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1

The draft genome of the carcinogenic human liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis  

PubMed Central

Background Clonorchis sinensis is a carcinogenic human liver fluke that is widespread in Asian countries. Increasing infection rates of this neglected tropical disease are leading to negative economic and public health consequences in affected regions. Experimental and epidemiological studies have shown a strong association between the incidence of cholangiocarcinoma and the infection rate of C. sinensis. To aid research into this organism, we have sequenced its genome. Results We combined de novo sequencing with computational techniques to provide new information about the biology of this liver fluke. The assembled genome has a total size of 516 Mb with a scaffold N50 length of 42 kb. Approximately 16,000 reliable protein-coding gene models were predicted. Genes for the complete pathways for glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and fatty acid metabolism were found, but key genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis are missing from the genome, reflecting the parasitic lifestyle of a liver fluke that receives lipids from the bile of its host. We also identified pathogenic molecules that may contribute to liver fluke-induced hepatobiliary diseases. Large proteins such as multifunctional secreted proteases and tegumental proteins were identified as potential targets for the development of drugs and vaccines. Conclusions This study provides valuable genomic information about the human liver fluke C. sinensis and adds to our knowledge on the biology of the parasite. The draft genome will serve as a platform to develop new strategies for parasite control. PMID:22023798

2011-01-01

2

Genome-wide identification of antimicrobial peptides in the liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis  

PubMed Central

The increase in prevalence of antimicrobial resistance makes the search for new antibiotic agents imperative. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from natural resources have been recognized as suitable tools to combat antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis living in germ-filled environments could be a good source of antimicrobials. Here, we report the use of a rational protocol that combines AMP predictions based on their physicochemical properties and their in vivo stability to discover AMP candidates from the entire genome of C. sinensis. To screen AMP candidates, in silico analyses based on the physicochemical properties of known AMPs, such as length, charge, isoelectric point, and in vitro and in vivo aggregation values were performed. To enhance their in vivo stability, proteins having proteolytic cleavage sites were excluded. As a consequence, four high-activity, highstability peptides were identified. These peptides could be potential starting materials for the development of new AMPs via structural modification and optimization. Thus, this study proposes a refined computational method to develop new AMPs and identifies four AMP candidates, which could serve as templates for further development of peptide antibiotics. PMID:25780275

Yoo, Won Gi; Lee, Sanghyun; Lee, Myoung-Ro; Yun, Mi-Ran; Kwon, Taesoo; Kim, Dae-Won

2015-01-01

3

Genome-wide identification of antimicrobial peptides in the liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis.  

PubMed

The increase in prevalence of antimicrobial resistance makes the search for new antibiotic agents imperative. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from natural resources have been recognized as suitable tools to combat antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis living in germ-filled environments could be a good source of antimicrobials. Here, we report the use of a rational protocol that combines AMP predictions based on their physicochemical properties and their in vivo stability to discover AMP candidates from the entire genome of C. sinensis. To screen AMP candidates, in silico analyses based on the physicochemical properties of known AMPs, such as length, charge, isoelectric point, and in vitro and in vivo aggregation values were performed. To enhance their in vivo stability, proteins having proteolytic cleavage sites were excluded. As a consequence, four high-activity, highstability peptides were identified. These peptides could be potential starting materials for the development of new AMPs via structural modification and optimization. Thus, this study proposes a refined computational method to develop new AMPs and identifies four AMP candidates, which could serve as templates for further development of peptide antibiotics. PMID:25780275

Yoo, Won Gi; Lee, Sanghyun; Lee, Myoung-Ro; Yun, Mi-Ran; Kwon, Taesoo; Kim, Dae-Won

2015-01-01

4

Taxonomy and biology of liver flukes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opisthorchis viverrini is a human liver fluke endemic in Thailand, Lao PDR and Cambodia. Three subspecies of Bithynia siamensis and 18 species of cyprinoid fish are susceptible first and second intermediate hosts, respectively. The differentiation between the adult worm of O. viverrini and that of the closely related species, Opisthorchis felineus and Clonorchis sinensis, is mainly based on the shape

Sasithorn Kaewkes

2003-01-01

5

Is Opisthorchis viverrini an avian liver fluke?  

PubMed

Recently, in the Journal of Helminthology (May 2013), Dao et al. reported that Opisthorchis viverrini-like flukes were found in the bile duct of domestic ducks in Vietnam. They stated that this is the first record of Opisthorchis sp. in birds in Vietnam. However, three Opisthorchis species--O. cheelis, O. longissimus and O. parageminus--in birds in Vietnam were described by Le in 2000. Amongst these, O. parageminus was first reported, by Oshmarin in 1970, as a new Opisthorchis species found in domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) in Vietnam. Morphologially O. viverrini-like flukes described by Dao et al. are much more similar to O. parageminus than to O. viverrini. The phylogenetic trees of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1) gene sequences also showed that the O. viverrini-like liver flukes from domestic ducks were closer to O. lobatus than to O. viverrini. Therefore, O. viverrini-like liver flukes reported by Dao et al. (2013) are most likely to be O. parageminus. PMID:24160690

Nawa, Y; Doanh, P N; Thaenkham, U

2015-03-01

6

Schistosome and liver fluke derived catechol-estrogens and helminth associated cancers  

PubMed Central

Infection with helminth parasites remains a persistent public health problem in developing countries. Three of these pathogens, the liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini and the blood fluke Schistosoma haematobium, are of particular concern due to their classification as Group 1 carcinogens: infection with these worms is carcinogenic. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) approaches, we identified steroid hormone like (e.g., oxysterol-like, catechol estrogen quinone-like, etc.) metabolites and related DNA-adducts, apparently of parasite origin, in developmental stages including eggs of S. haematobium, in urine of people with urogenital schistosomiasis, and in the adult stage of O. viverrini. Since these kinds of sterol derivatives are metabolized to active quinones that can modify DNA, which in other contexts can lead to breast and other cancers, helminth parasite associated sterols might induce tumor-like phenotypes in the target cells susceptible to helminth parasite associated cancers, i.e., urothelial cells of the bladder in the case of urogenital schistosomiasis and the bile duct epithelia or cholangiocytes, in the case of O. viverrini and C. sinensis. Indeed we postulate that helminth induced cancers originate from parasite estrogen-host epithelial/urothelial cell chromosomal DNA adducts, and here we review recent findings that support this conjecture. PMID:25566326

Correia da Costa, José M.; Vale, Nuno; Gouveia, Maria J.; Botelho, Mónica C.; Sripa, Banchob; Santos, Lúcio L.; Santos, Júlio H.; Rinaldi, Gabriel; Brindley, Paul J.

2014-01-01

7

Gene discovery for the carcinogenic human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) – cancer of the bile ducts – is associated with chronic infection with the liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini. Despite being the only eukaryote that is designated as a 'class I carcinogen' by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, little is known about its genome. RESULTS: Approximately 5,000 randomly selected cDNAs from the adult stage of O.

Thewarach Laha; Porntip Pinlaor; Jason Mulvenna; Banchob Sripa; Manop Sripa; Michael J Smout; Robin B Gasser; Paul J Brindley; Alex Loukas

2007-01-01

8

Sensitive and rapid detection of Clonorchis sinensis infection in fish by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fish-borne clonorchiasis caused by the oriental liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis is endemic in a number of countries with over 35 million people being infected globally. Rapid and accurate detection of\\u000a C. sinensis in its intermediate host fish is important for the control and prevention of clonorchiasis in areas where the disease is\\u000a endemic. In the present study, we established a

X. Q. Cai; M. J. Xu; Y. H. Wang; D. Y. Qiu; G. X. Liu; A. Lin; J. D. Tang; R. L. Zhang; X. Q. Zhu

2010-01-01

9

Polymorphism and structural features of two noncoding regions of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica (Plathelminthes: Trematoda) mitochondrial genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural characteristics and polymorphism of the long (LNR) and short (SNR) mitochondrial noncoding regions were studied\\u000a in the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica. Flukes were sampled from several populations of Russia and Belarus. LNR amplification yielded a set of nine fragments, neighboring\\u000a ones differing in length by one tandem repeat (85 bp), published for Australian flukes. The LNR amplification products of

V. A. Vasyliev; V. I. Korchagin; S. O. Movsessian; S. K. Semyenova

2009-01-01

10

Developmental differences in the uterus of Fasciola hepatica between livestock liver fluke populations from Bolivian highlands and European lowlands.  

PubMed

A morphometric study of the uterus area (UA) of Fasciola hepatica adults was carried out with the aid of a computer linked to a stereomicroscopic 3CCD colour video camera using image analysis software. The UA of adult liver flukes found in naturally infected sheep, cattle and pig from the endemic human fascioliasis zone of the northern Bolivian Altiplano highlands was compared with that of flukes found infecting sheep and cattle from Valencia, Spain and cattle from Corsica, France (collectively, European lowlands). Liver fluke UA was examined using an allometric model. A comparison of the allometry of the liver fluke UA in different host species from Bolivia revealed no significant differences. Similarly, no statistically significant differences were found between UA of Valencian and Corsican populations. However, the Bolivian sheep and cattle liver fluke populations proved to have a UA smaller than that of the European populations. These results indicate differences between the liver fluke population of highlands and lowlands, regarding UA. This paper discusses the possible relationship between the characteristic of having a reduced uterine development and the liver fluke adult stage adapting to host populations living at very high altitudes. PMID:11355685

Valero, M A; Panova, M; Mas-Coma, S

2001-04-01

11

Evolutionary Origins, Diversification, and Biogeography of Liver Flukes (Digenea, Fasciolidae)  

PubMed Central

Fasciolid flukes are among the largest and best known digenetic trematodes and have considerable historical and veterinary significance. Fasciola hepatica is commonly implicated in causing disease in humans. The origins, patterns of diversification, and biogeography of fasciolids are all poorly known. We have undertaken a molecular phylogenetic study using 28S, internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA, and mitochondrial nicotinamide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) that included seven of the nine recognized species in the family. The fasciolids examined comprise a monophyletic group with the most basal species recovered from African elephants. We hypothesize fasciolids migrated from Africa to Eurasia, with secondary colonization of Africa. Fasciolids have been conservative in maintaining relatively large adult body size, but anatomical features of their digestive and reproductive systems are available. These flukes have been opportunistic, with respect to switching to new snail (planorbid to lymnaeid) and mammalian hosts and from intestinal to hepatic habitats within mammals. PMID:18689632

Lotfy, Wael M.; Brant, Sara V.; DeJong, Randy J.; Le, Thanh Hoa; Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander; Rajapakse, R. P. V. Jayanthe; Perera, Vijitha B. V. P.; Laursen, Jeff R.; Loker, Eric S.

2008-01-01

12

Effects of the injectable contraceptive depot medroxyprogesterone acetate in Thai women with liver fluke infestation: results after six months  

PubMed Central

The effect of the three-monthly injectable contraceptive depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) on liver and lipid function was assessed in Thai women with liver fluke (Opisthorchis viverrini) infestation, DMPA administration being started in the immediate postpartum period. Immediate postpartum IUD and sterilization acceptors with fluke infestation were recruited as a comparison (control) group for the fluke-positiv DMPA acceptors. Comparable groups of fluke-negative acceptors were recruited in an area of Thailand free of liver fluke transmission. Results are presented for the first 6 follow-up months for 170 DMPA and 177 control fluke-positive subjects and for 153 DMPA and 150 control fluke-negative subjects. Small and similar increases occurred in each of the four groups for alanine amino transferase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and total bilirubin levels while aspartate amino transferase levels changed less in the DMPA groups than in their respective control groups. None of the subjects in either DMPA group had clearly abnormal results in these tests at 6 months. Alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol, and triglycerides levels were markedly lower in each group at 6 months than in the puerperal specimens. There was a greater decrease in triglycerides levels in both DMPA groups than in their respective control groups. However, the decrease in the alkaline phosphatase and cholesterol levels was greater only in the fluke-positive DMPA group than in the fluke-positive control group. None of these biochemical results were related to differences in age, parity, or lactation status between the groups. The results indicate that DMPA did not cause any early deleterious effects in the metabolic factors studied in women with liver fluke infestation. PMID:302157

Grossman, Richard A.; Assawasena, Vinich; Chalpati, Sopon; Taewtong, Dilok

1977-01-01

13

Infection with the carcinogenic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini modifies intestinal and biliary microbiome  

PubMed Central

Opisthorchis viverrini is a fish-borne trematode endemic in East Asia. Following ingestion, the flukes locate to the biliary tre? where chronic infection frequently leads to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). The mechanisms by which O. viverrini infection culminates in CCA remain unknown. An unexplored aspect is its influence on the host microbiome. In the hamster, infection with this pathogen reliably leads to CCA. Genomic DNAs of microbiota from colorectal contents and bile of hamsters and from whole O. viverrini were examined in this model of fluke-induced CCA. Microbial communities were characterized by high-throughput sequencing of variable regions 7–9 of prokaryotic 16S ribosomal DNA. Of ?1 million sequences, 536,009 with useable reads were assignable to 29,776 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) and, in turn, to 20 phyla and 273 genera of Bacteria or Archaea. Microbial community analyses revealed that fluke infection perturbed the gastrointestinal tract microbiome, increasing Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Lactobacillaceae, while decreasing Porphyromonadaceae, Erysipelotrichaceae, and Eubacteriaceae (P?0.05). More than 60 OTUs were detected in the biliary system, which confirmed bacteriobilia and a noteworthy community of microbes associated with the parasites. The fluke-associated microorganisms included potential pathogens from the Enterobacteriaceae and Listeriaceae and others, including Cyanobacteria and Deinococci, usually found in external environments. Given that opisthorchiasis is distinguished from other helminth infections by a robust inflammatory phenotype with conspicuously elevated IL-6, and that inflammation of the biliary system leads to periductal fibrosis, which is a precursor of CCA, the flukes and their microbiota may together drive this distinctive immune response.—Plieskatt, J. L., Raksawan, D., Mulvenna, J. P., Krause, L., Sripa, B., Bethony, J. M., Brindley, P. J. Infection with the carcinogenic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini modifies intestinal and biliary microbiome. PMID:23925654

Plieskatt, Jordan L.; Deenonpoe, Raksawan; Mulvenna, Jason P.; Krause, Lutz; Sripa, Banchob; Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Brindley, Paul J.

2013-01-01

14

Cathepsin F Cysteine Protease of the Human Liver Fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini is classified as a class I carcinogen due to the association between cholangiocarcinoma and chronic O. viverrini infection. During its feeding activity within the bile duct,the parasite secretes several cathepsin F cysteine proteases that may induce or contribute to the pathologies associated with hepatobiliary abnormalities. Methodology\\/Principal Findings: Here, we describe the cDNA, gene organization,

Porntip Pinlaor; Natthawut Kaewpitoon; Thewarach Laha; Banchob Sripa; Sasithorn Kaewkes; Maria E. Morales; Victoria H. Mann; Sandi K. Parriott; Sutas Suttiprapa; Mark W. Robinson; Joyce To; John P. Dalton; Alex Loukas; Paul J. Brindley

2009-01-01

15

Cathepsin F Cysteine Protease of the Human Liver Fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini is classified as a class I carcinogen due to the association between cholangiocarcinoma and chronic O. viverrini infection. During its feeding activity within the bile duct, the parasite secretes several cathepsin F cysteine proteases that may induce or contribute to the pathologies associated with hepatobiliary abnormalities.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsHere, we describe the cDNA, gene organization, phylogenetic relationships,

Porntip Pinlaor; Natthawut Kaewpitoon; Thewarach Laha; Banchob Sripa; Sasithorn Kaewkes; Maria E. Morales; Victoria H. Mann; Sandi K. Parriott; Sutas Suttiprapa; Mark W. Robinson; Joyce To; John P. Dalton; Alex Loukas; Paul J. Brindley

2009-01-01

16

Suppression of aquaporin, a mediator of water channel control in the carcinogenic liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini  

PubMed Central

Background Opisthorchiasis and Opisthorchis viverrini-associated bile duct cancer represent major public health threats in Thailand and Laos. The tegument of this food borne fluke plays pivotal roles in parasite metabolism, homeostasis and osmoregulation. Excretory/secretory products also pass from the fluke to the biliary environment, products that likely underlie pathogenesis of liver fluke infection. Aquaporins (AQPs), belong to the major intrinsic protein superfamily of integral plasma membrane channel proteins that selectively transport water across cell membranes. AQPs play key roles as water and ion transport channels through the tegument of helminth parasites. Methods Here, two forms of AQP mRNAs from the adult developmental stage of O. viverrini, termed O. viverrini aquaporin-1 and -2 (Ov-aqp-1 and -2) were investigated. Roles of Ov-aqp-1 and -2 in the movement of water across the tegument of this carcinogenic liver fluke were investigated using RNA interference. Results Ov-AQP-1 and Ov-AQP-2 contain unique characteristic asparagine-proline-alanine (NPA) motifs of AQP transmembrane proteins. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Ov-AQPs belong to an expanding group of aquaglyceroporin-like water channel proteins characterized from helminth and protozoan parasites, which is pivotal to the specialized requirements of water and solute control during parasitism. Elevated transcription of Ov-aqp-1 was evident in the egg, cercaria, metacercaria and adult stages of O. viverrini, whereas Ov-aqp-2 transcripts were detected at higher level in egg, metacercaria, cercaria and adult stage, respectively. RNA interference using electroporated dsRNA suppressed transcript levels of Ov-aqp-1 and Ov-aqp-2 in adult worms by 58-99% over periods of up to 16 days in vitro. Suppression of Ov-aqp-1 and Ov-aqp-2 in vitro disabled water transport in adult flukes. Conclusion The apparently pivotal roles of Ov-AQP in solute homeostasis at the fluke surface suggest that deeper investigation will be informative for the pathophysiology of O. viverrini, and may uncover intervention targets, particularly in view of the singularly notable predilection of this pathogen for residence within ducts of the biliary tree. PMID:24885060

2014-01-01

17

Detection of major climatic and environmental predictors of liver fluke exposure risk in Ireland using spatial cluster analysis.  

PubMed

Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke) can cause significant economic and production losses in dairy cow farms. The aim of the current study was to identify important weather and environmental predictors of the exposure risk to liver fluke by detecting clusters of fasciolosis in Ireland. During autumn 2012, bulk-tank milk samples from 4365 dairy farms were collected throughout Ireland. Using an in-house antibody-detection ELISA, the analysis of BTM samples showed that 83% (n=3602) of dairy farms had been exposed to liver fluke. The Getis-Ord Gi* statistic identified 74 high-risk and 130 low-risk significant (P<0.01) clusters of fasciolosis. The low-risk clusters were mostly located in the southern regions of Ireland, whereas the high-risk clusters were mainly situated in the western part. Several climatic variables (monthly and seasonal mean rainfall and temperatures, total wetdays and raindays) and environmental datasets (soil types, enhanced vegetation index and normalised difference vegetation index) were used to investigate dissimilarities in the exposure to liver fluke between clusters. Rainfall, total wetdays and raindays, and soil type were the significant classes of climatic and environmental variables explaining the differences between significant clusters. A discriminant function analysis was used to predict the exposure risk to liver fluke using 80% of data for modelling and the remaining subset of 20% for post hoc model validation. The most significant predictors of the model risk function were total rainfall in August and September and total wetdays. The risk model presented 100% sensitivity and 91% specificity and an accuracy of 95% correctly classified cases. A risk map of exposure to liver fluke was constructed with higher probability of exposure in western and north-western regions. The results of this study identified differences between clusters of fasciolosis in Ireland regarding climatic and environmental variables and detected significant predictors of the exposure risk to liver fluke. PMID:25777048

Selemetas, Nikolaos; de Waal, Theo

2015-04-30

18

RNAi Dynamics in Juvenile Fasciola spp. Liver Flukes Reveals the Persistence of Gene Silencing In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Background Fasciola spp. liver fluke cause pernicious disease in humans and animals. Whilst current control is unsustainable due to anthelmintic resistance, gene silencing (RNA interference, RNAi) has the potential to contribute to functional validation of new therapeutic targets. The susceptibility of juvenile Fasciola hepatica to double stranded (ds)RNA-induced RNAi has been reported. To exploit this we probe RNAi dynamics, penetrance and persistence with the aim of building a robust platform for reverse genetics in liver fluke. We describe development of standardised RNAi protocols for a commercially-available liver fluke strain (the US Pacific North West Wild Strain), validated via robust transcriptional silencing of seven virulence genes, with in-depth experimental optimisation of three: cathepsin L (FheCatL) and B (FheCatB) cysteine proteases, and a ?-class glutathione transferase (Fhe?GST). Methodology/Principal Findings Robust transcriptional silencing of targets in both F. hepatica and Fasciola gigantica juveniles is achievable following exposure to long (200–320 nt) dsRNAs or 27 nt short interfering (si)RNAs. Although juveniles are highly RNAi-susceptible, they display slower transcript and protein knockdown dynamics than those reported previously. Knockdown was detectable following as little as 4h exposure to trigger (target-dependent) and in all cases silencing persisted for ?25 days following long dsRNA exposure. Combinatorial silencing of three targets by mixing multiple long dsRNAs was similarly efficient. Despite profound transcriptional suppression, we found a significant time-lag before the occurrence of protein suppression; Fhe?GST and FheCatL protein suppression were only detectable after 9 and 21 days, respectively. Conclusions/Significance In spite of marked variation in knockdown dynamics, we find that a transient exposure to long dsRNA or siRNA triggers robust RNAi penetrance and persistence in liver fluke NEJs supporting the development of multiple-throughput phenotypic screens for control target validation. RNAi persistence in fluke encourages in vivo studies on gene function using worms exposed to RNAi-triggers prior to infection. PMID:25254508

McVeigh, Paul; McCammick, Erin M.; McCusker, Paul; Morphew, Russell M.; Mousley, Angela; Abidi, Abbas; Saifullah, Khalid M.; Muthusamy, Raman; Gopalakrishnan, Ravikumar; Spithill, Terry W.; Dalton, John P.; Brophy, Peter M.; Marks, Nikki J.; Maule, Aaron G.

2014-01-01

19

Raw fish consumption in liver fluke endemic areas in rural southern Laos.  

PubMed

Consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked fish is a major public health concern in Southeast Asia, and in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), in particular. We aimed to assess the knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices of villagers in liver fluke endemic areas related to raw fish preparation, consumption and its health consequences. In February 2010, eight focus group discussions (FGDs, 35 men and 37 women total) and direct observations were conducted in four randomly selected villages in Saravane District, Saravane Province (Lao PDR). FGDs distilled the knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices of adult community members on raw fish preparation, consumption and its consequences for health. Conversations were transcribed from notes and tape-recorders. MaxQDA software was used for content analysis. Knowledge regarding the health effects of raw fish consumption was heterogeneous. Some participants did not associate liver fluke infection with any ill health, while others linked it to digestive problems. Participants also associated vegetables and tree leave consumption with liver fluke infection. The majority of FGD participants considered fish flesh that had been prepared with weaver ant extract to be safe for consumption. Visual appearance, taste, smell and personal preference were given as reasons for consuming raw fish dishes. Moreover, participants considered it a traditional way of food preparation, practiced for generations in Laos. Ten different fish dishes that use raw or fermented fish were identified. All FGD participants reported consuming dishes with raw fish. This study reveals a low degree of knowledge among local people on the health risks related to frequent consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked fish. Fish dishes were considered to be 'well-prepared' (that is, 'cooked') even though the fish had not been heated. In future, successful health education campaigns will have to address the specific knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices of the concerned population. PMID:23567553

Xayaseng, Vilavanh; Phongluxa, Khampheng; van Eeuwijk, Peter; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Odermatt, Peter

2013-08-01

20

Separation and characterization of adult worm proteins and glycoproteins from the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini.  

PubMed

Detailed studies of liver fluke proteins and antigens are necessary to facilitate further investigation of the human immune responses to these parasites. Accordingly, Opisthorchis viverrini antigens were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting. We initially encountered excessive background smearing, vertical streaking, and indistinct bands that were similar to problems previously described by investigators studying this and other trematodes including Schistosoma mansoni. These problems were especially evident with silver staining of proteins and occurred despite the extensive use of protease inhibitors. They were minimized by using mini (vs. large) SDS-PAGE and Coomassie blue protein staining. With the latter 2 techniques, adult worm somatic proteins and excretory-secretory products were separated and characterized. Immunoblots using rabbit anti-adult worm sera demonstrated that some of these proteins were antigens common to both the adult and metacercarial stages. Several of these antigens also corresponded (according to molecular weight) to glycoproteins, detected by concanavalin A blotting. These findings form a base for subsequent studies of the human immune response to liver fluke infection. PMID:1635026

Akai, P S; Pungpak, S; Kitikoon, V; Chaicumpa, W; Bunnag, D; Befus, A D

1992-08-01

21

Risk biomarkers for assessment and chemoprevention of liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini (Ov), is the major risk factor of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) in northeastern Thailand. Our approach focuses on genetic progression and molecular changes in the carcinogenic pathway of liver fluke-associated CCA aimed at assessing patients at risk of CCA and using chemoprevention as the secondary cancer prevention to reduce the incidence of CCA. This review summarizes altered gene expressions, biomolecules and their modification, i.e. DNA adducts, oxidized proteins, oxysterols and fibrotic markers in hamster- and human-CCA. Potential risk biomarker(s) and chemopreventive agent(s) criteria and selection were based on results from experimental and epidemiological studies identifying hepatobiliary disease, including CCA. Laboratory results reveal that oxidative stress induced by Ov infection leads to bimolecular damage, tissue remodeling especially periductal fibrosis and alteration of gene expressions, which could be involved in all steps of CCA carcinogenesis. Some of these molecules are reported to change their levels in opisthorchiasis, periductal fibrosis diagnosed by ultrasonography and CCA. Chemoprevention in experimental CCA tumorigenesis is discussed. These multiple risk biomarkers could now be explored for screening including chemopreventive intervention of subjects living in endemic areas where the prevalence of opisthorchiasis remains high. PMID:24408859

Yongvanit, Puangrat; Pinlaor, Somchai; Loilome, Watcharin

2014-05-01

22

The role and immunophenotypic characteristics of myofibroblasts in liver of sheep naturally infected with the lancet liver fluke (Dicrocoelium dendriticum).  

PubMed

The main objective of our research was to examine the role and immunophenotypic characteristics of myofibroblasts in sheep liver naturally infected by the lancet liver fluke (Dicrocoelium dendriticum). In the reported study we analyzed liver samples from 20 adult sheep, 14 infected animals and 6 controls. The liver samples were fixed in 10% buffered formalin, and routinely processed and stained using hematoxylin eosin, the periodic acid-Schiff and Masson-Goldner trichrome methods. The immunohistochemical examination was carried out by the streptavidin biotin (LSAB2) method, using antibodies for ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), desmin and vimentin. The histopathological examination revealed liver fibrosis in 6 out of 14 (42.9%) analyzed samples, while different forms of cholangitis were observed in the remaining 8 out of 14 (57.1%). The expression of ?-SMA was proven in perisinusoidal hepatic stellate cells, portal/septal myofibroblasts, and interface myofibroblasts. The degree of ?-SMA expression and the number of ?-SMA immunopositive cells were the most intensive in the liver with fibrosis. Desmin expression in all liver samples of infected sheep was confirmed in hepatic stellate cells and smooth muscle cells. The hepatic stellate cells, portal/septal myofibroblasts, and interface myofibroblasts reacted as vimentin positive cells. In the liver without fibrotic changes hepatic stellate cells and smooth muscle cells were desmin positive. The obtained results suggest that all populations of myofibroblasts, especially hepatic stellate cells, play an important role in the increased extracellular matrix formation during parasitic liver fibrosis in sheep naturally infected with D. dendriticum. PMID:25683133

Kukolj, V; Aleksi?-Kova?evi?, S; Kati?-Radivojevi?, S; Kneževi?, Dj; Jovanovi?, M

2015-03-15

23

Acute cholecystitis associated with Clonorchis sinensis infection  

PubMed Central

Clonorchis sinensis is one of the most common causes of trematodiasis that is caused by the ingestion of raw fish contaminated with infective cysts. The adult flukes are predominantly present in the intrahepatic bile ducts, but occasionally they may be found in the pancreatic duct and extrahepatic bile ducts. The clinical manifestations depend on the number of flukes, the period of infestation, and complications such as pericholangitic abscess, cholangitis, bile duct stones, and cholangiocarcinoma. However, primary acute cholecystitis associated with C. sinensis infection is extremely rare. Herein, we report on a case of primary acute cholecystitis associated with C. sinensis infection. PMID:25114891

Oh, Jung Taek; Jo, Hyang Jeong

2014-01-01

24

Field trial on comparative efficacy of four fasciolicides against natural liver fluke infection in cattle.  

PubMed

A controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the current efficacy of albendazole (ABZ), rafoxanide (RFX), triclabendazole (TRC) or clorsulon (CLS) against Fasciola hepatica in naturally infected cattle. This trial was conducted in Turkey during the spring, the time of year when liver fluke infection is endemic. Fifty crossbred cattle were selected for inclusion in the trial based on finding eggs of F. hepatica in the feces. The cattle were weighed and randomly allotted into five groups of 10 cattle and treatments were as follows: Group 1 served as non-treated control (CONT), Group 2 was treated orally with ABZ at 12 mg/kg, Group 3 was treated orally with RFX at 10 mg/kg, Group 4 received TRC orally at 12 mg/kg and Group 5 received CLS administered subcutaneously (s.c.) at 2 mg/kg. On day 0 (inclusion day), individual fecal samples were collected on days 0 (inclusion day), 7, 14, 28 and 56, after treatment. The drug efficacy was assessed as a percentage of the egg or fluke reduction and body weight gain relative to the untreated control. The results in the study showed a mean reduction of egg counts by 66.7%, 68.2%, 78% and 84.2% in Groups 2-5, respectively. In conclusion, our results indicate that CLS is a highly effective compound for the treatment of F. hepatica in cattle under these field conditions. PMID:16289862

Elitok, Bülent; Elitok, Ozgül Mukaddes; Kabu, Mustafa

2006-02-18

25

An expanding population of the giant liver fluke (fascioloides magna) in elk (cervus canadensis) and other ungulates in Canada.  

PubMed

Giant liver fluke (Fascioloides magna) populations readily expand under suitable conditions. Although extirpated from the eastern slopes of the Canadian Rocky Mountains in the early 1960s, the fluke reappeared following natural spread through mountain passes from British Columbia. Herein, we assessed epizootiology of the fluke population two decades later. Between 1984 and 1991, 534 ungulates, including 381 elk (Cervus canadensis), 68 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), 54 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and 31 moose (Alces alces) from adjacent areas of Alberta (AB) and British Columbia (BC), Canada, were examined for giant liver flukes. Prevalence in elk increased from 53% to 79% (1984-91) in Banff National Park (BNP) in AB and 77% to 100% (1985-89) in Kootenay National Park (KNP) in BC. Super-infections (>100 flukes) were more common in later years. Generally, prevalence increased over time and with increasing age of elk. Intensity was lowest in young-of-year (BNP 8±5, KNP 3), but similar in yearlings (BNP 36±11, KNP 23±8) and adults (BNP 33±5, KNP 32±6). Prevalence was similar in male and female elk. Intensity was higher in males (BNP 47±7, KNP 46±12) than in females (BNP 28±6, KNP 22±4), although the maximum number of flukes (545) occurred in a female elk. Prevalence and intensity differed among other species of ungulates but patterns were similar in each park. Prevalence was lower in mule deer (BNP 6%, KNP 4%) than in white-tailed deer (BNP 44%, KNP 28%) and moose (BNP 52%, KNP 63%). Intensity differed among these species but never exceeded 30 flukes. Gravid flukes occurred only in elk and white-tailed deer. Transmission occurred primarily in late summer-fall and in wet habitats. At least seven elk died as a direct result of fluke infection. In this region, elk and white-tailed deer maintain the F. magna population with spillover into moose and, rarely, mule deer. PMID:25647594

Pybus, Margo J; Butterworth, Eric W; Woods, John G

2015-04-01

26

Effect of gastrointestinal nematode and liver fluke infections on weight gain and reproductive performance of beef heifers.  

PubMed

Spring born, crossbred beef heifers (n=372) were utilized over four years to measure reductions in body weights, reproductive performance and calf weights caused by gastrointestinal nematodes (primarily Ostertagia ostertagi) and the bovine liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) and to differentiate losses attributable to each type of parasitism. Each year, weaned heifers were allotted to one of the four treatment regimens: Group 1, untreated controls; Group 2, treated for nematodes; Group 3, treated for liver fluke; and Group 4, treated for both nematodes and liver fluke. Nematodes were controlled with subcutaneous injections of either ivermectin (Ivomec, Merial) or doramectin (Dectomax, Pfizer), both at the recommended dose of 200 ug/kg bodyweight. Clorsulon (Curatrem, Merial) drench was given at the recommended rate of 7 mg/kg bodyweight to control flukes. Treatments and fecal collections were initiated at allotment each year and were repeated at 28-84-day intervals until palpation for pregnancy diagnosis. Open heifers were removed from the study at this time. Treatment dates were based on expected length of treatment efficacy, the stage of growth of the heifers and the seasonal risk of infection by the parasites. Pregnant females were pooled and received their assigned treatments prior to their calving and breeding seasons and remained together until their calves were weaned. Heifers treated for nematode infections were heavier and had higher condition scores (P<0.01) than untreated control heifers at initiation of breeding, and maintained that difference through pregnancy diagnosis. Liver fluke infection did not affect heifer gains or condition scores prior to palpation (P<0.01). At palpation, heifers treated for both forms of parasitism had the highest condition scores and weight gains (P<0.01), and also higher pregnancy rates than control heifers and heifers treated for nematodes only (P<0.01). Pregnancy rates for heifers treated for flukes only were not significantly different from those treated for both nematodes and flukes. Heifers treated for nematodes weaned heavier calves than those not treated for nematodes (P<0.05). PMID:12127252

Loyacano, A F; Williams, J C; Gurie, J; DeRosa, A A

2002-08-01

27

Evaluation of liver fluke recombinant cathepsin B-1 protease as a serodiagnostic antigen for human opisthorchiasis.  

PubMed

A cathepsin B-like cysteine protease belonging to family C1 is abundantly expressed in the transcriptome and proteome of the carcinogenic liver fluke of humans, Opisthorchis viverrini. This enzyme is present in excretory/secretory (ES) products released by parasites cultured in vitro. This study evaluated the performance of recombinant O. viverrini cathepsin B1 (rOv-CB-1) as an antigen for immunodiagnosis of opisthorchiasis. The full length Ov-CB-1 cDNA was cloned and recombinant protein was produced in catalytically active form in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant Ov-CB-1 (rOv-CB-1) was affinity purified via nickel-NTA chromatography and tested in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) with human sera from an opisthorchiasis endemic area. Sera from egg-positive O. viverrini infections produced a strong IgG antibody response to rOv-CB-1 both in ELISA and immunoblot analysis. The sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA test was 67% and 81%, respectively. These findings support the feasibility of using recombinant Ov-CB-1 in ELISA for the serodiagnosis of human opisthorchiasis. PMID:21704728

Sripa, Jittiyawadee; Brindley, Paul J; Sripa, Banchob; Loukas, Alex; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Laha, Thewarach

2012-03-01

28

Opisthorchis felineus liver fluke invasion is an environmental factor modifying genetic risk of atopic bronchial asthma.  

PubMed

According to epidemiological observations, Opisthorchis felineus liver fluke invasion is negatively associated with the development and severity of allergic diseases in endemic regions of Russia. We hypothesized that the invasion is an important factor in gene-environmental interactions (GEI) underlying allergy. To prove this, we tested 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms of immune response modifying genes in 428 individuals stratified by atopic bronchial asthma presence and O. felineus invasion. Using regression models, a statistically significant interaction between the rs6737848 polymorphism of SOCS5 gene and O. felineus invasion was observed (pint=0.001, OR=5.66, 95% CI 1.96-16.31 for dominant model; pint=0.003; OR=4.38, 95% CI 1.68-11.45 for additive model). The interaction is based on the statistically significant association between the SOCS5 gene and atopic bronchial asthma in patients without O. felineus infection, while no such association is seen in patients infected by the helminth. These data confirm for the first time the importance of the helminth invasion as an environmental factor influencing the association between genetic factors and atopic bronchial asthma. In particular, O. felineus diminishes the risk of atopic bronchial asthma associated with the SOCS5 gene polymorphism. PMID:25017311

Saltykova, Irina V; Ogorodova, Ludmila M; Bragina, Elena Yu; Puzyrev, Valery P; Freidin, Maxim B

2014-11-01

29

Evaluation of the comparative efficacy of a moxidectin plus triclabendazole pour-on solution against adult and immature liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, in cattle.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a pour-on solution containing moxidectin plus triclabendazole (MOX plus TCBZ) against immature and adult stages of the liver fluke in cattle and compare the efficacy with other commercially available preparations. To this end, 104 male Holstein-Friesian calves aged between 3 and 4 months, were randomly allocated to 13 groups of eight animals each, and infected with approximately 500 Fasciola hepatica metacercariae. One group remained untreated, four groups were treated with MOX plus TCBZ at a dose rate of 0.1 mL/kg, four other groups were treated with ivermectin (IVM) plus clorsulon injectable at a dose rate of 0.02 mL/kg, and the remaining four groups were treated with IVM plus closantel pour-on at a dose rate of 0.1 mL/kg. Each treatment was applied to one of the groups at 4 weeks, 6 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks after the experimental infection. At necropsy (99-102 days after infection), all untreated animals were infected with a minimum of 30 flukes. The MOX plus TCBZ treated animals had significantly (P<0.0001) lower fluke counts compared to the untreated control animals at all time points after treatment. Efficacy against 8-week old and adult flukes was >99.5%. For 6-week old immature fluke, the efficacy was 98.0% and for 4-week old immature fluke the efficacy was 90.9%. The IVM plus closantel pour-on treated animals had significantly lower fluke counts compared to the untreated control animals for adult and 8-week old flukes (P<0.0001), and for 6-week old flukes (P=0.002). The efficacy was 26.8%, 68.2%, 90.6% and 99.3% against 4-week, 6-week and 8-week old immature flukes, and adult flukes respectively. The IVM plus clorsulon treated animals had significantly lower fluke counts compared to the untreated control animals for adult (P<0.0001) and 8-week old (P<0.05) flukes. The efficacy was 29.7%, 43.4%, 53.2% and 99.2% against 4-week, 6-week and 8-week old immature flukes, and adult flukes respectively. For treatments at 4, 6 and 8 weeks after infection, the fluke counts were significantly (P<0.0001) lower for the MOX plus TCBZ treatment than for IVM plus closantel or IVM plus clorsulon. The results confirm the high efficacy (>90%) of the MOX plus TCBZ pour-on combination against 4-week old to adult liver fluke in cattle. The IVM plus closantel pour-on combination was effective (>90%) against 8-week old and adult flukes, but had low efficacy against 4- and 6-week old fluke. The IVM plus clorsulon injectable combination was effective (>90%) against adult fluke only. PMID:22579500

Geurden, Thomas; Bartram, David; Van Brussel, Leen; Bo, Liu; Scott-Baird, Emer; Rugg, Douglas

2012-10-26

30

Time-course and accumulation of triclabendazole and its metabolites in bile, liver tissues and flukes collected from treated sheep.  

PubMed

The flukicidal compound triclabendazole (TCBZ) has a complex metabolic pattern that includes the systemic presence of its sulphoxide (TCBZ.SO) and sulphone (TCBZ.SO2) metabolites, usually recovered from the bile of treated animals. The aim of the current work was to evaluate the time-course and pattern of in vivo accumulation of TCBZ/metabolites into adult Fasciola hepatica specimens recovered from infected sheep. Twelve (12) healthy Corriedale sheep were orally infected with one hundred (100) metacercariae of the TCBZ-susceptible Cullomptom isolate of F. hepatica. Sixteen weeks after infection, animals were intraruminally treated with TCBZ (10mg/kg). At 3, 24, 48 and 60h post-treatment (pt), animals were sacrificed (n=3/time period) and samples of blood, bile, liver tissue and adult F. hepatica specimens were collected. The concentrations of TCBZ/metabolites were measured by HPLC. TCBZ.SO and TCBZ.SO2 were the only molecules recovered in the bloodstream, with peak plasma concentrations of 10.8?g/mL (TCBZ.SO) and 12.6?g/mL (TCBZ.SO2). The same metabolites were also the main analytes accumulated within the adult flukes, reaching peak concentrations between 6.35?g/g (TCBZ.SO) and 13.9?g/g (TCBZ.SO2) at 24h pt, which was coincident with the time when the maximum plasma concentration was attained. Low levels of TCBZ parent drug (0.14?g/g at 24h pt) were measured within collected flukes. TCBZ parent drug and its sulpho- and hydroxy-derivatives were recovered in bile collected from treated sheep between 3 and 60h pt. Although relatively high concentrations of hydroxy-TCBZ (ranging from 0.86 to 10.1?g/mL) were measured in bile, this metabolite was not recovered within the flukes at any time pt. Finally, TCBZ parent drug was the main compound accumulated in liver tissue over the 60h pt period. The time-course and drug concentration patterns within the adult liver fluke after TCBZ treatment followed a similar trend to those observed in plasma. Overall, the data reported here confirm that oral ingestion is a main route of drug entry into the trematode in vivo exposed to TCBZ/metabolites. However, the presence of TCBZ within the adult fluke (despite being absent in the systemic circulation) may be related to some degree of trans-tegumental diffusion from bile or by a direct oral ingestion from portal blood. PMID:24211244

Moreno, Laura; Ceballos, Laura; Fairweather, Ian; Lanusse, Carlos; Alvarez, Luis

2014-01-01

31

The role of hepatic myofibroblasts in liver cirrhosis in fallow deer (Dama dama) naturally infected with giant liver fluke (Fascioloides magna)  

PubMed Central

Background This paper describes liver cirrhosis in 35 fallow deer infected with the giant liver fluke, as well as the distribution, origin, and role of myofibroblasts in its development. Results In liver of infected deer, stripes of connective tissue are wound around groups of degenerated and regenerated liver lobuli. In the connective tissue, lymphocytes and macrophages which often contain parasite hematin are also present. The walls of the bile ducts are thickened, the epithelium multiplied with mucous metaplasia, and desquamated cells, parasite eggs and brown pigment are present in their lumen. In the livers with cirrhosis, immunopositivity to ?-SMA and desmin was observed in cells in portal and septal spaces, at the edge between fibrotic septa and the surrounding parenchyma and in perisinusoidal spaces. These cells vary in size, they are round, oval, spindle-shaped or irregular in shape, similar to vascular smooth muscle cells. The derangement of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions detected in chronic cholangiopathies is most probably the pro-fibrogenic mechanism in liver cirrhosis of fallow deer (Dama dama) infected with the giant liver fluke (Fascioloides magna). Conclusion Myofibroblasts, especially hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), play an important role in the synthesis of extracellular matrix components in the development of parasitic fibrosis and cirrhosis in the liver of fallow deer. PMID:23497565

2013-01-01

32

Fine-scale mapping of vector habitats using very high resolution satellite imagery: a liver fluke case-study.  

PubMed

The visualization of vector occurrence in space and time is an important aspect of studying vector-borne diseases. Detailed maps of possible vector habitats provide valuable information for the prediction of infection risk zones but are currently lacking for most parts of the world. Nonetheless, monitoring vector habitats from the finest scales up to farm level is of key importance to refine currently existing broad-scale infection risk models. Using Fasciola hepatica, a parasite liver fluke, as a case in point, this study illustrates the potential of very high resolution (VHR) optical satellite imagery to efficiently and semi-automatically detect detailed vector habitats. A WorldView2 satellite image capable of <5m resolution was acquired in the spring of 2013 for the area around Bruges, Belgium, a region where dairy farms suffer from liver fluke infections transmitted by freshwater snails. The vector thrives in small water bodies (SWBs), such as ponds, ditches and other humid areas consisting of open water, aquatic vegetation and/or inundated grass. These water bodies can be as small as a few m2 and are most often not present on existing land cover maps because of their small size. We present a classification procedure based on object-based image analysis (OBIA) that proved valuable to detect SWBs at a fine scale in an operational and semi-automated way. The classification results were compared to field and other reference data such as existing broad-scale maps and expert knowledge. Overall, the SWB detection accuracy reached up to 87%. The resulting fine-scale SWB map can be used as input for spatial distribution modelling of the liver fluke snail vector to enable development of improved infection risk mapping and management advice adapted to specific, local farm situations. PMID:25599638

De Roeck, Els; Van Coillie, Frieke; De Wulf, Robert; Soenen, Karen; Charlier, Johannes; Vercruysse, Jozef; Hantson, Wouter; Ducheyne, Els; Hendrickx, Guy

2014-01-01

33

Low genetic diversity in wide-spread Eurasian liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus suggests special demographic history of this trematode species.  

PubMed

Opisthorchis felineus or Siberian liver fluke is a trematode parasite (Opisthorchiidae) that infects the hepato-biliary system of humans and other mammals. Despite its public health significance, this wide-spread Eurasian species is one of the most poorly studied human liver flukes and nothing is known about its population genetic structure and demographic history. In this paper, we attempt to fill this gap for the first time and to explore the genetic diversity in O. felineus populations from Eastern Europe (Ukraine, European part of Russia), Northern Asia (Siberia) and Central Asia (Northern Kazakhstan). Analysis of marker DNA fragments from O. felineus mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 3 (cox1, cox3) and nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences revealed that genetic diversity is very low across the large geographic range of this species. Microevolutionary processes in populations of trematodes may well be influenced by their peculiar biology. Nevertheless, we suggest that lack of population genetics structure observed in O. felineus can be primarily explained by the Pleistocene glacial events and subsequent sudden population growth from a very limited group of founders. Rapid range expansion of O. felineus through Asian and European territories after severe bottleneck points to a high dispersal potential of this trematode species. PMID:23634228

Brusentsov, Ilja I; Katokhin, Alexey V; Brusentsova, Irina V; Shekhovtsov, Sergei V; Borovikov, Sergei N; Goncharenko, Grigoriy G; Lider, Lyudmila A; Romashov, Boris V; Rusinek, Olga T; Shibitov, Samat K; Suleymanov, Marat M; Yevtushenko, Andrey V; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A

2013-01-01

34

Low Genetic Diversity in Wide-Spread Eurasian Liver Fluke Opisthorchis felineus Suggests Special Demographic History of This Trematode Species  

PubMed Central

Opisthorchis felineus or Siberian liver fluke is a trematode parasite (Opisthorchiidae) that infects the hepato-biliary system of humans and other mammals. Despite its public health significance, this wide-spread Eurasian species is one of the most poorly studied human liver flukes and nothing is known about its population genetic structure and demographic history. In this paper, we attempt to fill this gap for the first time and to explore the genetic diversity in O. felineus populations from Eastern Europe (Ukraine, European part of Russia), Northern Asia (Siberia) and Central Asia (Northern Kazakhstan). Analysis of marker DNA fragments from O. felineus mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 3 (cox1, cox3) and nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences revealed that genetic diversity is very low across the large geographic range of this species. Microevolutionary processes in populations of trematodes may well be influenced by their peculiar biology. Nevertheless, we suggest that lack of population genetics structure observed in O. felineus can be primarily explained by the Pleistocene glacial events and subsequent sudden population growth from a very limited group of founders. Rapid range expansion of O. felineus through Asian and European territories after severe bottleneck points to a high dispersal potential of this trematode species. PMID:23634228

Brusentsov, Ilja I.; Katokhin, Alexey V.; Brusentsova, Irina V.; Shekhovtsov, Sergei V.; Borovikov, Sergei N.; Goncharenko, Grigoriy G.; Lider, Lyudmila A.; Romashov, Boris V.; Rusinek, Olga T.; Shibitov, Samat K.; Suleymanov, Marat M.; Yevtushenko, Andrey V.; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A.

2013-01-01

35

The effects of farm management practices on liver fluke prevalence and the current internal parasite control measures employed on Irish dairy farms.  

PubMed

Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica is responsible for major production losses in cattle farms. The objectives of this study were to assess the effect of farm management practices on liver fluke prevalence on Irish dairy farms and to document the current control measures against parasitic diseases. In total, 369 dairy farms throughout Ireland were sampled from October to December 2013, each providing a single bulk tank milk (BTM) sample for liver fluke antibody-detection ELISA testing and completing a questionnaire on their farm management. The analysis of samples showed that cows on 78% (n=288) of dairy farms had been exposed to liver fluke. There was a difference (P<0.05) between farms where cows were positive or negative for liver fluke antibodies in (a) the total number of adult dairy cows in herds, (b) the number of adult dairy cows contributing to BTM samples, and (c) the size of the total area of grassland, with positive farms having larger numbers in each case. There was no difference (P>0.05) between positive and negative farms in (a) the grazing of dry cows together with replacement cows, (b) whether or not grazed grassland was mowed for conservation, (c) the type of drinking water provision system, (d) spreading of cattle manure on grassland or (e) for grazing season length (GSL; mean=262.5 days). Also, there were differences (P<0.001) between drainage statuses for GSL with farms on good drainage having longer GSL than moderately drained farms. The GSL for dairy cows on farms with good drainage was 11 days longer than for those with moderate drainage (P<0.001). The percentage of farmers that used an active ingredient during the non-lactating period against liver fluke, gastrointestinal nematodes, lungworm, and rumen fluke was 96%, 85%, 77% and 90%, respectively. Albendazole was the most frequently used active ingredient for treatment against gastrointestinal nematodes (57%), liver fluke (40%) and lungworm (47%), respectively. There was a difference (P<0.05) in the use of triclabendazole and albendazole between positive and negative farms, with triclabendazole use being more common in positive farms. This study highlighted differences in dairy management practices between Irish farms with dairy herds exposed or not exposed to liver fluke and stressed the need of fine-scale mapping of the disease patterns even at farm level to increase the accuracy of risk models. Also, comprehensive advice and professional support services to farmers on appropriate farm management practices are very important for an effective anthelmintic control strategy. PMID:25591405

Selemetas, Nikolaos; Phelan, Paul; O'Kiely, Padraig; de Waal, Theo

2015-01-30

36

Landscape influence on spatial patterns of meningeal worm and liver fluke infection in white-tailed deer.  

PubMed

Parasites that primarily infect white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), such as liver flukes (Fascioloides magna) and meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis), can cause morbidity and mortality when incidentally infecting moose (Alces alces). Ecological factors are expected to influence spatial variation in infection risk by affecting the survival of free-living life stages outside the host and the abundance of intermediate gastropod hosts. Here, we investigate how ecology influenced the fine-scale distribution of these parasites in deer in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. Deer pellet groups (N = 295) were sampled for the presence of P. tenuis larvae and F. magna eggs. We found that deer were significantly more likely to be infected with P. tenuis in habitats with less upland deciduous forest and more upland mixed conifer forest and shrub, a pattern that mirrored microhabitat differences in gastropod abundances. Deer were also more likely to be infected with F. magna in areas with more marshland, specifically rooted-floating aquatic marshes (RFAMs). The environment played a larger role than deer density in determining spatial patterns of infection for both parasites, highlighting the importance of considering ecological factors on all stages of a parasite's life cycle in order to understand its occurrence within the definitive host. PMID:25498206

Vanderwaal, Kimberly L; Windels, Steve K; Olson, Bryce T; Vannatta, J Trevor; Moen, Ron

2015-04-01

37

Activity of tribendimidine and praziquantel combination therapy against the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Opisthorchiasis, caused by the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini, a food-borne trematode, is an important public health problem; however, only a single drug, praziquantel is available. We investigated tribendimidine-praziquantel combinations against O. viverrini in vitro and in vivo. The IC50 values of 0.16 ?g/ml and 0.05 ?g/ml were determined for praziquantel and tribendimidine, respectively, against adult O. viverrini in vitro. When O. viverrini was exposed to both drugs simultaneously (using a drug ratio based on the IC50 (1:3.2)) a synergistic effect was calculated (combination index (CI) at the IC50= 0.7). A similar result was observed when drug addition in vitro was spaced by the respective half-lives of the drugs (a CI of 0.78 at the IC50 for tribendimidine followed by praziquantel and a CI of 0.47 at the IC50 for praziquantel followed by tribendimidine). In vivo median-effect dose (ED50) values of 191 mg/kg and 147 mg/kg were calculated for praziquantel and tribendimidine, respectively. Low to moderate worm burden reductions (38-62%) were observed in O. viverrini infected hamsters when both drugs were administered simultaneously or on subsequent days, pointing to antagonistic effects in vivo. Further studies are necessary to understand the striking differences between the in vitro and in vivo observations using combinations of praziquantel and tribendimidine on O. viverrini. PMID:22892101

Keiser, J; Adelfio, R; Vargas, M; Odermatt, P; Tesana, S

2013-06-01

38

Opisthorchis viverrini-like liver fluke in birds from Vietnam: morphological variability and rDNA/mtDNA sequence confirmation.  

