Compared with species that have elaborate behavioral repertoires, such as the honey bee Apis mellifera or the cockroach Periplaneta americana, the mushroom bodies of S. littoralis were originally viewed as having a simple cellular organization. This has been since challenged by observations of putative transmitters and neuromodulators. As revealed by immunocytology, the spodopteran mushroom bodies like those of other taxa, are subdivided longitudinally into discrete neuropil domains. Such divisions are further supported by the present study, which also demonstrates discrete affinities to different mushroom body neuropils by antibodies raised against two putative transmitters, glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid, and against three putative neuromodulatory substances: serotonin, A-type allatostatin, and tachykinin-related peptides. The results suggest that in addition to longitudinal divisions of the lobes, circuits in the calyces and lobes are likely to be independently modulated. PMID:18406668

  2. Identification of Metabolically Active Bacteria in the Gut of the Generalist Spodoptera littoralis via DNA Stable Isotope Probing Using 13C-Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Boland, Wilhelm

    2013-01-01

    Guts of most insects are inhabited by complex communities of symbiotic nonpathogenic bacteria. Within such microbial communities it is possible to identify commensal or mutualistic bacteria species. The latter ones, have been observed to serve multiple functions to the insect, i.e. helping in insect reproduction1, boosting the immune response2, pheromone production3, as well as nutrition, including the synthesis of essential amino acids4, among others.     Due to the importance of these associations, many efforts have been made to characterize the communities down to the individual members. However, most of these efforts were either based on cultivation methods or relied on the generation of 16S rRNA gene fragments which were sequenced for final identification. Unfortunately, these approaches only identified the bacterial species present in the gut and provided no information on the metabolic activity of the microorganisms. To characterize the metabolically active bacterial species in the gut of an insect, we used stable isotope probing (SIP) in vivo employing 13C-glucose as a universal substrate. This is a promising culture-free technique that allows the linkage of microbial phylogenies to their particular metabolic activity. This is possible by tracking stable, isotope labeled atoms from substrates into microbial biomarkers, such as DNA and RNA5. The incorporation of 13C isotopes into DNA increases the density of the labeled DNA compared to the unlabeled (12C) one. In the end, the 13C-labeled DNA or RNA is separated by density-gradient ultracentrifugation from the 12C-unlabeled similar one6. Subsequent molecular analysis of the separated nucleic acid isotopomers provides the connection between metabolic activity and identity of the species. Here, we present the protocol used to characterize the metabolically active bacteria in the gut of a generalist insect (our model system), Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). The phylogenetic analysis of the DNA

  3. Phylogenetic Molecular Species Delimitations Unravel Potential New Species in the Pest Genus Spodoptera Guenée, 1852 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, Pascaline; Barbut, Jérôme; Le Ru, Bruno; Silvain, Jean-François; Clamens, Anne-Laure; d’Alençon, Emmanuelle; Kergoat, Gael J.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays molecular species delimitation methods promote the identification of species boundaries within complex taxonomic groups by adopting innovative species concepts and theories (e.g. branching patterns, coalescence). As some of them can efficiently deal with large single-locus datasets, they could speed up the process of species discovery compared to more time consuming molecular methods, and benefit from the existence of large public datasets; these methods can also particularly favour scientific research and actions dealing with threatened or economically important taxa. In this study we aim to investigate and clarify the status of economically important moths species belonging to the genus Spodoptera (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), a complex group in which previous phylogenetic analyses and integrative approaches already suggested the possible occurrence of cryptic species and taxonomic ambiguities. In this work, the effectiveness of innovative (and faster) species delimitation approaches to infer putative species boundaries has been successfully tested in Spodoptera, by processing the most comprehensive dataset (in terms of number of species and specimens) ever achieved; results are congruent and reliable, irrespective of the set of parameters and phylogenetic models applied. Our analyses confirm the existence of three potential new species clusters (for S. exigua (Hübner, 1808), S. frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) and S. mauritia (Boisduval, 1833)) and support the synonymy of S. marima (Schaus, 1904) with S. ornithogalli (Guenée, 1852). They also highlight the ambiguity of the status of S. cosmiodes (Walker, 1858) and S. descoinsi Lalanne-Cassou & Silvain, 1994. This case study highlights the interest of molecular species delimitation methods as valuable tools for species discovery and to emphasize taxonomic ambiguities. PMID:25853412

  4. Phylogenetic molecular species delimitations unravel potential new species in the pest genus Spodoptera Guenée, 1852 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Dumas, Pascaline; Barbut, Jérôme; Le Ru, Bruno; Silvain, Jean-François; Clamens, Anne-Laure; d'Alençon, Emmanuelle; Kergoat, Gael J

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays molecular species delimitation methods promote the identification of species boundaries within complex taxonomic groups by adopting innovative species concepts and theories (e.g. branching patterns, coalescence). As some of them can efficiently deal with large single-locus datasets, they could speed up the process of species discovery compared to more time consuming molecular methods, and benefit from the existence of large public datasets; these methods can also particularly favour scientific research and actions dealing with threatened or economically important taxa. In this study we aim to investigate and clarify the status of economically important moths species belonging to the genus Spodoptera (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), a complex group in which previous phylogenetic analyses and integrative approaches already suggested the possible occurrence of cryptic species and taxonomic ambiguities. In this work, the effectiveness of innovative (and faster) species delimitation approaches to infer putative species boundaries has been successfully tested in Spodoptera, by processing the most comprehensive dataset (in terms of number of species and specimens) ever achieved; results are congruent and reliable, irrespective of the set of parameters and phylogenetic models applied. Our analyses confirm the existence of three potential new species clusters (for S. exigua (Hübner, 1808), S. frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) and S. mauritia (Boisduval, 1833)) and support the synonymy of S. marima (Schaus, 1904) with S. ornithogalli (Guenée, 1852). They also highlight the ambiguity of the status of S. cosmiodes (Walker, 1858) and S. descoinsi Lalanne-Cassou & Silvain, 1994. This case study highlights the interest of molecular species delimitation methods as valuable tools for species discovery and to emphasize taxonomic ambiguities. PMID:25853412

  5. Pseudautomeris brasiliensis (Lep.: Saturniidae) and Stenoma sp. (Lep.:Elachistidae) feeding on crops of Ctenanthe kummeriana (Marantaceae) in Brazil and an associate parasitoid, Enicospilus tenuigena (Hym.: Ichneumonidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ctenanthe kummeriana (E. Morren) Eichler (Marantaceae) is a cosmopolitan ornamental plant with esthetically appealing color and leaf shape. Pseudautomeris erubescens Boisduval, 1875 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) and a non-described species of Stenoma (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) defoliated this plant in...

  6. Instar determination in forensically useful beetles Necrodes littoralis (Silphidae) and Creophilus maxillosus (Staphylinidae).

    PubMed

    Frątczak, Katarzyna; Matuszewski, Szymon

    2014-08-01

    In order to estimate postmortem interval from immature insects, it is necessary to accurately determine which instars are present in a corpse sample. Unfortunately, most forensically useful beetles lack morphological features specific for particular instars, and the only way to distinguish larval instars of particular species is to measure their size. The aim of this study was to test which measurements are useful for instar determination of Necrodes littoralis (Silphidae) and Creophilus maxillosus (Staphylinidae) and how to combine them to get accurate and easy to use instar classifier. Six morphological features were measured: distance between dorsal stemmata, width of the pronotum, length of the body, width of the mesonotum, width of the eighth abdominal tergite and length of the first segment of urogomphus. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used to create and validate classifiers. Validation was made with fully sclerotized larvae and larvae just after ecdysis (not fully sclerotized and coloured). All the features were found to be useful for instar determination. The most useful features were the width of the mesonotum and the distance between dorsal stemmata. Complete classifiers (the ones incorporating all features) assigned larvae to instars with no misclassifications, unless larval specimens were just after ecdysis. Even in the case of larvae just after ecdysis complete classifiers were highly effective, although some third instars of C. maxillosus were misclassified as second instars. Simple classifiers (the ones incorporating only two, the best features) performed similarly well with fully sclerotized larvae, but in the case of larvae just after ecdysis they revealed higher misclassification rate than complete classifiers. These results indicate that measurement of any highly sclerotized larval structure of N. littoralis and C. maxillosus may be useful for instar determination. They also show that fully sclerotized larvae may be accurately classified

  7. Chemical composition of volatiles from Opuntia littoralis, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Opuntia prolifera growing on Catalina Island, California.

    PubMed

    Wright, Cynthia R; Setzer, William N

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils from the cladodes of Opuntia littoralis, Opuntia ficus-indica and Opuntia prolifera growing wild on Santa Catalina Island, California, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Terpenoids were the dominant class of volatiles in O. littoralis, with the two main components being the furanoid forms of cis-linalool oxide (10.8%) and trans-linalool oxide (8.8%). Fatty acid-derived compounds dominated the essential oil of O. ficus-indica with linoleic acid (22.3%), palmitic acid (12.7%), lauric acid (10.5%) and myristic acid (4.2%) as major fatty acids. O. prolifera oil was composed of 46.6% alkanes and the primary hydrocarbon component was heptadecane (19.2%). Sixteen compounds were common to all the three Opuntia species. PMID:24354326

  8. Use of DNA Barcodes to Identify Invasive Armyworm Spodoptera Species in Florida

    PubMed Central

    Nagoshi, Rodney N.; Brambila, Julieta; Meagher, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    A critical component for sustaining adequate food production is the protection of local agriculture from invasive pest insects. Essential to this goal is the ability to accurately distinguish foreign from closely related domestic species, a process that has traditionally required identification using diagnostic morphological “keys” that can be both subtle and labor-intensive. This is the case for the Lepidopteran group of insects represented by Spodoptera, a genus of Noctuidae “armyworm” moths that includes several important agricultural pests. Two of the most destructive species, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and S. litura (F.) are not yet established in North America. To facilitate the monitoring for these pests, the feasibility of using DNA barcoding methodology for distinguishing between domestic and foreign Spodoptera species was tested. A DNA barcoding database was derived for a subset of Spodoptera species native to Florida, with an emphasis on those attracted to pheromone blends developed for S. litura or S. littoralis. These were then compared to the barcode sequences of S. litura collected from Taiwan and S. littoralis from Portugal. Consistent discrimination of the different species was obtained with phenetic relationships produced that were generally in agreement with phylogenetic studies using morphological characteristics. The data presented here indicate that DNA barcoding has the potential to be an efficient and accurate supplement to morphological methods for the identification of invasive Spodoptera pests in North America. PMID:22239735

  9. Nests, eggs, and nestlings of the Restinga Antwren Formicivora littoralis (Aves: Thamnophilidae).

    PubMed

    Chaves, Flávia G; Vecchi, Maurício B; Laurindo, Thiago F S; Alves, Maria Alice S

    2013-01-01

    We describe the nest, eggs, and nestlings of the Restinga Antwren (Formicivora littoralis), an endangered bird of Restinga ecosystem (sandy coastal plain vegetation) that is endemic to Rio de Janeiro state. Twelve nests were found at the edges of trails or natural gaps at Massambaba Restinga region, in different supporting plants and heights from the ground (X ± SD 1.27 ± 0.97 m, range 0.27 to 3.45 m). Nests were cup-shaped and were in horizontal forks attached to branches at three to five points with whitish, soft, and thin cotton-like vegetable fiber. The nests' cup shape and measurements were similar to congeneric species, but nest material was different. Eggs were white with brown spots concentrated on the large end or around the middle, giving the appearance of a rough brown ring. Their mean (± SD) minimum diameter was 13.1 ± 0.34 mm, with maximum diameter of 18.0 ± 0.38 mm, and mass of 1.7 ± 0.18 g (n = 8). We found two nestlings completely naked on their first day after hatching. PMID:23828345

  10. Haplosporidium littoralis sp. nov.: a crustacean pathogen within the Haplosporida (Cercozoa, Ascetosporea).

    PubMed

    Stentiford, G D; Bateman, K S; Stokes, N A; Carnegie, R B

    2013-09-01

    Previously, we described the pathology and ultrastructure of an apparently asporous haplosporidian-like parasite infecting the common shore crab Carcinus maenas from the European shoreline. In the current study, extraction of genomic DNA from the haemolymph, gill or hepatopancreas of infected C. maenas was carried out and the small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) of the pathogen was amplified by PCR before cloning and sequencing. All 4 crabs yielded an identical 1736 bp parasite sequence. BLAST analysis against the NCBI GenBank database identified the sequence as most similar to the protistan pathogen group comprising the order Haplosporida within the class Ascetosporea of the phylum Cercozoa Cavalier-Smith, 1998. Parsimony analysis placed the crab pathogen within the genus Haplosporidium, sister to the molluscan parasites H. montforti, H. pickfordi and H. lusitanicum. The parasite infecting C. maenas is hereby named as Haplosporidium littoralis sp. nov. The presence of a haplosporidian parasite infecting decapod crustaceans from the European shoreline with close phylogenetic affinity to previously described haplosporidians infecting molluscs is intriguing. The study provides important phylogenetic data for this relatively understudied, but commercially significant, pathogen group. PMID:23999708

  11. Systemic Amyloid A Amyloidosis in Island Foxes (Urocyon littoralis): Severity and Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, P M; Witte, C; Clifford, D L; Imai, D M; O'Brien, T D; Trejo, M; Liberta, F; Annamalai, K; Fändrich, M; Masliah, E; Munson, L; Sigurdson, C J

    2016-05-01

    Systemic amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is highly prevalent (34%) in endangered island foxes (Urocyon littoralis) and poses a risk to species recovery. Although elevated serum AA (SAA) from prolonged or recurrent inflammation predisposes to AA amyloidosis, additional risk factors are poorly understood. Here we define the severity of glomerular and medullary renal amyloid and identify risk factors for AA amyloidosis in 321 island foxes necropsied from 1987 through 2010. In affected kidneys, amyloid more commonly accumulated in the medullary interstitium than in the glomeruli (98% [n= 78 of 80] vs 56% [n= 45], respectively;P< .0001), and medullary deposition was more commonly severe (19% [n= 20 of 105]) as compared with glomeruli (7% [n= 7];P= .01). Univariate odds ratios (ORs) of severe renal AA amyloidosis were greater for short- and long-term captive foxes as compared with free-ranging foxes (ORs = 3.2, 3.7, respectively; overall P= .05) and for females as compared with males (OR = 2.9;P= .05). Multivariable logistic regression revealed that independent risk factors for amyloid development were increasing age class (OR = 3.8;P< .0001), San Clemente Island subspecies versus San Nicolas Island subspecies (OR = 5.3;P= .0003), captivity (OR = 5.1;P= .0001), and nephritis (OR = 2.3;P= .01). The increased risk associated with the San Clemente subspecies or captivity suggests roles for genetic as well as exogenous risk factors in the development of AA amyloidosis. PMID:26419399

  12. Mitochondrial genomes suggest rapid evolution of dwarf California Channel Islands foxes (Urocyon littoralis).

    PubMed

    Hofman, Courtney A; Rick, Torben C; Hawkins, Melissa T R; Funk, W Chris; Ralls, Katherine; Boser, Christina L; Collins, Paul W; Coonan, Tim; King, Julie L; Morrison, Scott A; Newsome, Seth D; Sillett, T Scott; Fleischer, Robert C; Maldonado, Jesus E

    2015-01-01

    Island endemics are typically differentiated from their mainland progenitors in behavior, morphology, and genetics, often resulting from long-term evolutionary change. To examine mechanisms for the origins of island endemism, we present a phylogeographic analysis of whole mitochondrial genomes from the endangered island fox (Urocyon littoralis), endemic to California's Channel Islands, and mainland gray foxes (U. cinereoargenteus). Previous genetic studies suggested that foxes first appeared on the islands >16,000 years ago, before human arrival (~13,000 cal BP), while archaeological and paleontological data supported a colonization >7000 cal BP. Our results are consistent with initial fox colonization of the northern islands probably by rafting or human introduction ~9200-7100 years ago, followed quickly by human translocation of foxes from the northern to southern Channel Islands. Mitogenomes indicate that island foxes are monophyletic and most closely related to gray foxes from northern California that likely experienced a Holocene climate-induced range shift. Our data document rapid morphological evolution of island foxes (in ~2000 years or less). Despite evidence for bottlenecks, island foxes have generated and maintained multiple mitochondrial haplotypes. This study highlights the intertwined evolutionary history of island foxes and humans, and illustrates a new approach for investigating the evolutionary histories of other island endemics. PMID:25714775

  13. Mitochondrial Genomes Suggest Rapid Evolution of Dwarf California Channel Islands Foxes (Urocyon littoralis)

    PubMed Central

    Hofman, Courtney A.; Rick, Torben C.; Hawkins, Melissa T. R.; Funk, W. Chris; Ralls, Katherine; Boser, Christina L.; Collins, Paul W.; Coonan, Tim; King, Julie L.; Morrison, Scott A.; Newsome, Seth D.; Sillett, T. Scott; Fleischer, Robert C.; Maldonado, Jesus E.

    2015-01-01

    Island endemics are typically differentiated from their mainland progenitors in behavior, morphology, and genetics, often resulting from long-term evolutionary change. To examine mechanisms for the origins of island endemism, we present a phylogeographic analysis of whole mitochondrial genomes from the endangered island fox (Urocyon littoralis), endemic to California’s Channel Islands, and mainland gray foxes (U. cinereoargenteus). Previous genetic studies suggested that foxes first appeared on the islands >16,000 years ago, before human arrival (~13,000 cal BP), while archaeological and paleontological data supported a colonization >7000 cal BP. Our results are consistent with initial fox colonization of the northern islands probably by rafting or human introduction ~9200–7100 years ago, followed quickly by human translocation of foxes from the northern to southern Channel Islands. Mitogenomes indicate that island foxes are monophyletic and most closely related to gray foxes from northern California that likely experienced a Holocene climate-induced range shift. Our data document rapid morphological evolution of island foxes (in ~2000 years or less). Despite evidence for bottlenecks, island foxes have generated and maintained multiple mitochondrial haplotypes. This study highlights the intertwined evolutionary history of island foxes and humans, and illustrates a new approach for investigating the evolutionary histories of other island endemics. PMID:25714775

  14. An antennal circadian clock and circadian rhythms in peripheral pheromone reception in the moth Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Merlin, Christine; Lucas, Philippe; Rochat, Didier; François, Marie-Christine; Maïbèche-Coisne, Martine; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle

    2007-12-01

    Circadian rhythms are observed in mating behaviors in moths: females emit sex pheromones and males are attracted by these pheromones in rhythmic fashions. In the moth Spodoptera littoralis, we demonstrated the occurrence of a circadian oscillator in the antenna, the peripheral olfactory organ. We identified different clock genes, period (per), cryptochrome1 (cry1) and cryptochrome2 (cry2), in this organ. Using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), we found that their corresponding transcripts cycled circadianly in the antenna as well as in the brain. Electroantennogram (EAG) recordings over 24 h demonstrated for the first time a circadian rhythm in antennal responses of a moth to sex pheromone. qPCR showed that out of one pheromone-binding protein (PBP), one olfactory receptor (OR), and one odorant-degrading enzyme (ODE), all putatively involved in the pheromone reception, only the ODE transcript presented a circadian rhythm that may be related to rhythms in olfactory signal resolution. Peripheral or central circadian clock control of olfaction is then discussed in light of recent data. PMID:18057325

  15. Origins and antiquity of the island fox ( Urocyon littoralis) on California's Channel Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rick, Torben C.; Erlandson, Jon M.; Vellanoweth, René L.; Braje, Todd J.; Collins, Paul W.; Guthrie, Daniel A.; Stafford, Thomas W., Jr.

    2009-03-01

    The island fox ( Urocyon littoralis) is one of few reportedly endemic terrestrial mammals on California's Channel Islands. Questions remain about how and when foxes first colonized the islands, with researchers speculating on a natural, human-assisted, or combined dispersal during the late Pleistocene and/or Holocene. A natural dispersal of foxes to the northern Channel Islands has been supported by reports of a few fox bones from late Pleistocene paleontological localities. Direct AMS 14C dating of these "fossil" fox bones produced dates ranging from ˜ 6400 to 200 cal yr BP, however, postdating human colonization of the islands by several millennia. Although one of these specimens is the earliest securely dated fox from the islands, these new data support the hypothesis that Native Americans introduced foxes to all the Channel Islands in the early to middle Holocene. However, a natural dispersal for the original island colonization cannot be ruled out until further paleontological, archaeological, and genetic studies (especially aDNA [ancient DNA]) are conducted.

  16. Phenolic Compounds from Atriplex littoralis and Their Radiation-Mitigating Activity.

    PubMed

    Gođevac, Dejan; Stanković, Jovana; Novaković, Miroslav; Anđelković, Boban; Dajić-Stevanović, Zora; Petrović, Milica; Stanković, Miroslava

    2015-09-25

    From the aerial parts of Atriplex littoralis, three new flavonoid glycosides named atriplexins I-III (1-3), a known flavonoid glycoside, spinacetin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (4), arbutin (5), and 4-hydroxybenzyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (6) were isolated. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR (COSY, NOESY, TOCSY, HSQC, HMBC) and HRESITOF MS data. The compounds were tested for in vitro protective effects on chromosome aberrations in peripheral human lymphocytes using a cytochalasin-B-blocked micronucleus (MN) assay in a concentration range of 0.8-7.4 μM of final culture solution. Chromosomal damage was induced by 2 Gy of γ-radiation on binucleated human lymphocytes, and the effects of the compounds were tested 2 to 19 h after irradiation. The frequency of micronuclei (MNi) was scored in binucleated cells, and the nuclear proliferation index was calculated. The highest prevention of in vitro biochemical and cytogenetic damage of human lymphocytes induced by γ-radiation was exhibited by 3 (reduction of MN frequency by 31%), followed by 4 and 6. PMID:26290401

  17. Induction of apoptosis by the tropical seaweed Pylaiella littoralis in HT-29 cells via the mitochondrial and MAPK pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Bo-Ram; Kim, Junseong; Kim, Min-Sun; Jang, Jiyi; Oh, Chulhong; Kang, Do-Hyung; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Jung, Won-Kyo; Choi, Il-Whan; Heo, Soo-Jin

    2013-12-01

    We demonstrated that an extract from Pylaiella littoralis, collected from the Federate States of Micronesia (FSM), could inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells. P. littoralis extract (PLE) showed anti-proliferative activities in the tumorigenic cells tested, ranging from 20.2% to 67.9%. The highest inhibitory activity, in HT-29 cells, was selected for further experiments. PLE showed no cytotoxic effect in normal cells and inhibited the growth of HT-29 cells depending on concentration and incubation time. PLE-treated HT-29 cells showed the typical morphological characteristics of apoptosis, such as apoptotic body formation and DNA fragmentation. PLE also induced mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization and resulted in increased mitochondrial membrane permeability, compared with untreated cells. PLE decreased Bcl-2 protein and increased Bax protein expression, activating caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) expression via the caspase pathway. PLE also increased the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and it reduced cell viability in treatment cells with specific inhibitors such as PD98059 (a specific inhibitor of ERK), SP600125 (a specific inbibitor of JNK), and SB 203580 (a specific inbibitor of p38 MAPK). via the the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway. These results suggest that PLE inhibits the proliferation of HT-29 cells by affecting the caspase and MAPK pathways involved in the induction of apoptosis. Thus, we suggest that P. littoralis extract might be potential candidate agents for the treatment of human colorectal cancer.

