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1

Developmental Transcriptomic Features of the Carcinogenic Liver Fluke, Clonorchis sinensis  

PubMed Central

Clonorchis sinensis is the causative agent of the life-threatening disease endemic to China, Korea, and Vietnam. It is estimated that about 15 million people are infected with this fluke. C. sinensis provokes inflammation, epithelial hyperplasia, and periductal fibrosis in bile ducts, and may cause cholangiocarcinoma in chronically infected individuals. Accumulation of a large amount of biological information about the adult stage of this liver fluke in recent years has advanced our understanding of the pathological interplay between this parasite and its hosts. However, no developmental gene expression profiles of C. sinensis have been published. In this study, we generated gene expression profiles of three developmental stages of C. sinensis by analyzing expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Complementary DNA libraries were constructed from the adult, metacercaria, and egg developmental stages of C. sinensis. A total of 52,745 ESTs were generated and assembled into 12,830 C. sinensis assembled EST sequences, and then these assemblies were further categorized into groups according to biological functions and developmental stages. Most of the genes that were differentially expressed in the different stages were consistent with the biological and physical features of the particular developmental stage; high energy metabolism, motility and reproduction genes were differentially expressed in adults, minimal metabolism and final host adaptation genes were differentially expressed in metacercariae, and embryonic genes were differentially expressed in eggs. The higher expression of glucose transporters, proteases, and antioxidant enzymes in the adults accounts for active uptake of nutrients and defense against host immune attacks. The types of ion channels present in C. sinensis are consistent with its parasitic nature and phylogenetic placement in the tree of life. We anticipate that the transcriptomic information on essential regulators of development, bile chemotaxis, and physico-metabolic pathways in C. sinensis that presented in this study will guide further studies to identify novel drug targets and diagnostic antigens. PMID:21738807

Cho, Pyo Yun; Kim, Tae Im; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Choi, Sang-Haeng; Park, Hong-Seog; Kim, Tong-Soo; Hong, Sung-Jong

2011-01-01

2

The draft genome of the carcinogenic human liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis  

PubMed Central

Background Clonorchis sinensis is a carcinogenic human liver fluke that is widespread in Asian countries. Increasing infection rates of this neglected tropical disease are leading to negative economic and public health consequences in affected regions. Experimental and epidemiological studies have shown a strong association between the incidence of cholangiocarcinoma and the infection rate of C. sinensis. To aid research into this organism, we have sequenced its genome. Results We combined de novo sequencing with computational techniques to provide new information about the biology of this liver fluke. The assembled genome has a total size of 516 Mb with a scaffold N50 length of 42 kb. Approximately 16,000 reliable protein-coding gene models were predicted. Genes for the complete pathways for glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and fatty acid metabolism were found, but key genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis are missing from the genome, reflecting the parasitic lifestyle of a liver fluke that receives lipids from the bile of its host. We also identified pathogenic molecules that may contribute to liver fluke-induced hepatobiliary diseases. Large proteins such as multifunctional secreted proteases and tegumental proteins were identified as potential targets for the development of drugs and vaccines. Conclusions This study provides valuable genomic information about the human liver fluke C. sinensis and adds to our knowledge on the biology of the parasite. The draft genome will serve as a platform to develop new strategies for parasite control. PMID:22023798

2011-01-01

3

Genetic diversity of the Chinese liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis from Russia and Vietnam.  

PubMed

Clonorchiasis is a parasitic disease of high public health importance in many countries in southeastern Asia and is caused by the Chinese liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis. However, the genetic structure and demographic history of its populations has not been sufficiently studied throughout the geographic range of the species and available data are based mainly on partial gene sequencing. In this study, we explored the genetic diversity of the complete 1560bp cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene sequence for geographically isolated C. sinensis populations in Russia and Vietnam, to our knowledge for the first time. The results demonstrated low nucleotide and high haplotype differentiation within and between the two compared regions and a clear geographical vector for the distribution of genetic diversity patterns among the studied populations. These results suggest a deep local adaptation of the parasite to its environment including intermediate hosts and the existence of gene flow across the species' range. Additionally, we have predicted an amino acid substitution in the functional site of the COX1 protein among the Vietnamese populations, which were reported to be difficult to treat with praziquantel. The haplotype networks consisted of several region-specific phylogenetic lineages, the formation of which could have occurred during the most extensive penultimate glaciations in the Pleistocene Epoch. The patterns of genetic diversity and demographics are consistent with population growth of the liver fluke in the late Pleistocene following the Last Glacial Maximum, indicating the lack of a population bottleneck during the recent past in the species' history. The data obtained have important implications for understanding the phylogeography of C. sinensis, its host-parasite interactions, the ability of this parasite to evolve drug resistance, and the epidemiology of clonorchiasis under global climate change. PMID:25123068

Chelomina, Galina N; Tatonova, Yulia V; Hung, Nguyen Manh; Ngo, Ha Duy

2014-10-01

4

Genetic comparison of liver flukes, Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini , based on rDNA and mtDNA gene sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

To clarify the genetic relationships between Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini, patterns of inter-\\/intraspecific polymorphism were compared for four markers with nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in liver flukes C. sinensis from Korea (Kimhae) and China (Shenyang and Nanning) and O. viverrini from Laos (Savannakhet). Intra- and interspecific variations in the 18S, ITS2, and 28S rDNA and

Gab-Man Park

2007-01-01

5

Sequences and gene organization of the mitochondrial genomes of the liver flukes Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis (Trematoda).  

PubMed

Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis are important trematodes infecting humans and animals, belonging to the family Opisthorchiidae. In the present study, we sequenced the nearly complete mitochondrial (mt) DNA (mtDNA) sequences of O. viverrini from Laos, obtained the complete mtDNA sequences of C. sinensis from China and Korea, and revealed their gene annotations and genome organizations. The mtDNA sequences of O. viverrini, C. sinensis (China isolate), C. sinensis (Korea isolate) were 13,510, 13,879, and 13,877 bp in size, respectively. Each of the three mt genomes comprises 36 genes, consisting of 12 genes coding for proteins, two genes for rRNA, and 20 genes (O. viverrini) or 22 genes (C. sinensis) for tRNA. The gene content and arrangement are identical to that of Fasciola hepatica, and Paragonimus westermani, but distinct from Schistosoma spp. All genes are transcribed in the same direction and have a nucleotide composition high in T. The contents of A?+?T of the mt genomes were 59.39% for O. viverrini, 60.03% for C. sinensis (China isolate), and 59.99% for C. sinensis (Korea isolate). Phylogenetic analyses using concatenated amino acid sequences of the 12 protein-coding genes, with three different computational algorithms [maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analysis], all revealed distinct groups with high statistical support, indicating that O. viverrini and C. sinensis represent sister taxa. These data provide additional novel mtDNA markers for studying the molecular epidemiology and population genetics of the two liver flukes and should have implications for the molecular diagnosis, prevention, and control of opisthorchiasis and clonorchiasis in humans and animals. PMID:21626421

Cai, X Q; Liu, G H; Song, H Q; Wu, C Y; Zou, F C; Yan, H K; Yuan, Z G; Lin, R Q; Zhu, X Q

2012-01-01

6

The Carcinogenic Liver Fluke, Clonorchis sinensis: New Assembly, Reannotation and Analysis of the Genome and Characterization of Tissue Transcriptomes  

PubMed Central

Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis), an important food-borne parasite that inhabits the intrahepatic bile duct and causes clonorchiasis, is of interest to both the public health field and the scientific research community. To learn more about the migration, parasitism and pathogenesis of C. sinensis at the molecular level, the present study developed an upgraded genomic assembly and annotation by sequencing paired-end and mate-paired libraries. We also performed transcriptome sequence analyses on multiple C. sinensis tissues (sucker, muscle, ovary and testis). Genes encoding molecules involved in responses to stimuli and muscle-related development were abundantly expressed in the oral sucker. Compared with other species, genes encoding molecules that facilitate the recognition and transport of cholesterol were observed in high copy numbers in the genome and were highly expressed in the oral sucker. Genes encoding transporters for fatty acids, glucose, amino acids and oxygen were also highly expressed, along with other molecules involved in metabolizing these substrates. All genes involved in energy metabolism pathways, including the ?-oxidation of fatty acids, the citrate cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, and fumarate reduction, were expressed in the adults. Finally, we also provide valuable insights into the mechanism underlying the process of pathogenesis by characterizing the secretome of C. sinensis. The characterization and elaborate analysis of the upgraded genome and the tissue transcriptomes not only form a detailed and fundamental C. sinensis resource but also provide novel insights into the physiology and pathogenesis of C. sinensis. We anticipate that this work will aid the development of innovative strategies for the prevention and control of clonorchiasis. PMID:23382950

Wang, Xiaoyun; Liu, Hailiang; Chen, Yangyi; Guo, Lei; Luo, Fang; Sun, Jiufeng; Mao, Qiang; Liang, Pei; Xie, Zhizhi; Zhou, Chenhui; Tian, Yanli; Lv, Xiaoli; Huang, Lisi; Zhou, Juanjuan; Hu, Yue; Li, Ran; Zhang, Fan; Lei, Huali; Li, Wenfang; Hu, Xuchu; Liang, Chi; Xu, Jin; Li, Xuerong; Yu, Xinbing

2013-01-01

7

Opisthorchis viverrini: The carcinogenic human liver fluke  

PubMed Central

Opisthorchiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini remains a major public health problem in many parts of Southeast Asia, including Thailand, Lao PDR, Vietnam and Cambodia. The infection is associated with a number of hepatobiliary diseases, including cholangitis, obstructive jaundice, hepatomegaly, cholecystitis and cholelithiasis. Multi-factorial etiology of cholangiocarcinoma, mechanical damage, parasite secretions, and immunopathology may enhance cholangiocarcinogenesis. Moreover, both experimental and epidemiological evidences strongly implicate liver fluke infection as the major risk factor in cholangiocarcinoma, cancer of the bile ducts. The liver fluke infection is induced by eating raw or uncooked fish products that is the tradition and popular in the northeastern and northern region, particularly in rural areas, of Thailand. The health education programs to prevent and control opisthorchiasis are still required in the high-risk areas. PMID:18205254

Kaewpitoon, Natthawut; Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Pengsaa, Prasit; Sripa, Banchob

2008-01-01

8

Progress in Development of Liver Fluke Vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection of ruminants by Fasciola spp continues to cause large economic losses worldwide. Recent results from several laboratories have demonstrated that animals can be significantly protected against infection by vaccination with defined Fasciola antigens. Apart from reducing fluke burdens, some vaccines can elicit a concurrent reduction in parasite egg production. The expectation of a commercially feasible vaccine that might also

T. W Spithill; J. P Dalton

1998-01-01

9

Gene discovery for the carcinogenic human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) – cancer of the bile ducts – is associated with chronic infection with the liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini. Despite being the only eukaryote that is designated as a 'class I carcinogen' by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, little is known about its genome. RESULTS: Approximately 5,000 randomly selected cDNAs from the adult stage of O.

Thewarach Laha; Porntip Pinlaor; Jason Mulvenna; Banchob Sripa; Manop Sripa; Michael J Smout; Robin B Gasser; Paul J Brindley; Alex Loukas

2007-01-01

10

Cathepsin F Cysteine Protease of the Human Liver Fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini  

PubMed Central

Background The liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini is classified as a class I carcinogen due to the association between cholangiocarcinoma and chronic O. viverrini infection. During its feeding activity within the bile duct, the parasite secretes several cathepsin F cysteine proteases that may induce or contribute to the pathologies associated with hepatobiliary abnormalities. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we describe the cDNA, gene organization, phylogenetic relationships, immunolocalization, and functional characterization of the cathepsin F cysteine protease gene, here termed Ov-cf-1, from O. viverrini. The full length mRNA of 1020 nucleotides (nt) encoded a 326 amino acid zymogen consisting of a predicted signal peptide (18 amino acids, aa), prosegment (95 aa), and mature protease (213 aa). BLAST analysis using the Ov-CF-1 protein as the query revealed that the protease shared identity with cathepsin F-like cysteine proteases of other trematodes, including Clonorchis sinensis (81%), Paragonimus westermani (58%), Schistosoma mansoni and S. japonicum (52%), and with vertebrate cathepsin F (51%). Transcripts encoding the protease were detected in all developmental stages that parasitize the mammalian host. The Ov-cf-1 gene, of ?3 kb in length, included seven exons interrupted by six introns; the exons ranged from 69 to 267 bp in length, the introns from 43 to 1,060 bp. The six intron/exon boundaries of Ov-cf-1 were conserved with intron/exon boundaries in the human cathepsin F gene, although the gene structure of human cathepsin F is more complex. Unlike Ov-CF-1, human cathepsin F zymogen includes a cystatin domain in the prosegment region. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the fluke, human, and other cathepsin Fs branched together in a clade discrete from the cathepsin L cysteine proteases. A recombinant Ov-CF-1 zymogen that displayed low-level activity was expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Although the recombinant protease did not autocatalytically process and activate to a mature enzyme, trans-processing by Fasciola hepatica cathepsin L cleaved the prosegment of Ov-CF-1, releasing a mature cathepsin F with activity against the peptide Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec >50 times that of the zymogen. Immunocytochemistry using antibodies raised against the recombinant enzyme showed that Ov-CF-1 is expressed in the gut of the mature hermaphroditic fluke and also in the reproductive structures, including vitelline glands, egg, and testis. Ov-CF-1 was detected in bile duct epithelial cells surrounding the flukes several weeks after infection of hamsters with O. viverrini and, in addition, had accumulated in the secondary (small) bile ducts where flukes cannot reach due to their large size. Conclusions/Significance A cathepsin F cysteine protease of the human liver fluke O. viverrini has been characterized at the gene and protein level. Secretion of this protease may contribute to the hepatobiliary abnormalities, including cholangiocarcinogenesis, observed in individuals infected with this parasite. PMID:19308250

Laha, Thewarach; Sripa, Banchob; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Morales, Maria E.; Mann, Victoria H.; Parriott, Sandi K.; Suttiprapa, Sutas; Robinson, Mark W.; To, Joyce; Dalton, John P.; Loukas, Alex; Brindley, Paul J.

2009-01-01

11

Gene expression profiling in mouse liver infected with Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clonorchis sinensis, the parasite that causes clonorchiasis, is endemic in many Asian countries, and infection with the organism drives changes\\u000a in the liver tissues of the host. However, information regarding the molecular events in clonorchiasis remains limited, and\\u000a little is currently known about host–pathogen interactions in clonorchiasis. In this study, we assessed the gene expression\\u000a profiles in mice livers via

Dong Min Kim; Byung-Sam Ko; Jung-Won Ju; Shin-Hyeong Cho; Suk-Jin Yang; Young Il Yeom; Tong-Soo Kim; Yonggwan Won; Il-Chul Kim

2009-01-01

12

Experimental infection of bighorn sheep with liver flukes (Fasciola hepatica).  

PubMed

Nine Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) were each inoculated orally with 250 metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica. Blood and fecal samples were collected at the time of inoculation and at 5, 10, 14, and 20 wk after inoculation. Numbers of fluke eggs in feces, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, and eosinophil values were determined. Five of the bighorn sheep were treated with triclabendazole at 40 mg/kg of body weight 14 wk after inoculation. Based on fecal evaluations, all bighorns developed patent infections. Six weeks after treatment, fluke eggs were not detected in feces from the five treated animals but were present in two of four untreated animals. One untreated bighorn sheep was euthanized 20 wk after inoculation, and 57 adult F. hepatica were recovered from the liver. Results from this experiment indicated that bighorn sheep are efficient hosts for F. hepatica. Triclabendazole at 40 mg/kg of body weight was safe and, based on fluke egg recovery in feces, apparently an effective treatment. To my knowledge, this is the first published report of F. hepatica in bighorn sheep. PMID:19901401

Foreyt, William J

2009-10-01

13

Delineation of the Structural Elements of Oriental Liver Fluke PLA2 Isoforms for Potent Drug Designing.  

PubMed

Clonorchis sinensis or the Chinese liver fluke is one of the most prevalent parasites affecting a major population in the oriental countries. The parasite lacks lipid generating mechanisms but is exposed to fatty acid rich bile in the liver. A secretory phospholipase A2, an enzyme that breaks down complex lipids, is important for the growth of the parasite. The enzyme is also implicated in the pathogenesis leading up to the hepatic fibrosis and its complications including cancer. The five isoforms of this particular enzyme from the parasite therefore qualify as potential drug targets. In this study, a detailed structural and ligand binding analysis of the isoforms has been done by modeling. The overall three dimensional structures of the isoforms are well conserved with three helices and a ?-wing stabilized by four disulfide bonds. There are characteristic differences at the calcium binding loop, hydrophobic channel and the C-terminal domain that can potentially be exploited for drug binding. But the most significant feature pertains to the catalytic site where the isoforms exhibit three variations of either a histidine-aspartate-tyrosine or histidine-glutamate-tyrosine or histidine-aspartate-phenylalanine. Molecular docking studies show that isoform specific residues and their conformations in the substrate binding hydrophobic channel make unique interactions with certain inhibitor molecules resulting in a perfect tight fit. The proposed ligand molecules have a predicted affinity in micro-molar to nano-molar range. Interestingly, few of the ligand binding interaction patterns is in accordance to the phylogenetic studies to thereby establish the usefulness of evolutionary mechanisms in aiding ligand design. The molecular diversity of the parasitic PLA2 described in this study provides a platform for personalized medicine in the therapeutics of clonorchiasis. PMID:25298624

Hariprasad, Gururao; Kota, Divya; Baskar Singh, Sundararajan; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Adhikary, Souparno

2014-10-01

14

Insights into SCP/TAPS Proteins of Liver Flukes Based on Large-Scale Bioinformatic Analyses of Sequence Datasets  

PubMed Central

Background SCP/TAPS proteins of parasitic helminths have been proposed to play key roles in fundamental biological processes linked to the invasion of and establishment in their mammalian host animals, such as the transition from free-living to parasitic stages and the modulation of host immune responses. Despite the evidence that SCP/TAPS proteins of parasitic nematodes are involved in host-parasite interactions, there is a paucity of information on this protein family for parasitic trematodes of socio-economic importance. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted the first large-scale study of SCP/TAPS proteins of a range of parasitic trematodes of both human and veterinary importance (including the liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica as well as the blood flukes Schistosoma mansoni, S. japonicum and S. haematobium). We mined all current transcriptomic and/or genomic sequence datasets from public databases, predicted secondary structures of full-length protein sequences, undertook systematic phylogenetic analyses and investigated the differential transcription of SCP/TAPS genes in O. viverrini and F. hepatica, with an emphasis on those that are up-regulated in the developmental stages infecting the mammalian host. Conclusions This work, which sheds new light on SCP/TAPS proteins, guides future structural and functional explorations of key SCP/TAPS molecules associated with diseases caused by flatworms. Future fundamental investigations of these molecules in parasites and the integration of structural and functional data could lead to new approaches for the control of parasitic diseases. PMID:22384000

Cantacessi, Cinzia; Hofmann, Andreas; Young, Neil D.; Broder, Ursula; Hall, Ross S.; Loukas, Alex; Gasser, Robin B.

2012-01-01

15

Citrate synthase from the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica.  

PubMed

Citrate synthase catalyses the first step of the Krebs' tricarboxylic acid cycle. A sequence encoding citrate synthase from the common liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, has been cloned. The encoded protein sequence is predicted to fold into a largely ?-helical protein with high structural similarity to mammalian citrate synthases. Although a hexahistidine-tagged version of the protein could be expressed in Escherichia coli, it was not possible to purify it by nickel-affinity chromatography. Similar results were obtained with a version of the protein which lacks the putative mitochondrial targeting sequence (residues 1 to 29). However, extracts from bacterial cells expressing this version had additional citrate synthase activity after correcting for the endogenous, bacterial activity. The apparent K m for oxaloacetate was found to be 0.22 mM, which is higher than that observed in mammalian citrate synthases. Overall, the sequence and structure of F. hepatica citrate synthase are similar to ones from other eukaryotes, but there are enzymological differences which merit further investigation. PMID:23494154

Zinsser, Veronika L; Moore, Catherine M; Hoey, Elizabeth M; Trudgett, Alan; Timson, David J

2013-06-01

16

Knowledge, attitude and practice related to liver fluke infection in northeast Thailand  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) in prevention and control of liver fluke infection in northeast Thailand. METHODS: A descriptive KAP survey pertaining to liver fluke infection was carried out in June 2005 to October 2006 using structured questionnaires. Data were collected by questionnaires consisting of general parameters, knowledge, attitude, practice, and a history of participation in the prevention and control of liver fluke infection. RESULTS: A total of 1077 persons who were inter-viewed and completed the questionnaires were enrolled in the study. The majority were females (69.5%) and many of them were 15-20 years of age (37.26%). The questionnaires revealed that information resources on liver fluke infection included local public health volunteers (31.37%), public health officers (18.72%), televisions (14.38%), local heads of sub-districts (12.31%), doctors and nurses (9.18%), newspaper (5.72), internets (5.37%), and others (12.95%). Fifty-five point eleven percent of the population had a good level of liver fluke knowledge concerning the mode of disease transmission and 79.72% of the population had a good level of prevention and control knowledge with regards to defecation and consumption. The attitude and practice in liver fluke prevention and control were also at a good level with a positive awareness, participation, and satisfaction of 72.1% and 60.83% of the persons studied. However, good health behavior was found in 39.26% and 41.42% of the persons studied who had unhygienic defecation and ate raw cyprinoid’s fish. The result also showed that 41.25% of the persons studied previously joined prevention and control campaigns. CONCLUSION: The persons studied have a high level of liver fluke knowledge and positive attitude. However, improvement is required regarding personal hygiene specifically with hygienic defecation and consumption of undercooked fish. PMID:17465477

Kaewpitoon, Natthawut; Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Pengsaa, Prasit; Pilasri, Chutigan

2007-01-01

17

Multiple origins of European populations of the giant liver fluke Fascioloides magna (Trematoda: Fasciolidae), a liver parasite of ruminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The giant liver fluke, Fascioloides magna, a liver parasite of free-living and domestic ruminants of Europe and North America, was analysed in order to determine the origin of European populations and to reveal the biogeography of this originally North American parasite on the European continent. The variable fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1; 384bp) and nicotinamide

Ivica Králová-Hromadová; Eva Bazsalovicsová; Jan Štefka; Marta Špakulová; Silvia Vávrová; Tomáš Szemes; Vasyl Tkach; Alan Trudgett; Margo Pybus

2011-01-01

18

Survey of transcripts expressed by the invasive juvenile stage of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The common liver fluke Fasciola hepatica is the agent of a zoonosis with significant economic consequences in livestock production worldwide, and increasing relevance to human health in developing countries. Although flukicidal drugs are available, re-infection and emerging resistance are demanding new efficient and inexpensive control strategies. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the host-parasite interaction provide relevant clues in this

Martín Cancela; Natalia Ruétalo; Nicolás Dell'Oca; Edileuza da Silva; Pablo Smircich; Gabriel Rinaldi; Leda Roche; Carlos Carmona; Fernando Alvarez-Valín; Arnaldo Zaha; José F. Tort

2010-01-01

19

Evolutionary Origins, Diversification, and Biogeography of Liver Flukes (Digenea, Fasciolidae)  

PubMed Central

Fasciolid flukes are among the largest and best known digenetic trematodes and have considerable historical and veterinary significance. Fasciola hepatica is commonly implicated in causing disease in humans. The origins, patterns of diversification, and biogeography of fasciolids are all poorly known. We have undertaken a molecular phylogenetic study using 28S, internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA, and mitochondrial nicotinamide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) that included seven of the nine recognized species in the family. The fasciolids examined comprise a monophyletic group with the most basal species recovered from African elephants. We hypothesize fasciolids migrated from Africa to Eurasia, with secondary colonization of Africa. Fasciolids have been conservative in maintaining relatively large adult body size, but anatomical features of their digestive and reproductive systems are available. These flukes have been opportunistic, with respect to switching to new snail (planorbid to lymnaeid) and mammalian hosts and from intestinal to hepatic habitats within mammals. PMID:18689632

Lotfy, Wael M.; Brant, Sara V.; DeJong, Randy J.; Le, Thanh Hoa; Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander; Rajapakse, R. P. V. Jayanthe; Perera, Vijitha B. V. P.; Laursen, Jeff R.; Loker, Eric S.

2008-01-01

20

Infection with the carcinogenic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini modifies intestinal and biliary microbiome  

PubMed Central

Opisthorchis viverrini is a fish-borne trematode endemic in East Asia. Following ingestion, the flukes locate to the biliary tre? where chronic infection frequently leads to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). The mechanisms by which O. viverrini infection culminates in CCA remain unknown. An unexplored aspect is its influence on the host microbiome. In the hamster, infection with this pathogen reliably leads to CCA. Genomic DNAs of microbiota from colorectal contents and bile of hamsters and from whole O. viverrini were examined in this model of fluke-induced CCA. Microbial communities were characterized by high-throughput sequencing of variable regions 7–9 of prokaryotic 16S ribosomal DNA. Of ?1 million sequences, 536,009 with useable reads were assignable to 29,776 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) and, in turn, to 20 phyla and 273 genera of Bacteria or Archaea. Microbial community analyses revealed that fluke infection perturbed the gastrointestinal tract microbiome, increasing Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Lactobacillaceae, while decreasing Porphyromonadaceae, Erysipelotrichaceae, and Eubacteriaceae (P?0.05). More than 60 OTUs were detected in the biliary system, which confirmed bacteriobilia and a noteworthy community of microbes associated with the parasites. The fluke-associated microorganisms included potential pathogens from the Enterobacteriaceae and Listeriaceae and others, including Cyanobacteria and Deinococci, usually found in external environments. Given that opisthorchiasis is distinguished from other helminth infections by a robust inflammatory phenotype with conspicuously elevated IL-6, and that inflammation of the biliary system leads to periductal fibrosis, which is a precursor of CCA, the flukes and their microbiota may together drive this distinctive immune response.—Plieskatt, J. L., Raksawan, D., Mulvenna, J. P., Krause, L., Sripa, B., Bethony, J. M., Brindley, P. J. Infection with the carcinogenic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini modifies intestinal and biliary microbiome. PMID:23925654

Plieskatt, Jordan L.; Deenonpoe, Raksawan; Mulvenna, Jason P.; Krause, Lutz; Sripa, Banchob; Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Brindley, Paul J.

2013-01-01

21

Effects of the injectable contraceptive depot medroxyprogesterone acetate in Thai women with liver fluke infestation: results after six months  

PubMed Central

The effect of the three-monthly injectable contraceptive depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) on liver and lipid function was assessed in Thai women with liver fluke (Opisthorchis viverrini) infestation, DMPA administration being started in the immediate postpartum period. Immediate postpartum IUD and sterilization acceptors with fluke infestation were recruited as a comparison (control) group for the fluke-positiv DMPA acceptors. Comparable groups of fluke-negative acceptors were recruited in an area of Thailand free of liver fluke transmission. Results are presented for the first 6 follow-up months for 170 DMPA and 177 control fluke-positive subjects and for 153 DMPA and 150 control fluke-negative subjects. Small and similar increases occurred in each of the four groups for alanine amino transferase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and total bilirubin levels while aspartate amino transferase levels changed less in the DMPA groups than in their respective control groups. None of the subjects in either DMPA group had clearly abnormal results in these tests at 6 months. Alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol, and triglycerides levels were markedly lower in each group at 6 months than in the puerperal specimens. There was a greater decrease in triglycerides levels in both DMPA groups than in their respective control groups. However, the decrease in the alkaline phosphatase and cholesterol levels was greater only in the fluke-positive DMPA group than in the fluke-positive control group. None of these biochemical results were related to differences in age, parity, or lactation status between the groups. The results indicate that DMPA did not cause any early deleterious effects in the metabolic factors studied in women with liver fluke infestation. PMID:302157

Grossman, Richard A.; Assawasena, Vinich; Chalpati, Sopon; Taewtong, Dilok

1977-01-01

22

Cathepsin F Cysteine Protease of the Human Liver Fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini is classified as a class I carcinogen due to the association between cholangiocarcinoma and chronic O. viverrini infection. During its feeding activity within the bile duct, the parasite secretes several cathepsin F cysteine proteases that may induce or contribute to the pathologies associated with hepatobiliary abnormalities.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsHere, we describe the cDNA, gene organization, phylogenetic relationships,

Porntip Pinlaor; Natthawut Kaewpitoon; Thewarach Laha; Banchob Sripa; Sasithorn Kaewkes; Maria E. Morales; Victoria H. Mann; Sandi K. Parriott; Sutas Suttiprapa; Mark W. Robinson; Joyce To; John P. Dalton; Alex Loukas; Paul J. Brindley

2009-01-01

23

Cathepsin F Cysteine Protease of the Human Liver Fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini is classified as a class I carcinogen due to the association between cholangiocarcinoma and chronic O. viverrini infection. During its feeding activity within the bile duct,the parasite secretes several cathepsin F cysteine proteases that may induce or contribute to the pathologies associated with hepatobiliary abnormalities. Methodology\\/Principal Findings: Here, we describe the cDNA, gene organization,

Porntip Pinlaor; Natthawut Kaewpitoon; Thewarach Laha; Banchob Sripa; Sasithorn Kaewkes; Maria E. Morales; Victoria H. Mann; Sandi K. Parriott; Sutas Suttiprapa; Mark W. Robinson; Joyce To; John P. Dalton; Alex Loukas; Paul J. Brindley

2009-01-01

24

The effect of liver flukes on nutrient utilization in beef cattle  

E-print Network

bular space may occur. The anemia is triggered by arrival of the flukes in the bile ducts. The development of this anemia is not wel'i understood. Sinclair (1965) indicated that the anemia is associated with decreased red blood cell production...-ightly higher than that of the infested group. This 30 may suggest, as did the liver evaluations, that the infested animals suffered only minor liver damage. Evidence on the nature of anemia in chronic forms of 'the disease is conflicting, and the majority...

Crain, Richard Arnold

2012-06-07

25

RNAi Dynamics in Juvenile Fasciola spp. Liver Flukes Reveals the Persistence of Gene Silencing In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Background Fasciola spp. liver fluke cause pernicious disease in humans and animals. Whilst current control is unsustainable due to anthelmintic resistance, gene silencing (RNA interference, RNAi) has the potential to contribute to functional validation of new therapeutic targets. The susceptibility of juvenile Fasciola hepatica to double stranded (ds)RNA-induced RNAi has been reported. To exploit this we probe RNAi dynamics, penetrance and persistence with the aim of building a robust platform for reverse genetics in liver fluke. We describe development of standardised RNAi protocols for a commercially-available liver fluke strain (the US Pacific North West Wild Strain), validated via robust transcriptional silencing of seven virulence genes, with in-depth experimental optimisation of three: cathepsin L (FheCatL) and B (FheCatB) cysteine proteases, and a ?-class glutathione transferase (Fhe?GST). Methodology/Principal Findings Robust transcriptional silencing of targets in both F. hepatica and Fasciola gigantica juveniles is achievable following exposure to long (200–320 nt) dsRNAs or 27 nt short interfering (si)RNAs. Although juveniles are highly RNAi-susceptible, they display slower transcript and protein knockdown dynamics than those reported previously. Knockdown was detectable following as little as 4h exposure to trigger (target-dependent) and in all cases silencing persisted for ?25 days following long dsRNA exposure. Combinatorial silencing of three targets by mixing multiple long dsRNAs was similarly efficient. Despite profound transcriptional suppression, we found a significant time-lag before the occurrence of protein suppression; Fhe?GST and FheCatL protein suppression were only detectable after 9 and 21 days, respectively. Conclusions/Significance In spite of marked variation in knockdown dynamics, we find that a transient exposure to long dsRNA or siRNA triggers robust RNAi penetrance and persistence in liver fluke NEJs supporting the development of multiple-throughput phenotypic screens for control target validation. RNAi persistence in fluke encourages in vivo studies on gene function using worms exposed to RNAi-triggers prior to infection. PMID:25254508

McVeigh, Paul; McCammick, Erin M.; McCusker, Paul; Morphew, Russell M.; Mousley, Angela; Abidi, Abbas; Saifullah, Khalid M.; Muthusamy, Raman; Gopalakrishnan, Ravikumar; Spithill, Terry W.; Dalton, John P.; Brophy, Peter M.; Marks, Nikki J.; Maule, Aaron G.

2014-01-01

26

Opisthorchis viverrini (liver fluke) as the lot of baleful parasite of tropical region-A replete synopsis  

PubMed Central

Liver fluke disease is a chronic parasitic inflammatory disease of the bile ducts which is highly prominent in the tropical regions. Infection occurs through ingestion of fluke-infested fresh-water raw fish. Opisthorchis viverrini is the biggest causative organism for this disease. Adult flukes get into the body of humans and settle in the small intrahepatic bile ducts, and then they live there for few decades. The long-lived flukes cause long-lasting chronic inflammation of the bile ducts, and this produces epithelial hyperplasia, periductal fibrosis and bile duct dilatation. Major complications of the disease also include pancreatitis, bile duct obstruction etc. The majority of patients are asymptomatic, but the patients with heavy infection suffer from lassitude and nonspecific abdominal complaints. Approximately 35 million people are infected with liver flukes throughout the world and the exceptionally high incidence of cholangiocarcinoma in some endemic areas is closely related with a high prevalence of liver fluke infection. Considering the appulse of this food-borne malady on accessible bloom and the astringent accessible analytic consequences, alarmist accident infection should not be abandoned or neglected. This review acts as a complete picture in elucidating the information regarding the parasite and disease condition thereby supporting the researchers worldwide.

Gundamaraju, Rohit; Vemuri, Ravi Chandra

2014-01-01

27

Raw fish consumption in liver fluke endemic areas in rural southern Laos.  

PubMed

Consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked fish is a major public health concern in Southeast Asia, and in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), in particular. We aimed to assess the knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices of villagers in liver fluke endemic areas related to raw fish preparation, consumption and its health consequences. In February 2010, eight focus group discussions (FGDs, 35 men and 37 women total) and direct observations were conducted in four randomly selected villages in Saravane District, Saravane Province (Lao PDR). FGDs distilled the knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices of adult community members on raw fish preparation, consumption and its consequences for health. Conversations were transcribed from notes and tape-recorders. MaxQDA software was used for content analysis. Knowledge regarding the health effects of raw fish consumption was heterogeneous. Some participants did not associate liver fluke infection with any ill health, while others linked it to digestive problems. Participants also associated vegetables and tree leave consumption with liver fluke infection. The majority of FGD participants considered fish flesh that had been prepared with weaver ant extract to be safe for consumption. Visual appearance, taste, smell and personal preference were given as reasons for consuming raw fish dishes. Moreover, participants considered it a traditional way of food preparation, practiced for generations in Laos. Ten different fish dishes that use raw or fermented fish were identified. All FGD participants reported consuming dishes with raw fish. This study reveals a low degree of knowledge among local people on the health risks related to frequent consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked fish. Fish dishes were considered to be 'well-prepared' (that is, 'cooked') even though the fish had not been heated. In future, successful health education campaigns will have to address the specific knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices of the concerned population. PMID:23567553

Xayaseng, Vilavanh; Phongluxa, Khampheng; van Eeuwijk, Peter; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Odermatt, Peter

2013-08-01

28

The detection of snail host habitats in liver fluke infected farms by use of plant indicators.  

PubMed

Field investigations in 361 liver fluke infected cattle- or sheep-breeding farms on acid soil were carried out during thirty years in March and April to record indicator plants in relation to the category of site colonized by the intermediate host of liver fluke, the snail Galba truncatula. Seven types of snail zones and six species of indicator plants were recorded in the 7709 positive sites studied. The most frequent habitats were located at the peripheral extremities of open drainage furrows. Juncus acutiflorus, Juncus effusus, Glyceria fluitans, and Agrostis stolonifera were the indicator plants. Plant indicators were highly efficient (38-80% of variance explained) when used with the size of site area within a hydrographical zone. The identification of positive sites for G. truncatula is a key for controlling the intermediate host on pastures through biological control with predatory molluscs. The positive sites may be detected using a two-step method including first categorization of hydrographical zones and then, within a zone, use of one or several indicator plants (frequently J. acutiflorus). PMID:21524858

Rondelaud, Daniel; Hourdin, Philippe; Vignoles, Philippe; Dreyfuss, Gilles; Cabaret, Jacques

2011-09-27

29

Multiple origins of European populations of the giant liver fluke Fascioloides magna (Trematoda: Fasciolidae), a liver parasite of ruminants.  

PubMed

The giant liver fluke, Fascioloides magna, a liver parasite of free-living and domestic ruminants of Europe and North America, was analysed in order to determine the origin of European populations and to reveal the biogeography of this originally North American parasite on the European continent. The variable fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1; 384bp) and nicotinamide dehydrogenase subunit I (nad1; 405bp) were used. Phylogenetic trees and haplotype networks were constructed and the level of genetic structuring was evaluated using population genetic tools. In F. magna individuals originating from all European foci of infection (Italy, Czech Republic and Danube floodplain forests involving the territories of Slovakia, Hungary and Croatia) and from four of five major North American enzootic areas, 16 cox1 and 18 nad1 haplotypes were determined. The concatenated sequence set produced 22 distinct haplotypes. The European fluke populations were less diverse than those from North America in that they contained proportionately fewer haplotypes (eight), while a more substantial level of genetic diversity and a greater number of haplotypes (15) were recorded in North America. Only one haplotype was shared between the European (Italy) and North American (USA/Oregon and Canada/Alberta) flukes, supporting a western North American origin of the Italian F. magna population. Haplotypes found in Italy were distinct from those determined in the remaining European localities which indicates that introduction of F. magna to the European continent occurred more than once. In the Czech focus of infection, a south-eastern USA origin was revealed. Identical haplotypes, common to parasites from the Czech Republic and from an expanding focus in Danube floodplain forests, implies that the introduction of F. magna to the Danube region came from an already established Czech focus of infection. PMID:21172350

Králová-Hromadová, Ivica; Bazsalovicsová, Eva; Stefka, Jan; Spakulová, Marta; Vávrová, Silvia; Szemes, Tomáš; Tkach, Vasyl; Trudgett, Alan; Pybus, Margo

2011-03-01

30

Wherefrom and whereabouts of an alien: the American liver fluke Fascioloides magna in Austria: an overview.  