PubMed

Flukes were found in the bile ducts of domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos), necropsied in the Binh Dinh province of Central Vietnam. Following staining, morphological characteristics of the bird flukes were compatible with Opisthorchis viverrini, although some characteristics differed from those described in specimens collected from mammal hosts. Computation of the phylogenetic trees on the partial sequences of the second internal ribosomal spacer (ITS2) of the ribosomal DNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) markers of the mitochondrial DNA showed close similarity of the 'bird' Opisthorchis sp. with O. viverrini. We speculate that these bird flukes are O. viverrini that show intraspecies morphological and molecular variability compared to isolates from mammals. This demonstrates the complex epidemiological situation of opisthorchiasis in Vietnam and urges investigations on the potential of birds as a reservoir host of this zoonotic fluke. PMID:23721954

Dao, T H; Nguyen, T G; Victor, B; Gabriël, S; Dorny, P

2014-12-01

39

Inhibitory effect of essential oils of Allium sativum and Piper longum on spontaneous muscular activity of liver fluke, Fasciola gigantica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of essential oil of Allium sativum (garlic) and Piper longum (Indian long pepper) were evaluated on muscular activity of whole Fasciola gigantica and its strip preparation. The whole flukes and longitudinal strip preparations of the flukes were isometrically mounted to record the spontaneous muscular activity (SMA) and to evaluate effects of cumulative doses (0.1, 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0mg\\/ml) of

Thakur Uttam Singh; Dinesh Kumar; Surendra Kumar Tandan; Santosh Kumar Mishra

2009-01-01

40

ClonorESTdb: a comprehensive database for Clonorchis sinensis EST sequences  

PubMed Central

Background Clonorchiasis, which is primarily caused by liver fluke (Platyhelminthes), is a fatal infectious disease that is mainly associated with bile duct malignancy and the subsequent development of cholangiocarcinoma. Thus, a genomic approach now represents an important step to further our knowledge of biology and the pathology of these parasites. The results of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) sequencing need to be well organized into databases to provide an integrated set of tools and functional information. Findings Here, the ClonorESTdb database represents a collection of Clonorchis sinensis ESTs that is intended as a resource for parasite functional genomics. A total of 55,736 successful EST sequences, which are cleaned and clustered into non-redundant 13,305 C. sinensis assembled EST sequences (6,497 clusters and 6,808 singletons), were obtained from three in-house prepared cDNA libraries of C. sinensis at different developmental stages. The assembled consensus sequences were annotated using the BLAST algorithm or/and hmm against NCBI NR, UniProt, KEGG and InterProScan. The ClonorESTdb database provides functional annotation, their expression profiles, tandem repeats and putative single nucleotide polymorphisms with utility tools such as local BLAST search and text retrieval. Conclusions This resource enables the researcher to identify and compare expression signatures under different biological stages and promotes ongoing parasite drug and vaccine development and biological research. Database URL: http://pathod.cdc.go.kr/clonorestdb/ PMID:24957044

2014-01-01

41

Liver Fluke Infection and Fish Consumption in Khon Kaen, Thailand: A Case Study on Negotiating the Middle Ground between Western Science and Eastern Culture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research investigates why typical strategies for promoting health, prolonging life, and preventing disease do not work in many communities. I use the liver fluke infection endemic in Khon Kaen, Thailand to explore the middle ground between Western science and Eastern culture. Prior work on the O.viverrini infection in Khon Kaen, Thailand has focused almost exclusively on developing effective medical treatment for the liver fluke infection. This dissertation employs a case study designed to explore the conditions that created and perpetuate the problem in the first place. In concrete terms, I analyze how the worldviews of local villagers shape their attitudes toward life (and death), which in turn determine if they engage in the high-risk behavior -- eating undercooked fish -- that makes them vulnerable to the infection. My research focuses on these people in-situ over a three-month period, and includes data from participant-observation, interviews, and video-recordings. This work seeks to illuminate how people's thinking and reasoning skills, and personal/cultural identities affect their abilities to learn and act on new health concepts. This potentially provides a window into future educational strategies in a complex world.

Samiphak, Sara

42

A scanning electron microscope study on the route of entry of clorsulon into the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica.  

PubMed

Three experiments were carried out in vitro to determine the roles of the tegument and gut of Fasciola hepatica in the uptake of the flukicidal drug, clorsulon. Changes to the two surfaces were assessed by scanning electron microscopy. In the first experiment, the flukes were ligatured to prevent the oral ingestion of drug and treated for 24 h in clorsulon (10 microg/ml). The gastrodermal surface remained normal and few changes to the tegumental surface were observed. In the second experiment, flukes were fed for 24 h on red blood cells isolated from rats dosed with clorsulon at 12.5 mg/kg body weight; this experiment was designed to prevent the exposure of the tegumental surface to the drug. The gastrodermal surface was severely disrupted and the gut lamellae were disorganised and necrotic. Swelling of the tegument and blebbing on the tegumental surface were evident, but the changes were not severe. More severe swelling of the tegument was observed in the third experiment, in which flukes were incubated for 24 h in clorsulon (10 microg/ml), with both absorptive surfaces being available for drug uptake. The gastrodermal surface was badly disrupted and the gut lamellae were disorganised and necrotic. Taking the results of the three experiments together, the gastrodermal surface was more affected than the tegument and the greatest disruption to the two surfaces was seen when both routes of entry were available to the fluke. The data support a previous study which indicated that entry of clorsulon into the fluke in vivo is principally by the oral ingestion of drug bound to the red blood cells. PMID:15592937

Meaney, M; Haughey, S; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

2005-01-01

43

Efficacy of treatment of cattle for liver fluke at housing: influence of differences in flukicidal activity against juvenile Fasciola hepatica.  

PubMed

Flukicides are commonly administered at housing to cattle that have grazed fluke-infected pastures or that have been purchased from endemic areas. The choice of product is determined by numerous factors, one of which is the stages of Fasciola hepatica that are killed. Flukicides can be categorised into three main groups: (A) those that kill all juvenile stages and adults; (B) those that kill juveniles from six to eight weeks of age and adults and (C) those that kill adults only. This study was conducted on a commercial beef farm in Scotland and was designed to compare the efficacy of flukicides from each of these three classes in terms of their effects on faecal egg output, coproantigen and liveweight gain. The majority of animals in the untreated control group were positive for coproantigen, fluke eggs or both throughout the study duration of 16?weeks. Egg reappearance interval following housing treatment was eight weeks for clorsulon and 13?weeks for nitroxynil, though patent infections in both groups developed in only a small minority of animals; no fluke eggs were recovered from cattle treated with triclabendazole. Coproantigen was detected four weeks before the reappearance of fluke eggs in the dung. Animals treated with flukicides had significantly fewer faecal samples positive for eggs (P<0.006) and coproantigen (P<0.05) following treatment compared with the controls. Despite differences in the efficacy profiles among the flukicide-treated groups, there were no significant differences (P>0.05) in growth rates among any of the four treatment groups. There was, however, a significant negative association (P<0.001) between fluke positivity at housing and subsequent growth performance, irrespective of treatment group. PMID:25549916

Forbes, A B; Reddick, D; Stear, M J

2015-03-28

44

Cytokine/Chemokine Secretion and Proteomic Identification of Upregulated Annexin A1 from Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Cocultured with the Liver Fluke Opisthorchis viverrini  

PubMed Central

We investigated the cytokine/chemokine secretions and alteration of protein expression from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) cocultured with adult liver flukes (Opisthorchis viverrini) for 6 to 24 h. PBMC-derived proteins were identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, and the cytokines/chemokines in the supernatant were assessed using a cytokine array. Exposure to O. viverrini induced increases in secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, costimulating protein, adhesion molecules, and chemotactic chemokines relative to untreated controls. In contrast, secretion of the CD40 ligand, interleukin 16, and macrophage inflammatory protein 1? decreased. Proteomic analysis revealed that expression of 48 proteins was significantly altered in PBMCs stimulated with O. viverrini. Annexin A1 (ANXA1) was selected for further study, and immunoblotting showed upregulation of ANXA1 expression in PBMCs after 12 and 24 h coculture with liver flukes. In an in vivo study, transcription and translation of ANXA1 significantly increased in livers of hamsters infected with O. viverrini at 21 days and from 3 months onwards compared to normal controls. Interestingly, immunohistochemistry revealed that ANXA1 was present not only in the cytoplasm of inflammatory cells but also in the cytoplasm of cholangiocytes, which are in close contact with the parasite and its excretory/secretory products in the biliary system. Expression of ANXA1 increased with time concomitant with bile duct enlargement, bile duct formation, and epithelial cell proliferation. In conclusion, several cytokines/chemokines secreted by PBMCs and upregulation of ANXA1 in PBMCs and biliary epithelial cells might have a role in host defense against O. viverrini infection and tissue resolution of inflammation. PMID:24614660

Hongsrichan, Nuttanan; Intuyod, Kitti; Pinlaor, Porntip; Khoontawad, Jarinya; Yongvanit, Puangrat; Wongkham, Chaisiri; Roytrakul, Sittiruk

2014-01-01

45

Ultrastructural observations on oral ingestion and trans-tegumental uptake of clorsulon by the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica.  

PubMed

Three experiments have been carried out in vitro to determine the effect of oral and trans-tegumental uptake of clorsulon on the fine structure of the tegument and gut of Fasciola hepatica. Changes were assessed by transmission electron microscopy. In the first experiment, the flukes were ligatured to prevent the oral ingestion of drug and treated for 24 h in clorsulon (10 microg/ml). Limited swelling of the basal infolds was observed in the tegumental syncytium. Swollen mitochondria were present in the syncytium, the underlying tegumental cells and in the gastrodermal cells. Swelling and vesiculation of the cisternae of the granular endoplasmic reticulum (ger) was evident in the gastrodermal cells, together with a reduction in secretory activity. In the second experiment, flukes were fed for 24 h on red blood cells isolated from rats dosed with clorsulon at 12.5 mg/kg body weight; this experiment was designed to prevent the exposure of the tegumental surface to the drug. There was severe swelling of the basal infolds in the tegumental syncytium and swelling of mitochondria in the syncytium, tegumental cells and gastrodermal cells. In the tegumental cells there was a decrease in the number of Golgi complexes as well. A number of changes were evident in the gastrodermal cells: swelling of the ger cisternae, an increase in the number of autophagic vacuoles, a reduction in the number of secretory bodies and disruption of the lamellae projecting from the surface of the cells. In the third experiment, flukes were incubated for 24 h in clorsulon (10 microg/ml), with both absorptive surfaces being available for drug uptake. There was severe swelling of the basal infolds in the tegumental syncytium and large autophagic vacuoles were present. Swollen mitochondria were a feature of the tegument, tegumental cells and gastrodermal cells, as were swollen cisternae of ger in the tegumental and gastrodermal cells. Fewer Golgi complexes were observed in the tegumental cells and in the gastrodermal cells there were fewer secretory bodies and an increased number of autophagic vacuoles. Overall, the gastrodermal cells were more severely affected than the tegument. Greater disruption of the tegument occurred when the oral route of uptake was available. The results support those of previous studies which point to oral uptake of clorsulon being the major route of entry into the fluke. PMID:15645289

Meaney, M; Haughey, S; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

2005-02-01

46

High Prevalence of the Liver Fluke Amphimerus sp. in Domestic Cats and Dogs in an Area for Human Amphimeriasis in Ecuador  

PubMed Central

Background Amphimerus sp. is a liver fluke which recently has been shown to have a high prevalence of infection among an indigenous group, Chachi, who reside in a tropical rainforest in the northwestern region of Ecuador. Since it is unknown which animals can act as a reservoir and/or definitive hosts for Amphimerus sp. in this endemic area, a study was done to determine the prevalence of infection in domestic cats and dogs. This information is important to understand the epidemiology, life cycle and control of this parasite. Methodology/Findings In July 2012, three Chachi communities located on Rio Cayapas, province of Esmeraldas, were surveyed. A total of 89 of the 109 registered households participated in the study. Of the 27 cats and 43 dogs found residing in the communities, stool samples were collected from 14 cats and 31 dogs (total of 45 animals) and examined microscopically for the presence of Amphimerus eggs. The prevalence of infection was 71.4% in cats and 38.7% in dogs, with similar rates of infection in all three communities. Significantly more cats were infected than dogs (p = 0.042). Conclusions/Significance The data show a high rate of Amphimerus sp. infection in domestic cats and dogs residing in Chachi communities. It can be concluded that these animals act as definitive and reservoir hosts for this liver fluke and that amphimeriasis is a zoonotic disease. These findings provide important epidemiological data which will aid in the development and implementation of control strategies against the transmission of Amphimerus. PMID:25647171

Calvopiña, Manuel; Cevallos, William; Atherton, Richard; Saunders, Matthew; Small, Alexander; Kumazawa, Hideo; Sugiyama, Hiromu

2015-01-01

47

A cross-sectional study on the potential transmission of the carcinogenic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini and other fishborne zoonotic trematodes by aquaculture fish.  

PubMed

Throughout Southeast Asia and China, eating raw and or partially cooked cyprinid fish causes liver (hepatobiliary) disease and cancer (cholangiocarcinoma) due to fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT), in particular Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini. The primary source of transmission is by native fish, but aquaculture fish are also reported to have high infective potential. Here, a cross-sectional survey of FZT in fish farms was conducted in an endemic area in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand. By using conventional and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods, we detected O. viverrini and FZT metacercariae (Centrocestus formosanus and Haplorchis taichui) in two popular fish species, Barbonymus gonionotus (silver barb) and Cirrhinus mrigala (mrigal), from aquaculture farms. Both species were infected in five of six farms examined by PCR but not by conventional methods, yet the prevalence of FZT metacercariae in aquaculture fish was high (46.9%). In addition to O. viverrini (17.1%), the native fish Cyclocheilichthys armatus and Hampala dispar had a prevalence of FZT of 81.4%, which included 5.7% for C. formosanus and 17.1% for H. taichui by conventional method. To our knowledge, this is the first discovery of O. viverrini in aquaculture fish in Thailand. More comprehensive studies are required to determine if human-induced disease transmission coupled with natural transmission cycle occurs throughout the aquaculture industry in the region. This has significant impact on food quality and safety, and provides the basis for the development of an effective strategy for the prevention and control of foodborne diseases. PMID:23320421

Pitaksakulrat, Opal; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Laoprom, Nonglak; Laha, Thewarach; Petney, Trevor N; Andrews, Ross H

2013-01-01

48

Molecular differentiation of Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis eggs by multiplex real-time PCR with high resolution melting analysis.  

PubMed

Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis are parasites known to be carcinogenic and causative agents of cholangiocarcinoma in Asia. The standard method for diagnosis for those parasite infections is stool examination to detect parasite eggs. However, the method has low sensitivity, and eggs of O. viverrini and C. sinensis are difficult to distinguish from each other and from those of some other trematodes. Here, we report a multiplex real-time PCR coupled with high resolution melting (HRM) analysis for the differentiation of O. viverrini and C. sinensis eggs in fecal samples. Using 2 pairs of species-specific primers, DNA sequences from a portion of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (nad 2) gene, were amplified to generate 209 and 165 bp products for O. viverrini and C. sinensis, respectively. The distinct characteristics of HRM patterns were analyzed, and the melting temperatures peaked at 82.4±0.09? and 85.9±0.08? for O. viverrini and C. sinensis, respectively. This technique was able to detect as few as 1 egg of O. viverrini and 2 eggs of C. sinensis in a 150 mg fecal sample, which is equivalent to 7 and 14 eggs per gram of feces, respectively. The method is species-specific, rapid, simple, and does not require fluorescent probes or post-PCR processing for discrimination of eggs of the 2 species. It offers a new tool for differentiation and detection of Asian liver fluke infections in stool specimens. PMID:24516275

Kaewkong, Worasak; Intapan, Pewpan M; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Maleewong, Wanchai

2013-12-01

49

A tegument-specific venom allergen-like protein of Clonorchis sinensis.  

PubMed

Venom allergen-like (VAL) proteins, members of the SCP/TAPS (sperm coating protein/Tpx-1/Ag5/PR-1/Sc7) protein superfamily, have been reported from several parasitic helminths. As little is known about their biological functions, a VAL protein of the Chinese liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis was cloned and characterized. A complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding a 25-kDa protein was identified from an EST database of C. sinensis. A BLAST search revealed that the protein shares 46% sequence identity with Schistosoma mansoni VAL 13 protein, and thus, the protein was named CsVAL13. Multiple sequence alignment indicated that the SCP/TAPS domain of CsVAL13 shares 39-46% sequence identity with VAL proteins from parasitic helminths. His and Tyr, which help to stabilize protein structure, were highly conserved across the VAL protein sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the SCP/TAPS domain of the CsVAL13 sequence clusters together with other group 2 VAL protein sequences. In the homology-modeled structure of CsVAL13, an ?-?-? sandwich and residues for a putative active site were highly conserved. Immune sera were obtained from BALB/c mice immunized with the recombinant CsVAL13 protein. Immunohistochemical localization using the immune sera revealed that CsVAL13 was distributed mainly in the tegument and intrauterine eggs of adult C. sinensis. These findings suggest that CsVAL13 may be involved in host-parasite interactions and immune stimulation on the surrounding host environments. PMID:25403376

Woo, Hea Sun; Kim, Tae Yun; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Yong, Tai-Soon

2015-01-01

50

RNA-Seq Reveals Infection-Induced Gene Expression Changes in the Snail Intermediate Host of the Carcinogenic Liver Fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini  

PubMed Central

Background Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos is the snail intermediate host of the liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, the leading cause of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) in the Greater Mekong sub-region of Thailand. Despite the severe public health impact of Opisthorchis-induced CCA, knowledge of the molecular interactions occurring between the parasite and its snail intermediate host is scant. The examination of differences in gene expression profiling between uninfected and O. viverrini-infected B. siamensis goniomphalos could provide clues on fundamental pathways involved in the regulation of snail-parasite interplay. Methodology/Principal Findings Using high-throughput (Illumina) sequencing and extensive bioinformatic analyses, we characterized the transcriptomes of uninfected and O. viverrini-infected B. siamensis goniomphalos. Comparative analyses of gene expression profiling allowed the identification of 7,655 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), associated to 43 distinct biological pathways, including pathways associated with immune defense mechanisms against parasites. Amongst the DEGs with immune functions, transcripts encoding distinct proteases displayed the highest down-regulation in Bithynia specimens infected by O. viverrini; conversely, transcription of genes encoding heat-shock proteins and actins was significantly up-regulated in parasite-infected snails when compared to the uninfected counterparts. Conclusions/Significance The present study lays the foundation for functional studies of genes and gene products potentially involved in immune-molecular mechanisms implicated in the ability of the parasite to successfully colonize its snail intermediate host. The annotated dataset provided herein represents a ready-to-use molecular resource for the discovery of molecular pathways underlying susceptibility and resistance mechanisms of B. siamensis goniomphalos to O. viverrini and for comparative analyses with pulmonate snail intermediate hosts of other platyhelminths including schistosomes. PMID:24676090

Prasopdee, Sattrachai; Sotillo, Javier; Tesana, Smarn; Laha, Thewarach; Kulsantiwong, Jutharat; Nolan, Matthew J.

2014-01-01

51

Effects of Bayluscide on Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos, the first intermediate host of the human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, in laboratory and field trials.  

PubMed

The molluscicidal effects of Bayluscide (niclosamide) were investigated on Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos, the first intermediate host of human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini. Lethal concentrations of 50% (LC(50)) and 95% (LC(95)) against young and adult males were 0.38 and 0.80, 0.42 and 0.86 ppm, respectively. The LC(50) and LC(95) against young and adult females were 0.42 and 0.86, 0.46 and 0.97 ppm, respectively. No significant differences in mortality rate between sexes or snail size (p > 0.05) was detected. Bayluscide-related tissue damage in B. siamensis goniomphalos included detachment of cilia of the epithelial layer of the digestive tract and decreased number of calcium cells. In tests of lethal concentrations of Bayluscide on non-target animals, no lethal effect was observed on Filopaludina martensi martensi (Viviparous snail) but high mortality rates were recorded in Puntius gonionotus fingerling, Ricefish (Oryzias mekongensis) and shrimp (Macrobrachium lanchesteri), but lower in guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) after 24h exposure. For field trials, sufficient Bayluscide was sprayed in 3 roadside ditches to result in final concentrations of 5, 10 or 20 ppm, with mortality rates on B. siamensis goniomphalos of 10.94, 20.00 and 31.25%, respectively. Non-target snails died in small numbers but no effect was observed in other aquatic vertebrate animals. Field trials of Bayluscide on B. siamensis goniomphalos revealed low mortality rates, suggesting the need for application methods of higher efficacy or that Bayluscide is not suitable for application to operculate snails or snails which are able to escape by burying in mud. PMID:21864711

Tesana, S; Thapsripair, P; Thammasiri, C; Prasopdee, S; Suwannatrai, A; Harauy, S; Piratae, S; Khampoosa, P; Kulsantiwong, J; Donthaisong, C; Chalokepanrat, P; Viyanant, V; Malone, J B

2012-03-01

52

Microscopic identification of possible Clonorchis/Opisthorchis infection in two Ghanaian women with undiagnosed abdominal discomfort: two case reports  

PubMed Central

Introduction The impact of foodborne trematode infections is gaining recognition worldwide. Clonorchiasis and opisthorchiasis are some of the most neglected tropical foodborne diseases that pose a significant threat to human health. Persistent or chronic infection of Clonorchis/Opisthorchis often leads to hepatobiliary diseases including cholangitis, cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, pancreatitis, hepatic fibrosis, cholangiocarcinoma and liver cancer. Two cases of Clonorchis/Opisthorchis infection in humans in the Central Region of Ghana are reported. Case presentation Eggs suspected to be from Clonorchis sinensis or Opisthorchis species were detected in the stools of a 29-year-old Ghanaian woman and an 18-year-old Ghanaian woman in two clinics in the Central Region of Ghana. The diagnosis was based on clinical symptoms as well as detection of the eggs of the trematode in the faeces of the patients using light microscopy after staining with Giemsa or Ziehl–Neelsen stains. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge these are the first documented cases of Clonorchis sinensis or Opisthorchis species infection in Ghana. The detection of this infection in these patients in Ghana should be of concern to clinicians because the infection can be easily misdiagnosed since the accompanying clinical symptoms are malaria-like. Consideration should therefore be given to Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis species when diagnosing patients presenting with malaria-like symptoms. PMID:25399721

2014-01-01

53

Biochemical Characterization and Differential Expression of a 16.5-Kilodalton Tegument-Associated Antigen from the Liver Fluke Fasciola hepatica  

PubMed Central

A cDNA encoding a 16.5-kDa protein termed FhTP16.5 was identified by immunoscreening of a cDNA library from Fasciola hepatica adult flukes using pooled sera from rabbits infected with F. hepatica for 4 weeks. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qPCR) analysis revealed that FhTP16.5 is not expressed in unembryonated eggs. It is poorly expressed in miracidia and highly expressed at the juvenile and adult stages; however, significant differences were found between the expression levels of FhTP16.5 in juveniles versus adult flukes. Recombinant FhTP16.5 was expressed at high levels in Escherichia coli, purified by affinity chromatography, and used to raise anti-FhTP16.5 polyclonal antibodies in rabbits. Immunoblot analysis using the anti-FhTP16.5 IgG antibody identified FhTP16.5 in crude and tegumental extracts and in excretory-secretory products of F. hepatica. The protein was not detected in crude extracts of Schistosoma mansoni or Schistosoma japonicum. Antibodies to FhTP16.5 were detected in the sera of rabbits at 3 to 12 weeks of F. hepatica infection as well as in the sera of humans with chronic fascioliasis; these findings suggest that FhTP16.5 could be a good antigen for serodiagnosis of fascioliasis. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that FhTP16.5 localizes to the surface of the tegument of various developmental stages and in parenchymal tissues of the adult fluke. Such specific localization makes FhTP16.5 an attractive target for immunoprophylaxis or chemotherapy. PMID:22278327

Gaudier, José F.; Cabán-Hernández, Kimberly; Osuna, Antonio

2012-01-01

54

Clonorchis sinensis-derived total protein attenuates airway inflammation in murine asthma model by inducing regulatory T cells and modulating dendritic cell functions  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} Treatment with Clonorchis sinensis-derived total protein attenuates OVA-induced airway inflammation and AHR to methacholine. {yields} Induction of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +}Foxp3{sup +} T cells and IL-10 along with suppression of splenocyte proliferation by C. sinensis-derived total protein. {yields} C. sinensis-derived total protein interferes with the expression of co-stimulatory molecules in DCs. -- Abstract: Asthma is characterized by Th2-mediated inflammation, resulting in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) through airway remodeling. Recent epidemiological and experimental reports have suggested an inverse relationship between the development of allergy and helminth infections. Infection by Clonorchis sinensis, a liver fluke that resides in the bile duct of humans, is endemic predominantly in Asia including Korea and China. Using a murine model for asthma, we investigated the effects of C. sinensis-derived total protein (Cs-TP) on allergen-induced airway inflammation and the mechanism underlying the protective effects of Cs-TP administration on asthma. Treatment with Cs-TP attenuated OVA-induced airway inflammation and methacholine-induced AHR, as well as eosinophilia development, lymphocyte infiltration into the lung, and goblet cell metaplasia. This protective effect of Cs-TP is associated with markedly reduced OVA-specific IgE and Th1/Th2 cytokine production. Moreover, Cs-TP increased the number of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +}Foxp3{sup +} regulatory T (Treg) cells as well as their suppressive activity. In fact, proliferation of OVA-restimulated splenocytes was suppressed significantly. Cs-TP also inhibited the expression of such co-stimulatory molecules as CD80, CD86, and CD40 in LPS- or OVA-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs), suggesting that Cs-TP could interfere with the capacity of airway DCs to prime naive T cells. These data demonstrate the capacity of C. sinensis to ameliorate allergic asthma and broaden our understanding of the paradoxical relationship between the allergic immune response and helminth infection.

Jeong, Young-Il [Div. of Malaria and Parasitic Diseases, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Osong (Korea, Republic of)] [Div. of Malaria and Parasitic Diseases, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Osong (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Hyun [Div. of AIDS, National Institute of Health, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Osong (Korea, Republic of)] [Div. of AIDS, National Institute of Health, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Osong (Korea, Republic of); Ju, Jung Won; Cho, Shin Hyeong; Lee, Won Ja [Div. of Malaria and Parasitic Diseases, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Osong (Korea, Republic of)] [Div. of Malaria and Parasitic Diseases, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Osong (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Wook; Park, Yeong-Min [Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Yang-San (Korea, Republic of)] [Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Yang-San (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Eun, E-mail: ondalgl@cdc.go.kr [Div. of Malaria and Parasitic Diseases, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Osong (Korea, Republic of)

2011-04-22

55

Unchanged triclabendazole kinetics after co-administration with ivermectin and methimazole: failure of its therapeutic activity against triclabendazole-resistant liver flukes  

PubMed Central

Background The reduced drug accumulation based on enhanced drug efflux and metabolic capacity, identified in triclabendazole (TCBZ)-resistant Fasciola hepatica may contribute to the development of resistance to TCBZ. The aim of this work was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of TCBZ administered alone or co-administered with ivermectin (IVM, efflux modulator) and methimazole (MTZ, metabolic inhibitor) in TCBZ-resistant F. hepatica-parasitized sheep. Sheep infected with TCBZ-resistant F. hepatica (Sligo isolate) were divided into three groups (n = 4): untreated control, TCBZ-treated (i.r. at 10 mg/kg) and TCBZ+IVM+MTZ treated sheep (10 i.r., 0.2 s.c. and 1.5 i.m. mg/kg, respectively). Plasma samples were collected and analysed by HPLC. In the clinical efficacy study, the animals were sacrificed at 15 days post-treatment to evaluate the comparative efficacy against TCBZ-resistant F. hepatica. Results The presence of IVM and MTZ did not affect the plasma disposition kinetics of TCBZ metabolites after the i.r. administration of TCBZ. The AUC value of TCBZ.SO obtained after TCBZ administration (653.9 ± 140.6 ?g.h/ml) was similar to that obtained after TCBZ co-administered with IVM and MTZ (650.7 ± 122.8 ?g.h/ml). Efficacy values of 56 and 38% were observed for TCBZ alone and for the combined treatment, respectively. No statistical differences (P > 0.05) were observed in fluke counts between treated groups and untreated control, which confirm the resistant status of the Sligo isolate. Conclusions The presence of IVM and MTZ did not affect the disposition kinetics of TCBZ and its metabolites. Thus, the combined drug treatment did not reverse the poor efficacy of TCBZ against TCBZ-resistant F. hepatica. PMID:20128898

2010-01-01

56

Liver cancer: descriptive epidemiology and risk factors other than HBV and HCV infection.  

PubMed

The incidence of liver cancer is high in all low-resource regions of the world, with the exception of Northern Africa and Western Asia. The estimated worldwide number of new cases of liver cancer in 2002 is 600,000, of which 82% are from developing countries. Given the poor survival from this disease, the estimated number of deaths is similar to that of new cases. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the main form of liver cancer. A part from chronic infections with Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C viruses, which are the main causes of HCC, contamination of foodstuff with aflatoxins, a group of mycotoxins produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is an important contributor to HCC burden in many low-income country. Alcoholic cirrhosis is an important risk factor for HCC in populations with low prevalence of HBV and HCV infection, and the association between tobacco smoking and HCC is now established. Diabetes is also related to an excess risk of HCC and the increased prevalence of overweight and obesity likely contributes to it. The second most important type of liver cancer is cholangiocarcinoma, whose main known cause is infestation with the liver flukes, Opistorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis, which is frequent in some areas in South-East Asia. Angiosarcoma is a rare form of liver cancer whose occurence is linked to occupational exposure to vinyl chloride. PMID:19091458

Chuang, Shu-Chun; La Vecchia, Carlo; Boffetta, Paolo

2009-12-01

57

Epidemiological study on Clonorchis sinensis infection in Shenzhen area of Zhujiang delta in China.  

PubMed

To study the transmission route and epidemiological features of Clonorchis sinensis infection in Shenzhen area, which is the biggest immigration city in the south of China, we examined 1,473 individuals (710 males and 763 females) to assess the current status of C. sinensis infection among the people in a village of Shenzhen in Zhujiang delta of Guangdong province, China. Freshwater snails, 630, of different species known as the first intermediate host of C. sinensis were collected and examined for cercaria infection, and 430 freshwater fishes of different species as the second intermediate host were examined for metacercaria infection. Among 1,473 people examined, 70 (4.75%) were found infected with C. sinensis. By counting eggs per gram feces (EPG), it was found that the intensity of infection in males was stronger than that of females, and the average EPG was 41.87 in all population. Snails, 1.15%, were infected with cercariae of C. sinensis. The average infection rate of freshwater fishes of 15 species with metacercariae of C. sinensis was 16.97%, and the carps reached the highest infection rate (40.74%). A questionnaire was designed with 12 questions covering socioeconomic conditions and human behavior, contamination of the environment, and fishponds. Of 1,473 interviewees, 54% did not know about fluke disease or its transmission route, 12% of those who knew about the fluke believed that the infection causes no harm or only slight harm to their health. Of the interviewees, 27%, ate raw fish at least one to two times per month. Of families, 5% used the same utensils for both raw fish and cooked food. Of the fishpond owners, 40% fed their fishes with feces of domestic animals and humans. All these factors of unhealthy behaviors, poor knowledge, inappropriate farming/fishery practices, and eating raw fish have made the prevalence of clonorchiasis increase in humans in the Shenzhen area. It is urgent to perform a control program, including health education, environmental modification, reform of traditional farming/fishery practice, mass screening, and chemotherapy for humans, and the management of domestic animals to decrease C. sinensis infection in the human population in Shenzhen. PMID:17216484

Zhang, Renli; Gao, Shitong; Geng, Yijie; Huang, Dana; Yu, Lei; Zhang, Shunxiang; Cheng, Jingquan; Fu, Yucai

2007-06-01

58

Cloning and expression of mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase of Clonorchis sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NAD-dependent mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mMDH, EC1.1.1.37) plays pivotal roles in tricarboxylic acid and is crucial\\u000a for the survival and pathogenecity of parasites. A cDNA, which was identified by high throughput sequencing from the cDNA\\u000a library constructed from adult Clonorchis sinensis, encoded a putative peptide of 341 amino acids with more than 50% identity with mMDHs from other organisms. The

Nancai Zheng; Baoming Huang; Jin Xu; Shansheng Huang; Jinzhong Chen; Xuchu Hu; Chaoneng Ji; Kang Ying; Xinbing Yu

2008-01-01

59

A major cathepsin B protease from the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica has atypical active site features and a potential role in the digestive tract of newly excysted juvenile parasites  

PubMed Central

The newly excysted juvenile (NEJ) stage of the Fasciola hepatica lifecycle occurs just prior to invasion into the wall of the gut of the host, rendering it an important target for drug development. The cathepsin B enzymes from NEJ flukes have recently been demonstrated to be crucial to invasion and migration by the parasite. Here we characterize one of the cathepsin B enzymes (recombinant FhcatB1) from NEJ flukes. FhcatB1 has biochemical properties distinct from mammalian cathepsin B enzymes, with an atypical preference for Ile over Leu or Arg residues at the P2 substrate position and an inability to act as an exopeptidase. FhcatB1 was active across a broad pH range (optimal activity at pH 5.5–7.0) and resistant to inhibition by cystatin family inhibitors from sheep and humans, suggesting that this enzyme would be able to function in extracellular environments in its mammalian hosts. It appears, however, that the FhcatB1 protease functions largely as a digestive enzyme in the gut of the parasite, due to the localization of a specific, fluorescently labeled inhibitor with an Ile at the P2 position. Molecular modelling and dynamics were used to predict the basis for the unusual substrate specificity: a P2 Ile residue positions the substrate optimally for interaction with catalytic residues of the enzyme, and the enzyme lacks an occluding loop His residue crucial for exopeptidase activity. The unique features of the enzyme, particularly with regard to its specificity and likely importance to a vital stage of the parasite’s life cycle, make it an excellent target for therapeutic inhibitors or vaccination. PMID:19401154

Beckham, Simone A.; Piedrafita, David; Phillips, Carolyn I.; Samarawickrema, Nirma; Law, Ruby H.P.; Smooker, Peter M.; Quinsey, Noelene S.; Irving, James A.; Greenwood, Deanne; Verhelst, Steven H. L.; Bogyo, Matthew; Turk, Boris; Coetzer, Theresa H.; Wijeyewickrema, Lakshmi C.; Spithill, Terry W.; Pike, Robert N.

2012-01-01

60

Enhanced protection against Clonorchis sinensis induced by co-infection with Trichinella spiralis in rats.  

PubMed

Although co-infection with multiple parasites is a frequent occurrence, changes in the humoral immune response against a pre-existing parasite induced as a result of a subsequent parasitic infection remain undetermined. Here, we utilized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to investigate antibody responses, cytokine production and enhanced resistance in Clonorchis sinensis-infected rats (Sprague-Dawley) upon Trichinella spiralis infection. Higher levels of C. sinensis-specific IgG and IgA were elicited upon T. spiralis infection, and these levels remained higher than in rats infected with C. sinensis alone. Upon subsequent infection with T. spiralis, IgG antibodies against C. sinensis appeared to be rapidly boosted at day 3, and IgA antibodies were boosted at day 7. Challenge infection of C. sinensis-infected rats with T. spiralis induced substantial mucosal IgG and IgA responses in the liver and intestine and increases in antibody-secreting plasma cells in the spleen and bone marrow. Subsequent infection also appeared to confer effective control of liver C. sinensis loads, resulting in enhanced resistance. Memory B cells generated in response to C. sinensis infection were rapidly amplified into antibody-secreting cells upon T. spiralis infection. These results indicate that enhanced C. sinensis clearance induced by co-infection is associated with systemic and mucosal IgG and IgA responses. PMID:24958325

Chu, K-B; Kim, S-S; Lee, S-H; Lee, H-S; Joo, K-H; Lee, J-H; Lee, Y-S; Zheng, S; Quan, F-S

2014-10-01

61

A natural focus of the blood fluke Orientobilharzia turkestanica (Skrjabin, 1913) (Trematoda: Schistosomatidae) in red deer ( Cervus elaphus) in Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large American liver fluke, Fascioloides magna – introduced to Europe before 1875 – was the first non-indigenous trematode to be detected in Hungarian cervids in 1995. As the most precious deer population became infected in the Gemenc game reserve a study has been launched to assess the extent and the effect of F. magna infections and to examine the

Gábor Majoros; Ádám Dán; Károly Erdélyi

2010-01-01

62

Cytochrome P450 in fluke Opisthorchis felineus: identification and characterization.  

PubMed

Infection with the human liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus is a serious public health problem in Russia and other Eastern Europe countries. The aim of this work was to identify and sequence cytochrome P450 mRNA from O. felineus and to analyze its expression at different developmental stages. We found only one cytochrome P450 in O. felineus. It contains a conserved Pfam00067 domain which was typical of the CYP450 II eukaryotic microsomal type, and a putative transmembrane domain. Additionally, we identified a high degree of homology between a 3D model of O. felineus CYP450 and mammalian CYP2 structures. The level of O. felineus CYP mRNA expression in maritae (adult stage in definitive mammal host) is significantly higher than in metacercaria. This fact indicates an important role of this biotransformation enzyme in the biochemistry of the parasite at the maritae stage. PMID:22115821

Pakharukova, Maria Y; Ershov, Nikita I; Vorontsova, Elena V; Katokhin, Alexei V; Merkulova, Tatiana I; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A

2012-02-01

63

Paragonimus kellicotti flukes in Missouri, USA.  

PubMed

Paragonimiasis is an infection caused by lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. In Asia, P. westermani infections are relatively common because of dietary practices. However, in North America, cases of paragonimiasis, which are caused by P. kellicotti flukes, are rare. Only 7 autochthonous cases of paragonimiasis were reported during 1968-2008. In 2009, we reported 3 new case-patients with paragonimiasis who had been seen at our medical center over an 18-month period. Six additional case-patients were identified in St. Louis, Missouri, USA, and treated at Washington University-affiliated health centers in 2009-2010. We report detailed descriptions of these case-patients, which includes unusual clinical manifestations. We also describe public health interventions that were undertaken to inform the general public and physicians about the disease and its mode of transmission. PMID:22840191

Lane, Michael A; Marcos, Luis A; Onen, Nur F; Demertzis, Lee M; Hayes, Ericka V; Davila, Samuel Z; Nurutdinova, Diana R; Bailey, Thomas C; Weil, Gary J

2012-08-01

64

Liver Flukes: the Common Fluke (Distomum hepaticum). A New Species (Distomum texanicum).  

E-print Network

carirt.. (Lenclcyst; a, anterior hncker, 11, Tentral -ncker . ra, pharnyx; r/, (7, h~arlc-hes of the intestine rrrnlinat~ng in crPca. (Leuckart.) ). Grass stalk witli threee~lcvsteti yonng fl~~lie~, 11, n. (A. P... together. Those that are wandering have their bodies covered with spines, while thosc at reat pepm to law^. Inst, th~ir pi nee-their organs of locomo- tion. When encysted they are alwaye sexually mature. The wall of the cyst becomes dense and tough...

Francis, M. (Mark)

1891-01-01

65

Comparative effect of mebendazole, albendazole, tribendimidine, and praziquantel in treatment of rats infected with Clonorchis sinensis.  

PubMed

The aim of the study is to understand the anti-Clonorchis sinensis properties of mebendazole and albendazole, and compare to praziquantel and tribendimidine. Two hundred and thirty rats were divided into five batches for experimental treatment. In four batches, each rat was infected orally with 50 or 100 C. sinensis metacercariae. Twenty-eight to 46 days post-infection, groups of rats were treated orally with single doses of mebendazole, albendazole, praziquantel, tribendimidine, or multiple daily doses of albendazole. While in the remaining batch, mebendazole or praziquantel was administered to groups of rats infected each with 50 metacercariae for 7 or 14 days. In each batch of test, untreated but infected rats served as control. All rats were euthanized 2-4 weeks post-drug administration for assessment of efficacy. In the first batch of test, rats treated with mebendazole or tribendimidine at single doses of 150, 75, and 37.5 mg/kg resulted in worm burden reductions of 99.0%, 94.0%, and 73.1%, or 98.0%, 80.6%, and 60.4%, respectively. When rats were treated with albendazole at the same dose levels, no or poor effect was seen. In the second batch of test, promising effect against adult C. sinensis in rats treated with mebendazole or tribendimidine at single doses of 100 and 50 mg/kg were also observed, but under the single dose of 25 mg/kg, only tribendimidine still remained the effect. In the third batch of test, the aforementioned three single dose levels of mebendazole, albendazole and praziquantel were applied. Again, mebendazole exhibited higher effect and albendazole exhibited no or poor effect. While praziquantel, administered at a higher dose of 300 mg/kg, also showed promising effect. In the fourth batch of test, oral administration of albendazole at a daily dose of 150 or 100 mg/kg for 2 or 3 days resulted in moderate or higher efficacy with worm burden reductions of 79.2% and 91.9%, respectively. In the fifth batch of test, single mebendazole doses of 150 or 75 mg/kg exhibited promising effect against 14-day-old C. sinensis in rats with worm burden reductions of 95.3% and 86.4%, respectively, but mebendazole was short of the effect against 7-day-old worms. Under the same dose level, praziquantel possessed an effect against both 7- and 14-day-old juvenile C. sinensis. The results confirm that in infected rats, mebendazole administered orally at a single dose of 150 mg/kg exhibits potential effect against juvenile (14-day-old) and adult C. sinensis. No or less effect is obtained from albendazole under the same dose levels, but extension of treatment course may enhance the effect of albendazole against this species of fluke. The single effective dose ranges of mebendazole and tribendimidine against C. sinensis in rats are similar with a broad window, while the window for praziquantel is narrow. PMID:21136080

Xiao, Shu-hua; Xue, Jian; Xu, Li-li; Zhang, Yong-nian; Qiang, Hui-qin

2011-03-01

66

Identification and Molecular Characterization of Parkin in Clonorchis sinensis  

PubMed Central

Clonorchis sinensis habitating in the bile duct of mammals causes clonorchiasis endemic in East Asian countries. Parkin is a RING-between-RING protein and has E3-ubiquitin ligase activity catalyzing ubiquitination and degradation of substrate proteins. A cDNA clone of C. sinensis was predicted to encode a polypeptide homologous to parkin (CsParkin) including 5 domains (Ubl, RING0, RING1, IBR, and RING2). The cysteine and histidine residues binding to Zn2+ were all conserved and participated in formation of tertiary structural RINGs. Conserved residues were also an E2-binding site in RING1 domain and a catalytic cysteine residue in the RING2 domain. Native CsParkin was determined to have an estimated molecular weight of 45.7 kDa from C. sinensis adults by immunoblotting. CsParkin revealed E3-ubiquitin ligase activity and higher expression in metacercariae than in adults. CsParkin was localized in the locomotive and male reproductive organs of C. sinensis adults, and extensively in metacercariae. Parkin has been found to participate in regulating mitochondrial function and energy metabolism in mammalian cells. From these results, it is suggested that CsParkin play roles in energy metabolism of the locomotive organs, and possibly in protein metabolism of the reproductive organs of C. sinensis. PMID:25748711

Bai, Xuelian; Kim, Tae Im; Lee, Ji-Yun; Dai, Fuhong; Hong, Sung-Jong

2015-01-01

67

Sensitive and species-specific detection of Clonorchis sinensis by PCR in infected snails and fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, PCR procedures have been established for a rapid and easy preparation of DNA of parasite stages from\\u000a the intermediate hosts, i.e. sporocysts and rediae in snails and metacercariae in fishes. Primers have been developed, which\\u000a enable a highly sensitive and species-specific detection of Clonorchis sinensis.

Boris Müller; Jürgen Schmidt; Heinz Mehlhorn

2007-01-01

68

Molecular phylogenetic identification of Fasciola flukes in Nepal.  

PubMed

Eighty-one Fasciola flukes collected from 8 districts in Nepal were analyzed for their species identification on the basis of their spermatogenic status and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and for their phylogenetic relation with Fasciola flukes from other Asian countries on the basis of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) gene. Sixty-one flukes (75.3%) were aspermic Fasciola sp., and 20 flukes (24.7%) were identified as Fasciola gigantica. All of the aspermic flukes displayed the Fh/Fg type in ITS1, which was predominant in aspermic Fasciola sp. from China, and most (60 flukes) displayed the Fsp-ND1-N1 haplotype in the nad1, which had an identical nucleotide sequence to the major haplotype (Fg-C2) of the aspermic flukes from China. These results suggest that aspermic Fasciola sp. was introduced into Nepal from China. Furthermore, the results of the diversity indices, neutrality indices, and median-joining network analysis with reference haplotypes from Asian countries suggest that aspermic Fasciola sp. rapidly expanded its distribution. In contrasts, F. gigantica displayed 10 nad1 haplotypes, which showed higher population diversity indices than the haplotypes of aspermic flukes, indicating that the F. gigantica population was clearly distributed in Nepal earlier than the aspermic Fasciola population. Although the F. gigantica haplotypes from Nepal formed a star-like phylogeny consisting of a main founder haplotype (Fg-ND1-N1), together with some F. gigantica haplotypes from Myanmar and Thailand, the Nepal population differed genetically from F. gigantica populations of neighboring countries as each country had distinct founder haplotype(s). PMID:25025757

Shoriki, Takuya; Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Devkota, Bhuminand; Rana, Hari B; Devkota, Shiva P; Humagain, Sudeep K; Itagaki, Tadashi

2014-12-01

69

Human consumption of rumen flukes of cattle in India.  

PubMed

The practice of eating rumen flukes of cattle by a section of people living in Meghalaya, a north eastern State of India, is reported in this communication. Economically backward, some rural people belonging to Khasi, Jaintia, Garo, and Karbi tribes of Christian and Nepali communities who eat beef are accustomed to consuming cooked flukes during breakfast, meals, and also along with rice beer or alcohol. Inspection of the rumens of cattle during slaughter indicated a prevalence of flukes belonging to Cotylophoron, Paramphistomum, Calicophoron, Gastrothylax, and Fischoederius genera in 74% cases, and their collection from rumen ranged approximately from 50 g to 600 g. Biochemical analysis of flukes found 12.60% total protein, 0.78% fat, and 0.87% ash on fresh weight basis. High prevalence of flukes, easy visualization in rumen, their bulk collection, presence of nutritive value, absence of any ill effect, and lack of imminent danger of transmissibility are believed to be the rationales influencing their consumption by people. It is suggested that dietary benefits obtained from flukes might contribute to the energy transfer and inclusion in the food web. PMID:24964650

Sarmah, P C; Laha, R; Bhattacharjee, K; Goswami, A; Raquib, M; Kakati, P

2014-01-01

70

Identification of thyroid hormone receptor homologs in the fluke Opisthorchis felineus (Platyhelminthes).  

PubMed

The liver fluke, Opisthorchis felineus of the Opisthorchiidae family, is a well-known causative agent of opisthorchiasis in Russia and Europe. The aim of this work was to identify genes encoding thyroid hormone receptors in O. felineus, and to analyze the expression of possible target genes in response to treatment with exogenous thyroid hormones. We identified two genes encoding thyroid hormone receptors in the O. felineus genome, THRA and THRB. The genes were differentially expressed through the life cycle. The maximal level of mRNA expression of THRA1 and THRB was observed in adult worms. Treatment of the worms with triiodothyronine and thyroxine resulted in an increase in glucose 6-phosphatase mRNA expression and a decrease in malate dehydrogenase mRNA expression, potential gene targets of thyroid hormones. These data indicate that thyroid hormone receptors may perform essential roles in physiological processes in adult O. felineus. PMID:24798031

Pakharukova, Maria Y; Ershov, Nikita I; Vorontsova, Elena V; Shilov, Alexander G; Merkulova, Tatyana I; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A

2014-01-01

71

Fluke abundance versus host age for an invasive trematode (Dicrocoelium dendriticum) of sympatric elk and beef cattle in southeastern Alberta, Canada  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological parameters such as transmission rate, rate of parasite-induced host mortality, and rate of development of host defenses can be assessed indirectly by characterizing the manner in which parasite burdens change with host age. For parasites that are host generalists, estimates of these important parameters may be host-species dependent. In a cross-sectional study, we determined age–abundance profiles of infection in samples of sympatric free-ranging elk and domestic cattle infected with the lancet liver fluke, Dicrocoelium dendriticum. This parasite was introduced into Cypress Hills Provincial Park in southeastern Alberta, Canada in the mid 1990s, and now occurs in 60–90% of co-grazing elk and beef cattle examined at necropsy. The livers of 173 elk were made available by hunters during the 1997–2011 hunting seasons and livers from 35 cattle were purchased from ranchers. In elk, median worm abundance peaked in 6–24 month-olds (median?=?72, range?=?0–1006) then significantly declined to <10 worms/host in 10–16?year olds. The decline in fluke burden with age is not consistent with an age-related decline in exposure to metacercariae in intermediate hosts and high rates of fluke-induced host mortality are unlikely. Rather, the pattern of peak fluke burdens in elk calves and juveniles, followed by a decline in older animals is consistent with the development of a protective immune response in older hosts. There was no pattern of worm accumulation or decline in sympatric cattle, although statistical power to detect a significant effect was low. These results highlight the complexity and context-dependent nature of epidemiological processes in multi-host systems. PMID:25426422

Beck, Melissa A.; Goater, Cameron P.; Colwell, Douglas D.; van Paridon, Bradley J.

2014-01-01

72

Measurements of the Bodies and Flukes of Several Cetacean Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specimens of nine species of cetacean were obtained through an entrapment and stranding network. These were: harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena); white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus); white-beaked dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris); common dolphin (Delphinus delphis); white whale (Delphinapterus leucas); Sowerby's beaked whale (Mesoplodon bidens); minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata); fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus); and sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus). Measurements of length, body girths, fluke-planform

Neil Bose; Jon Lien; Juha Ahia

1990-01-01

73

The inability of tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta and fluke Dicrocoelium dendriticum to metabolize praziquantel.  

PubMed

Biotransformation enzymes can, to a certain extent, protect parasitic worms against the toxic effects of anthelmintics and can contribute to drug-resistance development. The objective of our work was (1) to find and identify phase I and II metabolites of the anthelmintic praziquantel (PZQ) formed by the lancet fluke (Dicrocoelium dendriticum) and the rat tapeworm (Hymenolepis diminuta) and (2) to compare PZQ metabolites in helminths with PZQ biotransformation in rat as host species. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS/MS) was used for this purpose. During in vitro incubations, mitochondria-like and microsomes-like fractions (prepared from homogenates of adult worms or from rat liver homogenate) were incubated with 10 and 100 ?M PZQ. Liquid/liquid extraction was used for samples during in vitro experiments. In the ex vivo study, living D. dendriticum and H. diminuta adults were incubated in RPMI-1640 medium in the presence of 50 nM or 100 nM PZQ for 24h. After incubation, the worms were removed from the medium and homogenized. Homogenates of worms, medium from the incubation of worms or rat hepatocytes and rat urine (collected during 24h after oral PZQ administration) were separately extracted using solid-phase extraction. The results showed that both D. dendriticum and H. diminuta enzymatic systems are not able to metabolize PZQ. On the other hand, thirty one different phase I and four phase II PZQ metabolites were detected in rat samples using UHPLC/MS/MS analyses. These results show that our experimental helminths, as the members of tapeworm and fluke groups of parasites, are not able to deactivate PZQ, and that the biotransformation enzymes of the studied helminths do not contribute to PZQ-resistance. PMID:21996005

Vok?ál, Ivan; Jirásko, Robert; Jedli?ková, Veronika; Bártíková, Hana; Skálová, Lenka; Lamka, Ji?í; Hol?apek, Michal; Szotáková, Barbora

2012-04-30

74

A natural focus of the blood fluke Orientobilharzia turkestanica (Skrjabin, 1913) (Trematoda: Schistosomatidae) in red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Hungary.  