  18. Comparative analysis of lycorine in wild plant and callus culture samples of Hymenocallis littoralis by HPLC-UV method.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Sreeramanan; Sundarasekar, Jeevandran; Sahgal, Geethaa; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran

    2014-01-01

    The Hymenocallis littoralis, an ornamental and medicinal plant, had been traditionally used for wound healing. In the present study, an analytical method using HPLC with ultraviolet detection was developed for the quantification of lycorine in the extracts of different parts of wild plant and tissue culture samples of H. littoralis. The separation was achieved using a reversed-phase column. The method was found to be accurate, repeatable, and sensitive for the quantification of minute amount of lycorine present in the samples. The highest lycorine content was found in the bulb extract (2.54 ± 0.02 μg/mg) whereas the least was in the root extract (0.71 ± 0.02 μg/mg) of the wild plants. Few callus culture samples had high content of lycorine, comparable to that of wild plants. The results showed that plant growth regulators, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) alone at 4.5 μM (2.58 ± 0.38 μg/mg) or a combination of 2,4-D at 9.00 μM with 4.5 μM of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), were the optimum concentrations for the production of high lycorine (2.45 ± 0.15 μg/mg) content in callus culture. The present analytical method could be of value for routine quantification of lycorine in the tissue culture production and standardization of the raw material or extracts of H. littoralis. PMID:24895650

  19. Comparative Analysis of Lycorine in Wild Plant and Callus Culture Samples of Hymenocallis littoralis by HPLC-UV Method

    PubMed Central

    Sahgal, Geethaa; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran

    2014-01-01

    The Hymenocallis littoralis, an ornamental and medicinal plant, had been traditionally used for wound healing. In the present study, an analytical method using HPLC with ultraviolet detection was developed for the quantification of lycorine in the extracts of different parts of wild plant and tissue culture samples of H. littoralis. The separation was achieved using a reversed-phase column. The method was found to be accurate, repeatable, and sensitive for the quantification of minute amount of lycorine present in the samples. The highest lycorine content was found in the bulb extract (2.54 ± 0.02 μg/mg) whereas the least was in the root extract (0.71 ± 0.02 μg/mg) of the wild plants. Few callus culture samples had high content of lycorine, comparable to that of wild plants. The results showed that plant growth regulators, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) alone at 4.5 μM (2.58 ± 0.38 μg/mg) or a combination of 2,4-D at 9.00 μM with 4.5 μM of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), were the optimum concentrations for the production of high lycorine (2.45 ± 0.15 μg/mg) content in callus culture. The present analytical method could be of value for routine quantification of lycorine in the tissue culture production and standardization of the raw material or extracts of H. littoralis. PMID:24895650

  20. [The morphological structure of salt gland and salt secretion in Aeluropus littoralis var. sinensis Debeaux].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Hua; Shi, Li-Ran; Zhao, Ke-Fu

    2006-08-01

    The leaves of Aeluropus littoralis var. sinensis Debeaux were scanned with a scanning electron microscope, it showed that the upper-epidermis had almost the same number of salt glands as the lower-epidermis (Plate I-1, 2), and the salt gland is the typical bicelluar gland, which consists of a large basal cell inlaid into the epidermis and a small cap cell (Plate I-6). These salt glands were distributed mainly on the leaf veins, which favors the rapid collection of salts from the roots. Ion X-ray microanalysis indicated that the salt glands could effectively absorb Na(+) from the epidermal cells and mesophyllous cells (Table 1), then secreted Na(+) from the cap cells (Plate I-4), which would decrease the salinity of plant. After the plants were treated with various salts for 17 d, the ion contents of the leaves and the secretion were measured, and the results implied that salt glands had different selection in absorbing and secreting Na(+) , K(+) and Ca(2+), that is, the plants first selected K(+) when absorbing ions, while first selected Na(+) when sending ions out, but Ca(2+) was fewer in both absorbed and secreted, and the order of secretion of the three ions was found to be Na(+)>K(+)>Ca(2+) (Figs. 1-6). The secretion of Na(+) or three ions were respectively higher than that of leaves within 24 h (Figs. 1, 2, 7, 8), while K(+) situation was completely opposite with them (Figs. 3, 4). At the same time, the total ion content and composition inside the leaves remained more or less constant (Fig. 8). PMID:16957392

  1. Regulation of Arabidopsis defense responses against Spodoptera littoralis by CPK-mediated calcium signaling

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plant Ca2+ signals are involved in a wide array of intracellular signaling pathways after pest invasion. Ca2+-binding sensory proteins such as Ca2+-dependent protein kinases (CPKs) have been predicted to mediate the signaling following Ca2+ influx after insect herbivory. However, until now this prediction was not testable. Results To investigate the roles CPKs play in a herbivore response-signaling pathway, we screened the characteristics of Arabidopsis CPK mutants damaged by a feeding generalist herbivore, Spodoptera littoralis. Following insect attack, the cpk3 and cpk13 mutants showed lower transcript levels of plant defensin gene PDF1.2 compared to wild-type plants. The CPK cascade was not directly linked to the herbivory-induced signaling pathways that were mediated by defense-related phytohormones such as jasmonic acid and ethylene. CPK3 was also suggested to be involved in a negative feedback regulation of the cytosolic Ca2+ levels after herbivory and wounding damage. In vitro kinase assays of CPK3 protein with a suite of substrates demonstrated that the protein phosphorylates transcription factors (including ERF1, HsfB2a and CZF1/ZFAR1) in the presence of Ca2+. CPK13 strongly phosphorylated only HsfB2a, irrespective of the presence of Ca2+. Furthermore, in vivo agroinfiltration assays showed that CPK3-or CPK13-derived phosphorylation of a heat shock factor (HsfB2a) promotes PDF1.2 transcriptional activation in the defense response. Conclusions These results reveal the involvement of two Arabidopsis CPKs (CPK3 and CPK13) in the herbivory-induced signaling network via HsfB2a-mediated regulation of the defense-related transcriptional machinery. This cascade is not involved in the phytohormone-related signaling pathways, but rather directly impacts transcription factors for defense responses. PMID:20504319

  2. Isolation of an Apoptosis Suppressor Gene of the Spodoptera littoralis Nucleopolyhedrovirus†

    PubMed Central

    Du, Quansheng; Lehavi, Dana; Faktor, Ouriel; Qi, Yipeng; Chejanovsky, Nor

    1999-01-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda SF9 cells infected with mutants of the Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) which lack a functional p35 gene undergo apoptosis, aborting the viral infection. The Spodoptera littoralis nucleopolyhedrovirus (SlNPV) was able to suppress apoptosis triggered by vΔP35K/pol+, an AcMNPV p35 null mutant. To identify the putative apoptotic suppressor gene of SlNPV, overlapping cosmid clones representing the entire SlNPV genome were individually cotransfected along with genomic DNA of vΔP35K/pol+. Using this complementation assay, we isolated a SlNPV DNA fragment that was able to rescue the vΔP35K/pol+ infection in SF9 cells. By further subcloning and rescue, we identified a novel SlNPV gene, Slp49. The Slp49 sequence predicted a 49-kDa polypeptide with about 48.8% identity to the AcMNPV apoptotic suppressor P35. SLP49 displays a potential recognition site, TVTDG, for cleavage by death caspases. Recombinant AcMNPVs deficient in p35 bearing the Slp49 gene did not induce apoptosis and showed successful productive infections in SF9 cells, indicating that Slp49 is a functional homologue of p35. A 1.5-kbp Slp49-specific transcript was identified in SF9 cells infected with SlNPV or with vAc496, a vΔP35K/pol+-recombinant bearing Slp49. The discovery of Slp49 contributes to the identification of important functional motifs conserved in p35-like apoptotic suppressors and to the future isolation of p35-like genes from other baculoviruses. PMID:9882332

  3. The Influence of an Invasive Shrub, Buddleja Davidii on a Native Shrub, Griselinia Littoralis Transplanted into a New Zealand Floodplain Chronosequence

    EPA Science Inventory

    Griselinia littoralis, a native New Zealand shrub, was planted into a chronosequence (0 to 8 yrs since flooding) dominated by the non-indigenous shrub, Buddleja davidii in three New Zealand floodplains to determine to what extent facilitation and competitive inhibition may influe...

  4. Identification of plant semiochemicals and characterization of new olfactory sensory neuron types in a polyphagous pest moth, Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Binyameen, Muhammad; Anderson, Peter; Ignell, Rickard; Birgersson, Göran; Razaq, Muhammad; Shad, Sarfraz A; Hansson, Bill S; Schlyter, Fredrik

    2014-10-01

    Phytophagous insects use blends of volatiles released from plants to select hosts for feeding and oviposition. To behaviorally analyze complex blends, we need efficient and selective methods for elucidating neuron types, their ligands, and specificity. Gas chromatography-combined single sensillum recordings (GC-SSRs) from antennal olfactory sensilla of female moth, Spodoptera littoralis revealed 38 physiologically active peaks in the headspace volatile blends from both larvae-damaged cotton plants and lilac flowers. Using GC-combined mass spectrometry, 9 new physiologically active compounds were identified from damaged cotton and 11 from lilac compared with earlier electrophysiological studies using antennae of female S. littoralis. We characterized 14 novel classes of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Among these, we found the first 2 ligands for a frequent type of short trichoid sensillum, for which no ligands were identified earlier. By using GC-SSR, a substantial increase in functional classes of OSNs and active compounds, 40% and 34% more, respectively, compared with recent studies using GC-electroantennogram or SSR using single compounds was detected. Compared with the estimated number of corresponding antennal olfactory receptors, the OSN classes now correspond to 83% of a likely maximum. The many specialist OSNs observed may facilitate behavioral confirmation of key plant volatiles in blends. PMID:25194141

  5. Histopathological effects and determination of the putative receptor of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Da toxin in Spodoptera littoralis midgut.

    PubMed

    BenFarhat-Touzri, Dalel; Saadaoui, Marwa; Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna; Saadaoui, Imen; Azzouz, Hichem; Tounsi, Slim

    2013-02-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai strain HD133, known by its effectiveness against Spodoptera species, produces many insecticidal proteins including Cry1Ab, Cry1Ca and Cry1Da. In the present study, the insecticidal activity of Cry1Da against Spodoptera littoralis was investigated. It showed toxicity with an LC(50) of 224.4 ng/cm(2) with 95% confidence limits of (178.61-270.19) and an LC(90) of 467.77 ng/cm(2) with 95% confidence limits of (392.89-542.65). The midgut histopathology of Cry1Da fed larvae showed vesicle formation in the apical region, vacuolization and destruction of epithelial cells. Biotinylated-activated Cry1Da toxin bound protein of about 65 kDa on blots of S. littoralis brush border membrane preparations. This putative receptor differs in molecular size from those recognized by Cry1C and Vip3A which are active against this polyphagous insect. This difference in midgut receptors strongly supports the use of Cry1Da as insecticidal agent, particularly in case of Cry and/or Vip-resistance management. PMID:23220238

  6. Identification, structural characterisation and expression analysis of a defensin gene from the tiger beetle Calomera littoralis (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-García, María Juliana; García-Reina, Andrés; Machado, Vilmar; Galián, José

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a defensin gene (Clit-Def) has been characterised in the tiger beetle Calomera littoralis for the first time. Bioinformatic analysis showed that the gene has an open reading frame of 246bp that contains a 46 amino acid mature peptide. The phylogenetic analysis showed a high variability in the coleopteran defensins analysed. The Clit-Def mature peptide has the features to be involved in the antimicrobial function: a predicted cationic isoelectric point of 8.94, six cysteine residues that form three disulfide bonds, and the typical cysteine-stabilized α-helix β-sheet (CSαβ) structural fold. Real time quantitative PCR analysis showed that Clit-Def was upregulated in the different body parts analysed after infection with lipopolysaccharides of Escherichia coli, and also indicated that has an expression peak at 12h post infection. The expression patterns of Clit-Def suggest that this gene plays important roles in the humoral system in the adephagan beetle Calomera littoralis. PMID:27210512

  7. Interactions between density, home range behaviors, and contact rates in the Channel Island fox (Urocyon littoralis)

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Jessica N; Hudgens, Brian R

    2015-01-01

    Many of the mechanisms underlying density-dependent regulation of populations, including contest competition and disease spread, depend on contact among neighboring animals. Understanding how variation in population density influences the frequency of contact among neighboring animals is therefore an important aspect to understanding the mechanisms underlying, and ecological consequences of, density-dependent regulation. However, contact rates are difficult to measure in the field and may be influenced by density through multiple pathways. This study explored how local density affects contact rates among Channel Island foxes (Urocyon littoralis) through two pathways: changes in home range size and changes in home range overlap. We tracked 40 radio-collared foxes at four sites on San Clemente Island, California. Fox densities at the four sites ranged from 2.8 ± 1.28 to 42.8 ± 9.43 foxes/km2. Higher fox densities were correlated with smaller home ranges (R2 = 0.526, F1,38 = 42.19, P < 0.001). Thirty foxes wore collars that also contained proximity loggers, which recorded the time and duration of occasions when collared foxes were within 5 m of one another. Contact rates between neighboring fox dyads were positively correlated with home range overlap (R2 = 0.341, P = 0.008), but not fox density (R2 = 0.012, P = 0.976). Individuals at high densities had more collared neighbors with overlapping home ranges (R2 = 0.123, P = 0.026) but not an increase in the amount of contact between individual neighbors. This study was the first time contact rates were directly measured and compared to density and home range overlap. Results suggest that foxes exhibit a threshold in their degree of tolerance for neighbors, overlap is a reliable index of the amount of direct contact between island foxes, and disease transmission rates will likely scale with fox density. PMID:26120435

  8. Interactions between density, home range behaviors, and contact rates in the Channel Island fox (Urocyon littoralis).

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Jessica N; Hudgens, Brian R

    2015-06-01

    Many of the mechanisms underlying density-dependent regulation of populations, including contest competition and disease spread, depend on contact among neighboring animals. Understanding how variation in population density influences the frequency of contact among neighboring animals is therefore an important aspect to understanding the mechanisms underlying, and ecological consequences of, density-dependent regulation. However, contact rates are difficult to measure in the field and may be influenced by density through multiple pathways. This study explored how local density affects contact rates among Channel Island foxes (Urocyon littoralis) through two pathways: changes in home range size and changes in home range overlap. We tracked 40 radio-collared foxes at four sites on San Clemente Island, California. Fox densities at the four sites ranged from 2.8 ± 1.28 to 42.8 ± 9.43 foxes/km(2). Higher fox densities were correlated with smaller home ranges (R (2) = 0.526, F 1,38 = 42.19, P < 0.001). Thirty foxes wore collars that also contained proximity loggers, which recorded the time and duration of occasions when collared foxes were within 5 m of one another. Contact rates between neighboring fox dyads were positively correlated with home range overlap (R (2)  = 0.341, P = 0.008), but not fox density (R (2)  = 0.012, P = 0.976). Individuals at high densities had more collared neighbors with overlapping home ranges (R (2)  = 0.123, P = 0.026) but not an increase in the amount of contact between individual neighbors. This study was the first time contact rates were directly measured and compared to density and home range overlap. Results suggest that foxes exhibit a threshold in their degree of tolerance for neighbors, overlap is a reliable index of the amount of direct contact between island foxes, and disease transmission rates will likely scale with fox density. PMID:26120435

  9. The male and female complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the Endangered freshwater mussel Potomida littoralis (Cuvier, 1798) (Bivalvia: Unionidae).

    PubMed

    Froufe, Elsa; Gan, Han Ming; Lee, Yin Peng; Carneiro, João; Varandas, Simone; Teixeira, Amílcar; Zieritz, Alexandra; Sousa, Ronaldo; Lopes-Lima, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    Freshwater mussels of the family Unionidae exhibit a particular form of mitochondria inheritance called double uniparental inheritance (DUI), in which the mitochondria are inherited by both male and female parents. The (M)ale and (F)emale mitogenomes are highly divergent within species. In the present study, we determine and describe the complete M and F mitogenomes of the Endangered freshwater mussel Potomida littoralis (Cuvier, 1798). The complete M and F mitogenomes sequences are 16 451 bp and 15 787 bp in length, respectively. Both F and M have the same gene content: 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA (trn) and 2 ribosomal RNA (rrn) genes. Bayesian analyses based on the concatenated nucleotide sequences of 12 PCGs and 2 rrn genes of both genomes, including mitogenome sequences available from related species, were performed. Male and Female lineages are monophyletic within the family, but reveal distinct phylogenetic relationships. PMID:27158872

  10. Modulation of the temporal pattern of calling behavior of female Spodoptera littoralis by exposure to sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    Sadek, Medhat M; von Wowern, Germund; Löfstedt, Christer; Rosén, Wen-Qi; Anderson, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We have examined the timing of calling behavior in the female Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis and its modification by exposure to sex pheromone. The calling rhythm of the female moth was found to be circadian, persistent for at least 4 days once it has been entrained, and could be phase shifted by altering the light:dark regime. We also found that female exposure to pheromone affected the rate and duration of calling. A brief exposure to pheromone gland extract increased the proportion of females calling in a constant dim light and this effect persisted for at least 2 days. In response to pheromone exposure, significantly more females also called late into scotophase when most unexposed control females had ceased calling. The adaptive significance of responding to conspecific sex pheromone is discussed. PMID:22001286

  11. Deep-tissue confocal imaging of the central projections of ovipositor sensory afferents in the Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Seada, Mervat A; Ghaninia, Majid

    2016-03-01

    The pre-ovipositon behavior of moths is largely dependent upon the cues that a gravid female perceives while assessing potential oviposition sites. Assessment of such sites is accomplished, at least in part, by mechanosensory and gustatory sensilla located on the ovipositor whose sensory neurons project into the terminal abdominal ganglion (TAG). Using anterograde backfill staining, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and three dimensional reconstruction, we traced and analyzed the central projections of the sensory neurons housed in the sensilla located on the ovipositor papillae and explored the neuropilar composition of the TAG in the Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis. The TAG consists of three fused neuromeres (6-8th Ner) associated with the 6-8th abdominal segments. Within the TAG, and specifically in the 8th neuromere, four unstructured neuropilar compartments are present; the dorso-ipsilateral motor neuropil (MN), the medio-ipsilateral mechanosensory neuropil (MchN), the medio-ipsilateral small gustatory neuropil (GN), and the medio-contralateral posterior ovipositor glomerulus (Og). The Og appears quite compact, with a hollow core free of terminal arborizations. The MchN is further subdivided into 4 unstructured glomeruli in the 8th neuromere, whose afferents are subsequently extended into 3 glomeruli in the 7th and 6th neuromeres. Few neurites of the Og are populated with large dense varicosities reminiscent of neurosecretory vesicles. Given that all ovipositor nerves converge into a common ganglionic center, the TAG, we assume that this ganglion may be a center for coordination of oviposition behaviors, including movements of the ovipositor during assessment of oviposition substrates and egg laying in S. littoralis. PMID:26774745

  12. Modulation of reproductive behaviors by non-host volatiles in the polyphagous Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Binyameen, Muhammad; Hussain, Altaf; Yousefi, Fatemeh; Birgersson, Göran; Schlyter, Fredrik

    2013-10-01

    In order to locate mates, food, and oviposition sites, insects mainly rely on volatile cues released by their sexual partners, food sources, and host and non-host plants. Calling, mating, and oviposition behaviors, as well as fecundity and longevity, of newly emerged Spodoptera littoralis (Bois.) moths were recorded in the presence of volatiles from leaves of a host plant, Gossypium hirsutum (cotton) and two non-host plants, Adhatoda vasica (Av) or Picea abies (spruce), either alone or in host/non-host combinations. Females exposed to cotton volatiles started calling earlier than females exposed to non-host plant volatiles (NHV), or the blank control. Likewise, moth pairs exposed to cotton volatiles started mating earlier than the other treatments. The period of calling in females alone was longer than females kept with males, having the opportunity to mate. However, the callings, as well as mating durations in the moth pairs, in different treatments were not different. Longevity was decreased either in the absence of cotton or the presence of Av, and spruce leaves. Fecundity was reduced in moths exposed to a combination of spruce and cotton. The effect of NHV on attraction of 2-3-day-old male moths towards a pheromone (Ph) source was studied in a wind tunnel. In the no-choice assay, more males arrived at close approach and landed on the Ph source when the host plant, cotton, was offered in the background as compared to the non-hosts. In the dual-choice assay, more males landed on the Ph source in front of the host plant compared to the Ph source in front of non-hosts. Gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection on female S. littoralis revealed five antennally active compounds in headspace collections of spruce and three compounds in Av. PMID:24105603

  13. Temperature Affects the Use of Storage Fatty Acids as Energy Source in a Benthic Copepod (Platychelipus littoralis, Harpacticoida).

    PubMed

    Werbrouck, Eva; Van Gansbeke, Dirk; Vanreusel, Ann; De Troch, Marleen

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of storage lipids and their associated fatty acids (FA) is an important means for organisms to cope with periods of food shortage, however, little is known about the dynamics and FA mobilization in benthic copepods (order Harpacticoida). Furthermore, lipid depletion and FA mobilization may depend on the ambient temperature. Therefore, we subjected the temperate copepod Platychelipus littoralis to several intervals (3, 6 and 14 days) of food deprivation, under two temperatures in the range of the normal habitat temperature (4, 15°C) and under an elevated temperature (24°C), and studied the changes in FA composition of storage and membrane lipids. Although bulk depletion of storage FA occurred after a few days of food deprivation under 4°C and 15°C, copepod survival remained high during the experiment, suggesting the catabolization of other energy sources. Ambient temperature affected both the degree of FA depletion and the FA mobilization. In particular, storage FA were more exhausted and FA mobilization was more selective under 15°C compared with 4°C. In contrast, depletion of storage FA was limited under an elevated temperature, potentially due to a switch to partial anaerobiosis. Food deprivation induced selective DHA retention in the copepod's membrane, under all temperatures. However, prolonged exposure to heat and nutritional stress eventually depleted DHA in the membranes, and potentially induced high copepod mortality. Storage lipids clearly played an important role in the short-term response of the copepod P. littoralis to food deprivation. However, under elevated temperature, the use of storage FA as an energy source is compromised. PMID:26986852

  14. Temperature Affects the Use of Storage Fatty Acids as Energy Source in a Benthic Copepod (Platychelipus littoralis, Harpacticoida)

    PubMed Central

    Werbrouck, Eva; Van Gansbeke, Dirk; Vanreusel, Ann; De Troch, Marleen

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of storage lipids and their associated fatty acids (FA) is an important means for organisms to cope with periods of food shortage, however, little is known about the dynamics and FA mobilization in benthic copepods (order Harpacticoida). Furthermore, lipid depletion and FA mobilization may depend on the ambient temperature. Therefore, we subjected the temperate copepod Platychelipus littoralis to several intervals (3, 6 and 14 days) of food deprivation, under two temperatures in the range of the normal habitat temperature (4, 15°C) and under an elevated temperature (24°C), and studied the changes in FA composition of storage and membrane lipids. Although bulk depletion of storage FA occurred after a few days of food deprivation under 4°C and 15°C, copepod survival remained high during the experiment, suggesting the catabolization of other energy sources. Ambient temperature affected both the degree of FA depletion and the FA mobilization. In particular, storage FA were more exhausted and FA mobilization was more selective under 15°C compared with 4°C. In contrast, depletion of storage FA was limited under an elevated temperature, potentially due to a switch to partial anaerobiosis. Food deprivation induced selective DHA retention in the copepod’s membrane, under all temperatures. However, prolonged exposure to heat and nutritional stress eventually depleted DHA in the membranes, and potentially induced high copepod mortality. Storage lipids clearly played an important role in the short-term response of the copepod P. littoralis to food deprivation. However, under elevated temperature, the use of storage FA as an energy source is compromised. PMID:26986852

  15. New source of genetic polymorphisms in Lepidoptera?

    PubMed

    Hundsdoerfer, Anna K; Wink, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The variability level of the ISSR (inter-simple sequences repeat) primer (GACA)4 was examined in the three Lepidoptera families Pyralidae, Sphingidae and Pieridae. Our study shows that the tetra-repeat (GACA)n is evidently present in sufficient numbers in these butterflies to provide informative DNA fingerprints. The variability is mostly rather high, but within a comparable range to other ISSR studies. Although less polymorphisms may be encountered in some butterfly families, this study indicates that high variability of this marker may be a common characteristic of Lepidoptera genomes. An appeal for a minimal level of standardization of ISSR-PCR data analysis is formulated to enable an exact comparison between the groups of organisms studied with this fingerprint technique. PMID:16163839

  16. Patterns of postzygotic isolation in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Presgraves, Daven C

    2002-06-01

    I present patterns characterizing the evolution of intrinsic postzygotic isolation in Lepidoptera by analyzing data from the literature on genetic distance, strength of hybrid sterility and inviability, biogeography, and natural hybridization. Using genetic distance as a proxy for time, I investigate the time-course of the evolution of postzygotic isolation and the waiting times to particular hybrid fitness problems. The results show that postzygotic isolation increases gradually as species diverge, but that hybrid sterility evolves faster than hybrid inviability. The overwhelming preponderance of female-specific hybrid problems in Lepidoptera shows that Haldane's rule (the preferential sterility or inviability of the heterogametic sex) is well obeyed. Together the rates and patterns characterizing the accumulation of postzygotic isolation allow several tests of the composite theory of Haldane's rule. Interestingly, comparing these data with those from Drosophila reveals that Haldane's rule for sterility evolves as fast (if not faster) in Lepidoptera. Finally, I show that a substantial fraction of sympatric species hybridizes in nature and that the majority of these suffer some level of hybrid sterility or inviability. PMID:12144018

  17. Chromosome number evolution in skippers (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae).

    PubMed

    Lukhtanov, Vladimir A

    2014-01-01

    Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), as many other groups of animals and plants, simultaneously represent preservation of ancestral karyotype in the majority of families with a high degree of chromosome number instability in numerous independently evolved phylogenetic lineages. However, the pattern and trends of karyotype evolution in some Lepidoptera families are poorly studied. Here I provide a survey of chromosome numbers in skippers (family Hesperiidae) based on intensive search and analysis of published data. I demonstrate that the majority of skippers preserve the haploid chromosome number n=31 that seems to be an ancestral number for the Hesperiidae and the order Lepidoptera at whole. However, in the tribe Baorini the derived number n=16 is the most typical state which can be used as a (syn)apomorphic character in further phylogenetic investigations. Several groups of skippers display extreme chromosome number variations on within-species (e.g. the representatives of the genus Carcharodus Hübner, [1819]) and between-species (e.g. the genus Agathymus Freeman, 1959) levels. Thus, these groups can be used as model systems for future analysis of the phenomenon of chromosome instability. Interspecific chromosomal differences are also shown to be useful for discovering and describing new cryptic species of Hesperiidae representing in such a way a powerful tool in biodiversity research. Generally, the skipper butterflies promise to be an exciting group that will significantly contribute to the growing knowledge of patterns and processes of chromosome evolution. PMID:25610542

  18. Chromosome number evolution in skippers (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Lukhtanov, Vladimir A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), as many other groups of animals and plants, simultaneously represent preservation of ancestral karyotype in the majority of families with a high degree of chromosome number instability in numerous independently evolved phylogenetic lineages. However, the pattern and trends of karyotype evolution in some Lepidoptera families are poorly studied. Here I provide a survey of chromosome numbers in skippers (family Hesperiidae) based on intensive search and analysis of published data. I demonstrate that the majority of skippers preserve the haploid chromosome number n=31 that seems to be an ancestral number for the Hesperiidae and the order Lepidoptera at whole. However, in the tribe Baorini the derived number n=16 is the most typical state which can be used as a (syn)apomorphic character in further phylogenetic investigations. Several groups of skippers display extreme chromosome number variations on within-species (e.g. the representatives of the genus Carcharodus Hübner, [1819]) and between-species (e.g. the genus Agathymus Freeman, 1959) levels. Thus, these groups can be used as model systems for future analysis of the phenomenon of chromosome instability. Interspecific chromosomal differences are also shown to be useful for discovering and describing new cryptic species of Hesperiidae representing in such a way a powerful tool in biodiversity research. Generally, the skipper butterflies promise to be an exciting group that will significantly contribute to the growing knowledge of patterns and processes of chromosome evolution. PMID:25610542

  19. Characterization of an Egyptian Spodoptera littoralis nucleopolyhedrovirus and a possible use of a highly conserved region from polyhedrin gene for nucleopolyhedrovirus detection

    PubMed Central

    Seufi, AlaaEddeen M

    2008-01-01

    An Egyptian isolate of Spodoptera littoralis nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliNPV) was tested for its potential as biocontrol agent in comparison to Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). Comparative assays of SpliNPV and AcMNPV against 2nd instar larvae of Spodoptera littoralis revealed 4-fold greater susceptibility of S. littoralis to AcMNPV than to SpliNPV based on LC50 values for the two viruses. The LT50s determined for SpliNPV and AcMNPV using LC50 of the virus against 2nd instar larvae were 4.2 and 5.8 days, respectively. A DNA segment of 405 bp containing highly conserved region from polyhedrin gene of SpliNPV (Polh-cr) was successfully amplified by PCR. Subsequently, this DNA segment was cloned and sequenced. Nucleotide sequence and its deduced amino acid sequence were compared to all available sequences in GenBank. Sequence alignment results revealed that Polh-cr showed significant similarities with 91 different baculovirus isolates. The percentage of homology ranged from 78% for Plusia orichalcea NPV to 99% for SpliNPV. This highly conserved region provides a candidate that could be used in easy, fast and economic prospective systems for virus detection as well as in biological control strategies. PMID:18215282

  20. Insights into the physiological responses of the facultative halophyte Aeluropus littoralis to the combined effects of salinity and phosphorus availability.