PubMed

The giant liver fluke Fascioloides magna, an invasive species originating from North America, was recorded in Austria in the wild for the first time in 2000. Since then, various data concerning the epidemiology in snail intermediate hosts and cervid final hosts have been reported. Galba truncatula acts as snail intermediate host, and red deer, roe deer and fallow deer act as final hosts. G. truncatula is abundant throughout the region, especially along muddy shores of slow-flowing branches of the river system. Prevalence in deer (20-100?%) is much higher than in snails (0.03-0.2?%). Despite medical treatment of parts of the deer population, the parasite has successfully established itself on both sides of the Danube floodplain environments southeast of Vienna. Genetic analysis revealed that the infection of Austrian deer populations apparently originated from foci in the Czech Republic or from populations of Danube tributaries. Areas adjacent southwards, which will soon be joined through wildlife crossings, have not yet evidenced F. magna. Nonetheless, these environments are inhabited by host snails and deer and therefore constitute suitable habitats for F. magna. Invading alien parasites not only threaten native individual hosts but also influence host populations, thus potentially also modifying parasite communities and interactions. The host range of F. magna includes a variety of potential hosts, notably other Lymnaeidae as potential intermediate hosts and various ungulates, including sheep and cattle, as final hosts. Because eradication after medical treatment was unsuccessful, and due to the risk of further spread of the parasite into unaffected regions, enhanced control strategies need to be developed. We recommend assessment of introduction pathways and dispersal, continuous monitoring of host abundance and distribution and the prevalence of flukes in intermediate and final hosts, as well as coordinated and concerted actions with neighbouring countries. This strategy could help to reduce potential negative impacts of this and other invasive parasites on host populations in Europe. PMID:24535172

Sattmann, Helmut; Hörweg, Christoph; Gaub, Larissa; Feix, Anna Sophia; Haider, Michaela; Walochnik, Julia; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Prosl, Heinrich

2014-04-01

31

Acute cholecystitis associated with Clonorchis sinensis infection  

PubMed Central

Clonorchis sinensis is one of the most common causes of trematodiasis that is caused by the ingestion of raw fish contaminated with infective cysts. The adult flukes are predominantly present in the intrahepatic bile ducts, but occasionally they may be found in the pancreatic duct and extrahepatic bile ducts. The clinical manifestations depend on the number of flukes, the period of infestation, and complications such as pericholangitic abscess, cholangitis, bile duct stones, and cholangiocarcinoma. However, primary acute cholecystitis associated with C. sinensis infection is extremely rare. Herein, we report on a case of primary acute cholecystitis associated with C. sinensis infection. PMID:25114891

Oh, Jung Taek; Jo, Hyang Jeong

2014-01-01

32

Fasciola hepatica: Characterization and Cloning of the Major Cathepsin B Protease Secreted by Newly Excysted Juvenile Liver Fluke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wilson, L. R., Good, R. T., Panaccio, M., Wijffels, G. L., Sandeman, R. M., and Spithill, T. W. 1998.Fasciola hepatica:Characterization and cloning of the major cathepsin B protease secreted by newly excysted juvenile liver fluke.Experimental Parasitology88, 85–94. Proteolytic activity present in the excreted\\/secreted (ES) material of newly excysted juvenile (NEJ)Fasciola hepaticawas biochemically analyzed. By gelatin substrate SDS-PAGE, only one region

Lachlan R. Wilson; Robert T. Good; Michael Panaccio; Gene L. Wijffels; R. Mark Sandeman; Terry W. Spithill

1998-01-01

33

Cyclophilin A enhances cell proliferation and tumor growth of liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Cyclophilin A (CypA) expression is associated with malignant phenotypes in many cancers. However, the role and mechanisms of CypA in liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) are not presently known. In this study, we investigated the expression of CypA in CCA tumor tissues and CCA cell lines as well as regulation mechanisms of CypA in tumor growth using CCA cell lines. Methods CypA expression was determined by real time RT-PCR, Western blot or immunohistochemistry. CypA silence or overexpression in CCA cells was achieved using gene delivery techniques. Cell proliferation was assessed using MTS assay or Ki-67 staining. The effect of silencing CypA on CCA tumor growth was determined in nude mice. The effect of CypA knockdown on ERK1/2 activation was assessed by Western blot. Results CypA was upregulated in 68% of CCA tumor tissues. Silencing CypA significantly suppressed cell proliferation in several CCA cell lines. Likewise, inhibition of CypA peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) activity using cyclosporin A (CsA) decreased cell proliferation. In contrast, overexpression of CypA resulted in 30% to 35% increases in proliferation of CCA cell lines. Interestingly, neither silence nor overexpression of CypA affected cell proliferation of a non-tumor human cholangiocyte cell line, MMNK1. Suppression of CypA expression attenuated ERK1/2 activity in CCA M139 cells by using both transient and stable knockdown methods. In the in vivo study, there was a 43% reduction in weight of tumors derived from CypA-silenced CCA cell lines compared with control vector CCA tumors in mice; these tumors with stable CypA silencing showed a reduced cell proliferation. Conclusions CypA is upregulated in majority of CCA patients' tissues and confers a significant growth advantage in CCA cells. Suppression of CypA expression decreases proliferation of CCA cell lines in vitro and reduces tumor growth in the nude mouse model. Inhibition of CypA activity also reduces CCA cell proliferation. The ERK1/2 pathway may be involved in the CypA-mediated CCA cell proliferation. Thus, CypA may represent an important new therapeutic target for liver fluke-associated CCA. PMID:21871105

2011-01-01

34

Stage-specific expression and antigenicity of glycoprotein glycans isolated from the human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini  

PubMed Central

Infection by Opisthorchis viverrini (liver fluke) is a major public health problem in southeastern Asia, resulting in hepatobiliary disease and cholangiocarcinoma. Fluke surface glycoconjugates are prominently presented to the host, thereby constituting a crucial immunological interface that can determine the parasite’s success in establishing infection. Therefore, N- and O-linked glycoprotein glycan profiles of the infective metacercarial stage and of the mature adult were investigated by nanospray ionization-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (NSI-MSn). Glycan immunogenicity was investigated by immunobloting with serum from infected humans. Metacercariae and adult parasites exhibit similar glycan diversity, although the prevalence of individual glycans and glycan classes varies by stage. The N-glycans of the metacercaria are mostly high mannose and monofucosylated, truncated-type oligosaccharides (62.7%), with the remainder processed to complex and hybrid type glycans (37.3%). The N-linked glycan profile of the adult is also dominated by high mannose and monofucosylated, truncated-type oligosaccharides (80.0%), with a smaller contribution from complex and hybrid type glycans (20.0%). At both stages, complex and hybrid type glycans are detected as mono-, bi-, tri-, or tetra-antennary structures. In metacercariae and adults, O-linked glycans are detected as mono- to pentasaccharides. The mucin type core 1 structure, Gal?1-3GalNAc, predominates in both stages but is less prevalent in the adult than in the metacercaria. Immunogenic recognition of liver fluke glycoproteins is reduced after deglycosylation but infected human serum was unable to recognize glycans released from peptides. Therefore, the most potent liver fluke antigenic epitopes are mixed determinants, comprised of glycan and polypeptide elements. PMID:23174105

Talabnin, Krajang; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Saichua, Prasert; Wongkham, Sopit; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Boons, Geert-Jan; Sripa, Banchob; Tiemeyer, Michael

2013-01-01

35

Evaluation of liver fluke recombinant cathepsin B-1 protease as a serodiagnostic antigen for human opisthorchiasis.  

PubMed

A cathepsin B-like cysteine protease belonging to family C1 is abundantly expressed in the transcriptome and proteome of the carcinogenic liver fluke of humans, Opisthorchis viverrini. This enzyme is present in excretory/secretory (ES) products released by parasites cultured in vitro. This study evaluated the performance of recombinant O. viverrini cathepsin B1 (rOv-CB-1) as an antigen for immunodiagnosis of opisthorchiasis. The full length Ov-CB-1 cDNA was cloned and recombinant protein was produced in catalytically active form in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant Ov-CB-1 (rOv-CB-1) was affinity purified via nickel-NTA chromatography and tested in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) with human sera from an opisthorchiasis endemic area. Sera from egg-positive O. viverrini infections produced a strong IgG antibody response to rOv-CB-1 both in ELISA and immunoblot analysis. The sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA test was 67% and 81%, respectively. These findings support the feasibility of using recombinant Ov-CB-1 in ELISA for the serodiagnosis of human opisthorchiasis. PMID:21704728

Sripa, Jittiyawadee; Brindley, Paul J; Sripa, Banchob; Loukas, Alex; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Laha, Thewarach

2012-03-01

36

Biochemical characterisation of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) from the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica.  

PubMed

Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) catalyses one of the two steps in glycolysis which generate the reduced coenzyme NADH. This reaction precedes the two ATP generating steps. Thus, inhibition of GAPDH will lead to substantially reduced energy generation. Consequently, there has been considerable interest in developing GAPDH inhibitors as anti-cancer and anti-parasitic agents. Here, we describe the biochemical characterisation of GAPDH from the common liver fluke Fasciola hepatica (FhGAPDH). The primary sequence of FhGAPDH is similar to that from other trematodes and the predicted structure shows high similarity to those from other animals including the mammalian hosts. FhGAPDH lacks a binding pocket which has been exploited in the design of novel antitrypanosomal compounds. The protein can be expressed in, and purified from Escherichia coli; the recombinant protein was active and showed no cooperativity towards glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate as a substrate. In the absence of ligands, FhGAPDH was a mixture of homodimers and tetramers, as judged by protein-protein crosslinking and analytical gel filtration. The addition of either NAD? or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate shifted this equilibrium towards a compact dimer. Thermal scanning fluorimetry demonstrated that this form was considerably more stable than the unliganded one. These responses to ligand binding differ from those seen in mammalian enzymes. These differences could be exploited in the discovery of reagents which selectively disrupt the function of FhGAPDH. PMID:24566472

Zinsser, Veronika L; Hoey, Elizabeth M; Trudgett, Alan; Timson, David J

2014-04-01

37

Opisthorchis felineus liver fluke invasion is an environmental factor modifying genetic risk of atopic bronchial asthma.  

PubMed

According to epidemiological observations, Opisthorchis felineus liver fluke invasion is negatively associated with the development and severity of allergic diseases in endemic regions of Russia. We hypothesized that the invasion is an important factor in gene-environmental interactions (GEI) underlying allergy. To prove this, we tested 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms of immune response modifying genes in 428 individuals stratified by atopic bronchial asthma presence and O. felineus invasion. Using regression models, a statistically significant interaction between the rs6737848 polymorphism of SOCS5 gene and O. felineus invasion was observed (pint=0.001, OR=5.66, 95% CI 1.96-16.31 for dominant model; pint=0.003; OR=4.38, 95% CI 1.68-11.45 for additive model). The interaction is based on the statistically significant association between the SOCS5 gene and atopic bronchial asthma in patients without O. felineus infection, while no such association is seen in patients infected by the helminth. These data confirm for the first time the importance of the helminth invasion as an environmental factor influencing the association between genetic factors and atopic bronchial asthma. In particular, O. felineus diminishes the risk of atopic bronchial asthma associated with the SOCS5 gene polymorphism. PMID:25017311

Saltykova, Irina V; Ogorodova, Ludmila M; Bragina, Elena Yu; Puzyrev, Valery P; Freidin, Maxim B

2014-11-01

38

Differential expression of liver fluke ?-tubulin isotypes at selected life cycle stages.  

PubMed

We have shown that Fasciola hepatica expresses at least six ?-tubulins in the adult stage of its life cycle, designated F.hep-?-tub1-6 (Ryan et al., 2008). Here we show that different complements of tubulin isotypes are expressed in different tissues and at different life cycle stages; this information may inform the search for novel anthelmintics. The predominant (as judged by quantitative PCR) isotype transcribed at the adult stage was F.hep-?-tub1 and immunolocalisation studies revealed that this isotype occurred mainly in mature spermatozoa and vitelline follicles. Quantitative PCR indicated that changes occurred in the transcription levels of ?-tubulin isotypes at certain life cycle stages and may be of importance in the efficacy of benzimidazole-based anthelmintic drugs, but there were no significant differences between the triclabendazole-susceptible Leon isolate and the triclabendazole-resistant Oberon isolate in the transcription levels of each of the isotypes. When three well-characterised isolates with differing susceptibilities to triclabendazole were compared, only one amino acid change resulting from a homozygous coding sequence difference (Gly269Ser) in isotype 4 was observed. However, this change was not predicted to alter the overall structure of the protein. In conclusion, these findings indicate that there is tissue-specific expression of tubulin isotypes in the liver fluke but the development of resistance to triclabendazole is not associated with changes in its presumed target molecule. PMID:24162076

Fuchs, Marc-Aurel; Ryan, Louise A; Chambers, Emma L; Moore, Catherine M; Fairweather, Ian; Trudgett, Alan; Timson, David J; Brennan, Gerry P; Hoey, Elizabeth M

2013-12-01

39

Cloning and characterization of a female genital complex cDNA from the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica.  

PubMed

A cDNA clone whose RNA is abundant in the female genital complex of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica has been isolated from a cDNA library in lambda gt10 by differential screening. The pattern of expression in different fluke tissues and at different stages of miracidium formation suggests that this gene is expressed in the F. hepatica vitelleria. The nucleotide sequence of the cloned cDNA was determined and the primary structure of the putative protein was deduced. The proposed protein is rich in glycine, lysine, and tyrosine and its overall amino acid composition agrees with that reported for the F. hepatica egg shell. The clone has homology with DNA from other trematodes; this homology is higher in organisms in which egg development is similar to that of F. hepatica and suggests that the protein is conserved in organisms in which miracidium formation occurs in fresh water. PMID:3470798

Zurita, M; Bieber, D; Ringold, G; Mansour, T E

1987-04-01

40

Liver fluke (Opisthorchiidae) findings in red foxes ( Vulpes vulpes ) in the eastern part of the Federal State Brandenburg, Germany – a contribution to the epidemiology of opisthorchiidosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasitological examination of 677 livers from red foxes shot in connection with a rabies control programme were carried\\u000a out in the eastern districts of the Federal State Brandenburg\\/Germany in 1996. Of the foxes, 32.5% were positive for opisthorchiid\\u000a flukes. Metorchis bilis, the most frequently occurring fluke was found in 28.1% of foxes with numbers between 1 and 185. Opisthorchis felineus

Rolf Schuster; Jörg Bonin; Christoph Staubach; Rolf Heidrich

1999-01-01

41

Time-course and accumulation of triclabendazole and its metabolites in bile, liver tissues and flukes collected from treated sheep.  

PubMed

The flukicidal compound triclabendazole (TCBZ) has a complex metabolic pattern that includes the systemic presence of its sulphoxide (TCBZ.SO) and sulphone (TCBZ.SO2) metabolites, usually recovered from the bile of treated animals. The aim of the current work was to evaluate the time-course and pattern of in vivo accumulation of TCBZ/metabolites into adult Fasciola hepatica specimens recovered from infected sheep. Twelve (12) healthy Corriedale sheep were orally infected with one hundred (100) metacercariae of the TCBZ-susceptible Cullomptom isolate of F. hepatica. Sixteen weeks after infection, animals were intraruminally treated with TCBZ (10mg/kg). At 3, 24, 48 and 60h post-treatment (pt), animals were sacrificed (n=3/time period) and samples of blood, bile, liver tissue and adult F. hepatica specimens were collected. The concentrations of TCBZ/metabolites were measured by HPLC. TCBZ.SO and TCBZ.SO2 were the only molecules recovered in the bloodstream, with peak plasma concentrations of 10.8?g/mL (TCBZ.SO) and 12.6?g/mL (TCBZ.SO2). The same metabolites were also the main analytes accumulated within the adult flukes, reaching peak concentrations between 6.35?g/g (TCBZ.SO) and 13.9?g/g (TCBZ.SO2) at 24h pt, which was coincident with the time when the maximum plasma concentration was attained. Low levels of TCBZ parent drug (0.14?g/g at 24h pt) were measured within collected flukes. TCBZ parent drug and its sulpho- and hydroxy-derivatives were recovered in bile collected from treated sheep between 3 and 60h pt. Although relatively high concentrations of hydroxy-TCBZ (ranging from 0.86 to 10.1?g/mL) were measured in bile, this metabolite was not recovered within the flukes at any time pt. Finally, TCBZ parent drug was the main compound accumulated in liver tissue over the 60h pt period. The time-course and drug concentration patterns within the adult liver fluke after TCBZ treatment followed a similar trend to those observed in plasma. Overall, the data reported here confirm that oral ingestion is a main route of drug entry into the trematode in vivo exposed to TCBZ/metabolites. However, the presence of TCBZ within the adult fluke (despite being absent in the systemic circulation) may be related to some degree of trans-tegumental diffusion from bile or by a direct oral ingestion from portal blood. PMID:24211244

Moreno, Laura; Ceballos, Laura; Fairweather, Ian; Lanusse, Carlos; Alvarez, Luis

2014-01-01

42

Development of Mitochondrial Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Detection of the Small Liver Fluke Opisthorchis viverrini (Opisthorchiidae; Trematoda; Platyhelminthes)  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial DNA sequences offer major advantages over the more usual nuclear targets for loop-mediated isothermal amplification approaches (mito-LAMP) because multiple copies occur in every cell. Four LAMP primers [F3, FIP(F1c+F2), BIP(B1c+B2), and B3] were designed based on the mitochondrial nad1 sequence of Opisthorchis viverrini and used for a highly specific assay (mito-OvLAMP) to distinguish DNA of O. viverrini from that of another opisthorchiid (Clonorchis sinensis) and other trematodes (Haplorchis pumilio, Haplorchis taichui, Fasciola hepatica, and Fasciola gigantica). Conventional PCR was applied using F3/B3 primer pairs to verify the specificity of the primers for O. viverrini DNA templates. All LAMP-positive samples could be detected with the naked eye in sunlight, by gel electrophoresis (stained with ethidium bromide), and by addition of SYBR green I to the product in sunlight or under UV light. Only DNA from O. viverrini yielded amplification products by LAMP (and by PCR verification), and the LAMP limit of detection was as little as 100 fg (10?4 ng DNA), indicating that this assay is 10 to 100 times more sensitive than PCR. Field testing was done using representative egg and metacercarial samples collected from localities where the fluke is endemic. With the advantages of simplicity, rapidity, sensitivity, and cost effectiveness, mito-OvLAMP is a good tool for molecular detection and epidemiology studies in regions or countries where O. viverrini is endemic, which can lead to more effective control of opisthorchiasis and trematodiasis. PMID:22322346

Nguyen, Nga Thi Bich; Truong, Nam Hai; De, Nguyen Van

2012-01-01

43

Biochemical characterisation of triose phosphate isomerase from the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica.  

PubMed

Triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) catalyses the interconversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, a reaction in the glycolytic pathway. TPI from the common liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, has been cloned, sequenced and recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli. The protein has a monomeric molecular mass of approximately 28 kDa. Crosslinking and gel filtration experiments demonstrated that the enzyme exists predominantly as a dimer in solution. F. hepatica TPI is predicted to have a ?-barrel structure and key active site residues (Lys-14, His-95 and Glu-165) are conserved. The enzyme shows remarkable stability to both proteolytic degradation and thermal denaturation. The melting temperature, estimated by thermal scanning fluorimetry, was 67 °C and this temperature was increased in the presence of either dihydroxyacetone phosphate or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. Kinetic studies showed that F. hepatica TPI demonstrates Michaelis-Menten kinetics in both directions, with Km values for dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate of 2.3 mM and 0.66 mM respectively. Turnover numbers were estimated at 25,000 s(-1) for the conversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate and 1900 s(-1) for the conversion of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. Phosphoenolpyruvate acts as a weak inhibitor of the enzyme. F. hepatica TPI has many features in common with mammalian TPI enzymes (e.g. ?-barrel structure, homodimeric nature, high stability and rapid kinetic turnover). Nevertheless, recent successful identification of specific inhibitors of TPI from other parasites, suggests that small differences in structure and biochemical properties could be exploited in the development of novel, species-specific inhibitors. PMID:23973283

Zinsser, Veronika L; Hoey, Elizabeth M; Trudgett, Alan; Timson, David J

2013-11-01

44

Inflammatory response to liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini depends on host master coregulator, MTA1, a marker for parasite induced cholangiocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Based on the recently established role for the master coregulator MTA1 and MTA1-containing nuclear remodeling complexes, in oncogenesis and inflammation, we explored the links between parasitism by the carcinogenic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini and this coregulator using both an Mta1?/? mouse model of infection and a tissue microarray of liver fluke induced human cholangiocarcinomas. Intense foci of inflammation and periductal fibrosis in the liver and kidney of wild type, Mta1+/+ mice were evident at 23 days post-infection with O. viverrini. In contrast, little inflammatory response was observed in the same organs of infected Mta1?/? mice. Livers of infected Mta1+/+ mice revealed strong upregulation of fibrosis-associated markers such as cytokeratins 18, 19, and annexin-2, as determined by both by immunostaining and by reverse transcription PCR compared to infected Mta1?/? mice. CD4 expression was upregulated by infection in the liver of both experimental groups; however, its levels were several folds higher in the Mta1+/+ mice than in infected Mta1?/? mice. Mta1?/? infected mice also exhibited significantly higher systemic and hepatic levels of host cytokines such as IL-12p70, IL-10 and IFN-? compared to the levels of these cytokines in the Mta1+/+ mice, suggesting an essential role of MTA1 in the cross-regulation of the Th1 and Th2 responses, presumably due to chromatin remodeling of the target chromatin genes. Immunohistochemical analysis of ~300 liver tissue cores from confirmed cases of O. viverrini induced cholangiocarcinoma showed that MTA1 expression was elevated in more than 80% of the specimens. These findings suggest that MTA1 status plays an important role in conferring an optimal cytokine response in mice following infection with O. viverrini and is a major player in parasite-induced cholangiocarcinoma in humans. PMID:21725997

Nair, Sujit S.; Bommana, Anitha; Pakala, Suresh B; Ohshiro, Kazufumi; Lyon, Amanda J.; Suttiprapa, Sutas; Periago, Maria V; Laha, Thewarach; Hotez, Peter J.; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Sripa, Banchob; Brindley, Paul J; Kumar, Rakesh

2011-01-01

45

High Prevalence of Human Liver Infection by Amphimerus spp. Flukes, Ecuador  

PubMed Central

Amphimerus spp. flukes are known to infect mammals, but human infections have not been confirmed. Microscopy of fecal samples from 397 persons from Ecuador revealed Opisthorchiidae eggs in 71 (24%) persons. Light microscopy of adult worms and scanning electron microscopy of eggs were compatible with descriptions of Amphimerus spp. This pathogen was only observed in communities that consumed undercooked fish. PMID:22172165

Calvopina, Manuel; Cevallos, William; Kumazawa, Hideo; Eisenberg, Joseph

2011-01-01

46

Mitochondrial DNA haplotype analysis of liver fluke in bison from Bialowieza Primaeval Forest indicates domestic cattle as the likely source of infection.  

PubMed

We have determined the mitochondrial genotype of liver fluke present in Bison (Bison bonasus) from the herd maintained in the Bialowieza National Park in order to determine the origin of the infection. Our results demonstrated that the infrapopulations present in the bison were genetically diverse and were likely to have been derived from the population present in local cattle. From a consideration of the genetic structure of the liver fluke infrapopulations we conclude that the provision of hay at feeding stations may be implicated in the transmission of this parasite to the bison. This information may be of relevance to the successful management of the herd. PMID:22925823

Walker, Stephen M; Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W; Kozak, Monika; Wedrychowicz, Halina; Teofanova, Denitsa; Prodohl, Paulo; Brennan, Gerry; Fairweather, Ian; Hoey, Elizabeth M; Trudgett, Alan

2013-01-16

47

Low Genetic Diversity in Wide-Spread Eurasian Liver Fluke Opisthorchis felineus Suggests Special Demographic History of This Trematode Species  

PubMed Central

Opisthorchis felineus or Siberian liver fluke is a trematode parasite (Opisthorchiidae) that infects the hepato-biliary system of humans and other mammals. Despite its public health significance, this wide-spread Eurasian species is one of the most poorly studied human liver flukes and nothing is known about its population genetic structure and demographic history. In this paper, we attempt to fill this gap for the first time and to explore the genetic diversity in O. felineus populations from Eastern Europe (Ukraine, European part of Russia), Northern Asia (Siberia) and Central Asia (Northern Kazakhstan). Analysis of marker DNA fragments from O. felineus mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 3 (cox1, cox3) and nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences revealed that genetic diversity is very low across the large geographic range of this species. Microevolutionary processes in populations of trematodes may well be influenced by their peculiar biology. Nevertheless, we suggest that lack of population genetics structure observed in O. felineus can be primarily explained by the Pleistocene glacial events and subsequent sudden population growth from a very limited group of founders. Rapid range expansion of O. felineus through Asian and European territories after severe bottleneck points to a high dispersal potential of this trematode species. PMID:23634228

Brusentsov, Ilja I.; Katokhin, Alexey V.; Brusentsova, Irina V.; Shekhovtsov, Sergei V.; Borovikov, Sergei N.; Goncharenko, Grigoriy G.; Lider, Lyudmila A.; Romashov, Boris V.; Rusinek, Olga T.; Shibitov, Samat K.; Suleymanov, Marat M.; Yevtushenko, Andrey V.; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A.

2013-01-01

48

The first report in new zealand of Lymnaea columella say (Mollusca: gastropoda) an intermediate host of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica L  

Microsoft Academic Search

ExtractSir—In New Zealand, the common liver fluke Fasciola hepatica L. has within the last ten years, spread progressively to parts where it was previously not considered to be a problem (R. M. Salisbury, pers. comm.; B. Fraser, pers. comm.; and Moxham et al., 1969). This has prompted an interest in the Lymnaeid snail intermediate hosts.

N. B. Pullan

1969-01-01

49

Rapid Detection and Differentiation of Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini Using Real-Time PCR and High Resolution Melting Analysis  

PubMed Central

Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini are both important fish-borne pathogens, causing serious public health problem in Asia. The present study developed an assay integrating real-time PCR and high resolution melting (HRM) analysis for the specific detection and rapid identification of C. sinensis and O. viverrini. Primers targeting COX1 gene were highly specific for these liver flukes, as evidenced by the negative amplification of closely related trematodes. Assays using genomic DNA extracted from the two flukes yielded specific amplification and their identity was confirmed by sequencing, having the accuracy of 100% in reference to conventional methods. The assay was proved to be highly sensitive with a detection limit below 1 pg of purified genomic DNA, 5 EPG, or 1 metacercaria of C. sinensis. Moreover, C. sinensis and O. viverrini were able to be differentiated by their HRM profiles. The method can reduce labor of microscopic examination and the contamination of agarose electrophoresis. Moreover, it can differentiate these two flukes which are difficult to be distinguished using other methods. The established method provides an alternative tool for rapid, simple, and duplex detection of C. sinensis and O. viverrini. PMID:25386621

Cai, Xian-Quan; Yu, Hai-Qiong; Li, Rong; Yue, Qiao-Yun; Liu, Guo-Hua; Bai, Jian-Shan; Deng, Yan; Qiu, De-Yi; Zhu, Xing-Quan

2014-01-01

50

A comparative study of karyotypes and chromosomal location of rDNA genes in important liver flukes Fasciola hepatica and Fascioloides magna (Trematoda: Fasciolidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosomal characteristics, i.e., number, size, morphology, and location of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) clusters were examined in\\u000a two medically important liver flukes, Fasciola hepatica and Fascioloides magna (Fasciolidae), using conventional Giemsa staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with ribosomal 18S rDNA probe.\\u000a A comparison of F. magna and F. hepatica karyotypes confirmed significant differences in all chromosomal features. Whilst the

Marianna Reblánová; Marta Špakulová; Martina Orosová; Ivica Králová-Hromadová; Eva Bazsalovicsová; Dušan Rajský

51

Proteomics and in silico approaches to extend understanding of the glutathione transferase superfamily of the tropical liver fluke Fasciola gigantica.  

PubMed

Fasciolosis is an important foodborne, zoonotic disease of livestock and humans, with global annual health and economic losses estimated at several billion US$. Fasciola hepatica is the major species in temperate regions, while F. gigantica dominates in the tropics. In the absence of commercially available vaccines to control fasciolosis, increasing reports of resistance to current chemotherapeutic strategies and the spread of fasciolosis into new areas, new functional genomics approaches are being used to identify potential new drug targets and vaccine candidates. The glutathione transferase (GST) superfamily is both a candidate drug and vaccine target. This study reports the identification of a putatively novel Sigma class GST, present in a water-soluble cytosol extract from the tropical liver fluke F. gigantica. The GST was cloned and expressed as an enzymically active recombinant protein. This GST shares a greater identity with the human schistosomiasis GST vaccine currently at Phase II clinical trials than previously discovered F. gigantica GSTs, stimulating interest in its immuno-protective properties. In addition, in silico analysis of the GST superfamily of both F. gigantica and F. hepatica has revealed an additional Mu class GST, Omega class GSTs, and for the first time, a Zeta class member. PMID:23167294

Morphew, Russell M; Eccleston, Neil; Wilkinson, Toby J; McGarry, John; Perally, Samirah; Prescott, Mark; Ward, Deborah; Williams, Diana; Paterson, Steve; Raman, M; Ravikumar, G; Khalid Saifullah, M; Abbas Abidi, S M; McVeigh, Paul; Maule, Aaron G; Brophy, Peter M; LaCourse, E James

2012-12-01

52

Exome sequencing identifies distinct mutational patterns in liver fluke-related and non-infection-related bile duct cancers.  

PubMed

The impact of different carcinogenic exposures on the specific patterns of somatic mutation in human tumors remains unclear. To address this issue, we profiled 209 cholangiocarcinomas (CCAs) from Asia and Europe, including 108 cases caused by infection with the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini and 101 cases caused by non-O. viverrini-related etiologies. Whole-exome sequencing (n = 15) and prevalence screening (n = 194) identified recurrent somatic mutations in BAP1 and ARID1A, neither of which, to our knowledge, has previously been reported to be mutated in CCA. Comparisons between intrahepatic O. viverrini-related and non-O. viverrini-related CCAs demonstrated statistically significant differences in mutation patterns: BAP1, IDH1 and IDH2 were more frequently mutated in non-O. viverrini CCAs, whereas TP53 mutations showed the reciprocal pattern. Functional studies demonstrated tumor suppressive functions for BAP1 and ARID1A, establishing the role of chromatin modulators in CCA pathogenesis. These findings indicate that different causative etiologies may induce distinct somatic alterations, even within the same tumor type. PMID:24185513

Chan-On, Waraporn; Nairismägi, Maarja-Liisa; Ong, Choon Kiat; Lim, Weng Khong; Dima, Simona; Pairojkul, Chawalit; Lim, Kiat Hon; McPherson, John R; Cutcutache, Ioana; Heng, Hong Lee; Ooi, London; Chung, Alexander; Chow, Pierce; Cheow, Peng Chung; Lee, Ser Yee; Choo, Su Pin; Tan, Iain Bee Huat; Duda, Dan; Nastase, Anca; Myint, Swe Swe; Wong, Bernice Huimin; Gan, Anna; Rajasegaran, Vikneswari; Ng, Cedric Chuan Young; Nagarajan, Sanjanaa; Jusakul, Apinya; Zhang, Shenli; Vohra, Priya; Yu, Willie; Huang, DaChuan; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Yongvanit, Puangrat; Wongkham, Sopit; Khuntikeo, Narong; Bhudhisawasdi, Vajaraphongsa; Popescu, Irinel; Rozen, Steven G; Tan, Patrick; Teh, Bin Tean

2013-12-01

53

Opisthorchis viverrini-like liver fluke in birds from Vietnam: morphological variability and rDNA/mtDNA sequence confirmation.  

PubMed

Flukes were found in the bile ducts of domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos), necropsied in the Binh Dinh province of Central Vietnam. Following staining, morphological characteristics of the bird flukes were compatible with Opisthorchis viverrini, although some characteristics differed from those described in specimens collected from mammal hosts. Computation of the phylogenetic trees on the partial sequences of the second internal ribosomal spacer (ITS2) of the ribosomal DNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) markers of the mitochondrial DNA showed close similarity of the 'bird' Opisthorchis sp. with O. viverrini. We speculate that these bird flukes are O. viverrini that show intraspecies morphological and molecular variability compared to isolates from mammals. This demonstrates the complex epidemiological situation of opisthorchiasis in Vietnam and urges investigations on the potential of birds as a reservoir host of this zoonotic fluke. PMID:23721954

Dao, T H; Nguyen, T G; Victor, B; Gabriël, S; Dorny, P

2014-12-01

54

Evidence for high genetic diversity of NAD1 and COX1 mitochondrial haplotypes among triclabendazole resistant and susceptible populations and field isolates of Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke) in Australia.  

PubMed

In recent years, the global incidence of Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke) infections exhibiting resistance to triclabendazole (TCBZ) has increased, resulting in increased economic losses for livestock producers and threatening future control. The development of TCBZ resistance and the worldwide discovery of F. hepatica population diversity has emphasized the need to further understand the genetic structure of drug susceptible and resistant Fasciola populations within Australia. In this study, the genetic diversity of liver flukes was estimated by sequencing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encoding the NAD1 (530 bp) and COX1 (420 bp) genes of 208 liver flukes (F. hepatica) collected from three populations: field isolates obtained from abattoirs from New South Wales (NSW) and Victoria (Vic); three TCBZ-resistant fluke populations from NSW and Victoria; and the well-established TCBZ-susceptible Sunny Corner laboratory isolate. Overall nucleotide diversity for all flukes analysed of 0.00516 and 0.00336 was estimated for the NAD1 and COX1 genes respectively. Eighteen distinct haplotypes were established for the NAD1 gene and six haplotypes for the COX1 gene, resulting in haplotype diversity levels of 0.832 and 0.482, respectively. One field isolate showed a similar low level of haplotype diversity as seen in the Sunny Corner laboratory isolate. Analysis of TCBZ-resistant infrapopulations from 3 individual cattle grazing one property revealed considerable sequence parasite diversity between cattle. Analysis of parasite TCBZ-resistant infrapopulations from sheep and cattle revealed haplotypes unique to each host, but no significant difference between parasite populations. Fst analysis of fluke populations revealed little differentiation between the resistant and field populations. This study has revealed a high level of diversity in field and drug resistant flukes in South-Eastern Australia. PMID:24360656

Elliott, T; Muller, A; Brockwell, Y; Murphy, N; Grillo, V; Toet, H M; Anderson, G; Sangster, N; Spithill, T W

2014-02-24

55

A comparative study of karyotypes and chromosomal location of rDNA genes in important liver flukes Fasciola hepatica and Fascioloides magna (Trematoda: Fasciolidae).  

PubMed

Chromosomal characteristics, i.e., number, size, morphology, and location of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) clusters were examined in two medically important liver flukes, Fasciola hepatica and Fascioloides magna (Fasciolidae), using conventional Giemsa staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with ribosomal 18S rDNA probe. A comparison of F. magna and F. hepatica karyotypes confirmed significant differences in all chromosomal features. Whilst the karyotype of F. hepatica comprised ten pairs of chromosomes (one metacentric and nine medium-sized subtelocentrics and submetacentrics; 2n?=?20, n?=?1 m?+?5 sm?+?4 st; TCL?=?49.9 ?m), the complement of F. magna was composed of 11 pairs of medium-sized subtelocentrics and submeta-metacentrics (2n?=?22, n?=?9 st?+?1 sm?+?1 sm-m; TCL?=?35.2 ?m). Noticeable differences were found mainly in length and morphology of first chromosome pair. It was metacentric and 9.0 ?m long in F. hepatica while subtelocentric and 4.7 ?m long in F. magna. Although FISH with rDNA probe revealed a single cluster of ribosomal genes in both species, conspicuous interspecific differences were displayed by chromosomal location of ribosomal loci (i.e., NORs). The signals were found on short arms of fifth homologous pair in F. hepatica; however, they were detected in pericentromeric regions of the long arms of tenth pair in F. magna. The observed cytogenetic differences were interpreted in terms of karyotype evolution of fasciolid flukes; F. hepatica may be regarded phylogenetically younger than F. magna. The present paper provides a pilot study on molecular cytogenetics within a group of hermaphroditic digenetic flukes. PMID:21509448

Reblánová, Marianna; Spakulová, Marta; Orosová, Martina; Králová-Hromadová, Ivica; Bazsalovicsová, Eva; Rajský, Dušan

2011-10-01

56

The origin of the giant liver fluke, Fascioloides magna (Trematoda: Fasciolidae) from Croatia determined by high-resolution melting screening of mitochondrial cox1 haplotypes.  

PubMed

The high-resolution melting (HRM) method, recently optimized as a reliable technique for population study of the European Fascioloides magna populations, was applied to determine an origin of F. magna individuals from Croatia. The structure and frequency of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (439 bp; cox1) haplotypes of 200 Croatian flukes coming from 19 red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus) livers were screened and compared with recently determined reference samples of F. magna from all European foci-Italy, Czech Republic, and Danube floodplain forests. While the reference haplotypes Ha1 and Ha2 were specific for flukes from the first European focus of fascioloidosis, the Natural Park La Mandria in Italy, the remaining three haplotypes (Ha3, Ha4, and Ha5) represented parasites from the second focus, Czech Republic. Besides, Ha3 and Ha4 were found also in the third, latest, and still expanding European focus, the Danube floodplain forests. The HRM screening of cox1 haplotypes of Croatian F. magna individuals resulted in classification of samples into the two mitochondrial haplogroups characterized by well-distinguished melting curves. They corresponded to Ha3 and Ha4 reference haplotypes that confirmed the Danube origin of F. magna from Croatia. The results support the theory that the Danube floodplain forests population of F. magna represents uniform genetic pool of the parasite. The spread of F. magna alongside the Danube River down to Croatia was possible due to suitable ecological conditions for definitive and intermediate hosts present in this unique biotope. PMID:23609601

Bazsalovicsová, Eva; Králová-Hromadová, Ivica; Radvánszky, Ján; Beck, Relja

2013-07-01

57

Cytokine/chemokine secretion and proteomic identification of upregulated annexin A1 from peripheral blood mononuclear cells cocultured with the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini.  