PubMed

The large American liver fluke, Fascioloides magna - introduced to Europe before 1875 - was the first non-indigenous trematode to be detected in Hungarian cervids in 1995. As the most precious deer population became infected in the Gemenc game reserve a study has been launched to assess the extent and the effect of F. magna infections and to examine the options for the treatment of infected deer populations. Livers of red deer shot during regular hunting were submitted for the survey and were investigated by necropsy for the presence of F. magna and other liver dwelling trematodes. Recovered parasites were counted, sorted and stored in 70% ethanol. Unexpectedly, blood flukes were found in liver blood vessels at necropsy. They were identified as Orientobilharzia turkestanica (Skrjabin, 1913) by their morphological features as well as by molecular methods. This parasite is widespread in the middle belt of Asia from Korea to the eastern part of Turkey and infects mainly bovids. It was never found in red deer until now and this is the first report of its occurrence in Hungary and Europe. A subsequent search for the local intermediate host of O. turkestanica in the Gemenc area identified only the pulmonate snail Radix auricularia (Linnaeus, 1758) [syn: Lymnaea auricularia] as a vector capable of producing cercariae of this trematode. Cercariae of O. turkestanica were examined morphologically and were confirmed to be the larvae of this trematode by PCR. O. turkestanica appears to be fairly common in red deer of the Gemenc area. No clinical or pathological effect of the infection could be identified in this study. A form of cercarial dermatitis locally called "water mange" was formerly attributed to the larvae of avian shistosomes. It regularly occurred among fishermen fishing in shallow ponds remaining after floods along the Danube in the Gemenc area. This isolated habitat of O. turkestanica presents an exceptional opportunity to study epidemical situations of typical mammalian schistosomosis under temperate climatic conditions. PMID:20347227

Majoros, Gábor; Dán, Adám; Erdélyi, Károly

2010-06-24

75

Advanced Enzymology, Expression Profile and Immune Response of Clonorchis sinensis Hexokinase Show Its Application Potential for Prevention and Control of Clonorchiasis  

PubMed Central

Background Approximately 35 million people are infected with Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) globally, of whom 15 million are in China. Glycolytic enzymes are recognized as crucial molecules for trematode survival and have been targeted for vaccine and drug development. Hexokinase of C. sinensis (CsHK), as the first key regulatory enzyme of the glycolytic pathway, was investigated in the current study. Principal Findings There were differences in spatial structure and affinities for hexoses and phosphate donors between CsHK and HKs from humans or rats, the definitive hosts of C. sinensis. Effectors (AMP, PEP, and citrate) and a small molecular inhibitor regulated the enzymatic activity of rCsHK, and various allosteric systems were detected. CsHK was distributed in the worm extensively as well as in liver tissue and serum from C. sinensis infected rats. Furthermore, high-level specific IgG1 and IgG2a were induced in rats by immunization with rCsHK. The enzymatic activity of CsHK was suppressed by the antibody in vitro. Additionally, the survival of C. sinensis was inhibited by the antibody in vivo and in vitro. Conclusions/Significance Due to differences in putative spatial structure and enzymology between CsHK and HK from the host, its extensive distribution in adult worms, and its expression profile as a component of excretory/secretory products, together with its good immunogenicity and immunoreactivity, as a key glycolytic enzyme, CsHK shows potential as a vaccine and as a promising drug target for Clonorchiasis. PMID:25799453

Tang, Zeli; Xie, Zhizhi; Lin, Zhipeng; Sun, Hengchang; Wan, Shuo; Li, Xuerong; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xinbing; Xu, Jin

2015-01-01

76

Intestinal fluke infection as a result of eating sushi.  

PubMed

Severe diarrhea in a female outpatient was caused by an intestinal fluke, identified as Heterophyes heterophyes, a natural parasite of humans and domesticated and wild fish-eating mammals. This parasite is endemic in the Orient and the Middle East. A detailed case history revealed that the woman had never traveled outside the continental United States but became infected while eating raw fresh-water fish (sushi) that had been served at a local Japanese restaurant. The restaurant specialized in serving a great variety of fresh-water and salt-water fish that were flown in from the Orient and other parts of the world. The authors' findings indicate that a person does not have to travel to an endemic area to become infected with this organism. PMID:3776925

Adams, K O; Jungkind, D L; Bergquist, E J; Wirts, C W

1986-11-01

77

Echinostome flukes receovered from humans in Khammouane Province, Lao PDR.  

PubMed

Echinostome eggs were detected in 22 (1.1%) of 2,074 people residing in riparian villages along the Mekong River in Khammouane Province, Lao PDR. In order to recover the adult flukes, 9 persons were treated with praziquantel and purged with magnesium salts. A total of 55 echinostome specimens (4 species) were recovered from the 9 persons. Echinostoma revolutum (8 specimens) was recovered from 3 persons, Artyfechinostomum malayanum (8 specimens) was from 2 persons, Echinochasmus japonicus (33 specimens) was from 7 persons, and Euparyphium sp. (6 specimens) was from 1 person. In Lao PDR, only human infections with E. japonicus were previously known. Therefore, the present study describes human infections with E. revolutum, A. malayanum, and Euparyphium sp. for the first time in Lao PDR. These results indicate that the surveyed villages of Khammouane Province, Lao PDR are low-grade endemic foci of echinostomiasis. PMID:22949759

Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S; Min, Duk-Young; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Phammasack, Bounlay; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Rim, Han-Jong

2012-09-01

78

[From recognition to practice: The 140th anniversary of the discovery of Clonorchis sinensis].  

PubMed

It has been the 140th anniversary since the discovery of Clonorchis sinensis, of which adult worms were found by McConnell in an oversea Chinese in Calcutta, India, September of 1874. Then, Japanese scholar Kobayashi proved that freshwater fish served as the second intermediate hosts in 1910, while another Japanese parasitologist Muto found that the first intermediate hosts were freshwater snails in 1918. However, the perniciousness has not been recognized until recently. C. sinensis infection was classified as definite carcinogen (group 1) in cholangiocarcinoma in 2009 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, WHO, and listed as one of the 17 diseases in WHO's first report on neglected tropical diseases in 2010, while its disease burden was published on line in an international journal in 2011. Nevertheless, our awareness on and practices in the control of clonorchiasis still lag behind the reality. Great efforts on research and control of clonorchiasis are especially required in China, since China takes the biggest share in global disease burden of clonorchiasis. PMID:25518585

Qian, Men-bao; Chen, Ying-dan; Zhou, Xiao-nong

2014-08-01

79

Coinfection with Clonorchis sinensis modulates murine host response against Trichinella spiralis infection.  

PubMed

Concomitant infections of different species of parasites are common in the field. Infection with one parasite species likely triggers host responses that may influence the subsequent infection of another species and alter disease outcomes. So far, the majority of studies have focused on single species parasite infection, and the mechanisms of protection induced by the first parasite infection against the secondary infection remain poorly defined. In this study, we assess the impact of trematode Clonorchis sinensis infection on the course of another tissue nematode Trichinella spiralis challenge. We observed that mice with preexisting C. sinensis infection had lower worm burden of intestinal T. spiralis than those infected with T. spiralis alone; mice with preexisting C. sinensis also had severe enteric histopathological changes and higher counts of intestinal Paneth cells in responses to T. spiralis challenge. The mRNA levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-13, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? from the small intestine and spleen of the different groups were analyzed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Compared with that in mice infected with T. spiralis alone, the mRNA expression of IL-13 was significantly increased in the small intestine tissues and IL-4, IL-13, and TNF-? were significantly increased in the spleen tissues in the dually infected mice. Our findings suggest that a "preexisting" trematode infection of C. sinensis is a factor which contributes to reducing the establishment of T. spiralis adult worms in the small intestine. PMID:23846239

Chen, Ying; Huang, Bo; Huang, Shiguang; Yu, Xinbing; Li, Yonglong; Song, Wenjian; Li, Yongxiang; Lu, Fangli

2013-09-01

80

Fasciola hepatica: morphological effects of a combination of triclabendazole and clorsulon against mature fluke.  

PubMed

A study has been carried out to investigate the morphological effects of half-strength triclabendazole (TCBZ), half-strength clorsulon, and a combination of these two drugs against mature Fasciola hepatica. The Cullompton TCBZ-susceptible isolate was used for these experiments. Flukes were incubated for 24 h in vitro in TCBZ sulphoxide (7.5 microg/ml), clorsulon (5 microg/ml), or a combination of the two drugs. For the in vivo experiment, rats were dosed with TCBZ (6.25 mg/kg body weight), clorsulon (5 mg/kg body weight), or a combination of the two drugs and flukes recovered after 48 h. Surface changes to the flukes were assessed by scanning electron microscopy. Treatment with the combination of drugs produced greater disruption to the flukes than the individual drugs at half-strength, both in vivo and in vitro. Disruption to the tegument of the flukes induced by the individual drugs at half-strength was relatively minor and less than that caused by the drugs at full-strength. The results suggest that there are additive effects between TCBZ and clorsulon, which may be indicative of synergy: the use of drug combinations would be of value in the treatment of triclabendazole-resistant fluke. PMID:16896655

Meaney, M; Allister, J; McKinstry, B; McLaughlin, K; Brennan, G P; Forbes, A B; Fairweather, I

2006-10-01

81

Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Growth Factor Receptor Bound-Protein in Clonorchis sinensis  

PubMed Central

Background Clonorchis sinensis causes clonorchiasis, a potentially serious disease. Growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2) is a cytosolic protein conserved among animals and plays roles in cellular functions such as meiosis, organogenesis and energy metabolism. In the present study, we report first molecular characters of growth factor receptor bound-protein (CsGrb2) from C. sinensis as counter part of Grb2 from animals and its possible functions in development and organogenesis of C. sinensis. Methodology/Principal Findings A CsGrb2 cDNA clone retrieved from the C. sinensis transcriptome encoded a polypeptide with a SH3-SH2-SH3 structure. Recombinant CsGrb2 was bacterially produced and purified to homogeneity. Native CsGrb2 with estimated molecular weight was identified from C. sinensis adult extract by western blotting using a mouse immune serum to recombinant CsGrb2. CsGrb2 transcripts was more abundant in the metacercariae than in the adults. Immunohistochemical staining showed that CsGrb2 was localized to the suckers, mesenchymal tissues, sperms in seminal receptacle and ovary in the adults, and abundantly expressed in most organs of the metacercariae. Recombinant CsGrb2 was evaluated to be little useful as a serodiagnostic reagent for C. sinesis human infections. Conclusion Grb2 protein found in C. sinensis was conserved among animals and suggested to play a role in the organogenesis, energy metabolism and mitotic spermatogenesis of C. sinensis. These findings from C. sinensis provide wider understanding on diverse function of Grb2 in lower animals such as platyhelminths. PMID:24454892

Bai, Xuelian; Lee, Ji-Yun; Kim, Tae Im; Dai, Fuhong; Lee, Tae-Jin; Hong, Sung-Jong

2014-01-01

82

Low Divergence of Clonorchis sinensis in China Based on Multilocus Analysis  

PubMed Central

Clonorchis sinensis, an ancient parasite that infects a number of piscivorous mammals, attracts significant public health interest due to zoonotic exposure risks in Asia. The available studies are insufficient to reflect the prevalence, geographic distribution, and intraspecific genetic diversity of C. sinensis in endemic areas. Here, a multilocus analysis based on eight genes (ITS1, act, tub, ef-1a, cox1, cox3, nad4 and nad5 [4.986 kb]) was employed to explore the intra-species genetic construction of C. sinensis in China. Two hundred and fifty-six C. sinensis isolates were obtained from environmental reservoirs from 17 provinces of China. A total of 254 recognized Multilocus Types (MSTs) showed high diversity among these isolates using multilocus analysis. The comparison analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial phylogeny supports separate clusters in a nuclear dendrogram. Genetic differentiation analysis of three clusters (A, B, and C) showed low divergence within populations. Most isolates from clusters B and C are geographically limited to central China, while cluster A is extraordinarily genetically diverse. Further genetic analyses between different geographic distributions, water bodies and hosts support the low population divergence. The latter haplotype analyses were consistent with the phylogenetic and genetic differentiation results. A recombination network based on concatenated sequences showed a concentrated linkage recombination population in cox1, cox3, nad4 and nad5, with spatial structuring in ITS1. Coupled with the history record and archaeological evidence of C. sinensis infection in mummified desiccated feces, these data point to an ancient origin of C. sinensis in China. In conclusion, we present a likely phylogenetic structure of the C. sinensis population in mainland China, highlighting its possible tendency for biogeographic expansion. Meanwhile, ITS1 was found to be an effective marker for tracking C. sinensis infection worldwide. Thus, the present study improves our understanding of the global epidemiology and evolution of C. sinensis. PMID:23825605

Sun, Jiufeng; Huang, Yan; Huang, Huaiqiu; Liang, Pei; Wang, Xiaoyun; Mao, Qiang; Men, Jingtao; Chen, Wenjun; Deng, Chuanhuan; Zhou, Chenhui; Lv, Xiaoli; Zhou, Juanjuan; Zhang, Fan; Li, Ran; Tian, Yanli; Lei, Huali; Liang, Chi; Hu, Xuchu; Xu, Jin; Li, Xuerong; XinbingYu

2013-01-01

83

Molecular characterization and immune modulation properties of Clonorchis sinensis-derived RNASET2  

PubMed Central

Background Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis, Cs) is a trematode parasite that often causes chronic cumulative infections in the hepatobiliary ducts of the host and can lead to pathological changes by continuously released excretory/secretory proteins (ESPs). A T2 ribonuclease in trematode ESPs, has been identified as a potent regulator of dendritic cell (DCs) modulation. We wondered whether there was a counterpart present in CsESPs with similar activity. To gain a better understanding of CsESPs associated immune responses, we identified and characterized RNASET2 of C. sinensis (CsRNASET2) in this paper. Methods We expressed CsRNASET2 in Pichia pastoris and identified its molecular characteristics using bioinformatic analysis and experimental approaches. The immune modulation activities of CsRNASET2 were confirmed by evaluating cytokine production and surface markers of recombinant CsRNASET2 (rCsRNASET2) co-cultured DCs, and monitoring levels of IgG isotypes from rCsRNASET2 administered BALB/c mice. Results CsRNASET2 appeared to be a glycoprotein of T2 ribonuclease family harboring conserved CAS motifs and rich in B-cell epitopes. Furthermore, CsRNASET2 was present in CsESPs and was able to modulate cytokine production of DCs. In addition, rCsRNASET2 could significantly suppress the expression of lipopolysaccharide-induced DCs maturation markers. In addition, when subcutaneously administered with rCsRNASET2 there was a marked effect on IgG isotypes in mouse sera. Conclusion Collectively, we revealed that CsRNASET2, a T2 ribonuclease present in CsESPs, could modulate DCs maturation and might play an important role in C. sinensis associated immune regulation in the host. PMID:24365605

2013-01-01

84

Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Taurocyamine Kinase from Clonorchis sinensis: A Candidate Chemotherapeutic Target  

PubMed Central

Background Adult Clonorchis sinensis lives in the bile duct and causes endemic clonorchiasis in East Asian countries. Phosphagen kinases (PK) constitute a highly conserved family of enzymes, which play a role in ATP buffering in cells, and are potential targets for chemotherapeutic agents, since variants of PK are found only in invertebrate animals, including helminthic parasites. This work is conducted to characterize a PK from C. sinensis and to address further investigation for future drug development. Methology/Principal findings A cDNA clone encoding a putative polypeptide of 717 amino acids was retrieved from a C. sinensis transcriptome. This polypeptide was homologous to taurocyamine kinase (TK) of the invertebrate animals and consisted of two contiguous domains. C. sinensis TK (CsTK) gene was reported and found consist of 13 exons intercalated with 12 introns. This suggested an evolutionary pathway originating from an arginine kinase gene group, and distinguished annelid TK from the general CK phylogenetic group. CsTK was found not to have a homologous counterpart in sequences analysis of its mammalian hosts from public databases. Individual domains of CsTK, as well as the whole two-domain enzyme, showed enzymatic activity and specificity toward taurocyamine substrate. Of the CsTK residues, R58, I60 and Y84 of domain 1, and H60, I63 and Y87 of domain 2 were found to participate in binding taurocyamine. CsTK expression was distributed in locomotive and reproductive organs of adult C. sinensis. Developmentally, CsTK was stably expressed in both the adult and metacercariae stages. Recombinant CsTK protein was found to have low sensitivity and specificity toward C. sinensis and platyhelminth-infected human sera on ELISA. Conclusion CsTK is a promising anti-C. sinensis drug target since the enzyme is found only in the C. sinensis and has a substrate specificity for taurocyamine, which is different from its mammalian counterpart, creatine. PMID:24278491

Tokuhiro, Shinji; Nagataki, Mitsuru; Jarilla, Blanca R.; Nomura, Haruka; Kim, Tae Im; Hong, Sung-Jong; Agatsuma, Takeshi

2013-01-01

85

Prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis infection in freshwater fishes in northeastern China.  

PubMed

The prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis infection in freshwater fishes was surveyed in Heilongjiang Province, northeastern China, between August 2011 and September 2013. Thirteen species of freshwater fish (n=3221) and one species of shrimp (n=93) were collected from Songhua river, Nenjiang river and other lakes or ponds in 37 sites of 15 representative cities in Heilongjiang Province. They were individually examined by digestion technique, and the C. sinensis metacercariae were identified morphologically followed by confirmation using sequences of the second internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA. Ten of the 13 examined species of freshwater fishes were infected with C. sinensis metacercariae, while all shrimps were negative. The overall prevalence of C. sinensis infection in 3221 examined freshwater fishes was 19.96%, with 42.57% (272/639) in Pseudorasbora parva, 22.55% (83/368) in Hemicculter leuciclus, 20.44% (121/592) in Carassius auratus, 17.71% (68/384) in Saurogobio dabryi, 10.85% (23/212) in Rhodeus ocellatus, 10.54% (48/455) in Phoxinus lagowskii, 8.20% (21/256) in Perccottus glehnii, 6.25% (5/80) in Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, 4.55% (1/22) in Xenocypris davidi, and 1.49% (1/67) in Cyprinus carpio. The average infection intensity in P. parva was 103.3 encysted metacercariae per gram of fish meat in Zhaoyuan city. The average prevalence of C. sinensis infection in Songhua river, Nenjiang river and lakes or ponds were 31.96% (503/1574), 11.30% (102/903) and 7.93% (59/744), respectively. The prevalence of C. sinensis infection in Zhaoyuan city (43.68%) was the highest among all sampling locations. These results revealed a high-prevalence of C. sinensis infection in freshwater fishes in Heilongjiang Province, northeastern China, posing significant public health concern. PMID:24880648

Zhang, Y; Chang, Q C; Zhang, Y; Na, L; Wang, W T; Xu, W W; Gao, D Z; Liu, Z X; Wang, C R; Zhu, X Q

2014-08-29

86

Low Divergence of Clonorchis sinensis in China Based on Multilocus Analysis.  

PubMed

Clonorchis sinensis, an ancient parasite that infects a number of piscivorous mammals, attracts significant public health interest due to zoonotic exposure risks in Asia. The available studies are insufficient to reflect the prevalence, geographic distribution, and intraspecific genetic diversity of C. sinensis in endemic areas. Here, a multilocus analysis based on eight genes (ITS1, act, tub, ef-1a, cox1, cox3, nad4 and nad5 [4.986 kb]) was employed to explore the intra-species genetic construction of C. sinensis in China. Two hundred and fifty-six C. sinensis isolates were obtained from environmental reservoirs from 17 provinces of China. A total of 254 recognized Multilocus Types (MSTs) showed high diversity among these isolates using multilocus analysis. The comparison analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial phylogeny supports separate clusters in a nuclear dendrogram. Genetic differentiation analysis of three clusters (A, B, and C) showed low divergence within populations. Most isolates from clusters B and C are geographically limited to central China, while cluster A is extraordinarily genetically diverse. Further genetic analyses between different geographic distributions, water bodies and hosts support the low population divergence. The latter haplotype analyses were consistent with the phylogenetic and genetic differentiation results. A recombination network based on concatenated sequences showed a concentrated linkage recombination population in cox1, cox3, nad4 and nad5, with spatial structuring in ITS1. Coupled with the history record and archaeological evidence of C. sinensis infection in mummified desiccated feces, these data point to an ancient origin of C. sinensis in China. In conclusion, we present a likely phylogenetic structure of the C. sinensis population in mainland China, highlighting its possible tendency for biogeographic expansion. Meanwhile, ITS1 was found to be an effective marker for tracking C. sinensis infection worldwide. Thus, the present study improves our understanding of the global epidemiology and evolution of C. sinensis. PMID:23825605

Sun, Jiufeng; Huang, Yan; Huang, Huaiqiu; Liang, Pei; Wang, Xiaoyun; Mao, Qiang; Men, Jingtao; Chen, Wenjun; Deng, Chuanhuan; Zhou, Chenhui; Lv, Xiaoli; Zhou, Juanjuan; Zhang, Fan; Li, Ran; Tian, Yanli; Lei, Huali; Liang, Chi; Hu, Xuchu; Xu, Jin; Li, Xuerong; Xinbingyu

2013-01-01

87

Novel insights into the pathogenic importance, diagnosis and treatment of the rumen fluke (Calicophoron daubneyi) in cattle.  

PubMed

Recently, sharp increases in the prevalence of rumen fluke infections have been recorded throughout Western Europe. However, scarce information is available on the diagnosis, pathogenic importance and control of this parasite. We undertook 3 pilot studies to gain more insights into these aspects of rumen fluke biology in cattle. First, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of mini-FLOTAC to detect adult rumen fluke infections based on faecal egg count in an abattoir survey and found high sensitivity (0.94) and specificity (0.98). Moreover, there was an association between ruminal fluke burden (assessed by visual scoring) and faecal egg count and a cut-off of 200 eggs per gram is proposed to detect highly infected animals (>200 flukes present in the rumen and/or reticulum). There was also a significant association between ruminal fluke burden and faecal consistency. However, in a second study, we performed a case-control field survey to investigate the association between rumen fluke infection and herd-level problems with diarrhoea and no association was found. Finally, we evaluated the use of closantel (Flukiver(®), Elanco Animal Health, subcutaneous administration at 10mg/kg) to treat rumen fluke infection on 3 herds, but no significant reduction in egg output post-treatment was found. Because this result is in contrast with a previous study using an oral dose of closantel, more research is required into the effect of administration route on the efficacy of closantel on rumen fluke. PMID:25466618

Malrait, Karen; Verschave, Sien; Skuce, Philip; Van Loo, Hans; Vercruysse, Jozef; Charlier, Johannes

2015-01-15

88

Host Specificity of a Parasitic Fluke: Is Posthodiplostomum minimum a Centrarchid-Infecting Generalist or Specialist?  

PubMed

Parasite host specificity has important implications for species diversity estimates, food web dynamics, and host shifts. "White grub" is the metacercaria stage of a fluke ( Posthodiplostomum minimum ) that occurs in many fish species, but no attempt has been made to quantify variation in host use by this worm. Here we used 2 approaches to evaluate host specificity within the strain that infects centrarchids ( P. minimum centrarchi). First, we measured parasite loads in 2 centrarchid hosts, bluegill ( Lepomis macrochirus ) and white crappie ( Pomoxis annularis ), from Spring Lake in McDonough County, Illinois. We found that infection levels differed significantly between these hosts. Prevalence in bluegill was 100% and the median intensity was 940 metacercariae, but only 57% of white crappie were infected (median intensity = 4). Site specificity of white grub also differed significantly between the 2 hosts. In bluegills, kidneys were most heavily infected, whereas in white crappies, livers harbored the most worms. We also performed a literature survey of P. minimum prevalence estimates from 14 centrarchid species from other localities. We calculated the mean white grub prevalence for each host species and used this to calculate STD*, a quantitative index of host specificity. STD* was 1.33, significantly closer to the value for a specialist (STD* = 1.00) than a generalist (STD* = 2.00). This reflects the fact that P. minimum prevalence is higher in Lepomis species than it is in centrarchids outside this genus. These data show that P. minimum centrarchi specializes on Lepomis species, but the causes of this specialization are unknown. This worm may be a single species that differs in host use due to ecological or physiological host differences, or it may be a complex of species that vary in host use for similar reasons. Genetic data are required to evaluate these possibilities. PMID:25260116

Lane, Beth; Spier, Timothy; Wiederholt, Julia; Meagher, Shawn

2015-02-01

89

The genome of the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

Schistosoma mansoni is responsible for the neglected tropical disease schistosomiasis that affects 210 million people in 76 countries. We report here analysis of the 363 megabase nuclear genome of the blood fluke. It encodes at least 11,809 genes, with an unusual intron size distribution, and novel families of micro-exon genes that undergo frequent alternate splicing. As the first sequenced flatworm, and a representative of the lophotrochozoa, it offers insights into early events in the evolution of the animals, including the development of a body pattern with bilateral symmetry, and the development of tissues into organs. Our analysis has been informed by the need to find new drug targets. The deficits in lipid metabolism that make schistosomes dependent on the host are revealed, while the identification of membrane receptors, ion channels and more than 300 proteases, provide new insights into the biology of the life cycle and novel targets. Bioinformatics approaches have identified metabolic chokepoints while a chemogenomic screen has pinpointed schistosome proteins for which existing drugs may be active. The information generated provides an invaluable resource for the research community to develop much needed new control tools for the treatment and eradication of this important and neglected disease. PMID:19606141

Berriman, Matthew; Haas, Brian J.; LoVerde, Philip T.; Wilson, R. Alan; Dillon, Gary P.; Cerqueira, Gustavo C.; Mashiyama, Susan T.; Al-Lazikani, Bissan; Andrade, Luiza F.; Ashton, Peter D.; Aslett, Martin A.; Bartholomeu, Daniella C.; Blandin, Gaelle; Caffrey, Conor R.; Coghlan, Avril; Coulson, Richard; Day, Tim A.; Delcher, Art; DeMarco, Ricardo; Djikeng, Appoliniare; Eyre, Tina; Gamble, John A.; Ghedin, Elodie; Gu, Yong; Hertz-Fowler, Christiane; Hirai, Hirohisha; Hirai, Yuriko; Houston, Robin; Ivens, Alasdair; Johnston, David A.; Lacerda, Daniela; Macedo, Camila D.; McVeigh, Paul; Ning, Zemin; Oliveira, Guilherme; Overington, John P.; Parkhill, Julian; Pertea, Mihaela; Pierce, Raymond J.; Protasio, Anna V.; Quail, Michael A.; Rajandream, Marie-Adèle; Rogers, Jane; Sajid, Mohammed; Salzberg, Steven L.; Stanke, Mario; Tivey, Adrian R.; White, Owen; Williams, David L.; Wortman, Jennifer; Wu, Wenjie; Zamanian, Mostafa; Zerlotini, Adhemar; Fraser-Liggett, Claire M.; Barrell, Barclay G.; El-Sayed, Najib M.

2009-01-01

90

Identification and characterization of a member of Rab subfamily, Rab8, from Clonorchis sinensis.  

PubMed

The Rabs act as a binary molecular switch that utilizes the conformational changes associated with the GTP/GDP cycle to elicit responses from target proteins. It regulates a broad spectrum of cellular processes including cell proliferation, cytoskeletal assembly, and intracellular membrane trafficking in eukaryotes. The Rab8 from Clonorchis sinensis (CsRab8) was composed of 199 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence shared above 50 % identities with other species from trematode, tapeworm, mammal, insecta, nematode, and reptile, respectively. The homologous analysis of sequences showed the conservative domains: G1 box (GDSGVGKS), G2 box (T), G3 box (DTAG), G4 box (GNKCDL), and G5 box. In addition, the structure modeling had also shown other functional domains: GTP/Mg(2+) binding sites, switch I region, and switch II region. A phylogenic tree analysis indicated that the CsRab8 was clustered with the Rab from Schistosoma japonicum, and trematode and tapeworm came from the same branch, which was different from an evolutional branch built by other species, such as mammal animal, insecta, nematode, and reptile. The recombinant CsRab8 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and the purified protein was a soluble molecule by 12 % sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. CsRab8 was identified as a component of excretory/secretory products of C. sinensis by western blot analysis. The transcriptional level of CsRab8 at metacercaria stage was the highest at the four stages and higher by 56.49-folds than that at adult worm, 1.23-folds than that at excysted metacercaria, and 2.69-folds than that at egg stage. Immunohistochemical localization analysis showed that CsRab8 was specifically distributed in the tegument, vitellarium, eggs, and testicle of adult worms, and detected on the vitellarium and tegument of metacercaria. Combined with the results, CsRab8 is indispensable for survival and development of parasites, especially for regulating excretory/secretory products secretion. PMID:25773178

Liang, Pei; He, Lei; Yu, Jinyun; Xie, Zhizhi; Chen, Xueqing; Mao, Qiang; Liang, Chi; Huang, Yan; Lu, Gang; Yu, Xinbing

2015-05-01

91

Experimental final hosts of Metagonimus hakubaensis (trematoda: heterophyidae) and their suitability to the fluke.  

PubMed

Seven laboratory mammal and bird species were orally inoculated with 200-1,000 encysted Metagonimus hakubaensis metacercariae that had been isolated from naturally infected lampreys (Lethenteron reissneri) captured in Aomori Prefecture. At 8 and 15 days post-infection, adult flukes were recovered from all of the laboratory animals tested, and therefore, hamster, rat, mouse, dog, cat, chicken and quail were considered as final hosts of M. hakubaensis. Recovery rates of the fluke were higher in dogs and hamsters than in cats, rats, mice, chickens and quails. The flukes recovered from dogs and hamsters showed increased body length and higher fecundity than those recovered from the other hosts. These results indicate that the suitability of dogs and hamsters for M. hakubaensis infection is higher than that of the other laboratory animals. PMID:25649951

Kudo, Noboru; Ota, Chieko; Saka, Fumiko; Ikeda, Yae; Tomihisa, Yusuke; Itoi, Yasunaga; Oyamada, Takashi

2014-12-01

92

Experimental Final Hosts of Metagonimus Hakubaensis (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) and Their Suitability to the Fluke  

PubMed Central

Seven laboratory mammal and bird species were orally inoculated with 200–1,000 encysted Metagonimus hakubaensis metacercariae that had been isolated from naturally infected lampreys (Lethenteron reissneri) captured in Aomori Prefecture. At 8 and 15 days post-infection, adult flukes were recovered from all of the laboratory animals tested, and therefore, hamster, rat, mouse, dog, cat, chicken and quail were considered as final hosts of M. hakubaensis. Recovery rates of the fluke were higher in dogs and hamsters than in cats, rats, mice, chickens and quails. The flukes recovered from dogs and hamsters showed increased body length and higher fecundity than those recovered from the other hosts. These results indicate that the suitability of dogs and hamsters for M. hakubaensis infection is higher than that of the other laboratory animals. PMID:25649951

KUDO, Noboru; OTA, Chieko; SAKA, Fumiko; IKEDA, Yae; TOMIHISA, Yusuke; ITOI, Yasunaga; OYAMADA, Takashi

2014-01-01

93

Fasciola hepatica: ultrastructural effects of a combination of triclabendazole and clorsulon against mature fluke.  

PubMed

A study has been carried out to investigate the ultrastructural effects of triclabendazole (TCBZ) at half-normal concentration, clorsulon at half-normal concentration, and a combination of these two drugs against mature Fasciola hepatica. The Cullompton TCBZ-susceptible isolate was used for these experiments. Flukes were incubated for 24 h in vitro in TCBZ sulphoxide (7.5 microg/ml), clorsulon (5 microg/ml), or a combination of the two drugs. For the in vivo experiment, rats were dosed with TCBZ (5 mg/kg body weight), clorsulon (5 mg/kg body weight), or a combination of the two drugs, and flukes recovered after 48 h. Fine structural changes within the tegumental syncytium and tegumental cells were assessed by transmission electron microscopy. Treatment with the combination of drugs produced greater disruption to the flukes than the individual drugs at half-normal concentrations, both in vivo and in vitro; also than TCBZ.SO at normal concentration in vitro. The changes observed aid in the understanding of the gross changes to the tegumental surface described previously (Meaney M, Allister J, McKinstry B, McLaughlin K, Brennan GP, Forbes AB, Fairweather I. Parasitol Res 99:609-621, 2006). The results indicate that there are additive effects between TCBZ and clorsulon and suggest that the use of drug combinations would be of value in the treatment of TCBZ-resistant fluke. PMID:17180691

Meaney, M; Allister, J; McKinstry, B; McLaughlin, K; Brennan, G P; Forbes, A B; Fairweather, I

2007-04-01

94

Fluke (Spirorchiidae) infections in sea turtles stranded on Taiwan: prevalence and pathology.  

PubMed

The prevalence of spirorchiid fluke infections of marine turtles is high and may cause the death of the hosts throughout their ranges. Virtually nothing has been reported regarding the infective status of sea turtles stranded on Taiwan. Between 2007 and 2010, 30 green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and 2 loggerhead turtles ( Caretta caretta ), stranded and dead, were examined for spirorchiid flukes and their eggs. Twenty-four of the green turtles were juveniles, and the stranded loggerhead turtles were subadults. Adult spirorchiid flukes were found in 13 green turtles but not in the loggerheads. Four species of flukes were identified, namely, Leardius learedi , Hapalotrema postorchis , H. mehrai , and Carettacola hawaiiensis . The main infection sites were the major arteries and heart. Seventy percent of the green turtles harbored spirorchiid eggs, but no eggs were found in loggerheads. The largest eggs with bipolar spines, type I eggs, were found in every case. Although more than half of the stranded turtles were infected, parasite infections were not the main cause of death in the green turtles. Fishery by-catch is probably responsible for the mortality of these stranded turtles. PMID:22032290

Chen, Hochang; Kuo, R-J; Chang, T-C; Hus, C-K; Bray, R A; Cheng, I-J

2012-04-01

95

The Effects of Tail Flukes on the Swimming Pattern of Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atlantic bottlenose dolphins are top predators in the wild, due in part because they are excellent swimmers. When dolphins swim through the water, the tail flukes are moved in an up and down motion to propel the animal through the water. They use the pectoral fins for steering and braking, and the dorsal fin for stabilization as they swim. Using

Lauri Leach

2009-01-01

96

Aberrant Expression of NF-?B in Liver Fluke Associated Cholangiocarcinoma: Implications for Targeted Therapy  

PubMed Central

Background Up-regulation and association of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) with carcinogenesis and tumor progression has been reported in several malignancies. In the current study, expression of NF-?B in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) patient tissues and its clinical significance were determined. The possibility of using NF-?B as the therapeutic target of CCA was demonstrated. Methodology Expression of NF-?B in CCA patient tissues was determined using immunohistochemistry. Dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ), a specific NF-?B inhibitor, was used to inhibit NF-?B action. Cell growth was determined using an MTT assay, and cell apoptosis was shown by DNA fragmentation, flow cytometry and immunocytofluorescent staining. Effects of DHMEQ on growth and apoptosis were demonstrated in CCA cell lines and CCA-inoculated mice. DHMEQ-induced apoptosis in patient tissues using a histoculture drug response assay was quantified by TUNEL assay. Principal Findings Normal bile duct epithelia rarely expressed NF-?B (subunits p50, p52 and p65), whereas all CCA patient tissues (n ?=? 48) over-expressed all NF-?B subunits. Inhibiting NF-?B action by DHMEQ significantly inhibited growth of human CCA cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. DHMEQ increased cell apoptosis by decreasing the anti-apoptotic protein expressions–Bcl-2, XIAP–and activating caspase pathway. DHMEQ effectively reduced tumor size in CCA-inoculated mice and induced cell apoptosis in primary histocultures of CCA patient tissues. Conclusions NF-?B was over-expressed in CCA tissues. Inhibition of NF-?B action significantly reduced cell growth and enhanced cell apoptosis. This study highlights NF-?B as a molecular target for CCA therapy. PMID:25170898

Seubwai, Wunchana; Wongkham, Chaisiri; Puapairoj, Anucha; Khuntikeo, Narong; Pugkhem, Ake; Hahnvajanawong, Chariya; Chaiyagool, Jariya; Umezawa, Kazuo; Okada, Seiji; Wongkham, Sopit

2014-01-01

97

The effect of liver flukes on nutrient utilization in beef cattle  

E-print Network

papilliform. Further development requires an intermediate host. Watson (1950) listed the numerous species of snails of the Lymnaeidae family that serve as the intermediate hosts of F scion a ~hati . Tl i ? idio actis iy pe t t i to the s ail casting off...-half to seven weeks after the infestation began, each rediae gives rise to a cercariae within the snail. L mnaeidae snails. These snails are commonly seen in poorly drained land, drainage ditches, ar eas of seepag of springs or broken drains, muddy gateways...

Crain, Richard Arnold

1978-01-01

98

Microsatellite loci in the carcinogenic liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini and their application as population genetic markers.  

PubMed

Opisthorchis viverrini is a carcinogenic foodborne trematode endemic in Southeast Asia especially in Thailand and the Lao People's Democratic Republic. Opisthorchiasis causes hepatobiliary diseases and cholangiocarcinoma (bile duct cancer). Currently there is substantial evidence on genetic variation of O. viverrini but the information on population genetic structure is lacking. Because microsatellite DNA of this parasite is not available, we for the first time isolated and utilized microsatellite DNA as genetic markers to examine genetic diversity and the population structure of O. viverrini. Partial genomic DNA libraries were constructed by conventional and enrichment methods which yielded microsatellite-containing clones of 0.18-0.25% and 16.84%, respectively. Within 41 microsatellite loci isolated 36.59% were perfect, 60.98% were interrupted and 2.44% were compound microsatellites. The CA repetitions were the most frequent, followed by GT and CAT. Primers specific to the flanking regions of 12 microsatellite loci were developed to genotype 150 O. viverrini individuals from geographical localities in Thailand and Lao PDR. Allele numbers per locus ranged from 2 to 15, with the mean expected heterozygosity of 0.03-0.66. Analyses of O. viverrini from 5 localities revealed a high level of genetic diversity and had significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Significant heterozygote deficiency as well as heterozygote excess was detected across all localities indicating the possibility of selfing (inbreeding) as a predominant reproductive mode. Significant genetic differentiation (F(ST)) was also detected between worms from different localities with varying levels of genetic heterogeneity. We discuss our results in terms of what these novel microsatellite markers reveal about the epidemiology and transmission dynamics of this medically important parasite, both in terms of the current study and their potential for future comprehensive population genetic studies O. viverrini sensu lato in Southeast Asia. PMID:19900579

Laoprom, Nonglak; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Ando, Katsuhiko; Sithithaworn, Jiraporn; Wongkham, Sopit; Laha, Thewarach; Klinbunga, Sirawut; Webster, Joanne P; Andrews, Ross H

2010-01-01

99

Proteomic profile of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos snails upon infection with the carcinogenic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini  

E-print Network

parasite infections [16-19], and snail lectins and opsonins 91 have also been shown to impact on trematode infections [20-23]. 92 93 The biological interactions between trematodes and their intermediate hosts are 94 crucial events that determine...

Prasopdee, Sattrachai; Tesana, Smarn; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Laha, Thewarach; Mulvenna, Jason; Grams, Rudi; Loukas, Alex; Gallego, Javier Sotillo

2014-10-02

100

Rapid and simple identification of human pathogenic heterophyid intestinal fluke metacercariae by PCR-RFLP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six species of heterophyid intestinal flukes (HIFs) constitute the major endemic zoonotic fish-borne pathogens in Asia: Haplorchis taichui, H. pumilio, H. yokogawai, Procerovum varium, Stellantchasmus falcatus, and Centrocestus formosanus. Several different species of these parasites are often found co-infecting the same second intermediate fish host. Because of their morphological similarities, differentiating between species of HIF metacercariae is difficult, time-consuming, and

Urusa Thaenkham; Orawan Phuphisut; Wallop Pakdee; Nirundorn Homsuwan; Surapol Sa-nguankiat; Jitra Waikagul; Yukifumi Nawa; Do Trung Dung

101

Shared epitope for monoclonal IR162 between Anisakis simplex larvae and Clonorchis sinensis and cross-reactivity between antigens.  

PubMed

IR162 is a rat monoclonal IgE antibody (mAb). In the investigation of rat IgE production, the antigens recognized by IR162 (IR-Ags) were found to be expressed by a variety of helminthic parasites. By western blot analysis, IR162 detected bands in crude extracts of Anisakis simplex larvae, Clonorchis sinensis, Paragonimus westermani, plerocercoids of Spirometra mansoni, and Toxocara canis. Excretory-secretory material from A. simplex larvae also contained a protein recognized by IR162. IR162 mAb obtained from both Serotec and Zymed recognized identical bands of A. simplex larvae. Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis indicated that both IR-Ags of A. simplex larvae (IR-As) and C. sinensis (IR-Cs) were important antigens with respect to induction of specific IgG in human infections with these 2 organisms. Even though minimal cross-reaction between IR-As and IR-Cs was observed using sera from infected individuals, these results indicate that IR-Ags are found in the parasites examined, that IR-As and IR-Cs are the antigens that induce specific antibody in natural infection, and that the epitope that binds IR162 is shared by A. simplex larvae and C. sinensis. PMID:11128497

Cho, J K; Cho, S W

2000-10-01

102

Molecular cloning and characterization of cDNA encoding a novel cytosolic glutathione transferase from Clonorchis sinensis.  

PubMed

Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are a group of multifunction isoenzymes coded by many genes. A cDNA encoding a novel cytosolic GST enzyme was cloned from a Clonorchis sinensis (Cs) adult worm cDNA library by large-scale sequencing. This new cDNA contains 786 bp with a putative open reading frame of 212 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibits 61% identity to C. sinensis cytosolic 28-kDa GST. Recombinant CsGST was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and was purified by Ni-NTA Agarose. Enzymatic assays showed that the recombinant CsGST had a high activity of 22.7 U mg(-1). The average K (m) of the CsGST for 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene is 111 microM. Cibacron blue F3GA and albendazole inhibited the CsGST activity with respective average IC(50) of 1.1 and 247.1 microM. It provides a model for the structure and physiological function analysis on CsGST. The nucleotide sequence reported in this paper has been submitted to the GenBank Database with accession number DQ179264. PMID:16416295

Wu, Zhongluan; Wu, De; Hu, Xuchu; Xu, Jin; Chen, Shouyi; Wu, Zhongdao; Yu, Xinbing

2006-05-01

103

Liver Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... Handouts Education Resources Support Services Helpful Links For Liver Health Information Call 1-800-GO-LIVER (1- ... Home > Your Liver > Liver Disease Information > Liver Transplant Liver Transplant Explore this section to learn more about ...

104

Liver Wellness  

MedlinePLUS

... Liver Foundation www.liverfoundation.org 1-800-GO-LIVER © 2009 American Liver Foundation. All rights reserved. Increasing Public Awareness of Liver Health Liver Wellness • The liver is the second ...

105

Dicrocoelium chinensis and Dicrocoelium dendriticum (Trematoda: Digenea) are distinct lancet fluke species based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences.  

PubMed

Lancet flukes parasitize the bile ducts and gall bladder of a range of mammals, including humans, causing dicrocoeliosis. In the present study, we sequenced and characterized the complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes as well as the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2=ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of two lancet flukes, Dicrocoelium chinensis and D. dendriticum. Sequence comparison of a conserved mt gene and nuclear rDNA sequences among multiple individual lancet flukes revealed substantial nucleotide differences between the species but limited sequence variation within each of them. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated amino acid and multiple mt rrnS sequences using Bayesian inference supported the separation of D. chinensis and D. dendriticum into two distinct species-specific clades. Results of the present study support the proposal that D. dendriticum and D. chinensis represent two distinct lancet flukes. While providing the first mt genomes from members of the superfamily Plagiorchioidea, the novel mt markers described herein will be useful for further studies of the diagnosis, epidemiology and systematics of the lancet flukes and other trematodes of human and animal health significance. PMID:25016202

Liu, Guo-Hua; Yan, Hong-Bin; Otranto, Domenico; Wang, Xing-Ye; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Jia, Wan-Zhong; Zhu, Xing-Quan

2014-10-01

106

Efficacy and Safety of Praziquantel, Tribendimidine and Mebendazole in Patients with Co-infection of Clonorchis sinensis and Other Helminths  

PubMed Central

Background Both tribendimidine and mebendazole are broad-spectrum drugs for anti-intestinal nematodes. We aim to assess the efficacy and safety of tribendimidine and mebendazole in patients with co-infection of Clonorchis sinensis and other helminths. Method We performed a randomized open-label trial in Qiyang, People's Republic of China. Eligible participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups: (i) a single dose of 400 mg tribendimidine, (ii) 200 mg tribendimidine twice daily, (iii) 75 mg/kg praziquantel divided in four doses within 2 days, and (iv) a single dose of 400 mg mebendazole. Cure rates and egg reduction rates were assessed, and adverse events were monitored after treatments. Uncured patients accepted the second treatment with the same drugs after the first treatment. Results 156 patients were eligible for the study. Results from the first treatment showed that the cure rates of single-dose tribendimidine and praziquantel against C. sinensis were 50% and 56.8%, respectively; the single-dose tribendimidine achieved the cure rate of 77.8% in the treatment for hookworm, which was significantly higher than that of praziquantel; Low cure rates were obtained in the treatment of single-dose tribendimidine against Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura (28.6% and 23.1%). Results of the second treatment illustrated the cure rates of tribendimidine and praziquantel against C. sinensis were 78.1% and 75%, respectively. Most adverse events were mild and transient. Adverse events caused by tribendimidine were significantly less than praziquantel. Conclusion Single-dose tribendimidine showed similar efficacy against C. sinensis as praziquantel with less adverse events, and achieved significantly higher cure rate in the treatment for hookworm than those of praziquantel and mebendazole. Low cure rates, which were still higher than other drugs, were obtained in the treatment of single-dose tribendimidine against Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN55086560 PMID:25122121

Xu, Li-Li; Jiang, Bin; Duan, Ji-Hui; Zhuang, Shi-Feng; Liu, Yong-Chun; Zhu, Shi-Qiao; Zhang, Li-Ping; Zhang, Hao-Bing; Xiao, Shu-Hua; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

2014-01-01

107

Liver metastases  

MedlinePLUS

Metastases to the liver; Metastatic liver cancer; Liver cancer - metastatic ... Almost any cancer can spread to the liver. Cancers that can spread to the liver include: Breast cancer Colorectal cancer Esophageal ...

108

Liver Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. Primary liver cancer starts in the liver. Metastatic liver ... and spreads to your liver. Risk factors for primary liver cancer include Having hepatitis B or C ...

109

Life history and habitat analysis of the eye fluke Diplostomum spathaceum (trematoda: diplostomatidae) in Utah.  

PubMed

Diplostomum spathaceum which is widespread throughout Utah in desert, mountain valley, and high alpine lakes, causes a disease known as diplostomatosis or eye fluke disease. Snails (756) were examined and two species, Lymnaea stagnalis and L. palustris were positive for D. spathaceum. Examination of 838 fish, which included 19 species, revealed 10 species (Salmo trutta, Catostomus discobulus, Salmo clarki, Micropterus salmoides, Catostomus platyrhynchus, Salmo gairdneri, Gila atraria, Catostomus ardens, Salvelinus fontinalis, and Richardsonius balteatus) positive for metacercariae of D. spathaceum. The only avian hosts positive for adult Diplostomum were Larvus californicus and L. delawarensis. PMID:864559

Palmieri, J R; Heckmann, R A; Evans, R S

1977-06-01

110

Epidemiological studies of Clonorchis sinensis in lower area of Nag Dong river nearby Busan City in Korea.  

PubMed

The infection rates with cercaria and metacercaria of the Clonorchis sinensis in snail and fish hosts, and the prevalence among the inhabitants in the lower Nag Dong river in Busan were investigated in the period from June 1981 to March 1982. The stool examination and E.P.G. count for prevalence and intensity of clonorchiasis were done by cellophane thick smear and Stoll's egg count methods. The prevalence rate of clonorchiasis among inhabitants of 3 towns in Bug Gu, was 38.4% among a total of 1,384 persons examined. By town, the prevalence in Gu Po was 25.4% out of 330 persons examined, 39.3% in 438 examined in Gang Dong and 44.8% out of 616 in examined in Myeng Ji respectively. According to sex, the male(41.9%) showed relatively higher rate than female(35.3%). By age, increase of rate was observed as increase in age. The highest rate was 80.7% in 50~59 years group. The intensity of infection was light: 89.1% of examined cases were below 10,000 E.P.G.; by area 80.9%(Gu Po), 80.2%(Gang Dong), 97.3%(Myeng JI). Out of fresh water fish species collected, 2 species were not infected with metacercaria. The metacercarial detection rate from fish in low Nag Dong river showed 100% in Pseudorasbora parva, Pseudogobio esocinus(41.4%), Hemibarbus labeo(37.1%), Acheilognathus limbata(33.3%) and Erythroculter erthropterus(4.5%) respectively. The mean number of metacercaria per gram of muscle was 21.2 in P. parva, P. esocinus(15.0), H. labeo(11.9), A. limbata(6.3), and E. erythropterus(1.6) respectively. Though 7 area along Nag Dong river were surveyed for Parafossarulus manchouricus, the snails were not found at all areas except for one area, Seo Nam stream; and the cercaria was infected 0.9% out of 708 examined. PMID:12902685

Song, Soo Bok

1982-12-01

111

Identification and Characterization of Paramyosin from Cyst Wall of Metacercariae Implicated Protective Efficacy against Clonorchis sinensis Infection  

PubMed Central

Human clonorchiasis has been increasingly prevalent in recent years and results in a threat to the public health in epidemic regions, motivating current strategies of vaccines to combat Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis). In this study, we identified C. sinensis paramyosin (CsPmy) from the cyst wall proteins of metacercariae by proteomic approaches and characterized the expressed recombinant pET-26b-CsPmy protein (101 kDa). Bioinformatics analysis indicated that full-length sequences of paramyosin are conserved in helminthes and numerous B-cell/T-cell epitopes were predicted in amino acid sequence of CsPmy. Western blot analysis showed that CsPmy was expressed at four life stages of C. sinensis, both cyst wall proteins and soluble tegumental components could be probed by anti-CsPmy serum. Moreover, immunolocalization results revealed that CsPmy was specifically localized at cyst wall and excretory bladder of metacercaria, as well as the tegument, oral sucker and vitellarium of adult worm. Both immunoblot and immunolocalization results demonstrated that CsPmy was highly expressed at the stage of adult worm, metacercariae and cercaria, which could be supported by real-time PCR analysis. Both recombinant protein and nucleic acid of CsPmy showed strong immunogenicity in rats and induced combined Th1/Th2 immune responses, which were reflected by continuous high level of antibody titers and increased level of IgG1/IgG2a subtypes in serum. In vaccine trials, comparing with control groups, both CsPmy protein and DNA vaccine exhibited protective effect with significant worm reduction rate of 54.3% (p<0.05) and 36.1% (p<0.05), respectively. In consistence with immune responses in sera, elevated level of cytokines IFN-? and IL-4 in splenocytes suggested that CsPmy could induce combined cellular immunity and humoral immunity in host. Taken together, CsPmy could be a promising vaccine candidate in the prevention of C. sinensis regarding its high immunogenicity and surface localization. PMID:22470461

Lv, Xiaoli; Tian, Yanli; Men, Jingtao; Zhang, Xifeng; Lei, Huali; Zhou, Chenhui; Lu, Fangli; Liang, Chi; Hu, Xuchu; Xu, Jin; Wu, Zhongdao; Li, Xuerong; Yu, Xinbing

2012-01-01

112

[Taxonomic, topical and quantitative structure of the community of intestinal flukes (Digenea) of mallards, Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus, 1758 from the area of Szczecin].  