    PubMed

    Talbi Zribi, Ons; Barhoumi, Zouhaier; Kouas, Saber; Ghandour, Mohamed; Slama, Ines; Abdelly, Chedly

    2015-09-15

    In this work, we investigate the physiological responses to P deficiency (5μM KH2PO4=D), salt stress (400mM NaCl=C+S), and their combination (D+S) on the facultative halophyte Aeluropus littoralis to understand how plants adapt to these combined stresses. When individually applied, both P deficiency and salinity significantly restricted whole plant growth, with a more marked effect of the latter stress. However, the effects of the two stresses were not additive in plant biomass production since the response of plants to combined salinity and P deficiency was similar to that of plants grown under salt stress alone. In addition the observed features under salinity alone are kept when plants are simultaneously subjected to the combined effects of salinity and P deficiency such as biomass partitioning; the synthesis of proline and the K(+)/Na(+) selectivity ratio. Thus, increasing P availability under saline conditions has no significant effect on salt tolerance in this species. Plants cultivated under the combined effects of salinity and P deficiency exhibited the lowest leaf water potential. This trend was associated with a high accumulation of Na(+), Cl(-) and proline in shoots of salt treated plants suggesting the involvement of these solutes in osmotic adjustment. Proline could be involved in other physiological processes such as free radical scavenging. Furthermore, salinity has no significant effect on phosphorus acquisition when combined with a low P supply and it significantly decreased this parameter when combined with a sufficient P supply. This fact was probably due to salt's effect on P transporters. In addition, shoot soluble sugars accumulation under both P deficiency treatments with and without salt likely play an important role in the adaptation of A. littoralis plants to P shortage applied alone or combined with salinity. Moreover, there was a strong correlation between shoot and root intracellular acid phosphatase activity and phosphorus use

  1. Bioactive Terpenoids and Flavonoids from Daucus littoralis Smith subsp. hyrcanicus Rech.f, an Endemic Species of Iran

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Daucus littoralis Smith subsp. hyrcanicus Rech.f. (Apiaceae) is an endemic species in northern parts of Iran where it is commonly named Caspian carrot. The fruits have been used as condiment. Methods In a series of in vitro assays, antioxidant (DPPH and FRAP assays), cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of different extracts of roots and fruits were evaluated for the first time. The separation and purification of the compounds were carried out on the most potent extracts using various chromatographic methods and identified by spectroscopic data (1H and 13C NMR). Results The results showed that among the extracts only fruit methanol extract (FME) has significant antioxidant activity (IC50 = 145.93 μg.ml-1 in DPPH assay and 358 ± 0.02 mmol FeII/g dry extract in FRAP assay). The radical scavenging activity of FME at 400 μg.ml-1 was comparable with α-tocopherol (40 μg.ml-1) and with BHA (100 μg.ml-1) (p > 0.05). FME did not show any toxicity against cancerous and normal cell lines. Fruit ethyl acetate extract (FEE) had cytotoxic activity against breast carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma cells (IC50 168.4 and 185 μg.ml-1, respectively), while it did not possess antioxidant activity in comparison with α-tocopherol and BHA as standard compounds. Ethyl acetate and methanol extract of fruits showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC: 3.75 mg.ml-1) and Candida albicans (MIC: 15.6 and 7.8 mg.ml-1, respectively). Four terpenoids were isolated form FEE including: β-sitosterol (1), stigmasterol (2), caryophyllene oxide (3), β-amyrin (4). Also, three flavonoids namely quercetin 3-O-β-glucoside (5), quercetin 3-O-β-galactoside (6) and luteolin (7) were isolated from FME. Conclusion This study showed that FEE and FME of D. littoralis Smith subsp. hyrcanicus Rech.f. had the highest biological activities which may be correlated with in vitro cytotoxic, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of terpenoids and

  2. Development of insect resistant maize plants expressing a chitinase gene from the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Osman, Gamal H; Assem, Shireen K; Alreedy, Rasha M; El-Ghareeb, Doaa K; Basry, Mahmoud A; Rastogi, Anshu; Kalaji, Hazem M

    2015-01-01

    Due to the importance of chitinolytic enzymes for insect, nematode and fungal growth, they are receiving attention concerning their development as biopesticides or chemical defense proteins in transgenic plants and as microbial biocontrol agents. Targeting chitin associated with the extracellular matrices or cell wall by insect chitinases may be an effective approach for controlling pest insects and pathogenic fungi. The ability of chitinases to attack and digest chitin in the peritrophic matrix or exoskeleton raises the possibility to use them as insect control method. In this study, an insect chitinase cDNA from cotton leaf worm (Spodoptera littoralis) has been synthesized. Transgenic maize plant system was used to improve its tolerance against insects. Insect chitinase transcripts and proteins were expressed in transgenic maize plants. The functional integrity and expression of chitinase in progenies of the transgenic plants were confirmed by insect bioassays. The bioassays using transgenic corn plants against corn borer (Sesamia cretica) revealed that ~50% of the insects reared on transgenic corn plants died, suggesting that transgenic maize plants have enhanced resistance against S. cretica. PMID:26658494

  3. Development of insect resistant maize plants expressing a chitinase gene from the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Gamal H.; Assem, Shireen K.; Alreedy, Rasha M.; El-Ghareeb, Doaa K.; Basry, Mahmoud A.; Rastogi, Anshu; Kalaji, Hazem M.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the importance of chitinolytic enzymes for insect, nematode and fungal growth, they are receiving attention concerning their development as biopesticides or chemical defense proteins in transgenic plants and as microbial biocontrol agents. Targeting chitin associated with the extracellular matrices or cell wall by insect chitinases may be an effective approach for controlling pest insects and pathogenic fungi. The ability of chitinases to attack and digest chitin in the peritrophic matrix or exoskeleton raises the possibility to use them as insect control method. In this study, an insect chitinase cDNA from cotton leaf worm (Spodoptera littoralis) has been synthesized. Transgenic maize plant system was used to improve its tolerance against insects. Insect chitinase transcripts and proteins were expressed in transgenic maize plants. The functional integrity and expression of chitinase in progenies of the transgenic plants were confirmed by insect bioassays. The bioassays using transgenic corn plants against corn borer (Sesamia cretica) revealed that ~50% of the insects reared on transgenic corn plants died, suggesting that transgenic maize plants have enhanced resistance against S. cretica. PMID:26658494

  4. Ear Mite Removal in the Santa Catalina Island Fox (Urocyon littoralis catalinae): Controlling Risk Factors for Cancer Development

    PubMed Central

    Moriarty, Megan E.; Vickers, T. Winston; Clifford, Deana L.; Garcelon, David K.; Gaffney, Patricia M.; Lee, Kenneth W.; King, Julie L.; Duncan, Calvin L.; Boyce, Walter M.

    2015-01-01

    Ear mites (Otodectes cynotis) and ear canal tumors are highly prevalent among federally endangered Island foxes (Urocyon littoralis catalinae) living on Santa Catalina Island off the coast of Southern California. Since studies began in the 1990s, nearly all foxes examined were found to be infected with ear mites, and ceruminous gland tumors (carcinomas and adenomas) were detected in approximately half of all foxes ≥ 4 years of age. We hypothesized that reduction of ear mite infection would reduce otitis externa and ceruminous gland hyperplasia, a risk factor for tumor development. In this study, we conducted a randomized field trial to assess the impact of acaricide treatment on ear mite prevalence and intensity of infection, otitis externa, ceruminous gland hyperplasia, and mite-specific IgG and IgE antibody levels. Treatment was highly effective at eliminating mites and reducing otitis externa and ceruminous gland hyperplasia, and mite-specific IgG antibody levels were significantly lower among uninfected foxes. Ceruminous gland hyperplasia increased in the chronically infected, untreated foxes during the six month study. Our results provide compelling evidence that acaricide treatment is an effective means of reducing ear mites, and that mite removal in turn reduces ear lesions and mite-specific IgG antibody levels in Santa Catalina Island foxes. This study has advanced our understanding of the underlying pathogenesis which results in ceruminous gland tumors, and has helped inform management decisions that impact species conservation. PMID:26641820

  5. Opposite Effects on Spodoptera littoralis Larvae of High Expression Level of a Trypsin Proteinase Inhibitor in Transgenic Plants1

    PubMed Central

    De Leo, Francesca; Bonadé-Bottino, Michel A.; Ceci, Luigi R.; Gallerani, Raffaele; Jouanin, Lise

    1998-01-01

    This work illustrates potential adverse effects linked with the expression of proteinase inhibitor (PI) in plants used as a strategy to enhance pest resistance. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi) and Arabidopsis [Heynh.] ecotype Wassilewskija) transgenic plants expressing the mustard trypsin PI 2 (MTI-2) at different levels were obtained. First-instar larvae of the Egyptian cotton worm (Spodoptera littoralis Boisd.) were fed on detached leaves of these plants. The high level of MTI-2 expression in leaves had deleterious effects on larvae, causing mortality and decreasing mean larval weight, and was correlated with a decrease in the leaf surface eaten. However, larvae fed leaves from plants expressing MTI-2 at the low expression level did not show increased mortality, but a net gain in weight and a faster development compared with control larvae. The low MTI-2 expression level also resulted in increased leaf damage. These observations are correlated with the differential expression of digestive proteinases in the larval gut; overexpression of existing proteinases on low-MTI-2-expression level plants and induction of new proteinases on high-MTI-2-expression level plants. These results emphasize the critical need for the development of a PI-based defense strategy for plants obtaining the appropriate PI-expression level relative to the pest's sensitivity threshold to that PI. PMID:9808744

  6. Molecular evidence for the coexistence of two sibling species in Pylaiella littoralis (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae) along the Brittany coast.

    PubMed

    Geoffroy, Alexandre; Mauger, Stéphane; De Jode, Aurélien; Le Gall, Line; Destombe, Christophe

    2015-06-01

    The great phenotypic variability and the lack of diagnostic characters in the genus Pylaiella render the systematic study of this genus problematic. In this study, we investigated the diversity of Pylaiella littoralis along the Brittany (France) coast using a DNA barcoding multilocus approach with mitochondrial (cox1, nad1, and atp9) and chloroplastic (rbcL and atpB) markers associated with a population genetics approach using 10 microsatellite markers. In addition, spatio-temporal sampling was conducted along the Brittany coast. We sampled 140 individuals from four sites located between Saint-Malo and Concarneau (380 km) from April to October. Mitochondrial sequence data revealed the occurrence of two sibling species, with a minimum of 2.4% divergence between them. Microsatellite genotypic data congruently revealed two well-supported clusters matching the two mitochondrial clades of Pylaiella. Although gene flow is limited between species, occurrence of genetic admixtures in some populations suggested that reproductive isolation is not complete. Our study highlighted the complementarity of barcoding and population genetics approaches to shed light on the evolutionary processes that lead to speciation. PMID:26986664

  7. Gustatory receptors in Lepidoptera: chemosensation and beyond.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, A R; Roy, A A; Joshi, R S

    2016-10-01

    Lepidoptera is one of the most widespread insect orders and includes several agriculturally important insect species. Ecological success of the lepidopteran insects partly depends on their adaptive chemoreception tactics, which play an important role in the selection of hosts, egg-laying sites and mates. Members of the G-protein coupled receptor family, gustatory receptors (GRs), are an integral part of the Lepidoptera chemosensory machinery. They are expressed in chemosensory neurones and are known to detect different environmental stimuli. Here, we discuss various aspects of the lepidopteran GRs with an emphasis on their roles in different processes such as chemosensation, host selection and adaptation. Phylogenetic analyses have shown that the large diversity of GR genes may have been generated through gene duplication and positive selection events, which also show lineage- and tissue-specific expression. Moreover, lepidopteran GR proteins are diverse and demonstrate broad ligand selectivity for several molecules including sugars, deterrents, salts and CO2 . Binding of ligands to GRs generates multiple downstream changes at the cellular level, which are followed by changes in behaviour. GRs play a critical role in chemosensation and influence the insect's behaviour. Overall, insect GRs are potential targets in the design of effective insect control strategies. PMID:27228010

  8. Gut microbiota of Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Snyman, Maxi; Gupta, Arvind Kumar; Bezuidenhout, Cornelius Carlos; Claassens, Sarina; van den Berg, Johnnie

    2016-07-01

    Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a stemborer pest that attacks maize (Zea mays) throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Genetically modified maize has been shown to be effective against B. fusca. However, resistance of B. fusca against Bt-maize has developed and spread throughout South Africa. Previous studies suggested that gut microbiota contribute to mortality across a range of Lepidoptera. To fully assess the role of microbiota within the gut, it is essential to understand the microbiota harboured by natural B. fusca populations. This study aimed to identify the gut-associated bacteria by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A total of 78 bacterial strains were characterised from the midgut of B. fusca larvae that were collected from 30 sites across the maize producing region of South Africa. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed bacteria affiliated to Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. Taxonomic distribution placed these isolates into 15 different genera representing 20 species. The majority of bacteria identified belong to the genera Bacillus, Enterococcus, and Klebsiella. The B. fusca gut represents an intriguing and unexplored niche for analysing microbial ecology. The study could provide opportunities for developing new targets for pest management and contribute to understanding the phenomenon of resistance evolution of this species. PMID:27263010

  9. Screening Spanish isolates of steinernematid nematodes for use as biological control agents through laboratory and greenhouse microcosm studies.

    PubMed

    Campos-Herrera, Raquel; Gutiérrez, Carmen

    2009-02-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are one of the best non-chemical alternatives for insect pest control, with native EPN strains that are adapted to local conditions considered to be ideal candidates for regional biological control programs. Virulence screening of 17 native Mediterranean EPN strains was performed to select the most promising strain for regional insect pest control. Steinernema feltiae (Filipjev) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) Rioja strain produced 7%, 91% and 33% larval mortality for the insects Agriotes sordidus (Illiger) (Coleoptera: Elateridae), Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), respectively, and was selected as the most promising strain. The S. feltiae Rioja strain-S. littoralis combination was considered the most suitable to develop the Rioja strain as a biocontrol agent for soil applications. The effect of soil texture on the virulence of the Rioja strain against S. littoralis was determined through dose-response experiments. The estimated LC(90) to kill larvae in two days was 220, 753 and 4178 IJs/cm(2) for soils with a clay content of 5%, 14% and 24%, respectively, which indicates that heavy soils produced negative effects on the virulence of the Rioja strain. The nematode dose corresponding to the LC(90) for soils with a 5% and 14% clay content reduced insect damage to Capsicum annuum Linnaeus (Solanales: Solanaceae) plants under greenhouse microcosm conditions. The results of this research suggest that an accurate characterization of new EPN strains to select the most suitable combination of insect, nematode and soil texture might provide valuable data to obtain successful biological control under different ecological scenarios in future field applications. PMID:19073191

  10. Very high-density lipoprotein and vitellin as carriers of novel biliverdins IXα with a farnesyl side-chain presumably derived from heme A in Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Hartmut; Nimtz, Manfred; Ringler, Philippe; Müller, Shirley A

    2016-01-01

    Bilins in complex with specific proteins play key roles in many forms of life. Biliproteins have also been isolated from insects; however, structural details are rare and possible functions largely unknown. Recently, we identified a high-molecular weight biliprotein from a moth, Cerura vinula, as an arylphorin-type hexameric storage protein linked to a novel farnesyl biliverdin IXα; its unusual structure suggests formation by cleavage of mitochondrial heme A. In the present study of another moth, Spodoptera littoralis, we isolated two different biliproteins. These proteins were identified as a very high-density lipoprotein (VHDL) and as vitellin, respectively, by mass spectrometric sequencing. Both proteins are associated with three different farnesyl biliverdins IXα: the one bilin isolated from C. vinula and two new structurally closely related bilins, supposed to be intermediates of heme A degradation. The different bilin composition of the two biliproteins suggests that the presumed oxidations at the farnesyl side-chain take place mainly during egg development. The egg bilins are supposedly transferred from hemolymph VHDL to vitellin in the female. Both biliproteins show strong induced circular dichroism activity compatible with a predominance of the M-conformation of the bilins. This conformation is opposite to that of the arylphorin-type biliprotein from C. vinula. Electron microscopy of the VHDL-type biliprotein from S. littoralis provided a preliminary view of its structure as a homodimer and confirmed the biochemically determined molecular mass of ∼350 kDa. Further, images of S. littoralis hexamerins revealed a 2 × 3 construction identical to that known from the hexamerin from C. vinula. PMID:26546815

  11. Characterization of Multisugar-Binding C-Type Lectin (SpliLec) from a Bacterial-Challenged Cotton Leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Seufi, AlaaEddeen M.; Galal, Fatma H.; Hafez, Elsayed E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Various proteins that display carbohydrate-binding activity in a Ca2+-dependent manner are classified into the C-type lectin family. They have one or two C-type carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) composed of 110–130 amino acid residues in common. C-type lectins mediate cell adhesion, non-self recognition, and immuno-protection processes in immune responses and thus play significant roles in clearance of invaders, either as cell surface receptors for microbial carbohydrates or as soluble proteins existing in tissue fluids. The lectin of Spodoptera littoralis is still uncharacterized. Methodology A single orf encoding a deduced polypeptide consisting of an 18-residue signal peptide and a 291-residue mature peptide, termed SpliLec, was isolated from the haemolymph of the cotton leafworm, S. littoralis, after bacterial challenge using RACE-PCR. Sequence analyses of the data revealed that SpliLec consists of two CRDs. Short-form CRD1 and long-form CRD2 are stabilized by two and three highly conserved disulfide bonds, respectively. SpliLec shares homology with some dipteran lectins suggesting possible common ancestor. The purified SpliLec exhibited a 140-kDa molecular mass with a subunit molecular mass of 35 kDa. The hemagglutination assays of the SpliLec confirmed a thermally stable, multisugar-binding C-type lectin that binds different erythrocytes. The purified SpliLec agglutinated microorganisms and exhibited comparable antimicrobial activity against gram (+) and gram (−) bacteria too. Conclusions Our results suggested an important role of the SpliLec gene in cell adhesion and non-self recognition. It may cooperate with other AMPs in clearance of invaders of Spodoptera littoralis. PMID:22916161

  12. A Comparison of the Olfactory Gene Repertoires of Adults and Larvae in the Noctuid Moth Spodoptera littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Poivet, Erwan; Gallot, Aurore; Montagné, Nicolas; Glaser, Nicolas; Legeai, Fabrice; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the olfactory mechanisms in a lepidopteran pest model species, the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis, we have recently established a partial transcriptome from adult antennae. Here, we completed this transcriptome using next generation sequencing technologies, namely 454 and Illumina, on both adult antennae and larval tissues, including caterpillar antennae and maxillary palps. All sequences were assembled in 77,643 contigs. Their analysis greatly enriched the repertoire of chemosensory genes in this species, with a total of 57 candidate odorant-binding and chemosensory proteins, 47 olfactory receptors, 6 gustatory receptors and 17 ionotropic receptors. Using RT-PCR, we conducted the first exhaustive comparison of olfactory gene expression between larvae and adults in a lepidopteran species. All the 127 candidate olfactory genes were profiled for expression in male and female adult antennae and in caterpillar antennae and maxillary palps. We found that caterpillars expressed a smaller set of olfactory genes than adults, with a large overlap between these two developmental stages. Two binding proteins appeared to be larvae-specific and two others were adult-specific. Interestingly, comparison between caterpillar antennae and maxillary palps revealed numerous organ-specific transcripts, suggesting the complementary involvement of these two organs in larval chemosensory detection. Adult males and females shared the same set of olfactory transcripts, except two male-specific candidate pheromone receptors, two male-specific and two female-specific odorant-binding proteins. This study identified transcripts that may be important for sex-specific or developmental stage-specific chemosensory behaviors. PMID:23565215

  13. Using Small-Scale Studies to Prioritize Threats and Guide Recovery of a Rare Hemiparasitic Plant: Cordylanthus rigidus ssp. littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Sean M.; Uhl, Melissa M.; Maurano, Stephen P.; Nuccio, Erin E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Recovering endangered species would benefit from identifying and ranking of the factors that threaten them. Simply managing for multiple positive influences will often aid in recovery; however, the relative impacts of multiple threats and/or interactions among them are not always predictable. We used a series of experiments and quantitative observational studies to examine the importance of five potential limiting factors to the abundance of a state-listed endangered hemiparasitic annual forb, Cordylanthus rigidus ssp. littoralis (C.r.l., California, USA): host availability, mammalian herbivores, insect seed predators, fire suppression, and exotic species. While this initial assessment is certainly not a complete list, these factors stem from direct observation and can inform provisional recommendations for management and further research. Methodology and Principal Findings Studies were conducted at five sites and included assessments of the influence of host availability, exotic species, exclusion of mammalian herbivores and insect seed predators on C.r.l. productivity, and simulated effects of fire on seed germination. C.r.l. was limited by multiple threats: individuals with access to host species produced up to three times more inflorescences than those lacking hosts, mammalian herbivory reduced C.r.l. size and fecundity by more than 50% and moth larvae reduced seed production by up to 40%. Litter deposition and competition from exotic plant species also appears to work in conjunction with other factors to limit C.r.l. throughout its life cycle. Conclusions and Significance The work reported here highlights the contribution that a series of small-scale studies can make to conservation and restoration. Taken as a whole, the results can be used immediately to inform current management and species recovery strategies. Recovery of C.r.l. will require management that addresses competition with exotic plant species, herbivore pressure, and availability of

  14. Nicotiana attenuata MPK4 suppresses a novel JA signaling-independent defense pathway against the specialist insect Manduca sexta but is not required for the resistance to the generalist Spodoptera littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Hettenhausen, Christian; Baldwin, Ian T.; Wu, Jianqiang

    2014-01-01

    Summary How plants tailor their defense responses to attack from different insects remains largely unknown. Here we studied the role of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), MPK4, in the resistance of a wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata to two herbivores, the specialist Manduca sexta and the generalist Spodoptera littoralis. Stably transformed N. attenuata plants silenced in MPK4 (irMPK4) were generated and characterized for traits important for defense against herbivores. Only the oral secretions (OS) from M. sexta, but not the OS from S. littoralis or mechanical wounding, induced elevated levels of jasmonic acid (JA) in irMPK4 plants compared to the wild-type plants. Moreover, silencing MPK4 highly increased the resistance of N. attenuata to M. sexta in a fashion that was independent of COI1 (CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1)-mediated JA signaling. Untargeted metabolomic screening identified several new MPK4-dependent putative defensive compounds against M. sexta. In contrast, silencing MPK4 did not affect the growth of the generalist insect S. littoralis, and we propose that this was due to the very low levels of fatty acid-amino acid conjugates (FACs) in S. littoralis OS. Thus, MPK4 is likely to be a key signaling element that enables plants to tailor defense responses to different attackers. PMID:23672856

  15. Colonization of the Intestinal Tract of the Polyphagous Pest Spodoptera littoralis with the GFP-Tagged Indigenous Gut Bacterium Enterococcus mundtii

    PubMed Central

    Teh, Beng-Soon; Apel, Johanna; Shao, Yongqi; Boland, Wilhelm

    2016-01-01

    The alkaline gut of Lepidopterans plays a crucial role in shaping communities of bacteria. Enterococcus mundtii has emerged as one of the predominant gut microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract of the major agricultural pest, Spodoptera littoralis. Therefore, it was selected as a model bacterium to study its adaptation to harsh alkaline gut conditions in its host insect throughout different stages of development (larvae, pupae, adults, and eggs). To date, the mechanism of bacterial survival in insects' intestinal tract has been unknown. Therefore, we have engineered a GFP-tagged species of bacteria, E. mundtii, to track how it colonizes the intestine of S. littoralis. Three promoters of different strengths were used to control the expression of GFP in E. mundtii. The promoter ermB was the most effective, exhibiting the highest GFP fluorescence intensity, and hence was chosen as our main construct. Our data show that the engineered fluorescent bacteria survived and proliferated in the intestinal tract of the insect at all life stages for up to the second generation following ingestion. PMID:27379058

  16. Determining thermotolerance of fifth-instar Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) by three different methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermotolerance of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were studied using two water immersion methods and one dry heat method. The two water immersion methods were: 1) directly immersing in hot w...