PubMed

We investigated the cytokine/chemokine secretions and alteration of protein expression from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) cocultured with adult liver flukes (Opisthorchis viverrini) for 6 to 24 h. PBMC-derived proteins were identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, and the cytokines/chemokines in the supernatant were assessed using a cytokine array. Exposure to O. viverrini induced increases in secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, costimulating protein, adhesion molecules, and chemotactic chemokines relative to untreated controls. In contrast, secretion of the CD40 ligand, interleukin 16, and macrophage inflammatory protein 1? decreased. Proteomic analysis revealed that expression of 48 proteins was significantly altered in PBMCs stimulated with O. viverrini. Annexin A1 (ANXA1) was selected for further study, and immunoblotting showed upregulation of ANXA1 expression in PBMCs after 12 and 24 h coculture with liver flukes. In an in vivo study, transcription and translation of ANXA1 significantly increased in livers of hamsters infected with O. viverrini at 21 days and from 3 months onwards compared to normal controls. Interestingly, immunohistochemistry revealed that ANXA1 was present not only in the cytoplasm of inflammatory cells but also in the cytoplasm of cholangiocytes, which are in close contact with the parasite and its excretory/secretory products in the biliary system. Expression of ANXA1 increased with time concomitant with bile duct enlargement, bile duct formation, and epithelial cell proliferation. In conclusion, several cytokines/chemokines secreted by PBMCs and upregulation of ANXA1 in PBMCs and biliary epithelial cells might have a role in host defense against O. viverrini infection and tissue resolution of inflammation. PMID:24614660

Hongsrichan, Nuttanan; Intuyod, Kitti; Pinlaor, Porntip; Khoontawad, Jarinya; Yongvanit, Puangrat; Wongkham, Chaisiri; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Pinlaor, Somchai

2014-05-01

58

Cytokine/Chemokine Secretion and Proteomic Identification of Upregulated Annexin A1 from Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Cocultured with the Liver Fluke Opisthorchis viverrini  

PubMed Central

We investigated the cytokine/chemokine secretions and alteration of protein expression from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) cocultured with adult liver flukes (Opisthorchis viverrini) for 6 to 24 h. PBMC-derived proteins were identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, and the cytokines/chemokines in the supernatant were assessed using a cytokine array. Exposure to O. viverrini induced increases in secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, costimulating protein, adhesion molecules, and chemotactic chemokines relative to untreated controls. In contrast, secretion of the CD40 ligand, interleukin 16, and macrophage inflammatory protein 1? decreased. Proteomic analysis revealed that expression of 48 proteins was significantly altered in PBMCs stimulated with O. viverrini. Annexin A1 (ANXA1) was selected for further study, and immunoblotting showed upregulation of ANXA1 expression in PBMCs after 12 and 24 h coculture with liver flukes. In an in vivo study, transcription and translation of ANXA1 significantly increased in livers of hamsters infected with O. viverrini at 21 days and from 3 months onwards compared to normal controls. Interestingly, immunohistochemistry revealed that ANXA1 was present not only in the cytoplasm of inflammatory cells but also in the cytoplasm of cholangiocytes, which are in close contact with the parasite and its excretory/secretory products in the biliary system. Expression of ANXA1 increased with time concomitant with bile duct enlargement, bile duct formation, and epithelial cell proliferation. In conclusion, several cytokines/chemokines secreted by PBMCs and upregulation of ANXA1 in PBMCs and biliary epithelial cells might have a role in host defense against O. viverrini infection and tissue resolution of inflammation. PMID:24614660

Hongsrichan, Nuttanan; Intuyod, Kitti; Pinlaor, Porntip; Khoontawad, Jarinya; Yongvanit, Puangrat; Wongkham, Chaisiri; Roytrakul, Sittiruk

2014-01-01

59

Regulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-? in mouse dendritic cells through treatment with Clonorchis sinensis crude antigen.  

PubMed

Dendritic cells (DCs), which are regarded as the most potent antigen-presenting cells, are involved in innate and adaptive immunity. Upon uptake of pathogens, DCs express cell surface markers and secrete cytokines. In this study, we analyzed production of cytokines and found that interleukin (IL)-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-? production significantly increased in bone marrow-derived DCs and a mouse DC line, DC2.4, after treatment with crude antigen (CA) from liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis. However, expression patterns of several activation molecules did not change. In addition, following treatment of DC2.4 cells with antigen from the lung fluke, Paragonimus westermani, production of IL-10 and TGF-? significantly increased compared with groups treated with other parasite antigens, Spirometra erinacei plerocercoid CA and Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cystic fluid. We also found that treatment of DC2.4 cells with C. sinensis CA resulted in rapid and significant phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, a mitogen-activated protein kinase. Following treatment of DC2.4 cells with C. sinensis CA, treatment with an inhibitor specific to an extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibited production of IL-10 and TGF-?. Our results suggest that CA from C. sinensis has a role in the anti-inflammatory function of DC cells by inducing IL-10 and TGF-? through activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. PMID:24480801

Jin, Yan; Wi, Hae Joo; Choi, Min-Ho; Hong, Sung-Tae; Bae, Young Mee

2014-01-01

60

Genetic differentiation in eastern European and western Asian populations of the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, as revealed by mitochondrial nad1 and cox1 genes.  

PubMed

Partial sequences of mitochondrial genes nad1 (316 bp) and cox1 (429 bp) were analyzed to estimate the variability of the liver fluke samples collected in 20 localities in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, and China. The sequences had 4.1% (nad1) and 2.3% (cox1) of variable sites, and 13 and 10 haplotypes were identified among nad1 and cox1 genes, respectively. Spatial analysis of genetic and nucleotide diversity indicated little or no structuring of genetic variation between hosts or regions. The analysis of distribution of both separate and combined (nad1 + cox1) haplotypes revealed the existence of 2 well-defined lineages with 2 main haplotypes and a number of shared divergent haplotypes. Our study showed that the first lineage included the main N1-C1 haplotype, which was found in Australia, China, Georgia, Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and in all European populations (from Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Bulgaria). The second lineage was found in all European populations and in populations from Armenia and Azerbaijan. It was suggested that one of the lineages (I) has an Asian origin. The possible source of mtDNA variability and associations between lineage divergence of parasite and its definitive hosts (cattle and sheep) are discussed. PMID:16883995

Semyenova, Seraphima K; Morozova, Elena V; Chrisanfova, Galina G; Gorokhov, Vladimir V; Arkhipov, Ivan A; Moskvin, Alexander S; Movsessyan, Sergey O; Ryskov, Alexei P

2006-06-01

61

Identity of rumen fluke in deer.  

PubMed

As evidence is growing that in many temperate areas paramphistome infections are becoming more common and widespread, this study was undertaken to determine the role of deer as reservoirs for rumen fluke infections in livestock. A total of 144 deer faecal samples (88 from fallow deer, 32 from red deer and 24 samples from sika, sika/red deer hybrids) were screened for the presence of fluke eggs. Based on the ITS-2 rDNA locus plus flanking 5.8S and 28S sequences (ITS-2+), fluke eggs were identified to species level. Our results indicate that, of the 3 deer species, fallow deer had the highest fluke infection rates. Two rumen fluke species, Calicophoron daubneyi and Paramphistomum leydeni, with morphologically distinct eggs, were identified. Concurrent infections of the two paramphistome species and liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, were common. Considering the comparatively low egg burdens observed in this study, it is unlikely that deer represent a significant source of infection for Irish livestock. PMID:25127736

O'Toole, Ailis; Browne, John A; Hogan, Sean; Bassière, Thomas; DeWaal, Theo; Mulcahy, Grace; Zintl, Annetta

2014-11-01

62

Molecular Differentiation of Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis Eggs by Multiplex Real-Time PCR with High Resolution Melting Analysis  

PubMed Central

Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis are parasites known to be carcinogenic and causative agents of cholangiocarcinoma in Asia. The standard method for diagnosis for those parasite infections is stool examination to detect parasite eggs. However, the method has low sensitivity, and eggs of O. viverrini and C. sinensis are difficult to distinguish from each other and from those of some other trematodes. Here, we report a multiplex real-time PCR coupled with high resolution melting (HRM) analysis for the differentiation of O. viverrini and C. sinensis eggs in fecal samples. Using 2 pairs of species-specific primers, DNA sequences from a portion of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (nad 2) gene, were amplified to generate 209 and 165 bp products for O. viverrini and C. sinensis, respectively. The distinct characteristics of HRM patterns were analyzed, and the melting temperatures peaked at 82.4±0.09? and 85.9±0.08? for O. viverrini and C. sinensis, respectively. This technique was able to detect as few as 1 egg of O. viverrini and 2 eggs of C. sinensis in a 150 mg fecal sample, which is equivalent to 7 and 14 eggs per gram of feces, respectively. The method is species-specific, rapid, simple, and does not require fluorescent probes or post-PCR processing for discrimination of eggs of the 2 species. It offers a new tool for differentiation and detection of Asian liver fluke infections in stool specimens. PMID:24516275

Kaewkong, Worasak; Intapan, Pewpan M.; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Doanh, Pham Ngoc

2013-01-01

63

RNA-Seq Reveals Infection-Induced Gene Expression Changes in the Snail Intermediate Host of the Carcinogenic Liver Fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini  

PubMed Central

Background Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos is the snail intermediate host of the liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, the leading cause of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) in the Greater Mekong sub-region of Thailand. Despite the severe public health impact of Opisthorchis-induced CCA, knowledge of the molecular interactions occurring between the parasite and its snail intermediate host is scant. The examination of differences in gene expression profiling between uninfected and O. viverrini-infected B. siamensis goniomphalos could provide clues on fundamental pathways involved in the regulation of snail-parasite interplay. Methodology/Principal Findings Using high-throughput (Illumina) sequencing and extensive bioinformatic analyses, we characterized the transcriptomes of uninfected and O. viverrini-infected B. siamensis goniomphalos. Comparative analyses of gene expression profiling allowed the identification of 7,655 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), associated to 43 distinct biological pathways, including pathways associated with immune defense mechanisms against parasites. Amongst the DEGs with immune functions, transcripts encoding distinct proteases displayed the highest down-regulation in Bithynia specimens infected by O. viverrini; conversely, transcription of genes encoding heat-shock proteins and actins was significantly up-regulated in parasite-infected snails when compared to the uninfected counterparts. Conclusions/Significance The present study lays the foundation for functional studies of genes and gene products potentially involved in immune-molecular mechanisms implicated in the ability of the parasite to successfully colonize its snail intermediate host. The annotated dataset provided herein represents a ready-to-use molecular resource for the discovery of molecular pathways underlying susceptibility and resistance mechanisms of B. siamensis goniomphalos to O. viverrini and for comparative analyses with pulmonate snail intermediate hosts of other platyhelminths including schistosomes. PMID:24676090

Prasopdee, Sattrachai; Sotillo, Javier; Tesana, Smarn; Laha, Thewarach; Kulsantiwong, Jutharat; Nolan, Matthew J.

2014-01-01

64

Genetic diversity of Clonorchis sinensis (Trematoda: Opisthorchiidae) in the Russian southern Far East based on mtDNA cox1 sequence variation.  

PubMed

We examined the phylogeography and the variation of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) of the Chinese liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis (Cobbold, 1875) in two geographic localities in the Russian southern Far East and compared them with those from different geographical regions (China, Korea, Japan and Vietnam). The Russian samples differed from those of the other regions in haplotype frequencies, haplotype and nucleotide diversities, and AT/GC ratios. Only 4 of the 18 haplotypes were common to Russian and Chinese samples, and two haplotypes were common to Russia and other regions. The intraspecific genetic distances ranged from 0 to 1.58% for the entire dataset studied and from 0 to 1.25% among the samples from Russia. Phylogenetic trees revealed no significant genealogical clades of samples corresponding to sampling localities and no strong isolation by distance was estimated with Mantel test. Neutrality test analysis suggested a relatively recent population expansion for C. sinensis, whereas goodness-of-fit tests indicated deviation from the strict model of uniform expansion. Therefore, the sequences of the mtDNA cox1 gene provide useful genetic markers for evaluating intraspecific diversity and generating phylogeographic reconstructions for this fish-borne trematode. PMID:23724735

Tatonova, Yulia V; Chelomina, Galina N; Besprozvannykh, Vladimir V

2013-05-01

65

Biochemical Characterization and Differential Expression of a 16.5-Kilodalton Tegument-Associated Antigen from the Liver Fluke Fasciola hepatica  

PubMed Central

A cDNA encoding a 16.5-kDa protein termed FhTP16.5 was identified by immunoscreening of a cDNA library from Fasciola hepatica adult flukes using pooled sera from rabbits infected with F. hepatica for 4 weeks. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qPCR) analysis revealed that FhTP16.5 is not expressed in unembryonated eggs. It is poorly expressed in miracidia and highly expressed at the juvenile and adult stages; however, significant differences were found between the expression levels of FhTP16.5 in juveniles versus adult flukes. Recombinant FhTP16.5 was expressed at high levels in Escherichia coli, purified by affinity chromatography, and used to raise anti-FhTP16.5 polyclonal antibodies in rabbits. Immunoblot analysis using the anti-FhTP16.5 IgG antibody identified FhTP16.5 in crude and tegumental extracts and in excretory-secretory products of F. hepatica. The protein was not detected in crude extracts of Schistosoma mansoni or Schistosoma japonicum. Antibodies to FhTP16.5 were detected in the sera of rabbits at 3 to 12 weeks of F. hepatica infection as well as in the sera of humans with chronic fascioliasis; these findings suggest that FhTP16.5 could be a good antigen for serodiagnosis of fascioliasis. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that FhTP16.5 localizes to the surface of the tegument of various developmental stages and in parenchymal tissues of the adult fluke. Such specific localization makes FhTP16.5 an attractive target for immunoprophylaxis or chemotherapy. PMID:22278327

Gaudier, Jose F.; Caban-Hernandez, Kimberly; Osuna, Antonio

2012-01-01

66

Microscopic identification of possible Clonorchis/Opisthorchis infection in two Ghanaian women with undiagnosed abdominal discomfort: two case reports  

PubMed Central

Introduction The impact of foodborne trematode infections is gaining recognition worldwide. Clonorchiasis and opisthorchiasis are some of the most neglected tropical foodborne diseases that pose a significant threat to human health. Persistent or chronic infection of Clonorchis/Opisthorchis often leads to hepatobiliary diseases including cholangitis, cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, pancreatitis, hepatic fibrosis, cholangiocarcinoma and liver cancer. Two cases of Clonorchis/Opisthorchis infection in humans in the Central Region of Ghana are reported. Case presentation Eggs suspected to be from Clonorchis sinensis or Opisthorchis species were detected in the stools of a 29-year-old Ghanaian woman and an 18-year-old Ghanaian woman in two clinics in the Central Region of Ghana. The diagnosis was based on clinical symptoms as well as detection of the eggs of the trematode in the faeces of the patients using light microscopy after staining with Giemsa or Ziehl–Neelsen stains. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge these are the first documented cases of Clonorchis sinensis or Opisthorchis species infection in Ghana. The detection of this infection in these patients in Ghana should be of concern to clinicians because the infection can be easily misdiagnosed since the accompanying clinical symptoms are malaria-like. Consideration should therefore be given to Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis species when diagnosing patients presenting with malaria-like symptoms. PMID:25399721

2014-01-01

67

Functional Genes and Proteins of Clonorchis sinensis  

PubMed Central

During the past several decades, researches on parasite genetics have progressed from biochemical and serodiagnostic studies to protein chemistry, molecular biology, and functional gene studies. Nowadays, bioinformatics, genomics, and proteomics approaches are being applied by Korean parasitology researchers. As for Clonorchis sinensis, investigations have been carried out to identify its functional genes using forward and reverse genetic approaches and to characterize the biochemical and biological properties of its gene products. The authors review the proteins of cloned genes, which include antigenic proteins, physiologic and metabolic enzymes, and the gene expression profile of Clonorchis sinensis. PMID:19885336

Kim, Tae Im; Na, Byoung-Kuk

2009-01-01

68

Expression profiles of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Clonorchis sinensis: a glycolytic enzyme with plasminogen binding capacity.  

PubMed

Globally, 15-20 million people are infected with Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) which results in clonorchiasis. In China, clonorchiasis is considered to be one of the fastest-growing food-borne parasitic diseases. That more key molecules of C. sinensis are characterized will be helpful to understand biology and pathogenesis of the carcinogenic liver fluke. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases (GAPDHs) from many species have functions other than their catalytic role in glycolysis. In the present study, we analyzed the sequence and structure of GAPDH from C. sinensis (CsGAPDH) by using bioinformatics tools and obtained its recombinant protein by prokaryotic expression system, to learn its expression profiles and molecular property. CsGAPDH could bind to human intrahepatic biliary epithelial cell in vivo and in vitro by the method of immunofluorescence assays. CsGAPDH also disturbed in lumen of biliary tract near to the parasite in the liver of infected rat. Western blotting analysis together with immunofluorescence assay indicated that CsGAPDH was a component of excretory/secretory proteins (CsESPs) and a surface-localized protein of C. sinensis. Quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR) and Western blotting demonstrated that CsGAPDHs are expressed at the life stages of adult worm, metacercaria, and egg, but the expression levels were different from each other. Recombinant CsGAPDH (rCsGAPDH) was confirmed to have the capacity to catalyze the conversion of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to D-glycerate 1,3-bisphosphate which was inhibited by AMP in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, rCsGAPDH was able to interact with human plasminogen in a dose-dependent manner by ELISA. The interaction could be inhibited by lysine. The plasminogen binding capacity of rCsGAPDH along with the distribution of CsGAPDH in vivo and in the liver of C. sinensis-infected rat hinted that surface-localized CsGAPDH might play an important role in host invasion of the worm besides its glycolytic activity. Our work will be a cornerstone for getting more messages about CsGAPDH and its role in biology and parasitism of C. sinensis. PMID:25300416

Hu, Yue; Zhang, Erhong; Huang, Lisi; Li, Wenfang; Liang, Pei; Wang, Xiaoyun; Xu, Jin; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xinbing

2014-12-01

69

Clonorchis sinensis-derived total protein attenuates airway inflammation in murine asthma model by inducing regulatory T cells and modulating dendritic cell functions  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} Treatment with Clonorchis sinensis-derived total protein attenuates OVA-induced airway inflammation and AHR to methacholine. {yields} Induction of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +}Foxp3{sup +} T cells and IL-10 along with suppression of splenocyte proliferation by C. sinensis-derived total protein. {yields} C. sinensis-derived total protein interferes with the expression of co-stimulatory molecules in DCs. -- Abstract: Asthma is characterized by Th2-mediated inflammation, resulting in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) through airway remodeling. Recent epidemiological and experimental reports have suggested an inverse relationship between the development of allergy and helminth infections. Infection by Clonorchis sinensis, a liver fluke that resides in the bile duct of humans, is endemic predominantly in Asia including Korea and China. Using a murine model for asthma, we investigated the effects of C. sinensis-derived total protein (Cs-TP) on allergen-induced airway inflammation and the mechanism underlying the protective effects of Cs-TP administration on asthma. Treatment with Cs-TP attenuated OVA-induced airway inflammation and methacholine-induced AHR, as well as eosinophilia development, lymphocyte infiltration into the lung, and goblet cell metaplasia. This protective effect of Cs-TP is associated with markedly reduced OVA-specific IgE and Th1/Th2 cytokine production. Moreover, Cs-TP increased the number of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +}Foxp3{sup +} regulatory T (Treg) cells as well as their suppressive activity. In fact, proliferation of OVA-restimulated splenocytes was suppressed significantly. Cs-TP also inhibited the expression of such co-stimulatory molecules as CD80, CD86, and CD40 in LPS- or OVA-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs), suggesting that Cs-TP could interfere with the capacity of airway DCs to prime naive T cells. These data demonstrate the capacity of C. sinensis to ameliorate allergic asthma and broaden our understanding of the paradoxical relationship between the allergic immune response and helminth infection.

Jeong, Young-Il [Div. of Malaria and Parasitic Diseases, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Osong (Korea, Republic of)] [Div. of Malaria and Parasitic Diseases, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Osong (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Hyun [Div. of AIDS, National Institute of Health, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Osong (Korea, Republic of)] [Div. of AIDS, National Institute of Health, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Osong (Korea, Republic of); Ju, Jung Won; Cho, Shin Hyeong; Lee, Won Ja [Div. of Malaria and Parasitic Diseases, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Osong (Korea, Republic of)] [Div. of Malaria and Parasitic Diseases, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Osong (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Wook; Park, Yeong-Min [Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Yang-San (Korea, Republic of)] [Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Yang-San (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Eun, E-mail: ondalgl@cdc.go.kr [Div. of Malaria and Parasitic Diseases, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Osong (Korea, Republic of)

2011-04-22

70

Investigation on the epidemiological factors of Clonorchis sinensis infection in an area of south China.  

PubMed

To detect the epidemiological factors of Clonorchis sinensis infection in Hengxian County, one of counties in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region where Schistosoma japonicum was endemic but eliminated in the late 1980s, a questionnaire was designed with 37 questions covering socioeconomic conditions and human behavior, contamination of the environment and fish ponds, inadequate farming/fishery practices; and the formalin-ether sedimentation technique was used to examine the feces of cats, dogs and pigs for the eggs of C. sinensis. Fresh fish was sliced and digested to detect the metacercariae of C. sinensis under a stereomicroscope. Of 1,521 people interviewed, 64% of the interviewees did not know about fluke disease or its transmission route, 46% of those who knew about the fluke believed that the infection caused no harm or only slight harm to their health. More than half of the interviewees (51%) ate raw fish at least 1-2 times per month, more among the middle-aged males. Eight percent of them used the same utensils for both raw fish and cooked food. When advice was given not to eat raw fish, 73% of the interviewees thought it was not feasible. In relation to pisciculture, 25% and 9% of the owners of fish ponds fed their fish with feces of domestic animals and human feces, respectively. The prevalences of C. sinensis infection in cats, dogs and pigs were 70, 50 and 27%, respectively, and the infection rate in fish was 40%. These results indicate the poor knowledge, and beliefs, and unhealthy behaviors in the human population. They also show poor environmental hygiene and inappropriate farming/fishery practices are important in the increase of C. sinensis prevalence in humans. Combined interventions, including health education, environmental modification, reform of traditional farming/fishery practices, mass screening and chemotherapy for humans, and the management of domestic animals are needed in developing control strategies to decrease C. sinensis infection in the human population. PMID:16438134

Lin, Rui; Li, Xueming; Lan, Chungeng; Yu, Senhai; Kawanaka, Masanori

2005-09-01

71

Microscopic Examination of Gallbladder Stones Improves Rate of Detection of Clonorchis sinensis Infection  

PubMed Central

To improve the rate of detection of Clonorchis sinensis infection, we compared different specimens from patients with cholecystolithiasis. Feces, gallbladder bile, and gallbladder stones collected from 179 consecutive patients with cholecystolithiasis underwent microscopic examination, and according to the results, 30 egg-positive and 30 egg-negative fecal, gallbladder bile, and gallbladder stone specimens, respectively, underwent real-time fluorescent PCR. The detection rates of eggs in feces, bile, and gallbladder stones were 30.7%, 44.7%, and 69.8%, respectively, and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.01). The PCR results confirmed that the eggs in the specimens were C. sinensis eggs. Eggs in the feces were “fresh” and in the gallbladder stones were “old.” Microscopic examination of gallbladder stones may improve the detection rates of C. sinensis infection, which is important for developing individualized treatments to prevent the recurrence of gallbladder stones and to prevent the occurrence of severe liver damage and cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:23698535

Ma, Rui-hong; Luo, Xiao-bing; Zheng, Pei-ming; Luo, Zhen-liang; Yang, Liu-qing

2013-01-01

72

A natural focus of the blood fluke Orientobilharzia turkestanica (Skrjabin, 1913) (Trematoda: Schistosomatidae) in red deer ( Cervus elaphus) in Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large American liver fluke, Fascioloides magna – introduced to Europe before 1875 – was the first non-indigenous trematode to be detected in Hungarian cervids in 1995. As the most precious deer population became infected in the Gemenc game reserve a study has been launched to assess the extent and the effect of F. magna infections and to examine the

Gábor Majoros; Ádám Dán; Károly Erdélyi

2010-01-01

73

Foodborne Intestinal Flukes in Southeast Asia  

PubMed Central

In Southeast Asia, a total of 59 species of foodborne intestinal flukes have been known to occur in humans. The largest group is the family Heterophyidae, which constitutes 22 species belonging to 9 genera (Centrocestus, Haplorchis, Heterophyes, Heterophyopsis, Metagonimus, Procerovum, Pygidiopsis, Stellantchasmus, and Stictodora). The next is the family Echinostomatidae, which includes 20 species in 8 genera (Artyfechinostomum, Acanthoparyphium, Echinochasmus, Echinoparyphium, Echinostoma, Episthmium, Euparyphium, and Hypoderaeum). The family Plagiorchiidae follows the next containing 5 species in 1 genus (Plagiorchis). The family Lecithodendriidae includes 3 species in 2 genera (Phaneropsolus and Prosthodendrium). In 9 other families, 1 species in 1 genus each is involved; Cathaemaciidae (Cathaemacia), Fasciolidae (Fasciolopsis), Gastrodiscidae (Gastrodiscoides), Gymnophallidae (Gymnophalloides), Microphallidae (Spelotrema), Neodiplostomidae (Neodiplostomum), Paramphistomatidae (Fischoederius), Psilostomidae (Psilorchis), and Strigeidae (Cotylurus). Various types of foods are sources of human infections. They include freshwater fish, brackish water fish, fresh water snails, brackish water snails (including the oyster), amphibians, terrestrial snakes, aquatic insects, and aquatic plants. The reservoir hosts include various species of mammals or birds.The host-parasite relationships have been studied in Metagonimus yokogawai, Echinostoma hortense, Fasciolopsis buski, Neodiplostomum seoulense, and Gymnophalloides seoi; however, the pathogenicity of each parasite species and host mucosal defense mechanisms are yet poorly understood. Clinical aspects of each parasite infection need more clarification. Differential diagnosis by fecal examination is difficult because of morphological similarity of eggs. Praziquantel is effective for most intestinal fluke infections. Continued efforts to understand epidemiological significance of intestinal fluke infections, with detection of further human cases, are required. PMID:19885337

Shin, Eun-Hee; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Rim, Han-Jong

2009-01-01

74

Liver Flukes: the Common Fluke (Distomum hepaticum). A New Species (Distomum texanicum).  

E-print Network

of abdominal sucker, alway~ recurved. Vulva very small, situated at the side of the male orlfice or a little behind. Eggs brown or greenish, ovoid; length from 0.130 to 0.145mm; width from 0.070 to 0.090mm (Weuman). Copied from .'Animal Parasites of Sheep... of abdominal sucker, alway~ recurved. Vulva very small, situated at the side of the male orlfice or a little behind. Eggs brown or greenish, ovoid; length from 0.130 to 0.145mm; width from 0.070 to 0.090mm (Weuman). Copied from .'Animal Parasites of Sheep...

Francis, M. (Mark)

1891-01-01

75

Molecular phylogenetic identification of Fasciola flukes in Nepal.  

PubMed

Eighty-one Fasciola flukes collected from 8 districts in Nepal were analyzed for their species identification on the basis of their spermatogenic status and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and for their phylogenetic relation with Fasciola flukes from other Asian countries on the basis of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) gene. Sixty-one flukes (75.3%) were aspermic Fasciola sp., and 20 flukes (24.7%) were identified as Fasciola gigantica. All of the aspermic flukes displayed the Fh/Fg type in ITS1, which was predominant in aspermic Fasciola sp. from China, and most (60 flukes) displayed the Fsp-ND1-N1 haplotype in the nad1, which had an identical nucleotide sequence to the major haplotype (Fg-C2) of the aspermic flukes from China. These results suggest that aspermic Fasciola sp. was introduced into Nepal from China. Furthermore, the results of the diversity indices, neutrality indices, and median-joining network analysis with reference haplotypes from Asian countries suggest that aspermic Fasciola sp. rapidly expanded its distribution. In contrasts, F. gigantica displayed 10 nad1 haplotypes, which showed higher population diversity indices than the haplotypes of aspermic flukes, indicating that the F. gigantica population was clearly distributed in Nepal earlier than the aspermic Fasciola population. Although the F. gigantica haplotypes from Nepal formed a star-like phylogeny consisting of a main founder haplotype (Fg-ND1-N1), together with some F. gigantica haplotypes from Myanmar and Thailand, the Nepal population differed genetically from F. gigantica populations of neighboring countries as each country had distinct founder haplotype(s). PMID:25025757

Shoriki, Takuya; Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Devkota, Bhuminand; Rana, Hari B; Devkota, Shiva P; Humagain, Sudeep K; Itagaki, Tadashi

2014-12-01

76

Liver  

E-print Network

Lipids in liver wet and dry matter, liver moist and dry matter and their relationships were investigated based on species, sex and age in cows, buffaloes, sheep and goats. Mean percentage of lipids in liver wet and dry matter and liver dry matter in cows were 3.60%, 1.10%, 29.70%, and for buffaloes were 5.30%, 1.55%, 29.20%, sheep 3.00%, 0.83%, 27.90%, and goats 2.910%, 1.55 % and 28.40%, respectively. The highest and lowest percentage of lipids in liver wet and dry matter was observed in buffaloes and sheep, and for the liver dry matter was recorded in cows and sheep, respectively. Analyses showed significant differences in liver parameters among ruminants (p liver parameters. In overall 15.00 % of buffaloes and 3.50 % of cows showed over 10.00 % lipids in liver, while none of small ruminants appeared to have over 6.00 % lipids in liver. There was no correlation between liver lipid and liver dry matter. In conclusion mean percentage of lipid in liver dry matter in small ruminants was less than large ruminants. Liver dry matter was high in cows and low in sheep. Mean differences in liver parameters was significant, while the age and sex of the

Aligholi Ramin; Shahram Nozad; Babak Jelodari; Ghazaleh Ashtab; Zohreh Eftekhari; Sina Ramin; Key Words

2011-01-01

77

Tracing of the Bile-Chemotactic Migration of Juvenile Clonorchis sinensis in Rabbits by PET-CT  

PubMed Central

Background Adult Clonorchis sinensis live in the bile duct and cause clonorchiasis. It is known that the C. sinensis metacercariae excyst in the duodenum and migrate up to the bile duct through the common bile duct. However, no direct evidence is available on the in vivo migration of newly excysted C. sinensis juveniles (CsNEJs). Advanced imaging technologies now allow the in vivo migration and localization to be visualized. In the present study, we sought to determine how sensitively CsNEJs respond to bile and how fast they migrate to the intrahepatic bile duct using PET-CT. Methodology/Principal Findings CsNEJs were radiolabeled with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG). Rabbits with a gallbladder contraction response to cholecystokinin-8 (CCK-8) injection were pre-screened using cholescintigraphy. In these rabbits, gallbladders contracted by 50% in volume at an average of 11.5 min post-injection. The four rabbits examined were kept anesthetized and a catheter inserted into the mid duodenum. Gallbladder contraction was stimulated by injecting CCK-8 (20 ng/kg every minute) over the experiment. Anatomical images were acquired by CT initially and dynamic PET was then carried out for 90 min with a 3-min acquisition per frame. Twelve minutes after CCK-8 injection, about 3,000 18F-FDG-labeled CsNEJs were inoculated into the mid duodenum through the catheter. Photon signals were detected in the liver 7–9 min after CsNEJs inoculation, and these then increased in the whole liver with stronger intensity in the central area, presenting that the CsNEJs were arriving at the intrahepatic bile ducts. Conclusion In the duodenum, CsNEJs immediately sense bile and migrate quickly with bile-chemotaxis to reach the intrahepatic bile ducts by way of the ampulla of Vater. PMID:22180795

Kim, Tae Im; Yoo, Won Gi; Kwak, Byung Kook; Seok, Ju-Won; Hong, Sung-Jong

2011-01-01

78

Cloning and characterization of Clonorchis sinensis myoglobin using immune sera against excretory–secretory antigens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clonorchis sinensis excretory–secretory (ES) antigens were separated by gradient SDS-PAGE and the antigenic protein isolated at 21 kDa was injected into rats. A C. sinensis cDNA library was then immunoscreened with sera from the 21-kDa antigenic protein-immunized rats. The selected genes, which were named C. sinensis myoglobin, contained a single open reading frame of 450 base pairs encoding 150 amino acids. A single

Seobo Sim; Gab-Man Park; Tai-Soon Yong

2003-01-01

79

Fluke abundance versus host age for an invasive trematode (Dicrocoelium dendriticum) of sympatric elk and beef cattle in southeastern Alberta, Canada  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological parameters such as transmission rate, rate of parasite-induced host mortality, and rate of development of host defenses can be assessed indirectly by characterizing the manner in which parasite burdens change with host age. For parasites that are host generalists, estimates of these important parameters may be host-species dependent. In a cross-sectional study, we determined age–abundance profiles of infection in samples of sympatric free-ranging elk and domestic cattle infected with the lancet liver fluke, Dicrocoelium dendriticum. This parasite was introduced into Cypress Hills Provincial Park in southeastern Alberta, Canada in the mid 1990s, and now occurs in 60–90% of co-grazing elk and beef cattle examined at necropsy. The livers of 173 elk were made available by hunters during the 1997–2011 hunting seasons and livers from 35 cattle were purchased from ranchers. In elk, median worm abundance peaked in 6–24 month-olds (median?=?72, range?=?0–1006) then significantly declined to <10 worms/host in 10–16?year olds. The decline in fluke burden with age is not consistent with an age-related decline in exposure to metacercariae in intermediate hosts and high rates of fluke-induced host mortality are unlikely. Rather, the pattern of peak fluke burdens in elk calves and juveniles, followed by a decline in older animals is consistent with the development of a protective immune response in older hosts. There was no pattern of worm accumulation or decline in sympatric cattle, although statistical power to detect a significant effect was low. These results highlight the complexity and context-dependent nature of epidemiological processes in multi-host systems.

Beck, Melissa A.; Goater, Cameron P.; Colwell, Douglas D.; van Paridon, Bradley J.

2014-01-01

80

A natural focus of the blood fluke Orientobilharzia turkestanica (Skrjabin, 1913) (Trematoda: Schistosomatidae) in red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Hungary.  

PubMed

The large American liver fluke, Fascioloides magna - introduced to Europe before 1875 - was the first non-indigenous trematode to be detected in Hungarian cervids in 1995. As the most precious deer population became infected in the Gemenc game reserve a study has been launched to assess the extent and the effect of F. magna infections and to examine the options for the treatment of infected deer populations. Livers of red deer shot during regular hunting were submitted for the survey and were investigated by necropsy for the presence of F. magna and other liver dwelling trematodes. Recovered parasites were counted, sorted and stored in 70% ethanol. Unexpectedly, blood flukes were found in liver blood vessels at necropsy. They were identified as Orientobilharzia turkestanica (Skrjabin, 1913) by their morphological features as well as by molecular methods. This parasite is widespread in the middle belt of Asia from Korea to the eastern part of Turkey and infects mainly bovids. It was never found in red deer until now and this is the first report of its occurrence in Hungary and Europe. A subsequent search for the local intermediate host of O. turkestanica in the Gemenc area identified only the pulmonate snail Radix auricularia (Linnaeus, 1758) [syn: Lymnaea auricularia] as a vector capable of producing cercariae of this trematode. Cercariae of O. turkestanica were examined morphologically and were confirmed to be the larvae of this trematode by PCR. O. turkestanica appears to be fairly common in red deer of the Gemenc area. No clinical or pathological effect of the infection could be identified in this study. A form of cercarial dermatitis locally called "water mange" was formerly attributed to the larvae of avian shistosomes. It regularly occurred among fishermen fishing in shallow ponds remaining after floods along the Danube in the Gemenc area. This isolated habitat of O. turkestanica presents an exceptional opportunity to study epidemical situations of typical mammalian schistosomosis under temperate climatic conditions. PMID:20347227

Majoros, Gábor; Dán, Adám; Erdélyi, Károly

2010-06-24

81

An integrated pipeline for next generation sequencing and annotation of the complete mitochondrial genome of the giant intestinal fluke, Fasciolopsis buski (Lankester, 1857) Looss, 1899.  

PubMed

Helminths include both parasitic nematodes (roundworms) and platyhelminths (trematode and cestode flatworms) that are abundant, and are of clinical importance. The genetic characterization of parasitic flatworms using advanced molecular tools is central to the diagnosis and control of infections. Although the nuclear genome houses suitable genetic markers (e.g., in ribosomal (r) DNA) for species identification and molecular characterization, the mitochondrial (mt) genome consistently provides a rich source of novel markers for informative systematics and epidemiological studies. In the last decade, there have been some important advances in mtDNA genomics of helminths, especially lung flukes, liver flukes and intestinal flukes. Fasciolopsis buski, often called the giant intestinal fluke, is one of the largest digenean trematodes infecting humans and found primarily in Asia, in particular the Indian subcontinent. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies now provide opportunities for high throughput sequencing, assembly and annotation within a short span of time. Herein, we describe a high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics pipeline for mt genomics for F. buski that emphasizes the utility of short read NGS platforms such as Ion Torrent and Illumina in successfully sequencing and assembling the mt genome using innovative approaches for PCR primer design as well as assembly. We took advantage of our NGS whole genome sequence data (unpublished so far) for F. buski and its comparison with available data for the Fasciola hepatica mtDNA as the reference genome for design of precise and specific primers for amplification of mt genome sequences from F. buski. A long-range PCR was carried out to create an NGS library enriched in mt DNA sequences. Two different NGS platforms were employed for complete sequencing, assembly and annotation of the F. buski mt genome. The complete mt genome sequences of the intestinal fluke comprise 14,118 bp and is thus the shortest trematode mitochondrial genome sequenced to date. The noncoding control regions are separated into two parts by the tRNA-Gly gene and don't contain either tandem repeats or secondary structures, which are typical for trematode control regions. The gene content and arrangement are identical to that of F. hepatica. The F. buski mtDNA genome has a close resemblance with F. hepatica and has a similar gene order tallying with that of other trematodes. The mtDNA for the intestinal fluke is reported herein for the first time by our group that would help investigate Fasciolidae taxonomy and systematics with the aid of mtDNA NGS data. More so, it would serve as a resource for comparative mitochondrial genomics and systematic studies of trematode parasites. PMID:24255820

Biswal, Devendra Kumar; Ghatani, Sudeep; Shylla, Jollin A; Sahu, Ranjana; Mullapudi, Nandita; Bhattacharya, Alok; Tandon, Veena

2013-01-01

82

[Infection status of wild freshwater fish with Metacercariae of Clonorchis sinensis in west Liaoning].  