PubMed

Taxonomic, topical and quantitative structure of the community of intestinal flukes (Digenea) of mallards, Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus, 1758 from the area of Szczecin. A total of 55 mallards (Anas platyrhynchos L.) from the area of Szczecin were examined for the presence of intestinal flukes (Digenea). This study covered the taxonomic structure (specific composition and taxonomic affiliation of the parasites), topical structure (parasites' distribution within the host's organism), and quantitative structure (infection intensity, abundance, prevalence, and infection index "Z"). Flukes were found in 69.1% of the birds studied. The highest intensity of infection and prevalence exhibited species of the family Echinostomatidae (Echinostoma revolutum, Echinostoma miyagawai, Echinostoma sp., Echinoparyphium recurvatum) and Notocotylus attenuatus of the family Notocotylidae. The mallards surveyed hosted 15 species of flukes, representing 6 families. Echinostoma miyagawai Ishii, 1932 has been found for the first time in Poland. The present findings of Psilotrema similium and Prosthogonimus ovatus in mallard constitute new host records for these parasites. PMID:16894718

Betlejewska, Katarzyna M; Korol, Eleonora N

2002-01-01

113

The current status of opisthorchiasis and clonorchiasis in the Mekong Basin  

PubMed Central

This review highlights the current status and control of liver fluke infections in the Mekong Basin countries where Opisthorchis and Clonorchis are highly endemic. Updated data on prevalence and distribution have been summarized from presentations in the “96 Years of Opisthorchiasis. International Congress of Liver Flukes”. It is disturbing that despite treatment and control programs have been in place for decades, all countries of the Lower Mekong Basin are still highly endemic with O. viverrini and/or C. sinensis as well as alarmingly high levels of CCA incidence. A common pattern that is emerging in each country is the difference in transmission of O. viverrini between lowlands which have high prevalence versus highlands which have low prevalence. This seems to be associated with wetlands, flooding patterns and human movement and settlement. A more concerted effort from all community, educational, public health and government sectors is necessary to successfully combat this fatal liver disease of the poor. PMID:21893213

Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Andrews, Ross H.; Van De, Nguyen; Wongsaroj, Thitima; Sinuon, Muth; Odermatt, Peter; Nawa, Yukifumi; Liang, Song; Brindley, Paul J.; Sripa, Banchob

2013-01-01

114

Intervention to Improve the Quality of Life of a Bottlenose Dolphin That Developed Necrosis on the Tail Flukes  

PubMed Central

[Purpose, Case, and Methods] A female bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) in captivity developed necrosis of the tail flukes. Although the diseased site healed after surgical resection, the loss of approximately 75% of the tail greatly affected her swimming performance. To restore swimming ability, we developed artificial tail flukes as a prosthetic swimming aid and provided physical therapy that included swimming training from postoperative day 1 to day 1427. [Results] The prosthetic enabled the dolphin to recover swimming ability almost to the level prior to disease onset, but even acquire applied movement, and reestablish social relationships, thus greatly improving the animal's quality of life. [Conclusion] The results clearly demonstrate that, as in postoperative rehabilitation in humans, the use of prosthetic devices in physical therapy can be beneficial for marine animals such as dolphins. PMID:24259946

Ueda, Keiichi; Murakami, Masahito; Kato, Junichi; Miyahara, Hirokazu; Izumisawa, Yasuharu

2013-01-01

115

Liver biopsy  

MedlinePLUS

Biopsy - liver; Percutaneous biopsy ... the biopsy needle to be inserted into the liver. This is often done by using ultrasound. The ... the chance of damage to the lung or liver. The needle is removed quickly. Pressure will be ...

116

Proteomic Identification of Plasma Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Alpha and Fibronectin Associated with Liver Fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, Infection  

PubMed Central

Opisthorchiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini induces periductal fibrosis via host immune/inflammatory responses. Plasma protein alteration during host-parasite interaction-mediated inflammation may provide potential diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarkers. To search for target protein changes in O. viverrini-infected hamsters, a 1-D PAGE gel band was trypsin-digested and analyzed by a LC-MS/MS-based proteomics approach in the plasma profile of infected hamsters, and applied to humans. Sixty seven proteins were selected for further analysis based on at least two unique tryptic peptides with protein ID score >10 and increased expression at least two times across time points. These proteins have not been previously identified in O. viverrini-associated infection. Among those, proteins involved in structural (19%), immune response (13%), cell cycle (10%) and transcription (10%) were highly expressed. Western blots revealed an expression level of protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha (PTP?) which reached a peak at 1 month and subsequently tended to decrease. Fibronectin significantly increased at 1 month and tended to increase with time, supporting proteomic analysis. PTP? was expressed in the cytoplasm of inflammatory cells, while fibronectin was observed mainly in the cytoplasm of fibroblasts and the extracellular matrix at periductal fibrosis areas. In addition, these protein levels significantly increased in the plasma of O. viverrini-infected patients compared to healthy individuals, and significantly decreased at 2-months post-treatment, indicating their potential as disease markers. In conclusion, our results suggest that plasma PTP? and fibronectin may be associated with opisthorchiasis and the hamster model provides the basis for development of novel diagnostic markers in the future. PMID:23029023

Khoontawad, Jarinya; Laothong, Umawadee; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Pinlaor, Porntip; Mulvenna, Jason; Wongkham, Chaisiri; Yongvanit, Puangrat; Pairojkul, Chawalit; Mairiang, Eimorn; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Pinlaor, Somchai

2012-01-01

117

Fasciola hepatica cathepsin L-like proteases: biology, function, and potential in the development of first generation liver fluke vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fasciola hepatica secretes cathepsin L proteases that facilitate the penetration of the parasite through the tissues of its host, and also participate in functions such as feeding and immune evasion. The major proteases, cathepsin L1 (FheCL1) and cathepsin L2 (FheCL2) are members of a lineage that gave rise to the human cathepsin Ls, Ks and Ss, but while they exhibit

John P Dalton; Sandra O Neill; Colin Stack; Peter Collins; Alan Walshe; Mary Sekiya; Sean Doyle; Grace Mulcahy; Deborah Hoyle; Eric Khaznadji; Nathalie Moiré; Gerard Brennan; Angela Mousley; Natalia Kreshchenko; Aaron G Maule; Sheila M Donnelly

2003-01-01

118

THE LIVER FLUKE METORCHIS BILIS - A NEW THREAT FOR THE WHITE-TAILED SEA EAGLE (HALIAEETUS ALBICILLA) IN MIDDLE EUROPE?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extendet abstract: The white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) an endangered species in Germany suffers a lot of threats in the highly civilised landscape. Amongst the main causes of death such as traumata due to interference with human structures, i.e. collisions with trains, wire, electrocution, and poisoning, parasites do also play an important role in the health status of these birds

O. KRONE; R. SCHUSTER

119

Concurrent epizootic hyperinfections of sea lice (predominantly Caligus chiastos) and blood flukes (Cardicola forsteri) in ranched Southern Bluefin tuna.  

PubMed

Peaks in epizootics of sea lice (mostly Caligus chiastos) and blood flukes (Cardicola forsteri) among Southern Bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii) appear to coincide with the onset of an increased mortality. The mortality event occurs 6-12 weeks after T. maccoyii have been transferred into static ranching pontoons from the wild. However, to date available data on parasite occurrence before commercial harvesting begins, are scant. This research gathered epizootiological data from weeks 4 to 13 post-transfer, for 153 T. maccoyii sampled from two research and four commercial pontoons. Counts of both parasites in the research pontoons reached levels far heavier than previously documented in ranched T. maccoyii. For sea lice, the prevalence in most pontoons was 100%; the highest intensity reached 495 individuals, and mean counts at the peak of the infection exceeded 265 lice per fish. Almost all of the 5407 individual lice counted were identified as adult C. chiastos (89.44% female, 10.14% male); adult females of two other species were also present, C. amblygenitalis (0.13%), in addition to an undescribed species, C. sp. (0.04%). Lice counts were correlated positively with gross eye pathology scores (r(s,151df)=0.3394, p=0.0000), negatively correlated with condition index (r(s,151df)=-0.5396, p=0.0000), and positively correlated with plasma cortisol (r(s,131df)=0.3906, p=0.0000) and glucose (r(s,131df)=0.2240, p=0.0096). For the blood fluke, prevalences were less uniform than those of sea lice, with lower rates of infection at the beginning (ranging from 10% to 40%), reaching 100% mid-study, and declining again (40% in one pontoon). The highest intensity reached 441 individual flukes. Fluke counts were negatively correlated with plasma haemoglobin (r(s,151df)=-0.2436, p=0.0051) and positively with lysozyme (r(s,151df)=0.3013, p=0.0019). Fluke counts were also correlated with sea lice counts (r(s,150df)=0.3143, p=0.0000). Peaks in these epizootics occurred near the onset of elevated mortalities, which started after 7 weeks of ranching. PMID:20605071

Hayward, Craig J; Ellis, David; Foote, Danielle; Wilkinson, Ryan J; Crosbie, Phillip B B; Bott, Nathan J; Nowak, Barbara F

2010-10-11

120

Heterophysiasis, an intestinal fluke infection of man and vertebrates transmitted by euryhaline gastropods and fish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heterophyes heterophyes, agent of human heterophyiasis in the Near East, is transmitted in marine lagoons and saline inland waters, where the euryhaline intermediate hosts are abundant. In Egypt, mullets, the predominant second intermediate hosts, are customarily consumed raw; thus man becomes infected easily. Symptoms of human infections are usually considered mild. Mullets do not seem to be affected by the metacercariae encysted in the muscles, whereas the growth of the snail host Pirenella conica was found to be enhanced due to the infestation by the trematodes. In laboratory experiments, the flukes were found to be well developed in dogs, foxes and cats, but failed to reach sexual maturity in several other potentially piscivorous mammals and birds. In nature, dogs probably serve as the major reservoir hosts. Heterophyiasis is most prevalent in the Nile Delta, a huge brackish water area which is densely populated by humans and, consequently, also by dogs and cats. In the Far East, besides Heterophyes nocens, several other heterophysids with marine or fresh-water life-cycles are known to infect humans.

Taraschewski, H.

1984-03-01

121

A Cytochrome b561 with Ferric Reductase Activity from the Parasitic Blood Fluke, Schistosoma japonicum  

PubMed Central

Background Iron has an integral role in numerous cellular reactions and is required by virtually all organisms. In physiological conditions, iron is abundant in a largely insoluble ferric state. Ferric reductases are an essential component of iron uptake by cells, reducing iron to the soluble ferrous form. Cytochromes b561 (cyts-b561) are a family of ascorbate reducing transmembrane proteins found in most eukaryotic cells. The identification of the ferric reductase duodenal cytochrome b (dcytb) and recent observations that other cyts-b561 may be involved in iron metabolism have opened novel perspectives for elucidating their physiological function. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we have identified a new member of the cytochrome b561 (Sjcytb561) family in the pathogenic blood fluke Schistosoma japonicum that localises to the outer surface of this parasitic trematode. Heterologous expression of recombinant Sjcyt-b561 in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strain that lacks plasma membrane ferrireductase activity demonstrated that the molecule could rescue ferric reductase activity in the yeast. Significance/Conclusions This finding of a new member of the cytochrome b561 family further supports the notion that a ferric reductase function is likely for other members of this protein family. Additionally, the localisation of Sjcytb561 in the surface epithelium of these blood-dwelling schistosomes contributes further to our knowledge concerning nutrient acquisition in these parasites and may provide novel targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:21103361

Glanfield, Amber; McManus, Donald P.; Smyth, Danielle J.; Lovas, Erica M.; Loukas, Alex; Gobert, Geoffrey N.; Jones, Malcolm K.

2010-01-01

122

Liver Biopsy  

MedlinePLUS

A liver biopsy is a medical procedure performed in order to obtain a small sample of the liver. This is accomplished with a special needle, and ... small scar. The most common reasons for a liver biopsy include the evaluation of: ? Jaundice ? Liver inflammation ( ...

123

Development and evaluation of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for rapid detection of Clonorchis sinensis from its first intermediate hosts, freshwater snails.  

PubMed

Clonorchiasis, caused by Clonorchis sinensis, is a key foodborne zoonosis, which is mainly found in China, Korea and Vietnam. Detection of this parasite from the second intermediate host, the freshwater fish is the common method for epidemiological surveys of this parasite, but is time consuming, labour intensive and easily leads to misdiagnosis. In this study, we have developed a rapid, sensitive and reliable molecular method for the diagnosis of C. sinensis from its first intermediate hosts, freshwater snails, based on a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method. The specific amplified fragment from genomic DNA of C. sinensis did not cross-react with those from other relevant trematodes and a range of hosts (freshwater fish, shrimps and snails) of C. sinensis living in similar environments. The detection limit of the LAMP method was as low as 10 fg which was 1000 times more sensitive than conventional PCR, which was also demonstrated by successful application to field samples. These results show that the LAMP method is a more sensitive tool than conventional PCR for the detection of C. sinensis infection in the first intermediate hosts and, due to a simpler protocol, is an ideal molecular method for field-based epidemiological surveys of this parasite. PMID:23870065

Chen, Y; Wen, T; Lai, D-H; Wen, Y-Z; Wu, Z-D; Yang, T-B; Yu, X-B; Hide, G; Lun, Z-R

2013-09-01

124

Tracking the fate of iron in early development of human blood flukes  

PubMed Central

Iron (Fe) is an important trace element found in nearly all organisms, and is used as a cofactor in many biological reactions. One role for Fe in some invertebrates is in stabilization of extracellular matrices. The human blood fluke, Schistosoma japonicum, is responsible for significant human disease in developing and tropical nations. Disease in humans arises from host immunological reaction to parasite eggs that lodge in tissues. Schistosomes require Fe for development in their hosts, and store abundant Fe in vitelline (eggshell-forming) cells of the female system. The understanding of Fe metabolism and functionality are aspects of its biology that may be exploited in future therapeutics. The biology of Fe stores in vitelline cells of S. japonicum was investigated to illuminate possible functions of this element in early development of these parasites. Vitelline Fe is stored in yolk ferritin that is upregulated in females and is also expressed at low levels in egg-stages and adult males. Laser microdissection microscopy, coupled with reverse transcriptase- and real time-PCR amplification of schistosome ferritin sequences, confirmed that the vitelline cells are the likely progenitor cells of yolk ferritin. Assessment of Fe concentrations in whole male and whole female adult worms, eggs and purified eggshells by colorimetric assays and mass spectroscopy demonstrated higher levels of Fe in the female parasite, but also high levels of the element in whole parasite eggs and purified eggshell. Qualitative energy dispersive spectroscopy of purified eggshells, revealed that Fe is abundant in the eggshell, the matrix of which is composed of heavily cross-linked eggshell precursor proteins. Thus, vitelline stores of Fe are implicated in eggshell cross-linking in platyhelminths. These observations emphasise the importance of Fe in schistosome metabolism and egg formation and suggest new avenues for disruption of egg formation in these pathogenic parasites. PMID:17556009

Jones, Malcolm K.; McManus, Donald P.; Sivadorai, Padma; Glanfield, Amber; Moertel, Luke; Belli, Sabina I.; Gobert, Geoffrey N.

2007-01-01

125

Liver Immunology  

PubMed Central

The liver is the largest organ in the body and is generally regarded by non-immunologists as not having lymphoid function. However, such is far from accurate. This review highlights the importance of the liver as a lymphoid organ. Firstly, we discuss experimental data surrounding the role of liver as a lymphoid organ. The liver facilitates a tolerance rather than immunoreactivity, which protects the host from antigenic overload of dietary components and drugs derived from the gut and is also instrumental to fetal immune tolerance. Loss of liver tolerance leads to autoaggressive phenomena which if are not controlled by regulatory lymphoid populations may lead to the induction of autoimmune liver diseases. Liver-related lymphoid subpopulations also act as critical antigen-presenting cells. The study of the immunological properties of liver and delineation of the microenvironment of the intrahepatic milieu in normal and diseased livers provides a platform to understand the hierarchy of a series of detrimental events which lead to immune-mediated destruction of the liver and the rejection of liver allografts. The majority of emphasis within this review will be on the normal mononuclear cell composition of the liver. However, within this context, we will discus select, but not all, immune mediated liver disease and attempt to place these data in the context of human autoimmunity. PMID:23720323

Bogdanos, Dimitrios P.; Gao, Bin; Gershwin, M. Eric

2014-01-01

126

Rhaphidotrema kiatkiongi, a new genus and species of blood fluke (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from Arothron hispidus (Osteichthyes: Tetraodontidae) from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.  

PubMed

A new genus of fish blood flukes (Aporocotylidae Odhner, 1912) is proposed for a species found on reefs surrounding Lizard Island on the northern Great Barrier Reef. Rhaphidotrema kiatkiongi gen. et sp. n. was recovered from the heart of the stars-and-stripes pufferfish, Arothron hispidus (L.) (Tetraodontidae). Rhaphidotrema kiatkiongi is notable as the first digenean reported to possess a penis stylet. It also differs from all other aporocotylid flukes in having a combination of 18-19 testes in a group at the ends of the intestinal caeca, a broad lanceolate body shape with a dextrally-directed posterior bend at the level of the male genital pore, and separate genital pores, with the female genital pore distinctly sinistral and the male genital pore slightly dextral to midline. This is the second species of aporocotylid fluke reported from this pufferfish. PMID:22263308

Yong, Russell Q Y; Cribb, Thomas H

2011-11-01

127

Liver Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

Your liver is the largest organ inside your body. It helps your body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. There are many kinds of liver diseases. Viruses cause some of them, like hepatitis ...

128

Liver regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The liver can precisely regulate its growth and mass. Surgical resection of hepatic lobes or hepatocyte loss caused by viral or chemical injury triggers hepatocyte replication while enlarged liver mass is corrected by apoptosis. Hepatocytes have a great replicative capacity and are capable of repopulating the liver. However, “stem-like” cells proliferate when hepatocyte replication is blocked or delayed. Detailed studies

Nelson Fausto

2000-01-01

129

Fasciola hepatica: effects of the fasciolicide clorsulon in vitro and in vivo on the tegumental surface, and a comparison of the effects on young- and old-mature flukes.  

PubMed

The ultrastructural changes in Fasciola hepatica induced by the fasciolicide clorsulon were assessed using scanning electron microscopy. At 8 and 44 weeks post-infection, male Sprague-Dawley rats infected with F. hepaticawere dosed orally with clorsulon at a concentration of 12.5 mg/kg and mature flukes recovered from the bile duct after 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h in both experiments. An in vitro incubation was also set up using mature fluke (8 weeks old) incubated with clorsulon for 24 h at a concentration of 10 microg/ml. After 24 h in vivo, the young-mature flukes (8 weeks old) showed significant disruption to the tegumental surface, particularly in the anterior mid-body region, where a distinct band of swelling and blebbing was evident. The band began just behind the ventral sucker and ran posteriorly along both margins. The apical cone region of the fluke was characterised by swelling and blebbing of the surface between the spines. Similar changes were evident after 48 h in vivo, but the disruption was more severe and the mid-body band had spread posteriorly. In approximately half of the specimens recovered after 72 h in vivo, widespread disruption had occurred, with sloughing of the apical membrane or the entire syncytium, over almost all of the oral cone and anterior mid-body. For all time periods, the anterior half of the fluke was more severely affected than the posterior half. No differences were seen between the dorsal and ventral surfaces. Old-mature flukes (44 weeks old) showed regionally similar, but more severe and widespread disruption than that seen in the young-mature flukes. The onset of surface changes occurred more quickly in old-mature flukes as well. Eight-week-old flukes which had been incubated for 24 h in vitro showed surprisingly little disruption, but this may be due to the method by which the drug is taken up by the fluke. PMID:12937959

Meaney, M; Fairweather, I; Brennan, G P; McDowell, L S L; Forbes, A B

2003-10-01

130

Diet and Your Liver  

MedlinePLUS

... Liver How can alcohol and medicine affect the liver? Alcohol Alcohol can damage or destroy liver cells. ... Liver Foundation www.liverfoundation.org 1-800-GO-LIVER © 2009 American Liver Foundation. All rights reserved. Increasing ...

131

The effectiveness of repeated tank treatments of copper sulfate and formalin on gill flukes and Ich in naturally infested white bass  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ectoparasites infesting the gills of juvenile fish reared in tanks can cause serious fish losses. Multiple treatments of formalin and copper sulfate (CuSO4) were evaluated for effectiveness against a natural infestation of gill flukes Onchocleidus mimus (Monogenoidea: Ancyrocephalidae) and Ichthyop...

132

Liver Facts  

MedlinePLUS

... Player. Common Diseases That May Lead to Transplantation Primary sclerosing cholangitis Acute hepatic necrosis Cirrhosis Metabolic diseases Portal hypertension Hepatitis (viral, autoimmune and idiopapathic) Liver tumors Biliary ...

133

Liver spots  

MedlinePLUS

Sun-induced skin changes - liver spots; Senile or solar lentigines; Skin spots - aging; Age spots ... Liver spots are changes in skin color that occur in older skin. The increased color may be due to aging, exposure to the sun or other sources ...

134

Comparison of the time required to administer three different fluke and worm combination products to commercial beef cattle at housing.  

PubMed

Larger livestock units, a decline in the farm labor force, animal welfare concerns, and a trend toward more selective use of drugs have increased the focus on animal handling, time management, convenience, and compliance in administering veterinary therapeutics. This study was undertaken to quantify and compare the time needed to treat commercial beef cattle with three fluke and worm combination products with different administration profiles. Young beef cattle (n = 270) weighing approximately 400 kg were allocated to batches of five, which were randomly assigned to receive ivermectin + clorsulon injection, ivermectin + closantel injection, or levamisole + triclabendazole oral drench. The mean time needed to administer ivermectin + clorsulon (single injection) to five cattle was 31 seconds, which was significantly less than the 100 seconds needed for ivermectin + closantel (two injections) and the 126 seconds needed for levamisole + triclabendazole (P < .001). Such quantitative data can allow for better planning and selection of parasiticide treatment approaches at the farm level. PMID:18415946

Webster, R; Knox, K; Berger, F; Delaveau, J; Forbes, A B

2008-01-01

135

Morphology of the oviduct fluke, Prosthogonimus ovatus, isolated from Indonesian native chickens and histopathological observation of the infected chickens.  

PubMed

Prosthogonimus ovatus infection was detected in 5 of 130 chickens in the oviduct and 4 chickens in the bursa of Fabricius. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the spines of the P. ovatus were densely distributed on the cuticula of the entire dorsal surface of body, but on the ventral surface, they were densely present to the level of ventral sucker but gradually decreased in density posteriorly, and they could not be seen in the posterior 1/3 area. The spines were finger-shaped and denticulate at the tip. Histopathological examination showed that polypous elevations, degeneration and exfoliation of the mucosal epithelium were detected in the bursa of Fabricius possibly by the suction of flukes, in addition to the stratification of the mucosal epithelium, and interstitial cell infiltration. PMID:12520106

Leok, Chen Sau; Inoue, Isamu; Sato, Tsuneo; Haritani, Makoto; Tanimura, Nobuhiko; Okada, Kosuke

2002-12-01

136

Austropeplea ollula (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae): A new molluscan intermediate host of a human intestinal fluke, Echinostoma cinetorchis (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) in Korea  

PubMed Central

Three freshwater snail species of the family Lymnaeidae have been reported from Korea, Radix auricularia coreana, Austropeplea ollula and Fossaria truncatula. Out of 3 lymnaeid snail species, A. ollula was naturally infected with the Echinostoma cinetorchis cercariae (infection rate = 0.7%). In the experiments with the laboratory-bred snails, F. truncatula as well as A. ollula was also susceptible to the E. cinetorchis miracidia with infection rates of 25% and 40%, respectively. All of three lymnaeid snail species exposed to the E. cinetorchis cercariae were infected with the E. cinetorchis metacercariae. It is evident that A. ollula acts as the first molluscan intermediate host of E. cinetorchis in Korea, and F. truncatula may be a possible candidate for the first intermediate host of this intestinal fluke. Also, three lymnaeid snail species targeted were experimentally infected with E. cinetorchis metacercariae. PMID:11590915

Jung, Younghun; Park, Yun-Kyu; Hwang, Myung-Ki

2001-01-01

137

Austropeplea ollula (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae): a new molluscan intermediate host of a human intestinal fluke, Echinostoma cinetorchis (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) in Korea.  

PubMed

Three freshwater snail species of the family Lymnaeidae have been reported from Korea, Radix auricularia coreana, Austropeplea ollula and Fossaria truncatula. Out of 3 lymnaeid snail species, A. ollula was naturally infected with the Echinostoma cinetorchis cercariae (infection rate = 0.7%). In the experiments with the laboratory-bred snails, F. truncatula as well as A. ollula was also susceptible to the E. cinetorchis miracidia with infection rates of 25% and 40%, respectively. All of three lymnaeid snail species exposed to the E. cinetorchis cercariae were infected with the E. cinetorchis metacercariae. It is evident that A. ollula acts as the first molluscan intermediate host of E. cinetorchis in Korea, and F. truncatula may be a possible candidate for the first intermediate host of this intestinal fluke. Also, three lymnaeid snail species targeted were experimentally infected with E. cinetorchis metacercariae. PMID:11590915

Chung, P R; Jung, Y; Park, Y K; Hwang, M K

2001-09-01

138

Molecular characterization of the North American lung fluke Paragonimus kellicotti in Missouri and its development in Mongolian gerbils.  

PubMed

Human paragonimiasis is an emerging disease in Missouri. To characterize local parasites, we examined crayfish from three rivers. Metacercaeriae consistent with Paragonimus kellicotti were detected in 69%, 67%, and 37% of crayfish from the Big Piney, Huzzah, and Black Rivers, respectively. Sequencing of the second internal transcribed spacer and other DNA markers confirmed the species identification and the presence of identical parasite sequences in clinical specimens from two human cases. Mongolian gerbils were infected by intraperitoneal injection with 3-8 metacercariae. Most gerbils died 15-49 days post-infection. Necropsies showed pulmonary hemorrhage with necrosis, and flukes as long as 8 mm were recovered from intrathoracic tissues. Western blot analysis using P. kellicotti antigen showed a strong antibody response in gerbils 39 days post-infection. These results demonstrate that P. kellicotti is common in Missouri crayfish. The gerbil model may be useful for research on the pathogenesis, immunology, and treatment of paragonimiasis. PMID:21633042

Fischer, Peter U; Curtis, Kurt C; Marcos, Luis A; Weil, Gary J

2011-06-01

139

Liver tumours.  

PubMed

Humans are remarkably resistant to many carcinogens that readily produce liver tumours in rodents, particularly the rat. The neoplastic process has been extensively studied in animal experiments, but little is known so far of how it evolves in humans. Few drugs have been shown to cause liver tumours in humans, and the risk appears to be low. The best-known examples are C17-alkylated or ethinylated gonadal sex steroids. Oral contraceptives have now been in use by millions for thirty years, but only a few hundred cases at most of liver cell adenoma have been observed. The role of these substances in liver cell carcinoma remains controversial, and the evidence is weaker still in relation to focal nodular hyperplasia and other tumour-like conditions. Anabolic-androgenic steroids stand out as the major cause of peliosis, but liver cell tumours induced by them seem to be adenomas and not carcinomas as originally suggested. The effect that both oral contraceptives and anabolic-androgenic steroids have on liver vasculature is of great clinical importance as the most important complication of liver tumours is rupture, leading to life-threatening haemorrhage. For this reason, liver tumours arising in users of these drugs should be removed whenever feasible. Thorium dioxide will remain a risk factor for the development of angiosarcoma, liver cell carcinoma and bile duct carcinoma for some time yet, and the number of patients who have been exposed is high--tens of thousands at least. The evidence of a carcinogenic role for many other drugs is anecdotal or weak. Neoplasia in the liver seems to be the least important side-effect of drugs in clinical use. PMID:2841989

Anthony, P P

1988-04-01

140

Sequence Analysis and Molecular Characterization of Clonorchis sinensis Hexokinase, an Unusual Trimeric 50-kDa Glucose-6-Phosphate-Sensitive Allosteric Enzyme  

PubMed Central

Clonorchiasis, which is induced by the infection of Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis), is highly associated with cholangiocarcinoma. Because the available examination, treatment and interrupting transmission provide limited opportunities to prevent infection, it is urgent to develop integrated strategies to prevent and control clonorchiasis. Glycolytic enzymes are crucial molecules for trematode survival and have been targeted for drug development. Hexokinase of C. sinensis (CsHK), the first key regulatory enzyme of the glycolytic pathway, was characterized in this study. The calculated molecular mass (Mr) of CsHK was 50.0 kDa. The obtained recombinant CsHK (rCsHK) was a homotrimer with an Mr of approximately 164 kDa, as determined using native PAGE and gel filtration. The highest activity was obtained with 50 mM glycine-NaOH at pH 10 and 100 mM Tris-HCl at pH 8.5 and 10. The kinetics of rCsHK has a moderate thermal stability. Compared to that of the corresponding negative control, the enzymatic activity was significantly inhibited by praziquantel (PZQ) and anti-rCsHK serum. rCsHK was homotropically and allosterically activated by its substrates, including glucose, mannose, fructose, and ATP. ADP exhibited mixed allosteric effect on rCsHK with respect to ATP, while inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) displayed net allosteric activation with various allosteric systems. Fructose behaved as a dose-dependent V activator with the substrate glucose. Glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) displayed net allosteric inhibition on rCsHK with respect to ATP or glucose with various allosteric systems in a dose-independent manner. There were differences in both mRNA and protein levels of CsHK among the life stages of adult worm, metacercaria, excysted metacercaria and egg of C. sinensis, suggesting different energy requirements during different development stages. Our study furthers the understanding of the biological functions of CsHK and supports the need to screen for small molecule inhibitors of CsHK to interfere with glycolysis in C. sinensis. PMID:25232723

Chen, Tingjin; Ning, Dan; Sun, Hengchang; Li, Ran; Shang, Mei; Li, Xuerong; Wang, Xiaoyun; Chen, Wenjun; Liang, Chi; Li, Wenfang; Mao, Qiang; Li, Ye; Deng, Chuanhuan; Wang, Lexun; Wu, Zhongdao; Huang, Yan; Xu, Jin; Yu, Xinbing

2014-01-01

141

Liver bioengineering  

PubMed Central

Liver bioengineering has been a field of intense research and popular excitement in the past decades. It experiences great interest since the introduction of whole liver acellular scaffolds generated by perfusion decellularization1–3. Nevertheless, the different strategies developed so far have failed to generate hepatic tissue in vitro bioequivalent to native liver tissue. Even notable novel strategies that rely on iPSC-derived liver progenitor cells potential to self-organize in association with endothelial cells in hepatic organoids are lacking critical components of the native tissue (e.g., bile ducts, functional vascular network, hepatic microarchitecture, etc)4. Hence, it is vital to understand the strengths and short comes of our current strategies in this quest to re-create liver organogenesis in vitro. To shed some light into these issues, this review describes the different actors that play crucial roles in liver organogenesis and highlights the steps still missing to successfully generate whole livers and hepatic organoids in vitro for multiple applications. PMID:25102189

Caralt, Mireia; Velasco, Enrique; Lanas, Angel; Baptista, Pedro M

2014-01-01

142

Progression of Liver Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Handouts Education Resources Support Services Helpful Links For Liver Health Information Call 1-800-GO-LIVER (1- ... The Progression of Liver Disease The Progression of Liver Disease There are many different types of liver ...

143

73 FR 11026 - New Animal Drugs; Albendazole  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...nonlactating goats for the treatment of liver flukes. DATES: This rule is effective...Oral Suspension for the treatment of liver flukes in nonlactating goats. The approval...use. For removal and control of adult liver flukes (Fasciola hepatica); heads...

2008-02-29

144

Liver transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... damage from poisoning or medications Problems with the drainage system of the liver (the biliary tract), such as ... you must take medications that suppress the immune system to prevent ... Diarrhea Drainage Fever Jaundice Redness Swelling Tenderness

145

Liver Transplantation  

MedlinePLUS

... Scientists Current Funding Opportunities Open grant, contract, and cooperative agreement listings with closing dates and contacts Funded ... demands of living with a liver transplant Scoring Systems When people are registered on the waiting list, ...

146

Liver Panel  

MedlinePLUS

... GGT) – another enzyme found mainly in liver cells Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) – an enzyme released with cell damage; ... and with conditions, such as congestive heart failure . Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) This is a non-specific marker ...

147

Senescent Liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The decline of cellular functions is a main characteristic of aging. Although the senescent liver preserves its functions\\u000a relatively well, there are a number of alterations which create conditions for the development of age-associated diseases\\u000a and which cause problems with drug therapy in the elderly. Aging liver is characterized by morphological alterations of hepatocytes\\u000a and sinusoids, by alterations in functions

Nikolai A. Timchenko

148

Blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) of walking catfishes (Siluriformes: Clariidae): new genus and species from the Mekong River (Vietnam) with comments on related catfish aporocotylids.  

PubMed

Nomasanguinicola canthoensis gen. et sp. n. infects the branchial vessels of bighead catfish, Clarias macrocephalus Günther (Siluriformes: Clariidae), in the Mekong River near Can Tho, southern Vietnam. Nomasanguinicola differs from all other genera of fish blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) by the combination of lacking body spines and by having an anterior sucker with two flanking columns of large denticles, an intestine comprising several short papilla-like caeca, an inverse U-shaped uterus, and an ootype located near the separate genital pores. The new species has an ootype that is posterior to the level of the female genital pore. That feature most easily differentiates it from the only other putative aporocotylid species having an anterior sucker with two flanking columns of large denticles, Plehniella dentata Paperna, 1964 and Sanguinicola clarias Imam, Marzouk, Hassan et Itman, 1984, which have an ootype that is lateral (P. dentata) or anterior (S. clarias) to the level of the female genital pore. These two species apparently lack extant type materials, infect North African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), and herein are considered incertae sedis, but likely comprise species of Nomasanguinicola. An updated list of hosts, sites of infection and geographic localities for the six species and three genera of blood flukes that mature in catfishes is provided. The new species is the first fish blood fluke recorded from Vietnam and only the third reported from a walking catfish (Clariidae). PMID:23951931

Truong, Triet Nhat; Bullard, Stephen A

2013-07-01

149

Liver transplant - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

The liver is in the right upper abdomen. The liver serves many functions, including the detoxification of substances delivered ... A liver transplant may be recommended for: liver damage due to alcoholism (Alcoholic cirrhosis) primary biliary cirrhosis long-term ( ...

150

Liver disease - resources  

MedlinePLUS

Resources - liver disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on liver disease : American Liver Foundation - www.liverfoundation.org Children's Liver Association for Support Services - www.classkids.org Hepatitis ...

151

Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

Cancer.gov

Home Cancers Selected for Study Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma Last Updated: May 14, 2013 What is liver cancer?Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common form of liver cancer in the United States, making up more than

152

Liver cancer - Hepatocellular carcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Cancer - liver; Hepatoma ... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually seen in people age 50 or older. Hepatocellular ...

153

Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Liver cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the liver. The liver is one of the largest organs ...

154

Proteomic Analysis of Human Skin Treated with Larval Schistosome Peptidases Reveals Distinct Invasion Strategies among Species of Blood Flukes  

PubMed Central

Background Skin invasion is the initial step in infection of the human host by schistosome blood flukes. Schistosome larvae have the remarkable ability to overcome the physical and biochemical barriers present in skin in the absence of any mechanical trauma. While a serine peptidase with activity against insoluble elastin appears to be essential for this process in one species of schistosomes, Schistosoma mansoni, it is unknown whether other schistosome species use the same peptidase to facilitate entry into their hosts. Methods Recent genome sequencing projects, together with a number of biochemical studies, identified alternative peptidases that Schistosoma japonicum or Trichobilharzia regenti could use to facilitate migration through skin. In this study, we used comparative proteomic analysis of human skin treated with purified cercarial elastase, the known invasive peptidase of S. mansoni, or S. mansoni cathespin B2, a close homolog of the putative invasive peptidase of S. japonicum, to identify substrates of either peptidase. Select skin proteins were then confirmed as substrates by in vitro digestion assays. Conclusions This study demonstrates that an S. mansoni ortholog of the candidate invasive peptidase of S. japonicum and T. regenti, cathepsin B2, is capable of efficiently cleaving many of the same host skin substrates as the invasive serine peptidase of S. mansoni, cercarial elastase. At the same time, identification of unique substrates and the broader species specificity of cathepsin B2 suggest that the cercarial elastase gene family amplified as an adaptation of schistosomes to human hosts. PMID:21980548

Ingram, Jessica; Knudsen, Giselle; Lim, K. C.; Hansell, Elizabeth; Sakanari, Judy; McKerrow, James

2011-01-01

155

Correlation of Humoral Immune Response in Southern Bluefin Tuna, T. maccoyii, with Infection Stage of the Blood Fluke, Cardicola forsteri  

PubMed Central

The blood fluke, Cardicola forsteri, is a prevalent infection in ranched southern bluefin tuna. This project aimed to define the timing and intensity of the various developmental stages of C. forsteri within southern bluefin tuna as well as to relate infection to host pathology and immune response. Archival samples from several cohorts of T. maccoyii sampled from 2008 to 2010 were used in this study. The prevalence and intensity of C. forsteri infection was described using heart flushes and histological examination. Humoral immune response, i.e. C. forsteri specific antibody, lysozyme activity, and alternative complement activity, was also described. Based on the validated and detailed C. forsteri infection timeline, relationships between infection events, physiological response, and diagnosis were proposed. Immune response developed concurrently with C. forsteri infection, with the majority of physiological response coinciding with commencing egg production. Further research is needed to confirm the origin of C. forsteri antigen which is responsible for immune response development and how T. maccoyii immune response works against infection. To aide this research, further diagnostic methods for confirmation of infection need to be developed. PMID:23029217

Kirchhoff, Nicole T.; Leef, Melanie J.; Valdenegro, Victoria; Hayward, Craig J.; Nowak, Barbara F.

2012-01-01

156

[Liver diseases].  

PubMed

In Digestive Disease Week 2008, interesting advances in the treatment of hepatitis C were presented, especially related to the promising increase in the therapeutic efficacy of the combination of conventional treatment with the protease inhibitor, telaprevir. Also revealed was the influence of viral replication of hepatitis B virus in the development of complications, including hepatocarcinoma. In this sense, drugs such as entecavir and tenofovir seem to provide sustained inhibition of viral replication without the development of resistance. Among the complications of cirrhosis, the growing prognostic implications of bacterial infections, associated with an increased risk of death, have been demonstrated. Likewise, diverse studies have provided greater understanding of the role of elastography in the evaluation of liver fibrosis, including the role of this technique in the evaluation of treatment response and in liver transplantation. The importance of fatty acid liver disease was clearly shown in several studies confirming the influence of diabetes in the presence of inflammation and fibrosis and the increase in the indication of liver transplantation for this disease, which may recur in the graft, especially in patients with a high body mass index. A meta-analysis of hepatocarcinoma and a decision model were unable to detect differences in survival in small tumors treated with radiofrequency or surgery. PMID:19434874

Calleja, José Luis; Albillos, Agustín; Bañares, Rafael

2008-10-01

157

Transcriptional immune response of cage-cultured Pacific bluefin tuna during infection by two Cardicola blood fluke species.  

PubMed

Infections by two blood fluke species, Cardicola orientalis and Cardicola opisthorchis, currently present the greatest disease concern for the sea-cage culture of Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT) - a species of high global economic importance and ecological concern. In this study, we aimed to rapidly, quantitatively, and differentially identify infections by these two parasite species in cultured PBT as well as identify potential host immune responses. Using real-time qPCR, we were successful in quantitatively detecting parasite-specific DNA from within host blood, gill, and heart tissues; positively identifying parasitic infections 44 days earlier than microscopy methods previously employed. Both gill and heart became heavily infected by both parasite species in PBT within two months of sea-cage culture, which was only mitigated by the administration of anthelmintic praziquantel. Nevertheless, fish were observed to mount an organ specific transcriptive immune response during infection that mirrored the relative quantity of pathogenic load. In heart, significant (3-6 fold) increases in IgM, MHC2, TCR?, and IL-8 transcription was observed in infected fish relative to uninfected controls; whereas in the gills only IgM transcription was observed to be induced (11 fold) by infection. Interestingly, the relative quantity of IgM transcription was highly correlated to the relative abundance of C. orientalis but not C. opisthorchis DNA in the gill samples, even though this organ showed high prevalence of DNA from both parasite species. Taken together, these findings indicate that although ineffective at combating infection during primary exposure, a cellular immune response is mounted in PBT as a potential rejoinder to future Cardicola exposure, particularly against C. orientalis. Although future investigation into antibody effectiveness will be needed, this work provides valuable preliminary insight into host responsiveness to Cardicola infection as well as additional support for the need of anthelmintic treatment following primary parasite exposure during PBT culture. PMID:24161760

Polinski, Mark; Shirakashi, Sho; Bridle, Andrew; Nowak, Barbara

2014-01-01

158

Extremely low frequency magnetic field and the hatching rate of Fasciola hepatica eggs, the fecundity and survival of liver fluke-infected snail, Lymnaea truncatula.  

PubMed

Eggs of Fasciola hepatica were exposed for 10 days to extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELFMF) at the frequency of 50 Hz and density of 2 mT (rms). The results show an accelerated hatching of F. hepatica eggs in relation to control (non-exposed) group. The host snails, Lymnaea truncatula, were divided into three groups; those of groups I and II were infected with the miracidia of F. hepatica hatched from control egg culture, whereas those of group III were infected with miracidia hatched from eggs affected by ELFMF. Thereafter, snails of groups II and III were exposed to ELFMF for 53 days, whereas those of group I were not exposed. At day 14 post infection, a significant decrease was observed in the number of cocoons laid by snails of group III, compared with control. Also, significant mortality in group III snails was observed 42 days post infection. The increased mortality and a lower number of cocoons laid by group III snails have probably resulted from enhanced stimulation of metacercarial parthenogenetic reproduction in consequence of infecting the molluscs with miracidia reared under ELFMF. PMID:20968179

Ko?odziejczyk, Lidia; Ku?na-Grygiel, Wanda; Gonet, Boles?aw; Podraza, Wojciech

2010-01-01

159

Liver transplant for cholestatic liver diseases.  

PubMed

Cholestatic liver diseases include a group of diverse disorders with different epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical course, and prognosis. Despite significant advances in the clinical care of patients with cholestatic liver diseases, liver transplant (LT) remains the only definitive therapy for end-stage liver disease, regardless of the underlying cause. As per the United Network for Organ Sharing database, the rate of cadaveric LT for cholestatic liver disease was 18% in 1991, 10% in 2000, and 7.8% in 2008. This review summarizes the available evidence on various common and rare cholestatic liver diseases, disease-specific issues, and pertinent aspects of LT. PMID:23540507

Carrion, Andres F; Bhamidimarri, Kalyan Ram

2013-05-01

160

Pyogenic liver abscess  

MedlinePLUS

Liver abscess; Bacterial liver abscess ... There are many potential causes of liver abscesses, including: Abdominal infection such as appendicitis , diverticulitis , or a perforated bowel Infection in the blood Infection of the bile draining tubes ...

161

Alcoholic liver disease  

MedlinePLUS

Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Alcohol can cause inflammation in the liver . Over time, scarring ...

162

Liver Cell Death  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Hepatocyte cell death is an indispensible and cardinal element that precipitates and perpetuates liver injury [1]. Accordingly,\\u000a liver injury can result in acute or chronic liver disease. This distinction between acute and chronic liver disease is arbitrary;\\u000a a reflection of the etiology and time course of liver injury. Hepatocytes are the predominant parenchymal cell type in the\\u000a liver. Commonly encountered

Harmeet Malhi; Gregory J. Gores

163

Melatonin inhibits cholangiocarcinoma and reduces liver injury in Opisthorchis viverrini-infected and N-nitrosodimethylamine-treated hamsters.  

PubMed

The human liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini infection and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) administration induce cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and liver injury in hamsters. Melatonin protects against liver injury and reduces the alteration of mitochondrial structure, mitochondrial membrane potential, and mitochondrial pro- and anti-apoptotic pathways in various cancer types. To investigate the chemopreventive effect of melatonin on CCA genesis and liver injury, hamsters were treated with a combination of O. viverrini infection and NDMA concurrently administered with melatonin (10 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg) for 120 days. Melatonin treatment at 50 mg/kg caused a significant reduction in liver/body weight ratios and decreased tumor volumes leading to an increase in the survival of animals. In the tumorous tissues, the high-dose melatonin reduced DNA fragmentation and mitochondrial apoptosis by inducing anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2) in the mitochondrial fraction and down-regulating cytochrome c, pro-apoptotic protein (Bax), and caspase-3 in tumor cytosol. Moreover, a high-dose melatonin treatment significantly increased mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes and prevented mitochondrial ultrastructure changes in the tumor. Overall, melatonin has potent chemopreventive effects in inhibiting CCA genesis and also reduces liver injury in hamster CCA, which, in part, might involve in the suppression of CCA by reducing tumor mitochondria alteration. PMID:23772655

Laothong, Umawadee; Pinlaor, Porntip; Boonsiri, Patcharee; Pairojkul, Chawalit; Priprem, Aroonsri; Johns, Nutjaree Pratheepawanit; Charoensuk, Lakhanawan; Intuyod, Kitti; Pinlaor, Somchai

2013-10-01

164

Amebic liver abscess  

MedlinePLUS

Hepatic amebiasis; Extraintestinal amebiasis; Abscess - amebic liver ... Amebic liver abscess is caused by Entamoeba histolytica. This is the same parasite that causes amebiasis , an intestinal infection ...

165

Fluke egg characteristics for the diagnosis of human and animal fascioliasis by Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica.  

PubMed

In trematodiases, shape and size of the fluke eggs shed with faeces are crucial diagnostic features because of their typically reduced intraspecific variability. In fascioliasis, the usual diagnosis during the biliary stage of infection is based on the classification of eggs found in stools, duodenal contents or bile. The aim of the present study is to validate the identification of Fasciola species based on the shape and size of eggs shed by humans, characterizing their morphometric traits using a computer image analysis system (CIAS). The influence of both the geographical location and of the host (human and livestock) has been analysed. Coprological studies were carried out in fascioliasis human endemic areas, where only F. hepatica is present (the northern Bolivian Altiplano and the Cajamarca valley in Peru), and where F. hepatica and F. gigantica coexist (the Kutaisi region of Georgia, the Nile Delta in Egypt, and the Quy Nhon province in Vietnam). Classically, it is considered that at the abopercular end of the shell of Fasciola eggs there is often a roughened or irregular area. Nevertheless, results show that the frequency of the presence of this feature in F. hepatica is population-dependent, and therefore is not a pathognomonic criterion in diagnosis. The study reveals that eggs shed by humans show morphological traits different from eggs shed by animals. In humans, F. hepatica eggs are bigger and F. gigantica eggs are smaller than reported to date from livestock, and their measurements overlap when compared. The material analysed in this study shows that the size of eggs shed by humans from Georgia and Egypt corresponds to the F. hepatica morph, while the size of eggs shed by humans from Vietnam corresponds to the F. gigantica morph. Measurements of F. hepatica and F. gigantica eggs originating from humans and animals from sympatric areas overlap, and, therefore, they do not allow differential diagnosis when within this overlapping range. In this sense, the new results should aid clinicians since the application of the classic egg size range in human samples may lead to erroneous conclusions. Fasciolid egg size in human stool samples ought to be corrected in books and monographs related to medical parasitology and/or tropical medicine as well as in guides for clinicians and parasitic disease diagnosis analysts. PMID:19375410

Valero, M Adela; Perez-Crespo, Ignacio; Periago, M Victoria; Khoubbane, Messaoud; Mas-Coma, Santiago

2009-08-01

166

Laparoscopic liver resection of benign liver tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility, safety, and outcome of laparoscopic liver resection\\u000a for benign liver tumors in a multicenter setting. Background: Despite restrictive, tailored indications for resection in benign\\u000a liver tumors, an increasing number of articles have been published concerning laparoscopic liver resection of these tumors.\\u000a Methods: A retrospective study was performed in 18

B. Descottes; D. Glineur; F. Lachachi; D. Valleix; J. Paineau; A. Hamy; M. Morino; H. Bismuth; D. Castaing; E. Savier; P. Honore; O. Detry; M. Legrand; J. S. Azagra; M. Goergen; M. Ceuterick; J. Marescaux; D. Mutter; B. Hemptinne; R. Troisi; J. Weerts; B. Dallemagne; C. Jehaes; M. Gelin; V. Donckier; R. Aerts; B. Topal; C. Bertrand; B. Mansvelt; L. Krunckelsven; D. Herman; M. Kint; E. Totte; R. Schockmel; J. F. Gigot

2003-01-01

167

Role of liver progenitors in liver regeneration  

PubMed Central

During massive liver injury and hepatocyte loss, the intrinsic regenerative capacity of the liver by replication of resident hepatocytes is overwhelmed. Treatment of this condition depends on the cause of liver injury, though in many cases liver transplantation (LT) remains the only curative option. LT for end stage chronic and acute liver diseases is hampered by shortage of donor organs and requires immunosuppression. Hepatocyte transplantation is limited by yet unresolved technical difficulties. Since currently no treatment is available to facilitate liver regeneration directly, therapies involving the use of resident liver stem or progenitor cells (LPCs) or non-liver stem cells are coming to fore. LPCs are quiescent in the healthy liver, but may be activated under conditions where the regenerative capacity of mature hepatocytes is severely impaired. Non-liver stem cells include embryonic stem cells (ES cells) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In the first section, we aim to provide an overview of the role of putative cytokines, growth factors, mitogens and hormones in regulating LPC response and briefly discuss the prognostic value of the LPC response in clinical practice. In the latter section, we will highlight the role of other (non-liver) stem cells in transplantation and discuss advantages and disadvantages of ES cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS), as well as MSCs. PMID:25713804

Best, Jan; Manka, Paul; Syn, Wing-Kin; Dollé, Laurent; van Grunsven, Leo A.

2015-01-01

168

Living with Your Liver  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn the function of the liver and how biomedical engineers can use liver regeneration to help people. Students test the effects of toxic chemicals on a beef liver by adding hydrogen peroxide to various liver and salt solutions. They observe, record and graph their results.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

169

Characterization of Constituents and Anthelmintic Properties of Hagenia abyssinica  

PubMed Central

The dried female flowers of Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce) J. F. Gmel. (Rosaceae) are traditionally used as an anthelmintic remedy in Ethiopia and formerly were incorporated into the European Pharmacopoeia. One-, two- and tricyclic phloroglucinol derivatives (kosins) were suggested to be the active principles. However, polar constituents may also contribute to the activity. Therefore, we investigated for the first time the polar constituents. We isolated typical Rosaceae constituents such as quercetin 3-O-?-glucuronide, quercetin 3-O-?-glucoside and rutin. Polar kosin glycosides or derivatives could not be detected. The anthelmintic activity of fractions of different polarity were tested against the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni, the liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis and Fasciola hepatica and the intestinal fluke Echinostoma caproni. The anthelmintic activity decreased with increasing polarity of the tested fractions. ESI-MS investigations indicated the predominant occurrence of kosins in the active fractions. Using the anthelmintic active extracts of Hagenia abyssinica we developed a simple, inexpensive bioassay against the non-parasitic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which can be used as an initial screening procedure for anthelmintic properties of crude extracts of plants or fungi. The anthelmintic activity of test extracts against the model organism was determined in a microtiter plate assay by enumeration of living and dead nematodes under a microscope. PMID:22896828

Thomsen, Henrieke; Reider, Katrin; Franke, Katrin; Wessjohann, Ludger A.; Keiser, Jennifer; Dagne, Ermias; Arnold, Norbert

2012-01-01

170

Proteomic analysis of different period excretory secretory products from Clonorchis sinensis adult worms: molecular characterization, immunolocalization, and serological reactivity of two excretory secretory antigens-methionine aminopeptidase 2 and acid phosphatase.  