  17. Lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) oviposition on Prunus germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was used as an oviposition surrogate for the congeneric S. exitiosa (Say) to examine possible preference for Prunus germplasm. We assayed limbs of a peach cultivar (Prunus persica), peach rootstocks, plum-peach hybrid rootstocks, the...

  18. Phenology of blue cactus moth Melitara prodenialis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Native cactus plants (Opuntia stricta Haw. [Cactaceae]) were sampled weekly at St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, St. Marks, Florida (30.16 - 30° 1' N, -84.21 - 84° 1' W) from September 2006 to September 2007 for the native blue cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Meli...

  19. COMPARISON OF SAMPLING TECHNIQUES USED IN STUDYING LEPIDOPTERA POPULATION DYNAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four methods (light traps, foliage samples, canvas bands, and gypsy moth egg mass surveys) that are used to study the population dynamics of foliage-feeding Lepidoptera were compared for 10 species, including gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. Samples were collected weekly at 12 sit...

  20. Molecular analysis of the muscle protein projectin in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Ayme-Southgate, A J; Turner, L; Southgate, R J

    2013-01-01

    Striated muscles of both vertebrates and insects contain a third filament composed of the giant proteins, namely kettin and projectin (insects) and titin (vertebrates). All three proteins have been shown to contain several domains implicated in conferring elasticity, in particular a PEVK segment. In this study, the characterization of the projectin protein in the silkmoth, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), and the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), as well as a partial characterization in the Carolina sphinx, Manduca sexta L. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), are presented. This study showed that, similar to other insects, projectin's overall modular organization was conserved, but in contrast, the PEVK region had a highly divergent sequence. The analysis of alternative splicing in the PEVK region revealed a small number of possible isoforms and the lack of a flight-muscle specific variant, both characteristics being in sharp contrast with findings from other insects. The possible correlation with difference in flight muscle stiffness and physiology between Lepidoptera and other insect orders is discussed. PMID:24206568

  1. A provisional annotated list of the Lepidoptera of Honduras

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A biodiversity inventory of the Lepidoptera of Pico Bonito National Park and vicinity, in the Department of Atlantida of northern Honduras, has been initiated and will be conducted to obtain baseline data. We present a revised checklist of Honduran butterfly species (updated from the initial 1967 l...

  2. Phylogenetic Studies and Modern Classification of the Pyraloidea (Lepidoptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pyraloidea, the third largest superfamily of the Lepidoptera, is comprised of two families - Pyralidae and Crambidae. The history of families previously placed in the Pyraloidea is discussed. The group now includes about 16,000 species worldwide. Morphologically, the superfamily is defined by a b...

  3. Lonomia obliqua Walker (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae): hemostasis implications.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Silviane; Faulhaber, Gustavo Adolpho Moreira

    2015-01-01

    In southern Brazil, since 1989, several cases of accidents produced by unwilling contact with the body of poisonous caterpillars of the moth species Lonomia obliqua Walker, 1855 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), were described. L. obliqua caterpillars have gregarious behavior and feed on leaves of host trees during the night, staying grouped in the trunk during the day, which favors the occurrence of accidents with the species. This caterpillar has the body covered with bristles that on contact with the skin of individuals, breaks and release their contents, inoculating the venom into the victim. The basic constitution of the venom is protein and its components produce physiological changes in the victim, which include disturbances in hemostasis. Hemorrhagic syndrome associated with consumption coagulopathy, intravascular hemolysis and acute renal failure are some of the possible clinical manifestations related to poisoning by L. obliqua. Specific laboratory tests for diagnosis of poisoning have not been described previously. The diagnosis of poisoning is made based on the patient's medical history, clinical manifestations, erythrocyte levels, and, primarily, parameters that evaluate blood coagulation. Treatment is performed with the use of supportive care and the administration of specific hyperimmune antivenom. Poisoning can be serious and even fatal. PMID:26248250

  4. Biliatresone, a Reactive Natural Toxin from Dysphania glomulifera and D. littoralis: Discovery of the Toxic Moiety 1,2-Diaryl-2-Propenone.

    PubMed

    Koo, Kyung A; Lorent, Kristin; Gong, Weilong; Windsor, Peter; Whittaker, Stephen J; Pack, Michael; Wells, Rebecca G; Porter, John R

    2015-08-17

    We identified a reactive natural toxin, biliatresone, from Dysphania glomulifera and D. littoralis collected in Australia that produces extrahepatic biliary atresia in a zebrafish model. Three additional isoflavonoids, including the known isoflavone betavulgarin, were also isolated. Biliatresone is in the very rare 1,2-diaryl-2-propenone class of isoflavonoids. The α-methylene of the 1,2-diaryl-2-propenone of biliatresone spontaneously reacts via Michael addition in the formation of water and methanol adducts. The lethal dose of biliatresone in a zebrafish assay was 1 μg/mL, while the lethal dose of synthetic 1,2-diaryl-2-propen-1-one was 5 μg/mL, suggesting 1,2-diaryl-2-propenone as the toxic Michael acceptor. PMID:26175131

  5. A promising HD133-like strain of Bacillus thuringiensis with dual efficiency to the two Lepidopteran pests: Spodoptera littoralis (Noctuidae) and Ephestia kuehniella (Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    BenFarhat-Touzri, Dalel; Driss, Fatma; Tounsi, Slim

    2016-08-01

    Isolation and identification of new strains with wide variety of target pests is an ever growing field. In this paper, a screening of 260 strains from Tunisian soil samples was conducted by dot-blot and PCR-sequencing analysis. The screening was done on the basis of the possession of cry1D-type genes and was followed by the evaluation of the insecticidal activity against Spodoptera littoralis. BLB250 strain showed an LC50 value (56.2 μg g(-1)) against S. littoralis lower than those of the two Bacillus thuringiensis reference strains HD1 and HD133. An interesting LC50 (167.6 μg g(-1)) was also recorded against Ephestia kuehniella larvae. The strain was, thus, selected because of its qualification to be highly toxic, at once, for both Lepidopteran insects. In vitro time course of proteolytic processing of BLB250 and HD133 protoxins by the gut juices from the two insect larvae revealed that the differences in toxicity against E. kuehniella are most likely attributed to differences in the efficiency of the activation of the corresponding protoxins into toxins. An activation comparative study using commercial proteases suggested that the intestinal proteases of E. kuehniella contain trypsin-like activities. With its high efficiency and toxicity against, at once, two Lepidopteran insects having different susceptibilities towards kurstaki and aizawai subspecies, BLB250 could be useful when developing more efficient and economical B. thuringiensis-based pesticides. PMID:27130040

  6. Pleistocene phylogeography and cryptic diversity of a tiger beetle, Calomera littoralis, in North-Eastern Mediterranean and Pontic regions inferred from mitochondrial COI gene sequences

    PubMed Central

    Rewicz, Tomasz; Płóciennik, Mateusz; Grabowski, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Background. Calomera littoralis is a Palearctic species, widely distributed in Europe; inhabiting predominantly its Atlantic, Mediterranean and Black Sea coastlines. Methods. Its phylogeography on the Balkan Peninsula and on the north-western Black Sea coast was inferred using a 697 bp long portion of the mitochondrial COI gene, amplified from 169 individuals collected on 43 localities. Results. The results revealed two genetically divergent groups/lineages, the southern one inhabiting both the Balkan Peninsula and the Pontic Region and the northern one found exclusively in the Pontic Region. Species delimitation based on DNA barcoding gap suggested an interspecific level of divergence between these groups. Multivariate analysis of eight male and female morphometric traits detected no difference between the groups, implying they may represent cryptic species. The Bayesian time-calibrated reconstruction of phylogeny suggested that the lineages diverged ca. 2.3 Ma, in early Pleistocene. Discussion. The presence of the two genetically divergent groups results most likely from contemporary isolation of the Pontic basin from the Mediterranean that broke the continuous strip of coastal habitats inhabited by C. littoralis. Demographic analyses indicated that both lineages have been in demographic and spatial expansion since ca. 0.15 Ma. It coincides with the terminal stage of MIS-6, i.e., Wartanian/Saalian glaciation, and beginning of MIS-5e, i.e., Eemian interglacial, during which, due to eustatic sea level rise, a wide connection between Mediterranean and the Pontic basin was re-established. This, along with re-appearance of coastal habitats could initiate north-east expansion of the southern lineage and its secondary contact with the northern one. The isolation of the Pontic basin from the Mediterranean during the Weichselian glaciation most likely did not have any effect on their phylogeography. PMID:27547517

  7. Pleistocene phylogeography and cryptic diversity of a tiger beetle, Calomera littoralis, in North-Eastern Mediterranean and Pontic regions inferred from mitochondrial COI gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Jaskuła, Radomir; Rewicz, Tomasz; Płóciennik, Mateusz; Grabowski, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Background. Calomera littoralis is a Palearctic species, widely distributed in Europe; inhabiting predominantly its Atlantic, Mediterranean and Black Sea coastlines. Methods. Its phylogeography on the Balkan Peninsula and on the north-western Black Sea coast was inferred using a 697 bp long portion of the mitochondrial COI gene, amplified from 169 individuals collected on 43 localities. Results. The results revealed two genetically divergent groups/lineages, the southern one inhabiting both the Balkan Peninsula and the Pontic Region and the northern one found exclusively in the Pontic Region. Species delimitation based on DNA barcoding gap suggested an interspecific level of divergence between these groups. Multivariate analysis of eight male and female morphometric traits detected no difference between the groups, implying they may represent cryptic species. The Bayesian time-calibrated reconstruction of phylogeny suggested that the lineages diverged ca. 2.3 Ma, in early Pleistocene. Discussion. The presence of the two genetically divergent groups results most likely from contemporary isolation of the Pontic basin from the Mediterranean that broke the continuous strip of coastal habitats inhabited by C. littoralis. Demographic analyses indicated that both lineages have been in demographic and spatial expansion since ca. 0.15 Ma. It coincides with the terminal stage of MIS-6, i.e., Wartanian/Saalian glaciation, and beginning of MIS-5e, i.e., Eemian interglacial, during which, due to eustatic sea level rise, a wide connection between Mediterranean and the Pontic basin was re-established. This, along with re-appearance of coastal habitats could initiate north-east expansion of the southern lineage and its secondary contact with the northern one. The isolation of the Pontic basin from the Mediterranean during the Weichselian glaciation most likely did not have any effect on their phylogeography. PMID:27547517

  8. Temperature-induced changes in fatty acid dynamics of the intertidal grazer Platychelipus littoralis (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida): Insights from a short-term feeding experiment.

    PubMed

    Werbrouck, Eva; Van Gansbeke, Dirk; Vanreusel, Ann; Mensens, Christoph; De Troch, Marleen

    2016-04-01

    Dietary lipids, and in particular the essential fatty acids (EFA), EPA (20:5ω3) and DHA (22:6ω3), guarantee the well-being of animals and are recognized for their potential bottom-up control on animal populations. They are introduced in marine ecosystems through primary producers and when grazed upon, they are consumed, incorporated or modified by first-level consumers. As the availability of EFA in the ecosystem is affected by ambient temperature, the predicted rise in ocean temperature might alter the availability of these EFA at the basis of marine food webs. Despite the FA bioconversion capacity of certain benthic copepod species, their lipid (FA) response to varying temperatures is understudied. Therefore, the temperate, intertidal copepod Platychelipus littoralis was offered a mono and mixed diatom diet at 4, 15 °C (normal range) and at 24 °C (elevated temperature) to investigate the combined effects of temperature and resource availability on its FA content and composition. P. littoralis showed a flexible thermal acclimation response. Cold exposure increased the degree of FA unsaturation and the EPA%, and induced a shift towards shorter chain FA in the copepod's membranes. Furthermore, a mixed diet reduced the impact of heat stress on the copepod's membrane FA composition. Temperature affected the trophic transfer of EPA and DHA differently. While dietary resources could fully compensate for the temperature effects on total lipid and EPA content in the copepods, no such counterweigh was observed for the DHA dynamics. Heat stress lowered the DHA concentration in copepods regardless of the resources available and this implies negative effects for higher trophic levels. PMID:27033038

  9. Tracking the origins and diet of an endemic island canid (Urocyon littoralis) across 7300 years of human cultural and environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofman, Courtney A.; Rick, Torben C.; Maldonado, Jesús E.; Collins, Paul W.; Erlandson, Jon M.; Fleischer, Robert C.; Smith, Chelsea; Sillett, T. Scott; Ralls, Katherine; Teeter, Wendy; Vellanoweth, René L.; Newsome, Seth D.

    2016-08-01

    Understanding how human activities have influenced the foraging ecology of wildlife is important as our planet faces ongoing and impending habitat and climatic change. We review the canine surrogacy approach (CSA)-a tool for comparing human, dog, and other canid diets in the past-and apply CSA to investigate possible ancient human resource provisioning in an endangered canid, the California Channel Islands fox (Urocyon littoralis). We conducted stable isotope analysis of bone collagen samples from ancient and modern island foxes (n = 214) and mainland gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus, n = 24). We compare these data to isotope values of ancient humans and dogs, and synthesize 29 Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dates that fine-tune the chronology of island foxes. AMS dates confirm that island foxes likely arrived during the early Holocene (>7300 cal BP) on the northern islands in the archipelago and during the middle Holocene (>5500 cal BP) on the southern islands. We found no evidence that island foxes were consistently using anthropogenic resources (e.g., food obtained by scavenging around human habitation sites or direct provisioning by Native Americans), except for a few individuals on San Nicolas Island and possibly on San Clemente and Santa Rosa islands. Decreases in U. littoralis carbon and nitrogen isotope values between prehistoric times and the 19th century on San Nicolas Island suggest that changes in human land use from Native American hunter-gatherer occupations to historical ranching had a strong influence on fox diet. Island foxes exhibit considerable dietary variation through time and between islands and have adapted to a wide variety of climatic and cultural changes over the last 7300 years. This generalist foraging strategy suggests that endemic island foxes may be resilient to future changes in resource availability.

  10. Microencapsulated Pear Ester Enhances Insecticide Efficacy in Walnuts for Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Navel Orangeworm (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of combining insecticides with a microencapsulated formulation of ethyl (2E, 4Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester, PE-MEC) was evaluated in walnuts, Juglans regia L., for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella Walker (Lepido...

  11. Accumulation of silicon in cacti native to the United States: characterization of silica bodies and cyclic oligosiloxanes in Stenocereus thurberi, Opuntia littoralis, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Opuntia stricta.

    PubMed

    Wright, Cynthia R; Waddell, Emanuel A; Setzer, William N

    2014-06-01

    Four different cactus species growing in the United States, Stenocereus thurberi growing in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona, Opuntia littoralis and Opuntia ficus-indica, growing on Santa Catalina Island, California, and Opuntia stricta, growing in northern Alabama, were examined for the presence of silica bodies (opaline phytoliths). Silica bodies were found in all four of these cactus species, parallelepiped-shaped crystals in S. thurberi, and starburst-shaped crystalline structures in the three Opuntia species. In addition, the essential oils of the four cactus species were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. To our surprise, S. thurberi, O. littoralis, and O. ficus-indica (but not O. stricta) essential oils contained cyclic oligosiloxanes. To our knowledge, cyclic oligosiloxanes have not been previously found as essential oil components. PMID:25115104

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of Choristoneura longicellana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and phylogenetic analysis of Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Peng; Zhao, Jin-Liang; Su, Tian-Juan; Luo, A-Rong; Zhu, Chao-Dong

    2016-10-10

    To better understand the diversity and phylogeny of Lepidoptera, the complete mitochondrial genome of Choristoneura longicellana (=Hoshinoa longicellana) was determined. It is a typical circular duplex molecule with 15,759bp in length, containing the standard metazoan set of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and an A+T-rich region. All of the inferred tRNA secondary structures show the common cloverleaf pattern, with the exception of trnS1(AGN), which lacks the DHU arm. The rrnL of C. Longicellana is the longest in sequenced lepidopterans. C. Longicellana has the same gene order as all lepidopteran species currently available in GenBank. There are 5 overlapping regions ranging from 1bp to 8bp and 14 intergenic spacers ranging from 1bp to 48bp. In addition, there are four similar tandem macro-satellite regions with the lengths of 101bp, 98bp, 92bp, and 92bp respectively in the A+T-rich regions of C. longicellana. We sampled 89 species representing 13 superfamilies, and reconstructed their relationship among Lepidoptera by Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood analysis. The topology of the two phylogenetic analysis trees is identical roughly, except for Cossoidea in different locations, the positions of Cossoidea, Copromorphoidea, Gelechioidea, Zygaenoidea were not determined based the limited sampling. (Geometroidea+(Noctuoidea+Bombycoidea)) form the Macrolepidoptera "core". Pyraloidea group with the "core" Macrolepidoptera. Papilionoidea are not Macrolepidoptera. The Hesperiidae (represent Hesperioidea) is nested in the Papilionoidea, and closely related to Pieridae and Papilionidae. The well-known relationship of (Nymphalidae+(Riodinidae+Lycaenidae)) is recovered in this paper. PMID:27390085

  13. Ithomiini butterflies (Lepidoptera: Hymphalidae) of Antioquia, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, C E; Willmott, K R; Vila, R; Uribe, S I

    2013-04-01

    Colombia is one of the most biodiverse countries on the planet. However, economic and scientific investment in completing inventories of its biodiversity has been relatively poor in comparison with other Neotropical countries. Butterflies are the best studied group of invertebrates, with the highest proportion of known to expected species. More than 3,200 species of butterflies have been recorded in Colombia, although the study of the still many unexplored areas will presumably increase this number. This work provides a list of Ithomiini butterflies collected in the department of Antioquia and estimates the total number of species present, based on revision of entomological collections, records in the literature and field work performed between 2003 and 2011. The list includes 99 species and 32 genera, representing 27% of all Ithomiini species. We report 50 species of Ithomiini not formerly listed from Antioquia, and found the highest diversity of ithomiine species to be at middle elevations (900-1,800 m). The mean value of the Chao2 estimator for number of species in Antioquia is 115 species, which is close to a predicted total of 109 based on known distributions of other Ithomiini not yet recorded from the department. Nine species are potentially of particular conservation importance because of their restricted distributions, and we present range maps for each species. We also highlight areas in Antioquia with a lack of biodiversity knowledge to be targeted in future studies. This paper contributes to mapping the distribution of the Lepidoptera of Antioquia department in particular and of Colombia in general. PMID:23949748

  14. Molecular and Insecticidal Characterization of a Novel Cry-Related Protein from Bacillus Thuringiensis Toxic against Myzus persicae

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Leopoldo; Muñoz, Delia; Berry, Colin; Murillo, Jesús; Ruiz de Escudero, Iñigo; Caballero, Primitivo

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the insecticidal activity of a novel Bacillus thuringiensis Cry-related protein with a deduced 799 amino acid sequence (~89 kDa) and ~19% pairwise identity to the 95-kDa-aphidicidal protein (sequence number 204) from patent US 8318900 and ~40% pairwise identity to the cancer cell killing Cry proteins (parasporins Cry41Ab1 and Cry41Aa1), respectively. This novel Cry-related protein contained the five conserved amino acid blocks and the three conserved domains commonly found in 3-domain Cry proteins. The protein exhibited toxic activity against the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae) with the lowest mean lethal concentration (LC50 = 32.7 μg/mL) reported to date for a given Cry protein and this insect species, whereas it had no lethal toxicity against the Lepidoptera of the family Noctuidae Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), Mamestra brassicae (L.), Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), S. frugiperda (J.E. Smith) and S. littoralis (Boisduval), at concentrations as high as ~3.5 μg/cm2. This novel Cry-related protein may become a promising environmentally friendly tool for the biological control of M. persicae and possibly also for other sap sucking insect pests. PMID:25384108

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of Gynaephora alpherakii (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ming-Long; Zhang, Qi-Lin; Guo, Zhong-Long; Wang, Juan

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Gynaephora alpherakii (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) has been sequenced and annotated in this study. This mitogenome is 15,755 bp in length with an A + T content of 81.44%, and contains 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes that are arranged in the same order as that of other lepidopteran species. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) start with a typical ATN codon, with the exception of cox1 which uses CGA as the initial codon. All of the 22 transfer RNA genes present the typical clover leaf secondary structure. The A + T-rich region is located between rrnS and trnM with a length of 449 bp, and contains a 19 bp poly-T stretch as found in other lepidopteran mitogenomes. This is the third completely sequenced mitogenome from the family Lymantriidae of Lepidoptera. PMID:25469814

  16. Hawk moths (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) of Turkey and their zoogeographical distribution.

    PubMed

    Akkuzu, E; Ayberk, H; Inac, S

    2007-10-01

    The family Sphingidae (Lepidoptera) has 63 species in the western Palaearctic Region of the world. Thirty-four out of 63 species present in Turkey either permanently or temporarily. The subfamilies Smerinthinae, Sphinginae and Macroglossinae are consisted of 7, 4, and 23 species respectively Ten out of 34 species were captured in the field. Available knowledge of Sphingidae of Turkey was evaluated and summarized with this study as well. PMID:18405103

  17. Engineered female-specific lethality for control of pest Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Jin, Li; Walker, Adam S; Fu, Guoliang; Harvey-Samuel, Timothy; Dafa'alla, Tarig; Miles, Andrea; Marubbi, Thea; Granville, Deborah; Humphrey-Jones, Nerys; O'Connell, Sinead; Morrison, Neil I; Alphey, Luke

    2013-03-15

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a pest control strategy involving the mass release of radiation-sterilized insects, which reduce the target population through nonviable matings. In Lepidoptera, SIT could be more broadly applicable if the deleterious effects of sterilization by irradiation could be avoided. Moreover, male-only release can improve the efficacy of SIT. Adequate methods of male-only production in Lepidoptera are currently lacking, in contrast to some Diptera. We describe a synthetic genetic system that allows male-only moth production for SIT and also replaces radiation sterilization with inherited female-specific lethality. We sequenced and characterized the doublesex (dsx) gene from the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella). Sex-alternate splicing from dsx was used to develop a conditional lethal genetic sexing system in two pest moths: the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and pink bollworm. This system shows promise for enhancing existing pink bollworm SIT, as well as broadening SIT-type control to diamondback moth and other Lepidoptera. PMID:23802263

  18. The mitochondrial genome of Cethosia biblis (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Xin, Tianrong; Li, Lei; Yao, Chengyi; Wang, Yayu; Zou, Zhiwen; Wang, Jing; Xia, Bin

    2016-07-01

    We present the complete mitogenome of Cethosia biblis (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in this article. The mitogenome was a circle molecular consisting of 15,286 nucleotides, 37 genes, and an A + T-rich region. The order of 37 genes was typical of insect mitochondrial DNA sequences described to date. The overall base composition of the genome is A (37.41%), T (42.80%), C (11.87%), and G (7.91%) with an A + T-rich hallmark as that of other invertebrate mitochondrial genomes. The start codon was mainly ATA in most of the mitochondrial protein-coding genes such as ND2, COI, ATP8, ND3, ND5, ND4, ND6, and ND1, but COII, ATP6, COIII, ND4L, and Cob genes employing ATG. The stop codon was TAA in all the protein-coding genes. The A + T region is located between 12S rRNA and tRNA(M)(et). The phylogenetic relationships of Lepidoptera species were constructed based on the nucleotides sequences of 13 PCGs of mitogenomes using the neighbor-joining method. The molecular-based phylogeny supported the traditional morphological classification on relationships within Lepidoptera species. PMID:26029877

  19. Timing Spring Insecticide Applications to Target both Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Anarsia lineatella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Almond Orchards.