PubMed

A total of 1131 wild freshwater fishes were collected from Nver River, Gou River and Liao River in the west region of Liaoning Province, and examined for metacercariae by direct compression and artificial digestion (pepsin-HCl) method. All the 6 species fishes were infected by Clonorchis sinensis. The highest prevalence (82.8%, 216/261) were found in Pseudorasbora parva and the lowest (1.5%, 2/137) in Phoxinus lagowskii. The highest intensity of infection (2390 per fish) was in Perccottus glehnidybowski and the lowest (30 per fish) in Phoxinus lagorwskii. PMID:21826909

Liu, Xiao-gang; Liu, Gang; Zhang, Wen-wen

2011-04-30

83

Molecular cloning and characterization of a phosphoglycerate mutase gene from Clonorchis sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphoglycerate mutase (PGM) is a widely distributed glycolytic enzyme. Two known distinct classes of PGM enzymes were identified,\\u000a a cofactor-dependent one (dPGM) and a cofactor-independent one (iPGM). A complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding a PGM was cloned\\u000a from a Clonorchis sinensis cDNA library by large-scale sequencing. This new cDNA contains 955 bp with a putative open reading frame of 256 amino acids,

Linxia Song; Zhenbiao Xu; Xinbing Yu

2007-01-01

84

Helminthic infections of the liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human helminthic infestation is exceedingly common on a global scale, with as many as 1.5 to 2 billion people affected worldwide.\\u000a Helminths (parasitic worms) that infect the liver and hepatobiliary system include nematodes (roundworms), cestodes (tapeworms),\\u000a and trematodes (flatworms or flukes). The majority of morbidity and mortality from these infestations is caused by the host\\u000a immune response to the larvae

Paul J. Pockros; Thomas A. Capozza

2005-01-01

85

Helminthic infections of the liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human helminthic infestation is exceedingly common on a global scale, with as many as 1.5 to 2 billion people affected worldwide.\\u000a Helminths (parasitic worms) that infect the liver and hepatobiliary system include nematodes (roundworms), cestodes (tapeworms),\\u000a and trematodes (flatworms or flukes). The majority of morbidity and mortality from these infestations is caused by the host\\u000a immune response to the larvae

Paul J. Pockros; Thomas A. Capozza

2004-01-01

86

Clonorchis sinensis Infestation Promotes Three-Dimensional Aggregation and Invasion of Cholangiocarcinoma Cells  

PubMed Central

Numerous experimental and epidemiological studies have demonstrated a correlation between Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) infestation and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). However, the role of C. sinensis in the increased invasiveness and proliferation involved in the malignancy of CCA has not been addressed yet. Here, we investigated the possibility that C. sinensis infestation promotes expression of focal and cell-cell adhesion proteins in CCA cells and secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Adhesion proteins help maintain cell aggregates, and MMPs promote the three-dimensional invasion of cells into the neighboring extracellular matrix (ECM). Using a novel microfluidic assay, we quantitatively addressed the role of excretory-secretory products (ESPs) gradients from C. sinensis in promoting the invasion of cells into the neighboring ECM. PMID:25340585

Won, Jihee; Ju, Jung-Won; Kim, Sun Min; Shin, Yoojin; Chung, Seok; Pak, Jhang Ho

2014-01-01

87

Genomic linkage map of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

Background Schistosoma mansoni is a blood fluke that infects approximately 90 million people. The complete life cycle of this parasite can be maintained in the laboratory, making this one of the few experimentally tractable human helminth infections, and a rich literature reveals heritable variation in important biomedical traits such as virulence, host-specificity, transmission and drug resistance. However, there is a current lack of tools needed to study S. mansoni's molecular, quantitative, and population genetics. Our goal was to construct a genetic linkage map for S. mansoni, and thus provide a new resource that will help stimulate research on this neglected pathogen. Results We genotyped grandparents, parents and 88 progeny to construct a 5.6 cM linkage map containing 243 microsatellites positioned on 203 of the largest scaffolds in the genome sequence. The map allows 70% of the estimated 300 Mb genome to be ordered on chromosomes, and highlights where scaffolds have been incorrectly assembled. The markers fall into eight main linkage groups, consistent with seven pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes, and we were able to anchor linkage groups to chromosomes using fluorescent in situ hybridization. The genome measures 1,228.6 cM. Marker segregation reveals higher female recombination, confirms ZW inheritance patterns, and identifies recombination hotspots and regions of segregation distortion. Conclusions The genetic linkage map presented here is the first for S. mansoni and the first for a species in the phylum Platyhelminthes. The map provides the critical tool necessary for quantitative genetic analysis, aids genome assembly, and furnishes a framework for comparative flatworm genomics and field-based molecular epidemiological studies. PMID:19566921

Criscione, Charles D; Valentim, Claudia LL; Hirai, Hirohisa; LoVerde, Philip T; Anderson, Timothy JC

2009-01-01

88

Identification, immunolocalization, and characterization analyses of an exopeptidase of papain superfamily, (cathepsin C) from Clonorchis sinensis.  

PubMed

Cathepsin C is an important exopeptidase of papain superfamily and plays a number of great important roles during the parasitic life cycle. The amino acid sequence of cathepsin C from Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) showed 54, 53, and 49 % identities to that of Schistosoma japonicum, Schistosoma mansoni, and Homo sapiens, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis utilizing the sequences of papain superfamily of C. sinensis demonstrated that cathepsin C and cathepsin Bs came from a common ancestry. Cathepsin C of C. sinensis (Cscathepsin C) was identified as an excretory/secretory product by Western blot analysis. The results of transcriptional level and translational level of Cscathepsin C at metacercaria stage were higher than that at adult worms. Immunolocalization analysis indicated that Cscathepsin C was specifically distributed in the suckers (oral sucker and ventral sucker), eggs, vitellarium, intestines, and testis of adult worms. In the metacercaria, it was mainly detected on the cyst wall and excretory bladder. Combining with the results mentioned above, it implies that Cscathepsin C may be an essential proteolytic enzyme for proteins digestion of hosts, nutrition assimilation, and immune invasion of C. sinensis. Furthermore, it may be a potential diagnostic antigen and drug target against C. sinensis infection. PMID:25138068

Liang, Pei; He, Lei; Xu, Yanquan; Chen, Xueqing; Huang, Yan; Ren, Mengyu; Liang, Chi; Li, Xuerong; Xu, Jin; Lu, Gang; Yu, Xinbing

2014-10-01

89

RNAi-mediated silencing of enolase confirms its biological importance in Clonorchis sinensis.  

PubMed

Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) infection is still a common public health problem in freshwater fish consumption areas in Asian countries. More molecular evidence are required to speed up the prevention strategies to control this kind of infectious disease. In the present study, to confirm the biological importance of Csenolase followed by our previous observations of the key metabolic enzyme, we explored the RNA silence effect of the Csenolase-derived RNA interference (RNAi) in C. sinensis. The extramembranous region aa105-226 was selected as the target sequence of RNA silence. Csenolase-derived double strand RNA (dsRNA-Csenolase, 366 bp) was synthetized and delivered into C. sinensis by soaking approach. The penetration of dsRNA into adult worms and metacercariae was tracked using fluorescently labeled RNA. Western blotting and qRT-PCR experiments were performed to determine dsRNA-Csenolase-silencing effect. Our results showed that, after incubating for 120 h, dsRNA-Csenolase could effectively target and downregulate the expression of Csenolase in both adult worms (P < 0.001) and metacercariae (P < 0.01), resulting in a remarkable killing effect on C. sinensis adult worms (P < 0.01). Fluorescent Cy3-labeled dsRNA was mostly deposited in the uterus and vitellarium of adult worm and in the cyst wall of metacercaria. The present study is the first report of RNAi trials in C. sinensis, allowing further applications in identifying functional genes in C. sinensis. PMID:24458653

Wang, Xiaoyun; Chen, Wenjun; Tian, Yanli; Huang, Yan; Li, Xuerong; Yu, Xinbing

2014-04-01

90

The Effects of Tail Flukes on the Swimming Pattern of Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atlantic bottlenose dolphins are top predators in the wild, due in part because they are excellent swimmers. When dolphins swim through the water, the tail flukes are moved in an up and down motion to propel the animal through the water. They use the pectoral fins for steering and braking, and the dorsal fin for stabilization as they swim. Using

Lauri Leach

2009-01-01

91

Identification of the Boudicca and Sinbad retrotransposons in the genome of the human blood fluke Schistosoma haematobium.  

PubMed

Schistosomes have a comparatively large genome, estimated for Schistosoma mansoni to be about 270 megabase pairs (haploid genome). Recent findings have shown that mobile genetic elements constitute significant proportions of the genomes of S. mansoni and S. japonicum. Much less information is available on the genome of the third major human schistosome, S. haematobium. In order to investigate the possible evolutionary origins of the S. mansoni long terminal repeat retrotransposons Boudicca and Sinbad, several genomes were searched by Southern blot for the presence of these retrotransposons. These included three species of schistosomes, S. mansoni, S. japonicum, and S. haematobium, and three related platyhelminth genomes, the liver flukes Fasciola hepatica and Fascioloides magna and the planarian, Dugesia dorotocephala. In addition, Homo sapiens and three snail host genomes, Biomphalaria glabrata, Oncomelania hupensis, and Bulinus truncatus, were examined for possible indications of a horizontal origin for these retrotransposons. Southern hybridization analysis indicated that both Boudicca and Sinbad were present in the genome of S. haematobium. Furthermore, low stringency Southern hybridization analyses suggested that a Boudicca-like retrotransposon was present in the genome of B. truncatus, the snail host of S. haematobium. PMID:17072464

Copeland, Claudia S; Lewis, Fred A; Brindley, Paul J

2006-08-01

92

Clonorchis sinensis metacercarial infection in the pond smelt Hypomesus olidus and the minnow Zacco platypus collected from the Soyang and Daechung Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pond smelt Hypomesus olidus and minnow Zacco platypus were collected from the Soyang and Daechung Lakes in January 2003, and their metacercarial infections was examined by the muscle compression and artificial digestion techniques. In the Soyang Lake, 161 metacercariae of Clonorchis sinensis (0.35 per fish) were harvested from 459 pond smelts examined. Also, 13 metacercariae of C. sinensis (0.43

Jae-Hwan Park; Sang-Mee Guk; Tae-Yun Kim; Eun-Hee Shin; Aifen Lin; Ji-Yeon Park; Jae-Lip Kim; Sung-Tae Hong; Jong-Yil Chai

2004-01-01

93

Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Taurocyamine Kinase from Clonorchis sinensis: A Candidate Chemotherapeutic Target  

PubMed Central

Background Adult Clonorchis sinensis lives in the bile duct and causes endemic clonorchiasis in East Asian countries. Phosphagen kinases (PK) constitute a highly conserved family of enzymes, which play a role in ATP buffering in cells, and are potential targets for chemotherapeutic agents, since variants of PK are found only in invertebrate animals, including helminthic parasites. This work is conducted to characterize a PK from C. sinensis and to address further investigation for future drug development. Methology/Principal findings A cDNA clone encoding a putative polypeptide of 717 amino acids was retrieved from a C. sinensis transcriptome. This polypeptide was homologous to taurocyamine kinase (TK) of the invertebrate animals and consisted of two contiguous domains. C. sinensis TK (CsTK) gene was reported and found consist of 13 exons intercalated with 12 introns. This suggested an evolutionary pathway originating from an arginine kinase gene group, and distinguished annelid TK from the general CK phylogenetic group. CsTK was found not to have a homologous counterpart in sequences analysis of its mammalian hosts from public databases. Individual domains of CsTK, as well as the whole two-domain enzyme, showed enzymatic activity and specificity toward taurocyamine substrate. Of the CsTK residues, R58, I60 and Y84 of domain 1, and H60, I63 and Y87 of domain 2 were found to participate in binding taurocyamine. CsTK expression was distributed in locomotive and reproductive organs of adult C. sinensis. Developmentally, CsTK was stably expressed in both the adult and metacercariae stages. Recombinant CsTK protein was found to have low sensitivity and specificity toward C. sinensis and platyhelminth-infected human sera on ELISA. Conclusion CsTK is a promising anti-C. sinensis drug target since the enzyme is found only in the C. sinensis and has a substrate specificity for taurocyamine, which is different from its mammalian counterpart, creatine. PMID:24278491

Tokuhiro, Shinji; Nagataki, Mitsuru; Jarilla, Blanca R.; Nomura, Haruka; Kim, Tae Im; Hong, Sung-Jong; Agatsuma, Takeshi

2013-01-01

94

Prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis infection in freshwater fishes in northeastern China.  

PubMed

The prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis infection in freshwater fishes was surveyed in Heilongjiang Province, northeastern China, between August 2011 and September 2013. Thirteen species of freshwater fish (n=3221) and one species of shrimp (n=93) were collected from Songhua river, Nenjiang river and other lakes or ponds in 37 sites of 15 representative cities in Heilongjiang Province. They were individually examined by digestion technique, and the C. sinensis metacercariae were identified morphologically followed by confirmation using sequences of the second internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA. Ten of the 13 examined species of freshwater fishes were infected with C. sinensis metacercariae, while all shrimps were negative. The overall prevalence of C. sinensis infection in 3221 examined freshwater fishes was 19.96%, with 42.57% (272/639) in Pseudorasbora parva, 22.55% (83/368) in Hemicculter leuciclus, 20.44% (121/592) in Carassius auratus, 17.71% (68/384) in Saurogobio dabryi, 10.85% (23/212) in Rhodeus ocellatus, 10.54% (48/455) in Phoxinus lagowskii, 8.20% (21/256) in Perccottus glehnii, 6.25% (5/80) in Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, 4.55% (1/22) in Xenocypris davidi, and 1.49% (1/67) in Cyprinus carpio. The average infection intensity in P. parva was 103.3 encysted metacercariae per gram of fish meat in Zhaoyuan city. The average prevalence of C. sinensis infection in Songhua river, Nenjiang river and lakes or ponds were 31.96% (503/1574), 11.30% (102/903) and 7.93% (59/744), respectively. The prevalence of C. sinensis infection in Zhaoyuan city (43.68%) was the highest among all sampling locations. These results revealed a high-prevalence of C. sinensis infection in freshwater fishes in Heilongjiang Province, northeastern China, posing significant public health concern. PMID:24880648

Zhang, Y; Chang, Q C; Zhang, Y; Na, L; Wang, W T; Xu, W W; Gao, D Z; Liu, Z X; Wang, C R; Zhu, X Q

2014-08-29

95

Surface display of Clonorchis sinensis enolase on Bacillus subtilis spores potentializes an oral vaccine candidate.  

PubMed

Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) infections remain the common public health problem in freshwater fish consumption areas. New effective prevention strategies are still the urgent challenges to control this kind of foodborne infectious disease. The biochemical importance and biological relevance render C. sinensis enolase (Csenolase) as a potential vaccine candidate. In the present study, we constructed Escherichia coli/Bacillus subtilis shuttle genetic engineering system and investigated the potential of Csenolase as an oral vaccine candidate for C. sinensis prevention in different immunization routes. Our results showed that, compared with control groups, both recombinant Csenolase protein and nucleic acid could induce a mixed IgG1/IgG2a immune response when administrated subcutaneously (P<0.001), intraperitoneally (P<0.01) and intramuscularly (P<0.001) with worm reduction rate of 56.29%, 15.38% and 37.42%, respectively. More importantly, Csenolase could be successfully expressed as a fusion protein (55kDa) on B. subtilis spore indicated by immunoblot and immunofluorescence assays. Killed spores triggered reactive Th1/Th2 immune response and exhibited protective efficacy against C. sinensis infection. Csenolase derived oral vaccine conferred worm reduction rate and egg reduction rate at 60.07% (P<0.001) and 80.67% (P<0.001), respectively. The shuttle genetic engineering system facilitated the development of oral vaccine with B. subtilis stably overexpressing target protein. Comparably vaccinal trails with Csenolase in different immunization routes potentialize Csenolase an oral vaccine candidate in C. sinensis prevention. PMID:24486347

Wang, Xiaoyun; Chen, Wenjun; Tian, Yanli; Mao, Qiang; Lv, Xiaoli; Shang, Mei; Li, Xuerong; Yu, Xinbing; Huang, Yan

2014-03-10

96

Identification, sequence analysis, and characterization of serine/threonine protein kinase 17A from Clonorchis sinensis.  

PubMed

This is the first report of a novel protein from Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis), serine/threonine protein kinase 17A (CsSTK17A), which belongs to a member of the death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) family known to regulate diverse biological processes. The full-length sequence encoding CsSTK17A was isolated from C. sinensis adult cDNA plasmid library. Two transcribed isoforms of the gene were identified from the genome of C. sinensis. CsSTK17A contains a kinase domain at the N-terminus that shares a degree of conservation with the DAPK families. Besides, the catalytic domain contains 11 subdomains conserved among STKs and shares the highest identity with STK from Schistosoma mansoni (55.9%). Three-dimensional structure of CsSTK17A displays the canonical STK fold, including the helix C, P-loop, and the activation loop. We obtained recombinant CsSTK17A (rCsSTK17A) and anti-rCsSTK17A IgG. The rCsSTK17A could be probed by anti-rCsSTK17A rat serum, C. sinensis-infected rat serum and the sera from rats immunized with C. sinensis excretory-secretory products, indicating that it is a circulating antigen possessing a strong immunocompetence. Moreover, quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting analyses revealed that CsSTK17A exhibited the highest mRNA and protein expression level in eggs, followed by metacercariae and adult worms. Intriguingly, in the immunolocalization assay, CsSTK17A was intensively localized to the operculum region of eggs in uterus, as well as the vitelline gland of both adult worm and metacercaria, implying that the protein was associated with the reproduction and development of C. sinensis. Overall, these fundamental studies might contribute to further researches on signaling systems of the parasite. PMID:24578258

Huang, Lisi; Lv, Xiaoli; Huang, Yan; Hu, Yue; Yan, Haiyan; Zheng, Minghui; Zeng, Hua; Li, Xuerong; Liang, Chi; Wu, Zhongdao; Yu, Xinbing

2014-05-01

97

Biochemical and immunological characterization of annexin B30 from Clonorchis sinensis excretory/secretory products.  

PubMed

Clonorchis sinensis has been classified as group I biological carcinogen for cholangiocarcinoma by the World Health Organization. Biological studies on excretory/secretory products (ESPs) enabled us to understand the pathogenesis mechanism of C. sinensis and develop new strategies for the prevention of clonorchiasis. In this study, sequence analysis showed that annexin B30 from C. sinensis (CsANXB30) is composed of four annexin repeats which were characterized by type II and III Ca(2+)-binding sites or KGD motif with the capability of Ca(2+)-binding. In addition, immunoblot assay revealed that recombinant CsANXB30 (rCsANXB30) could be recognized by the sera from rats infected with C. sinensis and the sera from rats immunized by CsESPs. Real-time PCR showed that its transcriptional level was the highest at the stage of metacercaria. Immunofluorescence assay was employed to confirm that CsANXB30 was distributed in the tegument, intestine, and egg of adult worms, as well as the tegument and vitellarium of metacercaria. rCsANXB30 was able to bind phospholipid in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner and human plasminogen in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, cytokine and antibody measurements indicated that rats subcutaneously immunized with rCsANXB30 developed a strong IL-10 production in spleen cells and a high level of IgG1 isotype, indicating that rCsANXB30 could trigger specific humoral and cellular immune response in rats. The present results implied that CsANXB30 might be involved in a host-parasite interaction and affected the immune response of the host during C. sinensis infection. PMID:24861011

He, Lei; Ren, Mengyu; Chen, Xueqing; Wang, Xiaoyun; Li, Shan; Lin, Jinsi; Liang, Chi; Liang, Pei; Hu, Yue; Lei, Huali; Bian, Meng; Huang, Yan; Wu, Zhongdao; Li, Xuerong; Yu, Xinbing

2014-07-01

98

Molecular characterization and serological reactivity of a vacuolar ATP synthase subunit ?-like protein from Clonorchis sinensis.  

PubMed

The vacuolar ATPase enzyme complex (V-ATPase) pumps protons across membranes, energized by hydrolysis of ATP. Extensive investigations on structural and biochemical features of these molecules have implied their importance in the physiological process. In this study, a full-length sequence encoding a vacuolar ATP synthase subunit ?-like protein of Clonorchis sinensis (CsATP-?) was isolated from our cDNA library. The hypothetical 226 amino acid sequence shared 76% identity with ATP-? proteins of Schistosoma japonicum and above 55% identity with ATP-? proteins from human and other eukaryotes. Characteristic Asp??? amino acid residues and seven B-cell epitopes were predicted in this sequence. The complete coding sequence of the gene was expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant CsATP-? (rCsATP-?) protein could be probed by anti-rCsATP-? rat serum and C.sinensis-infected human serum in Western blotting experiment, indicating that it is an antigen of strong antigenicity. The high level of antibody titers (1:204,800) showed that CsATP-? has a powerful immunogenicity. Both the increased level and the change trend of IgG1/IgG2a subtypes in serum showed that the rCsATP-? can induce strong combined Th1/Th2 immune responses in rats and stimulate the immune response changes to the dominant Th2 from Th1 along with long time infection. The results of immunoblot and immunolocalization demonstrated that CsATP-? was consecutively expressed at various developmental stages of the parasite, which was supported by real-time PCR analysis. In immunohistochemistry, CsATP-? was localized on the intestine, vitellarium, and testicle of an adult worm and excretory bladder of metacercaria, implying that CsATP-? may relate to energy intake and metabolism. This fundamental study would contribute to further researches that are related to growth and development and immunomodulation of C. sinensis. PMID:24535733

Lv, Xiaoli; Huang, Lisi; Chen, Wenjun; Wang, Xiaoyun; Huang, Yan; Deng, Chuanhuan; Sun, Jiufeng; Tian, Yanli; Mao, Qiang; Lei, Huali; Yu, Xinbing

2014-04-01

99

Molecular characterization and immune modulation properties of Clonorchis sinensis-derived RNASET2  

PubMed Central

Background Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis, Cs) is a trematode parasite that often causes chronic cumulative infections in the hepatobiliary ducts of the host and can lead to pathological changes by continuously released excretory/secretory proteins (ESPs). A T2 ribonuclease in trematode ESPs, has been identified as a potent regulator of dendritic cell (DCs) modulation. We wondered whether there was a counterpart present in CsESPs with similar activity. To gain a better understanding of CsESPs associated immune responses, we identified and characterized RNASET2 of C. sinensis (CsRNASET2) in this paper. Methods We expressed CsRNASET2 in Pichia pastoris and identified its molecular characteristics using bioinformatic analysis and experimental approaches. The immune modulation activities of CsRNASET2 were confirmed by evaluating cytokine production and surface markers of recombinant CsRNASET2 (rCsRNASET2) co-cultured DCs, and monitoring levels of IgG isotypes from rCsRNASET2 administered BALB/c mice. Results CsRNASET2 appeared to be a glycoprotein of T2 ribonuclease family harboring conserved CAS motifs and rich in B-cell epitopes. Furthermore, CsRNASET2 was present in CsESPs and was able to modulate cytokine production of DCs. In addition, rCsRNASET2 could significantly suppress the expression of lipopolysaccharide-induced DCs maturation markers. In addition, when subcutaneously administered with rCsRNASET2 there was a marked effect on IgG isotypes in mouse sera. Conclusion Collectively, we revealed that CsRNASET2, a T2 ribonuclease present in CsESPs, could modulate DCs maturation and might play an important role in C. sinensis associated immune regulation in the host. PMID:24365605

2013-01-01

100

Prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis Metacercariae in Freshwater Fish from Three Latitudinal Regions of the Korean Peninsula  

PubMed Central

A large-scale survey was conducted to investigate the infection status of fresh water fishes with Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae (CsMc) in 3 wide regions, which were tentatively divided by latitudinal levels of the Korean peninsula. A total of 4,071 freshwater fishes were collected from 3 regions, i.e., northern (Gangwon-do: 1,543 fish), middle (Chungcheongbuk-do and Gyeongsangbuk-do: 1,167 fish), and southern areas (Jeollanam-do, Ulsan-si, and Gyeongsangnam-do: 1,361 fish). Each fish was examined by the artificial digestion method from 2003 to 2010. In northern areas, only 11 (0.7%) fish of 2 species, Pungtungia herzi and Squalidus japonicus coreanus from Hantan-gang, Cheolwon-gun, Gangwon-do were infected with av. 2.6 CsMc. In middle areas, 149 (12.8%) fish were infected with av. 164 CsMc. In southern areas, 538 (39.5%) fish were infected with av. 159 CsMc. In the analysis of endemicity in 3 regions with an index fish, P. herzi, 9 (6.2%) of 146 P. herzi from northern areas were infected with av. 2.8 CsMc. In middle areas, 34 (31.8%) of 107 P. herzi were infected with av. 215 CsMc, and in southern areas, 158 (92.9%) of 170 P. herzi were infected with av. 409 CsMc. From these results, it has been confirmed that the infection status of fish with CsMc is obviously different among the 3 latitudinal regions of the Korean peninsula with higher prevalence and burden in southern regions. PMID:22355206

Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Kim, Tong-Soo; Kong, Yoon; Eom, Keeseon; Seok, Won-Seok; Lee, Taejoon

2011-01-01

101

A review of the cat liver fluke Platynosomum fastosum Kossack, 1910 (Trematoda: Dicrocoeliidae).  

PubMed

Platynosomum fastosum is a small hepatic trematode found in the biliary ducts and gall bladder of cats and other mammals. It is commonly found in tropical and subtropical regions. Some aspect of the life cycle of this parasite is not fully understood, however terrestrial snails, lizards and isopods are implicated as intermediate/paratenic hosts. The disease caused by P. fastosum is platynosomiais (named after the parasite) or 'lizard poisoning' since it is assumed that affected cats acquire the parasite by eating infected lizards. The clinical signs due to infection with P. fastosum may range from asymptomatic to progressive disease and at times death due to biliary tract obstruction and hepatic failure. Infection with this parasite should, therefore, be included in the differential diagnosis of cats with signs of hepatic diseases. PMID:24412358

Basu, A K; Charles, R A

2014-02-24

102

Biochemical characterisation of the recombinant peroxiredoxin (FhePrx) of the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parasitic helminth Fasciola hepatica secretes a 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Prx) that may play important functions in host–parasite interaction. Recombinant peroxiredoxin (FhePrx) prevented metal-catalyzed oxidative nicking of plasmid DNA and detoxified hydrogen peroxide when coupled with Escherichia coli thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase (kcat\\/Km=5.2×105M?1s?1). Enzyme kinetic analysis revealed that the catalytic efficiency of FhePrx is similar to other 2-Cys peroxiredoxins; the enzyme

Mary Sekiya; Grace Mulcahy; Jane A. Irwin; Colin M. Stack; Sheila M. Donnelly; Weibo Xu; Peter Collins; John P. Dalton

2006-01-01

103

Identification, immunolocalization, and immunological characterization of nitric oxide synthase-interacting protein from Clonorchis sinensis.  

PubMed

Recently, accumulating evidences indicate that nitric oxide (NO) is a potent mediator with diverse roles in regulating cellular functions, signaling pathways, and variety of pathological processes. In the present study, using data from the published genomic for Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis), we investigated a gene encoding nitric oxide synthase-interacting protein (NOSIP) of C. sinensis. Recombinant CsNOSIP (rCsNOSIP) was expressed and purified from Escherichia coli BL21. The open reading frame of CsNOSIP comprises 867 bp which encodes 289 amino acids and shares 72.9, 45.2, 47, 46.4, and 45.8% identity with NOSIP from Schistosoma mansoni, Xenopus laevis, Rattus norvegicus, Mus musculus, and Homo sapiens, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis suggested that the full-length sequence contains an eNOS-interacting domain and numerous B-cell epitopes. Quantitative RT-PCR indicated that CsNOSIP differentially transcribed throughout the adult worms, metacercariae, and egg stages of C. sinensis, and were highly expressed in the adult worms. Moreover, western blot analysis showed that the rCsNOSIP could be detected by the serum from BALB/c mice infected with C. sinensis and the serum from BALB/c mice immunized with excretory/secretory products (ESPs). Furthermore, immunolocalization assay showed that CsNOSIP was specifically localized in the intestine, vitellarium, and eggs of adult worm. Both immunoblot and immunolocalization results demonstrated that CsNOSIP was one component of ESPs of C. sinensis, which could be supported by SignalP analysis. Moreover, analysis of the antibody subclass and cytokine profile demonstrated that subcutaneously immunized BALB/c mice with rCsNOSIP could significantly enhance serum IgG1 level and up-regulate expression of IL-4 and IL-6 in the splenocytes. Our results suggested that CsNOSIP was an important antigen exposed to host immune system and probably involved in immune regulation of host by inducing Th2-polarized immune response. PMID:24604383

Bian, Meng; Li, Shan; Wang, Xiaoyun; Xu, Yanquan; Chen, Wenjun; Zhou, Chenhui; Chen, Xueqing; He, Lei; Xu, Jin; Liang, Chi; Wu, Zhongdao; Huang, Yan; Li, Xuerong; Yu, Xinbing

2014-05-01

104

Life history and habitat analysis of the eye fluke Diplostomum spathaceum (trematoda: diplostomatidae) in Utah.  

PubMed

Diplostomum spathaceum which is widespread throughout Utah in desert, mountain valley, and high alpine lakes, causes a disease known as diplostomatosis or eye fluke disease. Snails (756) were examined and two species, Lymnaea stagnalis and L. palustris were positive for D. spathaceum. Examination of 838 fish, which included 19 species, revealed 10 species (Salmo trutta, Catostomus discobulus, Salmo clarki, Micropterus salmoides, Catostomus platyrhynchus, Salmo gairdneri, Gila atraria, Catostomus ardens, Salvelinus fontinalis, and Richardsonius balteatus) positive for metacercariae of D. spathaceum. The only avian hosts positive for adult Diplostomum were Larvus californicus and L. delawarensis. PMID:864559

Palmieri, J R; Heckmann, R A; Evans, R S

1977-06-01

105

Development of a polymerase chain reaction applicable to rapid and sensitive detection of Clonorchis sinensis eggs in human stool samples  

PubMed Central

Microscopic examination of eggs of parasitic helminths in stool samples has been the most widely used classical diagnostic method for infections, but tiny and low numbers of eggs in stool samples often hamper diagnosis of helminthic infections with classical microscopic examination. Moreover, it is also difficult to differentiate parasite eggs by the classical method, if they have similar morphological characteristics. In this study, we developed a rapid and sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular diagnostic method for detection of Clonorchis sinensis eggs in stool samples. Nine primers were designed based on the long-terminal repeat (LTR) of C. sinensis retrotransposon1 (CsRn1) gene, and seven PCR primer sets were paired. Polymerase chain reaction with each primer pair produced specific amplicons for C. sinensis, but not for other trematodes including Metagonimus yokogawai and Paragonimus westermani. Particularly, three primer sets were able to detect 10 C. sinensis eggs and were applicable to amplify specific amplicons from DNA samples purified from stool of C. sinensis-infected patients. This PCR method could be useful for diagnosis of C. sinensis infections in human stool samples with a high level of specificity and sensitivity. PMID:23916334

Cho, Pyo Yun; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Mi Choi, Kyung; Kim, Jin Su; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Won-Ja; Lim, Sung-Bin; Cha, Seok Ho; Park, Yun-Kyu; Pak, Jhang Ho; Lee, Hyeong-Woo; Hong, Sung-Jong; Kim, Tong-Soo

2013-01-01

106

Liver metastases  

MedlinePLUS

Metastases to the liver; Metastatic liver cancer; Liver cancer - metastatic ... Almost any cancer can spread to the liver. Cancers that can spread to the liver include: Breast cancer Colorectal cancer Esophageal ...

107

Characteristics and molecular phylogeny of Fasciola flukes from Bangladesh, determined based on spermatogenesis and nuclear and mitochondrial DNA analyses.  

PubMed

This study aimed to precisely discriminate Fasciola spp. based on DNA sequences of nuclear internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) gene. We collected 150 adult flukes from the bile ducts of cattle, buffaloes, sheep, and goats from six different regions of Bangladesh. Spermatogenic status was determined by analyzing stained seminal vesicles. The ITS1 types were analyzed using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. The nad1 haplotypes were identified based on PCR and direct sequencing and analyzed phylogenetically by comparing with nad1 haplotypes of Fasciola spp. from other Asian countries. Of the 127 aspermic flukes, 98 were identified as Fg type in ITS1, whereas 29 were identified as Fh/Fg type, indicating a combination of ITS1 sequences of Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. All the 127 aspermic flukes showed Fsp-NDI-Bd11 in nad1 haplotype with nucleotide sequences identical to aspermic Fasciola sp. from Asian countries. Further, 20 spermic flukes were identified as F. gigantica based on their spermatogenic status and Fg type in ITS1. F. gigantica population was thought to be introduced into Bangladesh considerably earlier than the aspermic Fasciola sp. because 11 haplotypes with high haplotype diversity were detected from the F. gigantica population. However, three flukes from Bangladesh could not be precisely identified, because their spermatogenic status, ITS1 types, and nad1 haplotypes were ambiguous. Therefore, developing a robust method to distinguish aspermic Fasciola sp. from other Fasciola species is necessary in the future. PMID:24781019

Mohanta, Uday Kumar; Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Shoriki, Takuya; Katakura, Ken; Itagaki, Tadashi

2014-07-01

108

Risk factors for Opisthorchis viverrini and minute intestinal fluke infections in Lao PDR, 2009-2011.  

PubMed

The purpose of this report is to compare the prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini/minute intestinal fluke (Ov/MIF) in Lao People's Democratic Republic according to different regions and evaluate the effect of ingestion of raw freshwater fish on the infection. Demographic data, behavioral data, and symptoms were obtained, and the Kato-Katz method was used for the diagnosis of Ov/MIF. In total, 3,046 individuals were enrolled. The risk factors associated with acquisition of Ov/MIF were raw fish consumption and province. Khong Island showed the highest prevalence (odds ratio = 80.1, 95% confidence interval = 47.9-133.9, P < 0.001) compared with other districts, and raw fish consumption was related to Ov/MIF infection. Administration of praziquantel to entire populations, education (avoiding consumption of raw food dishes and improved hygiene), and access to clean water and sanitation should be considered. PMID:24980495

Yoon, Hee Jung; Ki, Moran; Eom, Keeseon; Yong, Tai-Soon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Phommasack, Bounlay

2014-08-01

109

Oxidative stress and changes in liver antioxidant enzymes induced by experimental dicroceliosis in hamsters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of our study was to assess the effects of experimental dicroceliosis on the antioxidant defense capability of\\u000a the liver in hamsters. Studies were carried out at 80 and 120 days after infection with an oral dose of 40 metacercariae of\\u000a Dicrocoelium dendriticum. The parasitic pathology was ascertained by the presence of fluke eggs in feces, increased serum ALT

S. Sánchez-Campos; M. J. Tuñón; P. González; J. González-Gallego

1999-01-01

110

Efficacy and Safety of Praziquantel, Tribendimidine and Mebendazole in Patients with Co-infection of Clonorchis sinensis and Other Helminths  

PubMed Central

Background Both tribendimidine and mebendazole are broad-spectrum drugs for anti-intestinal nematodes. We aim to assess the efficacy and safety of tribendimidine and mebendazole in patients with co-infection of Clonorchis sinensis and other helminths. Method We performed a randomized open-label trial in Qiyang, People's Republic of China. Eligible participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups: (i) a single dose of 400 mg tribendimidine, (ii) 200 mg tribendimidine twice daily, (iii) 75 mg/kg praziquantel divided in four doses within 2 days, and (iv) a single dose of 400 mg mebendazole. Cure rates and egg reduction rates were assessed, and adverse events were monitored after treatments. Uncured patients accepted the second treatment with the same drugs after the first treatment. Results 156 patients were eligible for the study. Results from the first treatment showed that the cure rates of single-dose tribendimidine and praziquantel against C. sinensis were 50% and 56.8%, respectively; the single-dose tribendimidine achieved the cure rate of 77.8% in the treatment for hookworm, which was significantly higher than that of praziquantel; Low cure rates were obtained in the treatment of single-dose tribendimidine against Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura (28.6% and 23.1%). Results of the second treatment illustrated the cure rates of tribendimidine and praziquantel against C. sinensis were 78.1% and 75%, respectively. Most adverse events were mild and transient. Adverse events caused by tribendimidine were significantly less than praziquantel. Conclusion Single-dose tribendimidine showed similar efficacy against C. sinensis as praziquantel with less adverse events, and achieved significantly higher cure rate in the treatment for hookworm than those of praziquantel and mebendazole. Low cure rates, which were still higher than other drugs, were obtained in the treatment of single-dose tribendimidine against Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN55086560 PMID:25122121

Xu, Li-Li; Jiang, Bin; Duan, Ji-Hui; Zhuang, Shi-Feng; Liu, Yong-Chun; Zhu, Shi-Qiao; Zhang, Li-Ping; Zhang, Hao-Bing; Xiao, Shu-Hua; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

2014-01-01

111

Liver Biopsy  

MedlinePLUS

A liver biopsy is a medical procedure performed in order to obtain a small sample of the liver. This is accomplished ... scar. The most common reasons for a liver biopsy include the evaluation of: ? Jaundice ? Liver inflammation (hepatitis) ? ...