PubMed

The excretory secretory products (ESP) of Clonorchis sinensis are the causative agents of clonorchiasis and biliary diseases. The parasites' ESP play important roles in host-parasite interactions. The protein compositions of ESP at different secretory times are different and have not been systemically investigated so far. In this study, we collected ESP from six different periods (0-3 h, 3-6 h, 6-12 h, 12-24 h, 24-36 h, and 36-48 h) from C. sinensis adults. Using a shotgun LC-MS/MS analysis, we found 187, 80, 103, 58, 248, and 383 proteins, respectively. Among these proteins, we selected methionine aminopeptidase 2 (MAP-2, presented in 24-36 h and 36-48 h ESP) and acid phosphatase (AP, presented in 3-6 h, 12-24 h, 24-36 h, and 36-48 h ESP) for further study. Bioinformatics analysis showed that CsMAP-2 has metallopeptidase family M24, unique lysine residue-rich and acidic residue-rich domain, SGTS motif, and auto-cleavage point; and that CsAP has possible signal sequence cleavage site, acid phosphate domain, and two histidine acid phosphatases active regions. CsMAP-2 and CsAP's cDNA have 1,425 bp and1,410 bp ORF, encoding 475 and 470 amino acid proteins and weighing 55.3840 kDa and 55.2875 kDa, respectively. MAP-2 and AP were identified as antigens present in the ESP and circulating antigens by immunoblot analysis, which were also found expressing in the eggs, metacercaria, and adult stages of C. sinensis. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that they were located in tegument and intestinal cecum of adult. MTT assay showed that they could inhibit hepatic stellate cell line (LX-2) proliferation. These findings presented the compositions of different period excretory secretary products from C. sinensis adults. PMID:23274491

Zheng, Minghui; Hu, Kunhua; Liu, Wei; Li, Hongyu; Chen, Jingfang; Yu, Xinbing

2013-03-01

171

Liver disease in pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Liver diseases in pregnancy may be categorized into liver disorders that occur only in the setting of pregnancy and liver diseases that occur coincidentally with pregnancy. Hyperemesis gravidarum, preeclampsia/eclampsia, syndrome of hemolysis, elevated liver tests and low platelets (HELLP), acute fatty liver of pregnancy, and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy are pregnancy-specific disorders that may cause elevations in liver tests and hepatic dysfunction. Chronic liver diseases, including cholestatic liver disease, autoimmune hepatitis, Wilson disease, and viral hepatitis may also be seen in pregnancy. Management of liver disease in pregnancy requires collaboration between obstetricians and gastroenterologists/hepatologists. Treatment of pregnancy-specific liver disorders usually involves delivery of the fetus and supportive care, whereas management of chronic liver disease in pregnancy is directed toward optimizing control of the liver disorder. Cirrhosis in the setting of pregnancy is less commonly observed but offers unique challenges for patients and practitioners. This article reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of liver diseases seen in pregnancy. PMID:19248187

Lee, Noel M; Brady, Carla W

2009-01-01

172

What Is Liver Cancer?  

MedlinePLUS

... the liver are known as primary liver cancers . Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) This is the most common form of ... the information in this document refers only to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Last Medical Review: 11/19/2014 Last ...

173

Autoimmune liver disease panel  

MedlinePLUS

Liver disease test panel - autoimmune ... Autoimmune disorders are a possible cause of liver disease. The most common of these diseases are autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis. This group of tests helps your health care provider ...

174

Ultrasound elastography: liver.  

PubMed

Ultrasound elastography, also termed sonoelastography, is being used increasingly in clinical practice to aid the diagnosis and management of diffuse liver disease. Elastography has been shown to be capable of differentiating advanced and early-stage liver fibrosis, and consequently a major application in clinical liver care includes progression to cirrhosis risk stratification through (1) assessment of liver fibrosis stage in HCV and HBV patients, (2) distinguishing non-alcoholic steatohepatitis from simple steatosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients, and (3) prognostic evaluation of liver disease is autoimmune liver disease. In addition, elastographic characterization of focal liver lesions and evaluation of clinically significant portal hypertension have the potential to be clinically useful and are areas of active clinical research. PMID:25690689

Dhyani, Manish; Anvari, Arash; Samir, Anthony E

2015-04-01

175

Pregnancy Complications: Liver Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... hemolysis (breakdown of red blood cells), elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet (blood cell fragments needed for ... M. Diagnosis and Management of Hemolysis, Elevated Liver Enzymes, and Low Platelets Syndrome. Clinics in Perinatology, volume ...

176

Liver and Alpha-1  

MedlinePLUS

... harm the liver are a virus, such as hepatitis B or C, or a chemical such as alcohol. There is no scientific evidence that carriers with the MS genes are at increased risk for liver disease. What Are Some Symptoms Of Alpha-1 Liver ...

177

Imaging in liver transplantation  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to illustrate the role of non-invasive imaging tools such as ultrasonography, multi-detector row computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of pediatric and adult liver recipients and potential liver donors, and in the detection of potential complications arising from liver transplantation. PMID:19222090

Caruso, Settimo; Miraglia, Roberto; Maruzzelli, Luigi; Gruttadauria, Salvatore; Luca, Angelo; Gridelli, Bruno

2009-01-01

178

Differences in susceptibility and immune responses of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from lake and river ecotypes to sequential infections with the eye fluke Diplostomum pseudospathaceum  

PubMed Central

Background The eye fluke Diplostomum pseudospathaceum is a frequent parasite of many fresh-water fish species, among those three-spined sticklebacks, particularly in lakes with lymnaeid snails, its first intermediate hosts. Cercariae released from host-snails, penetrate the skin of their fish hosts and within 24 h migrate to the immunologically inert eye lenses. Thus, individual D. pseudospathaceum are exposed to the fish immune system only for a short time, suggesting that only innate immunity can be active against the parasite. However, in nature sticklebacks are exposed to D. pseudospathaceum repeatedly since snails are shedding cercariae from late spring to autumn. Therefore, acquired immunity after initial infection would be advantageous against subsequent parasite encounters. Methods We investigated if sticklebacks originating from a lake with high and from a river with low prevalence of D. pseudospathaceum differ in susceptibility to repeated exposure to the parasite. We compared infection success and immune functions in laboratory-bred sticklebacks from both habitats in naïve fish with fish that had been pre-exposed to eye flukes. Head kidney leukocytes (HKL) from experimental sticklebacks were investigated for respiratory burst activity and the proliferation of lymphocytes and monocytes 1.5, 5 and 15 days after infection. Results Lake sticklebacks were less susceptible than river sticklebacks, however, in both populations pre-exposure led to a similar relative reduction in infection success. The respiratory burst activity was higher with HKL from lake sticklebacks and was up-regulated in pre-exposed fish but dropped 1.5d after an additional exposure, suggesting that activation of phagocytic cells is crucial for the defense against D. pseudospathaceum. Changes in lymphocyte proliferation were only detectable 1.5d after the last exposure in lake sticklebacks, but not 5 and 15d post exposure, indicating that a lymphocyte mediated acquired immune response was not induced. Proliferation of monocytes was significantly increased 1.5d after the last exposure with HKL from both stickleback populations. Conclusions Increased resistance to D. pseudospathaceum in sticklebacks from both populations upon pre-exposure cannot be explained by a prominent adaptive immune response. Monocytic leukocytes were more responsive, suggesting that rather cells of the innate than the adaptive immune system are active in the defense of D. pseudospathaceum. PMID:24656136

2014-01-01

179

Robotic liver surgery  

PubMed Central

Robotic surgery is an evolving technology that has been successfully applied to a number of surgical specialties, but its use in liver surgery has so far been limited. In this review article we discuss the challenges of minimally invasive liver surgery, the pros and cons of robotics, the evolution of medical robots, and the potentials in applying this technology to liver surgery. The current data in the literature are also presented. PMID:25392840

Leung, Universe

2014-01-01

180

Primary liver cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver cancer, whether primary or secondary, is one of the most difficult to treat among malignant solid tumors, with a miserable\\u000a prognosis. In view of the relative lack of exciting progress in the management of metastatic liver cancer in recent years\\u000a this lecture necessarily concerns primary liver cancer, particularly hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Time permits coverage\\u000a of only several important aspects

Kunio Okuda

1986-01-01

181

Transjugular liver biopsy.  

PubMed

Liver biopsy is still the gold standard for evaluation of acute and chronic liver diseases, despite achievements regarding noninvasive diagnosis and staging in liver diseases. Transjugular liver biopsy (TJLB) has proved a good option when ascites and/or significant coagulopathy precludes a percutaneous approach. Because diagnostic hemodynamic procedures can be performed during the same session, it is useful in many clinical settings, regardless of the absence of percuteaneous contraindications. TJLB is a safe technique able to provide good-quality specimens with a low rate of complications. This article presents an overview of TJLB that discusses the technique, applicability, indications, contraindications, complications, and diagnostic accuracy. PMID:25438282

Ble, Michel; Procopet, Bogdan; Miquel, Rosa; Hernandez-Gea, Virginia; García-Pagán, Juan Carlos

2014-11-01

182

Alcoholic liver disease  

PubMed Central

Alcohol is a major cause of liver cirrhosis in the Western world and accounts for the majority of cases of liver cirrhosis seen in district general hospitals in the UK. The three most widely recognised forms of alcoholic liver disease are alcoholic fatty liver (steatosis), acute alcoholic hepatitis, and alcoholic cirrhosis. The exact pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury is still not clear but immune mediated and free radical hepatic injury are thought to be important. There is increasing interest in genetic factors predisposing to hepatic injury in susceptible individuals. Diagnosis is based on accurate history, raised serum markers such as ?-glutamyltransferase, mean corpuscular volume, and IgA and liver histology when obtainable. Abstinence is the most important aspect of treatment. Newer drugs such as acamprosate and naltrexone are used to reduce alcohol craving. Vitamin supplements and nutrition are vital while corticosteroids have a role in acute alcoholic hepatitis where there is no evidence of gastrointestinal haemorrhage or sepsis. Liver transplantation has excellent results in abstinent patients with end stage liver disease but there are concerns about recidivism after transplant.???Keywords: cirrhosis; liver disease; alcohol PMID:10775280

Walsh, K.; Alexander, G.

2000-01-01

183

Liver fibrosis in overweight patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: A common clinical issue is whether overweight patients with abnormal liver function test results should undergo liver biopsy. Although serious liver injury can occur, its prevalence and risk factors are not well known. Methods: Ninety-three consecutive patients with abnormal liver function tests (but without overt liver disease), body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg\\/m2, and no alcoholic,

Vlad Ratziu; Philippe Giral; Frederic Charlotte; Eric Bruckert; Vincent Thibault; Ioannis Theodorou; Lina Khalil; Gérard Turpin; Pierre Opolon; Thierry Poynard

2000-01-01

184

Stages of Childhood Liver Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Stages of Childhood Liver Cancer Key Points for This Section After childhood liver cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out ... to other parts of the body. After childhood liver cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to ...

185

Alcohol-Related Liver Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Handouts Education Resources Support Services Helpful Links For Liver Health Information Call 1-800-GO-LIVER (1- ... events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community Join the ...

186

About the Operation: Liver Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... Heart/Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Liver Transplant There are two very different surgical approaches to liver transplantation: the orthotopic and the heterotopic approach, both ...

187

Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination  

MedlinePLUS

... Vaccination Home Recommended Vaccines for Adults Share Compartir Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination Vaccines are especially critical for people with health conditions such as liver disease. If you have chronic liver disease, talk ...

188

Pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Liver cirrhosis is the final pathological result of various chronic liver diseases, and fibrosis is the precursor of cirrhosis. Many types of cells, cytokines and miRNAs are involved in the initiation and progression of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is a pivotal event in fibrosis. Defenestration and capillarization of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells are major contributing factors to hepatic dysfunction in liver cirrhosis. Activated Kupffer cells destroy hepatocytes and stimulate the activation of HSCs. Repeated cycles of apoptosis and regeneration of hepatocytes contribute to pathogenesis of cirrhosis. At the molecular level, many cytokines are involved in mediation of signaling pathways that regulate activation of HSCs and fibrogenesis. Recently, miRNAs as a post-transcriptional regulator have been found to play a key role in fibrosis and cirrhosis. Robust animal models of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, as well as the recently identified critical cellular and molecular factors involved in the development of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis will facilitate the development of more effective therapeutic approaches for these conditions. PMID:24966602

Zhou, Wen-Ce; Zhang, Quan-Bao; Qiao, Liang

2014-01-01

189

25 Ways to Love Your Liver  

MedlinePLUS

... run events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer For Liver Health Information Call 1-800-GO-LIVER (1- ... Love Your Liver 25 Ways to Love Your Liver The American Liver Foundation has put together this ...

190

What Happens After Treatment for Liver Cancer?  

MedlinePLUS

... after liver cancer What happens after treatment for liver cancer? For some people with liver cancer, treatment ... 1-800-227-2345. Follow-up after a liver transplant A liver transplant can be very effective ...

191

[Split-liver transplantation].  

PubMed

Split-liver transplantation is now established as a safe and successful technique that extends the donor pool for patients of all ages and thus reduces waiting-list mortality, although it can not solve the problem of organ shortage alone. Split-liver transplantation additionally represents an alternative to living liver transplantation without a potential risk of harm to the donor. Careful selection of donor and recipient, high technical and surgical skill, and experience are necessary to achieve results comparable to those of whole organ transplantation. PMID:18209986

Loss, M; Obed, A; Schlitt, H J

2008-02-01

192

Imaging of liver cancer  

PubMed Central

Improvements in imaging technology allow exploitation of the dual blood supply of the liver to aid in the identification and characterisation of both malignant and benign liver lesions. Imaging techniques available include contrast enhanced ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. This review discusses the application of several imaging techniques in the diagnosis and staging of both hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma and outlines certain characteristics of benign liver lesions. The advantages of each imaging technique are highlighted, while underscoring the potential pitfalls and limitations of each imaging modality. PMID:19294758

Ariff, Ben; Lloyd, Claire R; Khan, Sameer; Shariff, Mohamed; Thillainayagam, Andrew V; Bansi, Devinder S; Khan, Shahid A; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D; Lim, Adrian KP

2009-01-01

193

Sorafenib Tosylate in Treating Patients With Liver Cancer Who Have Undergone a Liver Transplant  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Resectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer

2014-05-05

194

Pediatric liver transplantation  

PubMed Central

In previous decades, pediatric liver transplantation has become a state-of-the-art operation with excellent success and limited mortality. Graft and patient survival have continued to improve as a result of improvements in medical, surgical and anesthetic management, organ availability, immunosuppression, and identification and treatment of postoperative complications. The utilization of split-liver grafts and living-related donors has provided more organs for pediatric patients. Newer immunosuppression regimens, including induction therapy, have had a significant impact on graft and patient survival. Future developments of pediatric liver transplantation will deal with long-term follow-up, with prevention of immunosuppression-related complications and promotion of as normal growth as possible. This review describes the state-of-the-art in pediatric liver transplantation. PMID:19222089

Spada, Marco; Riva, Silvia; Maggiore, Giuseppe; Cintorino, Davide; Gridelli, Bruno

2009-01-01

195

Liver Tumors (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... is not due to alcoholism), Fanconi's anemia (a disease of the bone marrow), or infection with hepatitis B or C. Continue Symptoms Early on, a child with a benign or malignant liver tumor might have few symptoms — or none at ...

196

Fusobacterium Liver Abscess  

PubMed Central

Fusobacterium is well characterized as an oropharyngeal pathogen that may induce a septic thrombophlebitis by direct extension of abscess into an adjacent neck vessel (Lemierre's syndrome); its potential for visceral abscess formation, however, remains under-recognized. A 65-year-old man with a recent history of multiple rim-enhancing liver lesions presented to the emergency room with fever and abdominal pain. Based on interval increase in the size of the lesions, abscess was suspected. A liver biopsy was performed, and although no organism could be identified on routine microscopy, Warthin-Starry stain revealed Gram-negative bacilli consistent with an anaerobic Fusobacterium species as the underlying etiology of liver abscess formation. Subsequent anaerobic culture results confirmed the diagnosis. This case highlights the importance of consideration for Fusobacterium infection in the setting of liver abscess if anaerobic organisms have not yet been excluded on initial culture evaluation. PMID:24348321

Buelow, Ben D.; Lambert, Joelle M.; Gill, Ryan M.

2013-01-01

197

Fusobacterium liver abscess.  

PubMed

Fusobacterium is well characterized as an oropharyngeal pathogen that may induce a septic thrombophlebitis by direct extension of abscess into an adjacent neck vessel (Lemierre's syndrome); its potential for visceral abscess formation, however, remains under-recognized. A 65-year-old man with a recent history of multiple rim-enhancing liver lesions presented to the emergency room with fever and abdominal pain. Based on interval increase in the size of the lesions, abscess was suspected. A liver biopsy was performed, and although no organism could be identified on routine microscopy, Warthin-Starry stain revealed Gram-negative bacilli consistent with an anaerobic Fusobacterium species as the underlying etiology of liver abscess formation. Subsequent anaerobic culture results confirmed the diagnosis. This case highlights the importance of consideration for Fusobacterium infection in the setting of liver abscess if anaerobic organisms have not yet been excluded on initial culture evaluation. PMID:24348321

Buelow, Ben D; Lambert, Joelle M; Gill, Ryan M

2013-01-01

198

Liver function tests  

MedlinePLUS

... Tierno P, Fenelus M, Bowne WB, Bluth MH. Evaluation of liver function. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap ...

199

[Detection of liver tumors].  

PubMed

Accurate detection of liver metastases in patients with known primary tumors is often essential for therapeutic decision making. Compared to conventional contrast media-enhanced CT unenhanced MRI seems to be slightly superior for the detection of small focal liver lesions. However, intraoperative US and CTAP show higher sensitivities for lesion detection but use of these techniques is limited because of their invasive character. The new superparamagnetic MR contrast medium ENDOREM improves the number of liver lesions detected significantly as compared to unenhanced MRI. Furthermore, as shown recently, ENDOREM-enhanced MRI may be as sensitive as CTAP. Thus, ENDOREM is useful for preoperative staging of liver tumors due to improvement in lesion detection and delineation of the hepatic vascular system. PMID:8588031

Rummeny, E J; Reimer, P; Daldrup, H; Peters, P E

1995-11-01

200

Acute liver failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Acute liver failure (ALF) is an uncommon medical emergency whose rapid progression and high mortality demand early diagnosis\\u000a and expert management, including immediate transfer of any potential case to facilities for intensive care and orthotopic\\u000a liver transplantation (OLT). All patients with ALF must be screened aggressively for acetaminophen toxicity (history, serum\\u000a levels, “hyperacute” presentation with renal failure), for other

J. Eileen Hay

2004-01-01

201

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in North America, affecting approximately\\u000a 30% of the population [1]. It is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, and is directly linked to the escalating\\u000a prevalence of obesity and the associated insulin resistance. Histologically, NAFLD is characterized by a spectrum that ranges\\u000a from nonalcoholic fatty

Onpan Cheung; Arun J. Sanyal

202

Fortuitously discovered liver lesions  

PubMed Central

The fortuitously discovered liver lesion is a common problem. Consensus might be expected in terms of its work-up, and yet there is none. This stems in part from the fact that there is no preventive campaign involving the early detection of liver tumors other than for patients with known liver cirrhosis and oncological patients. The work-up (detection and differential diagnosis) of liver tumors comprises theoretical considerations, history, physical examination, laboratory tests, standard ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound techniques, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, as well as image-guided biopsy. CEUS techniques have proved to be the most pertinent method; these techniques became part of the clinical routine about 10 years ago in Europe and Asia and are used for a variety of indications in daily clinical practice. CEUS is in many cases the first and also decisive technical intervention for detecting and characterizing liver tumors. This development is reflected in many CEUS guidelines, e.g., in the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) guidelines 2004, 2008 and 2012 as well as the recently published World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology-EFSUMB guidelines 2012. This article sets out considerations for making a structured work-up of incidental liver tumors feasible. PMID:23745019

Dietrich, Christoph F; Sharma, Malay; Gibson, Robert N; Schreiber-Dietrich, Dagmar; Jenssen, Christian

2013-01-01

203

Nutrition Aspects of Liver Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because the liver performs hundreds of metabolic functions, nutritional status and nutrient metabolism are altered in individuals\\u000a with liver disease. This chapter reviews relationships between nutritional status and liver disease, describes effects of\\u000a malnutrition and nutrition support on outcomes, and defines nutrition therapies for patients with liver disease.\\u000a \\u000a Objective nutrition assessment parameters are often confounded by symptoms of liver disease;

Jeanette M. Hasse

204

A Model of Liver Regeneration  

PubMed Central

The network of interactions underlying liver regeneration is robust and precise with liver resections resulting in controlled hyperplasia (cell proliferation) that terminates when the liver regains its lost mass. The interplay of cytokines and growth factors responsible for the inception and termination of this hyperplasia is not well understood. A model is developed for this network of interactions based on the known data of liver resections. This model reproduces the relevant published data on liver regeneration and provides geometric insights into the experimental observations. The predictions of this model are used to suggest two novel strategies for speeding up liver mass recovery and a strategy for enabling liver mass recovery in cases where a resection leaves <20% of the liver that would otherwise result in complete loss of liver mass. PMID:19450465

Furchtgott, Leon A.; Chow, Carson C.; Periwal, Vipul

2009-01-01

205

The Sinbad retrotransposon from the genome of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni, and the distribution of related Pao-like elements  

PubMed Central

Background Of the major families of long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, the Pao/BEL family is probably the least well studied. It is becoming apparent that numerous LTR retrotransposons and other mobile genetic elements have colonized the genome of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni. Results A proviral form of Sinbad, a new LTR retrotransposon, was identified in the genome of S. mansoni. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Sinbad belongs to one of five discreet subfamilies of Pao/BEL like elements. BLAST searches of whole genomes and EST databases indicated that members of this clade occurred in species of the Insecta, Nematoda, Echinodermata and Chordata, as well as Platyhelminthes, but were absent from all plants, fungi and lower eukaryotes examined. Among the deuterostomes examined, only aquatic species harbored these types of elements. All four species of nematode examined were positive for Sinbad sequences, although among insect and vertebrate genomes, some were positive and some negative. The full length, consensus Sinbad retrotransposon was 6,287 bp long and was flanked at its 5'- and 3'-ends by identical LTRs of 386 bp. Sinbad displayed a triple Cys-His RNA binding motif characteristic of Gag of Pao/BEL-like elements, followed by the enzymatic domains of protease, reverse transcriptase (RT), RNAseH, and integrase, in that order. A phylogenetic tree of deduced RT sequences from 26 elements revealed that Sinbad was most closely related to an unnamed element from the zebrafish Danio rerio and to Saci-1, also from S. mansoni. It was also closely related to Pao from Bombyx mori and to Ninja of Drosophila simulans. Sinbad was only distantly related to the other schistosome LTR retrotransposons Boudicca, Gulliver, Saci-2, Saci-3, and Fugitive, which are gypsy-like. Southern hybridization and bioinformatics analyses indicated that there were about 50 copies of Sinbad in the S. mansoni genome. The presence of ESTs representing transcripts of Sinbad in numerous developmental stages of S. mansoni along with the identical 5'- and 3'-LTR sequences suggests that Sinbad is an active retrotransposon. Conclusion Sinbad is a Pao/BEL type retrotransposon from the genome of S. mansoni. The Pao/BEL group appears to be comprised of at least five discrete subfamilies, which tend to cluster with host species phylogeny. Pao/BEL type elements appear to have colonized only the genomes of the Animalia. The distribution of these elements in the Ecdysozoa, Deuterostomia, and Lophotrochozoa is discontinuous, suggesting horizontal transmission and/or efficient elimination of Pao-like mobile genetic elements from some genomes. PMID:15725362

Copeland, Claudia S; Mann, Victoria H; Morales, Maria E; Kalinna, Bernd H; Brindley, Paul J

2005-01-01

206

SYBR, TaqMan, or both: highly sensitive, non-invasive detection of Cardicola blood fluke species in Southern Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus maccoyii).  

PubMed

Three species of blood fluke from the genus Cardicola are known to parasitize and cause disease in Bluefin Tunas--C. forsteri, C. orientalis, and C. opisthorchis. Although initially believed to be separated by geography and host specificity, recent identification of at least two Cardicola spp. concurrently present within all three Bluefin species has raised questions concerning pathogenicity, relative abundance, and distribution of these parasites within Bluefin populations. Here, we present sensitive and differential real-time qPCR nucleic acid detection of these Cardicola spp. by targeting the ITS2 region of the parasite rDNA for PCR amplification. A limit of sensitivity of 1-5 genome copy equivelents was achieved for each of the three Cardicola species tested without cross-species or host genomic amplification. Similar sensitivity was further achieved in the presence of up to 20 ng/?L non-target host gDNA using SYBR Green chemistry alone, or in the presence of up to 160 ng/?L host gDNA through the utilization of a TaqMan probe common-reporter detection system. These methods were subsequently used to positively identify both C. forsteri and C. orientalis DNA in preserved samples of serum, gill, and heart from ranched Southern Bluefin Tuna Thunnus maccoyii. Both methods were more sensitive for positively and differentially identifying the presence of Cardicola spp. than either histological or heart-flush microscopy techniques previously employed, and also possess the ability to be applied in non-lethal blood sampling of these highly valued fish. This is the first report for rapid and differential molecular quantitative detection of Cardicola, and opens the potential for effective monitoring of infection in cultured bluefin populations. Further, it is anticipated that the use of SYBR Green for melt-curve analyses in conjunction with a common-reporter TaqMan assay will present a flexible, accurate, and cost-effective approach for differential detection of a variety of other pathogens in future. PMID:23896120

Polinski, Mark; Hamilton, Dylan Belworthy; Nowak, Barbara; Bridle, Andrew

2013-09-01

207

Angiogenesis and liver fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Recent data indicate that hepatic angiogenesis, regardless of the etiology, takes place in chronic liver diseases (CLDs) that are characterized by inflammation and progressive fibrosis. Because anti-angiogenic therapy has been found to be efficient in the prevention of fibrosis in experimental models of CLDs, it is suggested that blocking angiogenesis could be a promising therapeutic option in patients with advanced fibrosis. Consequently, efforts are being directed to revealing the mechanisms involved in angiogenesis during the progression of liver fibrosis. Literature evidences indicate that hepatic angiogenesis and fibrosis are closely related in both clinical and experimental conditions. Hypoxia is a major inducer of angiogenesis together with inflammation and hepatic stellate cells. These profibrogenic cells stand at the intersection between inflammation, angiogenesis and fibrosis and play also a pivotal role in angiogenesis. This review mainly focuses to give a clear view on the relevant features that communicate angiogenesis with progression of fibrosis in CLDs towards the-end point of cirrhosis that may be translated into future therapies. The pathogenesis of hepatic angiogenesis associated with portal hypertension, viral hepatitis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and alcoholic liver disease are also discussed to emphasize the various mechanisms involved in angiogenesis during liver fibrogenesis.

Elpek, Gülsüm Özlem

2015-01-01

208

Angiogenesis and liver fibrosis.  

PubMed

Recent data indicate that hepatic angiogenesis, regardless of the etiology, takes place in chronic liver diseases (CLDs) that are characterized by inflammation and progressive fibrosis. Because anti-angiogenic therapy has been found to be efficient in the prevention of fibrosis in experimental models of CLDs, it is suggested that blocking angiogenesis could be a promising therapeutic option in patients with advanced fibrosis. Consequently, efforts are being directed to revealing the mechanisms involved in angiogenesis during the progression of liver fibrosis. Literature evidences indicate that hepatic angiogenesis and fibrosis are closely related in both clinical and experimental conditions. Hypoxia is a major inducer of angiogenesis together with inflammation and hepatic stellate cells. These profibrogenic cells stand at the intersection between inflammation, angiogenesis and fibrosis and play also a pivotal role in angiogenesis. This review mainly focuses to give a clear view on the relevant features that communicate angiogenesis with progression of fibrosis in CLDs towards the-end point of cirrhosis that may be translated into future therapies. The pathogenesis of hepatic angiogenesis associated with portal hypertension, viral hepatitis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and alcoholic liver disease are also discussed to emphasize the various mechanisms involved in angiogenesis during liver fibrogenesis. PMID:25848465

Elpek, Gülsüm Özlem

2015-03-27

209

[Deceased donor liver transplantation].  

PubMed

Deceased donor liver transplantation is nowadays a routine procedure for the treatment of terminal liver failure and often represents the only chance of a cure. Under given optimal conditions excellent long-term results can be obtained with 15-year survival rates of well above 60 %.In Germany the outcome after liver transplantation has deteriorated since the introduction of an allocation policy, which is based on the medical urgency. At present 25 % of liver graft recipients die within the first year after transplantation. In contrast 1-year survival in most other countries, e.g. in the USA or the United Kingdom is around 90 % and therefore significantly better. Reasons for the inferior results in Germany are on the one hand an increasing number of critically ill recipients and on the other hand an unfavorable situation for organ donation. In comparison with other countries the organ donation rate is low and moreover the risk profile of these donors is above average. This combination of organ shortage and organ allocation represents a big challenge for the future orientation of liver transplantation and creates the potential for conflict. These cannot be solved on a medical basis but require a social consensus.Because of the present inferior results and because of the high expenses of the present system we suggest a discussion on future allocation policies as well as on future centre structures in Germany. In addition to the medical urgency the maximum benefit should also be considered for organ allocation. PMID:23576123

Seehofer, D; Schöning, W; Neuhaus, P

2013-05-01

210

Stereoscopic liver surface reconstruction  

PubMed Central

The paper presents a practical approach to measuring liver motion, both respiratory and laparoscopic, with a tool guided in the operating room. The presented method is based on standard operating room equipment, i.e. rigid laparoscopic cameras and a single incision laparoscopic surgery trocar. The triangulation algorithm is used and stereo correspondence points are marked manually by two independent experts. To calibrate the cameras two perpendicular chessboards, a pinhole camera model and a Tsai algorithm are used. The data set consists of twelve real liver surgery video sequences: ten open surgery and two laparoscopic, gathered from different patients. The setup equipment and methodology are presented. The proposed evaluation method based on both calibration points of the chessboard reconstruction and measurements made by the Polaris Vicra tracking system are used as a reference system. In the analysis stage we focused on two specific goals, measuring respiration and laparoscopic tool guided liver motions. We have presented separate examples for left and right liver lobes. It is possible to reconstruct liver motion using the SILS trocar. Our approach was made without additional position or movement sensors. Diffusion of cameras and laser for distance measurement seems to be less practical for in vivo laparoscopic data, but we do not exclude exploring such sensors in further research. PMID:23256023

Karwan, Adam; Rudnicki, Jerzy; Wróblewski, Tadeusz

2012-01-01

211

When Your Child Needs a Liver Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... Hereditary Hemochromatosis Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel Digestive System Hepatitis Your Liver Hepatitis Your Digestive System Blood Test: Liver Function Tests Hepatitis Digestive System ...

212

Liver involvement in systemic infection  

PubMed Central

The liver is often involved in systemic infections, resulting in various types of abnormal liver function test results. In particular, hyperbilirubinemia in the range of 2-10 mg/dL is often seen in patients with sepsis, and several mechanisms for this phenomenon have been proposed. In this review, we summarize how the liver is involved in various systemic infections that are not considered to be primarily hepatotropic. In most patients with systemic infections, treatment for the invading microbes is enough to normalize the liver function tests. However, some patients may show severe liver injury or fulminant hepatic failure, requiring intensive treatment of the liver. PMID:25276279

Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

2014-01-01

213

Immunobiology of liver xenotransplantation  

PubMed Central

Pigs are currently the preferred species for future organ xenotransplantation. With advances in the development of genetically modified pigs, clinical xenotransplantation is becoming closer to reality. In preclinical studies (pig-to-nonhuman primate), the xenotransplantation of livers from pigs transgenic for human CD55 or from ?1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout pigs+/? transgenic for human CD46, is associated with survival of approximately 7–9 days. Although hepatic function, including coagulation, has proved to be satisfactory, the immediate development of thrombocytopenia is very limiting for pig liver xenotransplantation even as a ‘bridge’ to allotransplantation. Current studies are directed to understand the immunobiology of platelet activation, aggregation and phagocytosis, in particular the interaction between platelets and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, hepatocytes and Kupffer cells, toward identifying interventions that may enable clinical application. PMID:23078060

Ekser, Burcin; Burlak, Christopher; Waldman, Joshua P; Lutz, Andrew J; Paris, Leela L; Veroux, Massimiliano; Robson, Simon C; Rees, Michael A; Ayares, David; Gridelli, Bruno; Tector, A Joseph; Cooper, David KC

2013-01-01

214

Alcoholic liver disease: Treatment  

PubMed Central

The excess consumption of alcohol is associated with alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). ALD is a major healthcare problem, personal and social burden, and significant reason for economic loss worldwide. The ALD spectrum includes alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The diagnosis of ALD is based on a combination of clinical features, including a history of significant alcohol intake, evidence of liver disease, and laboratory findings. Abstinence is the most important treatment for ALD and the treatment plan varies according to the stage of the disease. Various treatments including abstinence, nutritional therapy, pharmacological therapy, psychotherapy, and surgery are currently available. For severe alcoholic hepatitis, corticosteroid or pentoxifylline are recommended based on the guidelines. In addition, new therapeutic targets are being under investigation. PMID:25278689

Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo

2014-01-01

215

Liver physiology and liver diseases in the elderly  

PubMed Central

The liver experiences various changes with aging that could affect clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients with liver diseases. Both liver volume and blood flow decrease significantly with age. These changes and decreased cytochrome P450 activity can affect drug metabolism, increasing susceptibility to drug-induced liver injury. Immune responses against pathogens or neoplastic cells are lower in the elderly, although these individuals may be predisposed to autoimmunity through impairment of dendritic cell maturation and reduction of regulatory T cells. These changes in immune functions could alter the pathogenesis of viral hepatitis and autoimmune liver diseases, as well as the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Moreover, elderly patients have significantly decreased reserve functions of various organs, reducing their tolerability to treatments for liver diseases. Collectively, aged patients show various changes of the liver and other organs that could affect the clinical characteristics and management of liver diseases in these patients. PMID:24379563

Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

2013-01-01

216

Methylation and liver cancer.  

PubMed

Cancer evolution at all stages (including initiation, progression and invasion) is driven by both epigenetic abnormalities and genetic alterations. Epigenetics refer to any structural modification of genomic regions, which lead to modification in gene expression without alterations in DNA sequence. Progressive deregulation of epigenetic process is being increasingly recognized in liver carcinogenesis. This review will provide an overview of DNA methylation, one of the most commonly epigenetic events, which profoundly contributes to liver cancer initiation and progression. Furthermore, the recent advancements in the knowledge of epigenetic reprogramming underlying hepatic cancer stem cells will be highlighted. PMID:23806627

Raggi, Chiara; Invernizzi, Pietro

2013-12-01

217

Neoplasms of the liver  

SciTech Connect

Primary Liver Cancer is perhaps the most prevalent malignancy in the world, particularly in South East Asia and Africa. After the discovery of hepatitis B virus as a cause of chronic liver disease often terminating cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and, more recently, the integration of viral DNA into host chromosomal DNA, the progress made in this field has been remarkable. This book contains 35 chapters and covers all topical aspects, such as oncogenes, epidemiology, carcinogenic role of hepatitis viruses, histopathology, new imaging techniques and new treatment modalities that include ultrasound-guided intratumor injections of ethanol and targeting chemotherapy.

Okuda, K.; Ishak, K.G.

1987-01-01

218

The Virtual Liver: Modeling Chemical-Induced Liver Toxicity  

EPA Science Inventory

The US EPA Virtual Liver (v-Liver) project is aimed at modeling chemical-induced processes in hepatotoxicity and simulating their dose-dependent perturbations. The v-Liver embodies an emerging field of research in computational tissue modeling that integrates molecular and cellul...

219

Getting a New Liver: Facts about Liver Transplants  

MedlinePLUS

... will refer you to a transplant specialist. Your primary care provider or a gastroenterologist will refer you for liver transplantation when and if your liver disease begins to get worse and you show signs of liver failure or portal hypertension. This is a specialized operation, so you will ...

220

Orthotopic liver transplantation in liver-based metabolic disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in the management of more common liver-based metabolic disorders associated with severe liver damage, alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (PIZZ), Wilson disease and tyrosinaemia has been demonstrated and indications defined. An early mortality in excess of 15% and finite resources limit its use. Phenotypic heterogeneity make the precise indication in other disorders less certain. In disorders

Alex P. Mowat

1992-01-01

221

Kava Linked to Liver Damage  

MedlinePLUS

... disclaimer about external links Menu Kava Linked to Liver Damage September 10, 2010 In March 2002, the ... to consumers of the potential risk of severe liver injury from the use of dietary supplements containing ...

222

[Drug-induced liver injury].  

PubMed

Drug-induced liver injury represents the principal cause of acute liver failure and orthotopic liver transplantation in western country. A very large number of different drugs and medicinal herbs has been associated with liver injury but just for few of them we know the process that causes liver disease. All the people which ingest a large number of drugs present a risk of developing liver injury. Diagnosis is very difficult because a specific biomarker of damage is absent and the clinical picture is common to other liver diseases. A therapeutic approach is efficacy only in few cases. When a drug-induced liver injury is suspected, cessation of the drug is the first step in their management. PMID:22430754

Abenavoli, Ludovico; Libri, Emanuela; Bosco, Domenico; Gallo, Dionisio; Luzza, Francesco

2012-02-01

223

What's New in Liver Cancer Research?  

MedlinePLUS

... can I learn more about liver cancer? What`s new in liver cancer research? There is always research ... liver cancer worldwide. Finding liver cancer early Some new blood tests are being studied to see if ...

224

Toward surface quantification of liver fibrosis progression  

E-print Network

Monitoring liver fibrosis progression by liver biopsy is important for certain treatment decisions, but repeated biopsy is invasive. We envision redefinition or elimination of liver biopsy with surface scanning of the liver ...

He, Yuting

225

Oxidative Stress and Liver Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Oxidative stress and liver injury are strongly associated. Oxidative stress in the liver can be triggered during different\\u000a conditions and by specific etiologies, including hepatotoxins (acetaminophen [1]), viruses (e.g., hepatitis C virus [2]),\\u000a nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) [3], hepatocellular carcinoma [4], alcoholic liver disease (ALD) [5], ischemia-­reperfusion,\\u000a and liver fibrosis [6]. Oxidative stress is a state of imbalance between the production

Francisco Javier Cubero; Christian Trautwein

226

Alcoholic Liver Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

These recommendations provide a data-supported approach. They are based on the following: (i) a formal review and analysis of the recently published world literature on the topic (Medline search); (ii) American College of Physicians Manual for Assessing Health Practices and Designing Practice Guidelines (1); (iii) guideline policies, including the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) Policy on

Robert S O’Shea; Srinivasan Dasarathy; Arthur J. McCullough

2010-01-01

227

Other liver viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous viruses can infect the liver and the incidence of hepatitis caused by such hepatotropic viruses is increasing in the UK, perhaps related to increased travel worldwide. This article will outline the epidemiology, presentation and management of hepatitis A and E viruses, Epstein–Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus. In certain groups such as pregnant women, and patients in immunocompromised

William Alazawi; Heather Lewis; Graham R. Foster

2011-01-01

228

Liver Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Liver and Intrahepatic Bile Ducts C220–C221 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 10 Local tumor destruction, NOS 11 Photodynamic

229

Pregnancy and liver transplantation.  

PubMed

Since the first pregnancy in a transplant recipient in 1958, pregnancy in recipients of solid organ transplants has become increasingly common. Although previously considered a hazardous event, data collected over the last 50 years demonstrate that despite an increased risk of maternal and fetal complications, pregnancy in transplant recipients can have a successful outcome. As of 2006, there were over 3000 female liver transplant recipients of childbearing age in the USA. Two hundred and two pregnancies and 205 outcomes were reported in 121 liver transplant recipients in the National Transplantation Pregnancy Registry. Children born to female liver recipients have a greater risk of prematurity and low birth weight than the general population, but no malformation patterns have been observed. Mothers are more likely to experience pregnancy-induced hypertension, pre-eclampsia and caesarian section, but overall mortality is not worse. Rates of acute rejection and graft loss are similar to nonpregnant liver recipients. The optimal timing of conception post-transplant is controversial, but current recommendations suggest waiting for at least 1 year after transplantation. Choice of contraception is also debatable, although barrier methods have traditionally been preferred. Many medications used for post-transplant immunosuppression have potential effects during pregnancy and breast-feeding. The risks and benefits of each medication should be reviewed with patients contemplating pregnancy, and regimens should be tailored accordingly. PMID:18822076

Surti, Bijal; Tan, Jennifer; Saab, Sammy

2008-11-01

230

The EPA Liver Project  

EPA Science Inventory

The v-Liver is part of a broader EPA effort on Virtual Tissues (VT) aimed at reducing the magnitude and spectrum of animal testing by integrative in silico and in vitro models, which recapitulate the properties of intact organs. The other VT projects include the Virtual Embryo (...

231

Coffee and liver diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coffee consumption is worldwide spread with few side effects. Interestingly, coffee intake has been inversely related to the serum enzyme activities gamma-glutamyltransferase, and alanine aminotransferase in studies performed in various countries. In addition, epidemiological results, taken together, indicate that coffee consumption is inversely related with hepatic cirrhosis; however, they cannot demonstrate a causative role of coffee with prevention of liver

Pablo Muriel; Jonathan Arauz

2010-01-01

232

Coffee and liver health.  

PubMed

Coffee is one of the most widely used beverages in the world. It includes a wide array of components that can have potential implications for health. Several epidemiological studies associate coffee consumption with a reduced incidence of various chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. Over the past 20 years, an increasing number of epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated the positive effects of coffee on chronic liver diseases. Coffee consumption has been inversely associated with the activity of liver enzymes in subjects at risk, including heavy drinkers. Coffee favours an improvement in hepatic steatosis and fibrosis, and a reduction in cirrhosis and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanisms of action through which it exerts its beneficial effects are not fully understood. Experimental studies show that coffee consumption reduces fat accumulation and collagen deposition in the liver and promotes antioxidant capacity through an increase in glutathione as well as modulation of the gene and protein expression of several inflammatory mediators. Animal and in vitro studies indicate that cafestol and kahweol, 2 diterpens, can operate by modulating multiple enzymes involved in the detoxification process of carcinogens causing hepatocellular carcinoma. It is unclear whether the benefits are significant enough to "treat" patients with chronic liver disease. While we await clarification, moderate daily unsweetened coffee use is a reasonable adjuvant to therapy for these patients. PMID:25291138

Morisco, Filomena; Lembo, Vincenzo; Mazzone, Giovanna; Camera, Silvia; Caporaso, Nicola

2014-01-01

233

Living Donor Liver Transplantation  

MedlinePLUS

... the donor's blood type matches the recipient’s blood type. Next, the transplant team will measure liver and kidney function as well as red cell, white cell, and platelet counts. The donor is also tested for viruses ... the donor’s and recipient’s blood types are compatible, the donor will get a physical ...

234

Liver Biopsy in Psoriasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

147 liver biopsies were performed in 79 patients with severe psoriasis, 18 patients with Parkinson’s disease, and post mortem in 42 patients following sudden death from cardiac failure or traffic accident. 47 of the biopsies in psoriatics were performed prior to treatment with methotrexate. 40 biopsies were taken during treatment. A high incidence of pathological findings were found in both

H. Zachariae; H. Søgaard

1973-01-01

235

Management of acute liver failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute liver failure (ALF) is a syndrome of diverse etiology, in which patients without previously recognized liver disease sustain a liver injury that results in rapid loss of hepatic function. Depending on the etiology and severity of the insult, some patients undergo rapid hepatic regeneration and spontaneously recover. However, nearly 60% of patients with ALF in the US require and

David J. Kramer; R. Todd Stravitz

2009-01-01

236

Stem cells in liver disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Failure of the liver, the largest vital organ in the body, unequivocally results in death. Hepatic failure most commonly evolves over a period of several years as a result of chronic liver disease, most often viral hepatitis or alcoholic liver damage. In rarer cases, the organ shuts down within weeks or even days, in a clinical picture referred to as

D. van Poll

2008-01-01

237

Systemic abnormalities in liver disease  

PubMed Central

Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases. PMID:19554648

Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

2009-01-01

238

Liver function impairment in liver transplantation and after extended hepatectomy  

PubMed Central

Extended hepatectomy, or liver transplantation of reduced-size graft, can lead to a pattern of clinical manifestations, namely “post-hepatectomy liver failure” and “small-for-size syndrome” respectively, that can range from mild cholestasis to irreversible organ non-function and death of the patient. Many mechanisms are involved in their occurrence but in the recent past, high portal blood flow through a relatively small liver vascular bed has taken a central role. Therefore, several techniques of inflow modulation have been attempted in cases of portal hyperperfusion first in liver transplantation, such as portocaval shunt, mesocaval shunt, splenorenal shunt, splenectomy or ligation of the splenic artery. However, high portal flow is not the only factor responsible, and before major liver resections, preoperative assessment of the residual liver function is necessary. Techniques such as portal vein embolization or portal vein ligation can be adopted to increase the future liver volume, preventing post-hepatectomy liver failure. More recently, a new surgical procedure, that combines in situ splitting of the liver and portal vein ligation, has gradually come to light, inducing remarkable hypertrophy of the healthy liver in just a few days. Further studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis and overcome one of the biggest issues in the field of liver surgery. PMID:24307786

Serenari, Matteo; Cescon, Matteo; Cucchetti, Alessandro; Pinna, Antonio Daniele

2013-01-01

239

Liver regeneration following repeat SBRT  

PubMed Central

Liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is an emerging treatment option for oligometastases and may confer a survival benefit in select patients. Herein, we document the first case of liver regeneration (LR) following repeat right hepatic lobe SBRT in a woman with breast cancer metastases. Retraction of the treated lobe was significant with a near 50% volume reduction. Compensatory contralateral lobe hypertrophy was noted with a 320% volume increase. The overall liver volume remained stable, within ±5% of baseline. This case indicates that repeat liver SBRT can be delivered safely to individual patients and that compensatory contralateral lobe hypertrophy is observed to maintain a functional liver volume.

Farach, Andrew; Quesada, Jorge

2015-01-01

240

Drug-induced Liver Injury  

PubMed Central

Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is common and nearly all classes of medications can cause liver disease. Most cases of DILI are benign, and improve after drug withdrawal. It is important to recognize and remove the offending agent as quickly as possible to prevent the progression to chronic liver disease and/or acute liver failure. There are no definite risk factors for DILI, but pre-existing liver disease and genetic susceptibility may predispose certain individuals. Although most patients have clinical symptoms that are identical to other liver diseases, some patients may present with symptoms of systemic hypersensitivity. Treatment of drug and herbal-induced liver injury consists of rapid drug discontinuation and supportive care targeted to alleviate unwanted symptoms. PMID:21874146

David, Stefan; Hamilton, James P

2011-01-01

241

Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the commonest primary malignancy of the liver. It usually occurs in the setting of chronic liver disease and has a poor prognosis if untreated. Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is a suitable therapeutic option for early, unresectable HCC particularly in the setting of chronic liver disease. Following on from disappointing initial results, the seminal study by Mazzaferro et al in 1996 established OLT as a viable treatment for HCC. In this study, the “Milan criteria” were applied achieving a 4-year survival rate similar to OLT for benign disease. Since then various groups have attempted to expand these criteria whilst maintaining long term survival rates. The technique of living donor liver transplantation has evolved over the past decade, particularly in Asia, and published outcome data is comparable to that of OLT. This article will review the evidence, indications, and the future direction of liver transplantation for liver cancer. PMID:19938188

Tanwar, Sudeep; Khan, Shahid A; Grover, Vijay Paul Bob; Gwilt, Catherine; Smith, Belinda; Brown, Ashley

2009-01-01

242

Artificial liver support devices for fulminant liver failure.  

PubMed

Artificial liver-support devices attempt to bridge patients with fulminant hepatic failure until either a suitable liver allograft is obtained for transplantation or the patient's own liver regenerates sufficiently to resume normal function. It is thought that toxins contribute to the clinical picture of fulminant hepatic failure. The earliest reports of successful toxin removal were blood- and plasma-exchange transfusions. Given these successful case reports, mechanical liver-support devices were designed to filter toxins. These mechanical devices used hemodialysis, charcoal hemoperfusion, hemoperfusion through cation-exchange resins, hemodiabsorption, and combinations of all of these techniques as in the MARS liver-support device. Despite promising case reports and small series, no controlled studies of mechanical devices have ever showed a long-term survival benefit. Thus, the removal of presumed toxins seems to be insufficient to support patients with fulminant hepatic failure, and the biologic function of the liver must also be replaced. Attempts at replacing the biologic function have included extracorporeal liver perfusion, cross-circulation, and hepatocyte transplantation. Current technologies have combined mechanical and biologic support systems in hybrid liver-support devices. The mechanical component of these hybrid devices serves both to remove toxins and to create a barrier between the patient's serum and the biologic component of the liver-support device. The biologic component of these hybrid liver support devices may consist of liver slices, granulated liver, or hepatocytes from low-grade tumor cells or porcine hepatocytes. These biologic components are housed within bioreactors. Currently the most clinically studied bioreactors are those that use capillary hollow-fiber systems. Both the bioartificial liver by Demetrious and the extracorporeal liver-assist device by Sussman and Kelly are in clinical trials. Although the trials seemed to have yielded good survival data when the devices are used as a bridge to transplantation, the type and degree of liver support provided by these devices remains uncertain. Thus, despite decades of great progress in the field of artificial liver support, no one technique alone yet provides sufficient liver support. A hybrid system seems to be the best option at present. Still to be determined is the best tissue to use, how much liver tissue should be used, and the optimal design of the bioreactor. PMID:11385970

Sechser, A; Osorio, J; Freise, C; Osorio, R W

2001-05-01

243

Liver transplantation and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease  

PubMed Central

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an important health problem worldwide. NAFLD encompasses a histological spectrum ranging from bland liver steatosis to severe steatohepatitis (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, NASH) with the potential of progressing to cirrhosis and its associated morbidity and mortality. NAFLD is thought to be the hepatic manifestation of insulin resistance (or the metabolic syndrome); its prevalence is increasing worldwide in parallel with the obesity epidemic. In many developed countries, NAFLD is the most common cause of liver disease and NASH related cirrhosis is currently the third most common indication for liver transplantation. NASH related cirrhosis is anticipated to become the leading indication for liver transplantation within the next one or two decades. In this review, we discuss how liver transplantation is affected by NAFLD, specifically the following: (1) the increasing need for liver transplantation due to NASH; (2) the impact of the increasing prevalence of NAFLD in the general population on the quality of deceased and live donor livers available for transplantation; (3) the long term graft and patient outcomes after liver transplantation for NASH, and finally; and (4) the de novo occurrence of NAFLD/NASH after liver transplantation and its impact on graft and patient outcomes. PMID:25400437

Zezos, Petros; Renner, Eberhard L

2014-01-01

244

Hypervascular liver lesions.  

PubMed

Hypervascular hepatocellular lesions include both benign and malignant etiologies. In the benign category, focal nodular hyperplasia and adenoma are typically hypervascular. In addition, some regenerative nodules in cirrhosis may be hypervascular. Malignant hypervascular primary hepatocellular lesions include hepatocellular carcinoma, fibrolamellar carcinoma, and peripheral cholangiocarcinoma. Vascular liver lesions often appear hypervascular because they tend to follow the enhancement of the blood pool; these include hemangiomas, arteriovenous malformations, angiosarcomas, and peliosis. While most gastrointestinal malignancies that metastasize to the liver will appear hypovascular on arterial and portal-venous phase imaging, certain cancers such as metastatic neuroendocrine tumors (including pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, carcinoid, and gastrointestinal stromal tumors) tend to produce hypervascular metastases due to the greater recruitment of arterial blood supply. Finally, rare hepatic lesions such as glomus tumor and inflammatory pseudotumor may have a hypervascular appearance. PMID:19842564

Kamaya, Aya; Maturen, Katherine E; Tye, Grace A; Liu, Yueyi I; Parti, Naveen N; Desser, Terry S

2009-10-01

245

Fatty liver in childhood  

PubMed Central

Fatty liver is a growing health problem worldwide. It might evolve to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and cause hepatocellular carcinoma. This disease, which has increased because of eating habits, changes in food content and lifestyle, affects people from childhood. The most important risk factors are obesity and insulin resistance. Besides these factors, gender, ethnicity, genetic predisposition and some medical problems are also important. Cirrhosis in children is rare but is reported. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has no specific symptoms or signs but should be considered in obese children. NAFLD does not have a proven treatment. Weight loss with family based treatments is the most acceptable management. Exercise and an applicable diet with low glycemic index and appropriate calorie intake are preferred. Drugs are promising but not sufficient in children for today. PMID:24653792

Ozturk, Yesim; Soylu, Ozlem Bekem

2014-01-01

246

Amebic liver abscess.  