    PubMed

    Hamby, Kelly A; Nicola, Nicole L; Niederholzer, Franz J A; Zalom, Frank G

    2015-04-01

    Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Anarsia lineatella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) are key Lepidoptera pests of almonds in California. Spring insecticide applications (early to mid-May) targeting either insect were not usually recommended because of the potential to disrupt natural enemies when broad-spectrum organophosphates and pyrethroids were applied. The registration of reduced risk compounds such as chlorantraniliprole, methoxyfenozide, and spinetoram, which have a higher margin of safety for natural enemies, makes spring (early to mid-May) application an acceptable control approach. We examined the efficacy of methoxyfenozide, spinetoram, and chlorantraniliprole at three spring application timings including the optimum spring timing for both A. lineatella and A. transitella in California almonds. Our study also examined the possibility of reducing larval populations of A. lineatella and A. transitella simultaneously with a single spring insecticide application. There were no significant differences in the field efficacy of insecticides targeting either A. lineatella or A. transitella, depending on application timing for the three spring timings examined in this study. In most years (2009-2011), all three timings for each compound resulted in significantly less A. transitella and A. lineatella damage when compared with an untreated control, though there was some variation in efficacy between the two species. Early to mid-May applications of the reduced-risk insecticides chlorantraniliprole and spinetoram can be used to simultaneously target A. transitella and A. lineatella with similar results across the potential timings. PMID:26470179

  20. Exploitation of mitochondrial nad6 as a complementary marker for studying population variability in Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Brandão, Karina L.; Lyra, Mariana L.; Santos, Thiago V.; Seraphim, Noemy; Albernaz, Karina C.; Pavinato, Vitor A.C.; Martinelli, Samuel; Cônsoli, Fernando L.; Omoto, Celso

    2011-01-01

    The applicability of mitochondrial nad6 sequences to studies of DNA and population variability in Lepidoptera was tested in four species of economically important moths and one of wild butterflies. The genetic information so obtained was compared to that of cox1 sequences for two species of Lepidoptera. nad6 primers appropriately amplified all the tested DNA targets, the generated data proving to be as informative and suitable in recovering population structures as that of cox1. The proposal is that, to obtain more robust results, this mitochondrial region can be complementarily used with other molecular sequences in studies of low level phylogeny and population genetics in Lepidoptera. PMID:22215980

  1. Three new species of genus Sinophorus Förster (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) parasitizing twig and defoliating Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Mao-Ling; Li, Tao; Cao, Jiang-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Three new wasp species are described from the subfamily Campopleginae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Sinophorus bazariae Sheng, sp. n., reared from Bazaria turensis Ragonot (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) in Dulan County, Qinghai Province, China, S. nigrus Sheng, sp. n., reared from Epinotia rubiginosana rubiginosana (Herrich-Schäffer) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in Weichang, Hebei Province, and S. zeirapherae Sheng, sp. n., reared from Zeiraphera grisecana (Hübner) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in Liupanshan, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. A key to the species of Chinese Sinophorus is provided. PMID:25947806

  2. Insecticidal Effect of Chrysanthemum coronarium L. Flowers on the Pest Spodoptera littoralis Boisd and its Parasitoid Microplitis rufiventris Kok. with Identifying the Chemical Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shonouda, Mourad L.; Osman, Salah; Salama, Osama; Ayoub, Amal

    The flower extract of Chrysanthemum coronarium L. and their fractions have shown insecticidal effect on the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis. The third instar larvae fed for two days on treated leaves were more susceptible to plant extracts and to their ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions. The active lowest concentration (5%) of the flower fractions showed no significant effect on the percent reduction of emerged adult parasitoids, Microplitis rufiventris Kok. GC/MS analysis revealed that the major constituents in ethyl acetate fraction were 3-dihydro-methylene-2- (3H) furanone (17.8%), jasmolin I (15.6%), carveol 1 (13.6%), phosphoric acid, tributyl ester (11.4%) and cinerin II (11.1%), while those of chloroform fraction were 5-hydroxy-3 methyl-1H-pyrazole (42.7%) and carveol 1(24.8%). The medicinal plant C. coronarium seems to be a promising plant for application in integrated pest management due to its safety to the surrounding environment.

  3. Pathology and Epidemiology of Ceruminous Gland Tumors among Endangered Santa Catalina Island Foxes (Urocyon littoralis catalinae) in the Channel Islands, USA

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, T. Winston; Clifford, Deana L.; Garcelon, David K.; King, Julie L.; Duncan, Calvin L.; Gaffney, Patricia M.; Boyce, Walter M.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the prevalence, pathology, and epidemiology of tumors in free-ranging island foxes occurring on three islands in the California Channel Islands, USA. We found a remarkably high prevalence of ceruminous gland tumors in endangered foxes (Urocyon littoralis catalinae) occurring on Santa Catalina Island (SCA)—48.9% of the dead foxes examined from 2001–2008 had tumors in their ears, and tumors were found in 52.2% of randomly-selected mature (≥ 4 years) foxes captured in 2007–2008, representing one of the highest prevalences of tumors ever documented in a wildlife population. In contrast, no tumors were detected in foxes from San Nicolas Island or San Clemente Island, although ear mites (Otodectes cynotis), a predisposing factor for ceruminous gland tumors in dogs and cats, were highly prevalent on all three islands. On SCA, otitis externa secondary to ear mite infection was highly correlated with ceruminous gland hyperplasia (CGH), and tumors were significantly associated with the severity of CGH, ceruminous gland dysplasia, and age group (older foxes). We propose a conceptual model for the formation of ceruminous gland tumors in foxes on SCA that is based on persistent, ubiquitous infection with ear mites, and an innate, over exuberant inflammatory and hyperplastic response of SCA foxes to these mites. Foxes on SCA are now opportunistically treated with acaricides in an attempt to reduce mite infections and the morbidity and mortality associated with this highly prevalent tumor. PMID:26618759

  4. Alkaloids from beach spider lily (Hymenocallis littoralis) induce apoptosis of HepG-2 cells by the fas-signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yu-Bin; Chen, Ning; Zhu, Hong-Wei; Ling, Na; Li, Wen-Lan; Song, Dong-Xue; Gao, Shi-Yong; Zhang, Wang-Cheng; Ma, Nan-Nan

    2014-01-01

    Alkaloids are the most extensively featured compounds of natural anti-tumor herbs, which have attracted much attention in pharmaceutical research. In our previous studies, a mixture of major three alkaloid components (5, 6-dihydrobicolorine, 7-deoxy-trans-dihydronarciclasine, littoraline) from Hymenocallis littoralis were extracted, analyzed and designated as AHL. In this paper, AHL extracts were added to human liver hepatocellular cells HepG-2, human gastric cancer cell SGC-7901, human breast adenocarcinoma cell MCF-7 and human umbilical vein endothelial cell EVC-304, to screen one or more AHL-sensitive tumor cell. Among these cells, HepG-2 was the most sensitive to AHL treatment, a very low dose (0.8μg/ml) significantly inhibiting proliferation . The non- tumor cell EVC-304, however, was not apparently affected. Effect of AHL on HepG-2 cells was then explored. We found that the AHL could cause HepG-2 cycle arrest at G2/M checkpoint, induce apoptosis, and interrupt polymerization of microtubules. In addition, expression of two cell cycle-regulated proteins, CyclinB1 and CDK1, was up-regulated upon AHL treatment. Up-regulation of the Fas, Fas ligand, Caspase-8 and Caspase-3 was observed as well, which might imply roles for the Fas/FsaL signaling pathway in the AHL-induced apoptosis of HepG-2 cells. PMID:25422219

  5. Effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on the growth and development of Hymenocallis littoralis (Amaryllidaceae) and the concentrations of several antineoplastic and antiviral constituents of its bulbs.

    PubMed

    Idso, S B; Kimball, B A; Pettit Iii, G R; Garner, L C; Pettit, G R; Backhaus, R A

    2000-06-01

    Two 2-yr crops of tropical spider lily (Hymenocallis littoralis) plants were grown in field soil in clear-plastic-wall open-top enclosures in the Sonoran Desert environment of central Arizona. Half of the plants were exposed to ambient air of 400 ppm atmospheric CO(2) concentration and half of them were exposed to air of 700 ppm CO(2). This 75% increase in the air's CO(2) content resulted in a 48% increase in aboveground plant biomass and a 56% increase in belowground (bulb) biomass. It also increased the concentrations of five bulb constituents that have been demonstrated to possess anticancer and antiviral activities. Mean percentage increases in these concentrations were 6% for a two-constituent (1:1) mixture of 7-deoxynarciclasine and 7-deoxy-trans-dihydronarciclasine, 8% for pancratistatin, 8% for trans-dihydronarciclasine, and 28% for narciclasine, for a mean active ingredient percentage concentration increase of 12%. Combined with the 56% increase in bulb biomass, these percentage concentration increases resulted in a mean active ingredient increase of 75% for the 75% increase in the air's CO(2) concentration used in our experiments. PMID:10860907

  6. A mode of action of glucosinolate-derived isothiocyanates: Detoxification depletes glutathione and cysteine levels with ramifications on protein metabolism in Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Jeschke, Verena; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Vassão, Daniel Giddings

    2016-04-01

    Glucosinolates are activated plant defenses common in the order Brassicales that release isothiocyanates (ITCs) and other hydrolysis products upon tissue damage. The reactive ITCs are toxic to insects resulting in reduced growth, delayed development and occasionally mortality. Generalist lepidopteran larvae often detoxify ingested ITCs via conjugation to glutathione (GSH) and survive on low glucosinolate diets, but it is not known how this process influences other aspects of metabolism. We investigated the impact of the aliphatic 4-methylsulfinylbutyl-ITC (4msob-ITC, sulforaphane) on the metabolism of Spodoptera littoralis larvae, which suffer a significant growth decline on 4msob-ITC-containing diets while excreting ITC-glutathione conjugates and their derivatives in the frass. The most striking effects were a decrease of GSH in midgut tissue and hemolymph due to losses by conjugation to ITC during detoxification, and a decline of the GSH biosynthetic precursor cysteine. Protein content was likewise reduced by ITC treatment suggesting that protein is actively catabolized in an attempt to supply cysteine for GSH biosynthesis. The negative growth and protein effects were relieved by dietary supplementation with cystine. Other consequences of protein breakdown included deamination of amino acids with increased excretion of uric acid and elevated lipid content. Thus metabolic detoxification of ITCs provokes a cascade of negative effects on insects that result in reduced fitness. PMID:26855197

  7. Susceptibility of Apple Clearwing Moth Larvae, Synanthedon myopaeformis (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) to Beauveria basiana and Metarhizium brunneum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple clearwing moth larvae, Synanthedon myopaeformis (Lepidoptera: Sessidae) collected from orchards in British Columbia, Canada, were naturally infected with the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium brunneum (Petch). In laboratory bioassays, larvae were susceptible to infection and dose related mo...

  8. Oviposition preference of Oriental fruit moth [Grapholita molesta (Busck), Lepidoptera: Tortricidae] for apple cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oviposition preferences and apple cultivar selection by fruit pests may impact integrated pest management in apple orchards. Experiments were conducted to study oviposition preferences of Oriental fruit moth ( Grapholita molesta [Busck], Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on ten commercially important apple ...

  9. Susceptibility of the Strawberry Crown Moth Synanthedon bibionipennis (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) to Entomopathogenic Nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of the strawberry crown moth, Synanthedon bibionipennis (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) larvae to two species of entomopathogenic nematodes(Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) Agriotos and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Steiner) Oswego). Nematodes...

  10. POPULATION SYNCHRONY WITHIN AND AMONG LEPIDOPTERA SPECIES IN RELATION TO WEATHER, PHYLOGENY, AND LARVEL PHENOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. The population dynamics of native herbivore species in central Appalachian deciduous forests were studied by analysing patterns of synchrony among intra- and interspecific populations and weather. 2. Spatial synchrony of 10 Lepidoptera species and three weather variables (min...

  11. A new parasitoid of Bazariaturensis (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae): Campoplexbazariae sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu-Xiang; Sheng, Mao-Ling

    2014-01-01

    A new solitary endoparasitoid of the larva of Bazariaturensis Ragonot, 1887 (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) in Qinghai province, China, Campoplexbazariae Sheng, sp. n., belonging to the subfamily Campopleginae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae), is reported. Illustrations of the new species are provided. PMID:25610335

  12. Two species of Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera) from Southeast Asia associated with downy rose myrtle, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Myrtaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two species of Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera), Metharmostis multilineata Adamski, n. sp. (Cosmopterigidae), and Idiophantis soreuta Meyrick, 1906 (Gelechiidae), were collected in southeastern Asia for evaluation as potential biocontrol agents against downy rose myrtle, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hass...

  13. A new species of the genus Arcoptilia Arenberger (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae) from Angola.

    PubMed

    Ustjuzhanin, P; Kovtunovich, V

    2015-01-01

    The new species Arcoptilia naumanni sp. nov. (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae) is described and illustrated from males found in Angola. Platyptilia rufamaculata Gielis, 2011, syn. nov. is established as a junior synonym of Arcoptilia pongola Ustjuzhanin & Kovtunovich, 2010. PMID:26623765

  14. First microsatellites from Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and their potential use for population genetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report of sequence-specific microsatellite markers (SSRs) of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an economically important pest of the American continent. We developed 178 microsatellite markers using pyrosequencing, and screened 15 individuals from 8 isofamili...

  15. PCR primers for 30 novel gene regions in the nuclear genomes of Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Wahlberg, Niklas; Peña, Carlos; Ahola, Milla; Wheat, Christopher W.; Rota, Jadranka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We report primer pairs for 30 new gene regions in the nuclear genomes of Lepidoptera that can be amplified using a standard PCR protocol. The new primers were tested across diverse Lepidoptera, including nonditrysians and a wide selection of ditrysians. These new gene regions give a total of 11,043 bp of DNA sequence data and they show similar variability to traditionally used nuclear gene regions in studies of Lepidoptera. We feel that a PCR-based approach still has its place in molecular systematic studies of Lepidoptera, particularly at the intrafamilial level, and our new set of primers now provides a route to generating phylogenomic datasets using traditional methods. PMID:27408580

  16. Identification of a delta-Endotoxin Gene Product Specifically Active against Spodoptera littoralis Bdv. among Proteolysed Fractions of the Insecticidal Crystals of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai 7.29.

    PubMed

    Lecadet, M M; Sanchis, V; Menou, G; Rabot, P; Lereclus, D; Chaufaux, J; Martouret, D

    1988-11-01

    At least three different insecticidal crystal protein genes were shown to be expressed in Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai 7.29, a strain that is potentially active against the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis Bdv. Among crude K-60 fractions (60- to 70-kilodalton [kDa] molecules) that were products of proteolysed crystals containing the active domains of the protoxin molecules, we were able to distinguish several distinct components on the basis of their antigenic relationship and their larvicidal properties. A purified fraction designated SF2 was a 61-kDa component specifically active against Pieris brassicae L. and homologous to the B. thuringiensis subsp. berliner 1715 plasmid-encoded crystal protein. A second fraction designated SF1 was composed of 63- and 65-kDa polypeptides and was specifically active against S. littoralis. The SF1 fraction and particularly the 65-kDa component were not antigenically related to the 61-kDa component. The purified fractions were compared with the products of three different crystal protein genes we previously cloned from total DNA of B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai, among them a new type of crystal protein gene encoding a protein that is specifically active against S. littoralis and other insects of the Noctuidae family. This approach led us to consider the 65-kDa component as a minimum active part of a delta-endotoxin that is encoded by this new gene. Products of the two other cloned genes can be correlated with the 61- and 63-kDa components, respectively. Thus, in B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai 7.29, multiple delta-endotoxin genes of different structural types direct the synthesis of several delta-endotoxins with different host specificities which were identified as components of the insecticidal crystals. PMID:16347771

  17. Resistance to insecticides in Heliothine Lepidoptera: a global view

    PubMed Central

    McCaffery, A. R.

    1998-01-01

    The status of resistance to organophosphate, carbamate, cyclodiene and pyrethroid insecticides in the heliothine Lepidoptera is reviewed. In particular, resistance in the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens, and the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, from the New World, and the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, from the Old World, are considered in detail. Particular emphasis has been placed on resistance to the most widely used of these insecticide groups, the pyrethroids. In each case, the incidence and current status of resistance are considered before a detailed view of the mechanisms of resistance is given. Controversial issues regarding the nature of mechanisms of resistance to pyrethroid insecticides are discussed. The implications for resistance management are considered.

  18. Geraldocossus gen. nov. (Lepidoptera, Cossidae) from Mount Cameroon (West Africa).

    PubMed

    Yakovlev, Roman V; Sáfián, Szabolcs

    2016-01-01

    The cossid or the Carpenter Moths (Lepidoptera, Cossidae) include about 1000 species worldwide (van Nieukerken et al., 2011), of which 750 species belong to five subfamilies that occur in the Old World (Yakovlev 2011). The Cossidae are still relatively poorly known from vast areas of the African continent, despite recent reports on the fauna of Malawi (Yakovlev & Murphey 2014), Zimbabwe (Yakovlev & Lenz 2014), and Zambia (Yakovlev 2014). The first results of an ongoing revision of the South African Cossidae have also been published (Mey 2015). PMID:27395152

  19. Adaptive divergence despite strong genetic drift: genomic analysis of the evolutionary mechanisms causing genetic differentiation in the island fox (Urocyon littoralis).

    PubMed

    Funk, W Chris; Lovich, Robert E; Hohenlohe, Paul A; Hofman, Courtney A; Morrison, Scott A; Sillett, T Scott; Ghalambor, Cameron K; Maldonado, Jesus E; Rick, Torben C; Day, Mitch D; Polato, Nicholas R; Fitzpatrick, Sarah W; Coonan, Timothy J; Crooks, Kevin R; Dillon, Adam; Garcelon, David K; King, Julie L; Boser, Christina L; Gould, Nicholas; Andelt, William F

    2016-05-01

    The evolutionary mechanisms generating the tremendous biodiversity of islands have long fascinated evolutionary biologists. Genetic drift and divergent selection are predicted to be strong on islands and both could drive population divergence and speciation. Alternatively, strong genetic drift may preclude adaptation. We conducted a genomic analysis to test the roles of genetic drift and divergent selection in causing genetic differentiation among populations of the island fox (Urocyon littoralis). This species consists of six subspecies, each of which occupies a different California Channel Island. Analysis of 5293 SNP loci generated using Restriction-site Associated DNA (RAD) sequencing found support for genetic drift as the dominant evolutionary mechanism driving population divergence among island fox populations. In particular, populations had exceptionally low genetic variation, small Ne (range = 2.1-89.7; median = 19.4), and significant genetic signatures of bottlenecks. Moreover, islands with the lowest genetic variation (and, by inference, the strongest historical genetic drift) were most genetically differentiated from mainland grey foxes, and vice versa, indicating genetic drift drives genome-wide divergence. Nonetheless, outlier tests identified 3.6-6.6% of loci as high FST outliers, suggesting that despite strong genetic drift, divergent selection contributes to population divergence. Patterns of similarity among populations based on high FST outliers mirrored patterns based on morphology, providing additional evidence that outliers reflect adaptive divergence. Extremely low genetic variation and small Ne in some island fox populations, particularly on San Nicolas Island, suggest that they may be vulnerable to fixation of deleterious alleles, decreased fitness and reduced adaptive potential. PMID:26992010

  20. Joint action of quercetin with four insecticides on the cotton leaf-worm larvae, Spodoptera littoralis Boisd. (Lep. : Noctuidae) in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mesbah, H A; Saad, A S A; Mourad, A K; Taman, F A; Mohamed, I B

    2007-01-01

    The naturally occurring phytoncidal chemical component of some plant- species are responsible for controlling and/or repelling insects from host plants. The use of natural products, readily available in the environment, to control the cotton leafworm, could be of help in reducing the need for applying the synthetic conventional insecticides . Moreover, crude vegetable oils application is quite safer to the non targets and the environment. The use of sex attractant pheromones as predicative tools to forecast pest population and their potential damage levels in specific crops, has significantly been limited because sex attractants are usually directed to one sex only. Thus, identification of plant constituents that attract S. littoralis Boisd. adults, especially females, and that directly affect their feeding or reproductive behaviour, would greatly expand opportunities for manipulation of the biological and environmental events that prevent the establishment, development, and dispersal of the insect-pest under study. Extracted Volatiles from certain parts of cotton plants, attracted both sexes of the cotton leafworm moths instead of attracting one sex only as the pheromones do. Plant flavonoids have been shown by many investigators to have an effect on insect behaviour, growth, and development. Quercetin is one of many bioflavonoids that exists in several fruits and vegetables. The Aim of the present work is to study in vivo the biochemical mode of action of quercetin as a synergist in combination with insecticides. The present results proved the synergistic effect of quercetin when combined with four insecticides, namely, profenofos (organophosphates), deltamethrin (pyrethroid), and tebufenozide et hexaflumuron as insect growth regulators against the studied insect-pest. Quercetin role as a synergist might be attributed to its ability to inhibit certain active oxidases, which may be responsible for in vivo detoxification of the intact insecticides when applied to

  1. Cyanogenesis-a general phenomenon in the lepidoptera?

    PubMed

    Witthohn, K; Naumann, C M

    1987-08-01

    There are two different pathways known to be used for the detoxification of hydrocyanic acid in insects, viz., rhodanese and β-cyano-L-ala-nine synthase. We consider the latter to be indicative for cyanogenesis, while rhodanese might, in general, play a more important role in sulfur transfer for protein synthesis. This paper reports on the distribution of β-cyano-L-alanine (BCA) in the Lepidoptera. First reports of cyanogenesis are presented for the following families: Papilionidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae, Hesperiidae, Lymantriidae, Arctiidae, Notodontidae, Megalopygidae, Limacodidae, Cymatophoridae, Noctuidae, Geometridae, and Yponomeutidae. New and old records for three other families, the Nymphalidae, Zygaenidae, and Heterogynidae, are included to complete the present state of knowledge. Special emphasis has been laid on the Nymphalidae, where BCA has been detected in eight subfamilies. Taxonomic, geographic, and seasonal variation has been found in a number of cases. In all cases observed so far, the source of cyanogenesis in the Lepidoptera is most probably the cyanoglucosides linamarin and lotaustralin, although cyanogenesis based on mustard oil glucosides and cyclopentenoid glucosides might occur as well. BCA has been found in both cryptic and aposematic species, including taxa such as the Pieridae, Danainae, Ithomiinae, and Arctiidae, where the defensive biology is believed to be linked with other compounds, like mustard oil glucosides, cardenolides, or pyrrolizidine alkaloids. The ecological interaction and significance of such secondary compounds is not yet understood. PMID:24302389

  2. Mortality Dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Immatures in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Varella, Andrea Corrêa; Menezes-Netto, Alexandre Carlos; Alonso, Juliana Duarte de Souza; Caixeta, Daniel Ferreira; Peterson, Robert K. D.; Fernandes, Odair Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    We characterized the dynamics of mortality factors affecting immature developmental stages of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Multiple decrement life tables for egg and early larval stages of S. frugiperda in maize (Zea mays L.) fields were developed with and without augmentative releases of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) from 2009 to 2011. Total egg mortality ranged from 73 to 81% and the greatest egg mortality was due to inviability, dislodgement, and predation. Parasitoids did not cause significant mortality in egg or early larval stages and the releases of T. remus did not increase egg mortality. Greater than 95% of early larvae died from predation, drowning, and dislodgment by rainfall. Total mortality due to these factors was largely irreplaceable. Results indicate that a greater effect in reducing generational survival may be achieved by adding mortality to the early larval stage of S. frugiperda. PMID:26098422

  3. Mortality Dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Immatures in Maize.

    PubMed

    Varella, Andrea Corrêa; Menezes-Netto, Alexandre Carlos; Alonso, Juliana Duarte de Souza; Caixeta, Daniel Ferreira; Peterson, Robert K D; Fernandes, Odair Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    We characterized the dynamics of mortality factors affecting immature developmental stages of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Multiple decrement life tables for egg and early larval stages of S. frugiperda in maize (Zea mays L.) fields were developed with and without augmentative releases of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) from 2009 to 2011. Total egg mortality ranged from 73 to 81% and the greatest egg mortality was due to inviability, dislodgement, and predation. Parasitoids did not cause significant mortality in egg or early larval stages and the releases of T. remus did not increase egg mortality. Greater than 95% of early larvae died from predation, drowning, and dislodgment by rainfall. Total mortality due to these factors was largely irreplaceable. Results indicate that a greater effect in reducing generational survival may be achieved by adding mortality to the early larval stage of S. frugiperda. PMID:26098422

  4. Complete mitochondrial DNA genome of Polytremis nascens (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Weibin; Zhu, Jianqing; Yang, Qichang; Zhao, Huidong; Chen, Minghan; He, Haiyan; Yu, Weidong

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of Polytremis nascens (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) was determined. The 15,392 bp mitogenome with GenBank accession number KM981865 contained 13 protein genes, 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs, and a non-coding control region (D-loop). All the 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes were found. The overall base composition was 39.7% A, 40.7% T, 7.7% G and 11.9% C, with a high A + T content (80.4%). This complete mitogenome of P. nascens provides a basic data for studies on species identification, molecular systematics and conservation genetics. PMID:25690054

  5. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Leucoptera malifoliella Costa (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Peng; Zhao, Jin-Liang; Su, Tian-Juan; Li, Jie; Yu, Fang; Chesters, Douglas; Fan, Ren-Jun; Chen, Ming-Chang; Wu, Chun-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Leucoptera malifoliella (=L. scitella) (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae) was sequenced. The size was 15,646 bp with gene content and order the same as those of other lepidopterans. The nucleotide composition of L. malifoliella mitogenome is highly A+T biased (82.57%), ranked just below Coreana raphaelis (82.66%) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). All protein-coding genes (PCGs) start with the typical ATN codon except for the cox1 gene, which uses CGA as the initiation codon. Nine PCGs have the common stop codon TAA, four PCGs have the common stop codon T as incomplete stop codons, and nad4l and nad6 have TAG as the stop codon. Cloverleaf secondary structures were inferred for 22 tRNA genes, but trnS1(AGN) was found to lack the DHU stem. The secondary structure of rrnL and rrnS is generally similar to other lepidopterans but with some minor differences. The A+T-rich region includes the motif ATAGA, but the poly (T) stretch is replaced by a stem-loop structure, which may have a similar function to the poly (T) stretch. Finally, there are three long repeat (154 bp) sequences followed by one short repeat (56 bp) with four (TA)n intervals, and a 10-bp poly-A is present upstream of trnM. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the position of Yponomeutoidea, as represented by L. malifoliella, is the same as traditional classifications. Yponomeutoidea is the sister to the other lepidopteran superfamilies covered in the present study. PMID:22856872

  6. Effect of piperonyl butoxide on the toxicity of four classes of insecticides to navel orangeworm (Amyelois transitella)(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a highly polyphagous economic pest of almond, pistachio, and walnut crops in California orchards. Although management of this pest has typically been through a combination of cultural control and insecticide sprays, increas...