112

Liver Transplantation  

MedlinePLUS

... you on a waiting list for a liver transplant. Doctors do liver transplants when other treatment cannot keep a damaged liver ... and replaces it with a healthy one. Most transplant livers come from a donor who has died. ...

113

Intervention to Improve the Quality of Life of a Bottlenose Dolphin That Developed Necrosis on the Tail Flukes  

PubMed Central

[Purpose, Case, and Methods] A female bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) in captivity developed necrosis of the tail flukes. Although the diseased site healed after surgical resection, the loss of approximately 75% of the tail greatly affected her swimming performance. To restore swimming ability, we developed artificial tail flukes as a prosthetic swimming aid and provided physical therapy that included swimming training from postoperative day 1 to day 1427. [Results] The prosthetic enabled the dolphin to recover swimming ability almost to the level prior to disease onset, but even acquire applied movement, and reestablish social relationships, thus greatly improving the animal's quality of life. [Conclusion] The results clearly demonstrate that, as in postoperative rehabilitation in humans, the use of prosthetic devices in physical therapy can be beneficial for marine animals such as dolphins. PMID:24259946

Ueda, Keiichi; Murakami, Masahito; Kato, Junichi; Miyahara, Hirokazu; Izumisawa, Yasuharu

2013-01-01

114

Conservation of CD4+ T cell-dependent developmental mechanisms in the blood fluke pathogens of humans  

PubMed Central

Schistosoma blood flukes are trematode parasites with a cosmopolitan distribution that infect over 200 million people globally. We previously showed that Schistosoma mansoni growth and development in the mammalian host is dependent on signals from host CD4+ T cells. To gain insight into the mechanisms that underlie this dependence, we sought to determine the evolutionary origins and limits of this aspect of the host-pathogen relationship. By infecting RAG-1?/? mice with a range of different schistosome species and strains, we tested several hypotheses concerning the time during Schistosoma evolution at which this dependence arose, and whether this dependence is specific to Schistosoma or is also found in other blood flukes. Our data indicate that the developmental dependence on CD4+ T cells previously described for S. mansoni is conserved in the evolutionarily basal species Schistosoma japonicum, suggesting this developmental adaptation arose early in Schistosoma evolution. We also demonstrate that the development of the more evolutionarily-derived species Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma intercalatum are dependent on adaptive immune signals. Together, these data suggest that the blood fluke parasites of humans utilize common mechanisms to infect their hosts and to co-opt immune signals in the coordination of parasite development. Thus, exploitation of host-schistosome interactions to impair or prevent parasite development may represent a novel approach to combating of all the schistosome pathogens of humans. PMID:17196594

Lamb, Erika W.; Crow, Emily T.; Lim, K.C.; Liang, Yung-san; Lewis, Fred A.; Davies, Stephen J.

2007-01-01

115

Fasciola hepatica: histological demonstration of apoptosis in the reproductive organs of flukes of triclabendazole-sensitive and triclabendazole-resistant isolates, and in field-derived flukes from triclabendazole-treated hosts, using in situ hybridisation to visualise endonuclease-generated DNA strand breaks.  

PubMed

Investigation of the triclabendazole (TCBZ) resistance status of populations of Fasciola hepatica in field cases of fasciolosis, where treatment failure has been reported, can be supported by histological examination of flukes collected from recently treated hosts. In TCBZ-sensitive flukes (TCBZ-S) exposed to TCBZ metabolites for 1-4days in vivo, but not in TCBZ-resistant flukes (TCBZ-R), morphological changes suggestive of apoptosis occur in cells undergoing meiosis or mitosis in the testis, ovary and vitelline follicles. In order to verify or refute the contention that efficacy of TCBZ treatment is associated with apoptosis in the reproductive organs of flukes, histological sections of TCBZ-S (Cullompton isolate) flukes and TCBZ-R (Sligo isolate) flukes were subjected to the TdT-mediated dUDP nick end labelling (TUNEL) in situ hybridisation method, a commercially available test specifically designed to label endonuclease-induced DNA strand breaks associated with apoptosis. Additionally, sections of in vivo-treated and untreated flukes originating from field outbreaks of suspected TCBZ-S and TCBZ-R fasciolosis were labelled by the TUNEL method. It was found that in treated TCBZ-S flukes, strong positive labelling indicating apoptosis was associated with morphologically abnormal cells undergoing mitosis or meiosis in the testis, ovary and vitelline follicles. Background labelling in the positive testis sections was attributed to heterophagy of cell debris by the sustentacular tissue. The triggering of apoptosis was probably related to failure of spindle formation at cell division, supporting the contention that TCBZ inhibits microtubule formation. In treated TCBZ-R (Sligo Type 1) flukes, and in treated flukes from field outbreaks of suspected TCBZ-R fasciolosis, no significant labelling was observed, while sections of fluke derived from a field case of fasciolosis where TCBZ resistance was not suspected were heavily labelled. Light labelling was associated with the testis of untreated Cullompton (TCBZ-S) and Sligo Type 2 (TCBZ-R) flukes, which exhibit abnormal spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis, respectively. This was attributed to apoptosis and to heterophagy of effete germ line cells by the sustentacular tissue. It is concluded that demonstration of apoptosis by in situ hybridisation using the TUNEL method on sections of 1-4days in vivo TCBZ-treated F. hepatica can contribute to the diagnosis of TCBZ resistance in field outbreaks of fasciolosis. PMID:23062689

Hanna, R E B; Forster, F I; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

2013-01-31

116

Immunocytochemical demonstration of 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) in the nervous system of the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda, Digenea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The localisation and distribution of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT or serotonin) in the nervous system ofFasciola hepatica has been determined by an indirect immunofluorescence technique. Cell bodies and nerve fibres immunoreactive to 5-HT are present in the anterior ganglia, and the longitudinal nerve cords and their commissures in the central nervous system. In the peripheral nervous system, similar immunoreactivity occurs in the

I. Fairweather; A. G. Maule; S. H. Mitchell; C. F. Johnston; D. W. Halton

1987-01-01

117

Fasciola hepatica cathepsin L-like proteases: biology, function, and potential in the development of first generation liver fluke vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fasciola hepatica secretes cathepsin L proteases that facilitate the penetration of the parasite through the tissues of its host, and also participate in functions such as feeding and immune evasion. The major proteases, cathepsin L1 (FheCL1) and cathepsin L2 (FheCL2) are members of a lineage that gave rise to the human cathepsin Ls, Ks and Ss, but while they exhibit

John P Dalton; Sandra O Neill; Colin Stack; Peter Collins; Alan Walshe; Mary Sekiya; Sean Doyle; Grace Mulcahy; Deborah Hoyle; Eric Khaznadji; Nathalie Moiré; Gerard Brennan; Angela Mousley; Natalia Kreshchenko; Aaron G Maule; Sheila M Donnelly

2003-01-01

118

THE LIVER FLUKE METORCHIS BILIS - A NEW THREAT FOR THE WHITE-TAILED SEA EAGLE (HALIAEETUS ALBICILLA) IN MIDDLE EUROPE?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extendet abstract: The white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) an endangered species in Germany suffers a lot of threats in the highly civilised landscape. Amongst the main causes of death such as traumata due to interference with human structures, i.e. collisions with trains, wire, electrocution, and poisoning, parasites do also play an important role in the health status of these birds

O. KRONE; R. SCHUSTER

119

Systemic and local mucosal immune responses induced by orally delivered Bacillus subtilis spore expressing leucine aminopeptidase 2 of Clonorchis sinensis.  

PubMed

Human clonorchiasis caused by Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) has been increasingly prevalent in recent years so that an effective measure is essential and urgent to control the infectious disease. Oral delivery of antigens from C. sinensis may be an important approach to effectively induce both systemic and local immune responses to anti-infection of the parasite. In the current study, we used Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) spores as a delivery vehicle to introduce leucine aminopeptidase 2 of C. sinensis (CsLAP2), an excretory/secretory antigen with high immunogenicity, expressing on their surface. SDS-PAGE, western blotting, and flow cytometry indicated that CsLAP2 was successfully expressed on the surface of B. subtilis spores (CotC-CsLAP2 spores). BALB/c mice were treated with spores intragastrically. On day 31 after the treatment, we found that mice intragastrically treated with CotC-CsLAP2 spores exhibited higher IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, and IgA level in sera as well as higher sIgA level in bile and intestinal lavage fluid compared to mice orally administrated with spores not expressing CsLAP2 (CotC spores) and naïve mice. The peak titer of IgG/IgA presented on day 31/49 after oral administration. IgG1 level was lower than IgG2a in group administrated with CotC-CsLAP2 spores. sIgA-secreting cells were obviously observed in intestinal epithelium of mice orally treated with CotC-CsLAP2 spores. After incubated with CotC-CsLAP2, the levels of IFN-?, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, and TNF significantly increased in the supernatant of splenocytes isolated from mice orally treated with CotC-CsLAP2 spores, while there was no statistically significant difference of IL-4 level representing Th2 response among the groups. Our study demonstrated that oral administration of CsLAP2 delivered by B. subtilis spore elicited obvious systemic and local mucosal immunity. Secretory IgA and Th1-Th17 cellular immunity might involved in mechanisms of the immune response. PMID:24906994

Qu, Hongling; Xu, Yanquan; Sun, Hengchang; Lin, Jinsi; Yu, Jinyun; Tang, Zeli; Shen, Jiqing; Liang, Chi; Li, Shan; Chen, Wenjun; Li, Xuerong; Wu, Zhongdao; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xinbing

2014-08-01

120

Liver Facts  

MedlinePLUS

... Heart/Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Liver Facts How the Liver Works The liver is one of the largest and most complex ... a spongy mass of wedge-shaped lobes. The liver has numerous functions that are necessary for life. ...

121

Liver Transplantation  

MedlinePLUS

... NIDDK supports and conducts a wide variety of research related to liver diseases, liver failure, and liver transplantation. Examples of studies funded by the NIDDK include those investigating adult- ...

122

Adulticidal and larvicidal efficacy of some medicinal plant extracts against tick, fluke and mosquitoes.  

PubMed

The adulticidal and larvicidal effect of indigenous plant extracts were investigated against the adult cattle tick Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann, 1897 (Acarina: Ixodidae), sheep fluke Paramphistomum cervi Zeder, 1790 (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae), fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effect of leaf hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Annona squamosa L., Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, Gloriosa superba L., Mukia maderaspatensis (L.) M.Roem, Pergularia daemia (Forsk.) Chiov. and Phyllanthus emblica L. were exposed to different concentrations. All plant extracts showed moderate toxic effect on parasites after 24h of exposure; however, the highest mortality was found in leaf hexane extract of A. squamosa, methanol extracts of G. superba and P. emblica against H. bispinosa (LC(50)=145.39, 225.57 and 256.08ppm); methanol extracts of C. asiatica, G. superba, P. daemia and P. emblica against P. cervi (LC(50)=77.61, 60.16, 59.61, and 60.60ppm); acetone, ethyl acetate extracts of A. squamosa, methanol extract of C. asiatica, acetone extracts of G. superba, ethyl acetate, hexane and methanol extracts of P. daemia against A. subpictus (LC(50)=17.48, 18.60, 26.62, 18.43, 34.06, 13.63, and 50.39ppm); and chloroform, ethyl acetate extracts of A. squamosa, ethyl acetate extract of P. daemia, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of P. emblica against C. tritaeniorhynchus (LC(50)=63.81, 60.01, 31.94, 69.09, and 54.82ppm), respectively. These results demonstrate that methanol extracts of C. asiatica, G. superba, P. daemia and P. emblica extracts may serve as parasites control even in their crude form. PMID:19819626

Bagavan, A; Kamaraj, C; Elango, G; Abduz Zahir, A; Abdul Rahuman, A

2009-12-23

123

Identification and characterization of microRNAs in the pancreatic fluke Eurytrema pancreaticum  

PubMed Central

Background Eurytrema pancreaticum is one of the most common flukes, which mainly infects ruminants globally and infects human beings accidentally; causing eurytremiasis that has high veterinary and economic importance. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs and are now considered as a key mechanism of gene regulation at the post-transcription level. Methods We investigated the global miRNA expression profile of E. pancreaticum adults using next-generation sequencing technology combined with real-time quantitative PCR. Results By using the genome of the closely-related species Schistosoma japonicum as reference, we obtained 27 miRNA candidates out of 16.45 million raw sequencing reads, with 13 of them found as known miRNAs in S. japonicum and/or S. mansoni, and the remaining 14 miRNAs were considered as novel. Five out of the 13 known miRNAs coming from one family named as sja-miR-2, including family members from miR-2a to miR-2e. Targets of 19 miRNAs were successfully predicated out of the 17401 mRNA and EST non-redundant sequences of S. japonicum. It was found that a significant high number of targets were related to “chch domain-containing protein mitochondrial precursor” (n?=?29), “small subunit ribosomal protein s30e” (n?=?21), and “insulin-induced gene 1 protein” (n?=?9). Besides, “egg protein cp3842” (n?=?2), “fumarate hydratase” (n?=?2), “ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme” (n?=?2), and “sperm-associated antigen 6” (n?=?1) were also found as targets of the miRNAs of E. pancreaticum. Conclusions The present study represents the first global characterization of E. pancreaticum miRNAs, which provides novel resources for a better understanding of the parasite, which, in turn, has implications for the effective control of the disease it causes. PMID:23351883

2013-01-01

124

Differential Activation of Diverse Glutathione Transferases of Clonorchis sinensis in Response to the Host Bile and Oxidative Stressors  

PubMed Central

Background Clonorchis sinensis causes chronic cumulative infections in the human hepatobiliary tract and is intimately associated with cholangiocarcinoma. Approximately 35 million people are infected and 600 million people are at risk of infections worldwide. C. sinensis excretory-secretory products (ESP) constitute the first-line effector system affecting the host-parasite interrelationship by interacting with bile fluids and ductal epithelium. However, the secretory behavior of C. sinensis in an environment close to natural host conditions is unclear. C. sinensis differs from Fasciola hepatica in migration to, and maturation in, the hepatic bile duct, implying that protein profile of the ESP of these two trematodes might be different from each other. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted systemic approaches to analyze the C. sinensis ESP proteome and the biological reactivity of C. sinensis glutathione transferases (GSTs), such as global expression patterns and induction profiles under oxidative stress and host bile. When we observed ex host excretion behavior of C. sinensis in the presence of 10% host bile, the global proteome pattern was not significantly altered, but the amount of secretory proteins was increased by approximately 3.5-fold. Bioactive molecules secreted by C. sinensis revealed universal/unique features in relation to its intraluminal hydrophobic residing niche. A total of 38 protein spots identified abundantly included enzymes involved in glucose metabolism (11 spots, 28.9%) and diverse-classes of glutathione transferases (GSTs; 10 spots, 26.3%). Cathepsin L/F (four spots, 10.5%) and transporter molecules (three spots, 7.9%) were also recognized. The universal secretory proteins found in other parasites, such as several enzymes involved in glucose metabolism and oxygen transporters, were commonly detected. C. sinensis secreted less cysteine proteases and fatty acid binding proteins compared to other tissue-invading or intravascular trematodes. Interestingly, secretion of a 28 kDa ?-class GST (Cs28?GST3) was significantly affected by the host bile, involving reduced secretion of the 28 kDa species and augmented secretion of Cs28?GST3-related high-molecular-weight 85 kDa protein. Oxidative stressors induced upregulated secretion of 28 kDa Cs28?GST3, but not an 85 kDa species. A secretory 26 kDa ?-class GST (Cs26?GST2) was increased upon treatment with oxidative stressors and bile juice, while another 28 kDa ?-class GST (Cs28?GST1) showed negligible responses. Conclusions/Significance Our results represent the first analysis of the genuine nature of the C. sinensis ESP proteome in the presence of host bile mimicking the natural host environments. The behavioral patterns of migration and maturation of C. sinensis in the bile ducts might contribute to the secretion of copious amounts of diverse GSTs, but a smaller quantity and fewer kinds of cysteine proteases. The Cs28?GST1 and its paralog(s) detoxify endogenous oxidative molecules, while Cs28?GST3 and Cs26?GST2 conjugate xenobiotics/hydrophobic substances in the extracellular environments, which imply that diverse C. sinensis GSTs might have evolved for each of the multiple specialized functions. PMID:23696907

Bae, Young-An; Ahn, Do-Whan; Lee, Eung-Goo; Kim, Seon-Hee; Cai, Guo-Bin; Kang, Insug; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Kong, Yoon

2013-01-01

125

Rhaphidotrema kiatkiongi, a new genus and species of blood fluke (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from Arothron hispidus (Osteichthyes: Tetraodontidae) from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.  

PubMed

A new genus of fish blood flukes (Aporocotylidae Odhner, 1912) is proposed for a species found on reefs surrounding Lizard Island on the northern Great Barrier Reef. Rhaphidotrema kiatkiongi gen. et sp. n. was recovered from the heart of the stars-and-stripes pufferfish, Arothron hispidus (L.) (Tetraodontidae). Rhaphidotrema kiatkiongi is notable as the first digenean reported to possess a penis stylet. It also differs from all other aporocotylid flukes in having a combination of 18-19 testes in a group at the ends of the intestinal caeca, a broad lanceolate body shape with a dextrally-directed posterior bend at the level of the male genital pore, and separate genital pores, with the female genital pore distinctly sinistral and the male genital pore slightly dextral to midline. This is the second species of aporocotylid fluke reported from this pufferfish. PMID:22263308

Yong, Russell Q Y; Cribb, Thomas H

2011-11-01

126

Pregnancy and Liver Function  

MedlinePLUS

... Liver Function Liver Fast Facts: Pregnancy and Liver Function | Pregnancy and Liver Function How does pregnancy affect the liver? Pregnancy has ... liver. There are no significant changes in liver function during pregnancy, but some markers of liver function ...

127

Clonorchiasis control: starting from awareness.  

PubMed

Clonorchiasis is caused by infection with food-borne liver fluke, namely Clonorchis sinensis, which is also considered to be a neglected tropical disease. It is estimated that over 10 million people are infected with C. sinensis in China and, subsequently, several thousand new cholangiocarcinoma cases occur annually. On May 18, 2014, China Central Television broadcasted an episode on the habit of raw-fish eating and its potential to cause clonorchiasis in a programme called Health on the tip of the tongue. Here, I briefly introduce the content of the episode and discuss its significance for clonorchiasis control in China. PMID:25243069

Qian, Men-Bao

2014-01-01

128

Clonorchiasis control: starting from awareness  

PubMed Central

Clonorchiasis is caused by infection with food-borne liver fluke, namely Clonorchis sinensis, which is also considered to be a neglected tropical disease. It is estimated that over 10 million people are infected with C. sinensis in China and, subsequently, several thousand new cholangiocarcinoma cases occur annually. On May 18, 2014, China Central Television broadcasted an episode on the habit of raw-fish eating and its potential to cause clonorchiasis in a programme called Health on the tip of the tongue. Here, I briefly introduce the content of the episode and discuss its significance for clonorchiasis control in China.

2014-01-01

129

Dynamics and Structural Changes of the Fluke Fauna in Fish of the Volga Delta Caused by the Rise of Water Level in the Caspian Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the Caspian Sea level and anthropogenic influences on biocenoses of the Volga Delta periodically result in the changes of dominant species among animal helminths. An abrupt rise of the sea level since the mid-1970s caused structural rearrangements in the fluke fauna of fish in the 1990s: the species whose development is connected with mollusks of the rheophilic complex

V. M. Ivanov; N. N. Semenova

2002-01-01

130

Liver Immunology  

PubMed Central

The liver is the largest organ in the body and is generally regarded by non-immunologists as not having lymphoid function. However, such is far from accurate. This review highlights the importance of the liver as a lymphoid organ. Firstly, we discuss experimental data surrounding the role of liver as a lymphoid organ. The liver facilitates a tolerance rather than immunoreactivity, which protects the host from antigenic overload of dietary components and drugs derived from the gut and is also instrumental to fetal immune tolerance. Loss of liver tolerance leads to autoaggressive phenomena which if are not controlled by regulatory lymphoid populations may lead to the induction of autoimmune liver diseases. Liver-related lymphoid subpopulations also act as critical antigen-presenting cells. The study of the immunological properties of liver and delineation of the microenvironment of the intrahepatic milieu in normal and diseased livers provides a platform to understand the hierarchy of a series of detrimental events which lead to immune-mediated destruction of the liver and the rejection of liver allografts. The majority of emphasis within this review will be on the normal mononuclear cell composition of the liver. However, within this context, we will discus select, but not all, immune mediated liver disease and attempt to place these data in the context of human autoimmunity. PMID:23720323

Bogdanos, Dimitrios P.; Gao, Bin; Gershwin, M. Eric

2014-01-01

131

Liver biopsy  

MedlinePLUS

Biopsy - liver; Percutaneous biopsy ... prevent pain or to calm you (sedative). The biopsy may be done through the abdominal wall: You ... provider will find the correct spot for the biopsy needle to be inserted into the liver. This ...

132

Liver regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The liver can precisely regulate its growth and mass. Surgical resection of hepatic lobes or hepatocyte loss caused by viral or chemical injury triggers hepatocyte replication while enlarged liver mass is corrected by apoptosis. Hepatocytes have a great replicative capacity and are capable of repopulating the liver. However, “stem-like” cells proliferate when hepatocyte replication is blocked or delayed. Detailed studies

Nelson Fausto

2000-01-01

133

Larval stages of the bluefin tuna blood fluke Cardicola opisthorchis (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae) found from Terebella sp. (Polychaeta: Terebellidae).  

PubMed

We found aporocotylid larval stages (sporocysts and cercariae) from five individuals of terebellid polychaete Terebella sp., which were collected from seabed substrate and ropes and floats attached to tuna cages in a tuna farm on the coast of Tsushima Island, Nagasaki, Japan. Nucleotide sequences of the regions of internal transcribed spacer 2 ribosomal DNA and 28S ribosomal DNA from these larval stages were 100% identical to those of Cardicola opisthorchis registered in GenBank. C. opisthorchis is a pathogen causing blood fluke infection of Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis, which is considered to have a significant impact on the Japanese Pacific bluefin tuna aquaculture industry. This is the first description of the intermediate host of C. opisthorchis. This indicates that the life cycle of C. opisthorchis is completed within tuna farms in this area. PMID:24291605

Sugihara, Yukitaka; Yamada, Toshiyuki; Tamaki, Akio; Yamanishi, Ryohei; Kanai, Kinya

2014-04-01

134

Molecular Characterization of the North American Lung Fluke Paragonimus kellicotti in Missouri and its Development in Mongolian Gerbils  

PubMed Central

Human paragonimiasis is an emerging disease in Missouri. To characterize local parasites, we examined crayfish from three rivers. Metacercaeriae consistent with Paragonimus kellicotti were detected in 69%, 67%, and 37% of crayfish from the Big Piney, Huzzah, and Black Rivers, respectively. Sequencing of the second internal transcribed spacer and other DNA markers confirmed the species identification and the presence of identical parasite sequences in clinical specimens from two human cases. Mongolian gerbils were infected by intraperitoneal injection with 3–8 metacercariae. Most gerbils died 15–49 days post-infection. Necropsies showed pulmonary hemorrhage with necrosis, and flukes as long as 8 mm were recovered from intrathoracic tissues. Western blot analysis using P. kellicotti antigen showed a strong antibody response in gerbils 39 days post-infection. These results demonstrate that P. kellicotti is common in Missouri crayfish. The gerbil model may be useful for research on the pathogenesis, immunology, and treatment of paragonimiasis. PMID:21633042

Fischer, Peter U.; Curtis, Kurt C.; Marcos, Luis A.; Weil, Gary J.

2011-01-01

135

Austropeplea ollula (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae): a new molluscan intermediate host of a human intestinal fluke, Echinostoma cinetorchis (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) in Korea.  

PubMed

Three freshwater snail species of the family Lymnaeidae have been reported from Korea, Radix auricularia coreana, Austropeplea ollula and Fossaria truncatula. Out of 3 lymnaeid snail species, A. ollula was naturally infected with the Echinostoma cinetorchis cercariae (infection rate = 0.7%). In the experiments with the laboratory-bred snails, F. truncatula as well as A. ollula was also susceptible to the E. cinetorchis miracidia with infection rates of 25% and 40%, respectively. All of three lymnaeid snail species exposed to the E. cinetorchis cercariae were infected with the E. cinetorchis metacercariae. It is evident that A. ollula acts as the first molluscan intermediate host of E. cinetorchis in Korea, and F. truncatula may be a possible candidate for the first intermediate host of this intestinal fluke. Also, three lymnaeid snail species targeted were experimentally infected with E. cinetorchis metacercariae. PMID:11590915

Chung, P R; Jung, Y; Park, Y K; Hwang, M K

2001-09-01

136

Austropeplea ollula (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae): A new molluscan intermediate host of a human intestinal fluke, Echinostoma cinetorchis (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) in Korea  

PubMed Central

Three freshwater snail species of the family Lymnaeidae have been reported from Korea, Radix auricularia coreana, Austropeplea ollula and Fossaria truncatula. Out of 3 lymnaeid snail species, A. ollula was naturally infected with the Echinostoma cinetorchis cercariae (infection rate = 0.7%). In the experiments with the laboratory-bred snails, F. truncatula as well as A. ollula was also susceptible to the E. cinetorchis miracidia with infection rates of 25% and 40%, respectively. All of three lymnaeid snail species exposed to the E. cinetorchis cercariae were infected with the E. cinetorchis metacercariae. It is evident that A. ollula acts as the first molluscan intermediate host of E. cinetorchis in Korea, and F. truncatula may be a possible candidate for the first intermediate host of this intestinal fluke. Also, three lymnaeid snail species targeted were experimentally infected with E. cinetorchis metacercariae. PMID:11590915

Jung, Younghun; Park, Yun-Kyu; Hwang, Myung-Ki

2001-01-01

137

Evolutionary avenues for, and constraints on, the transmission of frog lung flukes (Haematoloechus spp.) in dragonfly second intermediate hosts.  

PubMed

Metacercariae survival patterns and their distribution in second intermediate odonate hosts were examined for 4 species of frog lung flukes. Surveys of aquatic larvae and recently emerged teneral dragonflies and damselflies indicated that prevalence and mean abundance of Haematoloechus spp. metacercariae were significantly lower in teneral dragonflies than larval dragonflies, while there was no significant difference in prevalence or mean abundance of Haematoloechus spp. metacercariae among larval and teneral damselflies. Experimental infections of dragonflies indicated that metacercariae of Haematoloechus coloradensis and Haematoloechus complexus were located in the head, thorax, and branchial basket of dragonflies, whereas metacercariae of Haematoloechus longiplexus and Haematoloechus parviplexus were restricted to the branchial basket of these hosts. Metacercariae of H. coloradensis, H. complexus, and H. longiplexus infected the head, thorax, and abdomen of damselflies, but these insects were resistant to infection with H. parviplexus. Subsequent metamorphosis experiments on experimentally infected dragonflies indicated that most metacercariae of H. longiplexus were lost from the branchial basket during metamorphosis, but most metacercariae of H. coloradensis, H. complexus, and H. parviplexus survived dragonfly metamorphosis. These observations suggest that the observed ecological host specificity of H. longiplexus in semiterrestrial leopard frogs may be due to few metacercariae of H. longiplexus reaching these frogs in a terrestrial environment. Because of the uncertain validity of Haematoloechus varioplexus as a distinct species from its synonym H. parviplexus, their morphological characters were reevaluated. The morphological data on H. varioplexus and H. parviplexus indicate that they differ in their acetabulum length and width, ovary shape, testes length, and egg length and width. Experimental infections of plains leopard frogs, northern leopard frogs, and bullfrogs with worms from bullfrogs indicate that the synonymy of H. parviplexus with H. varioplexus is not warranted, and that these flukes are distinct species, i.e., H. parviplexus in bullfrogs and H. varioplexus in plains leopard frogs and northern leopard frogs. PMID:17626352

Bolek, Matthew G; Janovy, John

2007-06-01

138

Liver transplantation?  

PubMed Central

Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) involves the substitution of a diseased native liver with a normal liver (or part of one) taken from a deceased or living donor. Considered an experimental procedure through the 1980s, OLT is now regarded as the treatment of choice for a number of otherwise irreversible forms of acute and chronic liver disease. The first human liver transplantation was performed in the United States in 1963 by Prof. T.E. Starzl of the University of Colorado. The first OLT to be performed in Italy was done in 1982 by Prof. R. Cortesini. The procedure was successfully performed at the Policlinico Umberto I of the University of Rome (La Sapienza). The paper reports the indications for liver transplantation, donor selection and organ allocation in our experience, surgical technique, immunosuppression, complications and results of liver transplantation in our center. PMID:23396075

Rossi, M.; Mennini, G.; Lai, Q.; Ginanni Corradini, S.; Drudi, F.M.; Pugliese, F.; Berloco, P.B.

2007-01-01

139

What Is Liver Cancer?  

MedlinePLUS

... How many people get liver cancer? What is liver cancer? Liver cancer starts in the liver. To understand ... on what type of tumor you have. Primary liver cancers (cancers that start in the liver) Hepatocellular carcinoma ( ...

140

Molecular Modeling and Substrate Specificity of Discrete Cruzipain-like and Cathepsin L-like Cysteine Proteinases of the Human Blood Fluke Schistosoma mansoni  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult Schistosoma mansoni blood flukes express two discrete cysteine proteinases, SmCL1 and SmCL2, both of which are related to the cathepsin L-like enzymes of the C1 family of peptidases. Our previous phylogenetic analysis indicated that SmCL1 is more closely related to cruzipain from the parasitic protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi than to human cathepsin L, whereas the converse situation applies with SmCL2.

Ciaran P. Brady; Ross I. Brinkworth; John P. Dalton; Andrew J. Dowd; Christiana K. Verity; Paul J. Brindley

2000-01-01

141

Liver spots  

MedlinePLUS

Sun-induced skin changes - liver spots; Senile or solar lentigines; Skin spots - aging; Age spots ... not known. Liver spots are very common after age 40. They occur most often on areas that have had the greatest sun exposure, such as the: Backs of the hands ...

142

Population dynamics and host reactions in young foxes following experimental infection with the minute intestinal fluke, Haplorchis pumilio  

PubMed Central

Background Infections with fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) including the minute intestinal fluke, Haplorchis pumilio, are highly prevalent in Southeast Asia. However, little is known about the infection dynamics and clinical symptoms in the final hosts which include a range of animal species and man. We aimed to generate such information using an experimental model with H. pumilio in foxes. Method Eight commercially bred foxes were each orally infected with 2000 H. pumilio metacercariae. Another three foxes served as uninfected controls. Faecal examination for eggs was performed twice weekly. The body weight was measured, standard haematological and biochemical analysis were performed regularly. All foxes were euthanized at day 56 post infection (p.i.). Adult worms were quantified and location in the small intestine noted. Results Anorexia was observed in all infected foxes starting day 12 p.i. and lasting for approximately a week. A weight loss was noticed in the infected group in weeks 3–6 p.i. Five of eight infected foxes excreted H. pumilio eggs day 9 p.i. onwards, the remaining three started on day 13 p.i. Mean (± SD) faecal egg counts showed an initial peak at day 16–20 with a maximum of 1443?±?1176 eggs per gram of faeces (epg), where after a stable egg output around 4–500 epg was seen. Worm burdens ranged between 116–2070 adult flukes with a mean (± SD) worm recovery of 948?±?666. The majority of worms were found in the lower part of the jejunum. Total white blood cell and lymphocyte counts were significant lower in the infected group from first week p.i. onwards and throughout the study period. A significantly lower level of eosinophils was found in week 2 p.i. and transient anaemia was seen in week 2 and 4 p.i. Conclusion This study showed a short prepatency period, an initial peak in egg excretion, establishment of infection in all animals with predilection site in the lower jejunum and a marked but transient clinical effect of the infection. The findings on egg output and prepatency should be taken into consideration when control programs targeting dogs and other reservoir hosts are to be established. PMID:23289937

2013-01-01

143

21 CFR 520.45a - Albendazole suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...use . For removal and control of adult liver flukes (Fasciola hepatica ); heads...use . For removal and control of adult liver flukes (Fasciola hepatica and Fascioloides...for use . For the treatment of adult liver flukes (Fasciola hepatica ) in...

2013-04-01

144

21 CFR 520.38a - Albendazole suspension.  

...use. For removal and control of adult liver flukes (Fasciola hepatica ); heads...use. For removal and control of adult liver flukes (Fasciola hepatica and Fascioloides...for use. For the treatment of adult liver flukes (Fasciola hepatica ) in...

2014-04-01

145

21 CFR 520.45a - Albendazole suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...use . For removal and control of adult liver flukes (Fasciola hepatica ); heads...use . For removal and control of adult liver flukes (Fasciola hepatica and Fascioloides...for use . For the treatment of adult liver flukes (Fasciola hepatica ) in...

2011-04-01

146

21 CFR 520.45a - Albendazole suspension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...use . For removal and control of adult liver flukes (Fasciola hepatica ); heads...use . For removal and control of adult liver flukes (Fasciola hepatica and Fascioloides...for use . For the treatment of adult liver flukes (Fasciola hepatica ) in...

2012-04-01

147

Liver bioengineering  

PubMed Central

Liver bioengineering has been a field of intense research and popular excitement in the past decades. It experiences great interest since the introduction of whole liver acellular scaffolds generated by perfusion decellularization1–3. Nevertheless, the different strategies developed so far have failed to generate hepatic tissue in vitro bioequivalent to native liver tissue. Even notable novel strategies that rely on iPSC-derived liver progenitor cells potential to self-organize in association with endothelial cells in hepatic organoids are lacking critical components of the native tissue (e.g., bile ducts, functional vascular network, hepatic microarchitecture, etc)4. Hence, it is vital to understand the strengths and short comes of our current strategies in this quest to re-create liver organogenesis in vitro. To shed some light into these issues, this review describes the different actors that play crucial roles in liver organogenesis and highlights the steps still missing to successfully generate whole livers and hepatic organoids in vitro for multiple applications. PMID:25102189

Caralt, Mireia; Velasco, Enrique; Lanas, Angel; Baptista, Pedro M

2014-01-01

148

Progression of Liver Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Handouts Education Resources Support Services Helpful Links For Liver Health Information Call 1-800-GO-LIVER (1- ... The Progression of Liver Disease The Progression of Liver Disease There are many different types of liver ...

149

Liver transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... any anesthesia are: Problems breathing Reactions to medications Risks for any surgery are: Bleeding Heart attack or stroke Infection Liver transplant surgery and management after surgery carry major risks. There is an increased ...

150

Sequence Analysis and Molecular Characterization of Clonorchis sinensis Hexokinase, an Unusual Trimeric 50-kDa Glucose-6-Phosphate-Sensitive Allosteric Enzyme.  

PubMed

Clonorchiasis, which is induced by the infection of Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis), is highly associated with cholangiocarcinoma. Because the available examination, treatment and interrupting transmission provide limited opportunities to prevent infection, it is urgent to develop integrated strategies to prevent and control clonorchiasis. Glycolytic enzymes are crucial molecules for trematode survival and have been targeted for drug development. Hexokinase of C. sinensis (CsHK), the first key regulatory enzyme of the glycolytic pathway, was characterized in this study. The calculated molecular mass (Mr) of CsHK was 50.0 kDa. The obtained recombinant CsHK (rCsHK) was a homotrimer with an Mr of approximately 164 kDa, as determined using native PAGE and gel filtration. The highest activity was obtained with 50 mM glycine-NaOH at pH 10 and 100 mM Tris-HCl at pH 8.5 and 10. The kinetics of rCsHK has a moderate thermal stability. Compared to that of the corresponding negative control, the enzymatic activity was significantly inhibited by praziquantel (PZQ) and anti-rCsHK serum. rCsHK was homotropically and allosterically activated by its substrates, including glucose, mannose, fructose, and ATP. ADP exhibited mixed allosteric effect on rCsHK with respect to ATP, while inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) displayed net allosteric activation with various allosteric systems. Fructose behaved as a dose-dependent V activator with the substrate glucose. Glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) displayed net allosteric inhibition on rCsHK with respect to ATP or glucose with various allosteric systems in a dose-independent manner. There were differences in both mRNA and protein levels of CsHK among the life stages of adult worm, metacercaria, excysted metacercaria and egg of C. sinensis, suggesting different energy requirements during different development stages. Our study furthers the understanding of the biological functions of CsHK and supports the need to screen for small molecule inhibitors of CsHK to interfere with glycolysis in C. sinensis. PMID:25232723

Chen, Tingjin; Ning, Dan; Sun, Hengchang; Li, Ran; Shang, Mei; Li, Xuerong; Wang, Xiaoyun; Chen, Wenjun; Liang, Chi; Li, Wenfang; Mao, Qiang; Li, Ye; Deng, Chuanhuan; Wang, Lexun; Wu, Zhongdao; Huang, Yan; Xu, Jin; Yu, Xinbing

2014-01-01

151

Sequence Analysis and Molecular Characterization of Clonorchis sinensis Hexokinase, an Unusual Trimeric 50-kDa Glucose-6-Phosphate-Sensitive Allosteric Enzyme  

PubMed Central

Clonorchiasis, which is induced by the infection of Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis), is highly associated with cholangiocarcinoma. Because the available examination, treatment and interrupting transmission provide limited opportunities to prevent infection, it is urgent to develop integrated strategies to prevent and control clonorchiasis. Glycolytic enzymes are crucial molecules for trematode survival and have been targeted for drug development. Hexokinase of C. sinensis (CsHK), the first key regulatory enzyme of the glycolytic pathway, was characterized in this study. The calculated molecular mass (Mr) of CsHK was 50.0 kDa. The obtained recombinant CsHK (rCsHK) was a homotrimer with an Mr of approximately 164 kDa, as determined using native PAGE and gel filtration. The highest activity was obtained with 50 mM glycine-NaOH at pH 10 and 100 mM Tris-HCl at pH 8.5 and 10. The kinetics of rCsHK has a moderate thermal stability. Compared to that of the corresponding negative control, the enzymatic activity was significantly inhibited by praziquantel (PZQ) and anti-rCsHK serum. rCsHK was homotropically and allosterically activated by its substrates, including glucose, mannose, fructose, and ATP. ADP exhibited mixed allosteric effect on rCsHK with respect to ATP, while inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) displayed net allosteric activation with various allosteric systems. Fructose behaved as a dose-dependent V activator with the substrate glucose. Glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) displayed net allosteric inhibition on rCsHK with respect to ATP or glucose with various allosteric systems in a dose-independent manner. There were differences in both mRNA and protein levels of CsHK among the life stages of adult worm, metacercaria, excysted metacercaria and egg of C. sinensis, suggesting different energy requirements during different development stages. Our study furthers the understanding of the biological functions of CsHK and supports the need to screen for small molecule inhibitors of CsHK to interfere with glycolysis in C. sinensis. PMID:25232723

Chen, Tingjin; Ning, Dan; Sun, Hengchang; Li, Ran; Shang, Mei; Li, Xuerong; Wang, Xiaoyun; Chen, Wenjun; Liang, Chi; Li, Wenfang; Mao, Qiang; Li, Ye; Deng, Chuanhuan; Wang, Lexun; Wu, Zhongdao; Huang, Yan; Xu, Jin; Yu, Xinbing

2014-01-01

152

Characterization of MicroRNAs from Orientobilharzia turkestanicum, a Neglected Blood Fluke of Human and Animal Health Significance  

PubMed Central

The neglected blood flukes Orientobilharzia spp. belonging to the Platyhelminthes, infect animals in a number of countries of the world, and cause cercarial dermatitis in humans, as well as significant diseases and even death in economically-important animals. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are now considered to be a key mechanism of gene regulation. Herein, we investigated the global miRNA expression profile of adult O. turkestanicum using next-generation sequencing technology and real-time quantitative PCR, to gain further information on the role of these molecules in host invasion and the parasitic lifestyle of this species. A total of 13.48 million high quality reads were obtained out of 13.78 million raw sequencing reads, with 828 expressed miRNAs identified. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the miRNAs of O. turkestanicum were still rapidly evolving and there was a “directed mutation” pattern compared with that of other species. Target mRNAs were successfully predicted to 518 miRNAs. These targets included energy metabolism, transcription initiation factors, signal transduction, growth factor receptors. miRNAs targeting egg proteins, including major egg antigen p40, and heat shock proteins were also found. Enrichment analysis indicated enrichment for mRNAs involved in catalytic, binding, transcription regulators and translation regulators. The present study represented the first large-scale characterization of O. turkestanicum miRNAs, which provides novel resources for better understanding the complex biology of this zoonotic parasite, which, in turn, has implications for the effective control of the disease it causes. PMID:23071694

Fu, Jing-Hua; Nisbet, Alasdair J.; Chang, Qiao-Cheng; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Huang, Si-Yang; Zou, Feng-Cai; Zhu, Xing-Quan

2012-01-01

153

Sj-FABPc fatty-acid-binding protein of the human blood fluke Schistosoma japonicum: structural and functional characterization and unusual solvent exposure of a portal-proximal tryptophan residue.  