PubMed

50 patients, with ages ranging from eight to 55 years, suffering from amebic liver abscess (ALA), have been studied. 90% of these patients were males. The abscess was located in the left lobe of the liver in nine cases and involved both lobes in four cases. In 17 patients, the abscess had already ruptured at the time of admission and, in four cases, it was about to rupture. In seven patients the diagnosis of ALA could only be made on laparotomy. The treatment is primarily conservative; antiamebic drugs, antiobiotic supportive therapy and aspiration of the abscess. Twenty-seven patients required surgery in the form of laparotomy and drainage of empyema. The preoperative use of antiamebic drugs directly influenced the results of surgery. Five patients died. None of them had any antiamebic treatment preoperatively and in 80% of these the diagnosis was only made after laparotomy. PMID:6500877

Grewal, R S

1984-01-01

247

Liver abscess in neonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Liver abscesses are rare in neonates with the majority resulting from an ascending infection via the umbilical and portal\\u000a veins, haematogenous spread, or via the biliary tree, or via direct contiguous spread from neighbouring structures. They may\\u000a present in unusual ways often presenting with ongoing sepsis and resulting in diagnostic difficulties. We present the clinical\\u000a and radiological findings on six

E. Simeunovic; M. Arnold; D. Sidler; S. W. Moore

2009-01-01

248

Water Fungi and Fungus-like Organisms Isolated from Surface Waters Situated in the Bia?owie?a Primeval Forest Using the Liver Fluke Fasciola Hepatica L. of European Bison Bonasus L. as Bait  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water fungi and fungus-like organisms as a biological factor of ecological water systems have signifi- cant influence on the environment and its modification. They decompose necrosis substrates found in water bodies. Fungi also can act as facultative parasites and then frequently occur on their hosts. The main aim of the present study is to investigate which of the fungi and

B. Kiziewicz

2006-01-01

249

[Liver damage and celiac disease].  

PubMed

Celiac disease (CD) is an important cause of serum aminotransferase elevation: between 5 and 10% of patients with persistent and cryptogenetic transaminase elevation may have CD. In fact, a wide spectrum of liver injuries in children and adults may be related to CD, particularly: a) mild parenchymal damage characterized by absence of any clinical signs or symptoms suggesting chronic liver disease, and by non-specific histological changes reversible on a gluten-free diet; b) chronic liver damage with autoimmune etiology, including autoimmune hepatitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and primary biliary cirrhosis, which may be associated with CD but are generally unaffected by gluten withdrawal; and c) severe liver failure and decompensated cryptogenetic liver cirrhosis, potentially treatable with a gluten-free diet. Such different types of liver injuries may represent one same disorder where individual factors, such as genetic predisposition, precocity, and duration of exposure to gluten may influence reversibility of liver damage. A rigorous cross-checking for asymptomatic liver damage in CD individuals and, conversely, for CD in any cryptogenic liver disorder, including end-stage liver failure, is recommended. PMID:18271663

Cantarero Vallejo, M D; Gómez Camarero, J; Menchén, L; Pajares Díaz, J A; Lo Iacono, O

2007-11-01

250

Pregnancy-related liver disorders.  

PubMed

Pregnancy-related liver disorders accounted for 8% of all maternal deaths at our center from 1999 to 2011. Of the three pregnancy-related liver disorders (acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP), HELLP (Hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets) syndrome and pre-eclamptic liver dysfunction, which can lead to adverse maternal and fetal outcome, AFLP is most typically under - diagnosed. Risk of maternal death can be minimised by timely recognition and early/aggressive multi-specialty management of these conditions. Urgent termination of pregnancy remains the cornerstone of therapy for some of these life threatening disorders, but recent advancements in our understanding help us in better overall management of these patients. This review focuses on various aspects of pregnancy-related liver disorders. PMID:25755551

Goel, Ashish; Jamwal, Kapil D; Ramachandran, Anup; Balasubramanian, Kunissery A; Eapen, Chundamannil E

2014-06-01

251

Pregnancy-Related Liver Disorders  

PubMed Central

Pregnancy-related liver disorders accounted for 8% of all maternal deaths at our center from 1999 to 2011. Of the three pregnancy-related liver disorders (acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP), HELLP (Hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets) syndrome and pre-eclamptic liver dysfunction, which can lead to adverse maternal and fetal outcome, AFLP is most typically under - diagnosed. Risk of maternal death can be minimised by timely recognition and early/aggressive multi-specialty management of these conditions. Urgent termination of pregnancy remains the cornerstone of therapy for some of these life threatening disorders, but recent advancements in our understanding help us in better overall management of these patients. This review focuses on various aspects of pregnancy-related liver disorders. PMID:25755551

Goel, Ashish; Jamwal, Kapil D.; Ramachandran, Anup; Balasubramanian, Kunissery A.; Eapen, Chundamannil E.

2013-01-01

252

Radiation-Associated Liver Injury  

SciTech Connect

The liver is a critically important organ that has numerous functions including the production of bile, metabolism of ingested nutrients, elimination of many waste products, glycogen storage, and plasma protein synthesis. The liver is often incidentally irradiated during radiation therapy (RT) for tumors in the upper- abdomen, right lower lung, distal esophagus, or during whole abdomen or whole body RT. This article describes the endpoints, time-course, and dose-volume effect of radiation on the liver.

Pan, Charlie C., E-mail: cpan@umich.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kavanagh, Brian D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO (United States); Dawson, Laura A. [Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Li, X. Allen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Das, Shiva K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Miften, Moyed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO (United States); Ten Haken, Randall K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

2010-03-01

253

Radiation-Associated Liver Injury  

PubMed Central

The liver is a critically important organ that has numerous functions including the production of bile, metabolism of ingested nutrients, elimination of many waste products, glycogen storage, and plasma protein synthesis. The liver is often incidentally irradiated during radiation therapy (RT) for tumors in the upper- abdomen, right lower lung, distal esophagus, or during whole abdomen or whole body RT. This article describes the endpoints, time-course, and dose-volume effect of radiation on the liver. PMID:20171524

Pan, Charlie C; Kavanagh, Brian D; Dawson, Laura A.; Li, X. Allen; Das, Shiva K; Miften, Moyed; Haken, Randall K Ten

2015-01-01

254

9 CFR 311.31 - Livers affected with carotenosis; livers designated as “telangiectatic,” “sawdust,” or “spotted.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livers affected with carotenosis; livers designated as âtelangiectatic,â âsawdust,â...ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.31 Livers affected with carotenosis; livers designated as...

2010-01-01

255

Liver Planning Software Accurately Predicts Postoperative Liver Volume and Measures Early  

E-print Network

Liver Planning Software Accurately Predicts Postoperative Liver Volume and Measures Early or remnant liver volume (RLV) after hepatic resection is a critical predictor of perioperative outcomes. This study investigates whether the accuracy of liver surgical plan- ning software for predicting

Miga, Michael I.

256

Virtual Reality Liver Biopsy Simulator Virtual Reality, Ultrasound-guided Liver Biopsy Simulator  

E-print Network

Virtual Reality Liver Biopsy Simulator Virtual Reality, Ultrasound-guided Liver Biopsy Simulator: Development and Performance Discrimination1 Running head: Virtual Reality Liver Biopsy Simulator Word.1259/bjr/47436030 #12;Virtual Reality Liver Biopsy Simulator ABSTRACT Purpose: Identify and prospectively

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

257

9 CFR 311.31 - Livers affected with carotenosis; livers designated as “telangiectatic,” “sawdust,” or “spotted.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Livers affected with carotenosis; livers designated as âtelangiectatic,â âsawdust,â...ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.31 Livers affected with carotenosis; livers designated as...

2012-01-01

258

9 CFR 311.31 - Livers affected with carotenosis; livers designated as “telangiectatic,” “sawdust,” or “spotted.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Livers affected with carotenosis; livers designated as âtelangiectatic,â âsawdust,â...ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.31 Livers affected with carotenosis; livers designated as...

2011-01-01

259

9 CFR 311.31 - Livers affected with carotenosis; livers designated as “telangiectatic,” “sawdust,” or “spotted.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Livers affected with carotenosis; livers designated as âtelangiectatic,â âsawdust,â...ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.31 Livers affected with carotenosis; livers designated as...

2014-01-01

260

9 CFR 311.31 - Livers affected with carotenosis; livers designated as “telangiectatic,” “sawdust,” or “spotted.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Livers affected with carotenosis; livers designated as âtelangiectatic,â âsawdust,â...ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.31 Livers affected with carotenosis; livers designated as...

2013-01-01

261

Dendritic Cells and Liver Fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Dendritic cells are a relative rare population of specialized antigen presenting cells that are distributed through most lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues and play a critical role in linking the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. The liver contains a heterogeneous population of dendritic cells that may contribute to liver inflammation and fibrosis through a number of mechanisms. This review summarizes current knowledge on the development and characterization of liver dendritic cells and their potential impact on liver fibrosis. PMID:23313573

Rahman, Adeeb H.; Aloman, Costica

2013-01-01

262

Iron homeostasis in the liver  

PubMed Central

Iron is an essential nutrient that is tightly regulated. A principal function of the liver is the regulation of iron homeostasis. The liver senses changes in systemic iron requirements and can regulate iron concentrations in a robust and rapid manner. The last 10 years have led to the discovery of several regulatory mechanisms in the liver which control the production of iron regulatory genes, storage capacity, and iron mobilization. Dysregulation of these functions leads to an imbalance of iron, which is the primary causes of iron-related disorders. Anemia and iron overload are two of the most prevalent disorders worldwide and affect over a billion people. Several mutations in liver-derived genes have been identified, demonstrating the central role of the liver in iron homeostasis. During conditions of excess iron, the liver increases iron storage and protects other tissues, namely the heart and pancreas from iron-induced cellular damage. However, a chronic increase in liver iron stores results in excess reactive oxygen species production and liver injury. Excess liver iron is one of the major mechanisms leading to increased steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:23720289

Anderson, Erik R; Shah, Yatrik M

2014-01-01

263

Acute Liver Failure  

PubMed Central

Although comprising a minority of the transplant population, acute liver failure (ALF) patients represent some of the most challenging cases in terms of the level and complexity of care required. An ALF patient requires much more than a single skilled intensivist, gastroenterologist, or surgeon. Successful care of the ALF patient begins with early diagnosis and triage to the appropriate level of care where a multitude of specialties are required to work together to maximize the chance of recovery and/or extend the window of opportunity for transplant. PMID:20827368

McDowell Torres, Dawn; Stevens, Robert D.

2010-01-01

264

Colorectal Liver Metastases  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis and management of CRLM is complex and requires a multidisciplinary team approach for optimal outcomes. Over the past several decades, the 5-year survival following resection of CRLM has increased and the criteria for resection have broadened substantially. Even patients with multiple, bilateral CRLM, previously thought unresectable, may now be candidates for resection. Two-stage hepatectomy, repeat curative-intent hepatectomy, and even selected resection of extrahepatic metastases have further increased the number of patients who may be treated with curative intent. Multiple liver-directed therapies exist to treat unresectable, incurable patients with adequate survival benefit and morbidity rates. PMID:22312501

Haddad, Ashraf J.; Bani Hani, Murad; Pawlik, Timothy M.; Cunningham, Steven C.

2011-01-01

265

General Information about Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

General Information About Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Key Points for This Section Liver cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in ... Hepatitis C Hepatitis D Hepatitis E Hepatitis G Liver cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ...

266

General Information about Childhood Liver Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. Childhood liver cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the liver. The liver is one of the largest organs ...

267

Chronic Liver Disease and African Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... American > Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and African Americans Among African Americans, chronic liver disease is a ... White women. At a glance – Cancer Rates for African Americans (2005-2009) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100,000 – ...

268

In vitro models for liver toxicity testing  

E-print Network

Over the years, various liver-derived in vitro model systems have been developed to enable investigation of the potential adverse effects of chemicals and drugs. Liver tissue slices, isolated microsomes, perfused liver, ...

Soldatow, Valerie Y.

2013-01-01

269

Cancer and Human Liver Catalase  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Data presented in the present paper indicate that human liver catalase depression is related to weight loss. A statistical study was first made to determine the catalase activity in correlation of the iodotitrimetric and spectrophotometric methods for biopsy and autopsy samples from cancer and cancer-free patients. Cancer patients had a 2~ per cent lower liver catalase activity than cancer-free

EDWARD E. MASON; TING-FONG CHIN; YAO W. LI; SIDNEY E. ZIFFREN

1960-01-01

270

The Liver, Regulator of Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this theme issue is to review the basic physiological, nutritional, and pathological facts pertaining to the liver. It is an educational tool through which university teachers and people in charge of training may enhance their teaching programs. The main liver diseases seen in young children and pregnant women in tropical regions is…

Dillon, J. C.

1995-01-01

271

Toxicity of Polar Bear Liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

ACCORDING to information from the Eskimos, and records from Arctic travellers, bad effects may follow the consumption, by men and dogs, of the livers of polar bear, bearded seal, Greenland fox and Eskimo huskies, whereas livers of other Arctic mammals can usually be eaten without injury.

Kaare Rodahl

1949-01-01

272

LIVER AND THE METABOLIC SYNDROME  

EPA Science Inventory

We have developed the following specific aims: Specific Aim 1 will be to develop a model and the liver phenotype (defined as above) is maintained. In Specific Aim 2, we will demonstrate that manipulation of the host environment will induce changes in liver tissues. We will exa...

273

Actinomycetes in pyogenic liver abscess  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three patients with pyogenic liver abscesses had actinomycetes cultured from aspirated pus, although it is unusual for hepatic actinomycosis to present in this way. The spectrum of bacteria found in liver abscesses appears to be changing, with the increased isolation of anaerobes partly due to improved techniques. It is important to recognise the presence of actinomycetes so that appropriate chemotherapy

M. N. Logan; P. J. Stanley; A. Exley; C. Gagg; I. D. Farrell

1989-01-01

274

Methotrexate-Induced Liver Cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on serial liver biopsies from 25 patients with methotrexate-induced liver cirrhosis, taken from 1 to 13 years after cirrhosis was established, confirm that this type is not of aggressive nature. When evaluated blind no progression was found in most of the later biopsies. Alcohol and previous use of hepatotoxic drugs such as the combination of arsenics and vitamin A

H. Zachariae; H. Søgaard

1987-01-01

275

Multiphoton analysis of normal and diseased livers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diseases associated with the liver, a major internal organ, can lead to serious health problems. In this work, we present multiphoton images of normal and diseased liver specimens and we will characterize the changes to pathological liver specimens. In particular, we will focus on the physiological changes associated with liver fibrosis. Our results show that multiphoton microscopy is a useful technique for distinguishing normal and diseased liver tissues and that it has potential applications for in vivo diagnosis of liver diseases.

Liu, Yuan; Fwu, Peter T.; Chen, Hsiao-Ching; Chiou, Ling-Ling; Huang, Guan-Tarn; Lo, Wen; Lee, Hsuan-Shu; Dong, Chen-Yuan

2005-03-01

276

Liver disease in cystic fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Cystic fibrosis-associated liver disease (CFLD) affects ca. 30% of patients. The CFLD is now considered the third cause of death, after lung disease and transplantation complications, in CF patients. Diagnostics, clinical assessment and treatment of CFLD have become a real challenge since a striking increase of life expectancy in CF patients has recently been observed. There is no elaborated “gold standard” in the diagnostic process of CFLD; clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, ultrasonography and liver biopsy are used. Clinical forms of CFLD are elevation of serum liver enzymes, hepatic steatosis, focal biliary cirrhosis, multilobular biliary cirrhosis, neonatal cholestasis, cholelithiasis, cholecystitis and micro-gallbladder. In children, CFLD symptoms mostly occur in puberty. Clinical symptoms appear late, when damage of the hepatobiliary system is already advanced. The CFLD is more common in patients with severe mutations of CFTR gene, in whom a complete loss of CFTR protein function is observed. CFLD, together with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency and meconium ileus, is considered a component of the severe CF phenotype. Treatment of CFLD should be complex and conducted by a multispecialist team (gastroenterologist, hepatologist, dietician, radiologist, surgeon). The main aim of the treatment is to prevent liver damage and complications associated with portal hypertension and liver cirrhosis. Ursodeoxycholic acid is used in the treatment of CFLD. There is no treatment of proven long-term efficacy in CFLD. Liver transplantation is a treatment of choice in end-stage liver disease. PMID:25097709

Klincewicz, Beata; Cichy, Wojciech

2014-01-01

277

[Focal liver lesion, incidental finding].  

PubMed

The differential diagnosis of incidentally found Focal Liver Lesions (FLL) is complex. Screening procedures so far are only defined for patients with liver cirrhosis. Characterization of a FLL begins as soon as it is detected. Taking patients history and thorough clinical examination are essential. An imaging procedure that is used to detect liver masses should also allow the examiner to determine whether the lesion is benign or malignant. Conventional B-mode US and colour Doppler imaging are effective at detecting and characterizing typical liver cysts and calcifications. Laboratory data, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and imaging guided liver biopsy are complementary methods.Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) is a well established diagnostic imaging technique for a variety of indications and applications. One of the most important applications is in the liver where it is frequently a first-line technique for the detection and diagnosis (characterization) of focal liver lesions (FLL). In this setting the accurate differentiation of benign from malignant lesions is critical to ensure the patient undergoes the appropriate therapeutic option. This has been documented in recently published guidelines, in particular in terms of the enhancement patterns of the most common FLL hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia hepatocellular adenoma and their differentiation from malignant lesions. In this article the role of CEUS in the characterization of incidentally found FLL is described. PMID:23033169

Dietrich, C F; Jenssen, C

2012-10-01

278

Telocytes in human liver fibrosis.  

PubMed

Liver fibrosis is a wound-healing response which engages a variety of cell types to encapsulate injury. Telocyte (TC), a novel type of interstitial cell, has been identified in a variety of tissues and organs including liver. TCs have been reported to be reduced in fibrotic areas after myocardial infarction, human interstitial wall's fibrotic remodelling caused either by ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease, and skin of systemic sclerosis. However, the role of TCs in human liver fibrosis remains unclear. Liver samples from human liver biopsy were collected. All samples were stained with Masson's trichrome to determine fibrosis. TCs were identified by several immunofluorescence stainings including double labelling for CD34 and c-kit/CD117, or vimentin, or PDGF Receptor-?, or ?. We found that hepatic TCs were significantly decreased by 27%-60% in human liver fibrosis, suggesting that loss of TCs might lead to the altered organization of extracellular matrix and loss the control of fibroblast/myofibroblast activity and favour the genesis of fibrosis. Adding TCs might help to develop effective and targeted antifibrotic therapies for human liver fibrosis. PMID:25661250

Fu, Siyi; Wang, Fei; Cao, Yan; Huang, Qi; Xiao, Junjie; Yang, Changqing; Popescu, Laurentiu M

2015-03-01

279

Arrhythmia risk in liver cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Interactions between the functioning of the heart and the liver have been described, with heart diseases affecting the liver, liver diseases affecting the heart, and conditions that simultaneously affect both. The heart is one of the most adversely affected organs in patients with liver cirrhosis. For example, arrhythmias and electrocardiographic changes are observed in patients with liver cirrhosis. The risk for arrhythmia is influenced by factors such as cirrhotic cardiomyopathy, cardiac ion channel remodeling, electrolyte imbalances, impaired autonomic function, hepatorenal syndrome, metabolic abnormalities, advanced age, inflammatory syndrome, stressful events, impaired drug metabolism and comorbidities. Close monitoring of cirrhotic patients is needed for arrhythmias, particularly when QT interval-prolonging drugs are given, or if electrolyte imbalances or hepatorenal syndrome appear. Arrhythmia risk may persist after liver transplantation due to possible QT interval prolongation, persistence of the parasympathetic impairment, post-transplant reperfusion and chronic immunosuppression, as well as consideration of the fact that the transplant itself is a stressful event for the cardiovascular system. The aims of the present article were to provide a review of the most important data regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and biomarkers of arrhythmia risk in patients with liver cirrhosis, to elucidate the association with long-term outcome, and to propose future research directions. PMID:25866603

Mozos, Ioana

2015-01-01

280

[Management of pediatric liver abscess].  

PubMed

Liver abscess in the pediatric population remains uncommon in developed countries, except in cases of septicemia or in children with major debilitating diseases, granulocyte dysfunction, or immunosuppression. Although much is known about the etiopathogenesis of liver abscess, the gold standard of investigations and treatment is still debatable in developing countries. We report the case of a 6-year-old child living in Reunion Island, with no medical history, presenting with right and pyretic abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant. Ultrasound and CT scan showed a large hypodense nonenhanced area in segment IV. Final diagnosis was, by exclusion, pyogenic liver abscess based on negative serology, recent liver lesion, and normal tumor test results, even if blood culture remained negative. No percutaneous puncture was done because of positive outcome after 4 days of antibiotics. Treatment consisted in three intravenous antibiotics (ceftriaxone, aminoxide, and metronidazole) until complete biological normalization. Ultrasound remained normal 3 months later. Even if liver abscess is uncommon in developing countries, the diagnosis must be raised in cases of isolated liver tumor with fever. Management in the nonimmunosuppressed child must be discussed associating parenteral antibiotic therapy, percutaneous drainage, or surgery in very uncommon cases, according to the liver location and first day's progression. Etiological investigation such as colonoscopy in adults must be adapted to pediatric data. PMID:22463954

Fievet, L; Michel, J-L; Harper, L; Turquet, A; Moiton, M-P; Sauvat, F

2012-05-01

281

Telocytes in human liver fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Liver fibrosis is a wound-healing response which engages a variety of cell types to encapsulate injury. Telocyte (TC), a novel type of interstitial cell, has been identified in a variety of tissues and organs including liver. TCs have been reported to be reduced in fibrotic areas after myocardial infarction, human interstitial wall's fibrotic remodelling caused either by ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease, and skin of systemic sclerosis. However, the role of TCs in human liver fibrosis remains unclear. Liver samples from human liver biopsy were collected. All samples were stained with Masson's trichrome to determine fibrosis. TCs were identified by several immunofluorescence stainings including double labelling for CD34 and c-kit/CD117, or vimentin, or PDGF Receptor-?, or ?. We found that hepatic TCs were significantly decreased by 27%–60% in human liver fibrosis, suggesting that loss of TCs might lead to the altered organization of extracellular matrix and loss the control of fibroblast/myofibroblast activity and favour the genesis of fibrosis. Adding TCs might help to develop effective and targeted antifibrotic therapies for human liver fibrosis. PMID:25661250

Fu, Siyi; Wang, Fei; Cao, Yan; Huang, Qi; Xiao, Junjie; Yang, Changqing; Popescu, Laurentiu M

2015-01-01

282

3-Tesla MRI Response to TACE in HCC (Liver Cancer)  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Resectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Stage A Adult Primary Liver Cancer (BCLC); Stage B Adult Primary Liver Cancer (BCLC)

2014-03-20

283

Liver Transplantation: East versus West  

PubMed Central

Liver transplantation (LT) has evolved rapidly since the first successful liver transplant performed in1967. Despite a humble beginning, this procedure gained widespread acceptance in the western world as a suitable option for patients with end stage liver disease (ESLD) by the beginning of the 1980s. At present, approximately 25,000 liver transplants are being performed worldwide every year with approximately 90% one year survival. The techniques of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) developed in East Asia in the 1990s to overcome the shortage of suitable grafts for children and scarcity of deceased donors. While deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) constitutes more than 90% of LT in the western world, in India and other Asian countries, most transplants are LDLT. Despite the initial disparity, outcomes following LDLT in eastern countries have been quite satisfactory when compared to the western programs. The etiologies of liver failure requiring LT vary in different parts of the world. The commonest etiology for acute liver failure (ALF) leading to LT is drugs in the west and acute viral hepatitis in Asia. The most common indication for LT due to ESLD in west is alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatitis C virus (HCV), while hepatitis B virus (HBV) predominates in the east. There is a variation in prognostic models for assessing candidature and prioritizing organ allocation across the world. Model for end–stage liver disease (MELD) is followed in United States and some European centers. Other European countries rely on the Child–Turcotte–Pugh (CTP) score. Some parts of Asia still follow chronological order of listing. The debate regarding the best model for organ allocation is far from over.

Shukla, Akash; Vadeyar, Hemant; Rela, Mohamed; Shah, Samir

2013-01-01

284

Nutritional Status and Liver Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Chronic liver disease has a profound effect on nutritional status and undernourishment is almost universally present in patients with end-stage liver disease undergoing liver transplantation. In the last decades, due to epidemiological changes, a trend showing an increase in patients with end-stage liver disease and associated obesity has also been reported in developed countries. Nutrition abnormalities may influence the outcome after transplantation therefore, the importance to carefully assess the nutritional status in the work-up of patients candidates for liver transplantation is widely accepted. More attention has been given to malnourished patients as they represent the greater number. The subjective global nutritional assessment and anthropometric measurements are recognized in current guidelines to be adequate in identifying those patients at risk of malnutrition. Cirrhotic patients with a depletion in lean body mass and fat deposits have an increased surgical risk and malnutrition may impact on morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. For this reason an adequate calorie and protein intake should always be ensured to malnourished cirrhotic patient either through the diet, or using oral nutritional supplements or by enteral or parenteral nutrition although studies supporting the efficacy of nutritional supplementation in improving the clinical outcomes after transplantation are still scarce. When liver function is restored, an amelioration in the nutritional status is expected. After liver transplantation in fact dietary intake rapidly normalizes and fat mass is progressively regained while the recovery of muscle mass can be slower. In some patients unregulated weight gain may lead to over-nutrition and may favor metabolic disorders (hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia). This condition, defined as ‘metabolic syndrome’, may play a negative role on the overall survival of liver transplant patients. In this report we review data on nutrition and liver transplantation.

Merli, Manuela; Giusto, Michela; Giannelli, Valerio; Lucidi, Cristina; Riggio, Oliviero

2012-01-01

285

Polycystic liver disease and liver transplantation: single-institution experience.  

PubMed

Adult polycystic liver disease (PLD) can cause massive hepatomegaly leading to pain, caval obstruction, and hemorrhage. Many surgical techniques including aspiration, fenestration, and resection have been used to treat PLD. In addition to substantial morbidity and mortality, conservative surgery may have limited success, and palliation may be temporary. With improved results of liver transplantation, it has become the definitive treatment for PLD. We retrospectively reviewed our experience in patients with PLD between 1998 and 2007. Thirteen patients underwent liver only or liver-kidney transplantation. All surgical procedures were performed with preservation of the recipient inferior vena cava and without venovenous bypass (piggyback technique). Our patients experienced a high rate of perioperative morbidity. However, long-term patient and graft survival were excellent. PMID:19917384

Taner, B; Willingham, D L; Hewitt, W R; Grewal, H P; Nguyen, J H; Hughes, C B

2009-11-01

286

Potential neural progenitor cells in fetal liver and regenerating liver  

PubMed Central

From unfractionated embryonic mice liver cells, appreciable amount of spherical bodies containing nestin-positive cells were generated in the presence of neuronal growth factors. Following cultivation on poly-d-lysine/laminin-coated slips, approximately 70% of the cells expressed neuronal markers, and 16% had long processes. Functional analysis of these long-process-bearing cells with the whole-cell patch clamp method showed an inward current in response to glutamate, GABA, and serotonin as the neuronal characteristics. Furthermore, regenerating liver in adult mice also contained nestin-positive cells to the same extent as fetal liver. Regenerating liver could have potential as a source of neural cells for autologous transplantation. PMID:19002859

Farkas, Imre; Akatsu, Hiroyasu; Kojima, Kiyohide; Fukushima, Takeo; Okada, Hidechika

2008-01-01

287

Combined Liver and Multivisceral Resections  

PubMed Central

Background. Combined liver and multivisceral resections are infrequent procedures, which demand extensive experience and considerable surgical skills. Methods. An electronic search of literature related to this topic published before June 2013 was performed. Results. There is limited scientific evidence of the feasibility and clinical outcomes of these complex procedures. The majority of these cases are simultaneous resections of colorectal tumors with liver metastases. Combined liver and multivisceral resections can be performed with acceptable postoperative morbidity and mortality rates only in carefully selected patients. Conclusion. Lack of experience in these aggressive surgeries justifies a careful selection of patients, considering their comorbidities. PMID:24659854

de Santibañes, Martin; de Santibañes, Eduardo

2014-01-01

288

[Dissection techniques in liver surgery].  

PubMed

The first liver resection was performed in 1888. Since then a wide variety of dissection techniques have been introduced. The blunt dissection was replaced by novel methods, i.e. the CUSA technique and the Jet Cutter for major liver resections. These methods represent selective dissection techniques; whereas non-selective methods include the scalpel, scissors, linear stapling cutter, high-frequency coagulation, and the laser technique. The aim of this review article is the comparison of the different resection techniques in liver surgery, focussing on blood loss and resection time. PMID:11253668

Rau, H G; Schauer, R; Pickelmann, S; Beyer, B C; Angele, M K; Zimmermann, A; Meimarakis, G; Heizmann, O; Schildberg, F W

2001-02-01

289

“Vanishing liver metastases”—A real challenge for liver surgeons  

PubMed Central

Expanded surgical intervention in colorectal liver metastasis (LM) and improved chemotherapy led to increasing problem of disappearing liver metastases (DLM). Treatment of those continues to evolve and poses a real challenge for HPB surgeons. This review discusses a clinical approach to DLM, emphasizing crucial steps in clinical algorithm. Particular issues such as imaging, intraoperative detection and surgical techniques are addressed. A step-by-step algorithm is suggested. PMID:25392841

Zendel, Alex; Lahat, Eylon; Dreznik, Yael; Zakai, Barak Bar; Eshkenazy, Rony

2014-01-01

290

Liver diseases in pregnancy: liver transplantation in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Pregnancy in patients with advanced liver disease is uncommon as most women with decompensated cirrhosis are infertile and have high rate of anovulation. However, if gestation ensued; it is very challenging and carries high risks for both the mother and the baby such as higher rates of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, pulmonary hypertension, splenic artery aneurysm rupture, postpartum hemorrhage, and a potential for life-threatening variceal hemorrhage and hepatic decompensation. In contrary, with orthotopic liver transplantation, menstruation resumes and most women of childbearing age are able to conceive, give birth and lead a better quality of life. Women with orthotopic liver transplantation seeking pregnancy should be managed carefully by a team consultation with transplant hepatologist, maternal-fetal medicine specialist and other specialists. Pregnant liver transplant recipients need to stay on immunosuppression medication to prevent allograft rejection. Furthermore, these medications need to be monitored carefully and continued throughout pregnancy to avoid potential adverse effects to mother and baby. Thus delaying pregnancy 1 to 2 years after transplantation minimizes fetal exposure to high doses of immunosuppressants. Pregnant female liver transplant patients have a high rate of cesarean delivery likely due to the high rate of prematurity in this population. Recent reports suggest that with close monitoring and multidisciplinary team approach, most female liver transplant recipient of childbearing age will lead a successful pregnancy. PMID:24282354

Hammoud, Ghassan M; Almashhrawi, Ashraf A; Ahmed, Khulood T; Rahman, Rubayat; Ibdah, Jamal A

2013-11-21

291

Laparoscopic liver surgery: Shifting the management of liver tumors.  

PubMed

Laparoscopic liver surgery has evolved rapidly over the past 5 years in a select number of centers. The growing experience with these procedures has resulted in a shift in the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to common liver tumors. The fact that resection of benign and malignant hepatic masses can now be accomplished laparoscopically with relatively low morbidity has influenced the decision-making process for physicians involved in the diagnosis and management of these lesions. For example, should a gastroenterologist or hepatologist seeing a 32-year-old woman with an asymptomatic 4 cm hepatic lesion that is radiologically indeterminate for adenoma or focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH): (1) continue to observe with annual computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (CT/MRI) scans, (2) subject the patient to a liver biopsy, or (3) refer for laparoscopic resection? For a solitary malignant liver tumor in the left lateral segment, should laparoscopic resection be considered the new standard of care, assuming the surgeon can perform the operation safely? We present current data and representative case studies on the use of laparoscopic liver resection at 2 major medical centers in the United States. We propose that surgical engagement defined by the managing physician's decision to proceed with a surgical intervention is increasingly affected by the availability of, and experience with, laparoscopic liver resection. PMID:17133494

Koffron, Alan; Geller, David; Gamblin, T Clark; Abecassis, Michael

2006-12-01

292

Role of liver biopsy in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease  

PubMed Central

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), defined as abnormal accumulation (> 5%) of hepatic triglyceride without excess alcohol intake, is the most common form of chronic liver disease in adults and children in the United States. NAFLD encompasses a spectrum of histologic findings including uncomplicated steatosis, steatosis with inflammation and steatohepatitis [nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)]; the latter can advance to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. NASH is currently accepted as the hepatic manifestation of the set of cardiovascular risk factors collectively known as metabolic syndrome. In 1999 a system for histologic grading and staging for NASH was proposed; this was revised by the NASH Clinical Research Network in 2005 for the entire spectrum of lesions in NAFLD, including the lesions and patterns of pediatric NAFLD, and for application in clinical research trials. Diagnosis remains distinct from grade and stage. A recent European proposal separates steatosis from activity to derive a numeric diagnosis of NASH. Even though there have been promising advancements in non-invasive testing, these tests are not yet detailed enough to replace the full range of findings provided by liver biopsy evaluation. Limitations of biopsy are acknowledged, but liver biopsy remains the “gold standard” for diagnosis and determination of amounts of necroinflammatory activity, and location of fibrosis, as well as remodeling of the parenchyma in NASH. This review focuses on the specific histologic lesions of NAFLD and NASH, grading and staging, differential diagnoses to be considered, and the continuing role of the liver biopsy in this important liver disease. PMID:25083076

Nalbantoglu, ILKe; Brunt, Elizabeth M

2014-01-01

293

Liver cell dysplasia: a premalignant condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver cell dysplasia is defined as cellular enlargement, nuclear pleomorphism, and multinucleation of liver cells occurring in groups or occupying whole cirrhotic nodules. The prevalence, natural history, and relationship to the Australia or hepatitis-associated antigen (HAA) have been studied in 552 Ugandan African patients with normal, cirrhotic, and cancerous livers. Liver cell dysplasia was found in only two of 200

P. P. Anthony; C. L. Vogel; L. F. Barker

1973-01-01

294

MODEL OF TOXICANT RESPONSE IN ENGINEERED LIVER  

EPA Science Inventory

This project proposes to: engineer a tissue to mimic liver behavior (a so-called 3-Dimensional or 3D liver model); simulate liver toxicity by exposing the 3D liver model to two known toxicants ( carbon tetrachloride and 1,2 dichloroethylene); and ...

295

Liver abscesses in feedlot cattle.  

PubMed

Liver abscesses in feedlot cattle result from aggressive grain-feeding programs and are influenced by a number of dietary and management factors. They have a major economic impact on the feedlot industry because of liver condemnation and reduced animal performance and carcass yield. Ruminal lesions resulting from acidosis usually are accepted as the predisposing factors. Generally, control of liver abscesses in feedlot cattle has depended on the use of tylosin, which reduces abscess incidence by 40% to 70%. However, new methods and products for liver abscess control are needed. Corn milling by-products that are less fermentable may aide in the quest for cattle production techniques that lead to lower usage of antimicrobials. A vaccine is also commercially available. PMID:17606156

Nagaraja, T G; Lechtenberg, Kelly F

2007-07-01

296

Calcium Signaling in the Liver  

PubMed Central

Intracellular free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) is a highly versatile second messenger that regulates a wide range of functions in every type of cell and tissue. To achieve this versatility, the Ca2+ signaling system operates in a variety of ways to regulate cellular processes that function over a wide dynamic range. This is particularly well exemplified for Ca2+ signals in the liver, which modulate diverse and specialized functions such as bile secretion, glucose metabolism, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. These Ca2+ signals are organized to control distinct cellular processes through tight spatial and temporal coordination of [Ca2+]i signals, both within and between cells. This article will review the machinery responsible for the formation of Ca2+ signals in the liver, the types of subcellular, cellular, and intercellular signals that occur, the physiological role of Ca2+ signaling in the liver, and the role of Ca2+ signaling in liver disease. PMID:23720295

Amaya, Maria Jimena; Nathanson, Michael H.

2014-01-01

297

Drugs Approved for Liver Cancer  

Cancer.gov

This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for liver cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

298

Infections After Orthotopic Liver Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Opportunistic infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality after orthotopic liver transplantation. Systemic immunosuppression renders the liver recipient susceptible to de novo infection with bacteria, viruses and fungi post-transplantation as well to reactivation of pre-existing, latent disease. Pathogens are also transmissible via the donor organ. The time from transplantation and degree of immunosuppression may guide the differential diagnosis of potential infectious agents. However, typical systemic signs and symptoms of infection are often absent or blunted after transplant and a high index of suspicion is needed. Invasive procedures are often required to procure tissue for culture and guide antimicrobial therapy. Antimicrobial prophylaxis reduces the incidence of opportunistic infections and is routinely employed in the care of patients after liver transplant. In this review, we survey common bacterial, fungal, and viral infections after orthotopic liver transplantation and highlight recent developments in their diagnosis and management. PMID:25755581

Pedersen, Mark; Seetharam, Anil

2014-01-01

299

Liver Disease and Pulmonary Hypertension  

MedlinePLUS

... PH affects people of all ages and ethnic backgrounds. The most common symptoms are shortness of breath ... bosentan or sildenafil and who then undergo liver transplantation have excellent survival and in some cases complete ...

300

Immunosuppression withdrawal following liver transplantation.  

PubMed

Current immunosuppression regimens in liver transplantation provide excellent short-term survival rates but have many deleterious long-term side effects. They are therefore associated with the higher mortality and morbidity seen in liver transplant recipients compared to the general population and the notion that many liver transplant recipients are over-immunosuppressed is widely accepted. Liver allografts show a greater resistance to alloimmune responses than other solid organ transplants and recent research suggests up to 60% of highly selected recipients could wean off immunosuppression completely. In this review, we look at the evidence from immunosuppression withdrawal trials, the potential benefits of immunosuppression withdrawal and the identification of tolerant transplant recipients. PMID:25281267

Whitehouse, Gavin P; Sanchez-Fueyo, Alberto

2014-12-01

301

How Is Liver Cancer Found?  

MedlinePLUS

... to make it easier to see tumors. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) MRI scans can be very helpful in looking at liver ... has spread to other parts of the body. MRI scans use radio waves and strong magnets instead of ...

302

Interventional Treatments for Liver Disease  

MedlinePLUS

Patient Section Who Are Interventional Radiologists? Multimedia Insurance Coverage IR Treatments Abdominal aortic aneurysms Angiography Angioplasty and stent placement Cancer - bone Cancer - breast Cancer - kidney Cancer - liver Cancer - lung ...

303

Immunological treatment of liver tumors  

PubMed Central

Although multiple options for the treatment of liver tumors have often been described in the past, including liver resection, radiofrequency ablation with or without hepatic pump insertion, laparoscopic liver resection and the use of chemotherapy, the potential of immunotherapy and gene manipulation is still largely unexplored. Immunological therapy by gene manipulation is based on the interaction between virus-based gene delivery systems and dendritic cells. Using viruses as vectors, it is possible to transduce dendritic cells with genes encoding tumor-associated antigens, thus inducing strong humoral and cellular immunity against the antigens themselves. Both chemotherapy and radiation therapy have the disadvantage of destroying healthy cells, thus causing severe side-effects. We need more precisely targeted therapies capable of killing cancer cells while sparing healthy cells. Our goal is to establish a new treatment for solid liver tumors based on the concept of cytoreduction, and propose an innovative algorithm. PMID:16425346

Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio; Grizzi, Fabio; Jumper, Cynthia A; Cobos, Everardo; Hermonat, Paul L; Frezza, Eldo E

2005-01-01

304

IL-13 Signaling in Liver Fibrogenesis  

PubMed Central

Liver fibrosis is the final common pathway of chronic liver diseases irrespective of etiology. However, etiology deeply impacts progression and characteristics of liver fibrogenesis. IL-13 is the dominant pro-fibrotic cytokine in Schistosomiasis associated liver fibrogenesis. In vitro, IL-13 directly induces expression of fibrosis-associated genes, e.g., collagens or connective tissue growth factor, in hepatic stellate cells. Recently, potential effects of IL-13 in non-Schistosomiasis associated liver fibrosis have been uncovered. This review summarizes the potential roles of IL-13 in chronic liver disease of different etiologies, and the downstream events mediating IL-13 signaling in liver fibrogenesis. PMID:22593760

Liu, Yan; Munker, Stefan; Müllenbach, Roman; Weng, Hong-Lei

2012-01-01

305

Pre-liver transplant protocols in dentistry.  

PubMed

The number of adults with end stage liver disease in the U.S., awaiting liver transplantation, has maintained a steady upward trend in recent years. Concurrently, the survival rate of liver transplant recipients has also been on the rise. To be able to safely treat this population, dentists should have familiarity with special management requirements of patients with end stage liver disease. This article reviews the historical background on liver transplantation and provides updated information on indications and evaluation protocols, treatment considerations in end stage liver disease, clinical dental management protocols prior to surgical procedures and dental considerations in the pre-liver transplant candidates. PMID:23522643

Radmand, Reza; Schilsky, Michael; Jakab, Simona; Khalaf, Mohd; Falace, Donald A

2013-04-01

306

Model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) and allocation of donor livers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: A consensus has been reached that liver donor allocation should be based primarily on liver disease severity and that waiting time should not be a major determining factor. Our aim was to assess the capability of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score to correctly rank potential liver recipients according to their severity of liver disease

Russell Wiesner; Erick Edwards; Richard Freeman; Ann Harper; Ray Kim; Patrick Kamath; Walter Kremers; John Lake; Todd Howard; Robert M. Merion; Robert A. Wolfe; Ruud Krom

2003-01-01

307

Toxicant-Induced Liver Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Chemical- and drug-induced liver injury is a significant problem in clinical practice and during drug development. Many drugs\\u000a fail during development due to acute hepatotoxicity. However, a substantial number of drugs currently on the market or already\\u000a withdrawn have the potential to cause liver injury [1, 2]. Most of these drug-induced hepatotoxicities are idiosyncratic and\\u000a the mechanisms of cell injury

Hartmut Jaeschke

308

Primary Liver Cancer: Chemical Carcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Liver cancer is an important form of cancer worldwide ranking in the top ten in both incidence and mortality (1). Over 200,000 new cases of primary hepatocellular carcinoma are diagnosed worldwide each year (1). The American Cancer Society predicts over 22,000 new cases of liver and bile duct cancer and that nearly 18,000 individuals\\u000a will die of this disease in

Sheeno P. Thyparambil; Ricky D. Edmondson; Yvonne P. Dragan

309

Liver injury from cyclosporine A  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the incidence of cyclosporine A-induced hepatotoxicity, we retrospectively analyzed liver biochemical test results in 59 patients with endogenous uveitis who received cyclosporine A. All patients had normal liver tests before treatment and had at least six determinations during a 6- to 36-month course of therapy with cyclosporine A at a dose of 2–10 mg\\/kg\\/day. Thirty-four (58%) patients developed

Chris Kassianides; Robert Nussenblatt; Alan G. Palestine; Susan D. Mellow; Jay H. Hoofnagle

1990-01-01

310

Energy Metabolism in the Liver  

PubMed Central

The liver is an essential metabolic organ, and its metabolic activity is tightly controlled by insulin and other metabolic hormones. Glucose is metabolized into pyruvate through glycolysis in the cytoplasm, and pyruvate is completely oxidized to generate ATP through the TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria. In the fed state, glycolytic products are used to synthesize fatty acids through de novo lipogenesis. Long-chain fatty acids are incorporated into triacylglycerol, phospholipids, and cholesterol esters in hepatocytes, and these complex lipids are stored in lipid droplets and membrane structures, or secreted into the circulation as VLDL particles. In the fasted state, the liver secretes glucose through both breakdown of glycogen (glycogenolysis) and de novo glucose synthesis (gluconeogenesis). During pronged fasting, hepatic gluconeogenesis is the primary source of endogenous glucose production. Fasting also promotes lipolysis in adipose tissue to release nonesterified fatty acids which are converted into ketone bodies in the liver though mitochondrial ? oxidation and ketogenesis. Ketone bodies provide a metabolic fuel for extrahepatic tissues. Liver metabolic processes are tightly regulated by neuronal and hormonal systems. The sympathetic system stimulates, whereas the parasympathetic system suppresses, hepatic gluconeogenesis. Insulin stimulates glycolysis and lipogenesis, but suppresses gluconeogenesis; glucagon counteracts insulin action. Numerous transcription factors and coactivators, including CREB, FOXO1, ChREBP, SREBP, PGC-1?, and CRTC2, control the expression of the enzymes which catalyze the rate-limiting steps of liver metabolic processes, thus controlling liver energy metabolism. Aberrant energy metabolism in the liver promotes insulin resistance, diabetes, and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). PMID:24692138

Rui, Liangyou

2014-01-01

311

Adenomatous hyperplasia of the liver.  

PubMed

An unusual case of adenomatous hyperplasia of the liver arose spontaneously in an 82-year-old woman. Massive fatal ascites developed during an eight-week period in the absence of cirrhosis. No drug, chemical, or hormone could be identified as the causative agent. Estrogens may play a role as possible promoters in the growth of hepatic tumors. Identifying liver tumors in women that are not associated with oral contraceptive use is valuable. PMID:215102

Gindhart, T D; Cimis, R J; Mosenthal, W T; Longnecker, D S

1979-01-01

312

Contemporary Liver Immunology and Immunopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relatively young science of immunology is just past its first centennial, and its detachment from microbiology was only\\u000a 50 yr back. Since then remarkable progress has taken place in medical immunology, and hybrid disciplines have emerged: first\\u000a neuroimmunology and, later, even osteoimmunology (1). The claim for liver immunology is amply justified by the role of the “lymphoid liver” as

Ian R. Mackay

313

Actinomycetes in pyogenic liver abscess.  

PubMed

Three patients with pyogenic liver abscesses had actinomycetes cultured from aspirated pus, although it is unusual for hepatic actinomycosis to present in this way. The spectrum of bacteria found in liver abscesses appears to be changing, with the increased isolation of anaerobes partly due to improved techniques. It is important to recognise the presence of actinomycetes so that appropriate chemotherapy can be given. PMID:2502404

Logan, M N; Stanley, P J; Exley, A; Gagg, C; Farrell, I D

1989-05-01

314

Liver involvement in cystic fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  The hepatobiliary manifestations of cystic fibrosis (CF) encompass a broad clinical spectrum, from mild steatosis, associated\\u000a with poor nutrition, to multilobular cirrhosis and the complications of portal hypertension. The factor(s) responsible for\\u000a the development and progression of liver disease in a subset of patients with CF are unknown. Liver disease can be silent\\u000a and progressive, manifesting only with complications

Catherine Brigman; Andrew Feranchak

2006-01-01

315

Mechanisms involved in breast cancer liver metastasis.  

PubMed

Liver metastasis is a frequent occurrence in patients with breast cancer; however, the available treatments are limited and ineffective. While liver-specific homing of breast cancer cells is an important feature of metastasis, the formation of liver metastases is not random. Indeed, breast cancer cell factors contribute to the liver microenvironment. Major breakthroughs have been achieved recently in understanding breast cancer liver metastasis (BCLM). The process of liver metastasis consists of multiple steps and involves various factors from breast cancer cells and the liver microenvironment. A further understanding of the roles of breast cancer cells and the liver microenvironment is crucial to guide future work in clinical treatments. In this review we discuss the contribution of breast cancer cells and the liver microenvironment to liver metastasis, with the aim to improve therapeutic efficacy for patients with BCLM. PMID:25779135

Ma, Rui; Feng, Yili; Lin, Shuang; Chen, Jiang; Lin, Hui; Liang, Xiao; Zheng, Heming; Cai, Xiujun

2015-12-01

316

Toward surface quantification of liver fibrosis progression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring liver fibrosis progression by liver biopsy is important for certain treatment decisions, but repeated biopsy is invasive. We envision redefinition or elimination of liver biopsy with surface scanning of the liver with minimally invasive optical methods. This would be possible only if the information contained on or near liver surfaces accurately reflects the liver fibrosis progression in the liver interior. In our study, we acquired the second-harmonic generation and two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy images of liver tissues from bile duct-ligated rat model of liver fibrosis. We extracted morphology-based features, such as total collagen, collagen in bile duct areas, bile duct proliferation, and areas occupied by remnant hepatocytes, and defined the capsule and subcapsular regions on the liver surface based on image analysis of features. We discovered a strong correlation between the liver fibrosis progression on the anterior surface and interior in both liver lobes, where biopsy is typically obtained. The posterior surface exhibits less correlation with the rest of the liver. Therefore, scanning the anterior liver surface would obtain similar information to that obtained from biopsy for monitoring liver fibrosis progression.

He, Yuting; Kang, Chiang Huen; Xu, Shuoyu; Tuo, Xiaoye; Trasti, Scott; Tai, Dean C. S.; Raja, Anju Mythreyi; Peng, Qiwen; So, Peter T. C.; Rajapakse, Jagath C.; Welsch, Roy; Yu, Hanry

2010-09-01

317

Liver Autophagy in Anorexia Nervosa and Acute Liver Injury  

PubMed Central

Autophagy, a lysosomal catabolic pathway for long-lived proteins and damaged organelles, is crucial for cell homeostasis, and survival under stressful conditions. During starvation, autophagy is induced in numerous organisms ranging from yeast to mammals, and promotes survival by supplying nutrients and energy. In the early neonatal period, when transplacental nutrients supply is interrupted, starvation-induced autophagy is crucial for neonates' survival. In adult animals, autophagy provides amino acids and participates in glucose metabolism following starvation. In patients with anorexia nervosa, autophagy appears initially protective, allowing cells to copes with nutrient deprivation. However, when starvation is critically prolonged and when body mass index reaches 13?kg/m2 or lower, acute liver insufficiency occurs with features of autophagic cell death, which can be observed by electron microscopy analysis of liver biopsy samples. In acetaminophen overdose, a classic cause of severe liver injury, autophagy is induced as a protective mechanism. Pharmacological enhancement of autophagy protects against acetaminophen-induced necrosis. Autophagy is also activated as a rescue mechanism in response to Efavirenz-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. However, Efavirenz overdose blocks autophagy leading to liver cell death. In conclusion, in acute liver injury, autophagy appears as a protective mechanism that can be however blocked or overwhelmed. PMID:25250330

Kheloufi, Marouane; Boulanger, Chantal M.; Durand, François

2014-01-01

318

The cost-effectiveness of non-invasive liver tests for the detection of liver fibrosis in patients with suspected alcohol-related liver disease  

E-print Network

The cost-effectiveness of non-invasive liver tests for the detection of liver fibrosis in patients. As liver fibrosis represents the final common outcome of chronic liver injury and is often progressive

Oakley, Jeremy

319

Drug-induced liver injury.  

PubMed

Drug hepatoxicity can be nonidiosyncratic (predictable), as in the case of acetaminophen, or idiosyncratic (unpredictable). This review article focuses primarily on idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI). New epidemiologic data suggest that approximately 20 new cases of DILI per 100,000 persons occur each year. Idiosyncratic DILI accounts for 11% of the cases of acute liver failure in the United States. Risk factors for DILI include medication dose, drug lipophilicity, and extent of hepatic metabolism. There is mixed evidence to support the role of host factors such as age, sex, and chronic liver disease in the development of DILI. For specific drugs, a genetic predisposition appears to be a risk factor for DILI. Suspected cases of idiosyncratic DILI should be categorized as hepatitic, cholestatic, or mixed on the basis of the degree/ratio of abnormalities in the alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase. A careful evaluation for other causes of liver disease should be performed, though a liver biopsy is rarely needed. There is evidence that some patients with DILI may actually have hepatitis E and this diagnosis should be considered. Amoxicillin/clavulanate isoniazid, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are among the most common causes of DILI. Drug discontinuation or dechallenge should lead to an improvement in liver biochemistries in most patients, though a bilirubin value of more than 3 g/dL is associated with mortality of at least 10%. New biomarkers for DILI using proteomics and micro RNA appear promising but require further study. New studies on drugs with potential for causing DILI are reviewed herein, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonists, fluoroquinolones, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, statins, and supplements. PubMed was used with search terms of drug induced liver injury OR DILI with filter settings of "English language" and "humans" and custom date range of "January 1, 2000." The authors also manually searched bibliographies from key references and included seminal references before the year 2000. PMID:24388027

Leise, Michael D; Poterucha, John J; Talwalkar, Jayant A

2014-01-01

320

Alcoholic liver disease: the gut microbiome and liver cross talk.  