  7. Patterns of flight behavior and capacity of unmated navel orangeworm adults (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) related to age, gender, and wing size

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a key pest of almond, pistachio, and walnut tree crops in California. Understanding dispersal of adults between orchards is important to improving management options. Laboratory flight behavior of unmated navel orangewor...

  8. Notes on the ovipositional behavior of Trichogramma fuentesi (Hymenoptera:Trichogrammatidae), an egg parasitoid of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichogramma fuentesi Torre (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is an arrhenotokous egg parasitoid of Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The parasitoid was identified attacking C. cactorum eggs at several north Florida locations in 2010 (Paraiso et al. 2011). Low incidence of this...

  9. A new Polia Ochsenheimer, 1816 species from China (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Hadenini).

    PubMed

    Saldaitis, Aidas; Benedek, Balázs; Behounek, Gottfried

    2016-01-01

    The genus Polia Ochsenheimer, 1816 includes 26 species in the Palaearctic region, with the familiar European species being properly classified (Hacker et al., 2002), while most species from the more diverse Himalayan-region still require a comprehensive revision. Most recently, a new Polia species from China was described by Saldaitis et al. (2013). The sino-tibetian species Polia costirufa (Draudt, 1950) is one of the most interesting members of the complex as it is separable from its relatives at least on the subgeneric level. Certain elements of its forewing pattern resemble those of the genus Heliophobus Boisduval, but P. costirufa is much larger with more elongate forewings. While the P. costirufa male genital capsule shows typical Polia conservative features, the broad, sack-like vesica and the huge terminal cornutus are unique in the male and the large, elliptical and strongly sclerotised appendix bursae are unique female characters. The collective of the mentioned external and genital characters are suggesting the justifiable separation of P. costirufa from any other relatives, certainly on subgeneric level, but this would be better to integrate into a study incorporate the complete overview of the Polia-complex in the Himalayan region. P. costirufa male and female genitalia are described here for the first time but further study integrating this species into a complete overview of the Polia complex in the Himalayan region is recommended. PMID:27394516

  10. Impact of temperature and relative humidity on life history parameters of adult Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a pest of stored corn, Zea mays L., and other grains throughout the world. S. cerealella are routinely exposed to temperatures below 20°C in regions of the U.S. where corn is grown, yet there are no data describi...

  11. Effect of irradiation on Mexican leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) development and reproduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of irradiation on egg, larval, and pupal development, and adult reproduction in Mexican leafroller, Amorbia emigratella Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were examined. Eggs, neonates, early instars, late instars, early pupae and late pupae were irradiated at target doses of 60, 90, 120,...

  12. Resistance in Cultivated Sunflower to the Sunflower Moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in the Central Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 5-year field study evaluated 42 sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) accessions, 25 breeding lines, and 40 interspecific crosses for resistance to infestation by naturally occurring populations of the sunflower moth, Homeosoma electellum (Hulst) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Germplasm with resistance to i...

  13. Evaluation of traps and lures for codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the use of several trap – lure combinations to improve monitoring of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in apple, Malus domestica Bordk. Treatments included the use of clear, orange and white traps baited with one or more of the followin...

  14. Regional Assessment of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Populations on Cotton and Non-Cotton Crop Hosts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection pressure on bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), by cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.) (Malvaceae), that produces one or more Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner proteins is reduced by plantings of non-Bt refuge cotton that produce non-selected individuals. However, ...

  15. Lespesia melloi sp. nov. (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Brazil, a Parasitoid of Xanthopastis timais (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Santana, Hélcio R.; Nihei, Silvio Shigueo; Nunez, Enio

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the New World genus Lespesia, Lespesia melloi sp. nov. (Diptera: Tachinidae), is described from southeastern Brazil. The species is reported here as a parasitoid of Xanthopastis timais (Cramer, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The caterpillars of this noctuid feed on leaves and bulbs of amaryllis (Amaryllidaceae) in Brazil. PMID:25368065

  16. Lespesia melloi sp. nov. (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Brazil, a parasitoid of Xanthopastis timais(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Nihei, Silvio Shigueo; Nunez, Enio

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the New World genus Lespesia, Lespesia melloi SP NOV: (Diptera: Tachinidae), is described from southeastern Brazil. The species is reported here as a parasitoid of Xanthopastis timais (Cramer, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The caterpillars of this noctuid feed on leaves and bulbs of amaryllis (Amaryllidaceae) in Brazil. PMID:25368065

  17. New home for the Lepidoptera collection at the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article describes the newly refurbished facilities into which the Lepidoptera collection recently moved at the National Museum of Natural History. The goals of the "announcement" are to demonstrate the progress being made by lepidopterists at the National Museum in regards to collection improve...

  18. Laboratory virulence and orchard efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes against the lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote & Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) is indigenous to eastern North America where it is a pest of commercially grown Prunus spp., especially to southeastern peach orchards where earlier regulatory changes affected pesticide usage on peach and fa...

  19. Before harvest survival of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in artificially infested sweet cherries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prior to the 2009 season, sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., from North America were required to be fumigated with methyl bromide before being exported to Japan to eliminate possible infestation by codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). However, based on recent biological...

  20. RNA interference in Lepidoptera: an overview of successful and unsuccessful studies and implications for experimental design

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized the study of gene function, particularly in non-model insects. However, in Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) RNAi has many times proven to be difficult to achieve. Most of the negative results have been anecdotal and the positive ex...

  1. Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée)(Lepidoptera: Crambidae), an insect pest of Neotropical solanaceous fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tomato fruit borer, Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is one of the most important pests of solanaceous crops in South America. The larva of this insect develops inside the fruit, feeding on the mesocarp and the endosperm; therefore, chemical control is inefficient, yet...

  2. Impact of Plant Resistance on Southwestern Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Biology and Plant Damage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a major insect pest of corn in the southern United States. Germplasm lines with resistance to southwestern corn borer have been developed and released by USDA-ARS. Two single-cross hybrids produced by crossing germplasm...

  3. First record of Ectomyelois muriscis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on physic nut (Jatropha curcas), a biofuel plant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The natural infestation of fruits and stems of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) by larvae of the pyralid moth Ectomyelois muriscis (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is reported for the first time. Populations of E. muriscis on J. curcas were observed in various parts of the state of Chiapas, souther...

  4. Electrophysiological responses of the rice leaffolder, cnaphalocrocis medinalis (lepidoptera: pyralidae), to rice plant volatiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The electrophysiological activities of 38 synthetic volatiles that were known to be released from the rice plants (Poaceae: Oryza spp.) were studied using electroantennogram (EAG) recording technique on male and female antennae of the rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: ...

  5. Seasonal infestations of two stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in noncrop grasses of Gulf Coast rice agroecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infestations of two stem borers, the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), were compared in non-crop grasses adjacent to rice, Oryza sativa L., fields. Three farms in the Texas Gulf Coast rice production area were sur...

  6. Inbreeding Effects in Families of Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): Larval Development in Laboratory Bioassays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inbreeding depression of laboratory-reared insects has the potential to affect their larval performance and reproductive output. Two studies of laboratory-reared colonies of Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) were conducted to assess whether inbreeding affected a laboratory bioass...

  7. Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis against Pryeria sinica(Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae), an invasive pest of Euonymus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pryeria sinica Moore (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae), an invasive pest of Euonymus, is susceptible in the second instar to the Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner product Thuricide®, and to several strains isolated from other B. thuringiensis products. Third instars are also susceptible, while susceptibility...

  8. A Life History of the Squash Vine Borer, Melittia Cucurbitae (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) in South Carolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The life history of the squash vine borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was investigated in South Carolina. Duration of life stages, numbers of progeny, and mortality rates for SVB were determined in cages held at 25 plus minus 2C, 65-70% humidity and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h in a rearing room, and ...

  9. Post-mating behavior of female dogwood borer (lepidoptera: sesiidae) in apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The post-mating behavior of female dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was examined in a young apple orchard planted on size-controlling rootstock in Virginia. All female dogwood borers captured while exhibiting casting flight near the base of trees were mated, base...

  10. Mitochondrial genome sequence and expression profiling for the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report on the assembly of the 14,146 base pairs (bp) near complete mitochondrial sequencing of the legume pod borer (LPB), Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), which was used to estimate divergence and relationships within the lepidopteran lineage. Arrangement and orientation of 13 protein c...

  11. Integrated pest management of the Pyralid stalkborers, Eoreuma loftini and Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane represents an important commodity crop in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. The primary insect pest of sugarcane is the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini followed by the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera) which cause substantial economic damage. We quantified the re...

  12. The mitochondrial genome of the western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete 15,553 bp mitochondrial genome of the western bean cutworm, Stricosta albicosta, (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was assembled from next generation sequencing data. Annotation showed that 13 predicted protein coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNAs, and 2 rRNAs have an order and orientation typical of ...

  13. Reproduction, longevity and survival of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Screened potted cactus plants (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) containing pairs of adult male and female cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were placed in a cactus field in St. Marks, Florida to measure oviposition patterns under field-realistic conditions. Results...

  14. Biology, Distribution And Control Of The Cactus Moth, Cactoblastis Cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralide)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) became a textbook example of successful classical biological control after it was imported from Argentina into Australia in 1926 to control invasive Opuntia cacti. To date, the moth continues to play an active role in controlling...

  15. Tree height influences flight of lesser peachtree borer and peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) males

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Capture of males of the lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote & Robinson), and the peachtree borer, S. exitiosa (Say) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), in pheromone traps positioned at 0, 1.8, 3.6, and 5.5 m above ground was affected by tree height in different habitats. In a peach orchard wit...

  16. Development of a rearing methodology for the dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A continuous rearing method for dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was devised using standardized procedures at each developmental stage. The mating success of pairs of moths in 30 and 60 cm(3) cages and exposed to natural daylight or artificial light did not diffe...

  17. Re-evaluation of sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) bioeconomics in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is the key insect pest of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., grown in Louisiana. For more than 40 years Louisiana sugarcane farmers have used a value of 10% internodes bored at harvest as the Economic Damage level (ED) because damage l...

  18. Elachista saccharella (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae), a leafminer infesting sugarcane in Louisiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leafminer, Elachista saccharella (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) was found in Louisiana on 12 July 2006 and documented as a new distribution record for Louisiana and the south-central United States and represents a significant range extension for the species. Elachista saccharella was first ...

  19. Seasonal response of Noctua pronuba L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to traps in Washington state

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blacklight traps at multiple sites in eastern Washington state yielded numbers of yellow underwing moths, Noctua pronuba L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Noctua pronumba is recently introduced into western North America. Summaries of the seasonal patterns of N. pronumba moths captured in those blackligh...

  20. Aggregation and foraging behavior of imported cabbageworm (Lepidoptera: pieridae) adults on blue vervain flowers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The imported cabbageworm [Pieris rapae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)], also known as the cabbage white butterfly, is an important specialized pest on cruciferous plants (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) worldwide. an unusual aggregation of the cabbage white butterflies was observed on a patch of flowering...

  1. Effect of Hexaflumuron on feeding response and reproduction of bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hexaflumuron (Consult® 100 EC, Dow AgroSciences) is an insect growth regulator that inhibits chitin synthesis. The efficacy of hexaflumuron mixed with 2.5 M sucrose (ppm) was evaluated in the laboratory against bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) for toxicity, proboscis exten...

  2. A computer model for simulating population development of the Indianmeal Moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in stored corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a common pest of stored corn, Zea mays L. We developed a computer model to simulate population development of the Indianmeal moth in stored corn using previously published data describing immature development times and ...

  3. A new species of Alveoplectrus Wijesekara & Schauff (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eulophidae) parasitic on Limacodidae (Lepidoptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alveoplectrus lilli Gates, new species, is described and illustrated. This species was reared from five genera of field-collected slug caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae) in eastern North America. It is compared to closely related New World species. We report on new host records and summarize th...

  4. Disruption of Darna pallivitta (Lepidoptera:Limacodidae) by conventional and mobile pheromone deployment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nettle caterpillar, Darna pallivitta (Moore) (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), is an invasive pest with established populations on three Hawai’ian islands. Indigenous to Southeast Asia, D. pallivitta caterpillars defoliate ornamentals and pose a human health hazard due to urticating hairs that can cause p...

  5. Development of the cursorial spider, Cheiracanthium inclusum (Araneae: Miturgidae), on eggs of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of the cursorial spider Cheiricanthium inclusum (Hentz) (Araneae: Miturgidae) from emergence to maturity on a diet of eggs of the lepidopteran pest Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was characterized. C. inclusum developed to adulthood with no mortality while feeding on ...

  6. Population genetics of ecological communities with DNA barcodes: An example from New Guinea Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Craft, Kathleen J.; Pauls, Steffen U.; Darrow, Karolyn; Miller, Scott E.; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Helgen, Lauren E.; Novotny, Vojtech; Weiblen, George D.

    2010-01-01

    Comparative population genetics of ecological guilds can reveal generalities in patterns of differentiation bearing on hypotheses regarding the origin and maintenance of community diversity. Contradictory estimates of host specificity and beta diversity in tropical Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) from New Guinea and the Americas have sparked debate on the role of host-associated divergence and geographic isolation in explaining latitudinal diversity gradients. We sampled haplotypes of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I from 28 Lepidoptera species and 1,359 individuals across four host plant genera and eight sites in New Guinea to estimate population divergence in relation to host specificity and geography. Analyses of molecular variance and haplotype networks indicate varying patterns of genetic structure among ecologically similar sympatric species. One-quarter lacked evidence of isolation by distance or host-associated differentiation, whereas 21% exhibited both. Fourteen percent of the species exhibited host-associated differentiation without geographic isolation, 18% showed the opposite, and 21% were equivocal, insofar as analyses of molecular variance and haplotype networks yielded incongruent patterns. Variation in dietary breadth among community members suggests that speciation by specialization is an important, but not universal, mechanism for diversification of tropical Lepidoptera. Geographically widespread haplotypes challenge predictions of vicariance biogeography. Dispersal is important, and Lepidoptera communities appear to be highly dynamic according to the various phylogeographic histories of component species. Population genetic comparisons among herbivores of major tropical and temperate regions are needed to test predictions of ecological theory and evaluate global patterns of biodiversity. PMID:20202924

  7. Host range of Caloptilia triadicae (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae): an adventive herbivore of Chinese tallowtree (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In its native range the invasive weed, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa is host to a suite of herbivores. One, Strepsicrates sp. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) was collected in China in 2014, introduced under quarantine in Florida, USA and tested against related species to determine its host range and suitability ...

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome of the wild eri silkworm, Samia canningi (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).

    PubMed

    Shantibala, T; Victor, Th; Luikham, Reeta; Arunkumar, K P; Sharma, H Debaraj; Lokeshwari, R K; Kim, Iksoo

    2016-01-01

    The saturniid silkworm species of the genus Samia are potential silk producing insects. Thus, Samia canningi (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) is a potential candidate to introduce for silk production. The complete mitochondrial genome of S. canningi was 15,384 bp long that contained 37 genes along with a control region. The arrangement of the PCGs was same as the majority of Lepidoptera, presenting the order, trnM/trnI/trnQ between nad2 and control region. Twelve of 13 PCGs started with ATN codons, but cox2 with GTG, which is often found in insects. Genes overlapped in a total of 29 bp, 221 bp of intergenic spacer sequences was found in seventeen regions and the longest 54 bp one was found between trnQ and nad2 as typical in Lepidoptera. In lrRNA, the 21-bp long, tandemly duplicated repeat was characteristically found (TAAAATTATTTATAATATAAA) between 13,663 and 13,706. AT rich region has the motif "ATAGA" and 18 bp poly T stretch, typically conserved in Lepidoptera. PMID:24893878

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of Rondotia menciana (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Weiqing; Yang, Jinhong

    2015-01-01

    The mulberry white caterpillar, Rondotia menciana Moore (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) is a species with closest relationship with Bombyx mori and Bombyx mandarina, and the genetic information of R. menciana is important for understanding the diversity of the Bombycidae. In this study, the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of R. menciana was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. The mitogenome of R. menciana was determined to be 15,301 bp, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and an AT-rich region. The A+T content (78.87%) was lower than that observed for other Bombycidae insects. All PCGs were initiated by ATN codons and terminated with the canonical stop codons, except for coxII, which was terminated by a single T. All the tRNA genes displayed a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA. The length of AT-rich region (360 bp) of R. menciana mitogenome is shorter than that of other Bombycidae species. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the R. menciana was clustered on one branch with B. mori and B. mandarina from Bombycidae. PMID:25888706

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of Tyspanodes hypsalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Li, Pengfei; You, Ping

    2016-05-01

    The size of Tyspanodes hypsalis (Warren, 1891) mitogenome was 15,329 bp in which the base composition of mitogenome was 40.0% A, 41.4% T, 11.9% G and 7.7% C. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) utilized the standard ATN, while COI used CGA as the initial codon. In addition, all PCGs had the common stop codon (TAN), except COI and ND5 respectively used incomplete termination codon T and TA. All tRNAs had the typical cloverleaf structure of mitochondrial tRNAs, with the exception of tRNASer(AGN), the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm of which forms a simple loop. The A + T-rich region of 350 bp contains several features common to the Lepidoptera insects. Including the motif "ATAGA" followed by a 17-bp poly-T stretch, a microsatellite-like (AT)8 element preceded by the ATTTA motif, and a 12 bp polyA-like stretch (AAATAAAAAAAAA) present immediately upstream tRNAMet. PMID:25317636

  11. Biology and control of the raspberry crown borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae).

    PubMed

    McKern, Jacquelyn A; Johnson, Donn T; Lewis, Barbara A

    2007-04-01

    This study explored the biology of raspberry crown borer, Pennisetia marginata (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), in Arkansas and the optimum timing for insecticide and nematode applications. The duration of P. marginata's life cycle was observed to be 1 yr in Arkansas. Insecticide trials revealed that bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid, metaflumizone, and metofluthrin efficacy were comparable with that of azinphosmethyl, the only labeled insecticide for P. marginata in brambles until 2005. Applications on 23 October 2003 for plots treated with bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and azinphosmethyl resulted in >88% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 3 November 2004 of metaflumizone, metofluthrin, and bifenthrin resulted in >89% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 7 April 2005 for metofluthrin, imidacloprid, bifenthrin, metaflumizone, and benzoylphenyl urea resulted in >64% reduction in the number of larvae per crown. Applications on 6 May 2004 did not reduce larval numbers. The optimum timing for treatments was found to be between October and early April, before the larvae tunneled into the crowns of plants. Applying bifenthrin with as little as 468 liters water/ha (50 gal/acre) was found to be as effective against larvae as higher volumes of spray. Nematode applications were less successful than insecticides. Nematode applications of Steinernemafeltiae, Steinernema carpocapsae, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora reduced larvae counts per plant by 46, 53, and 33%, respectively. PMID:17461064

  12. Evolution of extreme proboscis lengths in Neotropical Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Bauder, J. A.-S.; Warren, A. D.; Krenn, H. W.

    2015-01-01

    Exaggerated morphologies have evolved in insects as adaptations to nectar feeding by natural selection. For example, the suctorial mouthparts of butterflies enable these insects to gain access to floral nectar concealed inside deep floral tubes. Proboscis length in Lepidoptera is known to scale with body size, but whether extreme absolute proboscis lengths of nectar feeding butterflies result from a proportional or disproportional increase with body size that differs between phylogenetic lineages remains unknown. We surveyed the range of variation that occurs in scaling relationships between proboscis length and body size against a phylogenetic background among Costa Rican Hesperiidae. We obtained a new record holder for the longest proboscis in butterflies and showed that extremely long proboscides evolved at least three times independently within Neotropical Hesperiidae. We conclude that the evolution of extremely long proboscides results from allometric scaling with body size, as demonstrated in hawk moths. We hypothesize that constraints on the evolution of increasingly long butterfly proboscides may come from (1) the underlying scaling relationships, i.e., relative proboscis length, combined with the butterfly’s flight style and flower-visiting behaviour and/or (2) developmental constraints during the pupal phase. Lastly, we discuss why butterflies did not evolve similar scaling relationships as hawk moths. PMID:25937673

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of Eurema hecabe (Lepidoptera: Pieridae: Coliadinae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoyan; Shao, Lili; Peng, Chaomin; Hao, Jiasheng; Yang, Qun

    2015-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Linnaeus Eurema hecabe (Lepidoptera: Pieridae: Coliadinae) is determined to be 15,160 bp in length, including 37 typical mitochondrial genes and an AT-rich region. Its gene order and orientation are identical to those of other butterfly species. All PCGs are initiated by typical ATN codons, except for CO1 gene which is started by CAG codon. Nine genes use complete termination codon (TAA), whereas the CO1, CO2, ND4 and ND5 genes end with single T. The two rRNA genes (rrnL and rrnS) are 1322 and 832 bp respectively; except for trnS1(AGN), all tRNA genes display typical secondary cloverleaf structures as those of other insects. The 315 bp long AT-rich region contains several features common to the other lepidopterans, such as the ATAGA motif followed by a 19 bp poly-T stretch, two microsatellite-like (TAA)5 and (AT)6 elements, a 9 bp poly-A stretch immediately upstream of trnM gene. PMID:24409905

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of Danaus chrysippus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Danainae).

    PubMed

    Gan, Shan-Shan; Sun, Xiao-Yan; Gai, Yong-Hua; Hao, Jia-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Danaus chrysippus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Danainae) was determined. The 15,236 bp long genome encodes 13 putative proteins, two ribosomal RNAs, 22 tRNAs and a non-coding AT-rich region. Its gene arrangement pattern is identical to most of other lepidopteran species. All protein-coding genes start with a typical ATN codon with the exception of COI gene which uses CGA as its initial codon; all PCGs terminate in the common stop TAA or TAG, except COI, COII, ND5 and ND4 which use single T as their stop codons. A total of 102 bp intergenic spacers and a total of 33 bp overlapping sequences are interspersed throughout the whole genome. The mitogenome harbors 22 txRNAs as those of most insect species and all tRNA genes evidence the typical clover leaf secondary structures with the exception of tRNAser (AGN) who loses its dihydrouridine (DHU) arm. The lrRNA and srRNA genes are 1339 and 783 bp, with the AT contents of 84.1 and 84.8%, respectively. The non-coding AT-rich region is 418 bp long, and contains the motif ATAGA followed by a 21-bp poly-T stretch and a microsatellite-like (AT)9 element preceded by the ATTTA motif. PMID:24409860

  15. Semiautomated Identification of European Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Przybyłowicz, Łukasz; Pniak, Michał; Tofilski, Adam

    2016-02-01

    The European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner, 1796) is a serious and widely studied pest of corn. The most common method of its control is by means of insecticides. However, biological control is becoming more and more popular. The hymenopteran parasitoid Trichogramma sp. is the most promising and effective one among the biological agents and is now widely used in North America and Europe. Its application should occur at the time when the European corn borer is at the beginning of the eggs laying period. However, the discrimination between the European corn borer and some other species occurring in agricultural landscapes at the same time can be difficult, especially for farmers which are neither familiar with the morphological nor molecular methods of identification. The scope of this study is to test the ability of the automatic computer equipment to determine the European corn borer and to separate it from the most common Lepidoptera pests found in corn plantations. The experiment showed that the 97.0% of the 247 specimens belonging to four common pestlepidopterans were correctly classified by the use of a personal computer, desktop scanner, and the special software. The obtained results showed that this technique based on wing measurements can be an effective tool for monitoring of the European corn borer. In the future, this method can be used by farmers to identify this pest and apply control measures at optimal time. PMID:26487742

  16. [Origin of Lepidoptera fauna of the Southern Transural region].

    PubMed

    Utkin, N A

    2000-01-01

    The butterfly fauna of the Southern Transural region began mainly through the migration of insects from the Urals and Kazakhstan, since the end of the Cretaceous Period to the end of Paleogen, the Transural region was covered by an epiplatform sea. As this sea was retreating, the first regions of dry land appeared, which had boundaries with Kazakhstan and the Urals. They were the first to be populated by Lepidoptera. During the Pleocene and then after the Pleistocene cooling events, insects settled generally along the valley of the Tobol River and the Turgai depression, because these territories belong to intrazonal elements. At the present time, the greatest species diversity among insects in the southern Transural area is observed specifically in the Turgai depression and in areas directly adjacent to it. This territory is mainly occupied by populations unique to the Transural regions and belonging to the following species: Mantis religiosa (praying mantis), Saga pedo, Parnassius apollo (apollo), Neolycaena rhymnus, Hyponephele lupina (oriental meadow brown), Chazara persephone (dark rockbrown), Epicallia villica (cream-spot tiger), etc. PMID:11042964

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of Callerebia suroia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae).