PubMed Central

Sj-FABPc of the blood fluke of humans, Schistosoma japonicum, is a member of the FABP/P2/CRBP/CRABP family of beta-barrel cytosolic fatty-acid-binding and retinoid-binding proteins. Sj-FABPc has at least eight different variants encoded by a single-copy polymorphic gene. In fluorescence-based assays, recombinant Sj-FABPc was found to bind 11-(dansylamino)undecanoic acid (DAUDA), inducing a shift in peak fluorescence emission from 543 to 493 nm. A similar spectral change was observed in dansyl-amino-octanoic acid (in which the dansyl fluorophore is attached at the alpha-carbon rather than the omega-carbon of DAUDA), indicating that the ligand enters entirely into the binding site. Sj-FABPc also bound the naturally fluorescent cis-parinaric acid, as well as oleic acid and arachidonic acid, by competition, but not all-trans-retinol. Dissociation constants were, for cis-parinaric acid, K(d)=2.5+/-0.1 microM (mean+/-S.E.M.) and an apparent stoichiometry consistent with one binding site per molecule of Sj-FABPc and, for oleic acid, K(i) approximately 80 nM. A deletion mutant from which alpha-II was absent failed to bind ligand. Sj-FABPc modelled well to known structures of the protein family; an unusually solvent-exposed Trp side chain was evident adjacent to the presumptive portal through which ligand is thought to enter and leave. Intrinsic fluorescence analyses of Sj-FABPc and of the deletion mutant (from which Trp-27 is absent) confirmed the unusual disposition of this side chain. Virtually all members of the FABP/P2/CRBP/CRABP protein family have prominent hydrophobic side chains in this position, with the exception of liver FABP and ileal FABP, which instead have charged side chains. Liver FABP is known to be distinct from other members of the protein family in that it does not seem to contact membranes to collect and deposit its ligand. It is therefore postulated that the unusually positioned apolar side chains in Sj-FABPc and others in the family are important in interactions with membranes or other cellular components. PMID:10861250

Kennedy, M W; Scott, J C; Lo, S; Beauchamp, J; McManus, D P

2000-01-01

154

Opisthorchiidosis--a review.  

PubMed

The discovery history of opisthorchiid flukes dates back more than 200 years. The life cycle of these liver flukes includes prosobranch snails as the first and a big variety of freshwater fish as the second intermediate hosts. Opisthorchis felineus, O. viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis are species of major medical importance, while sporadic cases of human infection with other representatives of this family are also documented in the literature. There are estimations that 17 million people are infected and more than 350 million people are at risk, mainly in Asian countries. Although opisthorchiid flukes live in the bile ducts of the liver and in the gall bladder, they can affect surrounding liver tissue and even other organs. They are also known to induce the production of autoantibodies as well as allergic reactions. However, the main medical significance is their role in the formation of malignant tumors. Since the clinical symptoms are not specific, a diagnosis must be confirmed by parasitological examination or the detection of antibodies. Apart from coproscopical methods, there are more recent and highly specific assays available, like the detection of coproantigen or the detection of DNA. Praziquantel is the drug of choice for the treatment of opisthorchiidosis. In order to prevent infection, consumption of raw flesh of freshwater fish must be avoided. PMID:20701569

Schuster, Rolf K

2010-10-01

155

Liver cancer - Hepatocellular carcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Cancer - liver; Hepatoma ... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually seen in people age 50 or older. Hepatocellular ...

156

Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

Cancer.gov

Home Cancers Selected for Study Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma Last Updated: May 14, 2013 What is liver cancer?Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common form of liver cancer in the United States, making up more than

157

Liver transplant - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

The liver is in the right upper abdomen. The liver serves many functions, including the detoxification of substances delivered ... A liver transplant may be recommended for: liver damage due to alcoholism (Alcoholic cirrhosis) primary biliary cirrhosis long-term ( ...

158

Expression of ATP-binding cassette multidrug transporters in the giant liver fluke Fasciola gigantica and their possible involvement in the transport of bile salts and anthelmintics  

Microsoft Academic Search

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters belong to one of the largest protein families that either import or export a wide\\u000a spectrum of different substrates. Certain members of this superfamily have been implicated in multidrug resistance in various\\u000a types of cancer as well as in pathogenic microorganisms. The role of ABC proteins in parasitic multidrug resistance becomes\\u000a increasingly evident. However, studies on

Supeecha Kumkate; Supatra Chunchob; Tavan Janvilisri

2008-01-01

159

Engineering liver.  

PubMed

Interest in "engineering liver" arises from multiple communities: therapeutic replacement; mechanistic models of human processes; and drug safety and efficacy studies. An explosion of micro- and nanofabrication, biomaterials, microfluidic, and other technologies potentially affords unprecedented opportunity to create microphysiological models of the human liver, but engineering design principles for how to deploy these tools effectively toward specific applications, including how to define the essential constraints of any given application (available sources of cells, acceptable cost, and user-friendliness), are still emerging. Arguably less appreciated is the parallel growth in computational systems biology approaches toward these same problems-particularly in parsing complex disease processes from clinical material, building models of response networks, and in how to interpret the growing compendium of data on drug efficacy and toxicology in patient populations. Here, we provide insight into how the complementary paths of engineering liver-experimental and computational-are beginning to interplay toward greater illumination of human disease states and technologies for drug development. (Hepatology 2014;60:1426-1434). PMID:24668880

Griffith, Linda G; Wells, Alan; Stolz, Donna B

2014-10-01

160

Bilirubin binding with liver cystatin induced structural and functional changes.  

PubMed

Cysteine proteinases and their inhibitors play a significant role in the proteolytic environment of the cells. Inhibitors of cysteine proteinases regulate the activity of these enzymes helping in checking the degdration activity of cathepsins. The bilirubin secreated by liver cells can bind to cystatin present in the liver resulting in its functional inactivation, which may further lead to the increase in cathepsins level causing liver cirrhosis. In case of some pathophysiological conditions excess bilirubin gets accumulated e.g. in presence of Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke) in mammals and humans, leading to liver cirrhosis and possibly jaundice or normal blockade of bile duct causing increased level of bilirubin in blood. Protease-cystatin imbalance causes disease progression. In the present study, Bilirubin (BR) and liver cystatin interaction was studied to explore the cystatin inactivation and structural alteration. The binding interaction was studied by UV-absorption, FT-IR and fluorescence spectroscopy. The quenching of protein fluorescence confirmed the binding of BR with buffalo liver cystatin (BLC). Stern-Volmer analysis of BR-BLC system indicates the presence of static component in the quenching mechanism and the number of binding sites to be close to 1. The fluorescence data proved that the fluorescence quenching of liver cystatin by BR was the result of BR-cystatin complex formation. FTIR analysis of BR-Cystatin complex revealed change in the secondary structure due to perturbation in the microenvironment further confirmed by the decreased caseinolytic activity of BLC against papain. Fluorescence measurements also revealed quenching of fluorescence and shift in peak at different time intervals and at varying pH values. Photo-illumination of BR-cystatin complex causes change in the surrounding environment of liver cystatin as indicated by red-shift. The binding constant for BR-BLC complex was found to be 9.279 × 10(4) M(-1). The cystatin binding with bilirubin has a significant biophysical and pathophysiological significance, hence our effort to study the same. PMID:24711081

Mustafa, Mir Faisal; Bano, Bilqees

2014-05-01

161

Liver in systemic disease  

PubMed Central

Potential causes of abnormal liver function tests include viral hepatitis, alcohol intake, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, autoimmune liver diseases, hereditary diseases, hepatobiliary malignancies or infection, gallstones and drug-induced liver injury. Moreover, the liver may be involved in systemic diseases that mainly affect other organs. Therefore, in patients without etiology of liver injury by screening serology and diagnostic imaging, but who have systemic diseases, the abnormal liver function test results might be caused by the systemic disease. In most of these patients, the systemic disease should be treated primarily. However, some patients with systemic disease and severe liver injury or fulminant hepatic failure require intensive treatments of the liver. PMID:18636653

Shimizu, Yukihiro

2008-01-01

162

Liver Tumors (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... likely, but will subside once treatment ends. Liver transplant. In cases where tumors have caused the liver to lose all or most function, a transplant from a donor may be necessary. Most liver ...

163

Liver function tests  

MedlinePLUS

... the liver is working. This is called liver function. Tests include: Albumin Alpha-1 antitrypsin ALP ALT ... M, Bowne WB, Bluth MH. Evaluation of liver function. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical ...

164

Pyogenic liver abscess  

MedlinePLUS

Liver abscess; Bacterial liver abscess ... There are many potential causes of liver abscesses, including: Abdominal infection such as appendicitis , diverticulitis , or a perforated bowel Infection in the blood Infection of the bile draining tubes ...

165

AN APPROACH TO REVEALING BLOOD FLUKE LIFE CYCLES, TAXONOMY, AND DIVERSITY: PROVISION OF KEY REFERENCE DATA INCLUDING DNA SEQUENCE FROM SINGLE LIFE CYCLE STAGES  

PubMed Central

Revealing diversity among extant blood flukes, and the patterns of relationships among them, has been hindered by the difficulty of determining if specimens described from different life cycle stages, hosts, geographic localities, and times represent the same or different species. Persistent collection of all available life cycle stages and provision of exact collection localities, host identification, reference DNA sequences for the parasite, and voucher specimens eventually will provide the framework needed to piece together individual life cycles and facilitate reconciliation with classical taxonomic descriptions, including those based on single life cycle stages. It also provides a means to document unique or rare species that might only ever be recovered from a single life cycle stage. With an emphasis on the value of new information from field collections of any available life cycle stages, here we provide data for several blood fluke cercariae from freshwater snails from Kenya, Uganda, and Australia. Similar data are provided for adult worms of Macrobilharzia macrobilharzia and miracidia of Bivitellobilharzia nairi. Some schistosome and sanguinicolid cercariae that we recovered have peculiar morphological features, and our phylogenetic analyses (18S and 28S rDNA and mtDNA CO1) suggest that 2 of the new schistosome specimens likely represent previously unknown lineages. Our results also provide new insights into 2 of the 4 remaining schistosome genera yet to be extensively characterized with respect to their position in molecular phylogenies, Macrobilharzia and Bivitellobilharzia. The accessibility of each life cycle stage is likely to vary dramatically from one parasite species to the next, and our examples validate the potential usefulness of information gleaned from even one such stage, whatever it might be. PMID:16629320

Brant, Sara V.; Morgan, Jess A. T.; Mkoji, Gerald M.; Snyder, Scott D.; Rajapakse, R. P. V. Jayanthe; Loker, Eric S.

2008-01-01

166

Alcohol-Related Liver Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Liver > Liver Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn ... removes harmful substances from your blood. How does alcohol affect the liver? Alcohol can damage or destroy ...

167

Living with Your Liver  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn the function of the liver and how biomedical engineers can use liver regeneration to help people. Students test the effects of toxic chemicals on a beef liver by adding hydrogen peroxide to various liver and salt solutions. They observe, record and graph their results.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

168

Food-Borne Trematodiases  

PubMed Central

Summary: An estimated 750 million people are at risk of infections with food-borne trematodes, which comprise liver flukes (Clonorchis sinensis, Fasciola gigantica, Fasciola hepatica, Opisthorchis felineus, and Opisthorchis viverrini), lung flukes (Paragonimus spp.), and intestinal flukes (e.g., Echinostoma spp., Fasciolopsis buski, and the heterophyids). Food-borne trematodiases pose a significant public health and economic problem, yet these diseases are often neglected. In this review, we summarize the taxonomy, morphology, and life cycle of food-borne trematodes. Estimates of the at-risk population and number of infections, geographic distribution, history, and ecological features of the major food-borne trematodes are reviewed. We summarize clinical manifestations, patterns of infection, and current means of diagnosis, treatment, and other control options. The changing epidemiological pattern and the rapid growth of aquaculture and food distribution networks are highlighted, as these developments might be associated with an elevated risk of transmission of food-borne trematodiases. Current research needs are emphasized. PMID:19597009

Keiser, Jennifer; Utzinger, Jurg

2009-01-01

169

Characterization of Constituents and Anthelmintic Properties of Hagenia abyssinica  

PubMed Central

The dried female flowers of Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce) J. F. Gmel. (Rosaceae) are traditionally used as an anthelmintic remedy in Ethiopia and formerly were incorporated into the European Pharmacopoeia. One-, two- and tricyclic phloroglucinol derivatives (kosins) were suggested to be the active principles. However, polar constituents may also contribute to the activity. Therefore, we investigated for the first time the polar constituents. We isolated typical Rosaceae constituents such as quercetin 3-O-?-glucuronide, quercetin 3-O-?-glucoside and rutin. Polar kosin glycosides or derivatives could not be detected. The anthelmintic activity of fractions of different polarity were tested against the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni, the liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis and Fasciola hepatica and the intestinal fluke Echinostoma caproni. The anthelmintic activity decreased with increasing polarity of the tested fractions. ESI-MS investigations indicated the predominant occurrence of kosins in the active fractions. Using the anthelmintic active extracts of Hagenia abyssinica we developed a simple, inexpensive bioassay against the non-parasitic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which can be used as an initial screening procedure for anthelmintic properties of crude extracts of plants or fungi. The anthelmintic activity of test extracts against the model organism was determined in a microtiter plate assay by enumeration of living and dead nematodes under a microscope. PMID:22896828

Thomsen, Henrieke; Reider, Katrin; Franke, Katrin; Wessjohann, Ludger A.; Keiser, Jennifer; Dagne, Ermias; Arnold, Norbert

2012-01-01

170

Differences in susceptibility and immune responses of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from lake and river ecotypes to sequential infections with the eye fluke Diplostomum pseudospathaceum  

PubMed Central

Background The eye fluke Diplostomum pseudospathaceum is a frequent parasite of many fresh-water fish species, among those three-spined sticklebacks, particularly in lakes with lymnaeid snails, its first intermediate hosts. Cercariae released from host-snails, penetrate the skin of their fish hosts and within 24 h migrate to the immunologically inert eye lenses. Thus, individual D. pseudospathaceum are exposed to the fish immune system only for a short time, suggesting that only innate immunity can be active against the parasite. However, in nature sticklebacks are exposed to D. pseudospathaceum repeatedly since snails are shedding cercariae from late spring to autumn. Therefore, acquired immunity after initial infection would be advantageous against subsequent parasite encounters. Methods We investigated if sticklebacks originating from a lake with high and from a river with low prevalence of D. pseudospathaceum differ in susceptibility to repeated exposure to the parasite. We compared infection success and immune functions in laboratory-bred sticklebacks from both habitats in naïve fish with fish that had been pre-exposed to eye flukes. Head kidney leukocytes (HKL) from experimental sticklebacks were investigated for respiratory burst activity and the proliferation of lymphocytes and monocytes 1.5, 5 and 15 days after infection. Results Lake sticklebacks were less susceptible than river sticklebacks, however, in both populations pre-exposure led to a similar relative reduction in infection success. The respiratory burst activity was higher with HKL from lake sticklebacks and was up-regulated in pre-exposed fish but dropped 1.5d after an additional exposure, suggesting that activation of phagocytic cells is crucial for the defense against D. pseudospathaceum. Changes in lymphocyte proliferation were only detectable 1.5d after the last exposure in lake sticklebacks, but not 5 and 15d post exposure, indicating that a lymphocyte mediated acquired immune response was not induced. Proliferation of monocytes was significantly increased 1.5d after the last exposure with HKL from both stickleback populations. Conclusions Increased resistance to D. pseudospathaceum in sticklebacks from both populations upon pre-exposure cannot be explained by a prominent adaptive immune response. Monocytic leukocytes were more responsive, suggesting that rather cells of the innate than the adaptive immune system are active in the defense of D. pseudospathaceum. PMID:24656136

2014-01-01

171

Liver disease in pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Liver diseases in pregnancy may be categorized into liver disorders that occur only in the setting of pregnancy and liver diseases that occur coincidentally with pregnancy. Hyperemesis gravidarum, preeclampsia/eclampsia, syndrome of hemolysis, elevated liver tests and low platelets (HELLP), acute fatty liver of pregnancy, and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy are pregnancy-specific disorders that may cause elevations in liver tests and hepatic dysfunction. Chronic liver diseases, including cholestatic liver disease, autoimmune hepatitis, Wilson disease, and viral hepatitis may also be seen in pregnancy. Management of liver disease in pregnancy requires collaboration between obstetricians and gastroenterologists/hepatologists. Treatment of pregnancy-specific liver disorders usually involves delivery of the fetus and supportive care, whereas management of chronic liver disease in pregnancy is directed toward optimizing control of the liver disorder. Cirrhosis in the setting of pregnancy is less commonly observed but offers unique challenges for patients and practitioners. This article reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of liver diseases seen in pregnancy. PMID:19248187

Lee, Noel M; Brady, Carla W

2009-01-01

172

Molecular and functional characterization of a tandem-repeat galectin from the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata, intermediate host of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

In the present study, a tandem-repeat type galectin was characterized from an embryonic cell line (Bge) and circulating hemocytes of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata, intermediate host of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. The predicted B. glabrata galectin (BgGal) protein of 32 kDa possessed 2 carbohydrate recognition domains, each displaying 6 of 8 conserved amino acids involved in galactoside-binding activity. A recombinant BgGal (rBgGal) demonstrated hemagglutinating activity against rabbit erythrocytes, which was specifically inhibited by galactose-containing sugars (lacNAc/lac > galNAc/gal). Although native galectin was immunolocalized in the cytoplasm of Bge cells and the plasma membrane of a subset of snail hemocytes (60%), it was not detected in cell-free plasma by Western blot analysis. The findings that rBgGal selectively recognizes the schistosome-related sugar, lacNAc, and strongly binds to hemocytes and the tegument of S. mansoni sporocysts in a sugar-inhibitable fashion suggest that hemocyte-bound galectin may be serving as pattern recognition receptor for this, or other pathogens possessing appropriate sugar ligands. Based on molecular and functional features, BgGal represents an authentic galectin, the first to be fully characterized in the medically-important molluscan Class Gastropoda. PMID:18280060

Yoshino, Timothy P.; Dinguirard, Nathalie; Kunert, John; Hokke, Cornelius H.

2008-01-01

173

About the Operation: Liver Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... approaches to liver transplantation: the orthotopic and the heterotopic approach, both of which can take up to ... bile made in the liver to the intestines. Heterotopic Approach . In heterotopic liver transplantation, the recipient's liver ...

174

Living related liver transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver transplantation from a brain death donor has not yet been accepted in Japan. The only alternative method at present is transplantation from a living donor. After the first successful living related liver transplantation was performed by Strong in Brisbane, Australia, Japanese hepatic and transplant surgeons also began to perform such operations. As of February 1991, 16 living related liver

Masatoshi Makuuchi; Hideo Kawarazaki; Tadashi Iwanaka; Naoshi Kamada; Tadatoshi Takayama; Masamitsu Kumon

1992-01-01

175

Acute liver failure and liver transplantation  

PubMed Central

Summary Acute liver failure (ALF) is defined by the presence of coagulopathy (International Normalized Ratio ? 1.5) and hepatic encephalopathy due to severe liver damage in patients without pre-existing liver disease. Although the mortality due to ALF without liver transplantation is over 80%, the survival rates of patients have considerably improved with the advent of liver transplantation, up to 60% to 90% in the last two decades. Recent large studies in Western countries reported 1, 5, and 10-year patient survival rates after liver transplantation for ALF of approximately 80%, 70%, and 65%, respectively. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), which has mainly evolved in Asian countries where organ availability from deceased donors is extremely scarce, has also improved the survival rate of ALF patients in these regions. According to recent reports, the overall survival rate of adult ALF patients who underwent LDLT ranges from 60% to 90%. Although there is still controversy regarding the graft type, optimal graft volume, and ethical issues, LDLT has become an established treatment option for ALF in areas where the use of deceased donor organs is severely restricted. PMID:25343108

Akamatsu, Nobuhisa; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Kokudo, Norihiro

2013-01-01

176

Structural Basis for the Inhibition of Histone Deacetylase 8 (HDAC8), a Key Epigenetic Player in the Blood Fluke Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

The treatment of schistosomiasis, a disease caused by blood flukes parasites of the Schistosoma genus, depends on the intensive use of a single drug, praziquantel, which increases the likelihood of the development of drug-resistant parasite strains and renders the search for new drugs a strategic priority. Currently, inhibitors of human epigenetic enzymes are actively investigated as novel anti-cancer drugs and have the potential to be used as new anti-parasitic agents. Here, we report that Schistosoma mansoni histone deacetylase 8 (smHDAC8), the most expressed class I HDAC isotype in this organism, is a functional acetyl-L-lysine deacetylase that plays an important role in parasite infectivity. The crystal structure of smHDAC8 shows that this enzyme adopts a canonical ?/? HDAC fold, with specific solvent exposed loops corresponding to insertions in the schistosome HDAC8 sequence. Importantly, structures of smHDAC8 in complex with generic HDAC inhibitors revealed specific structural changes in the smHDAC8 active site that cannot be accommodated by human HDACs. Using a structure-based approach, we identified several small-molecule inhibitors that build on these specificities. These molecules exhibit an inhibitory effect on smHDAC8 but show reduced affinity for human HDACs. Crucially, we show that a newly identified smHDAC8 inhibitor has the capacity to induce apoptosis and mortality in schistosomes. Taken together, our biological and structural findings define the framework for the rational design of small-molecule inhibitors specifically interfering with schistosome epigenetic mechanisms, and further support an anti-parasitic epigenome targeting strategy to treat neglected diseases caused by eukaryotic pathogens. PMID:24086136

Marek, Martin; Kannan, Srinivasaraghavan; Hauser, Alexander-Thomas; Moraes Mourao, Marina; Caby, Stephanie; Cura, Vincent; Stolfa, Diana A.; Schmidtkunz, Karin; Lancelot, Julien; Andrade, Luiza; Renaud, Jean-Paul; Oliveira, Guilherme; Sippl, Wolfgang; Jung, Manfred; Cavarelli, Jean; Pierce, Raymond J.; Romier, Christophe

2013-01-01

177

Ductopenia related liver sarcoidosis.  

PubMed

Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease which may involve many organs. In approximately 95% of patients there is liver involvement, with noncaseating hepatic granulomas occurring in 21 to 99% of patients with sarcoidosis. Liver involvement is usually asymptomatic and limited to mild to moderate abnormalities in liver biochemistry. The occurrence of jaundice in sarcoidosis is rare; extensive imaging procedures and the examination of liver biopsies permit a precise diagnostic. Ductopenia associated with sarcoidosis has been reported in less than 20 cases and can lead to biliary cirrhosis and liver- related death. We report here on a case of ductopenia-related sarcoidosis in which primary biliary cirrhosis and extrahepatic cholestasis have been carefully excluded. The patient follow up was 8 years. Although ursodesoxycholic acid appears to improve liver biochemistry it does not preclude the rapid occurrence of extensive fibrosis. A review of the literature of reported cases of ductopenia related to sarcoidosis is provided. PMID:22509431

Farouj, Nourr-Eddine; Cadranel, Jean-François D; Mofredj, Ali; Jouannaud, Vincent; Lahmiri, Maria; Lann, Pierre Le; Cazier, Alain

2011-06-27

178

Ductopenia related liver sarcoidosis  

PubMed Central

Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease which may involve many organs. In approximately 95% of patients there is liver involvement, with noncaseating hepatic granulomas occurring in 21 to 99% of patients with sarcoidosis. Liver involvement is usually asymptomatic and limited to mild to moderate abnormalities in liver biochemistry. The occurrence of jaundice in sarcoidosis is rare; extensive imaging procedures and the examination of liver biopsies permit a precise diagnostic. Ductopenia associated with sarcoidosis has been reported in less than 20 cases and can lead to biliary cirrhosis and liver- related death. We report here on a case of ductopenia-related sarcoidosis in which primary biliary cirrhosis and extrahepatic cholestasis have been carefully excluded. The patient follow up was 8 years. Although ursodesoxycholic acid appears to improve liver biochemistry it does not preclude the rapid occurrence of extensive fibrosis. A review of the literature of reported cases of ductopenia related to sarcoidosis is provided. PMID:22509431

Farouj, Nourr-Eddine; Cadranel, Jean-François D; Mofredj, Ali; Jouannaud, Vincent; Lahmiri, Maria; Lann, Pierre Le; Cazier, Alain

2011-01-01

179

Transplantable liver production plan  

PubMed Central

Organ grafts developed in the xenogeneic pig scaffold are expected to resolve most issues of donor safety and ethical concerns about living-donor liver transplantation in Japan. We have been working on so-called “Yamaton” projects to develop transplantable organs using genetically engineered pigs. Our goal is to produce chimeric livers with human parenchyma in such pigs. The Yamaton-Liver project demonstrated the proof of concept by showing that rat–mouse chimeric livers could develop in mice and be successfully transplanted into syngeneic or allogeneic rats. Under conventional immunosuppression, the transplanted livers showed long-term function and protection against rejection. Because chimeric liver grafts have xenogeneic components, additional strategies, such as humanization of pig genes, induction of hematopoietic chimeras in donors, and replacement of pig endothelial cells with human ones, might be required in clinical use. Our projects still need to overcome various hurdles but can bring huge benefits to patients in the future. PMID:23896578

Hata, Toshiyuki; Uemoto, Shinji; Kobayashi, Eiji

2013-01-01

180

Autoimmune paediatric liver disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver disorders with a likely autoimmune pathogenesis in childhood include autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis (ASC), and de novo AIH after liver transplantation. AIH is divided into two subtypes according to seropositivity for smooth muscle and\\/or antinuclear antibody (SMA\\/ANA, type 1) or liver kidney microsomal antibody (LKM1, type 2). There is a female predominance in both. LKM1 positive patients

Giorgina Mieli-Vergani; Diego Vergani

2008-01-01

181

Primary liver cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver cancer, whether primary or secondary, is one of the most difficult to treat among malignant solid tumors, with a miserable\\u000a prognosis. In view of the relative lack of exciting progress in the management of metastatic liver cancer in recent years\\u000a this lecture necessarily concerns primary liver cancer, particularly hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Time permits coverage\\u000a of only several important aspects

Kunio Okuda

1986-01-01

182

Robotic liver surgery  

PubMed Central

Robotic surgery is an evolving technology that has been successfully applied to a number of surgical specialties, but its use in liver surgery has so far been limited. In this review article we discuss the challenges of minimally invasive liver surgery, the pros and cons of robotics, the evolution of medical robots, and the potentials in applying this technology to liver surgery. The current data in the literature are also presented. PMID:25392840

Leung, Universe

2014-01-01

183

Liver fibrosis in overweight patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: A common clinical issue is whether overweight patients with abnormal liver function test results should undergo liver biopsy. Although serious liver injury can occur, its prevalence and risk factors are not well known. Methods: Ninety-three consecutive patients with abnormal liver function tests (but without overt liver disease), body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg\\/m2, and no alcoholic,

Vlad Ratziu; Philippe Giral; Frederic Charlotte; Eric Bruckert; Vincent Thibault; Ioannis Theodorou; Lina Khalil; Gérard Turpin; Pierre Opolon; Thierry Poynard

2000-01-01

184

New Drug for Common Liver Disease Improves Liver Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Friday, November 7, 2014 New drug for common liver disease improves liver health An experimental drug aimed at treating a common liver disease showed promising results and potential problems in ...

185

Volatile nitrosamines and tobacco-specific nitrosamines in the smoke of Thai cigarettes: a risk factor for lung cancer and a suspected risk factor for liver cancer in Thailand.  

PubMed

In Thailand, smoking of commercial cigarettes and of handmade cigarettes has drastically increased in recent decades. Cancer of the lung and of the upper aero-digestive tract have also increased in Thailand as they have in many other countries. It is our working hypothesis that the increase of primary cancer of the liver, especially of cholangiocarcinoma in the north-eastern provinces of Thailand is associated with the use of tobacco in men infested with the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini (OV). Bioassays have shown that volatile nitrosamines and tobacco-specific nitrosamines induce cholangiocarcinoma in laboratory animals and that the hepatocarcinogenic action of nitrosodimethylamine in hamsters is significantly increased by infestation with the liver fluke OV. The endogenous formation of nitrosamines is significantly increased by OV infestation. This report presents analytical data on the concentration of volatile nitrosamines and tobacco-specific nitrosamines in mainstream smoke of nine leading brands of commercially produced Thai cigarettes which represent approximately 85% of the market share in Thailand. Observed ranges (ng/cigarette) were 8.5-31.9 for nitrosodimethylamine, 8.8-49.6 for nitrosopyrrolidine and 4.2-18.9 for nitrosodi-n-butylamine. These values are exceptionally high compared with the smoke of light and blended cigarettes from North America and Western Europe. Among the tobacco-specific nitrosamines, the range was 28-730 for nitrosonornicotine and 16-370 for 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone. There was a correlation between volatile and tobacco-specific nitrosamines, and tar and nicotine deliveries in the mainstream smoke. The analytical data are in line with the rate for lung cancer and support our working hypothesis that nitrosamines, and especially the tobacco-specific nitrosamines, are associated with the increased risk for primary liver cancer among those Thai people who smoke cigarettes and also carry OV infestation. PMID:9934860

Mitacek, E J; Brunnemann, K D; Hoffmann, D; Limsila, T; Suttajit, M; Martin, N; Caplan, L S

1999-01-01

186

Liver transplantation and liver cell transplantation.  

PubMed

Liver transplantation is nowadays the recognized treatment of many liver diseases and liver-based metabolic disorders in childhood. The indications are congenital cholestatic diseases, mainly biliary atresia, metabolic disorders and fulminant hepatic failure. Potential candidates have to be evaluated early in a specialized center, as the survival rate is worse if the child is transplanted with end-stage liver failure. The graft is in most cases partial, either a split liver from a deceased donor (the other part going to an adult recipient), or the left lobe or left liver from a living donor. The patient's survival rate is about 80-90% at 1 year, 70-80% at 10 years, and the graft survival rate 60-70% at 10 years. Immuno-suppression depends on a calcineurin inhibitor (cyclosporin or tacrolimus), and either steroids or an induction with a monoclonal antibody against IL2-receptor. Early surgical complications are a non-function of the graft (rare), arterial or portal thrombosis, biliary problems (more frequent with partial grafts), bleeding. Infections with bacteria and fungi are frequent and often severe. CMV infection is prevented, or screened and preemptively treated. EBV infection is frequent and may induce a posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease, that can develop into a lymphoma. Early stages are treated with reduction of immuno-suppression and monoclonal antibodies against CD20. Acute rejection is frequent but usually easily controlled. Chronic rejection may be due to poor compliance. Late graft loss is due to chronic rejection or long-standing biliary complications. Long-term complications are progressive graft fibrosis, renal failure due to drug toxicity (mainly calcineurin inhibitors), and cancers (skin and lymphoma). PMID:22541063

Lacaille, Florence

2012-06-01

187

Gut-liver axis.  

PubMed

The gut and the liver are the key organs in nutrient absorption and metabolism. Bile acids, drugs, and toxins undergo extensive enterohepatic circulation. Bile acids play a major role in several hepatic and intestinal diseases. Endotoxins deriving from intestinal Gram-negative bacteria are important in the pathogenesis of liver and systemic diseases. Chronic liver diseases can influence gastrointestinal motility, which together with other factors may contribute to bacterial overgrowth and in patients with ascites to an increased risk of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Patients with end-stage liver disease frequently develop portal hypertension leading to varices, gastric vascular ectasia, and portal hypertensive gastroenteropathy. Several liver and biliary abnormalities are observed in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (primary sclerosing cholangitis, autoimmune hepatitis, cholelithiasis). The primary defect in hemochromatosis is located in the intestine, causing an inappropriate increase in iron absorption, and the liver is the site of earliest and heaviest iron deposition. Elevated transaminases are observed in many patients with celiac disease, and steatohepatitis frequently develops in patients with jejunoileal bypass and short bowel syndrome. Furthermore, the liver is the primary organ for metastasis of intestinal cancer. Many viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic diseases affect the intestine as well as the liver and the biliary tract. PMID:10855547

Zeuzem, S

2000-04-01

188

Hypoxia and fatty liver  

PubMed Central

The liver is a central organ that metabolizes excessive nutrients for storage in the form of glycogen and lipids and supplies energy-producing substrates to the peripheral tissues to maintain their function, even under starved conditions. These processes require a considerable amount of oxygen, which causes a steep oxygen gradient throughout the hepatic lobules. Alcohol consumption and/or excessive food intake can alter the hepatic metabolic balance drastically, which can precipitate fatty liver disease, a major cause of chronic liver diseases worldwide, ranging from simple steatosis, through steatohepatitis and hepatic fibrosis, to liver cirrhosis. Altered hepatic metabolism and tissue remodeling in fatty liver disease further disrupt hepatic oxygen homeostasis, resulting in severe liver hypoxia. As master regulators of adaptive responses to hypoxic stress, hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) modulate various cellular and organ functions, including erythropoiesis, angiogenesis, metabolic demand, and cell survival, by activating their target genes during fetal development and also in many disease conditions such as cancer, heart failure, and diabetes. In the past decade, it has become clear that HIFs serve as key factors in the regulation of lipid metabolism and fatty liver formation. This review discusses the molecular mechanisms by which hypoxia and HIFs regulate lipid metabolism in the development and progression of fatty liver disease. PMID:25386057

Suzuki, Tomohiro; Shinjo, Satoko; Arai, Takatomo; Kanai, Mai; Goda, Nobuhito

2014-01-01

189

Sirolimus in liver transplantation.  

PubMed

Since its introduction in renal transplantation in 1999, sirolimus is being used by an increasing number of liver transplant centers. Compared to the calcineurin inhibitors, sirolimus acts through a separate signal transduction pathway and has a myriad of important biologic effects including: inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation, inhibition of fibrosis and fibroblast proliferation, and antineoplastic effects. The clinical side-effect profile of this drug is also different than calcineurin inhibitors. Most important, sirolimus does not cause glucose intolerance, hypertension, or renal insufficiency. As a result, this drug offers significant potential advantages over conventional immunosuppressive agents. However, sirolimus may cause hyperlipidemia and has also been associated with hepatic artery thrombosis in liver transplant recipients. This review will summarize the published data on sirolimus in liver transplantation, focusing on the potential advantages and disadvantage of the use of this drug in liver transplant recipients. Finally, the potential benefits of antifibrosis and antineoplastic effects of sirolimus in liver transplant recipients will be discussed. PMID:12742496

Trotter, J F

2003-05-01

190

Characterization of SR3 reveals abundance of non-LTR retrotransposons of the RTE clade in the genome of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

Background It is becoming apparent that perhaps as much as half of the genome of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni is constituted of mobile genetic element-related sequences. Non-long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, related to the LINE elements of mammals, comprise much of this repetitive component of the schistosome genome. Of more than 12 recognized clades of non-LTR retrotransposons, only members of the CR1, RTE, and R2 clades have been reported from the schistosome genome. Results Inspection of the nucleotide sequence of bacterial artificial chromosome number 49_J_14 from chromosome 1 of the genome of Schistosoma mansoni (GenBank AC093105) revealed the likely presence of several RTE-like retrotransposons. Among these, a new non-LTR retrotransposon designated SR3 was identified and is characterized here. Analysis of gene structure and phylogenetic analysis of both the reverse transcriptase and endonuclease domains of the mobile element indicated that SR3 represented a new family of RTE-like non-LTR retrotransposons. Remarkably, two full-length copies of SR3-like elements were present in BAC 49-J-14, and one of 3,211 bp in length appeared to be intact, indicating SR3 to be an active non-LTR retrotransposon. Both were flanked by target site duplications of 10–12 bp. Southern hybridization and bioinformatics analyses indicated the presence of numerous copies (probably >1,000) of SR3 interspersed throughout the genome of S. mansoni. Bioinformatics analyses also revealed SR3 to be transcribed in both larval and adult developmental stages of S. mansoni and to be also present in the genomes of the other major schistosome parasites of humans, Schistosoma haematobium and S. japonicum. Conclusion Numerous copies of SR3, a novel non-LTR retrotransposon of the RTE clade are present in the genome of S. mansoni. Non-LTR retrotransposons of the RTE clade including SR3 appear to have been remarkably successful in colonizing, and proliferation within the schistosome genome. PMID:16271150

Laha, Thewarach; Kewgrai, Nonglack; Loukas, Alex; Brindley, Paul J

2005-01-01

191

SYBR, TaqMan, or both: highly sensitive, non-invasive detection of Cardicola blood fluke species in Southern Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus maccoyii).  