PubMed

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Alcoholic fatty liver disease can progress to steatohepatitis, alcoholic hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Patients with alcohol abuse show quantitative and qualitative changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiome. Furthermore, patients with ALD have increased intestinal permeability and elevated systemic levels of gut-derived microbial products. Maintaining eubiosis, stabilizing the mucosal gut barrier, or preventing cellular responses to microbial products protect from experimental ALD. Therefore, intestinal dysbiosis and pathological bacterial translocation appear fundamental for the pathogenesis of ALD. This review highlights causes for intestinal dysbiosis and pathological bacterial translocation, their relationship, and consequences for ALD. We also discuss how the liver affects the intestinal microbiota. PMID:25872593

Hartmann, Phillipp; Seebauer, Caroline T; Schnabl, Bernd

2015-05-01

321

Malignant infiltration of the liver presenting as acute liver failure.  

PubMed

There have been few reports of acute liver failure (ALF), with encephalopathy and coagulopathy, caused by infiltration of the liver by malignant cells. We describe a case series of 27 patients with ALF caused by malignancy. We examined a large, multicenter ALF registry (1910 patients; mean age, 47.1 ± 13.9 y) and found only 27 cases (1.4%) of ALF attributed to malignancy. Twenty cases (74%) presented with abdominal pain and 11 presented with ascites. The most common malignancies included lymphoma or leukemia (33%), breast cancer, (30%), and colon cancer (7%); 90% of the patients with lymphoma or leukemia had no history of cancer, compared with 25% of patients with breast cancer. Overall, 44% of the patients had evidence of liver masses on imaging. Diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy in 15 cases (55%) and by autopsy for 6 cases. Twenty-four patients (89%) died within 3 weeks of ALF. PMID:25277846

Rich, Nicole E; Sanders, Corron; Hughes, Randall S; Fontana, Robert J; Stravitz, R Todd; Fix, Oren; Han, Steven H; Naugler, Willscott E; Zaman, Atif; Lee, William M

2015-05-01

322

Hepatic inflammation and progressive liver fibrosis in chronic liver disease  

PubMed Central

Chronic liver inflammation drives hepatic fibrosis, and current immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-viral therapies can weaken this driver. Hepatic fibrosis is reversed, stabilized, or prevented in 57%-79% of patients by conventional treatment regimens, mainly by their anti-inflammatory actions. Responses, however, are commonly incomplete and inconsistently achieved. The fibrotic mechanisms associated with liver inflammation have been clarified, and anti-fibrotic agents promise to improve outcomes as adjunctive therapies. Hepatitis C virus and immune-mediated responses can activate hepatic stellate cells by increasing oxidative stress within hepatocytes. Angiotensin can be synthesized by activated hepatic stellate cells and promote the production of reactive oxygen species. Anti-oxidants (N-acetylcysteine, S-adenosyl-L-methionine, and vitamin E) and angiotensin inhibitors (losartin) have had anti-fibrotic actions in preliminary human studies, and they may emerge as supplemental therapies. Anti-fibrotic agents presage a new era of supplemental treatment for chronic liver disease. PMID:24627588

Czaja, Albert J

2014-01-01

323

Protein metabolism and liver disease.  

PubMed

In health, the liver orchestrates the metabolism of proteins and amino acids. When the liver is diseased, the regulation of protein metabolism is frequently disturbed. The manifestations of disturbed protein metabolism in liver disease are varied and change with disease aetiology and severity. The hallmarks of protein and amino acid metabolism in liver disease are lowered concentrations of circulating branched-chain and increased concentrations of circulating aromatic amino acids with concomitantly altered amino acid kinetics. The changes in amino acid kinetics in liver disease are characterized by increased endogenous leucine flux, an indicator of protein breakdown, and leucine oxidation in the post-absorptive state (when calculated using a reciprocal-pool model and normalized for body cell mass). In addition, the increase in whole-body protein synthesis in response to an amino acid infusion may be attenuated in patients with cirrhosis. These changes are often accompanied by clinically apparent muscle wasting, manifest as protein-calorie malnutrition, and associated low levels of hepatically synthesized plasma proteins. While the pathogenesis of these changes in protein and amino acid metabolism has not been elucidated, altered levels of circulating hormones, known to affect protein metabolism, are probably important. Lowered levels of micronutrients and trace metals and elevated levels of cytokines may also play a role. PMID:9022955

Charlton, M R

1996-10-01

324

Hydroxycut-induced Liver Toxicity  

PubMed Central

In the recent era, use of various nutritional supplements is highly encouraged amongst the people of United States. Weight loss supplements are major part of the nutritional supplements and their usage is unregulated in the US. Obesity is a major health concern in the US and Americans spend around $30 billion a year for weight loss supplements. At times, these supplements can be responsible for documented or undocumented adverse drug effects. The health consequences related to these supplements are often overlooked by the general public, even though FDA issues advisories regarding them. One common supplement used for weight loss was Hydroxycut (Iovate Health Sciences Research, Oakville, Ontario, Canada). Hydroxycut was recalled from the market after a FDA warning in May 2009 because of 23 reports of serious health problems ranging from jaundice and elevated liver enzymes to liver damage. 1 This case report adds evidence for Hydroxycut - induced hepatotoxicity. A 27 year old man with right upper quadrant pain and jaundice was found to have elevated liver enzymes and was taking Hydroxycut along with other supplements. Liver biopsy showed drug induced hepatotoxicity. Discontinuation of Hydroxycut dramatically improved liver functions and related symptoms. PMID:24669349

Kaswala, DH; Shah, S; Patel, N; Raisoni, S; Swaminathan, S

2014-01-01

325

Treatment of alcoholic liver disease  

PubMed Central

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) remains a major cause of liver-related mortality in the US and worldwide. The correct diagnosis of ALD can usually be made on a clinical basis in conjunction with blood tests, and a liver biopsy is not usually required. Abstinence is the hallmark of therapy for ALD, and nutritional therapy is the first line of therapeutic intervention. The role of steroids in patients with moderate to severe alcoholic hepatitis is gaining increasing acceptance, with the caveat that patients be evaluated for the effectiveness of therapy at 1 week. Pentoxifylline appears to be especially effective in ALD patients with renal dysfunction/hepatorenal syndrome. Biologics such as specific anti-TNFs have been disappointing and should probably not be used outside of the clinical trial setting. Transplantation is effective in patients with end-stage ALD who have stopped drinking (usually for ?6 months), and both long-term graft and patient survival are excellent. PMID:21317995

Frazier, Thomas H.; Stocker, Abigail M.; Kershner, Nicole A.; Marsano, Luis S.; McClain, Craig J.

2011-01-01

326

Liver transplantation and autoimmune hepatitis.  

PubMed

Liver Transplantation (LT) is an effective treatment for patients with end-stage liver disease including autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Indication for LT for AIH does not differ basically from other liver diseases including both acute and chronic types of disease progression, although it is reported to be an infrequent indication for LT worldwide due to the therapeutic advances of immunosuppression. The outcome following LT is feasible, with current patient and graft survival exceeding 75% at 5 years. Recurrent and de-novo AIH posttranslant has also been reported; and this seems to have important clinical implications because its management differs from the standard treatment for allograft rejection. In this review, we discuss the characteristics of AIH, focusing on the indication for LT and issues raised following LT. PMID:25674386

Tanaka, Tomohiro; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Kokudo, Norihiro

2015-02-01

327

Evaluation of Liver Transplant Recipients  

PubMed Central

The outcome of liver transplantation (LT) is dependent on many factors including graft quality, surgical techniques, postoperative care, immunosuppressive regimens and most importantly, careful pre-transplant recipient evaluation and selection. Currently, the expected 1-year and 5-year survival rates after LT are 85–95% and 75–85%, respectively. The improvement in outcomes and better awareness has resulted in an increasing demand for LT around the world including India. Transplant physicians have responded to this increased demand by developing several strategies including the use of older donors, grafts from hepatitis C positive donors or those with previous hepatitis B infection (positive hepatitis B virus [HBV] core immunoglobulin G [IgG] antibody), graft from nonheart beating donors, domino transplantation (liver from patients with familial amyloid polyneuropathy transplanted into older recipients), split-liver grafts, and live donor liver transplant (LDLT). Currently, the only treatment that prolongs survival in those with end-stage acute or chronic liver failure is transplantation of either partial or full liver donor graft. Because of the enormous disparity in supply and demand for donor organs, costs, and potential morbidity and mortality of live donors in LDLT, it has become incumbent on the transplant community to ration the available organs in a way that provides the best outcomes and in the process, serves the best interest of the population as a whole. When evaluating a potential candidate for LT, it is imperative to determine whether the recipient is going to benefit from the procedure immediately and in the long-term. In this review, we will discuss the process of selection and optimal evaluation of potential LT recipients.

Thuluvath, Paul J

2012-01-01

328

Diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease  

PubMed Central

Alcohol is a hepatotoxin that is commonly consumed worldwide and is associated with a spectrum of liver injury including simple steatosis or fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a general term used to refer to this spectrum of alcohol-related liver injuries. Excessive or harmful alcohol use is ranked as one of the top five risk factors for death and disability globally and results in 2.5 million deaths and 69.4 million annual disability adjusted life years. All patients who present with clinical features of hepatitis or chronic liver disease or who have elevated serum elevated transaminase levels should be screened for an alcohol use disorder. The diagnosis of ALD can generally be made based on history, clinical and laboratory findings. However, the diagnosis of ALD can be clinically challenging as there is no single diagnostic test that confirms the diagnosis and patients may not be forthcoming about their degree of alcohol consumption. In addition, clinical findings may be absent or minimal in early ALD characterized by hepatic steatosis. Typical laboratory findings in ALD include transaminase levels with aspartate aminotransferase greater than alanine aminotransferase as well as increased mean corpuscular volume, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, and IgA to IgG ratio. In unclear cases, the diagnosis can be supported by imaging and liver biopsy. The histological features of ALD can ultimately define the diagnosis according to the typical presence and distribution of hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and Mallory-Denk bodies. Because of the potential reversible nature of ALD with sobriety, regular screening of the general population and early diagnosis are essential. PMID:25206273

Torruellas, Cara; French, Samuel W; Medici, Valentina

2014-01-01

329

Autophagy and Liver Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury  

PubMed Central

Liver ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury occurs during liver resection, liver transplantation, and hemorrhagic shock. The main mode of liver cell death after warm and/or cold liver I-R is necrosis, but other modes of cell death, as apoptosis and autophagy, are also involved. Autophagy is an intracellular self-digesting pathway responsible for removal of long-lived proteins, damaged organelles, and malformed proteins during biosynthesis by lysosomes. Autophagy is found in normal and diseased liver. Although depending on the type of ischemia, warm and/or cold, the dynamic process of liver I-R results mainly in adenosine triphosphate depletion and in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leads to both, a local ischemic insult and an acute inflammatory-mediated reperfusion injury, and results finally in cell death. This process can induce liver dysfunction and can increase patient morbidity and mortality after liver surgery and hemorrhagic shock. Whether autophagy protects from or promotes liver injury following warm and/or cold I-R remains to be elucidated. The present review aims to summarize the current knowledge in liver I-R injury focusing on both the beneficial and the detrimental effects of liver autophagy following warm and/or cold liver I-R.

2015-01-01

330

Clinical implications of advances in liver regeneration  

PubMed Central

Remarkable advances have been made recently in the area of liver regeneration. Even though liver regeneration after liver resection has been widely researched, new clinical applications have provided a better understanding of the process. Hepatic damage induces a process of regeneration that rarely occurs in normal undamaged liver. Many studies have concentrated on the mechanism of hepatocyte regeneration following liver damage. High mortality is usual in patients with terminal liver failure. Patients die when the regenerative process is unable to balance loss due to liver damage. During disease progression, cellular adaptations take place and the organ microenvironment changes. Portal vein embolization and the associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy are relatively recent techniques exploiting the remarkable progress in understanding liver regeneration. Living donor liver transplantation is one of the most significant clinical outcomes of research on liver regeneration. Another major clinical field involving liver regeneration is cell therapy using adult stem cells. The aim of this article is to provide an outline of the clinical approaches being undertaken to examine regeneration in liver diseases.

Kwon, Yong Jin; Lee, Kyeong Geun

2015-01-01

331

Hepatitis C and liver transplantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liver transplantation is a life-saving therapy to correct liver failure, portal hypertension and hepatocellular carcinoma arising from hepatitis C infection. But despite the successful use of living donors and improvements in immunosuppression and antiviral therapy, organ demand continues to outstrip supply and recurrent hepatitis C with accelerated progression to cirrhosis of the graft is a frequent cause of graft loss and the need for retransplantation. Appropriate selection of candidates and timing of transplantation, coupled with better pre- and post-transplant antiviral therapy, are needed to improve outcomes.

Brown, Robert S.

2005-08-01

332

Gene therapy of liver cancer  

PubMed Central

The application of gene transfer technologies to the treatment of cancer has led to the development of new experimental approaches like gene directed enzyme/pro-drug therapy (GDEPT), inhibition of oncogenes and restoration of tumor-suppressor genes. In addition, gene therapy has a big impact on other fields like cancer immunotherapy, anti-angiogenic therapy and virotherapy. These strategies are being evaluated for the treatment of primary and metastatic liver cancer and some of them have reached clinical phases. We present a review on the basis and the actual status of gene therapy approaches applied to liver cancer. PMID:17036377

Hernandez-Alcoceba, Ruben; Sangro, Bruno; Prieto, Jesus

2006-01-01

333

Liver necrosis following corrosive ingestion.  

PubMed

We describe a rare sequel of corrosive ingestion. In this patient, ingestion of a corrosive led to ischemic necrosis of the entire left lobe of the liver (segments II, III, and IV) in addition to causing full-thickness necrosis of the esophagus/stomach, infarction of the spleen, and injury to the left hemidiaphragm. Solid organ involvement following corrosive ingestion is uncommon. Although involvement of the spleen and pancreas from extension of corrosive burns from the adjacent stomach is occasionally described, involvement of the liver following corrosive ingestion has not been reported in the literature till date. PMID:24105665

Javed, Amit; Yanger, Narola; Agarwal, A K

2014-01-01

334

TIMPs of parasitic helminths – a large-scale analysis of high-throughput sequence datasets  

PubMed Central

Background Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMPs) are a multifunctional family of proteins that orchestrate extracellular matrix turnover, tissue remodelling and other cellular processes. In parasitic helminths, such as hookworms, TIMPs have been proposed to play key roles in the host-parasite interplay, including invasion of and establishment in the vertebrate animal hosts. Currently, knowledge of helminth TIMPs is limited to a small number of studies on canine hookworms, whereas no information is available on the occurrence of TIMPs in other parasitic helminths causing neglected diseases. Methods In the present study, we conducted a large-scale investigation of TIMP proteins of a range of neglected human parasites including the hookworm Necator americanus, the roundworm Ascaris suum, the liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini, as well as the schistosome blood flukes. This entailed mining available transcriptomic and/or genomic sequence datasets for the presence of homologues of known TIMPs, predicting secondary structures of defined protein sequences, systematic phylogenetic analyses and assessment of differential expression of genes encoding putative TIMPs in the developmental stages of A. suum, N. americanus and Schistosoma haematobium which infect the mammalian hosts. Results A total of 15 protein sequences with high homology to known eukaryotic TIMPs were predicted from the complement of sequence data available for parasitic helminths and subjected to in-depth bioinformatic analyses. Conclusions Supported by the availability of gene manipulation technologies such as RNA interference and/or transgenesis, this work provides a basis for future functional explorations of helminth TIMPs and, in particular, of their role/s in fundamental biological pathways linked to long-term establishment in the vertebrate hosts, with a view towards the development of novel approaches for the control of neglected helminthiases. PMID:23721526

2013-01-01

335

Liver Transplantation: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and International Liver Transplantation Society has online access to the journal Liver Transplantation and Surgery. Full-text content begins January 1998; online abstracts begin with the 1997 issues. The text is fully searchable by keyword, with hyperlinked references to Medline and other frequently cited journals. Liver Transplantation and Surgery. is made available electronically with assistance from Stanford University's HighWire Press.

336

Nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver: diagnosis by liver biopsy.  

PubMed Central

Specimens of liver obtained by needle biopsy from two patients with rheumatoid arthritis showed features of nodular regenerative hyperplasia. In one patient the nodularity was apparent on gross examination of the specimen. Portal hypertension was present in the other patient. The cause and pathogenesis of the disorder are poorly understood. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:7388707

Qizilbash, A. H.; Castelli, M.

1980-01-01

337

Liver transplantation in alcoholic liver disease current status and controversies  

PubMed Central

Alcoholic cirrhosis remains the second most common indication for liver transplantation. A comprehensive medical and psychosocial evaluation is needed when making a decision to place such patients on the transplant list. Most transplant centers worldwide need a minimum of 6 mo of alcohol abstinence for listing these patients. Patients with alcohol dependence are at high risk for relapse to alcohol use after transplantation (recidivism). These patients need to be identified and require alcohol rehabilitation treatment before transplantation. Recidivism to the level of harmful drinking is reported in about 15%-20% cases. Although, recurrent cirrhosis and graft loss from recidivism is rare, occurring in less than 5% of all alcoholic cirrhosis-related transplants, harmful drinking in the post-transplant period does impact the long-term outcome. The development of metabolic syndrome with cardiovascular events and de novo malignancy are important contributors to non liver-related mortality amongst transplants for alcoholic liver disease. Surveillance protocols for earlier detection of de novo malignancy are needed to improve the long-term outcome. The need for a minimum of 6 mo of abstinence before listing makes transplant a nonviable option for patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis who do not respond to corticosteroids. Emerging data from retrospective and prospective studies has challenged the 6 mo rule, and beneficial effects of liver transplantation have been reported in select patients with a first episode of severe alcoholic hepatitis who are unresponsive to steroids. PMID:24106395

Singal, Ashwani K; Chaha, Khushdeep S; Rasheed, Khalid; Anand, Bhupinderjit S

2013-01-01

338

Opisthorchis viverrini and opisthorchiasis: a historical review and future perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opisthorchiasis is caused by the liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini. The fluke afflicts approximately seven million inhabitants in northeastern and northern Thailand. The fluke utilizes, respectively, freshwater snails and cyprinoid fish as its first and second intermediate hosts. Man is the accidental definitive host who acquires infection through the consumption of improperly cooked fish. Information pertaining to the history, the life-cycle,

E. S. Upatham; V. Viyanant

2003-01-01

339

Chronic fascioliasis in farmed and wild greater rheas ( Rhea americana)  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 50 farmed Rhea americana slaughtered for human consumption, adult forms and eggs of Fasciola hepatica were found in 4. The other three livers were free of flukes but did show lesions caused by larval fluke migration. Histological lesions were similar to those caused by flukes in cattle and sheep. The rheas were from an endemic area of ruminant fascioliasis

Mauro Pereira Soares; Sergio Silva da Silva; Leandro Quintana Nizoli; Samuel Rodrigues Felix; Ana Lucia Schild

2007-01-01

340

Humanized mice with ectopic artificial liver tissues  

E-print Network

“Humanized” mice offer a window into aspects of human physiology that are otherwise inaccessible. The best available methods for liver humanization rely on cell transplantation into immunodeficient mice with liver injury ...

Thomas, David K.

341

Multiscale tissue engineering for liver reconstruction  

PubMed Central

The liver is a target of in vitro tissue engineering despite its capability to regenerate in vivo. The construction of liver tissues in vitro remains challenging. In this review, conventional 3D cultures of hepatocytes are first discussed. Recent advances in the 3D culturing of liver cells are then summarized in the context of in vitro liver tissue reconstruction at the micro- and macroscales. The application of microfluidics technology to liver tissue engineering has been introduced as a bottom-up approach performed at the microscale, whereas whole-organ bioengineering technology was introduced as a top-down approach performed at the macroscale. Mesoscale approaches are also discussed in considering the integration of micro- and macroscale approaches. Multiple parallel multiscale liver tissue engineering studies are ongoing; however, no tissue-engineered liver that is appropriate for clinical use has yet been realized. The integration of multiscale tissue engineering studies is essential for further understanding of liver reconstruction strategies. PMID:24500493

Sudo, Ryo

2014-01-01

342

Hispanics May Develop Alcoholic Liver Disease Earlier  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. Hispanics May Develop Alcoholic Liver Disease Earlier Problems start four to 10 years ... Pages Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Hispanic American Health Liver Diseases FRIDAY, Feb. 20, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Hispanics ...

343

Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Liver Cancer)  

MedlinePLUS

... different types of treatment for patients with childhood liver cancer. Different types of treatments are available for ... patients who have not started treatment. Children with liver cancer should have their treatment planned by a ...

344

Treatment Options for Adult Primary Liver Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... types of treatment for patients with adult primary liver cancer. Different types of treatments are available for ... patients who have not started treatment. Patients with liver cancer are treated by a team of specialists ...

345

Liver regeneration by hepatic progenitor cells   

E-print Network

The liver is the largest solid organ in the body and is frequently the site of injury. During disease, liver injury is usually compensated for by exceptionally efficient regeneration which occurs both from differentiated ...

Bird, Thomas Graham

2011-07-05

346

Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)  

MedlinePLUS

... exam, warranting further testing. 2) An elevation of liver enzymes may be noted on routine laboratory testing. An ... has been beneficial in some patients with elevated liver enzymes x Insulin sensitizing agents have been successful in ...

347

Platelet-Derived Serotonin Mediates Liver Regeneration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The liver can regenerate its volume after major tissue loss. In a mouse model of liver regeneration, thrombocytopenia, or impaired platelet activity resulted in the failure to initiate cellular proliferation in the liver. Platelets are major carriers of serotonin in the blood. In thrombocytopenic mice, a serotonin agonist reconstituted liver proliferation. The expression of 5-HT2A and 2B subtype serotonin receptors in the liver increased after hepatectomy. Antagonists of 5-HT2A and 2B receptors inhibited liver regeneration. Liver regeneration was also blunted in mice lacking tryptophan hydroxylase 1, which is the rate-limiting enzyme for the synthesis of peripheral serotonin. This failure of regeneration was rescued by reloading serotonin-free platelets with a serotonin precursor molecule. These results suggest that platelet-derived serotonin is involved in the initiation of liver regeneration.

Lesurtel, Mickael; Graf, Rolf; Aleil, Boris; Walther, Diego J.; Tian, Yinghua; Jochum, Wolfram; Gachet, Christian; Bader, Michael; Clavien, Pierre-Alain

2006-04-01

348

[Liver parameters in intensive care medicine].  

PubMed

Elevated liver function tests in ICU-bound patients are associated with a greater risk of mor-tality. Chronic liver diseases as well as acute events and complications of therapy are among the causes. The disorder could further be investigated by assessment of liver cell integrity markers (AST, ALT and GLDH), cholestasis parameters -(bilirubin, GGT, ALP) and liver synthethic function (albumin, coagulation profile). Ultrasound and elastography are cheap and mobile options to evaluate chronic liver disease, cholestasis or perfusion of the liver. The interpretation of the results should include the medical history on the ICU. Liver injury could be due to septic or isch-aemic complications as well as toxic side effects or parenteral nutrition. The main therapeutic option is to identify the cause of the liver dysfuntion and to eliminate it as far as possible. PMID:22565500

Penndorf, V; Saner, F; Gerken, G; Canbay, A

2013-12-01

349

What You Need to Know about Liver Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... the liver and basics about liver cancer How liver cancer is diagnosed Treatment for liver cancer, including taking part in cancer treatment research studies This booklet has lists of questions ...

350

Selected infectious disease disasters for nursing staff training at Egyptian Eastern Border.  

PubMed

Infectious disease disasters are events that involve a biological agent, disease and that result in mass casualties, such as a bioterrorism attack, an emerging outbreak of infectious disease; all disasters pose a risk of infection transmission. But, infectious disease disasters pose the great-risk to illness or death from an infectious disease. This study raised the awareness and improved knowledge by educational program for Military Nursing Staff on selected infectious disease disasters acquired at Egyptian Eastern Border. The selected arthropod-borne diseases were Anthrax, Tick borne relapsing, Louse borne replasing fever and liver fluke; Clonorchis sinensis. An interventional study was used, for 125 staff nurse who accepted to participate. The tools dealt with four questionnaires: (1) Some sociodemographic characteristics data (2) Educational needs assessment a structured questionnaire. (3) Knowledge test (pre/post-test) and (4) Participants' reactions questionnaire. The results showed that educational intervention significantly improvements the nursing staff knowledge, which were achieved at the immediate post intervention phase, and retained via three months post-test phase. In the service training programs about infectious disease disasters at Egyptian Eastern Border must be established and continued on regular basis. This would improve their knowledge about the epidemiology of these infectious disease disasters. PMID:24961011

El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Labib, Nargis Albert; Abdel-Fattah, Magda Abdel Hameed; Ibrahim, Abeer Mohammad Abdallah; Morsy, Tosson A

2014-04-01

351

Immune cell-mediated liver injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver diseases represent an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Death of hepatocytes and other hepatic\\u000a cell types is a characteristic feature of several forms of liver injury such as cholestasis, viral hepatitis, drug- or toxin-induced\\u000a injury, and alcohol-induced liver damage. Moreover, irrespectively of the reason, liver injury seems to be facilitated by\\u000a similar immune effector mechanisms

Nadia Corazza; Anastasia Badmann; Christoph Lauer

2009-01-01

352

Liver cell adenomas and portosystemic shunt.  

PubMed

We report the case of a young man who developed multiple liver cell adenomas 13 years after a mesentericocaval shunt. Radiological findings did not provide diagnosis. Histological findings of two biopsied nodules were compatible with liver cell adenoma. Our patient had no known risk factors for liver cell adenomas. We discuss the hypothesis that disturbed hepatic vascularisation could promote the development of liver cell adenomas. PMID:18496891

Dhalluin-Venier, V; Fabre, M; Jacquemin, E; Rangheard, A-S; Pelletier, G; Buffet, C

2008-02-01

353

Role of liver stem cells in hepatocarcinogenesis.  

PubMed

Liver cancer is an aggressive disease with a high mortality rate. Management of liver cancer is strongly dependent on the tumor stage and underlying liver disease. Unfortunately, most cases are discovered when the cancer is already advanced, missing the opportunity for surgical resection. Thus, an improved understanding of the mechanisms responsible for liver cancer initiation and progression will facilitate the detection of more reliable tumor markers and the development of new small molecules for targeted therapy of liver cancer. Recently, there is increasing evidence for the "cancer stem cell hypothesis", which postulates that liver cancer originates from the malignant transformation of liver stem/progenitor cells (liver cancer stem cells). This cancer stem cell model has important significance for understanding the basic biology of liver cancer and has profound importance for the development of new strategies for cancer prevention and treatment. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the role of liver stem cells in hepatocarcinogenesis. Our review of the literature shows that identification of the cellular origin and the signaling pathways involved is challenging issues in liver cancer with pivotal implications in therapeutic perspectives. Although the dedifferentiation of mature hepatocytes/cholangiocytes in hepatocarcinogenesis cannot be excluded, neoplastic transformation of a stem cell subpopulation more easily explains hepatocarcinogenesis. Elimination of liver cancer stem cells in liver cancer could result in the degeneration of downstream cells, which makes them potential targets for liver cancer therapies. Therefore, liver stem cells could represent a new target for therapeutic approaches to liver cancer in the near future. PMID:25426254

Xu, Lei-Bo; Liu, Chao

2014-11-26

354

[Portal vein embolization prior to liver surgery].  

PubMed

Portal vein embolization is performed with the intention to occlude the portal veins to liver segments with malignancies and direct the portal flow to the healthy part (usually the left lobe) of the liver. Thus, hyperperfusion through the non-embolized part of the liver will create hyperplasia and hyperfunction, which allow extensive liverresection at a later stage in patients where it otherwise would have been contradictory to operate because of too small volume of the residual liver. PMID:23331942

Andersen, Poul Erik; Mahdi, Bassam; Nielsen, Henning Overgaard

2013-01-14

355

Management of drug-induced liver disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment and prevention of drug-induced liver injury starts with the recognition of hepatotoxicity at the earliest possible\\u000a time so that the suspected drug can be discontinued expeditiously. Both liver enzyme monitoring and vigilance for signs of\\u000a hypersensitivity involving the liver are useful strategies for many agents known to cause hepatocellular necrosis leading\\u000a to liver failure. Specific antidotes to prevent

Gustavo Marino; Hyman J. Zimmerman; James H. Lewis

2001-01-01

356

Role of liver stem cells in hepatocarcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Liver cancer is an aggressive disease with a high mortality rate. Management of liver cancer is strongly dependent on the tumor stage and underlying liver disease. Unfortunately, most cases are discovered when the cancer is already advanced, missing the opportunity for surgical resection. Thus, an improved understanding of the mechanisms responsible for liver cancer initiation and progression will facilitate the detection of more reliable tumor markers and the development of new small molecules for targeted therapy of liver cancer. Recently, there is increasing evidence for the “cancer stem cell hypothesis”, which postulates that liver cancer originates from the malignant transformation of liver stem/progenitor cells (liver cancer stem cells). This cancer stem cell model has important significance for understanding the basic biology of liver cancer and has profound importance for the development of new strategies for cancer prevention and treatment. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the role of liver stem cells in hepatocarcinogenesis. Our review of the literature shows that identification of the cellular origin and the signaling pathways involved is challenging issues in liver cancer with pivotal implications in therapeutic perspectives. Although the dedifferentiation of mature hepatocytes/cholangiocytes in hepatocarcinogenesis cannot be excluded, neoplastic transformation of a stem cell subpopulation more easily explains hepatocarcinogenesis. Elimination of liver cancer stem cells in liver cancer could result in the degeneration of downstream cells, which makes them potential targets for liver cancer therapies. Therefore, liver stem cells could represent a new target for therapeutic approaches to liver cancer in the near future. PMID:25426254

Xu, Lei-Bo; Liu, Chao

2014-01-01

357

High Prevalence of Osteoporosis in Patients with Chronic Liver Disease Prior to Liver Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoporosis is a common complication of liver transplantation. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial, but preexisting bone disease in patients with chronic liver disease is likely to play an important role. The aim of this study was to evaluate bone mineral density in adult patients with chronic liver disease prior to liver transplantation. A total of 243 consecutive patients (128 male, 115

M. Ninkovic; S. A. Love; B. Tom; G. J. M. Alexander; J. E. Compston

2001-01-01

358

L. Slimani / Quantification of liver perfusion with PET 1 Quantification of liver perfusion with [15  

E-print Network

L. Slimani / Quantification of liver perfusion with PET 1 Quantification of liver perfusion. Running Title : Quantification of liver perfusion with PET Corresponding authors: Patricia Iozzo, MD, Ph of liver perfusion with PET 2 Abstract (204 words) Background/Aims: Hepatic perfusion plays an important

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

359

LIVER BIOLOGY AND PATHOBIOLOGY Liver Tissue Engineering at Extrahepatic Sites in Mice  

E-print Network

LIVER BIOLOGY AND PATHOBIOLOGY BIOLOGY Liver Tissue Engineering at Extrahepatic Sites in Mice as a Potential New Therapy for Genetic Liver Diseases Kazuo Ohashi,1,3 Jacob M. Waugh,2 Michael D. Dake,2 Takashi and Mark A. Kay1 Liver tissue engineering using hepatocyte transplantation has been proposed as an alterna

Kay, Mark A.

360

Multiple Adaptive Mechanisms to Chronic Liver Disease Revealed at Early Stages of Liver Carcinogenesis  

E-print Network

Multiple Adaptive Mechanisms to Chronic Liver Disease Revealed at Early Stages of Liver-knockout (Mdr2-KO) mice. These mice lack the liver-specific P-glycoprotein responsible by hepatocellular carcinoma development after the age of 1 year. Liver tissue samples of Mdr2-KO mice in the early

Domany, Eytan

361

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Predictors of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis and Liver Fibrosis in the Severely Obese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is common in severely obese subjects and can progress to cirrhosis and liver failure. Predicting advanced or progressive disease may help in selecting patients for liver biopsy and assist the development of therapeutic options. Methods: Liver biopsies were taken at laparoscopic obesity surgery in 105 consecutive patients. The clinical and biochemical variables

John B. Dixon; Prithi S. Bhathal; Paul E. O'Brien

2001-01-01

362

Liver transplantation for biliary atresia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthotopic liver transplantation was performed 15 months to 20 years ago in 126 recipients, all of whom were under 18 years of age. Eighty-six of these pediatric recipients were treated before 1980 with azathioprine (or eyclophosphamide) and prednisone, to which antilymphocyte globulin (ALG) usually was added. One-year patient survival was 40%. In the last 40 cases, the new drug cyclosporine

Shunzaburo Iwatsuki; Byers W. Shaw; Thomas E. Starzl

1984-01-01

363

Predictive Models of Liver Cancer  

EPA Science Inventory

Predictive models of chemical-induced liver cancer face the challenge of bridging causative molecular mechanisms to adverse clinical outcomes. The latent sequence of intervening events from chemical insult to toxicity are poorly understood because they span multiple levels of bio...

364

Immune monitoring post liver transplant  

PubMed Central

Many of the causes of short and late morbidity following liver transplantation are associated with immunosuppression or immunosuppressive medications. Current care often involves close monitoring of liver biochemistry as well as therapeutic drug levels. However, the postoperative course following liver transplantation can often be associated with significant complications including infection and rejection, suggesting an inadequacy in current immune function monitoring. Many assays have been tested in the research setting to identify possible biomarkers that may be used to predict clinical events such as acute cellular rejection, and therefore allow modification of a patient’s immunosuppressive regimen prior to a clinical event. However, these generally require significant laboratory processing and have had difficulty becoming established in common clinical use outside the research setting. One assay, Cylex ImmuKnow has been food and drug administration approved but has had variable results. In this review we discuss the assays that have been used to assess monitoring of immune function after liver transplantation and consider possible future directions. PMID:24669365

Sood, Siddharth; Testro, Adam G

2014-01-01

365

Multimodal Phantom of Liver Tissue  

PubMed Central

Medical imaging plays an important role in patients' care and is continuously being used in managing health and disease. To obtain the maximum benefit from this rapidly developing technology, further research is needed. Ideally, this research should be done in a patient-safe and environment-friendly manner; for example, on phantoms. The goal of this work was to develop a protocol and manufacture a multimodal liver phantom that is suitable for ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging modalities. The proposed phantom consists of three types of mimicked soft tissues: liver parenchyma, tumors, and portal veins, that are made of six ingredients: candle gel, sephadex®, agarose, glycerol, distilled water, and silicone string. The entire procedure is advantageous, since preparation of the phantom is simple, rather cost-effective, and reasonably quick – it takes around 2 days. Besides, most of the phantom's parts can be reused to manufacture a new phantom. Comparison of ultrasound images of real patient's liver and the developed phantom shows that the phantom's liver tissue and its structures are well simulated. PMID:23691165

Chmarra, Magdalena K.; Hansen, Rune; Mårvik, Ronald; Langø, Thomas

2013-01-01

366

Liver disease in cystic fibrosis.  

PubMed

Liver involvement in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is much less frequent than both pulmonary and pancreatic diseases that are present in 80-90% of CF patients; liver disease (LD) affects only one third of CF patients, however, because of the decreasing mortality from extrahepatic causes, its recognition and management is becoming a relevant clinical issue. Recent observations suggest that clinical expression of LD in CF may be influenced by genetic modifiers; their identification is an important issue because it may allow recognition of patients at risk for the development of LD at the time of diagnosis of CF and early institution of prophylactic strategies. Oral bile acid therapy, aimed at improving biliary secretion in terms of bile viscosity and bile acid composition, is currently the only available therapeutic approach for CF-associated LD. However, the impact of this therapy on the natural history of LD remains to be defined and long-term effectiveness on clinically relevant outcomes should be further investigated. Liver transplantation should be offered to CF patients with progressive liver failure and/or with life-threatening sequelae of portal hypertension, who also have mild pulmonary involvement that is expected to support long-term survival. The 1-year survival rate after transplantation in CF patients is approximately 80%, with beneficial effects on lung function, nutritional status, body composition and quality of life in most cases. PMID:16819402

Colombo, Carla; Russo, Maria Chiara; Zazzeron, Laura; Romano, Giovanna

2006-07-01

367

Complications of chronic liver disease.  

PubMed

Children with chronic liver disease (CLD) need a head to toe approach and an early suspicion of multi organ involvement. Nutritional assessment and management is the cornerstone of management. Consider immune dysfunction in everyday treatment decisions. Consider early heart-lung-brain involvement in transplant evaluation. PMID:22521556

Tsouka, Alexandra; McLin, Valérie A

2012-06-01

368

Urea Biosynthesis Using Liver Slices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a practical scheme to enable introductory biology students to investigate the mechanism by which urea is synthesized in the liver. The tissue-slice technique is discussed, and methods for the quantitative analysis of metabolites are presented. (Author/SL)

Teal, A. R.

1976-01-01

369

Treatment of colorectal liver metastases  

PubMed Central

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the word. Liver metastasis is the most common site of colorectal metastases. The prognosis of resectable colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) was improved in the recent years with the consideration of chemotherapy and surgical resection as part of the multidisciplinary management of the disease; the current 5-year survival rates after resection of liver metastases are 25% to 40%. Resectable synchronous or metachronous liver metastases should be treated with perioperative chemotherapy based on three months of FOLFOX4 (5-fluorouracil [5FU], folinic acid [LV], and oxaliplatin) chemotherapy before surgery and three months after surgery. In the case of primary surgery, pseudo-adjuvant chemotherapy for 6 months, based on 5FU/LV, FOLFOX4, XELOX (capecitabine and oxaliplatin) or FOLFIRI (5FU/LV and irinotecan), should be indicated. In potentially resectable disease, primary chemotherapy based on more intensive regimens such as FOLFIRINOX (5FU/LV, irinotecan and oxaliplatin) should be considered to enhance the chance of cure. The palliative chemotherapy based on FOLFIRI, or FOLFOX4/XELOX with or without targeted therapies, is the mainstay treatment of unresectable disease. This review would provide additional insight into the problem of optimal integration of chemotherapy and surgery in the management of CRLM. PMID:22115124

2011-01-01

370

Fibrogenesis in alcoholic liver disease  

PubMed Central

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In developed countries, ALD is a major cause of end-stage liver disease that requires transplantation. The spectrum of ALD includes simple steatosis, alcoholic hepatitis, ?brosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Alcohol abstinence is the most effective therapy for ALD. However, targeted therapies are urgently needed for patients with severe ALD (i.e., alcoholic hepatitis) or those who do not abstain from alcohol. The lack of studies and the availability of animal models that do not reflect all the features of this disease in humans inhibit the development of new drugs for ALD. In ALD-associated fibrosis, hepatic stellate cells are the principal cell type responsible for extracellular matrix production. Although the mechanisms underlying fibrosis in ALD are largely similar to those observed in other chronic liver diseases, oxidative stress, methionine metabolism abnormalities, hepatocyte apoptosis, and endotoxin lipopolysaccharides that activate Kupffer cells may play unique roles in disease-related fibrogenesis. Lipogenesis during the early stages of ALD has recently been implicated as a risk factor for the progression of cirrhosis. Other topics include osteopontin, interleukin-1 signaling, and genetic polymorphism. In this review, we discuss the basic pathogenesis of ALD and focus on liver fibrogenesis. PMID:25009376

Fujii, Hideki; Kawada, Norifumi

2014-01-01

371

Imaging of diffuse liver disease.  

PubMed

Advances in imaging technology and development of liver-specific contrast agents have significantly increased the role of radiology in the detection and characterization of processes diffusely involving the liver. Tailored magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences allow an accurate detection of many storage and metabolic diseases, such as iron overload disorders and steatosis (fatty liver). Faster scanning techniques available with both computed tomography (CT) and MRI provide, by assessing contrast dynamics, sufficient information for the characterization of diffuse neoplastic and vascular disorders. Characteristic changes in attenuation on CT, signal intensity on MRI, and enhancing features can be used to diagnose specific diffuse diseases such as candidiasis, diffuse/multifocal hepatocellular carcinoma, and schistosomiasis. Although an overlap in imaging findings still exists, familiarity with the imaging features of uncommon disorders such as Wilson's disease, amyloidosis, and sarcoidosis may be diagnostic in the proper clinical setting. This review focuses on the current role of imaging in the detection and characterization of diffuse liver disorders. Recent developments that have amplified the role of noninvasive diagnostic evaluation of these conditions are especially highlighted. PMID:11436572

Mortele, K J; Ros, P R

2001-05-01

372

Liver cancer...99 Chapter 09  

E-print Network

or females or in Northern Ireland or Republic of Ireland. o At the end of 2004 there were 214 people living of liver cancer were similar in Northern Ireland and Republic of Ireland for both sexes during 2000-2004. o) but not in Northern Ireland. o There was no significant difference in five-year (age-standardised) relative survival

Paxton, Anthony T.

373

Multimodal phantom of liver tissue.  

PubMed

Medical imaging plays an important role in patients' care and is continuously being used in managing health and disease. To obtain the maximum benefit from this rapidly developing technology, further research is needed. Ideally, this research should be done in a patient-safe and environment-friendly manner; for example, on phantoms. The goal of this work was to develop a protocol and manufacture a multimodal liver phantom that is suitable for ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging modalities. The proposed phantom consists of three types of mimicked soft tissues: liver parenchyma, tumors, and portal veins, that are made of six ingredients: candle gel, sephadex®, agarose, glycerol, distilled water, and silicone string. The entire procedure is advantageous, since preparation of the phantom is simple, rather cost-effective, and reasonably quick - it takes around 2 days. Besides, most of the phantom's parts can be reused to manufacture a new phantom. Comparison of ultrasound images of real patient's liver and the developed phantom shows that the phantom's liver tissue and its structures are well simulated. PMID:23691165

Chmarra, Magdalena K; Hansen, Rune; Mårvik, Ronald; Langø, Thomas

2013-01-01

374

Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer death, particularly in Asia where the major eti- ology, chronic hepatitis B virus infection, is endemic. The tumor frequently develops in a background of cir- rhosis, and liver transplantation offers a chance to cure both the tumor and the underlying cirrhosis. The Milan criteria based on tumor size and number as

VANESSA DE VILLA; S.-T. Fan

2004-01-01

375

The management of liver trauma.  

PubMed Central

Despite advances in the management of liver trauma during the past 40 years, haemorrhage has remained the commonest cause of death. This article outlines the diversity of opinion between the desire to determine the extent of damage and resect devitalised tissue with its attendant risk of exacerbating haemorrhage, and the alternative of a more conservative approach. PMID:3895205

Macfarlane, R.

1985-01-01

376

Chronic hepatitis C and liver fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality worldwide and predisposes to liver fibrosis and end-stage liver complications. Liver fibrosis is the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins, including collagen, and is considered as a wound healing response to chronic liver injury. Its staging is critical for the management and prognosis of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients, whose number is expected to rise over the next decades, posing a major health care challenge. This review provides a brief update on HCV epidemiology, summarizes basic mechanistic concepts of HCV-dependent liver fibrogenesis, and discusses methods for assessment of liver fibrosis that are routinely used in clinical practice. Liver biopsy was until recently considered as the gold standard to diagnose and stage liver fibrosis. However, its invasiveness and drawbacks led to the development of non-invasive methods, which include serum biomarkers, transient elastography and combination algorithms. Clinical studies with CHC patients demonstrated that non-invasive methods are in most cases accurate for diagnosis and for monitoring liver disease complications. Moreover, they have a high prognostic value and are cost-effective. Non-invasive methods for assessment of liver fibrosis are gradually being incorporated into new guidelines and are becoming standard of care, which significantly reduces the need for liver biopsy. PMID:25170193

Sebastiani, Giada; Gkouvatsos, Konstantinos; Pantopoulos, Kostas

2014-01-01

377

Preoperative evaluation of patients with liver disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with end-stage liver disease often undergo surgery for indications other than liver transplantation. These patients have an increased risk of morbidity and mortality that is related to their underlying liver disease. Assessments of surgical risk provide a basis for discussion of risks and benefits, treatment decision making, and for optimal management of patients for whom surgery is planned. The

A James Hanje; Tushar Patel

2007-01-01

378

Liver Catalase Activity in Rat Leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Liver catalase activity in rats bearing a transplanted lymphocytic leukemia showed progressive changes that were similar to those reported for solid neoplasms in a rodent. There was an initial drop in the recipient's liver catalase activity upon inoculation with blood from a leukemic donor. This was followed by a return to normal liver catalase activity levels and then by

ARTHUR A. SPECTOR; LEONARD BERWICK; PETER C. NOWELL

379

Liver regeneration: from myth to mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unusual regenerative properties of the liver are a logical adaptation by organisms, as the liver is the main detoxifying organ of the body and is likely to be injured by ingested toxins. The numerous cytokine- and growth-factor-mediated pathways that are involved in regulating liver regeneration are being successfully dissected using molecular and genetic approaches. So what is known about

Rebecca Taub

2004-01-01

380

Mucinous Cystadenomas in Liver: Management and Origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Mucinous cystadenomas of the liver are rare cystic neoplasms. The aim of this study was to assess management of a consecutive series of patients who underwent laparotomy for a suspected cystadenoma or cystadenocarcinoma. Secondly, the origin of ovarian stroma (OS) in mucinous liver cystadenomas was examined during early embryonic development. Patients and Methods: Patients diagnosed with mucinous liver cystadenomas

D. Erdogan; J. Kloek; W. H. Lamers; G. J. A. Offerhaus; O. R. C. Busch; D. J. Gouma; T. M. van Gulik

2010-01-01

381

Stages of Adult Primary Liver Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Stages of Adult Primary Liver Cancer Key Points for This Section After adult primary liver cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out ... BCLC stages C and D After adult primary liver cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to ...

382

Percutaneous needle treatment of liver tumors  

E-print Network

· Percutaneous needle treatment of liver tumors · Target multiple tumors through a single incisionmm x 90mm x 260mm · Autoclavable I. Free Space III. Bovine Liver · Precurved concentric nitinol tubes.80 Bovine Liver (mm) 3.32 ± 2.66 II. Ethanol Solution Future Work · Human trials with manual unit · Fully

Webster III, Robert James

383

Liver in Leprosy: Histological and Biochemical Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The histological findings and their correlation with biochemical functions of the liver in 240 leprosy patients are presented. In 21% with tuberculoid leprosy and in 62% with lepromatous leprosy leprous granulomata were found in the liver. A significant prevalence of granulomatous lesions in the liver among patients with tuberculoid and borderline-tuberculoid leprosy of less than one year's duration suggests that

A. B. A. Karat; C. K. Job; P. S. S. Rao

1971-01-01

384

Hot Topics in Liver Intensive Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver dysfunction is an independent predictor of mortality among intensive care patients. Avoidance or early restoration of normal liver function should therefore be targeted in all critically ill patients. The present work seeks to provide an overview of the “hottest topics” among liver-related problems in intensive care. The management of increased intracranial pressure in severe hepatic encephalopathy is still not

A. Bacher; M. Zimpfer

2008-01-01

385

HCV-associated liver cancer without cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is regarded as a risk factor for hepatocellular cancer, mostly in patients with liver cirrhosis. We looked for HCV genomes in the livers of patients with hepatocellular cancer who did not have cirrhosis to see whether HCV was directly oncogenic. Cancerous and non-cancerous liver tissue, and serum samples from 19 patients negative for

M. S. De Mitri; E. Pisi; K. Poussin; P. Paterlini; C. Bréchot; P. Baccarini; A. D'Errico; W. Grigiani; A. Alberti; P. Pontisso; N. Simon; M. Beaugrand

1995-01-01

386

Kava: herbal panacea or liver poison?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following reports of liver toxicity, including liver failure, associated with extracts from the Pacific islands plant kava (Piper methysticum), these have been banned from sale as a herbal anxiolytic in many Western countries, to the detriment of Pacific island economies. ? Pacific Islanders have used kava extensively for centuries, without recognised liver toxicity. However, the population is small, and there

Robert F W Moulds; Joji Malani

387

Chronic hepatitis C and liver fibrosis.  

PubMed

Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality worldwide and predisposes to liver fibrosis and end-stage liver complications. Liver fibrosis is the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins, including collagen, and is considered as a wound healing response to chronic liver injury. Its staging is critical for the management and prognosis of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients, whose number is expected to rise over the next decades, posing a major health care challenge. This review provides a brief update on HCV epidemiology, summarizes basic mechanistic concepts of HCV-dependent liver fibrogenesis, and discusses methods for assessment of liver fibrosis that are routinely used in clinical practice. Liver biopsy was until recently considered as the gold standard to diagnose and stage liver fibrosis. However, its invasiveness and drawbacks led to the development of non-invasive methods, which include serum biomarkers, transient elastography and combination algorithms. Clinical studies with CHC patients demonstrated that non-invasive methods are in most cases accurate for diagnosis and for monitoring liver disease complications. Moreover, they have a high prognostic value and are cost-effective. Non-invasive methods for assessment of liver fibrosis are gradually being incorporated into new guidelines and are becoming standard of care, which significantly reduces the need for liver biopsy. PMID:25170193

Sebastiani, Giada; Gkouvatsos, Konstantinos; Pantopoulos, Kostas

2014-08-28

388

Transcriptional Ontogeny of the Developing Liver  

EPA Science Inventory

During embryogenesis the liver is derived from endodermal cells lining the digestive tract. These endodermal progenitor cells contribute to forming the parenchyma of a number of organs including the liver and pancreas. Early in organogenesis the fetal liver is populated by hemato...

389

61 FR 46658 - Public Forum on Liver Allocation and Patient Listing Criteria for Liver, Kidney, and Kidney...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Public Forum on Liver Allocation and Patient Listing Criteria for Liver, Kidney, and Kidney/Pancreas Transplantation...to the current UNOS policy on allocation of livers and patient listing criteria for liver,...

1996-09-04

390

Therapy for alcoholic liver disease  

PubMed Central

Alcoholism results in about 2.5 million deaths annually worldwide, representing 4% of all mortality. Although alcoholism is associated with more than 60 diseases, most mortality from alcoholism results from alcoholic liver disease (ALD). ALD includes alcoholic steatosis, alcoholic hepatitis, and alcoholic cirrhosis, in order of increasing severity. Important scoring systems of ALD severity include: Child-Pugh, a semi-quantitative scoring system useful to roughly characterize clinical severity; model for end-stage liver disease, a quantitative, objective scoring system used for prognostication and prioritization for liver transplantation; and discriminant function, used to determine whether to administer corticosteroids for alcoholic hepatitis. Abstinence is the cornerstone of ALD therapy. Psychotherapies, including twelve-step facilitation therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and motivational enhancement therapy, help support abstinence. Disulfiram decreases alcohol consumption by causing unpleasant sensations after drinking alcohol from accumulation of acetaldehyde in serum, but disulfiram can be hepatotoxic. Adjunctive pharmacotherapies to reduce alcohol consumption include naltrexone, acamprosate, and baclofen. Nutritional therapy helps reverse muscle wasting, weight loss, vitamin deficiencies, and trace element deficiencies associated with ALD. Although reduced protein intake was previously recommended for advanced ALD to prevent hepatic encephalopathy, a diet containing 1.2-1.5 g of protein/kg per day is currently recommended to prevent muscle wasting. Corticosteroids are first-line therapy for severe alcoholic hepatitis (discriminant function ? 32), but proof of their efficacy in decreasing mortality remains elusive. Pentoxifylline is an alternative therapy. Complications of advanced ALD include ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, esophageal variceal bleeding, hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome, hepatopulmonary syndrome, and portopulmonary hypertension. Alcoholic cirrhotics have increased risk of developing hepatomas. Liver transplantation is the ultimate therapy for severe ALD, but generally requires 6 mo of proven abstinence for eligibility. Alcoholic cirrhotics who maintain abstinence generally have a relatively favorable prognosis after liver transplantation. PMID:24605013

Jaurigue, Maryconi M; Cappell, Mitchell S

2014-01-01

391

Infectious complications in patients with liver cirrhosis.  