    PubMed

    Shi, Qinghui; Zhang, Wei; Hao, Jiasheng

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Callerebia suroia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) was determined and analyzed in this paper. The circular genome is 15,208 bp long, including 37 typical mitochondrial genes and one non-coding AT-rich region. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) started with ATN, except for COI gene with CGA(R), which is often found in other butterflies; nine PCGs harbor the typical stop codon TAA, whereas COI, COII, ND5 and ND4 end with a single T. All tRNA genes display typical secondary clover-leaf structures, except for tRNA(Ser)(AGN), whose dihydrouridine (DHU) arm is replaced by a simple loop. The lrRNA and srRNA genes are 1,347 bp and 753 bp in length, with their AT contents of 84.4% and 85.4%, respectively. The 417 bp AT-rich region contains non repetitive sequences, but harbor several features common to the lepidopterans, including the motif ATAGA followed by a 19-bp poly-T stretch and a microsatellite-like (TA)8 element preceded by the ATTTA motif. PMID:25162732

  18. Insecticide susceptibility of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xuesong; Ren, Xiubei; Su, Jianya

    2011-04-01

    Insecticide control is the major measure for suppression of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) damage, and a few insecticides used for long time have proved to fail to control this pest in China. Several new chemicals have been introduced for control of C. medinalis. However, there was no baseline susceptibility data of C. medinalis to insecticides used or will be in use. In this study, a seedling dipping method was developed for bioassay of insecticide susceptibility of C. medinalis. Dose responses of C. medinalis to 11 insecticides were tested. Interpopulation sensitivity to insecticides was compared. Based on LC50 values, C. medinalis was most susceptible to antibiotic insecticides (abamectin, emamectin benzoate, and spinosad) and least sensitive to monosultap and a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) product. Chlorantraniliprole and insect growth regulator (IGR) insecticides (tebufenozide and hexaflumuron) exhibited great efficacy against C. medinalis. No susceptibility difference was observed for antibiotic insecticide and IGR insecticides among three populations. Narrow variation in tolerant level was detected for organophosphates insecticides, chlorantraniliprole, monosultap, and Bt. The results in this study provided baseline susceptibility data of C. medinalis to 11 insecticides and also offered useful information for choice of alternative insecticide and for integrated resistance management of C. medinalis. PMID:21510218

  19. Influence of killing method on Lepidoptera DNA barcode recovery.

    PubMed

    Willows-Munro, Sandi; Schoeman, M Corrie

    2015-05-01

    The global DNA barcoding initiative has revolutionized the field of biodiversity research. Such large-scale sequencing projects require the collection of large numbers of specimens, which need to be killed and preserved in a way that is both DNA-friendly and which will keep voucher specimens in good condition for later study. Factors such as time since collection, correct storage (exposure to free water and heat) and DNA extraction protocol are known to play a role in the success of downstream molecular applications. Limited data are available on the most efficient, DNA-friendly protocol for killing. In this study, we evaluate the quality of DNA barcode (cytochrome oxidase I) sequences amplified from DNA extracted from specimens collected using three different killing methods (ethyl acetate, cyanide and freezing). Previous studies have suggested that chemicals, such as ethyl acetate and formaldehyde, degraded DNA and as such may not be appropriate for the collection of insects for DNA-based research. All Lepidoptera collected produced DNA barcodes of good quality, and our study found no clear difference in nucleotide signal strength, probability of incorrect base calling and phylogenetic utility among the three different treatment groups. Our findings suggest that ethyl acetate, cyanide and freezing can all be used to collect specimens for DNA analysis. PMID:25229871

  20. Chemical ecology and management of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Ioriatti, C; Anfora, G; Tasin, M; De Cristofaro, A; Witzgall, P; Lucchi, A

    2011-08-01

    The moth Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) feeds on grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), reducing yield and increasing susceptibility to fungal infections. L. botrana is among the most economically important insects in Europe and has recently been found in vineyards in Chile, Argentina, and California. Here, we review L. botrana biology and behavior in relation to its larval host (the grapevine) and its natural enemies. We also discuss current and future control strategies in light of our knowledge of chemical ecology, with an emphasis on the use of the sex pheromone-based strategies as an environmentally safe management approach. Pheromone-mediated mating disruption is the most promising technique available on grapes and is currently implemented on approximately 140,000 ha in Europe. Experience from several growing areas confirms the importance of collaboration between research, extension, growers, and pheromone-supply companies for the successful implementation of the mating disruption technique. In the vineyards where mating disruption has been successfully applied as an areawide strategy, the reduction in insecticide use has improved the quality of life for growers, consumers, as well as the public living near wine-growing areas and has thereby reduced the conflict between agricultural and urban communities. PMID:21882674

  1. Ionizing irradiation of adults of Angoumois grain moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and Indianmeal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to prevent reproduction, and implications for a generic irradiation treatment for insects.

    PubMed

    Hallman, Guy J; Phillips, Thomas W

    2008-08-01

    Ionizing irradiation is used as a phytosanitary treatment against quarantine pests. A generic treatment of 400 Gy has been approved for commodities entering the United States against all insects except pupae and adults of Lepidoptera because some literature citations indicate that a few insects, namely, the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), are not completely controlled at that dose. Radiotolerance in insects increases as the insects develop, so the minimum absorbed dose to prevent F1 egg hatch for these two species when irradiated as adults was examined. Also, because hypoxia is known to increase radiotolerance in insects, Angoumois grain moth radiotolerance was tested in a hypoxic atmosphere. A dose range of 336-388 Gy prevented F1 egg hatch from a total of 22,083 adult Indianmeal moths. Dose ranges of 443-505 and 590-674 Gy, respectively, prevented F1 egg hatch from a total of 15,264 and 13,677 adult Angoumois grain moths irradiated in ambient and hypoxic atmospheres. A generic dose of 600 Gy for all insects in ambient atmospheres might be efficacious, although many fresh commodities may not tolerate it when applied on a commercial scale. PMID:18767708

  2. Species Richness and Host Associations of Lepidoptera-Attacking Tachinidae in the Northeast Ecuadorian Andes

    PubMed Central

    Stireman, John O.; Greeney, Harold F.; Dyer, Lee A.

    2009-01-01

    Most of the unknown biological diversity of macro-organisms remaining to be discovered and described lies in the tropical regions of the world and consists primarily of insects. Those insects with parasitoid lifestyles constitute a significant portion of insect diversity, yet parasitoids are among the most poorly known of major insect guilds in the humid tropics. Here we describe and analyze the richness of one diverse taxon of parasitoids, flies in the family Tachinidae, reared from Lepidoptera as part of a biological survey of Lepidoptera and their parasitoids in one mid-elevation (2000 m) area in the northeast Ecuadorian Andes. One hundred fifty-seven separable tachinid “morpho-species” were reared from approximately 160 species of Lepidoptera in 16 families. These tachinid flies were recovered from a sample of over 12,800 successful caterpillar rearing events that resulted in either adult Lepidoptera or parasitoids. Tachinid species accumulation and rarefaction curves exhibit no sign of reaching an asymptote and richness estimators indicate that the community likely consists of nearly twice this number of species (at minimum). Most tachinid species were reared infrequently, with 50% being represented by a single individual. The majority of species appeared to be relatively specialized on one or a few related hosts, but sampling was insufficient to make strong inferences regarding host range. The tribes Blondeliini and Goniini were the best represented, but some tribes that were expected to be common such as Tachinini and Winthemiini were poorly represented. The estimates of tachinid species richness derived here are suggestive of a far more diverse tachinid community than in temperate localities in North America. Additional rearing of Lepidoptera, as well as other herbivorous insect taxa, along with the use of additional collecting methods will be necessary to achieve a more accurate understanding of the richness of tropical Tachinidae and their

  3. Species richness and host associations of lepidoptera-attacking Tachinidae in the northeast Ecuadorian Andes.

    PubMed

    Stireman, John O; Greeney, Harold F; Dyer, Lee A

    2009-01-01

    Most of the unknown biological diversity of macro-organisms remaining to be discovered and described lies in the tropical regions of the world and consists primarily of insects. Those insects with parasitoid lifestyles constitute a significant portion of insect diversity, yet parasitoids are among the most poorly known of major insect guilds in the humid tropics. Here we describe and analyze the richness of one diverse taxon of parasitoids, flies in the family Tachinidae, reared from Lepidoptera as part of a biological survey of Lepidoptera and their parasitoids in one mid-elevation (2000 m) area in the northeast Ecuadorian Andes. One hundred fifty-seven separable tachinid "morpho-species" were reared from approximately 160 species of Lepidoptera in 16 families. These tachinid flies were recovered from a sample of over 12,800 successful caterpillar rearing events that resulted in either adult Lepidoptera or parasitoids. Tachinid species accumulation and rarefaction curves exhibit no sign of reaching an asymptote and richness estimators indicate that the community likely consists of nearly twice this number of species (at minimum). Most tachinid species were reared infrequently, with 50% being represented by a single individual. The majority of species appeared to be relatively specialized on one or a few related hosts, but sampling was insufficient to make strong inferences regarding host range. The tribes Blondeliini and Goniini were the best represented, but some tribes that were expected to be common such as Tachinini and Winthemiini were poorly represented. The estimates of tachinid species richness derived here are suggestive of a far more diverse tachinid community than in temperate localities in North America. Additional rearing of Lepidoptera, as well as other herbivorous insect taxa, along with the use of additional collecting methods will be necessary to achieve a more accurate understanding of the richness of tropical Tachinidae and their contribution to

  4. Pheromone Lure and Trap Color Affects Bycatch in Agricultural Landscapes of Utah.

    PubMed

    Spears, Lori R; Looney, Chris; Ikerd, Harold; Koch, Jonathan B; Griswold, Terry; Strange, James P; Ramirez, Ricardo A

    2016-08-01

    Aerial traps, using combinations of color and attractive lures, are a critical tool for detecting and managing insect pest populations. Yet, despite improvements in trap efficacy, collection of nontarget species ("bycatch") plagues many insect pest surveys. Bycatch can influence survey effectiveness by reducing the available space for target species and increasing trap screening time, especially in areas where thousands of insects are captured as bycatch in a given season. Additionally, bycatch may negatively impact local nontarget insect populations, including beneficial predators and pollinators. Here, we tested the effect of pheromone lures on bycatch rates of Coccinellidae (Coleoptera), Apoidea (Hymenoptera), and nontarget Lepidoptera. Multicolored (primarily yellow and white) bucket traps containing a pheromone lure for capturing one of three survey target species, Spodoptera litura (F.), S. littoralis (Boisduval), or Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), were placed in alfalfa and corn fields, and compared to multicolored traps without a pheromone lure. All-green traps with and without H. armigera lures were employed in a parallel study investigating the effect of lure and trap color on bycatch. Over 2,600 Coccinellidae representing seven species, nearly 6,400 bees in 57 species, and >9,000 nontarget moths in 17 genera were captured across 180 traps and seven temporal sampling events. Significant effects of lure and color were observed for multiple taxa. In general, nontarget insects were attracted to the H. armigera lure and multicolored trap, but further studies of trap color and pheromone lure specificity are needed to better understand these interactions and to minimize nontarget captures. PMID:27412193

  5. Hymenopteran parasitoids of diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Ypeunomutidae) in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rowell, Brent; Bunsong, Nittayaporn; Satthaporn, Kosin; Phithamma, Sompian; Doungsa-Ard, Charnnarong

    2005-04-01

    Larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Ypeunomutidae), cause severe economic damage to cabbage, Brassica oleracea L. variety capitata (Brassicaceae) and related vegetables in Thailand. Overuse of broad-spectrum insecticides for diamondback moth control is a serious problem and has obscured the contributions of indigenous parasitoids. Our objectives were to identify indigenous diamondback moth parasitoids in northern Thailand and to assess their potential for natural control. Six parasitoid species were reared from diamondback moth larvae and pupae collected in 1990 and in 2003-2004. These included the larval parasitoid Cotesia plutellae Kurdjumov (Braconidae), a larval-pupal parasitoid Macromalon orientale Kerrich (Ichneumonidae), and pupal parasitoids Diadromus collaris Gravenhorst (Ichneumonidae) and Brachymeria excarinata Gahan (Chalcididae). Single specimens of Isotima sp. Forster (Ichneumonidae) and Brachymeria lasus Walker (Chalcididae) also were reared from diamondback moth hosts. C. plutellae was the dominant larval parasitoid and was often reared from host larvae collected from fields sprayed regularly with insecticides; parasitism ranged from 14 to 78%. Average parasitism by M. orientale was only 0.5-6%. Parasitism of host pupae by D. collaris ranged from 9 to 31%, whereas B. excarinata pupal parasitism ranged from 9 to 25%. An integrated pest management (IPM) protocol using simple presence-absence sampling for lepidopterous larvae and the exclusive use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) or neem resulted in the highest yields of undamaged cabbage compared with a control or weekly sprays of cypermethrin (local farmer practice). IPM programs focused on conservation of local diamondback moth parasitoids and on greater implementation of biological control will help alleviate growing public concerns regarding the effects of pesticides on vegetable growers and consumers. PMID:15889737

  6. A new pheromone race of Acrobasis nuxvorella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Harris, Marvin K; Fu, A A Agustin; Nunez, Humberto; Aranda-Herrera, Enrique; Moreira, Jardel A; McElfresh, J Steven; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2008-06-01

    The sex pheromone of the monophagous Acrobasis nuxvorella Neunzig (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was reported as (9E,11Z)-hexadecadienal (9E,11Z-16:Ald) (Biorg. Med. Chem. 4: 331-339, 1996), and it has since been an effective integrated pest management (IPM) tool for monitoring this pest in the United States, but not in Mexico. Field and laboratory studies were conducted to confirm that the species in Mexico was indeed A. nuxvorella and to investigate the pheromone chemistry of the Mexican populations of this species. Initial field trials testing compounds structurally related to the known pheromone component, and blends thereof, indicated that a 100 microg:100 microg blend of (9E,11Z)-hexadecadien-1-yl acetate (9E,11Z-16:Ac):9E,11Z-16:Ald in rubber septa was effective in attracting male moths in Mexico. Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram analyses confirmed the presence of these compounds in extracts of pheromone glands of females, and antennae of male moths also responded to the alcohol analog (9E,11Z)-hexadecadien-1-ol (9E,11Z-16:OH). Subsequent field trials of various blends of these three compounds in Mexico showed that 1) both the acetate and aldehyde components were required for optimal attraction of male moths of the Mexican populations, and 2) addition of the alcohol suppressed attraction of males in a dose-dependent manner. Tests with the 1:1 9E,11Z-16:Ac:9E,11Z-16:Ald blend at various sites in the United States showed that this blend attracted some moths, but that moths attracted to 9E,11Z-16:Ald alone were predominant in the population. Furthermore, in preliminary studies the latter seemed not to respond to the blend. These findings indicate that there are two pheromone types of the pecan nut casebearer, and they have major implications for the direct use of these pheromones in pecan IPM. PMID:18613577

  7. Eye-spots in Lepidoptera attract attention in humans

    PubMed Central

    Yorzinski, Jessica L.; Platt, Michael L.; Adams, Geoffrey K.

    2015-01-01

    Many prey species exhibit defensive traits to decrease their chances of predation. Conspicuous eye-spots, concentric rings of contrasting colours, are one type of defensive trait that some species exhibit to deter predators. We examined the function of eye-spots in Lepidoptera to determine whether they are effective at deterring predators because they resemble eyes (‘eye mimicry hypothesis’) or are highly salient (‘conspicuous signal hypothesis’). We recorded the gaze behaviour of men and women as they viewed natural images of butterflies and moths as well as images in which the eye-spots of these insects were modified. The eye-spots were modified by removing them, scrambling their colours, or replacing them with elliptical or triangular shapes that had either dark or light centres. Participants were generally more likely to look at, spend more time looking at and be faster to first fixate the eye-spots of butterflies and moths that were natural compared with ones that were modified, including the elliptical eye-spots with dark centres that most resembled eyes as well as the scrambled eye-spots that had the same contrast as the natural eye-spots. Participants were most likely to look at eye-spots that were numerous, had a large surface area and were located close to the insects' heads. Participants' pupils were larger when viewing eye-spots compared with the rest of the insects' body, suggesting a greater arousal when viewing eye-spots. Our results provide some support for the conspicuous signal hypothesis (and minimal support for the eye mimicry hypothesis) and suggest that eye-spots may be effective at deterring predators because they are highly conspicuous signals that draw attention. PMID:26543589

  8. Review of the Blastobasinae of Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Blastobasidae).

    PubMed

    Adamski, David

    2013-01-01

    The Blastobasinae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Blastobasidae) of Costa Rica are reviewed. Five new genera, Barbaloba, Hallicis, Koleps, Pheos, and Pseudokoleps, and 101 new species are described. They include: Barbaloba jubae, B. meleagrisellae, Hallicis bisetosellus, H. calvicula, Koleps angulatus, Pheos aculeatus, Pseudokoleps akainae, Blastobasis abollae, B. achaea, B. aedes, B. babae, B. balucis, B. beo, B. caetrae, B. chanes, B. custodis, B. dapis, B. deae, B. deliciolarum, B. dicionis, B. echus, B. erae, B. fax, B. furtivus, B. iuanae, B. lex, B. litis, B. lygdi, B. manto, B. neniae, B. nivis, B. orithyia, B. paludis, B. phaedra, B. rotae, B. rotullae, B. tapetae, B. thyone, B. usurae, B. vesta, B. xiphiae, Hypatopa actes, H. acus, H. agnae, H. arxcis, H. bilobata, H. caedis, H. caepae, H. cladis, H. cotis, H. cotytto, H. crux, H. cyane, H. dicax, H. dolo, H. dux, H. edax, H. eos, H. erato, H. fio, H. gena, H. hecate, H. hera, H. hora, H. io, H. ira, H. leda, H. limae, H. lucina, H. joniella, H. juno, H. manus, H. mora, H. musa, H. nex, H. nox, H. phoebe, H. pica, H. plebis, H. rabio, H. rea, H. rego, H. rudis, H. sais, H. scobis, H. semela, H. solea, H. styga, H. texla, H. texo, H. umbra, H. verax, H. vitis, H. vox, Pigritia dido, P. faux, P. gruis, P. haha, P. sedis, P. stips, and P. ululae. Diagnoses, descriptions, and type data are provided for each species. Photographs of imagos, illustrations of wing venation for selected species, male and female genitalia, and distribution maps are furnished. Keys to all genera in Blastobasinae and keys to all species within each genus are provided to assist with identifications. In addition, scanning electron micrographs of the inner surface of the dilated first antennal flagellomere and associated sex scales for all Blastobasis are provided. Blastobasis coffeaella (Busck, 1925), B. graminea Adamski, 1999, Hypatopa tapadulcea Adamski, 1999, and Pigritia marjoriella Adamski, 1998 are redescribed. PMID:25136727

  9. Pathology and Epizootiology of Entomophaga maimaiga Infections in Forest Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, Ann E.

    1999-01-01

    The insect-pathogenic fungal pathogen Entomophaga maimaiga is endemic to northeastern Asia and was first found in North America in 1989. Due to repeated epizootics and spread within populations of the major forest defoliator in northeastern North America, the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar), this pathogen has gained much notoriety. Although this pathogen was purposely introduced to North America for biological control of L. dispar in 1910 to 1911, it is questionable whether it became established at the time of release and then remained at innocuous levels until relatively recently. Alternatively, the fungal strain present in North America today could be a more recent accidental introduction. DNA analysis demonstrates that this pathogen differs significantly from North American members of the same species complex (the Lepidoptera-specific Entomophaga aulicae species complex), and, to date, isolates of this introduced pathogen display little heterogeneity in North America. Nonsusceptible lepidopteran larvae have been identified, and either E. maimaiga is unable to penetrate the cuticle or the fungus cannot survive within the hemocoel. In the latter case, although E. maimaiga grows as protoplasts lacking cell walls in the host hemolymph, glycoproteins on plasma membranes of the protoplasts could lead to host recognition. Epizootiological studies demonstrate a clear association between fungal activity and environmental moisture but little association with host density under hypothesized conditions of high fungal density. Prediction of the occurrence of epizootics is not yet possible. E. maimaiga is easily established in new areas by releasing azygospores, but the ability to use this pathogen further for biological control will depend, in large part, on the development of mass production systems. PMID:10585966

  10. Evaluating trap crops for diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Badenes-Perez, Francisco R; Shelton, Anthony M; Nault, Brian A

    2004-08-01

    Potential trap crops for the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), were evaluated through a series of ovipositional preference and larval survival experiments in outdoor screenhouses in 2002 and 2003. Hosts examined as trap crops were glossy and waxy collards, Brassica oleracea L. variety acephala; Indian mustard, Brassica juncea (L.) Czern; and yellow rocket, Barbarea vulgaris (R. Br.) variety arcuata. More eggs were laid on the potential trap crops, with the exception of waxy collards, than on cabbage. When P. xylostella was offered multiple hosts at the same time, numbers of eggs laid on glossy collards, Indian mustard, and yellow rocket were 3, 18, and 12 times greater than on cabbage, respectively. Similarly, when P. xylostella was offered a single trap crop host and cabbage, numbers of eggs laid on glossy collards, Indian mustard, and yellow rocket were 300, 19, and 110 times greater than on cabbage, respectively. Our studies suggest differences in oviposition between the potential trap crops and cabbage were likely due to host volatiles, leaf morphology and color, or a combination of these factors, rather than to total leaf areas, leaf shape, or plant architecture. Two-choice tests with a Y-tube olfactometer indicated that plant volatiles were major factors in P. xylostella host preference. The percentage larval survival from egg to pupation was 22.2% on cabbage, 18.9% on waxy collards, and 24.4% on Indian mustard, whereas survival was significantly lower on glossy collards (6.7%) and yellow rocket (0%). Based on our tests, it seems that yellow rocket may be the best candidate for use as a trap crop for P. xylostella because it is highly attractive for oviposition, but larvae do not survive on it. PMID:15384349

  11. Sex Pheromone of the Baldcypress Leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Brian T; Allison, Jeremy D; Goyer, Richard A; Shepherd, William P

    2015-02-01

    The baldcypress leafroller, Archips goyerana Kruse (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a specialist on Taxodium distichum (L.) Richard and has caused serious defoliation in swamps of southeastern Louisiana, accelerating decline of baldcypress forests concurrently suffering from nutrient depletion, prolonged flooding, and saltwater intrusion. We investigated the composition of the sex pheromone of this species. Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses indicated that male antennae were sensitive to four compounds [(Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (Z11-14:OAc), (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (E11-14:OAc), (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:OAc), and (Z)-11-tetradecen-1-ol (Z11-14:OH)] present in female abdominal tip extracts in an approximately 100:1.5:0.6:10 ratio. In trapping trials performed in a cypress-tupelo swamp in southeastern Louisiana, moths were attracted to blends of these four components presented in approximately the female-produced ratios. Elimination of Z11-14:OH had no impact on moth response, whereas elimination of any of the three acetates strongly reduced or eliminated attraction. A blend in which the E11:Z11 ratio of 14:OAc was 5:100 was much less attractive than the same blend with the female produced ratio of 1.5:100. A. goyerana is closely related to the sympatric species Archips argyrospilus (Walker) with which it was previously synonymous. Our data revealed differences between the pheromone composition of A. goyerana and that reported for A. argyrospilus, which could account for the apparent absence of cross-attraction between these species. We conclude that a lure containing a 100:1.5:0.6 ratio of Z11-14:OAc, E11-14:OAc, and Z9-14:OAc has the potential to be used in traps to detect and measure A. goyerana populations and thereby monitor an important biotic factor contributing to the loss of coastal baldcypress forests. PMID:26470117

  12. Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Responses to Sorghum bicolor (Poales: Poaceae) Tissues From Lowered Lignin Lines.