PubMed

Three species of blood fluke from the genus Cardicola are known to parasitize and cause disease in Bluefin Tunas--C. forsteri, C. orientalis, and C. opisthorchis. Although initially believed to be separated by geography and host specificity, recent identification of at least two Cardicola spp. concurrently present within all three Bluefin species has raised questions concerning pathogenicity, relative abundance, and distribution of these parasites within Bluefin populations. Here, we present sensitive and differential real-time qPCR nucleic acid detection of these Cardicola spp. by targeting the ITS2 region of the parasite rDNA for PCR amplification. A limit of sensitivity of 1-5 genome copy equivelents was achieved for each of the three Cardicola species tested without cross-species or host genomic amplification. Similar sensitivity was further achieved in the presence of up to 20 ng/?L non-target host gDNA using SYBR Green chemistry alone, or in the presence of up to 160 ng/?L host gDNA through the utilization of a TaqMan probe common-reporter detection system. These methods were subsequently used to positively identify both C. forsteri and C. orientalis DNA in preserved samples of serum, gill, and heart from ranched Southern Bluefin Tuna Thunnus maccoyii. Both methods were more sensitive for positively and differentially identifying the presence of Cardicola spp. than either histological or heart-flush microscopy techniques previously employed, and also possess the ability to be applied in non-lethal blood sampling of these highly valued fish. This is the first report for rapid and differential molecular quantitative detection of Cardicola, and opens the potential for effective monitoring of infection in cultured bluefin populations. Further, it is anticipated that the use of SYBR Green for melt-curve analyses in conjunction with a common-reporter TaqMan assay will present a flexible, accurate, and cost-effective approach for differential detection of a variety of other pathogens in future. PMID:23896120

Polinski, Mark; Hamilton, Dylan Belworthy; Nowak, Barbara; Bridle, Andrew

2013-09-01

192

Fatty Liver Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The relationship between liver disease and prior exposure to hepatotoxic agents was investigated in four separate studies. The first was a cross sectional study of hazardous waste workers who were well protected. The study examined the relationship betwee...

M. J. Hodgson, D. H. Van Thiel

1991-01-01

193

Pediatric liver transplantation  

PubMed Central

In previous decades, pediatric liver transplantation has become a state-of-the-art operation with excellent success and limited mortality. Graft and patient survival have continued to improve as a result of improvements in medical, surgical and anesthetic management, organ availability, immunosuppression, and identification and treatment of postoperative complications. The utilization of split-liver grafts and living-related donors has provided more organs for pediatric patients. Newer immunosuppression regimens, including induction therapy, have had a significant impact on graft and patient survival. Future developments of pediatric liver transplantation will deal with long-term follow-up, with prevention of immunosuppression-related complications and promotion of as normal growth as possible. This review describes the state-of-the-art in pediatric liver transplantation. PMID:19222089

Spada, Marco; Riva, Silvia; Maggiore, Giuseppe; Cintorino, Davide; Gridelli, Bruno

2009-01-01

194

Living Donor Liver Transplantation  

MedlinePLUS

... tie with the recipient • Not have a selfish motive for donating • Have a similar body size • Be able to go through certain medical tests like blood work, radiology studies, and a liver biopsy A person ...

195

Diet - liver disease  

MedlinePLUS

DeLegge MH. Nutrition in gastrointestinal diseases. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease . 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; ...

196

Fusobacterium Liver Abscess  

PubMed Central

Fusobacterium is well characterized as an oropharyngeal pathogen that may induce a septic thrombophlebitis by direct extension of abscess into an adjacent neck vessel (Lemierre's syndrome); its potential for visceral abscess formation, however, remains under-recognized. A 65-year-old man with a recent history of multiple rim-enhancing liver lesions presented to the emergency room with fever and abdominal pain. Based on interval increase in the size of the lesions, abscess was suspected. A liver biopsy was performed, and although no organism could be identified on routine microscopy, Warthin-Starry stain revealed Gram-negative bacilli consistent with an anaerobic Fusobacterium species as the underlying etiology of liver abscess formation. Subsequent anaerobic culture results confirmed the diagnosis. This case highlights the importance of consideration for Fusobacterium infection in the setting of liver abscess if anaerobic organisms have not yet been excluded on initial culture evaluation. PMID:24348321

Buelow, Ben D.; Lambert, Joelle M.; Gill, Ryan M.

2013-01-01

197

Fusobacterium liver abscess.  

PubMed

Fusobacterium is well characterized as an oropharyngeal pathogen that may induce a septic thrombophlebitis by direct extension of abscess into an adjacent neck vessel (Lemierre's syndrome); its potential for visceral abscess formation, however, remains under-recognized. A 65-year-old man with a recent history of multiple rim-enhancing liver lesions presented to the emergency room with fever and abdominal pain. Based on interval increase in the size of the lesions, abscess was suspected. A liver biopsy was performed, and although no organism could be identified on routine microscopy, Warthin-Starry stain revealed Gram-negative bacilli consistent with an anaerobic Fusobacterium species as the underlying etiology of liver abscess formation. Subsequent anaerobic culture results confirmed the diagnosis. This case highlights the importance of consideration for Fusobacterium infection in the setting of liver abscess if anaerobic organisms have not yet been excluded on initial culture evaluation. PMID:24348321

Buelow, Ben D; Lambert, Joelle M; Gill, Ryan M

2013-01-01

198

Emerging Therapies for Liver Fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver fibrosis occurs as a result of a wide range of injurious processes and in its end-stage results in cirrhosis. This gross disruption of liver architecture is associated with impaired hepatic function, portal hypertension and significant resultant morbidity and mortality. Indeed, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis represent a major worldwide healthcare burden. Recent progress in liver transplantation, the management of portal

Andrew J. Fowell; John P. Iredale

2006-01-01

199

Liver disease in alcohol abusers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcoholic liver disease remains one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease in the world. The severity of liver damage related to alcohol varies among different individuals and even within any given individual at different times. Certain symptoms, signs, and abnormal findings on laboratory tests help clinicians distinguish among the various stages of alcohol-induced liver damage and, thus,

Anna Mae Diehl

2002-01-01

200

Complications of Liver Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Liver transplantation is a technically complex operation. Marked portal hypertension or previous surgery on the upper abdomen\\u000a can make the recipient hepatectomy particularly challenging. Vascular anastomoses can be problematic in the presence of particular\\u000a anatomical conditions of the donor or the recipient and in pediatric, split liver or living-related transplantation. In spite\\u000a of the experience acquired through the increased number

A. Cavallari; A. Mazziotti; M. Vivarelli

201

Schistosomiasis of the liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schistosomiasis is an infection of trematodes, Schistosoma, causing periportal fibrosis and liver cirrhosis due to deposition of eggs in the small portal venules. In schistosomiasis\\u000a caused by S. mansoni, sonography shows echogenic thickening or fibrotic band along the portal veins. CT shows low-attenuation bands or rings around\\u000a the large portal vein branches in the central part of the liver with

Adonis Manzella; Kuni Ohtomo; Shuichi Monzawa; Jae Hoon Lim

202

Schistosomiasis of the liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schistosomiasis is an infection of trematodes, Schistosoma, causing periportal fibrosis and liver cirrhosis due to deposition of eggs in the small portal venules. In schistosomiasis\\u000a caused by S. mansoni, sonography shows echogenic thickening or fibrotic band along the portal veins. CT shows low-attenuation bands or rings around\\u000a the large portal vein branches in the central part of the liver with

Adonis Manzella; Kuni Ohtomo; Shuichi Monzawa; Jae Hoon Lim

2008-01-01

203

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in North America, affecting approximately\\u000a 30% of the population [1]. It is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, and is directly linked to the escalating\\u000a prevalence of obesity and the associated insulin resistance. Histologically, NAFLD is characterized by a spectrum that ranges\\u000a from nonalcoholic fatty

Onpan Cheung; Arun J. Sanyal

204

Liver transplantation for alcoholic liver disease  

PubMed Central

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the second commonest indication for liver transplantation after viral hepatitis in the United States and Europe. Controversies surround the indications and allocation of scarce and expensive resource for this so called self inflicted disease. Controversies stem from the apprehension that alcoholic recipients are likely to relapse and cause damage to the graft. There is a need to select those candidates with lower risk for relapse with the available predictive factors and scores. Substance abuse specialist and psychiatrists are mandatory in the pre-transplant evaluation and in the post-transplant follow-up. There is conflicting evidence to support a fixed period of pretransplant abstinence, although most units do follow this. Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) continues to be a contraindication for transplantation, however there is a need for further research in this field as a subset of patients with AH who do not respond to medical treatment, have high early mortality and could benefit from transplantation. One year, 3-year, and 5-year survival post-transplant is similar for both ALD and non-ALD recipients. The incidence of post-transplant rejection and retransplantation is also similar to other recipients. ALD with viral hepatitis especially hepatitis C virus leads to a more aggressive liver disease with early presentation for transplantation. ALD patients are more prone to develop de-novo malignancy; this is attributed to the long term effect of alcohol, tobacco combined with immunosuppression. Post-transplant surveillance is important to detect early relapse to alcoholism, presence of de-novo malignancy and treat the same adequately. PMID:20845504

Varma, Vibha; Webb, Kerry; Mirza, Darius F

2010-01-01

205

Transjugular liver biopsy.  

PubMed

Liver biopsy is considered the gold standard for the evaluation of acute and chronic liver disorders. Transjugular liver biopsy (TJLB) was described by Dotter in 1964 and clinically performed for the first time by Hanafee in 1967. TJLB consists of obtaining liver tissue through a rigid cannula introduced into one of the hepatic veins, typically using jugular venous access. The quality of the TJLB specimens has improved so much that the samples obtained by this method are comparable with those obtained with the percutaneous technique. TJLB is indicated for patients with coagulopathy, ascites, peliosis hepatis, morbid obesity, liver transplant, or in patients undergoing a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt procedure. The technical success rate for a TJLB procedure ranges from 87 to 97%. Sample fragmentation has been reported in 14 to 25% of the TJLB samples. The complication rates are low and range between 1.3% and 6.5%. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the fundamental aspects of the TJLB procedure, including technique, indications, contraindications, results, and complications. PMID:23729981

Behrens, George; Ferral, Hector

2012-06-01

206

Stereoscopic liver surface reconstruction.  

PubMed

The paper presents a practical approach to measuring liver motion, both respiratory and laparoscopic, with a tool guided in the operating room. The presented method is based on standard operating room equipment, i.e. rigid laparoscopic cameras and a single incision laparoscopic surgery trocar. The triangulation algorithm is used and stereo correspondence points are marked manually by two independent experts. To calibrate the cameras two perpendicular chessboards, a pinhole camera model and a Tsai algorithm are used. The data set consists of twelve real liver surgery video sequences: ten open surgery and two laparoscopic, gathered from different patients. The setup equipment and methodology are presented. The proposed evaluation method based on both calibration points of the chessboard reconstruction and measurements made by the Polaris Vicra tracking system are used as a reference system. In the analysis stage we focused on two specific goals, measuring respiration and laparoscopic tool guided liver motions. We have presented separate examples for left and right liver lobes. It is possible to reconstruct liver motion using the SILS trocar. Our approach was made without additional position or movement sensors. Diffusion of cameras and laser for distance measurement seems to be less practical for in vivo laparoscopic data, but we do not exclude exploring such sensors in further research. PMID:23256023

Spinczyk, Dominik; Karwan, Adam; Rudnicki, Jerzy; Wróblewski, Tadeusz

2012-08-01

207

Fatty liver and drugs.  

PubMed

Drug-induced liver diseases (DILD) are clinico-pathologic patterns of liver injury caused by drugs or other foreign compounds. Steatohepatitis is a rare form of DILD, and drugs account for fewer than 2% of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Drugs known to be capable of inducing steatosis and steatohepatitis can be divided into three broad groups: those that cause steatosis and steatohepatitis independently (e.g., amiodarone, perhexiline maleate); drugs which can precipitate latent NASH (e.g., tamoxifen); drugs whic duce sporadic events of steatosis/steatohepatitis (e.g., carbamazepine). Clinical DILD syndromes include acute viral hepatitis-like injury, acute liver failure, cholestatic hepatitis,liver disease with signs of hypersensitivity, autoimmune hepatitis-like injury, acute venous-Outflow obstruction, chronic cholestasis, ciirrhosis, steatosis and steatohepatitis. The clinical picture is by no means dependent on the mechanism of injury (direct hepatotoxicity, idiosyncratic reactions, hypersensitivity reactions). Reliable diagnosis of drug-induced liver disease requires demonstration of close correlation between the patient history and clinical, laboratory, and histological data. PMID:16237810

Grieco, A; Forgione, A; Miele, L; Vero, V; Greco, A V; Gasbarrini, A; Gasbarrini, G

2005-01-01

208

Pregnancy and liver disease.  

PubMed

Liver disease in pregnancy should be considered in 3 categories: pre-existing disease, disease peculiar to pregnancy and coincident acute liver or gall-stone disease. In addition the time of onset of diagnosis in terms of the trimester of gestation must be verified, as the diseases peculiar to pregancy have a characteristic time of onset. In the last trimester closes obstetric management is required for the constellation of abnormal liver function tests, nausea and/or vomiting and abdominal pain. This may be due to severe pre-eclampsia, HELLP (haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets) syndrome or acute fatty liver of pregnancy with or without sub-capsular hepatic haematomas, amongst which there is an overlap. Early delivery is curative. A molecular basis consisting of long chain 3-hydroxyl CoA dehydroxegenase deficiency in heterozygote mothers underlies this clinical syndrome. Ursodeoxycholic acid is now established treatment for intra-hepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and appears to improve foetal outcome. Hepatitis B vaccination and immunoglobulin at birth prevents chronic hepatitis B in children of HBsAg (hepatitis B surface antigen) positive carrier mothers. PMID:9514993

Burroughs, A K

1998-01-01

209

Stereoscopic liver surface reconstruction  

PubMed Central

The paper presents a practical approach to measuring liver motion, both respiratory and laparoscopic, with a tool guided in the operating room. The presented method is based on standard operating room equipment, i.e. rigid laparoscopic cameras and a single incision laparoscopic surgery trocar. The triangulation algorithm is used and stereo correspondence points are marked manually by two independent experts. To calibrate the cameras two perpendicular chessboards, a pinhole camera model and a Tsai algorithm are used. The data set consists of twelve real liver surgery video sequences: ten open surgery and two laparoscopic, gathered from different patients. The setup equipment and methodology are presented. The proposed evaluation method based on both calibration points of the chessboard reconstruction and measurements made by the Polaris Vicra tracking system are used as a reference system. In the analysis stage we focused on two specific goals, measuring respiration and laparoscopic tool guided liver motions. We have presented separate examples for left and right liver lobes. It is possible to reconstruct liver motion using the SILS trocar. Our approach was made without additional position or movement sensors. Diffusion of cameras and laser for distance measurement seems to be less practical for in vivo laparoscopic data, but we do not exclude exploring such sensors in further research. PMID:23256023

Karwan, Adam; Rudnicki, Jerzy; Wroblewski, Tadeusz

2012-01-01

210

Alcoholic liver disease: Treatment  

PubMed Central

The excess consumption of alcohol is associated with alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). ALD is a major healthcare problem, personal and social burden, and significant reason for economic loss worldwide. The ALD spectrum includes alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The diagnosis of ALD is based on a combination of clinical features, including a history of significant alcohol intake, evidence of liver disease, and laboratory findings. Abstinence is the most important treatment for ALD and the treatment plan varies according to the stage of the disease. Various treatments including abstinence, nutritional therapy, pharmacological therapy, psychotherapy, and surgery are currently available. For severe alcoholic hepatitis, corticosteroid or pentoxifylline are recommended based on the guidelines. In addition, new therapeutic targets are being under investigation. PMID:25278689

Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo

2014-01-01

211

Mice with human livers.  

PubMed

Animal models are used to study many aspects of human disease and to test therapeutic interventions. However, some very important features of human biology cannot be replicated in animals, even in nonhuman primates or transgenic rodents engineered with human genes. Most human microbial pathogens do not infect animals and the metabolism of many xenobiotics is different between human beings and animals. The advent of transgenic immune-deficient mice has made it possible to generate chimeric animals harboring human tissues and cells, including hepatocytes. The liver plays a central role in many human-specific biological processes and mice with humanized livers can be used to model human metabolism, liver injury, gene regulation, drug toxicity, and hepatotropic infections. PMID:24042096

Grompe, Markus; Strom, Stephen

2013-12-01

212

Liver involvement in systemic infection  

PubMed Central

The liver is often involved in systemic infections, resulting in various types of abnormal liver function test results. In particular, hyperbilirubinemia in the range of 2-10 mg/dL is often seen in patients with sepsis, and several mechanisms for this phenomenon have been proposed. In this review, we summarize how the liver is involved in various systemic infections that are not considered to be primarily hepatotropic. In most patients with systemic infections, treatment for the invading microbes is enough to normalize the liver function tests. However, some patients may show severe liver injury or fulminant hepatic failure, requiring intensive treatment of the liver.

Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

2014-01-01

213

Liver physiology and liver diseases in the elderly  

PubMed Central

The liver experiences various changes with aging that could affect clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients with liver diseases. Both liver volume and blood flow decrease significantly with age. These changes and decreased cytochrome P450 activity can affect drug metabolism, increasing susceptibility to drug-induced liver injury. Immune responses against pathogens or neoplastic cells are lower in the elderly, although these individuals may be predisposed to autoimmunity through impairment of dendritic cell maturation and reduction of regulatory T cells. These changes in immune functions could alter the pathogenesis of viral hepatitis and autoimmune liver diseases, as well as the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Moreover, elderly patients have significantly decreased reserve functions of various organs, reducing their tolerability to treatments for liver diseases. Collectively, aged patients show various changes of the liver and other organs that could affect the clinical characteristics and management of liver diseases in these patients. PMID:24379563

Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

2013-01-01

214

[Alcohol and liver].  

PubMed

The first part of this article is devoted to the metabolism of alcohol and the mechanisms underlying its hepatotoxicity. The second part describes the clinical features of the various patterns of alcohol-related liver disease (ARLD). The third part focuses on the characteristics, semiological value, and limitations of serum markers used in ARLD. Tests used to screen for alcohol abuse (blood alcohol, MCV, GGT, CDT, and FAEE) differ from those used to monitor alcohol withdrawal and to detect early-stage liver disease (ALT, AST, ASTm, alphaGST, and redox status). PMID:10609275

Fontaine, H; Vassault, A; Nalpas, B

1999-11-01

215

Granulomatous liver disease.  

PubMed

Hepatic granulomata are not infrequently encountered in liver biopsy and often are associated with systemic disease. The clinical presentation varies with the particular systemic process. From a biochemical standpoint, the most common abnormalities are elevated serum alkaline phosphatase and ?-glutamyltransferase. The observation of granulomata in a liver biopsy specimen warrants workup to identify a possible cause. Clues may be obtained in the medical history, on physical examination, or with specialized blood testing or radiologic studies. Treatment involves therapy of the underlying cause of the disease associated with the development of the granulomatous hepatitis. PMID:22541705

Flamm, Steven L

2012-05-01

216

Liver Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Liver and Intrahepatic Bile Ducts C220–C221 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 10 Local tumor destruction, NOS 11 Photodynamic

217

Coffee and liver health.  

PubMed

Coffee is one of the most widely used beverages in the world. It includes a wide array of components that can have potential implications for health. Several epidemiological studies associate coffee consumption with a reduced incidence of various chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. Over the past 20 years, an increasing number of epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated the positive effects of coffee on chronic liver diseases. Coffee consumption has been inversely associated with the activity of liver enzymes in subjects at risk, including heavy drinkers. Coffee favours an improvement in hepatic steatosis and fibrosis, and a reduction in cirrhosis and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanisms of action through which it exerts its beneficial effects are not fully understood. Experimental studies show that coffee consumption reduces fat accumulation and collagen deposition in the liver and promotes antioxidant capacity through an increase in glutathione as well as modulation of the gene and protein expression of several inflammatory mediators. Animal and in vitro studies indicate that cafestol and kahweol, 2 diterpens, can operate by modulating multiple enzymes involved in the detoxification process of carcinogens causing hepatocellular carcinoma. It is unclear whether the benefits are significant enough to "treat" patients with chronic liver disease. While we await clarification, moderate daily unsweetened coffee use is a reasonable adjuvant to therapy for these patients. PMID:25291138

Morisco, Filomena; Lembo, Vincenzo; Mazzone, Giovanna; Camera, Silvia; Caporaso, Nicola

2014-01-01

218

Ton That Tung's livers.  

PubMed

Born in the early 20th century, the Vietnamese surgeon Ton That Tung received his medical education in French colonial Indochina at the fledgling l'Ecole de Médecine de Hanoi, the first indigenous medical school in Southeast Asia. The benefactor of a postgraduate position at the medical school, Ton That Tung subsequently obtained his surgical training at the Phù Doãn Hospital in Hanoi and concurrently developed a passion for the study of liver anatomy, pathology, and surgery. His contributions to an understanding of liver anatomy based on meticulous dissection of autopsy specimens antedated and rivaled later work by the famous Western anatomists Couinaud, Healey, Schroy, and others. Ton That Tung's contributions, however, were overshadowed by the intense national struggles of the Vietnamese to establish independent rule and self-governance from the French and by eventual alignment with eastern bloc Communist countries, thus isolating much of his work behind the "Iron Curtain" until well after the end of the Cold War. Nevertheless, Ton That Tung remains a pioneer in liver anatomy and liver surgery. His commitment to surgical science and, more importantly, to the Vietnamese people stands as a tribute to the tireless pursuit of his ideals. PMID:24335785

Helling, Thomas S; Azoulay, Daniel

2014-06-01

219

12. ALCOHOLIC LIVER DISEASE  

Microsoft Academic Search

lcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a major health problem in the western world. In the United States, ALD affects at least 2 million people, or approximately 1% of the population.1 The true incidence of ALD, especially in its milder forms, may be substantially greater because many patients are asymptomatic and may never seek medical attention. ALD alone accounts for approximately

S. F. Stewart; C. P. Day

2004-01-01

220

Regional therapy of liver metastases.  

PubMed

Liver metastases usually represent disseminated cancer; therefore, systemic chemotherapy is always appropriate. However, in some instances, the liver is the only site of metastasis and regional control of liver tumors may have important palliative and survival benefits, including a possibility of cure in selected patients. This review identifies unique patient subgroups that may benefit from regional therapy of liver metastases, and considers different treatment options and when these different options may be indicated. PMID:15341680

Whisenant, Jonathan; Venook, Alan

2004-10-01

221

Toward surface quantification of liver fibrosis progression  

E-print Network

Monitoring liver fibrosis progression by liver biopsy is important for certain treatment decisions, but repeated biopsy is invasive. We envision redefinition or elimination of liver biopsy with surface scanning of the liver ...

He, Yuting

222

General Information about Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Liver cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the liver. The liver is one of the largest organs ...

223

Systemic abnormalities in liver disease  

PubMed Central

Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases. PMID:19554648

Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

2009-01-01

224

Stem cells in liver disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Failure of the liver, the largest vital organ in the body, unequivocally results in death. Hepatic failure most commonly evolves over a period of several years as a result of chronic liver disease, most often viral hepatitis or alcoholic liver damage. In rarer cases, the organ shuts down within weeks or even days, in a clinical picture referred to as

D. van Poll

2008-01-01

225

Correlation of specific antibody titre and avidity with protection in cattle immunized against Fasciola hepatica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cattle produce specific serum antibody mainly of the IgG1 isotype in response to infection with the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica. In these animals a positive correlation between fluke-specific serum IgG1 levels and fluke-burden in non-immunized infected animals was observed. In contrast, immunization of cattle with a combination of the fluke-derived antigens cathepsin L2 (CL2) and fluke haemoglobin (FHb) in Freund's

Grace Mulcahy; Fiona O'Connor; Sharon McGonigle; Andrew Dowd; Dianne G Clery; Stuart J Andrews; John P Dalton

1998-01-01

226

Drug-induced Liver Injury  

PubMed Central

Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is common and nearly all classes of medications can cause liver disease. Most cases of DILI are benign, and improve after drug withdrawal. It is important to recognize and remove the offending agent as quickly as possible to prevent the progression to chronic liver disease and/or acute liver failure. There are no definite risk factors for DILI, but pre-existing liver disease and genetic susceptibility may predispose certain individuals. Although most patients have clinical symptoms that are identical to other liver diseases, some patients may present with symptoms of systemic hypersensitivity. Treatment of drug and herbal-induced liver injury consists of rapid drug discontinuation and supportive care targeted to alleviate unwanted symptoms. PMID:21874146

David, Stefan; Hamilton, James P

2011-01-01

227

Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the commonest primary malignancy of the liver. It usually occurs in the setting of chronic liver disease and has a poor prognosis if untreated. Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is a suitable therapeutic option for early, unresectable HCC particularly in the setting of chronic liver disease. Following on from disappointing initial results, the seminal study by Mazzaferro et al in 1996 established OLT as a viable treatment for HCC. In this study, the “Milan criteria” were applied achieving a 4-year survival rate similar to OLT for benign disease. Since then various groups have attempted to expand these criteria whilst maintaining long term survival rates. The technique of living donor liver transplantation has evolved over the past decade, particularly in Asia, and published outcome data is comparable to that of OLT. This article will review the evidence, indications, and the future direction of liver transplantation for liver cancer. PMID:19938188

Tanwar, Sudeep; Khan, Shahid A; Grover, Vijay Paul Bob; Gwilt, Catherine; Smith, Belinda; Brown, Ashley

2009-01-01

228

Fatty liver in childhood.  

PubMed

Fatty liver is a growing health problem worldwide. It might evolve to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and cause hepatocellular carcinoma. This disease, which has increased because of eating habits, changes in food content and lifestyle, affects people from childhood. The most important risk factors are obesity and insulin resistance. Besides these factors, gender, ethnicity, genetic predisposition and some medical problems are also important. Cirrhosis in children is rare but is reported. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has no specific symptoms or signs but should be considered in obese children. NAFLD does not have a proven treatment. Weight loss with family based treatments is the most acceptable management. Exercise and an applicable diet with low glycemic index and appropriate calorie intake are preferred. Drugs are promising but not sufficient in children for today. PMID:24653792

Ozturk, Yesim; Soylu, Ozlem Bekem

2014-01-27

229

Fatty liver in childhood  

PubMed Central

Fatty liver is a growing health problem worldwide. It might evolve to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and cause hepatocellular carcinoma. This disease, which has increased because of eating habits, changes in food content and lifestyle, affects people from childhood. The most important risk factors are obesity and insulin resistance. Besides these factors, gender, ethnicity, genetic predisposition and some medical problems are also important. Cirrhosis in children is rare but is reported. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has no specific symptoms or signs but should be considered in obese children. NAFLD does not have a proven treatment. Weight loss with family based treatments is the most acceptable management. Exercise and an applicable diet with low glycemic index and appropriate calorie intake are preferred. Drugs are promising but not sufficient in children for today. PMID:24653792

Ozturk, Yesim; Soylu, Ozlem Bekem

2014-01-01

230

Subcapsular tubercular liver abscess.  

PubMed

A young female married for the last 2 years but without any issue presented with lump in the right upper abdomen. This was proved to be a subcapsular liver abscess on USG and CT scan and proved to be tubercular on needle aspiration cytology. She was given four drugs antitubercular treatment (ATT). After four months of ATT she conceived and it was decided by both parents to continue the pregnancy. The three drug ATT was continued throughout the pregnancy and she delivered a perfectly healthy baby. Upto three months follow up the mother and baby were perfectly healthy. The subcapsular tubercular liver abscess is extremely rare and conception during treatment may be the first case in literature. PMID:12152856

Mahajan, S K; Kishore, K; Chugh, S N; Kalra, S; Parkash, V

1998-07-01

231

Liver transplantation and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease  

PubMed Central

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an important health problem worldwide. NAFLD encompasses a histological spectrum ranging from bland liver steatosis to severe steatohepatitis (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, NASH) with the potential of progressing to cirrhosis and its associated morbidity and mortality. NAFLD is thought to be the hepatic manifestation of insulin resistance (or the metabolic syndrome); its prevalence is increasing worldwide in parallel with the obesity epidemic. In many developed countries, NAFLD is the most common cause of liver disease and NASH related cirrhosis is currently the third most common indication for liver transplantation. NASH related cirrhosis is anticipated to become the leading indication for liver transplantation within the next one or two decades. In this review, we discuss how liver transplantation is affected by NAFLD, specifically the following: (1) the increasing need for liver transplantation due to NASH; (2) the impact of the increasing prevalence of NAFLD in the general population on the quality of deceased and live donor livers available for transplantation; (3) the long term graft and patient outcomes after liver transplantation for NASH, and finally; and (4) the de novo occurrence of NAFLD/NASH after liver transplantation and its impact on graft and patient outcomes.

Zezos, Petros; Renner, Eberhard L

2014-01-01

232

Laparoscopic anatomic liver resection  

PubMed Central

Background Liver resection is reputed to be one of the most difficult procedures embraced in laparoscopy. This report shows that with adequate training, anatomical liver resection including major hepatectomies can be performed. Methods This is a retrospective study. Results From 1995 to 2004, among 84 laparoscopic liver resections, 46 (54%) anatomical laparoscopic hepatectomies were performed in our institution by laparoscopy. Nine (20%) patients had benign disease while 37 (80%) had malignant lesions. Among those with malignant lesions, 14 patients had hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 18 had colorectal metastasis (CRM), while 5 had miscellaneous tumours. For benign disease, minor (two Couinaud's segments or less) and major anatomic hepatectomies were performed in five and four patients, respectively. For malignant lesions, minor and major anatomic hepatectomies were performed in 15 and 22 patients, respectively. Overall, conversion to laparotomy was necessary in 7 (15%) patients. Blood transfusion was required in five (10%) patients. One patient died of cerebral infarction 8 days after a massive peroperative haemorrhage. The overall morbidity rate was 34% whatever the type of resection. Three patients required reoperation, either for haemorrhage (n=1) and/or biliary leak (n=2). For CRM (n=18), overall and disease-free survival at 24 months (mean follow-up of 17 months) were 100% and 56%, respectively. For HCC (n=14), overall and disease-free survival at 36 months (mean follow-up of 29 months) were 91% and 65%, respectively. No port site metastasis occurred in patients with malignancy. Conclusions After a long training with limited liver resection in superficial segments, laparoscopic anatomical minor and major resections are feasible. Short-term carcinological results seem to be similar to those obtained with laparotomy. PMID:18333079

Vibert, Eric; Kouider, Ali

2004-01-01

233

Liver transplantation for malignancies.  

PubMed

Liver transplantation (LT) has become an acceptable and effective treatment for selected patients with hepatocellular carcinoma with excellent outcomes. More recently, LT has been tried in different primary and secondary malignancies of the liver. The outcomes of LT for very selected group of patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) have been promising. Excellent results have been reported in LT for patients with unresectable hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HEHE). In contrast to excellent results after LT for HEHE, results of LT for angiosarcoma have been disappointing with no long-term survivors. Hepatoblastoma (HB) is the most common primary liver cancer in pediatric age group. Long-term outcomes after LT in patients with unresectable tumor and good response to chemotherapy have been promising. Indication for LT for hepatic metastasis from neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) is mainly for patients with unresectable tumors and for palliation of medically uncontrollable symptoms. Posttransplant survival in those patients with low tumor activity index is excellent, despite recurrence of the tumor. More recent limited outcomes data on LT for unresectable hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer have claimed some survival benefit compared to the previous reports. However, due to the high rate of tumor recurrence in a very short time after LT, especially in the era of organ shortage, this indication has not been favored by the transplant community. PMID:24604263

Eghtesad, Bijan; Aucejo, Federico

2014-09-01

234

Coffee and liver diseases.  

PubMed

Coffee consumption is worldwide spread with few side effects. Interestingly, coffee intake has been inversely related to the serum enzyme activities gamma-glutamyltransferase, and alanine aminotransferase in studies performed in various countries. In addition, epidemiological results, taken together, indicate that coffee consumption is inversely related with hepatic cirrhosis; however, they cannot demonstrate a causative role of coffee with prevention of liver injury. Animal models and cell culture studies indicate that kahweol, diterpenes and cafestol (some coffee compounds) can function as blocking agents by modulating multiple enzymes involved in carcinogenic detoxification; these molecules also alter the xenotoxic metabolism by inducing the enzymes glutathione-S-transferase and inhibiting N-acetyltransferase. Drinking coffee has been associated with reduced risk of hepatic injury and cirrhosis, a major pathogenic step in the process of hepatocarcinogenesis, thus, the benefit that produces coffee consumption on hepatic cancer may be attributed to its inverse relation with cirrhosis, although allowance for clinical history of cirrhosis did not completely account for the inverse association. Therefore, it seems to be a continuum of the beneficial effect of coffee consumption on liver enzymes, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. At present, it seems reasonable to propose experiments with animal models of liver damage and to test the effect of coffee, and/or isolated compounds of this beverage, not only to evaluate the possible causative role of coffee but also its action mechanism. Clinical prospective double blind studies are also needed. PMID:19825397

Muriel, Pablo; Arauz, Jonathan

2010-07-01

235

Hot topics in liver anesthesia.  

PubMed

Anesthetic techniques for liver surgery still have many controversial issues for anesthesiologists who want to provide optimal care for their patients. There are unanswered questions: What is the best technique to prevent excessive blood loss during live donor liver dissection? What is the proper compromise of filling pressures to reduce bleeding and not compromise vital organ function? Epidural analgesia, an established method for pain relief, carries a risk of epidural hematoma formation in liver resections and especially liver transplantation because of compromised coagulation. New inhalation anesthetics would be ideal for liver surgery except for their potential for renal failure, and the IV agent propofol may have insufficient metabolism when liver function is absent. Several recent studies are reviewed to elucidate these questions. PMID:18555145

Lukanovic, N P

2008-05-01

236

Liver-Spleen Scintigrams, Epigastric Sonograms and Liver Function Scintigram for Comparative Studies of Various Cases of Liver Cirrhosis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

23 patients where liver cirrhosis was established were subjected to an epigastric sonogram, a liver-spleen scintigram, a liver-function scintigram, and to various relevant laboratory tests. The liver-spleen scintigram was evaluated for size of the liver, ...

R. Geiger

1983-01-01

237

Liver diseases in developing countries  

PubMed Central

Liver diseases are an important and largely neglected health issue in low and middle income countries, which carry the highest burden. In this Topic Highlight, experts review hepatitis B and E, alcoholic liver disease, hepatic diseases in human immunodeficiency virus -infected individuals, hepatocellular carcinoma. Numerous gaps in our knowledge that need to be filled are outlined and feasible solutions to the several problems related to diagnosis and management of liver diseases in developing countries are suggested. PMID:22489257

Cainelli, Francesca

2012-01-01

238

Radiation-Associated Liver Injury  

SciTech Connect

The liver is a critically important organ that has numerous functions including the production of bile, metabolism of ingested nutrients, elimination of many waste products, glycogen storage, and plasma protein synthesis. The liver is often incidentally irradiated during radiation therapy (RT) for tumors in the upper- abdomen, right lower lung, distal esophagus, or during whole abdomen or whole body RT. This article describes the endpoints, time-course, and dose-volume effect of radiation on the liver.

Pan, Charlie C., E-mail: cpan@umich.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kavanagh, Brian D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO (United States); Dawson, Laura A. [Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Li, X. Allen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Das, Shiva K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Miften, Moyed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO (United States); Ten Haken, Randall K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

2010-03-01

239

Methyldopa Liver Damage  

PubMed Central

Twenty patients are described in whom liver damage appeared to be directly related to the administration of methyldopa. Sixteen had hepatitic syndromes from which they recovered on stopping methyldopa; four of these patients had recurrences of jaundice after a second course of the drug. Features suggestive of active chronic hepatitis were found in two patients. There were two deaths attributed to methyldopa, one of these being in a patient with pre-existing undiagnosed macronodular cirrhosis. ImagesFIGS. 2-4 PMID:4414663

Toghill, P. J.; Smith, P. G.; Benton, Patricia; Brown, R. C.; Matthews, H. L.

1974-01-01

240

Acute Liver Failure  

PubMed Central

Although comprising a minority of the transplant population, acute liver failure (ALF) patients represent some of the most challenging cases in terms of the level and complexity of care required. An ALF patient requires much more than a single skilled intensivist, gastroenterologist, or surgeon. Successful care of the ALF patient begins with early diagnosis and triage to the appropriate level of care where a multitude of specialties are required to work together to maximize the chance of recovery and/or extend the window of opportunity for transplant. PMID:20827368

McDowell Torres, Dawn; Stevens, Robert D.