PubMed

Liver cirrhosis is the end stage of any chronic liver disease. Complications occurring in patients with liver cirrhosis may be specific to this pathology and to gastroenterology (upper gastrointestinal bleeding, hepatic encephalopathy) or may interfere with other specialties (hepatorenal syndrome, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and other localized infectious complications). Over the past few decades, major efforts have been made to increase survival in patients with cirrhosis, but unfortunately, few therapeutic methods have been proven effective. Bacterial infections are frequent and serious complications of liver cirrhosis, resulting in high morbidity and mortality, especially in hospitalized patients, despite significant progress in health care for those with advanced liver disease. PMID:25341269

Preda, Sînziana; Trifan, Anca; Gîrleanu, Irina; Stanciu, C; Cojocariu, Camelia

2014-01-01

392

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Psoriasis  

PubMed Central

Psoriasis is a systemic inflammatory disease associated with a variety of comorbidities. It has been shown that psoriasis patients have an increased incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease over controls. Patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and psoriasis have more severe skin disease and are at higher risk of severe liver fibrosis than patients without psoriasis. The authors will review the diagnosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and also discuss lifestyle changes and treatments for psoriasis that may benefit or worsen nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:25852814

Prussick, Lisa; Nussbaum, Dillon

2015-01-01

393

Multiple necrotic nodules of the liver simulating liver metastasis.  

PubMed

A 70-year-old man was referred to our hospital due to anemia and elevated serum tumor marker levels. He had advanced colon cancer, and hepatic lesions were found incidentally. On ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT), the hepatic lesions had a maximum diameter of 20 mm and were located in Couinaud's segments V, VI, VII, and VIII, which suggested liver metastasis. On early- and late-phase CT during hepatic arteriography (CTHA), all of the lesions had rim enhancement. On early-phase CT during arterioportography (CTAP), all of the lesions were seen as nodules with an irregular perfusion defect, and on late-phase CTAP, all the lesions gradually became iso-dense, and their shape and size changed. Based on the CTAP findings, these lesions were thought to be fibrotic tumors. Partial resection of the liver (including the lesions in Couinaud's segments V and VIII) was done. Histological examination revealed that the lesions were necrotic nodules. Thus, CT angiography (CTHA and CTAP) was useful for identifying necrotic nodules, because their appearance on this modality is different from that of liver metastases. PMID:17653643

Asai, Koji; Sumiyama, Yoshinobu; Watanabe, Manabu; Tanaka, Hidenori; Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Osawa, Akihiro; Kanai, Ryota; Matsukiyo, Hiroshi; Saida, Yoshihisa; Kusachi, Shinya; Nagao, Jiro; Oharazeki, Toshiaki

2007-01-01

394

Genetics of alcoholic liver disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.  

PubMed

Although the vast majority of heavy drinkers and individuals with obesity, insulin resistance, and the metabolic syndrome have steatosis, only a minority ever develop steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Genetic and environmental risk factors for advanced alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) seem likely to include factors that influence the severity of steatosis and oxidative stress, the cytokine milieu, the magnitude of the immune response, and/or the severity of liver fibrosis. For ALD, the dose and pattern of alcohol intake, coffee intake, and dietary and other lifestyle factors leading to obesity are the most important environmental determinants of disease risk. For NAFLD, dietary saturated fat and antioxidant intake, small bowel bacterial overgrowth, and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome may play a role. Family studies and interethnic variations in susceptibility suggest that genetic factors are important in determining disease risk. For ALD, functional polymorphisms in the ADH and ALDH alcohol metabolizing genes play a role in determining susceptibility in Oriental populations. No genetic associations with advanced NAFLD have been replicated in large studies. Preliminary data suggest that polymorphisms in the genes encoding microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, superoxide dismutase 2, the CD14 endotoxin receptor, tumor necrosis factor alpha, transforming growth factor beta, and angiotensinogen may be associated with steatohepatitis or hepatic fibrosis or both. PMID:17295176

Wilfred de Alwis, Nimantha Mark; Day, Christopher Paul

2007-02-01

395

Ultrasound in rare diffuse liver disease.  

PubMed

Ultrasound is often the first imaging procedure performed in the evaluation of individuals with suspected or known liver disease. Despite technical advances in ultrasound techniques, sonographic detection and evaluation of diffuse liver disease still remains difficult. This is due to the fact that diffuse liver disease does not always cause distortion of the liver parenchymal texture, internal liver architecture, or shape of the liver. On the other hand, the size of the liver, the echo pattern of the hepatic parenchyma, the analysis of intrahepatic vessels and alterations in perihepatic structures and lymph nodes can be helpful sonographic parameters of diffuse liver disease. Until now, the sonographic appearance of some rare diffuse liver diseases is not well known. However, there are some typical sonomorphological signs that, once identified, can facilitate the differentiation between various diseases. The aim of this paper is to highlight some typical ultrasound findings of liver parenchyma and perihepatic lymph node structures in rare diffuse liver diseases based on a review of published data. PMID:25390211

Barreiros, A P; Chiorean, L; Braden, B; Dietrich, C F

2014-11-01

396

Liver regeneration on chicken chorioallantoic membrane.  

PubMed

To explore how the liver regenerates, liver pieces from 15-day-old chicken embryos were grafted onto the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of 9-day-old chicken embryos and cultured for 11 days at the longest. The cultured liver pieces were examined histologically. The liver implants were gradually engulfed into the CAM and underwent necrosis of hepatocytes, except in their peripheral areas, during the first 1-4 days after grafting. Surviving cells in the peripheral areas began to proliferate 4 days after grafting. Thereafter, the cells were assembled into normal liver tissues and represented almost all the areas of the implants 9 days after grafting. Only after penetration of blood vessels from CAM did the liver implants enter a phase of rapid regeneration to form well-organized liver tissues. At the early stage of regeneration, the cells at the peripheral areas did not produce albumin, but reproduced it in the regenerated liver tissues, implying that hepatocytes restored their functions that were temporarily lost in the process of regeneration. Thus, we concluded that the liver pieces from 15-day-old chicken embryos had the ability to form normal liver tissues on CAM and that the blood supply played an important role in liver regeneration. PMID:11399852

Katoh, M; Nakada, K; Miyazaki, J I

2001-01-01

397

Chemotherapy induced liver abnormalities: an imaging perspective  

PubMed Central

Treating patients undergoing chemotherapy who display findings of liver toxicity, requires a solid understanding of these medications. It is important for any clinician to have an index of suspicion for liver toxicity and be able to recognize it, even on imaging. Cancer chemotherapy has evolved, and newer medications that target cell biology have a different pattern of liver toxicity and may differ from the more traditional cytotoxic agents. There are several hepatic conditions that can result and keen clinical as well as radiographic recognition are paramount. Conditions such as sinusoidal obstructive syndrome, steatosis, and pseudocirrhosis are more commonly associated with chemotherapy. These conditions can display clinical signs of acute hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and even liver failure. It is important to anticipate and recognize these adverse reactions and thus appropriate clinical action can be taken. Often times, patients with these liver manifestations can be managed with supportive therapies, and liver toxicity may resolve after discontinuation of chemotherapy. PMID:25320738

Houshyar, Roozbeh; Bhosale, Priya; Choi, Joon-Il; Gulati, Rajesh; Lall, Chandana

2014-01-01

398

Liver involvement in subjects with rheumatic disease  

PubMed Central

The liver is often overlooked as a target organ, with pathology either secondary to an underlying disease or due to the toxicity of therapies and the medical complications of extrahepatic diseases. It is thus important for the clinical rheumatologist to be aware of the diagnostic procedure to monitor liver injury. Indeed, systemic rheumatologic diseases may be associated with liver abnormalities secondary to the presence of a coexisting autoimmune liver disease (particularly primary biliary cirrhosis or autoimmune hepatitis), the direct involvement of the liver parenchyma, or the impact of medical treatments (particularly methotrexate) on the liver. In addition, the rheumatologist should be aware of the impact of immunosuppressive agents on underlying viral infections, particularly viral hepatitis. We review herein the data on the role of the liver in the clinical management of systemic rheumatic diseases. PMID:21722332

2011-01-01

399

Relationship between liver lipid and liver dry matter in slaughtered ruminants  

PubMed Central

Lipids in liver wet and dry matter, liver moist and dry matter and their relationships were investigated based on species, sex and age in cows, buffaloes, sheep and goats. Mean percentage of lipids in liver wet and dry matter and liver dry matter in cows were 3.60%, 1.10%, 29.70%, and for buffaloes were 5.30%, 1.55%, 29.20%, sheep 3.00%, 0.83%, 27.90%, and goats 2.910%, 1.55% and 28.40%, respectively. The highest and lowest percentage of lipids in liver wet and dry matter was observed in buffaloes and sheep, and for the liver dry matter was recorded in cows and sheep, respectively. Analyses showed significant differences in liver parameters among ruminants (p < 0.01). Gender, except for goats, did not affect the animals' liver parameters. In overall 15.00% of buffaloes and 3.50% of cows showed over 10.00% lipids in liver, while none of small ruminants appeared to have over 6.00% lipids in liver. There was no correlation between liver lipid and liver dry matter. In conclusion mean percentage of lipid in liver dry matter in small ruminants was less than large ruminants. Liver dry matter was high in cows and low in sheep. Mean differences in liver parameters was significant, while the age and sex of the animals were not. Liver lipidosis in buffaloes seems greater than in cows, and in small ruminants it was negligible. No correlation was expected between liver parameters. Finally, on the basis of liver dry matter, the liver in ruminants ranked from cows to buffaloes, goats and sheep. PMID:25653771

Tajik, Hossein; Ramin, Aligholi; Nozad, Shahram; Jelodari, Babak; Ashtab, Ghazaleh; Eftekhari, Zohreh; Ramin, Sina

2012-01-01

400

In silico analysis of the fucosylation-associated genome of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni: cloning and characterization of the enzymes involved in GDP-L-fucose synthesis and Golgi import  

PubMed Central

Background Carbohydrate structures of surface-expressed and secreted/excreted glycoconjugates of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni are key determinants that mediate host-parasite interactions in both snail and mammalian hosts. Fucose is a major constituent of these immunologically important glycans, and recent studies have sought to characterize fucosylation-associated enzymes, including the Golgi-localized fucosyltransferases that catalyze the transfer of L-fucose from a GDP-L-fucose donor to an oligosaccharide acceptor. Importantly, GDP-L-fucose is the only nucleotide-sugar donor used by fucosyltransferases and its availability represents a bottleneck in fucosyl-glycotope expression. Methods A homology-based genome-wide bioinformatics approach was used to identify and molecularly characterize the enzymes that contribute to GDP-L-fucose synthesis and Golgi import in S. mansoni. Putative functions were further investigated through molecular phylogenetic and immunocytochemical analyses. Results We identified homologs of GDP-D-mannose-4,6-dehydratase (GMD) and GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-mannose-3,5-epimerase-4-reductase (GMER), which constitute a de novo pathway for GDP-L-fucose synthesis, in addition to a GDP-L-fucose transporter (GFT) that putatively imports cytosolic GDP-L-fucose into the Golgi. In silico primary sequence analyses identified characteristic Rossman loop and short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase motifs in GMD and GMER as well as 10 transmembrane domains in GFT. All genes are alternatively spliced, generating variants of unknown function. Observed quantitative differences in steady-state transcript levels between miracidia and primary sporocysts may contribute to differential glycotope expression in early larval development. Additionally, analyses of protein expression suggest the occurrence of cytosolic GMD and GMER in the ciliated epidermal plates and tegument of miracidia and primary sporocysts, respectively, which is consistent with previous localization of highly fucosylated glycotopes. Conclusions This study is the first to identify and characterize three key genes that are putatively involved in the synthesis and Golgi import of GDP-L-fucose in S. mansoni and provides fundamental information regarding their genomic organization, genetic variation, molecular phylogenetics, and developmental expression in intramolluscan larval stages. PMID:23835114

2013-01-01

401

Liver natural killer and natural killer T cells: immunobiology and emerging roles in liver diseases  

PubMed Central

Hepatic lymphocytes are enriched in NK and NKT cells that play important roles in antiviral and antitumor defenses and in the pathogenesis of chronic liver disease. In this review, we discuss the differential distribution of NK and NKT cells in mouse, rat, and human livers, the ultrastructural similarities and differences between liver NK and NKT cells, and the regulation of liver NK and NKT cells in a variety of murine liver injury models. We also summarize recent findings about the role of NK and NKT cells in liver injury, fibrosis, and repair. In general, NK and NKT cells accelerate liver injury by producing proinflammatory cytokines and killing hepatocytes. NK cells inhibit liver fibrosis via killing early-activated and senescent-activated stellate cells and producing IFN-?. In regulating liver fibrosis, NKT cells appear to be less important than NK cells as a result of hepatic NKT cell tolerance. NK cells inhibit liver regeneration by producing IFN-? and killing hepatocytes; however, the role of NK cells on the proliferation of liver progenitor cells and the role of NKT cells in liver regeneration have been controversial. The emerging roles of NK/NKT cells in chronic human liver disease will also be discussed. Understanding the role of NK and NKT cells in the pathogenesis of chronic liver disease may help us design better therapies to treat patients with this disease. PMID:19542050

Gao, Bin; Radaeva, Svetlana; Park, Ogyi

2009-01-01

402

Thorotrast-associated liver cancer.  

PubMed

Thorotrast-related liver cancer is rare. A case of such cancer is presented. Thorotrast had been used intravenously in 1947, 38 years preceding the detection of cancer. A brief history of the use of colloidal solution of thorium dioxide (thorotrast) as a contrast material is discussed, along with a review of literature. Potential hazards of thorotrast in its carriers and a close follow-up are emphasized. PMID:2994469

Khan, A A

1985-09-01

403

Alcoholic disease: Liver and beyond  

PubMed Central

The harmful use of alcohol is a worldwide problem. It has been estimated that alcohol abuse represents the world’s third largest risk factor for disease and disability; it is a causal factor of 60 types of diseases and injuries and a concurrent cause of at least 200 others. Liver is the main organ responsible for metabolizing ethanol, thus it has been considered for long time the major victim of the harmful use of alcohol. Ethanol and its bioactive products, acetaldehyde-acetate, fatty acid ethanol esters, ethanol-protein adducts, have been regarded as hepatotoxins that directly and indirectly exert their toxic effect on the liver. A similar mechanism has been postulated for the alcohol-related pancreatic damage. Alcohol and its metabolites directly injure acinar cells and elicit stellate cells to produce and deposit extracellular matrix thus triggering the “necrosis-fibrosis” sequence that finally leads to atrophy and fibrosis, morphological hallmarks of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Even if less attention has been paid to the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, ethanol produces harmful effects by inducing: (1) direct damaging of the mucosa of the esophagus and stomach; (2) modification of the sphincterial pressure and impairment of motility; and (3) alteration of gastric acid output. In the intestine, ethanol can damage the intestinal mucosa directly or indirectly by altering the resident microflora and impairing the mucosal immune system. Notably, disruption of the intestinal mucosal barrier of the small and large intestine contribute to liver damage. This review summarizes the most clinically relevant alcohol-related diseases of the digestive tract focusing on the pathogenic mechanisms by which ethanol damages liver, pancreas and gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25356028

Rocco, Alba; Compare, Debora; Angrisani, Debora; Sanduzzi Zamparelli, Marco; Nardone, Gerardo

2014-01-01

404

Resection of colorectal liver metastases  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1960 to 1992 a total of 1718 patients with liver metastases from colorectal carcinoma were recorded. Of these patients, 469 (27.3%) underwent hepatic resection, which was performed with curative intent in 434 patients (25.3%). Operative mortality in this group was 4.4%, being 1.8% (2 of 114) during the last 3 years. Significant morbidity was observed in 16% of patients

Johannes Scheele; Richard Stang; Annelore Altendorf-Hofmann; Martin Paul

1995-01-01

405

Mononuclear cells in liver fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fibrosis is a multicellular wound healing process, where myofibroblasts that express extracellular matrix components extensively\\u000a cross-talk with other cells resident in the liver or recruited from the bloodstream. Macrophages and infiltrating monocytes\\u000a participate in the development of fibrosis via several mechanisms, including secretion of cytokines and generation of oxidative\\u000a stress-related products. However, macrophages are also pivotal in the process of

Fabio Marra; Sara Aleffi; Sara Galastri; Angela Provenzano

2009-01-01

406

Evaluation of nonmalignant liver masses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonmalignant liver masses are increasingly being recognized with the widespread use of imaging modalities such as ultrasonography,\\u000a computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. The majority of these lesions are detected incidentally in asymptomatic\\u000a patients. Based on the radiologic appearance, benign lesions can be categorized as solid or cystic, single or multiple, hypervascular\\u000a or hypovascular. Based on histologic characteristics, they are

Wojciech Blonski; K. Rajender Reddy

2006-01-01

407

Liver ablation techniques: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Ablation techniques for unresectable liver carcinomas have evolved immensely since their introduction. Results of studies\\u000a involving these techniques are restricted to reports of patient case series, which are often not presented in a standardised\\u000a manner. This review aims to summarise the major studies in ablation technologies and present them in a way that may make comparison\\u000a between the major modalities

N. Bhardwaj; A. D. Strickland; F. Ahmad; A. R. Dennison; D. M. Lloyd

2010-01-01

408

Liver biopsy in cirrhotic patients.  

PubMed

Liver biopsy remains an important tool for the evaluation of patients with hepatic disease. However, clinicians utilize a variety of biopsy techniques including automated cutting needle devices, manual cutting needles, and aspiration needles. Using a large study cohort of patients with advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis we sought to evaluate practices and outcomes of the biopsy technique used by study investigators across the United States. All biopsy samples were from patients with suspected advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis because of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Individual study investigators were permitted to use any biopsy technique. Biopsy specimens were centrally evaluated for tissue adequacy and fragmentation, and were histologically scored using accepted criteria. We evaluated a total of 923 liver biopsy specimens from 502 patients performed at 62 clinical sites. The average duration of HCV infection was 27.9 +/- 0.46 yr. Automated cutting needles were significantly more likely to provide adequate specimens for evaluation than aspiration needles (P < 0.005). Automated cutting needles produced significantly longer biopsies than other techniques (P < 0.05), except for a limited number of cases in which a surgical wedge biopsy was obtained. Tissue fragmentation was observed in 39.2% of liver biopsies obtained using an aspiration technique, but in only 4.7% of samples collected using an automated cutting needle (P < 0.001). We conclude that automated cutting needles provide superior liver biopsy specimens compared with aspiration techniques in subjects with advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis. No specific safety issues attributable to a particular biopsy method were identified. PMID:17324127

Sherman, Kenneth E; Goodman, Zachary D; Sullivan, Sara T; Faris-Young, Sima

2007-04-01

409

Toxicogenomic Biomarkers for Liver Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Toxicogenomics (TGx) is a widely used technique in the preclinical stage of drug development to investigate the molecular mechanisms of toxicity. A number of candidate TGx biomarkers have now been identified and are utilized for both assessing and predicting toxicities. Further accumulation of novel TGx biomarkers will lead to more efficient, appropriate and cost effective drug risk assessment, reinforcing the paradigm of the conventional toxicology system with a more profound understanding of the molecular mechanisms of drug-induced toxicity. In this paper, we overview some practical strategies as well as obstacles for identifying and utilizing TGx biomarkers based on microarray analysis. Since clinical hepatotoxicity is one of the major causes of drug development attrition, the liver has been the best documented target organ for TGx studies to date, and we therefore focused on information from liver TGx studies. In this review, we summarize the current resources in the literature in regard to TGx studies of the liver, from which toxicologists could extract potential TGx biomarker gene sets for better hepatotoxicity risk assessment. PMID:22271975

Kiyosawa, Naoki; Ando, Yosuke; Manabe, Sunao; Yamoto, Takashi

2009-01-01

410

Fungus Infections After Liver Transplantation  

PubMed Central

The problem of fungus infections after liver transplantation was studied. In 100 consecutive recipients of orthotopic liver homografts there were 10 and 8 examples, respectively, of localized and disseminated infections caused by Candida species. Candidemia was demonstrated in 8 of these 18 patients. One patient who had a localized Candida infection also had disseminated cryptococcosis. An additional 31 patients were infested in that Candida could be cultured from sites where it is not normally found, such as the blood (8 examples), urine (8), ascitic fluid (8), and wounds (22). This exorbitant incidence of monilial infections and infestations was associated with a high frequency of complications involving the homograft as well as the hosts' gastrointestinal tract during the post-transplantation period. The yeasts found in blood, urine, ascitic fluid and elsewhere were thought to have originated from the gut. Ten of the 100 patients had aspergillosis which was localized in 7 instances and disseminated in 3. The lung was the most frequently affected organ. The fungus infections played a contributory role in the downhill course of our patients but in the event of death more fundamental and more frequent causes of failure were technical complications involving the homografts, difficulties in controlling rejection with reasonable immunosuppressive doses and bacterial sepsis. Suggestions have been made for the better control of fungal infections in liver recipients. ImagesFigs. 1a to e. PMID:327951

Schröter, Gerhard P. J.; Hoelscher, Manfred; Putnam, Charles W.; Porter, Kendrick A.; Starzl, Thomas E.

1977-01-01

411

Gastrointestinal dysfunction in liver cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Patients with liver cirrhosis exhibit several features of gut dysfunction which may contribute to the development of cirrhosis complications as well as have an impact on nutritional status and health-related quality of life. Gastrointestinal symptoms are common in cirrhosis and their pathophysiology probably involves factors related to liver disease severity, psychological distress, and gut dysfunction (e.g., increased gastric sensitivity to distension and delayed gut transit). They may lead to reduced food intake and, thus, may contribute to the nutritional status deterioration in cirrhotic patients. Although tense ascites appears to have a negative impact on meal-induced accommodation of the stomach, published data on gastric accommodation in cirrhotics without significant ascites are not unanimous. Gastric emptying and small bowel transit have generally been shown to be prolonged. This may be related to disturbances in postprandial glucose, insulin, and ghrelin levels, which, in turn, appear to be associated to insulin resistance, a common finding in cirrhosis. Furthermore, small bowel manometry disturbances and delayed gut transit may be associated with the development of small bowel bacterial overgrowth. Finally, several studies have reported intestinal barrier dysfunction in patients with cirrhosis (especially those with portal hypertension), which is related to bacterial translocation and permeation of intestinal bacterial products, e.g., endotoxin and bacterial DNA, thus potentially being involved in the pathogenesis of complications of liver cirrhosis. PMID:25356031

Kalaitzakis, Evangelos

2014-01-01

412

[Non-invasive assessment of fatty liver].  

PubMed

As the result of various harmful effects (infectious agents, metabolic diseases, unhealthy diet, obesity, toxic agents, autoimmune processes) hepatic damage may develop, which can progress towards liver steatosis, and fibrosis as well. The most common etiological factors of liver damages are hepatitis B and C infection, alcohol consumption and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Liver biopsy is considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of chronic liver diseases. Due to the dangers and complications of liver biopsy, studies are focused on non-invasive markers and radiological imaging for liver steatosis, progression of fatty liver, activity of the necroinflammation and the severity of the fibrosis. Authors review the possibilities of non-invasive assessment of liver steatosis. The statistical features of the probes (positive, negative predictive values, sensitivity, specificity) are reviewed. The role of radiological imaging is also discussed. Although the non-invasive methods discussed in this article are useful to assess liver steatosis, further studies are needed to validate to follow progression of the diseases and to control therapeutic response. Orv. Hetil., 2015, 156(14), 543-551. PMID:25819147

Egresi, Anna; Lengyel, Gabriella; Hagymási, Krisztina

2015-04-01

413

In vitro models for liver toxicity testing  

PubMed Central

Over the years, various liver-derived in vitro model systems have been developed to enable investigation of the potential adverse effects of chemicals and drugs. Liver tissue slices, isolated microsomes, perfused liver, immortalized cell lines, and primary hepatocytes have been used extensively. Immortalized cell lines and primary isolated liver cells are currently most widely used in vitro models for liver toxicity testing. Limited throughput, loss of viability, and decreases in liver-specific functionality and gene expression are common shortcomings of these models. Recent developments in the field of in vitro hepatotoxicity include three-dimensional tissue constructs and bioartificial livers, co-cultures of various cell types with hepatocytes, and differentiation of stem cells into hepatic lineage-like cells. In an attempt to provide a more physiological environment for cultured liver cells, some of the novel cell culture systems incorporate fluid flow, micro-circulation, and other forms of organotypic microenvironments. Co-cultures aim to preserve liver-specific morphology and functionality beyond those provided by cultures of pure parenchymal cells. Stem cells, both embryonic- and adult tissue-derived, may provide a limitless supply of hepatocytes from multiple individuals to improve reproducibility and enable testing of the individual-specific toxicity. This review describes various traditional and novel in vitro liver models and provides a perspective on the challenges and opportunities afforded by each individual test system. PMID:23495363

Soldatow, Valerie Y.; LeCluyse, Edward L.; Griffith, Linda G.; Rusyn, Ivan

2013-01-01

414

Liver disease in kidney transplant recipients.  

PubMed

Kidney transplant recipients can develop acute and chronic liver disease from a variety of conditions. Chronic viral hepatitis from hepatitis C is seen in increased frequency in hemodialysis patients. Genetic conditions, such as polycystic kidney disease, which lead to the need for kidney transplantation are also associated with liver diseases including congenital hepatic fibrosis and polycystic liver disease. Other conditions that can induce liver disease in this immune-suppressed population include a multitude of viral infections, as well as other systemic infections that can involve the liver. Drug induced liver injury is also seen in increased rates due to the use of poly-pharmacy, the effect of immune-suppression on drug metabolizing pathways in the liver and the potential of drug to drug interactions. Post transplant metabolic syndrome is also increased in kidney transplant recipients and this can lead to development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. A knowledge of the presentation of these liver diseases is essential in diagnosing the cause of liver disease as well as informing the diagnostic workup. Specific therapies for the various conditions will also be discussed in this review. PMID:25306468

Gunderson, Alan; Said, Adnan

2015-01-01

415

Liver cancer mortality rate model in Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liver Cancer has been a leading cause of death in Thailand. The purpose of this study was to model and forecast liver cancer mortality rate in Thailand using death certificate reports. A retrospective analysis of the liver cancer mortality rate was conducted. Numbering of 123,280 liver cancer causes of death cases were obtained from the national vital registration database for the 10-year period from 2000 to 2009, provided by the Ministry of Interior and coded as cause-of-death using ICD-10 by the Ministry of Public Health. Multivariate regression model was used for modeling and forecasting age-specific liver cancer mortality rates in Thailand. Liver cancer mortality increased with increasing age for each sex and was also higher in the North East provinces. The trends of liver cancer mortality remained stable in most age groups with increases during ten-year period (2000 to 2009) in the Northern and Southern. Liver cancer mortality was higher in males and increase with increasing age. There is need of liver cancer control measures to remain on a sustained and long-term basis for the high liver cancer burden rate of Thailand.

Sriwattanapongse, Wattanavadee; Prasitwattanaseree, Sukon

2013-09-01

416

US of liver transplants: normal and abnormal.  

PubMed

Whole-liver transplantation is an accepted and successful method of treating end-stage liver disease. As a result of the shortage of cadaveric livers, split-liver transplantation and living donor liver transplantation are becoming more commonplace. Ultrasonography (US) is the initial imaging modality of choice for detection and follow-up of early and delayed complications from all types of liver transplantation. Vascular complications include thrombosis and stenosis of the hepatic artery, portal vein, or inferior vena cava, as well as hepatic artery pseudoaneurysms and celiac artery stenosis. Biliary complications include leaks, strictures, stones or sludge, dysfunction of the sphincter of Oddi, and recurrent disease. Neoplastic disease in the transplanted liver may represent recurrent neoplasia or posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder. Parenchymal disease may take the form of a focal mass or a diffuse parenchymal abnormality. Perihepatic fluid collections and ascites are common after liver transplantation. Knowledge of the surgical technique of liver transplantation and awareness of the normal US appearance of the transplanted liver permit early detection of complications and prevent misdiagnosis. PMID:12975502

Crossin, Jane D; Muradali, Derek; Wilson, Stephanie R

2003-01-01

417

Development of a hybrid bioartificial liver.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The authors developed an extracorporeal liver support system and tested its efficacy in experimental animals with liver failure. The first clinical use of this system to treat a patient with liver failure is reported. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Multiple attempts have been made, ranging from plasma exchange to use of charcoal columns, to develop liver support systems for treating patients with acute severe liver failure. None of these systems has achieved wide clinical use. There is a need for providing liver support as a "bridge" to transplantation and for treating patients with potentially reversible liver dysfunction. METHODS: A hybrid liver support system has been developed consisting of plasma perfusion through a charcoal column and a porous hollow fiber module inoculated with 5 x 10(9) matrix-attached hepatocytes. The system was tested in dogs with ischemic liver failure (n = 7) who underwent plasmapheresis; a control group (n = 6) underwent charcoal perfusion alone. A patient with liver failure was treated with this hybrid system. RESULTS: After 6 hours of hybrid liver support treatment, animals had significantly decreased serum ammonia and lactate levels, increased glucose level, normal prothrombin time, and increased systolic blood pressure compared with controls treated with charcoal perfusion alone. Use of the system to treat a patient was well tolerated with evidence of clinical improvement. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma perfusion through a system consisting of a charcoal column and matrix-attached porcine hepatocytes had significant beneficial effects in animals with liver failure and was well tolerated by a patient with liver failure. Images Figure 2. PMID:8489313

Rozga, J; Holzman, M D; Ro, M S; Griffin, D W; Neuzil, D F; Giorgio, T; Moscioni, A D; Demetriou, A A

1993-01-01

418

Artificial liver support: a real step forward.  

PubMed

Since the early 1960s, several authors reported on the use of some experimental artificial liver devices in order to support patients with either acute liver failure (ALF) or end-stage chronic liver disease. In the 1980s, liver transplantation became an established real treatment replacing the whole liver with a major survival benefit. In the 1990s, the concept of albumin dialysis appeared as a new revolution in the concept of dialysis with the great capacity of removal of toxins, drugs and molecules strongly bound to albumin. Currently, three artificial liver support devices are available: The MARS®, the Prometheus® and the SPAD®. The most widely studied and used system is the MARS® that uses albumin dialysis to replace the detoxification function of the liver. MARS has shown in several uncontrolled studies and few randomized studies an improvement in the patient condition in terms of clinical symptoms (hepatic encephalopathy, pruritus, jaundice) and in liver and kidney biological parameters bringing these patients safely to liver transplantation. MARS® has shown for some patients with ALF (mainly paracetamol intoxication) an improvement of spontaneous or transplant free survival. The use of MARS in acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) require further studies based on strict definition of the syndrome. The use of albumin dialysis technique, require the performance of multiple sessions of treatment or even (in situations of ALF) a continuous treatment in order to improve spontaneous recovery or bridge these patients to liver transplantation. The performance of these systems would need further improvement. Large randomized trials are still needed in both patients with ALF and ACLF to establish the indications, the timing and the real place of liver support therapies. Meanwhile, early use of these devices in patients with ALF and ACLF could be considered as an additional tool among others in the management of these patients in specialized liver units. PMID:25367058

Saliba, F; Samuel, D

2015-02-01

419

Using old liver grafts for liver transplantation: Where are the limits?  

PubMed Central

The scarcity of ideal liver grafts for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) has led transplant teams to investigate other sources of grafts in order to augment the donor liver pool. One way to get more liver grafts is to use marginal donors, a not well-defined group which includes mainly donors > 60 years, donors with hypernatremia or macrosteatosis > 30%, donors with hepatitis C virus or hepatitis B virus positive serologies, cold ischemia time > 12 h, non-heart-beating donors, and grafts from split-livers or living-related donations. Perhaps the most practical and frequent measure to increase the liver pool, and thus to reduce waiting list mortality, is to use older livers. In the past years the results of OLT with old livers have improved, mainly due to better selection and maintenance of donors, improvements in surgical techniques in donors and recipients, and intra- and post-OLT management. At the present time, sexagenarian livers are generally accepted, but there still exists some controversy regarding the use of septuagenarian and octogenarian liver grafts. The aim of this paper is to briefly review the aging process of the liver and reported experiences using old livers for OLT. Fundamentally, the series of septuagenarian and octogenarian livers will be addressed to see if there is a limit to using these aged grafts. PMID:25152573

Jiménez-Romero, Carlos; Caso Maestro, Oscar; Cambra Molero, Félix; Justo Alonso, Iago; Alegre Torrado, Cristina; Manrique Municio, Alejandro; Calvo Pulido, Jorge; Loinaz Segurola, Carmelo; Moreno González, Enrique

2014-01-01

420

The quantification of liver anatomical changes and assessment of occupant liver injury patterns.  

PubMed

Liver injuries can be significant in vehicle crashes. In this study, the liver anatomy was quantified in both adult and pediatric populations as a function of gender and age. Five anatomical liver measurements were determined using CT scans of 260 normal livers. These measurements include the area and volume, and the length, width, and girth of the liver (IRB HUM00041441). To characterize geometrical shape, an inscribed sphere and circumscribed ellipsoid were fitted on the measurements. In the pediatric population the liver area and volume continuously increased with age. When normalized by patient weight, volume measurements show a decrease in volume with age, suggesting that the liver occupies a smaller proportion of the body with age. In the adult population, liver measurements varied with gender. The superior and inferior locations of the liver were also recorded with respect to the spine. The lower portion was at the L3 in small children and at L2 as children approached puberty. It stayed in that area through the 60+ group, offering more ribcage protection. Liver injury patterns were also assessed in crash occupants. Seventy-two occupants with moderate to severe (AIS 2+) liver injuries were investigated. A new methodology was presented and consisted of quantifying blood volumes. The results were compared to overall liver volume and injury scales. No clear distinction on the injury pattern was observed by age group. Liver injuries were more commonly associated with AIS 2+ thoracic injuries in adults than in children. Most injuries occurred in the right lobe. PMID:24435735

Parenteau, Chantal S; Ehrlich, Peter; Ma, Linda; Su, Grace L; Holcombe, Sven; Wang, Stewart C

2013-11-01

421

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy and liver transplantation  

PubMed Central

Liver transplantation is the treatment of choice for end stage liver disease and is often used for primary liver malignancies. The main limitation of its wider application is the availability of suitable donor organs. The use of marginal donor organs, split-liver transplantation and living-related liver transplantation techniques contribute to increase the donor pool. However, the use of these techniques is associated with a higher risk of post transplantation organ dysfunction, predominantly due to ischaemia, preservation and reperfusion injury (IPRI). A number of studies have demonstrated that hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy influences IPRI and consequential acute cellular rejection. This article reviews the rationale of HBO therapy in the field of transplantation with particular emphasis on liver transplantation. PMID:18333218

Christophi, Chris

2007-01-01

422

[Circadian chronotherapy for metastatic liver tumor].  

PubMed

Efficacy of circadian chronotherapy for liver metastases from colorectal cancer was evaluated. Chronomodulated infusion of anticancer drugs via the hepatic artery(HAI) was applied for patients with marginally resectable or unresectable liver metastases at initial diagnosis. Response rate of chemotherapy and frequency of liver resection after chemotherapy of patients treated with chronomodulated HAI were higher than those treated with flat HAI. Further, combination of chronomodulated regional HAI and systemic chemotherapy was the most effective prehepatectomy chemotherapy for the treatment of patients with advanced colorectal liver metastases. Based on these results, we are now performing phase II non-randomized open labeled trial of chronomodulated HAI with systemic administration of panitumumab for patients with such advanced liver metastases (ccFLAP trial). Circadian chronotherapy is an effective prehepatectomy chemotherapy for the treatment of patients with advanced and aggressive liver metastases from colorectal cancer. PMID:24437272

Tanaka, Kuniya; Yabushita, Yasuhiro; Nakagawa, Kazuya; Endo, Itaru

2013-12-01

423

Polycystic liver disease presenting as pruritus.  

PubMed

Polycystic liver disease (PCLD) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder which usually occurs in association with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Biliary obstruction is a rare complication of PCLD. Treatment options include percutaneous aspiration and sclerosis, surgical deroofing of cysts, liver resection or liver transplantation. Medical treatment involves the use of somatostatin analogues or mTOR inhibitors. We present a case of PCLD presenting for the first time with longstanding pruritus as the only symptom. PMID:24714704

Johnson, Deepak Kochummen; Panchili, Shihab; Kolasseri, Sandesh; Mavali, Ramachandran Thazhath

2014-01-01

424

Heritability of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the United States. The etiology is believed to be multi-factorial with a substantial genetic component; however, the heritability of NAFLD is undetermined. Therefore, a familial aggregation study was performed to test the hypothesis that NAFLD is highly heritable. Methods Overweight children with biopsy-proven NAFLD and overweight children without NAFLD served as probands. Family members were studied including magnetic resonance imaging to quantify liver fat fraction. Fatty liver was defined as a liver fat fraction ? 5%. Etiologies for fatty liver other than NAFLD were excluded. Narrow-sense heritability estimates for fatty liver (dichotomous) and fat fraction (continuous) were calculated using variance components analysis adjusted for covariate effects. Results Fatty liver was present in 17% of siblings and 37% of parents of overweight children without NAFLD. Fatty liver was significantly more common in siblings (59%) and parents (78%) of children with NAFLD. Liver fat fraction was correlated with body mass index (BMI), although the correlation was significantly stronger for families of children with NAFLD than those without NAFLD. Adjusted for age, sex, race, and BMI, heritability of fatty liver was 1.000 and of liver fat fraction 0.386. Conclusion Family members of children with NAFLD should be considered at high risk for NAFLD. These data suggest that familial factors are a major determinant of whether an individual has NAFLD. Studies examining the complex relations between genes and environment in the development and progression of NAFLD are warranted. PMID:19208353

Schwimmer, Jeffrey B.; Celedon, Manuel A.; Lavine, Joel E.; Salem, Rany; Campbell, Nzali; Schork, Nicholas J.; Shiehmorteza, Masoud; Yokoo, Takeshi; Chavez, Alyssa; Middleton, Michael S.; Sirlin, Claude B.

2010-01-01

425

Nitric Oxide Synthase and Postischemic Liver Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine what roles the endothelial cell and inducible isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, iNOS) play in ischemia and reperfusion (I\\/R)-induced liver injury in vivo in mice genetically deficient in each isoform of NOS. We found that 45 min of partial (70%) liver ischemia and 5 h of reperfusion induced substantial liver injury

Shigeyuki Kawachi; Ian N. Hines; F. Stephen Laroux; Jason Hoffman; Sulamain Bharwani; Laura Gray; David Leffer; Matthew B. Grisham

2000-01-01

426

Polycystic liver disease presenting as pruritus  

PubMed Central

Polycystic liver disease (PCLD) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder which usually occurs in association with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Biliary obstruction is a rare complication of PCLD. Treatment options include percutaneous aspiration and sclerosis, surgical deroofing of cysts, liver resection or liver transplantation. Medical treatment involves the use of somatostatin analogues or mTOR inhibitors. We present a case of PCLD presenting for the first time with longstanding pruritus as the only symptom. PMID:24714704

Johnson, Deepak Kochummen; Panchili, Shihab; Kolasseri, Sandesh; Mavali, Ramachandran Thazhath

2014-01-01

427

Xeno Assistance of the Faling Liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

The liver is a highly complex organ in which many different metabolic processes take place.\\u000aThese include the metabolism of dietary carbohydrate, protein and fats, the storage of iron,\\u000athe formation of hormones and blood coagulation factors and the removal of toxins from the\\u000abloodstream. Liver transplants are required when liver function has dropped to below 20% of\\u000anormal. This

H. B. A. C. Stockmann

2001-01-01

428

Liver involvement in essential mixed cryoglobulinemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Twenty-one of 30 patients with essential mixed cryoglobulinemia (EMC) had evidence of liver involvement. The liver disease\\u000a was characterized by the absence of clinical symptoms, hepatosplenomegaly, mild elevation of enzymes, abnormal BSP retention\\u000a and low albumin levels. Histology, available in 12 patients, showed either chronic persistent or chronic active hepatitis\\u000a or liver cirrhosis; 44% of the patients had HBsAg or

Stefano Bombardieri; Clodoveo Ferri; Ombretta Di Munno; Giampiero Pasero

1979-01-01

429

LiverTox: Clinical and Research Information on Drug-Induced Liver Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... does not represent official policy of the U.S. Government or any agency thereof. The information in LiverTox ... treatment of drug induced liver injury. The U.S. Government and its individual agencies, including the NIDDK, NLM ...

430

Cascades of transcription regulation during liver regeneration.  

PubMed

An increasing demand for new strategies in cancer prevention and regenerative medicine requires a better understanding of molecular mechanisms that control cell proliferation in tissue-specific manner. Regenerating liver is a unique model allowing use of biochemical, genetic, and engineering tools to uncover molecular mechanisms and improve treatment of hepatic cancers, liver failure, and fibrotic disease. Molecular mechanisms of liver regeneration involve extra- and intracellular factors to activate transcription of genes normally silenced in quiescent liver. While many upstream signaling pathways of the regenerating liver have been extensively studied, our knowledge of the downstream effectors, transcription factors (TFs), remains limited. This review describes consecutive engagement of pre-existing and de novo synthesized TFs, as cascades that regulate expression of growth-related and metabolic genes during liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in mice. Several previously recognized regulators of regenerating liver are described in the light of recently identified co-activator and co-repressor complexes that interact with primary DNA-binding TFs. Published results of gene expression and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses, as well as studies of transgenic mouse models, are used to emphasize new potential regulators of transcription during liver regeneration. Finally, a more detailed description of newly identified transcriptional regulators of liver regeneration illustrates the tightly regulated balance of proliferative and metabolic responses to partial hepatectomy. PMID:20307684

Kurinna, Svitlana; Barton, Michelle Craig

2011-02-01

431

Changes in nutritional status after liver transplantation  

PubMed Central

Chronic liver disease has an important effect on nutritional status, and malnourishment is almost universally present in patients with end-stage liver disease who undergo liver transplantation. During recent decades, a trend has been reported that shows an increase in number of patients with end-stage liver disease and obesity in developed countries. The importance of carefully assessing the nutritional status during the work-up of patients who are candidates for liver replacement is widely recognised. Cirrhotic patients with depleted lean body mass (sarcopenia) and fat deposits have an increased surgical risk; malnutrition may further impact morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. After transplantation and liver function is restored, many metabolic alterations are corrected, dietary intake is progressively normalised, and lifestyle changes may improve physical activity. Few studies have examined the modifications in body composition that occur in liver recipients. During the first 12 mo, the fat mass progressively increases in those patients who had previously depleted body mass, and the muscle mass recovery is subtle and non-significant by the end of the first year. In some patients, unregulated weight gain may lead to obesity and may promote metabolic disorders in the long term. Careful monitoring of nutritional changes will help identify the patients who are at risk for malnutrition or over-weight after liver transplantation. Physical and nutritional interventions must be investigated to evaluate their potential beneficial effect on body composition and muscle function after liver transplantation. PMID:25152572

Giusto, Michela; Lattanzi, Barbara; Di Gregorio, Vincenza; Giannelli, Valerio; Lucidi, Cristina; Merli, Manuela

2014-01-01

432

[Indications and contraindications for liver transplantation].  

PubMed

Liver transplantation (LT) is a therapeutic method in many, otherwise infaust diseases of the liver. During the recent decade the experimental therapeutic procedure has become a routine therapeutical method. The stage of clinical experiment was ultimated by the Washington Conference held on the consensus in LT indications (1983). Large centries (USA, England, Germany) yield 80-100 liver transplantations per year. The recent years have recorded a change in some principal opinions on LT. It is possible to state that liver transplantation is being abstained from cases with more extensive primary neoplamatic affliction of the liver. Conservative therapy in primary biliary cirrhosis of the liver by means of ursodeoxycholic acid has shifted the LT indication into the later stages of the disease. The opinions on the meaning of LT in alcoholic cirrhosis remain still unsettled. LT remains unambiquously indicated in life-endangering fulminant and subfulminant liver failures. Among the viral diseases, attention is paid to liver cirrhosis caused by infection by the hepatitis C virus. Cirrhosis due to hepatitis B has a better prognosis, owing to the complex antiviral therapy. Liver transplantation represents, beside the main indications, the therapy of first selection, e.g. also in Wilson's disease, alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, alveolar echinococcosis etc. (Tab. 1, Fig. 2, Ref. 54.) PMID:8689295

Hrusovský, S; Danninger, F; Kupcová, V; Becker, M C; Mantion, G; Miguet, J P

1996-01-01

433

The ins and outs of liver imaging.  

PubMed

Different imaging modalities including ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), and MR imaging may be used in the liver depending on the clinical situation. The ability of dedicated contrast-enhanced liver MR imaging or CT to definitively characterize lesions as benign is crucial in avoiding unnecessary biopsy. Liver imaging surveillance in patients with cirrhosis may allow for detection of hepatocellular carcinoma at an earlier stage, and therefore may improve outcome. This article reviews the different imaging modalities used to evaluate the liver and focal benign and malignant hepatic lesions, and the basic surveillance strategy for patients at increased risk for hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:25454299

O'Neill, Erin K; Cogley, Jonathan R; Miller, Frank H

2015-02-01

434

Tumor Promotion in Rat Liver  

E-print Network

An initiation/promotion bioassay for chemical carcinogens and tumor promoters has been developed in rat liver using presumed preneoplastic lesions, foci of y-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGTasepositive hepatocytes, as the endpoint. To evaluate the tumor-promoting activity of phenobarbital, rats were administered diethylnitrosamine (DENA), 2.0 mmole/kg, followed by 500 ppm phenobarbital in their drinking water. After 6 weeks of phenobarbital promotion, the rats had an increased incidence of foci as compared to nonphenobarbital-treated rats. By 50 weeks, the number of foci in the nonpromoted animals equaled the number observed with promotion. The stability and progression of GGTase-positive foci was determined in rats that received a 2/3 partial hepatectomy, followed 24 hours later by DENA administration (0.3 mmole/kg). The rats then received 500 ppm phenobarbital in the drinking water for 7 weeks. After 7 weeks, half of the rats were continued on phenobarbital and the other half were removed from phenobarbital treatment. The number of foci observed in rats continued on phenobarbital treatment leveled off after 10 weeks of promotion, while in rats taken off phenobarbital it did not regress but increased at a slower rate, and, by 56 weeks, approached the number observed in rats subjected to continuous promotion. At 56 weeks, the size of foci was larger after continuous promotion. At 81 weeks, all 6 (100%) of the rats on continuous promotion had liver tumors, while only 3 of 6 (50%) of the rats removed from promotion had tumors. Promotion by phenobarbital stimulated the growth and decreased the time required for the appearance of GGTase-positive foci and liver tumors.

435

A Bioartificial Liver-State of the Art  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

End-stage liver disease is treated by liver transplantation, but donor organ shortages remain a serious problem. This has prompted the design of bioartificial liver devices to ``bridge'' patients until they either recover or receive a liver transplant. In these devices, patient plasma is circulated extracorporeally through a bioreactor that houses liver cells (hepatocytes) sandwiched between artificial plates or capillaries.

Strain, Alastair J.; Neuberger, James M.

2002-02-01

436

9 CFR 319.881 - Liver meat food products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liver meat food products. 319.881 Section...COMPOSITION Miscellaneous § 319.881 Liver meat food products. Meat food products characterized and labeled as liver products such as liver loaf, liver...

2010-01-01

437

Application of liver stem cells for cell therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The worldwide shortage of donor livers to transplant end stage liver disease patients has prompted the search for alternative cell therapies for intractable liver disease. Embryonic stem cells can be readily differentiated into hepatocytes, and their transplantation into animals has improved liver function in the absence of teratoma formation: their use in bioartificial liver support is an obvious application. In

Malcolm R. Alison; Cleo Choong; Susan Lim

2007-01-01

438

59 FR- Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Albendazole Suspension  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...tolerance for albendazole residue in sheep liver. EFFECTIVE DATE: December 21, 1994...used for removal and control of: Adult liver flukes; heads and segments of common and...tolerance for albendazole residue in sheep liver. The basis for approval is...

1994-12-21

439

Pathology Case Study: Liver Transplant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 34-year-old is experiencing complications following a liver transplant. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transplant pathology.

Richert, Charles A.

440

[Surgical therapy of liver echinococcosis].  

PubMed

There is still no other therapeutic management for echinococcosis of the liver than surgical treatment. Indeed, drug therapy with Mebendazol prevents parasitosis from spreading. However, a complete regression has not been observed hitherto. Surgical procedure is dependent on expansion, localisation and type of echinococcosis. Generally, cystectomy is possible and adequate in case of Echinococcus granulosus, in case of Echinococcus multilocularis with its infiltrating growth, a complete healing can only be attained by lobectomy. With the hilus being invaded and obstructive jaundice proceeding, an improvement can be reached by Mebendazol or a palliative endless drainage tube. PMID:4013541

Bähr, R; Gaebel, G

1985-01-01

441

Evaluation of potential liver donors: Limits imposed by donor variables in liver transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of different donor and recipient parameters that have been recognised previously as proven and to suggest prognostic factors for immediate liver function and final outcome after liver transplantation. We evaluated a total of 228 liver grafts transplanted in the last 3 years in our institution. Parameters were recorded for

Ramón Rull; Oscar Vidal; Dulce Momblan; Francisco Xavier González; Miguel Angel López-Boado; Jose Fuster; Luis Grande; Miguel Bruguera; Katiana Cabrer; Juan Carlos Garc??a-Valdecasas

2003-01-01

442

Surgical treatment of hepatocellular carcinomas in noncirrhotic liver: Experience with 68 liver resections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), although generally associated with cirrhosis, can also develop in a noncirrhotic liver. To study HCCs in noncirrhotic liver, their surgical management and prognosis, 68 patients with partial hepatectomy for this disease were analyzed. The liver, in all cases, appeared normal macroscopically at laparotomy, but in 13 cases (19%) it presented some slight histologic modifications, such as steatosis

Henri Bismuth; Laurence Chiche; Denis Castaing

1995-01-01

443

Diagnosis of fibrosis and cirrhosis using liver stiffness measurement in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

edinghen 3,4 Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common liver diseases in affluent countries. Accurate noninvasive tests for liver injury are urgently needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of transient elastography for the diagnosis of fibrosis and cirrhosis in patients with NAFLD and to study factors associated with discordance between transient

Vincent Wai-Sun Wong; Julien Vergniol; Grace Lai-Hung Wong; Juliette Foucher; Henry Lik-Yuen Chan; Brigitte Le Bail; Paul Cheung-Lung Choi; Mathurin Kowo; Anthony Wing-Hung Chan; Wassil Merrouche; Joseph Jao-Yiu Sung; Victor de Lédinghen

2009-01-01

444

Immune-protected xenogeneic bioartificial livers with liver-specific microarchitecture and hydrogel-encapsulated cells.  

PubMed

Development of a xenogeneic biological liver support is important in providing a bridge to transplantation or liver regeneration, thus helping to overcome the chronic shortage of liver donors. Among the critical factors in developing biological liver support are the creation of in vivo mimetic micro liver tissue (mLT), especially mLTs containing liver-specific ultrastructure, and an encapsulation method that can package massive numbers of cells while providing immune-protection from the host immune system. We describe here the development of mLTs that include liver microarchitecture and their in situ encapsulation in hydrogel composites. Concave microwells and the tri-culture of three types of primary liver cells were applied for the construction of mLTs showing excellent liver functions and long-term (>1 month) viability in vitro. Large quantities of rat mLTs were encapsulated in collagen-alginate composites, implanted into hepatic failure mice and sustained their survival during regeneration of the remaining liver. The proposed liver support system offers xenogeneic hepatic assistance by mimicking native liver microarchitecture and providing immune-protection without the need for complicated devices or processes, and as such represents a promising system for recovery of organ function. PMID:25088727

No, Da Yoon; Jeong, Gi Seok; Lee, Sang-Hoon

2014-10-01

445

Metabolomic Analysis of Liver Tissue from the VX2 Rabbit Model of Secondary Liver Tumors.  

PubMed

Purpose. The incidence of liver neoplasms is rising in USA. The purpose of this study was to determine metab