    PubMed

    Dowd, Patrick F; Sattler, Scott E

    2015-01-01

    The presence of lignin within biomass impedes the production of liquid fuels. Plants with altered lignin content and composition are more amenable to lignocellulosic conversion to ethanol and other biofuels but may be more susceptible to insect damage where lignin is an important resistance factor. However, reduced lignin lines of switchgrasses still retained insect resistance in prior studies. Therefore, we hypothesized that sorghum lines with lowered lignin content will also retain insect resistance. Sorghum excised leaves and stalk pith Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poales: Poaceae) from near isogenic brown midrib (bmr) 6 and 12 mutants lines, which have lowered lignin content and increased lignocellulosic ethanol conversion efficiency, were examined for insect resistance relative to wild-type (normal BTx623). Greenhouse and growth chamber grown plant tissues were fed to first-instar larvae of corn earworms, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and fall armyworms Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), two sorghum major pests. Younger bmr leaves had significantly greater feeding damage in some assays than wild-type leaves, but older bmr6 leaves generally had significantly less damage than wild-type leaves. Caterpillars feeding on the bmr6 leaves often weighed significantly less than those feeding on wild-type leaves, especially in the S. frugiperda assays. Larvae fed the pith from bmr stalks had significantly higher mortality compared with those larvae fed on wild-type pith, which suggested that bmr pith was more toxic. Thus, reducing lignin content or changing subunit composition of bioenergy grasses does not necessarily increase their susceptibility to insects and may result in increased resistance, which would contribute to sustainable production. PMID:25601946

  13. Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Responses to Sorghum bicolor (Poales: Poaceae) Tissues From Lowered Lignin Lines

    PubMed Central

    Dowd, Patrick F.; Sattler, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of lignin within biomass impedes the production of liquid fuels. Plants with altered lignin content and composition are more amenable to lignocellulosic conversion to ethanol and other biofuels but may be more susceptible to insect damage where lignin is an important resistance factor. However, reduced lignin lines of switchgrasses still retained insect resistance in prior studies. Therefore, we hypothesized that sorghum lines with lowered lignin content will also retain insect resistance. Sorghum excised leaves and stalk pith Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poales: Poaceae) from near isogenic brown midrib (bmr) 6 and 12 mutants lines, which have lowered lignin content and increased lignocellulosic ethanol conversion efficiency, were examined for insect resistance relative to wild-type (normal BTx623). Greenhouse and growth chamber grown plant tissues were fed to first-instar larvae of corn earworms, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and fall armyworms Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), two sorghum major pests. Younger bmr leaves had significantly greater feeding damage in some assays than wild-type leaves, but older bmr6 leaves generally had significantly less damage than wild-type leaves. Caterpillars feeding on the bmr6 leaves often weighed significantly less than those feeding on wild-type leaves, especially in the S. frugiperda assays. Larvae fed the pith from bmr stalks had significantly higher mortality compared with those larvae fed on wild-type pith, which suggested that bmr pith was more toxic. Thus, reducing lignin content or changing subunit composition of bioenergy grasses does not necessarily increase their susceptibility to insects and may result in increased resistance, which would contribute to sustainable production. PMID:25601946

  14. The Glanville fritillary genome retains an ancient karyotype and reveals selective chromosomal fusions in Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Ahola, Virpi; Lehtonen, Rainer; Somervuo, Panu; Salmela, Leena; Koskinen, Patrik; Rastas, Pasi; Välimäki, Niko; Paulin, Lars; Kvist, Jouni; Wahlberg, Niklas; Tanskanen, Jaakko; Hornett, Emily A.; Ferguson, Laura C.; Luo, Shiqi; Cao, Zijuan; de Jong, Maaike A.; Duplouy, Anne; Smolander, Olli-Pekka; Vogel, Heiko; McCoy, Rajiv C.; Qian, Kui; Chong, Wong Swee; Zhang, Qin; Ahmad, Freed; Haukka, Jani K.; Joshi, Aruj; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Wheat, Christopher W.; Grosse-Wilde, Ewald; Hughes, Daniel; Katainen, Riku; Pitkänen, Esa; Ylinen, Johannes; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Turunen, Mikko; Vähärautio, Anna; Ojanen, Sami P.; Schulman, Alan H.; Taipale, Minna; Lawson, Daniel; Ukkonen, Esko; Mäkinen, Veli; Goldsmith, Marian R.; Holm, Liisa; Auvinen, Petri; Frilander, Mikko J.; Hanski, Ilkka

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that chromosome synteny in Lepidoptera has been well conserved, yet the number of haploid chromosomes varies widely from 5 to 223. Here we report the genome (393 Mb) of the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia; Nymphalidae), a widely recognized model species in metapopulation biology and eco-evolutionary research, which has the putative ancestral karyotype of n=31. Using a phylogenetic analyses of Nymphalidae and of other Lepidoptera, combined with orthologue-level comparisons of chromosomes, we conclude that the ancestral lepidopteran karyotype has been n=31 for at least 140 My. We show that fusion chromosomes have retained the ancestral chromosome segments and very few rearrangements have occurred across the fusion sites. The same, shortest ancestral chromosomes have independently participated in fusion events in species with smaller karyotypes. The short chromosomes have higher rearrangement rate than long ones. These characteristics highlight distinctive features of the evolutionary dynamics of butterflies and moths. PMID:25189940

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome of the common cutworm Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Feng-Bo; Zhang, Hui-Xian; Shen, Wei-Feng; Xu, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Wei; Chen, Jin-E; He, Li-Hua; Meng, Zhi-Qi

    2015-01-01

    We determined the complete mitochondrial genome of the common cutworm Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), which is one of the most destructive polyphagous insect pests worldwide. The genome is 15,383 bp in length (GenBank accession number: KF701043) with an A+T content of 81.08%, and contains 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes (13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes and 22 tRNA genes) with the typical arrangement found in Lepidoptera. All the protein-coding genes (PCGs) start with ATN start codon except for cox1, which begins with CGA. Eight PCGs stop with complete termination codons (TAA or TAG), whereas five PCGs use incomplete stop codon T. The A+T-rich region is located between rrnS and trnM with a length of 326 bp and an A+T content of 93.87%, and harbors three tandem repeat elements. PMID:24409845

  16. The complete mitochondrial genomes of two ghost moths, Thitarodes renzhiensis and Thitarodes yunnanensis: the ancestral gene arrangement in Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lepidoptera encompasses more than 160,000 described species that have been classified into 45–48 superfamilies. The previously determined Lepidoptera mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) are limited to six superfamilies of the lineage Ditrysia. Compared with the ancestral insect gene order, these mitogenomes all contain a tRNA rearrangement. To gain new insights into Lepidoptera mitogenome evolution, we sequenced the mitogenomes of two ghost moths that belong to the non-ditrysian lineage Hepialoidea and conducted a comparative mitogenomic analysis across Lepidoptera. Results The mitogenomes of Thitarodes renzhiensis and T. yunnanensis are 16,173 bp and 15,816 bp long with an A + T content of 81.28 % and 82.34 %, respectively. Both mitogenomes include 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and the A + T-rich region. Different tandem repeats in the A + T-rich region mainly account for the size difference between the two mitogenomes. All the protein-coding genes start with typical mitochondrial initiation codons, except for cox1 (CGA) and nad1 (TTG) in both mitogenomes. The anticodon of trnS(AGN) in T. renzhiensis and T. yunnanensis is UCU instead of the mostly used GCU in other sequenced Lepidoptera mitogenomes. The 1,584-bp sequence from rrnS to nad2 was also determined for an unspecified ghost moth (Thitarodes sp.), which has no repetitive sequence in the A + T-rich region. All three Thitarodes species possess the ancestral gene order with trnI-trnQ-trnM located between the A + T-rich region and nad2, which is different from the gene order trnM-trnI-trnQ in all previously sequenced Lepidoptera species. The formerly identified conserved elements of Lepidoptera mitogenomes (i.e. the motif ‘ATAGA’ and poly-T stretch in the A + T-rich region and the long intergenic spacer upstream of nad2) are absent in the Thitarodes mitogenomes. Conclusion The mitogenomes of T. renzhiensis and T

  17. The "Taygetis ypthima species group" (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae): taxonomy, variation and description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Siewert, Ricardo Russo; Zacca, Thamara; Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Freitas, André Victor Lucci; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik; Casagrande, Mirna Martins

    2013-01-01

    A new species of Taygetis Hübner, [1819] (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae) from southeastern Brazil is described: Taygetis drogoni sp. n. In addition, T. servius Weymer, 1910 and T. fulginia d'Almeida, 1922 are resurrected from synonymy and a taxonomic discussion on the species T. ypthima Hübner, [1821] and T. rectifascia Weymer, 1907 is provided. A dichotomous key for the species is also provided. PMID:24363572

  18. Two new and one newly recorded species of Gracillariidae from China (Lepidoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Haiyan; Xu, Jiasheng; Dai, Xiaohua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The paper presents four Chinese species belonging to the genera Metriochroa Busck, Eumetriochroa Kumata, and Gibbovalva Kumata & Kuroko (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae), including two new species: Metriochroa alboannulata Bai, sp. n. and Gibbovalva clavata Bai, sp. n. Eumetriochroa hiranoi Kumata, 1998, is newly recorded from China. Photographs of adults and figures of the genital structures are provided, along with keys to the Chinese species of Metriochroa, Eumetriochroa, and Gibbovalva. PMID:27006609

  19. Lepidoptera and associated parasitoids attacking Hass and non-Hass avocados in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Hoddle, Mark S; Hoddle, Christina D

    2008-08-01

    A 5-mo survey for fruit feeding Lepidoptera attacking Hass and non-Hass avocados (Persea americana Miller [Lauraceae]) was conducted in Guatemala from 1 November 2006 to 1 April 2007. In total, 6,740 fruit were collected from 22 different areas in Guatemala. Eight species of Lepidoptera, of which at least two are species new to science, were reared from avocado fruit. Reared Lepidoptera were Amorbia santamaria Phillips and Powell, Cryptaspasma sp. nr. lugubris, Euxoa sorella Schaus, Histura n. sp., Holcocera n. sp., Micrathetis triplex Walker, Netechma pyrrhodelta (Meyrick), and Stenoma catenifer Walsingham. Hymenopteran parasitoids were reared from larvae of C. sp. nr. lugubris and S. catenifer. One species of parasitoid, Pseudophanerotoma sp., was reared from field collected C. sp. nr. lugubris larvae. The dominant parasitoid reared from S. catenifer was a gregarious Apanteles sp. Other parasitoid species reared from S. catenifer larvae were Brachycyrtus sp., Macrocentrus sp., and Pristomerus sp. The oviposition preference of C. sp. nr. lugubris for avocado fruit hanging in trees, dropped fruit on the ground, or exposed avocado seeds was investigated by studying the oviposition preferences of adult female moths and determining egg hatch times in the laboratory, and by investigating the longevity of avocado fruit on the ground under prevailing field conditions. Together, data from these studies suggested that C. sp. nr. lugubris may be an unrecognized pest of avocados that causes hanging fruit to drop to the ground prematurely. The influence of season and altitude on the phenology and distribution of avocado feeding Lepidoptera in Guatemala is discussed. PMID:18767741

  20. Identification and synthesis of some fatty acid derivatives from larvae of Chilecomadia valdiviana (Lepidoptera: Cossidae).

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Jan; Lopez, Katya; Buono-Core, Gonzalo

    2007-05-01

    Larvae of Chilecomadia valdiviana (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) were extracted and the extract was fractionated by chromatography on silica. As shown by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, the major fraction contained saturated and unsaturated straight-chain acetates, with (Z )-5,13-tetradecadienyl acetate and dodecyl acetate as the main components, while in a minor fraction the corresponding alcohols were detected. The identification of the compounds and the synthesis of some reference material are presented. PMID:17487622

  1. Recurrent Domestication by Lepidoptera of Genes from Their Parasites Mediated by Bracoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Gasmi, Laila; Boulain, Helene; Gauthier, Jeremy; Hua-Van, Aurelie; Musset, Karine; Jakubowska, Agata K.; Aury, Jean-Marc; Volkoff, Anne-Nathalie; Huguet, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Bracoviruses are symbiotic viruses associated with tens of thousands of species of parasitic wasps that develop within the body of lepidopteran hosts and that collectively parasitize caterpillars of virtually every lepidopteran species. Viral particles are produced in the wasp ovaries and injected into host larvae with the wasp eggs. Once in the host body, the viral DNA circles enclosed in the particles integrate into lepidopteran host cell DNA. Here we show that bracovirus DNA sequences have been inserted repeatedly into lepidopteran genomes, indicating this viral DNA can also enter germline cells. The original mode of Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) unveiled here is based on the integrative properties of an endogenous virus that has evolved as a gene transfer agent within parasitic wasp genomes for ≈100 million years. Among the bracovirus genes thus transferred, a phylogenetic analysis indicated that those encoding C-type-lectins most likely originated from the wasp gene set, showing that a bracovirus-mediated gene flux exists between the 2 insect orders Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera. Furthermore, the acquisition of bracovirus sequences that can be expressed by Lepidoptera has resulted in the domestication of several genes that could result in adaptive advantages for the host. Indeed, functional analyses suggest that two of the acquired genes could have a protective role against a common pathogen in the field, baculovirus. From these results, we hypothesize that bracovirus-mediated HGT has played an important role in the evolutionary arms race between Lepidoptera and their pathogens. PMID:26379286

  2. The case for a generic phytosanitary irradiation dose of 250 Gy for Lepidoptera eggs and larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallman, Guy J.; Arthur, Valter; Blackburn, Carl M.; Parker, Andrew G.

    2013-08-01

    The literature on ionizing irradiation of Lepidoptera is critically examined for a dose that could serve as a generic phytosanitary treatment for all eggs and larvae of that order, which contains many quarantine pests that inhibit trade in fresh agricultural commodities. The measure of efficacy used in deriving this dose is the prevention of emergence of normal-looking adults that are assumed not able to fly. A dose of 250 Gy is supported by many studies comprising 34 species in 11 lepidopteran families, including those of significant quarantine importance. Two studies with two different species found that doses >250 Gy were necessary, but both of these are contradicted by other studies showing that <250 Gy is adequate. There is a lack of large-scale (>10,000 individuals) testing for families other than Tortricidae (the most important quarantine family in the Lepidoptera). Because several large-scale studies have been done with tortricids a dose of 250 Gy could be justifiable for Tortricidae if it is not acceptable for the entire Lepidoptera at this time.

  3. Recurrent Domestication by Lepidoptera of Genes from Their Parasites Mediated by Bracoviruses.

    PubMed

    Gasmi, Laila; Boulain, Helene; Gauthier, Jeremy; Hua-Van, Aurelie; Musset, Karine; Jakubowska, Agata K; Aury, Jean-Marc; Volkoff, Anne-Nathalie; Huguet, Elisabeth; Herrero, Salvador; Drezen, Jean-Michel

    2015-09-01

    Bracoviruses are symbiotic viruses associated with tens of thousands of species of parasitic wasps that develop within the body of lepidopteran hosts and that collectively parasitize caterpillars of virtually every lepidopteran species. Viral particles are produced in the wasp ovaries and injected into host larvae with the wasp eggs. Once in the host body, the viral DNA circles enclosed in the particles integrate into lepidopteran host cell DNA. Here we show that bracovirus DNA sequences have been inserted repeatedly into lepidopteran genomes, indicating this viral DNA can also enter germline cells. The original mode of Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) unveiled here is based on the integrative properties of an endogenous virus that has evolved as a gene transfer agent within parasitic wasp genomes for ≈100 million years. Among the bracovirus genes thus transferred, a phylogenetic analysis indicated that those encoding C-type-lectins most likely originated from the wasp gene set, showing that a bracovirus-mediated gene flux exists between the 2 insect orders Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera. Furthermore, the acquisition of bracovirus sequences that can be expressed by Lepidoptera has resulted in the domestication of several genes that could result in adaptive advantages for the host. Indeed, functional analyses suggest that two of the acquired genes could have a protective role against a common pathogen in the field, baculovirus. From these results, we hypothesize that bracovirus-mediated HGT has played an important role in the evolutionary arms race between Lepidoptera and their pathogens. PMID:26379286

  4. Risk Assessment Studies: Detailed Host Range Testing of Wild-Type Cabbage Moth, Mamestra brassicae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Cathy J.; Hirst, Mark L.; Cory, Jenny S.; Entwistle, Philip F.

    1990-01-01

    The host range of a multiply enveloped nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) (Baculoviridae) isolated from the cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was determined by challenging a wide range of insect species with high (106 polyhedral inclusion bodies) and low (103 polyhedral inclusion bodies) doses of the virus. The identity of the progeny virus was confirmed by dot blotting. Analysis of 50% lethal dose was carried out on selected species, and the progeny virus was identified by using restriction enzyme analysis and Southern blotting. Other than the Lepidoptera, none of the species tested was susceptible to M. brassicae NPV. Within the Lepidoptera, M. brassicae NPV was infective to members of four families (Noctuidae, Geometridae, Yponomeutidae, and Nymphalidae). Of 66 lepidopterous species tested, M. brassicae NPV was cross-infective to 32 of them; however, 91% of the susceptible species were in the Noctuidae. The relevance of host range data in risk assessment studies is discussed. Images PMID:16348279

  5. First report of an egg parasitoid reared from Neomusotima conspurcatalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) a biological control agent of Lygodium microphyllum (Schizaeales: Lygodiaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neomusotima conspurcatalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) was first released in Florida as a biological control agent of Lygodium microphyllum (Polypodiales: Lygodiaceae), Old World climbing fern, in 2008. The first egg parasitoid, a Trichogramma sp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), was reared from N. co...

  6. Identification and initial characterization of the 3' end of gene transcripts encoding putative members of the pheromone receptor sub-family in Lepidoptera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Semiochemicals, including pheromones and kairomones, used in pest management programs reduce the need for chemical insecticides, and understanding their interactions with their membrane receptor will help make them more effective in the field. Identification of odorant receptors in the Lepidoptera ...

  7. Comparative embryogenesis of Mecoptera and Lepidoptera with special reference to the abdominal prolegs.

    PubMed

    Kou, Li-Xuan; Hua, Bao-Zhen

    2016-05-01

    The eruciform larvae of holometabolous insects are primarily characterized by bearing a varying number of abdominal prolegs in addition to three pairs of thoracic legs. However, whether the prolegs are evolutionarily homologous among different insect orders is still a disputable issue. We examined the embryonic features and histological structure of the prolegs of the scorpionfly Panorpa byersi Hua and Huang (Mecoptera: Panorpidae) and the Oriental armyworm Mythimna separata (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to investigate whether the prolegs are homologous between these two holometabolous insect orders. In the scorpionfly, paired lateral process primordia arise on abdominal segments I-VIII (A1-A8) in line with the thoracic legs in early embryonic stages, but degenerate into triangular protuberances in later stages, and paired medial processes appear along the midventral line before dorsal closure and eventually develop into unjointed, cone-shaped prolegs. Histological observation showed that the lumina of the prolegs are not continuous with the hemocoel, differing distinctly from that of the basic appendicular plan of thoracic legs. These results suggest that the prolegs are likely secondary outgrowths in Mecoptera. In the armyworm, lateral process primordia appear on A1-A10 in alignment with the thoracic legs in the early embryonic stages, although only the rudiments on A3-A6 and A10 develop into segmented prolegs with the lumina continuous with the hemocoel and others degenerate eventually, suggesting that the prolegs are true segmental appendages serially homologous with the thoracic legs in Lepidoptera. Therefore, we conclude that the larval prolegs are likely not evolutionarily homologous between Mecoptera and Lepidoptera. J. Morphol. 277:585-593, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26891764

  8. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases as a detoxification mechanism in insects: new insights from the arctiids (lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Sehlmeyer, Sven; Wang, Linzhu; Langel, Dorothee; Heckel, David G; Mohagheghi, Hoda; Petschenka, Georg; Ober, Dietrich

    2010-01-01

    Insects experience a wide array of chemical pressures from plant allelochemicals and pesticides and have developed several effective counterstrategies to cope with such toxins. Among these, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are crucial in plant-insect interactions. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs) seem not to play a central role in xenobiotic detoxification in insects, in contrast to mammals. However, the previously identified senecionine N-oxygenase of the arctiid moth Tyria jacobaeae (Lepidoptera) indicates that FMOs have been recruited during the adaptation of this insect to plants that accumulate toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Identification of related FMO-like sequences of various arctiids and other Lepidoptera and their combination with expressed sequence tag (EST) data and sequences emerging from the Bombyx mori genome project show that FMOs in Lepidoptera form a gene family with three members (FMO1 to FMO3). Phylogenetic analyses suggest that FMO3 is only distantly related to lepidopteran FMO1 and FMO2 that originated from a more recent gene duplication event. Within the FMO1 gene cluster, an additional gene duplication early in the arctiid lineage provided the basis for the evolution of the highly specific biochemical, physiological, and behavioral adaptations of these butterflies to pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-producing plants. The genes encoding pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-N-oxygenizing enzymes (PNOs) are transcribed in the fat body and the head of the larvae. An N-terminal signal peptide mediates the transport of the soluble proteins into the hemolymph where PNOs efficiently convert pro-toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids into their non-toxic N-oxide derivatives. Heterologous expression of a PNO of the generalist arctiid Grammia geneura produced an N-oxygenizing enzyme that shows noticeably expanded substrate specificity compared with the related enzyme of the specialist Tyria jacobaeae. The data about the evolution of FMOs within lepidopteran insects and the

  9. Influence of Prunus spp., peach cultivars and bark damage on oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An examination of oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote & Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) revealed that wounded peach, Prunus persica (L.) bark was attractive to females for oviposition. Females responded to bark that was injured mechanically (e.g., hammer...

  10. Egg hatch and survival and development of beet webworm (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae at different combinations of temperature and relative humidity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To understand the role that temperature and humidity play in the population dynamics of the beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis L. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), egg hatchability, survival of 1st - 5th instars, survival of the complete larval stage, survival curves, and larval development rates were inve...

  11. The case for a generic phytosanitary irradiation dose of 400 Gy for Lepidoptera that infest shipped commodities as pupae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) dose of 350 Gy is proposed for all Lepidoptera on all commodities. The measure of efficacy for this dose is prevention of egg hatch when late pupae are irradiated. Although the literature was thoroughly examined for relevant studies only those that could reas...

  12. Use of benzimidazole agar plates to assess fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) feeding on excised maize and sorghum leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an economically significant pest of sorghum and maize. To screen sorghum and maize germplasm for resistance to fall armyworm feeding, field, greenhouse, or lab bioassays are often utilized individually or in combinatio...

  13. Evaluation of whorl damage by fall armyworm (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) on field and greenhouse grown sweet sorghum plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)] is an economically important pest of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench]. However, resistance to fall armyworm in sweet sorghum has not been extensively studied. A collection of primarily sweet sorghum accessions were evaluated in t...

  14. Spatial genetic variation among Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) sampled from the United States, Puerto Rico, Panama, and Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a migratory and polyphagous pest of both cultivated and uncultivated plant species in the Western Hemisphere. Understanding the genetic diversity and gene flow of this economically important pest can help to de...

  15. Performance improvement through quality evaluations of sterile cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), mass-reared at two insectaries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A bi-national program was established by Mexico and the United States to mitigate the threat of Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), an invasive herbivore from South America, to native Opuntia spp. biodiversity and Opuntia-based industries. Mass-rearing, sterilization, and transpo...

  16. A large-scale, higher-level, molecular phylogenetic study of the insect order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Higher-level relationships within the Lepidoptera, and particularly within the species-rich subclade Ditrysia, are generally not well understood, although recent studies have yielded progress. 483 taxa spanning 115 of 124 families were sampled for 19 protein-coding nuclear genes. Their aligned nucle...

  17. Preliminary list of the leaf-roller moths (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) of Virginia with comments on spatial and temporal distribution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on the examination of 3,457 pinned specimens, we document 263 species of leaf-roller moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from the Commonwealth of Virginia. The vast majority of specimens examined are from five unrelated efforts: a survey of George Washington Memorial Parkway National Park, Fairfa...

  18. Resistance Among Cultivated Sunflower Germplasm to the Banded Sunflower Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in the Northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A five year field trial evaluated 71 oilseed sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., accessions, 32 breeding lines, and 25 interspecific crosses for resistance to infestation by naturally occurring populations of the banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in North Dak...

  19. Putative nicotinic acetylchloline receptor subunits express differentially through life cycle of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are the targets of neonicotinoids and spinosads, two insecticides used in orchards to effectively control codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). The nAChRs mediate the fast actions of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in synaptic tr...

  20. Controlled atmosphere and temperature treatment system to disinfest fruit moth, Carposina sasakii (Lepidoptera:Carposinidae) on apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carposina sasakii Matsumura (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) is a serious pest of apples and peaches in Korea and Japan. Due to its limited distribution, C. sasakii has been identified as a quarantine pest in several countries. The Controlled Atmosphere/Temperature Treatment System (CATTS) was tested as ...

  1. Using haplotypes to monitor the migration of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) corn-strain populations from Texas and Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith; Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) or fall armyworm is an important agricultural pest of a number of crops in the western hemisphere. Two morphologically identical host strains of fall armyworm exist, the rice-strain and corn-strain, with the latter inflicting substantial eco...

  2. Using stable isotope analysis to examine the fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) host strains in a cotton habitat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith; Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) or fall armyworm is an important agricultural pest of a number of crops in the western hemisphere, including cotton. Two genetically distinct but morphologically identical strains (R-strain and C-strain) exist that differ physiologically and...

  3. Cytological attributes of sperm bundles unique to F1 progeny of irradiated male lepidoptera: Relevance to sterile insect technique programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The unique genetic phenomena responsible for inherited F1 sterility in Lepidoptera and some other arthropods also provide advantages for the use of inherited sterility instead of full sterility in a sterile insect technique (SIT) program. Lepidopteran females generally can be completely sterilized ...

  4. Influence of trap design on capture of female grape berry moth (lepidoptera: tortricidae) with a kairomone Lure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oil-coated clear panel traps baited with a host plant-based kairomone lure are effective in monitoring female grape berry moth (GBM), Paralobesia viteana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera:Tortricidae), but servicing these traps in a vineyard is cumbersome. In this study, we compared the performance of six diff...

  5. Ionizing radiation as a phytosanitary treatment against European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in ambient, low oxygen, and cold conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a quarantine pest for several fresh commodities, including corn-on-the-cob, bell peppers, and green beans. Methyl bromide fumigation is the usual phytosanitary treatment, but the chemical is under increasing regulat...

  6. Host specificity and risk assessment of Trichogramma fuentesi (Hymenoptera:Trichogrammatidae), a potential biological agent of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a non-native moth attacking prickly pear cactus, Opuntia spp., in southeastern U.S. The insect is also an important threat to ecological systems and to native and endangered Opuntia spp. in southwestern USA. The egg parasitoid Trichogramma f...

  7. Revealing the elusive sex pheromone of the renowned cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae): A tribute to Robert Heath

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The South American cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), became famous as a biocontrol agent during campaigns in Australia and South Africa to control exotic weedy Opuntia spp. During these campaigns, monitoring the impact and success of the cactus moth did not requir...

  8. Transcriptome sequencing, and rapid development and application of SNP markers for the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an insect pest species that is destructive to crops grown by subsistence farmers in tropical regions of West Africa. We present the de novo assembly of 3729 contigs from 454- and Sanger-derived sequencing reads for midgut, salivary, ...

  9. Mobilizing the genome of Lepidoptera through novel sequence gains and end creation by non-autonomous Lep1 Helitrons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The integration of transposable elements within gene coding regions can affect expression levels and transcript splicing patterns. The repetitive element, Lep1, is comprised of a conserved 134 base pairs (bp) consensus core region among species of Lepidoptera, and was defined as a short intersperse...

  10. Performance improvement through quality evaluation of sterile Argentine cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), mass-reared at two insectaries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A bi-national program was established by Mexico and the United States to mitigate the threat of Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), an invasive herbivore from South America, to native Opuntia spp. biodiversity and Opuntia-based industries. Mass-rearing, sterilization, and transpo...