2010-01-01

241

Iron homeostasis in the liver  

PubMed Central

Iron is an essential nutrient that is tightly regulated. A principal function of the liver is the regulation of iron homeostasis. The liver senses changes in systemic iron requirements and can regulate iron concentrations in a robust and rapid manner. The last 10 years have led to the discovery of several regulatory mechanisms in the liver which control the production of iron regulatory genes, storage capacity, and iron mobilization. Dysregulation of these functions leads to an imbalance of iron, which is the primary causes of iron-related disorders. Anemia and iron overload are two of the most prevalent disorders worldwide and affect over a billion people. Several mutations in liver-derived genes have been identified, demonstrating the central role of the liver in iron homeostasis. During conditions of excess iron, the liver increases iron storage and protects other tissues, namely the heart and pancreas from iron-induced cellular damage. However, a chronic increase in liver iron stores results in excess reactive oxygen species production and liver injury. Excess liver iron is one of the major mechanisms leading to increased steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:23720289

Anderson, Erik R; Shah, Yatrik M

2014-01-01

242

Future of bioartificial liver support  

PubMed Central

Many different artificial liver support systems (biological and non-biological) have been developed, tested pre-clinically and some have been applied in clinical trials. Based on theoretical considerations a biological artificial liver (BAL) should be preferred above the non-biological ones. However, clinical application of the BAL is still experimental. Here we try to analyze which hurdles have to be taken before the BAL will become standard equipment in the intensive care unit for patients with acute liver failure or acute deterioration of chronic liver disease. PMID:21160791

Chamuleau, Robert AFM

2009-01-01

243

Virtual Reality Liver Biopsy Simulator Virtual Reality, Ultrasound-guided Liver Biopsy Simulator  

E-print Network

Virtual Reality Liver Biopsy Simulator Virtual Reality, Ultrasound-guided Liver Biopsy Simulator: Development and Performance Discrimination1 Running head: Virtual Reality Liver Biopsy Simulator Word.1259/bjr/47436030 #12;Virtual Reality Liver Biopsy Simulator ABSTRACT Purpose: Identify and prospectively

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

244

9 CFR 311.31 - Livers affected with carotenosis; livers designated as “telangiectatic,” “sawdust,” or “spotted.”  

... 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Livers affected with carotenosis; livers designated as âtelangiectatic,â âsawdust,â...ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.31 Livers affected with carotenosis; livers designated as...

2014-01-01

245

9 CFR 311.31 - Livers affected with carotenosis; livers designated as “telangiectatic,” “sawdust,” or “spotted.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livers affected with carotenosis; livers designated as âtelangiectatic,â âsawdust,â...ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.31 Livers affected with carotenosis; livers designated as...

2010-01-01

246

9 CFR 311.31 - Livers affected with carotenosis; livers designated as “telangiectatic,” “sawdust,” or “spotted.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Livers affected with carotenosis; livers designated as âtelangiectatic,â âsawdust,â...ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.31 Livers affected with carotenosis; livers designated as...

2012-01-01

247

9 CFR 311.31 - Livers affected with carotenosis; livers designated as “telangiectatic,” “sawdust,” or “spotted.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Livers affected with carotenosis; livers designated as âtelangiectatic,â âsawdust,â...ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.31 Livers affected with carotenosis; livers designated as...

2011-01-01

248

9 CFR 311.31 - Livers affected with carotenosis; livers designated as “telangiectatic,” “sawdust,” or “spotted.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Livers affected with carotenosis; livers designated as âtelangiectatic,â âsawdust,â...ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.31 Livers affected with carotenosis; livers designated as...

2013-01-01

249

[Liver gunshot wounds].  

PubMed

The paper presents the 6 cases of liver shot wounds that were in supervision of the general surgery unit, County Hospital of Baia Mare, between the years 1990-1997. The patients were males, most of them being 20 to 30 years old. In 3 situations hunting rifles were involved, all followed by retention of metal foreign body. The wounds were plurivisceral in 5 of the 6 cases, the most frequently wounded was the right liver lobe. All the patients presented serious traumatic shock and haemorrhagic shock. Livertectomy was used in 40% of the cases being imposed by the dilacerant and transfixiant character of the wounds and also by the retention of foreign bodies in parenchime. We registered 2 demises, both in the first postoperatory hours. The paper proposes a few criteria that allow the application of a conservatory treatment:rapid favourable answer at deshocking therapy; hemodynamic stability; minimal hemoperitoneus (echographical and tomographical); absence of associated visceral wounds or, when they exist, of serious physiopathological consequences; access to performant means of imagistics. PMID:14768336

Botoi, G; Bl?jan, I; Neme?, S

2000-01-01

250

Cancer and Human Liver Catalase  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Data presented in the present paper indicate that human liver catalase depression is related to weight loss. A statistical study was first made to determine the catalase activity in correlation of the iodotitrimetric and spectrophotometric methods for biopsy and autopsy samples from cancer and cancer-free patients. Cancer patients had a 2~ per cent lower liver catalase activity than cancer-free

EDWARD E. MASON; TING-FONG CHIN; YAO W. LI; SIDNEY E. ZIFFREN

1960-01-01

251

Transfusion Predictors in Liver Transplant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we sought to determine the factors influ- encing red blood cell (RBC) transfusions and to study the transfusion practice of anesthesiologists during liver transplants. A retrospective study of 206 succes- sive liver transplants was undertaken during a period of 52 mo. Transfused blood products were identified. Twenty variables were analyzed in a univariate fash- ion. For the

Luc Massicotte; Marie-Pascale Sassine; Serge Lenis

2004-01-01

252

Acute fatty liver of pregnancy.  

PubMed Central

Six further cases of acute fatty liver of pregnancy are presented and discussed in relation to the world literature on this rare disease of pregnancy, the aetiology of which is still unknown. The importance of vomiting in late pregnancy is emphasized. A common feature seems to be a metabolic stress, possibly related to infection, which tips a susceptible liver into metabolic failure. PMID:6887187

Hague, W M; Fenton, D W; Duncan, S L; Slater, D N

1983-01-01

253

In vitro models for liver toxicity testing  

E-print Network

Over the years, various liver-derived in vitro model systems have been developed to enable investigation of the potential adverse effects of chemicals and drugs. Liver tissue slices, isolated microsomes, perfused liver, ...

Soldatow, Valerie Y.

2013-01-01

254

What's New in Liver Cancer Research?  

MedlinePLUS

... can I learn more about liver cancer? What`s new in liver cancer research? There is always research ... cancer cases worldwide. Finding liver cancer early Some new blood tests are being studied to see if ...

255

Artificial and Bioartificial Liver Support  

PubMed Central

The fact that liver failure constitutes a life-threatening condition and can, in most cases, only be overcome by orthotopic liver transplantation, lead to the development of various artificial and bioartificial liver support devices. While artificial systems are based on the principles of adsorption and filtration, the more complex concept of bioartificial devices includes the provision of liver cells. Instead of solely focussing on detoxification, these concepts also support the failing organ concerning synthetic and regulative functions. The systems were evaluated in a variety of clinical studies, demonstrating their safety and investigating the impact on the patient's clinical condition. This review gives an overview over the most common artificial and bioartificial liver support devices and summarizes the results of the clinical studies. PMID:19279696

2007-01-01

256

Liver transplantation in autoimmune liver disease--selection of patients.  

PubMed

Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are autoimmune liver diseases, which are good indications for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). While there is effective treatment for AIH (steroids with or without azathioprine) and PBC (Ursodesoxycholic acid) no such treatment is currently established for PSC. The need for transplantation can be delayed for AIH and PBC with appropriate therapies, while treatment options for PSC are still controversially discussed. Although the time point for liver transplantation can be roughly estimated for AIH by failure of immunosuppressive therapy and for PBC by prognostic models, the prediction of survival in patients with PSC is more difficult, and further complicated through the risk of developing cholangiocellular carcinoma (CCC). Long-term (5-year) outcome after liver transplantation approaches 80-90% for autoimmune liver diseases unless CC complicates PSC at the time of OLT. The risk of disease recurrence has been recognized for each of these entities although its clinical relevance is controversial. This gets more important as long-term survival can be achieved for most of these patients today. In this review the natural course of autoimmune liver disease will be discussed and prognostic models will be presented, which are helpful for finding the optimal time point for liver transplantation. PMID:10626159

Tillmann, H L; Jäckel, E; Manns, M P

1999-01-01

257

Autoimmune Liver Diseases in Canterbury, New Zealand.  

E-print Network

??Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) are progressive autoimmune liver diseases (AiLD) that can lead to liver cirrhosis, hepatic… (more)

Ngu, Jing Hieng

2013-01-01

258

Cellular Therapy for Liver Disease  

PubMed Central

Regenerative medicine is energizing and empowering basic science and has the potential to dramatically transform health care in the future. Given the remarkable intrinsic regenerative properties of the liver, as well as widespread adoption of regenerative strategies for liver disease (eg, liver transplant, partial hepatectomy, living donor transplant), hepatology has always been at the forefront of clinical regenerative medicine. However, an expanding pool of patients awaiting liver transplant, a limited pool of donor organs, and finite applicability of the current surgical approaches have created a need for more refined and widely available regenerative medicine strategies. Although cell-based therapies have been used extensively for hematologic malignant diseases and other conditions, the potential application of cellular therapy for acute and chronic liver diseases has only more recently been explored. New understanding of the mechanisms of liver regeneration and repair, including activation of local stem/progenitor cells and contributions from circulating bone marrow–derived stem cells, provide the theoretical underpinnings for the rational use of cell-based therapies in clinical trials. In this review, we dissect the scientific rationale for various modalities of cell therapy for liver diseases being explored in animal models and review those tested in human clinical trials. We also attempt to clarify some of the important ongoing questions that need to be addressed in order to bring these powerful therapies to clinical translation. Discussions will cover transplant of hepatocytes and liver stem/progenitor cells as well as infusion or stimulation of bone marrow–derived stem cells. We also highlight tremendous scientific advances on the horizon, including the potential use of induced pluripotent stem cells and their derivatives as individualized regenerative therapy for liver disease. PMID:24582199

Huebert, Robert C.; Rakela, Jorge

2014-01-01

259

[Hanging manuever in liver trauma].  

PubMed

The phylosophy of aggressive surgical approach, its complete implementation in liver trauma surgery did not appear efficient. No matter of permanenent development of diagnostic imaging methods, anesthesia, intensive therapy, medical technology and suture materials, operational theater and operative tchniques, major liver resections in trauma had mortality rate up to 60%. With introduction of computerized tomography (CT, 1981) in everyday clinical praxis and with better evaluation of trauma patients, the whole approach to liver trauma patient has been redesigned. Based on AAST-OIS classification, almost 70% of traumatized with grade I, II and III sholud be treated non-operatively, hospitally, with repeating FAST (focused abdominal ultrasound in trauma) and abdominal CT scans. The rest of traumatized patients, with grade IV and V injuries of juxtahepatic structures demand complexive surgical treatment. The modalities of surgical treatment depend on trauma mechanisms, extensivity, anatomical localisation and affection of vascular structures. Hanging Manuevr--the Method of French surgeon Belghiti bases on anterior approach in liver resection is a try for fast solution for fatal bleeding in liver trauma. It consists of placing the elastic cord throughout the anterior surface of VCI or ligamentum venosusm, of upper end of the cord is located in superior part of VCI where hepatic veins are emerging. Lower end of the cord is located in subhepatic part of VCI between 3 Glisonian pedicles. Concerning hepatic veins liver is divided in 3 sections, which derives blood in right hepatic vein RHV, middle hepatic vein MHV and left hepatic vein LHV. Belghiti proposed the usage of hanging maneuver when resecting the right liver, while the cord is placed throughout retrohepatic VCI, lower end between elements of Glisonian pedicle and upper end between hepatic veins. Complications like bleeding from caudal veins are minimal, then speed in liver resection in hemodynamic unstable and ishemic patient, defects like bleeding because compressing tapes or lesions IVC tile mobilazion of liver for conventional resection. PMID:21449137

Djuki?, Vladimir R; Karamarkovi?, Aleksandar B; Radenkovi?, Dejan V; Gregori?, Pavle D; Jeremi?, Vasilije; Ivancevi?, Nenad Dj; Loncar, Zlatibor; Stepi?, Dejan; Mici?, Dusan; Olui?, Branslav; Bajec, Djordje D

2010-01-01

260

Getting a New Liver: Facts about Liver Transplants  

MedlinePLUS

... stay in close touch with your doctors and nurses. The liver does several things: • It helps digest ... transplant surgeon, and other doctors. o The transplant nurse coordinator will schedule you for lab tests (blood ...

261

Combined Liver and Multivisceral Resections  

PubMed Central

Background. Combined liver and multivisceral resections are infrequent procedures, which demand extensive experience and considerable surgical skills. Methods. An electronic search of literature related to this topic published before June 2013 was performed. Results. There is limited scientific evidence of the feasibility and clinical outcomes of these complex procedures. The majority of these cases are simultaneous resections of colorectal tumors with liver metastases. Combined liver and multivisceral resections can be performed with acceptable postoperative morbidity and mortality rates only in carefully selected patients. Conclusion. Lack of experience in these aggressive surgeries justifies a careful selection of patients, considering their comorbidities. PMID:24659854

de Santibanes, Martin; de Santibanes, Eduardo

2014-01-01

262

Post-hepatectomy liver failure  

PubMed Central

Hepatectomies are among some of the most complex operative interventions performed. Mortality rates after major hepatectomy are as high as 30%, with post-hepatic liver failure (PHLF) representing the major source of morbidity and mortality. We present a review of PHLF, including the current definition, predictive factors, pre-operative risk assessment, techniques to prevent PHLF, identification and management. Despite great improvements in morbidity and mortality, liver surgery continues to demand excellent clinical judgement in selecting patients for surgery. Appropriate choice of pre-operative techniques to improve the functional liver remnant (FLR), fastidious surgical technique, and excellent post-operative management are essential to optimize patient outcomes. PMID:25392835

Kauffmann, Rondi

2014-01-01

263

Interventional Radiology in Liver Transplantation  

SciTech Connect

Radiology is a key specialty within a liver transplant program. Interventional techniques not only contribute to graft and recipient survival but also allow appropriate patient selection and ensure that recipients with severe liver decompensation, hepatocellular carcinoma or portal hypertension are transplanted with the best chance of prolonged survival. Equally inappropriate selection for these techniques may adversely affect survival. Liver transplantation is a dynamic field of innovative surgical techniques with a requirement for interventional radiology to parallel these developments. This paper reviews the current practice within a major European center for adult and pediatric transplantation.

Karani, John B., E-mail: john.karani@kingsch.nhs.uk; Yu, Dominic F.Q.C.; Kane, Pauline A. [King's College Hospital (United Kingdom)

2005-04-15

264

Chemotherapy, Liver Injury, and Postoperative Complications in Colorectal Liver Metastases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Systemic chemotherapy (CTx) is increasingly used before surgery for colorectal liver metastases (CRC-LM). However, CTx may\\u000a cause liver injury like steatosis, steatohepatitis, and sinusoidal injury which may be associated with postoperative morbidity.\\u000a Some recent data have even shown an increased mortality in patients with CTx-associated steatohepatitis. We, therefore, analyzed\\u000a our recent experience with potential hepatic injury and its association with

Frank Makowiec; Simone Möhrle; Hannes Neeff; Oliver Drognitz; Gerald Illerhaus; Oliver G. Opitz; Ulrich T. Hopt; Axel zur Hausen

2011-01-01

265

“Vanishing liver metastases”—A real challenge for liver surgeons  

PubMed Central

Expanded surgical intervention in colorectal liver metastasis (LM) and improved chemotherapy led to increasing problem of disappearing liver metastases (DLM). Treatment of those continues to evolve and poses a real challenge for HPB surgeons. This review discusses a clinical approach to DLM, emphasizing crucial steps in clinical algorithm. Particular issues such as imaging, intraoperative detection and surgical techniques are addressed. A step-by-step algorithm is suggested. PMID:25392841

Zendel, Alex; Lahat, Eylon; Dreznik, Yael; Zakai, Barak Bar; Eshkenazy, Rony

2014-01-01

266

3-Tesla MRI Response to TACE in HCC (Liver Cancer)  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Resectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Stage A Adult Primary Liver Cancer (BCLC); Stage B Adult Primary Liver Cancer (BCLC)

2014-03-20

267

Role of liver biopsy in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease  

PubMed Central

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), defined as abnormal accumulation (> 5%) of hepatic triglyceride without excess alcohol intake, is the most common form of chronic liver disease in adults and children in the United States. NAFLD encompasses a spectrum of histologic findings including uncomplicated steatosis, steatosis with inflammation and steatohepatitis [nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)]; the latter can advance to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. NASH is currently accepted as the hepatic manifestation of the set of cardiovascular risk factors collectively known as metabolic syndrome. In 1999 a system for histologic grading and staging for NASH was proposed; this was revised by the NASH Clinical Research Network in 2005 for the entire spectrum of lesions in NAFLD, including the lesions and patterns of pediatric NAFLD, and for application in clinical research trials. Diagnosis remains distinct from grade and stage. A recent European proposal separates steatosis from activity to derive a numeric diagnosis of NASH. Even though there have been promising advancements in non-invasive testing, these tests are not yet detailed enough to replace the full range of findings provided by liver biopsy evaluation. Limitations of biopsy are acknowledged, but liver biopsy remains the “gold standard” for diagnosis and determination of amounts of necroinflammatory activity, and location of fibrosis, as well as remodeling of the parenchyma in NASH. This review focuses on the specific histologic lesions of NAFLD and NASH, grading and staging, differential diagnoses to be considered, and the continuing role of the liver biopsy in this important liver disease. PMID:25083076

Nalbantoglu, ILKe; Brunt, Elizabeth M

2014-01-01

268

Role of liver biopsy in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.  

PubMed

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), defined as abnormal accumulation (> 5%) of hepatic triglyceride without excess alcohol intake, is the most common form of chronic liver disease in adults and children in the United States. NAFLD encompasses a spectrum of histologic findings including uncomplicated steatosis, steatosis with inflammation and steatohepatitis [nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)]; the latter can advance to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. NASH is currently accepted as the hepatic manifestation of the set of cardiovascular risk factors collectively known as metabolic syndrome. In 1999 a system for histologic grading and staging for NASH was proposed; this was revised by the NASH Clinical Research Network in 2005 for the entire spectrum of lesions in NAFLD, including the lesions and patterns of pediatric NAFLD, and for application in clinical research trials. Diagnosis remains distinct from grade and stage. A recent European proposal separates steatosis from activity to derive a numeric diagnosis of NASH. Even though there have been promising advancements in non-invasive testing, these tests are not yet detailed enough to replace the full range of findings provided by liver biopsy evaluation. Limitations of biopsy are acknowledged, but liver biopsy remains the "gold standard" for diagnosis and determination of amounts of necroinflammatory activity, and location of fibrosis, as well as remodeling of the parenchyma in NASH. This review focuses on the specific histologic lesions of NAFLD and NASH, grading and staging, differential diagnoses to be considered, and the continuing role of the liver biopsy in this important liver disease. PMID:25083076

Nalbantoglu, I L Ke; Brunt, Elizabeth M

2014-07-21

269

Radiology of liver circulation  

SciTech Connect

This book proposes that careful evaluation of the arterioportogram is the cornerstone in assessing portal flow obstruction, being the most consistent of all observations including liver histology, portal venous pressure, size and number of portosystemic collaterals, and wedged hepatic venous pressure. Very brief chapters cover normal hepatic circulation and angiographic methods. Contrast volumes and flow rates for celiac, hepatic, and superior mesenteric injection are given, with the timing for venous phase radiographs. In the main body of the text, portal obstruction is divided very simply into presinusoidal (all proximal causes) and postsinusoidal (all distal causes, including Budd-Chiari). Changes are discussed regarding the splenic artery and spleen; hepatic artery and its branches; portal flow rate and direction; and arterioportal shunting and portosystemic collateral circulation in minimal, moderate, severe, and very severe portal obstruction and in recognizable entities such as prehepatic portal and hepatic venous obstructions. The major emphasis in this section is the recognition and understanding of flow changes by which level and severity of obstruction are assessed (not simply the anatomy of portosystemic collateral venous flow). Excellent final chapters discuss the question of portal hypertension without obstruction, and the contribution of arterioportography to the treatment of portal hypertension, again with an emphasis on hemodynamics before and after shunt surgery. There is a fascinating final chapter on segmental intrahepatic obstruction without portal hypertension that explains much of the unusual contrast enhancement sometimes seen in CT scanning of hepatic mass lesions.

Hermine, C.L.

1985-01-01

270

Autoantibodies in Schistosomal Liver Fibrosis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thirty-five patients with pathologically proven advanced schistosomal liver fibrosis were tested for autoantibody reactivity. Six patients (17 per cent) showed autoimmune reactions as shown by complement fixation test and agar diffusion reaction. Five of ...

S. Bassily, Y. Z. Mohran, M. I. Said, M. Moussa, F. Iskander

1973-01-01

271

How Is Liver Cancer Found?  

MedlinePLUS

... An ultrasound test uses sound waves to make pictures of organs inside the body. For a liver ... are described below. Imaging tests These tests create pictures of the inside of your body. They may ...

272

Hydrogen sulfide and the liver.  

PubMed

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gasotransmitter that regulates numerous physiological and pathophysiological processes in our body. Enzymatic production of H2S is catalyzed by cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE), cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS), and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MST). All these three enzymes present in the liver and via H2S production regulate liver functions. The liver is the hub for metabolism of glucose and lipids, and maintains the level of circulatory lipids through lipoprotein metabolism. Hepatic H2S metabolism affects glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, lipoprotein synthesis, mitochondrial biogenetics and biogenesis. Malfunction of hepatic H2S metabolism may be involved in many liver diseases, such as hepatic fibrosis and hepatic cirrhosis. PMID:24582857

Mani, Sarathi; Cao, Wei; Wu, Lingyun; Wang, Rui

2014-09-15

273

Drugs Approved for Liver Cancer  

Cancer.gov

This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for liver cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

274

Role of liver stem cells in hepatocarcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Liver cancer is an aggressive disease with a high mortality rate. Management of liver cancer is strongly dependent on the tumor stage and underlying liver disease. Unfortunately, most cases are discovered when the cancer is already advanced, missing the opportunity for surgical resection. Thus, an improved understanding of the mechanisms responsible for liver cancer initiation and progression will facilitate the detection of more reliable tumor markers and the development of new small molecules for targeted therapy of liver cancer. Recently, there is increasing evidence for the “cancer stem cell hypothesis”, which postulates that liver cancer originates from the malignant transformation of liver stem/progenitor cells (liver cancer stem cells). This cancer stem cell model has important significance for understanding the basic biology of liver cancer and has profound importance for the development of new strategies for cancer prevention and treatment. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the role of liver stem cells in hepatocarcinogenesis. Our review of the literature shows that identification of the cellular origin and the signaling pathways involved is challenging issues in liver cancer with pivotal implications in therapeutic perspectives. Although the dedifferentiation of mature hepatocytes/cholangiocytes in hepatocarcinogenesis cannot be excluded, neoplastic transformation of a stem cell subpopulation more easily explains hepatocarcinogenesis. Elimination of liver cancer stem cells in liver cancer could result in the degeneration of downstream cells, which makes them potential targets for liver cancer therapies. Therefore, liver stem cells could represent a new target for therapeutic approaches to liver cancer in the near future.

Xu, Lei-Bo; Liu, Chao

2014-01-01

275

Complications of orthotopic liver transplantation: imaging findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthotopic liver transplantation has become the major treatment for end-stage chronic liver disease and for severe acute liver failure. Despite the improvement in survival due to advances in organ preservation, improved immunosuppressive therapy agents, and refinement of surgical techniques, there are significant complications after liver transplantation. These complications mainly include biliary strictures, stones, and leakage; arterial and venous stenoses and

P. Boraschi; F. Donati

2004-01-01

276

Liver cell dysplasia: a premalignant condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver cell dysplasia is defined as cellular enlargement, nuclear pleomorphism, and multinucleation of liver cells occurring in groups or occupying whole cirrhotic nodules. The prevalence, natural history, and relationship to the Australia or hepatitis-associated antigen (HAA) have been studied in 552 Ugandan African patients with normal, cirrhotic, and cancerous livers. Liver cell dysplasia was found in only two of 200

P. P. Anthony; C. L. Vogel; L. F. Barker

1973-01-01

277

MODEL OF TOXICANT RESPONSE IN ENGINEERED LIVER  

EPA Science Inventory

This project proposes to: engineer a tissue to mimic liver behavior (a so-called 3-Dimensional or 3D liver model); simulate liver toxicity by exposing the 3D liver model to two known toxicants ( carbon tetrachloride and 1,2 dichloroethylene); and ...

278

Energy Metabolism in the Liver  

PubMed Central

The liver is an essential metabolic organ, and its metabolic activity is tightly controlled by insulin and other metabolic hormones. Glucose is metabolized into pyruvate through glycolysis in the cytoplasm, and pyruvate is completely oxidized to generate ATP through the TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria. In the fed state, glycolytic products are used to synthesize fatty acids through de novo lipogenesis. Long-chain fatty acids are incorporated into triacylglycerol, phospholipids, and cholesterol esters in hepatocytes, and these complex lipids are stored in lipid droplets and membrane structures, or secreted into the circulation as VLDL particles. In the fasted state, the liver secretes glucose through both breakdown of glycogen (glycogenolysis) and de novo glucose synthesis (gluconeogenesis). During pronged fasting, hepatic gluconeogenesis is the primary source of endogenous glucose production. Fasting also promotes lipolysis in adipose tissue to release nonesterified fatty acids which are converted into ketone bodies in the liver though mitochondrial ? oxidation and ketogenesis. Ketone bodies provide a metabolic fuel for extrahepatic tissues. Liver metabolic processes are tightly regulated by neuronal and hormonal systems. The sympathetic system stimulates, whereas the parasympathetic system suppresses, hepatic gluconeogenesis. Insulin stimulates glycolysis and lipogenesis, but suppresses gluconeogenesis; glucagon counteracts insulin action. Numerous transcription factors and coactivators, including CREB, FOXO1, ChREBP, SREBP, PGC-1?, and CRTC2, control the expression of the enzymes which catalyze the rate-limiting steps of liver metabolic processes, thus controlling liver energy metabolism. Aberrant energy metabolism in the liver promotes insulin resistance, diabetes, and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). PMID:24692138

Rui, Liangyou

2014-01-01

279

Liver transplantation after paracetamol overdose  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the role of liver transplantation after paracetamol overdose. DESIGN--Prospective study of consecutive candidates for transplantation and performance of transplantation over 18 months. SETTING--Liver unit, King's College Hospital, London. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Fulfilment of indicators of poor prognosis, selection for transplantation, transplantation, survival. RESULTS--30 of 37 patients considered to have a reasonable prognosis with intensive medical care survived. Of 14

J G OGrady; J Wendon; K C Tan; D Potter; S Cottam; A T Cohen; A E Gimson; R Williams

1991-01-01

280

Acetaminophen in chronic liver disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety of acetaminophen in therapeutic doses was evaluated in subjects with stable chronic liver disease. Six subjects with chronic liver disease were given 4.0 gm daily for 5 days. Although the mean half-life (t½) acetaminophen was 3.42 hr, there was no evidence of drug cumulation or hepatotoxicity. A double-blind, two-period crossover design was also used to evaluate acetaminophen in

Gordon D Benson

1983-01-01

281

Comparative Study of Human Liver Ferritin and Chicken Liver by Mössbauer Spectroscopy. Preliminary Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparative study of normal human liver ferritin and livers from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease was made by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Small differences of quadrupole splitting and isomer shift were found for human liver ferritin and chicken liver. Mössbauer parameters for liver from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease were the same.

Oshtrakh, M. I.; Milder, O. B.; Semionkin, V. A.; Prokopenko, P. G.; Malakheeva, L. I.

2004-12-01

282

Model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) and allocation of donor livers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: A consensus has been reached that liver donor allocation should be based primarily on liver disease severity and that waiting time should not be a major determining factor. Our aim was to assess the capability of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score to correctly rank potential liver recipients according to their severity of liver disease

Russell Wiesner; Erick Edwards; Richard Freeman; Ann Harper; Ray Kim; Patrick Kamath; Walter Kremers; John Lake; Todd Howard; Robert M. Merion; Robert A. Wolfe; Ruud Krom

2003-01-01

283

Serum Liver Enzyme Pattern in Birth Asphyxia Associated Liver Injury  

PubMed Central

Purpose To study temporal pattern of serum liver enzymes levels in newborns with hepatic injury associated with birth asphyxia (BA). Methods Singleton term newborns with BA and ?72 hours of age admitted to neonatal intensive care unit were prospectively enrolled. Term newborns with physiological jaundice and without BA were studied as controls. Serum liver enzymes were measured at <24 hours, 24-72 hours, and at 6-12 days of age for cases and at 1-6 days of age for controls. BA was defined by 1 minute Apgar score <7 or delayed or absent cry with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. BA-associated liver injury was defined as serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation beyond +2 standard deviation (ALT > +2 SD) above the mean of control subjects at any of the three time points. Results Sixty controls and 62 cases were enrolled. Thirty-five cases (56%) developed BA-associated liver injury (ALT>81 IU/L). They had higher serum levels of ALT, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase than the control infants, with peak at 24-72 hours. In controls, serum liver enzyme levels were significantly higher in appropriate-for-date (AFD) babies than small-for-date (SFD) babies. Serum enzyme pattern and extent of elevation were comparable between SFD and AFD babies. Degree of serum liver enzyme elevation had no relationship with severity of hypoxic encephalopathy. Conclusion Serum liver enzyme elevation is common in BA; it peaks at 24-72 hours followed by a sharp decline by 6-12 days of age. Pattern and extent of enzyme elevation are comparable between SFD and AFD babies. PMID:25349832

Chhavi, Nanda; Zutshi, Kiran; Singh, Niranjan Kumar; Awasthi, Ashish

2014-01-01

284

STEM CELLS, CELL TRANSPLANTATION AND LIVER REPOPULATION  

PubMed Central

Liver transplantation is currently the only therapeutic option for patients with end-stage chronic liver disease and for severe acute liver failure. Because of limited donor availability, attention has been focused on the possibility to restore liver mass and function through cell transplantation. Stem cells are a promising source for liver repopulation after cell transplantation, but whether or not the adult mammalian liver contains hepatic stem cells is highly controversial. Part of the problem is that proliferation of mature adult hepatocytes is sufficient to regenerate the liver after two-thirds partial hepatectomy or acute toxic liver injury and participation of stem cells is not required. However, under conditions in which hepatocyte proliferation is blocked, undifferentiated epithelial cells in the periportal areas, called “oval cells”, proliferate, differentiate into hepatocytes and restore liver mass. These cells are referred to as facultative liver stem cells, but they do not repopulate the normal liver after their transplantation. In contrast, epithelial cells isolated from the early fetal liver can effectively repopulate the normal liver, but they are already traversing the hepatic lineage and may not be true stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells and embryonic stem cells can be induced to differentiate along the hepatic lineage in culture, but at present these cells are inefficient in repopulating the liver. This review will characterize these various cell types and compare the properties of these cells and the conditions under which they do or do not repopulate the liver following their transplantation. PMID:18187050

Oertel, Michael; Shafritz, David A.

2008-01-01

285

Toward surface quantification of liver fibrosis progression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring liver fibrosis progression by liver biopsy is important for certain treatment decisions, but repeated biopsy is invasive. We envision redefinition or elimination of liver biopsy with surface scanning of the liver with minimally invasive optical methods. This would be possible only if the information contained on or near liver surfaces accurately reflects the liver fibrosis progression in the liver interior. In our study, we acquired the second-harmonic generation and two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy images of liver tissues from bile duct-ligated rat model of liver fibrosis. We extracted morphology-based features, such as total collagen, collagen in bile duct areas, bile duct proliferation, and areas occupied by remnant hepatocytes, and defined the capsule and subcapsular regions on the liver surface based on image analysis of features. We discovered a strong correlation between the liver fibrosis progression on the anterior surface and interior in both liver lobes, where biopsy is typically obtained. The posterior surface exhibits less correlation with the rest of the liver. Therefore, scanning the anterior liver surface would obtain similar information to that obtained from biopsy for monitoring liver fibrosis progression.

He, Yuting; Kang, Chiang Huen; Xu, Shuoyu; Tuo, Xiaoye; Trasti, Scott; Tai, Dean C. S.; Raja, Anju Mythreyi; Peng, Qiwen; So, Peter T. C.; Rajapakse, Jagath C.; Welsch, Roy; Yu, Hanry

2010-09-01

286

Introducing an Optimal Liver Allocation System for Liver Cirrhosis Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Liver transplantation (LT) is the only treatment option for patients with advanced liver disease. Currently, liver donation to these patients, considering priorities, is based on the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD). MELD score is a tool for predicting the risk of mortality in patients with advanced liver disease. However, few studies have so far been conducted in Iran on the efficacy of MELD score of these patients. Objectives This study reviews the present status of the MELD score and introduces a new model for optimal prediction of the risk of mortality in Iranian patients with advanced liver disease. Patients and Methods Data required were collected from 305 patients with advanced liver disease who enrolled in a waiting list (WL) in Imam Khomeini Hospital from May 2008 to May 2009. All of the patients were followed up for at least 3 years until they died or underwent LT. Cox regression analysis was applied to select the factors affecting their mortality. Survival curves were plotted. Wilcoxson test and receiver operating characteristics curves for survival predictive model were used to compare the scores. All calculations were performed with the SPSS (version 13.0) and R softwares. Results During the study, 71 (23.3%) patients died due to liver cirrhosis and 43 (14.1%) underwent LT. Viral Hepatitis (43.7%) is the most common cause of end-stage liver disease among Iranian patients. A new model (NMELD) was proposed with the use of the natural logarithms of two blood serum variables (total bilirubin and albumin) and the patients' age (year) by applying the Cox model: NMELD = 10 × (0.736 × ln (bilirubin) – 1.312 × ln (albumin) + 0.025 × age + 1.776) Conclusions The results of the Wilcoxon test showed that there is a significant difference between the usual MELD and our proposed NMELD scores (P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristics curve for survival predictive model indicated that the NMELD score is more efficient compared with the MELD score in predicting the risk of mortality. Since serum creatinine was not significant in NMELD score, further studies to clarify this issue are suggested. PMID:24098306

Abolghasemi, Jamileh; Eshraghian, Mohammad Reza; Nasiri Toosi, Mohsen; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Rahimi Foroushani, Abbas

2013-01-01

287

Liver Autophagy in Anorexia Nervosa and Acute Liver Injury  

PubMed Central

Autophagy, a lysosomal catabolic pathway for long-lived proteins and damaged organelles, is crucial for cell homeostasis, and survival under stressful conditions. During starvation, autophagy is induced in numerous organisms ranging from yeast to mammals, and promotes survival by supplying nutrients and energy. In the early neonatal period, when transplacental nutrients supply is interrupted, starvation-induced autophagy is crucial for neonates' survival. In adult animals, autophagy provides amino acids and participates in glucose metabolism following starvation. In patients with anorexia nervosa, autophagy appears initially protective, allowing cells to copes with nutrient deprivation. However, when starvation is critically prolonged and when body mass index reaches 13?kg/m2 or lower, acute liver insufficiency occurs with features of autophagic cell death, which can be observed by electron microscopy analysis of liver biopsy samples. In acetaminophen overdose, a classic cause of severe liver injury, autophagy is induced as a protective mechanism. Pharmacological enhancement of autophagy protects against acetaminophen-induced necrosis. Autophagy is also activated as a rescue mechanism in response to Efavirenz-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. However, Efavirenz overdose blocks autophagy leading to liver cell death. In conclusion, in acute liver injury, autophagy appears as a protective mechanism that can be however blocked or overwhelmed.

Kheloufi, Marouane; Boulanger, Chantal M.; Durand, Francois

2014-01-01

288

Hepatic inflammation and progressive liver fibrosis in chronic liver disease  

PubMed Central

Chronic liver inflammation drives hepatic fibrosis, and current immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-viral therapies can weaken this driver. Hepatic fibrosis is reversed, stabilized, or prevented in 57%-79% of patients by conventional treatment regimens, mainly by their anti-inflammatory actions. Responses, however, are commonly incomplete and inconsistently achieved. The fibrotic mechanisms associated with liver inflammation have been clarified, and anti-fibrotic agents promise to improve outcomes as adjunctive therapies. Hepatitis C virus and immune-mediated responses can activate hepatic stellate cells by increasing oxidative stress within hepatocytes. Angiotensin can be synthesized by activated hepatic stellate cells and promote the production of reactive oxygen species. Anti-oxidants (N-acetylcysteine, S-adenosyl-L-methionine, and vitamin E) and angiotensin inhibitors (losartin) have had anti-fibrotic actions in preliminary human studies, and they may emerge as supplemental therapies. Anti-fibrotic agents presage a new era of supplemental treatment for chronic liver disease. PMID:24627588

Czaja, Albert J

2014-01-01

289

Chronic fascioliasis in farmed and wild greater rheas ( Rhea americana)  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 50 farmed Rhea americana slaughtered for human consumption, adult forms and eggs of Fasciola hepatica were found in 4. The other three livers were free of flukes but did show lesions caused by larval fluke migration. Histological lesions were similar to those caused by flukes in cattle and sheep. The rheas were from an endemic area of ruminant fascioliasis

Mauro Pereira Soares; Sergio Silva da Silva; Leandro Quintana Nizoli; Samuel Rodrigues Felix; Ana Lucia Schild

2007-01-01

290

Infections in liver transplant recipients  

PubMed Central

Liver transplantation is a standard life-saving procedure for the treatment of many end-stage liver diseases. The success of this procedure may be limited by infectious complications. In this article, we review the contemporary state of infectious complications during the post-operative period, with particular emphasis on those that occur most commonly during the first 6 mo after liver transplantation. Bacteria, and less commonly Candida infections, remain the predominant pathogens during the immediate post-operative period, especially during the first month, and infections caused by drug-resistant strains are emerging. Infections caused by cytomegalovirus and Aspergillus sp. present clinically during the “opportunistic” period characterized by intense immunosuppression. As newer potent immunosuppressive therapies with the major aim of reducing allograft rejection are developed, one potential adverse effect is an increase in certain infections. Hence, it is essential for liver transplant centers to have an effective approach to prevention that is based on predicted infection risk, local antimicrobial resistance patterns, and surveillance. A better understanding of the common and most important infectious complications is anticipated to lead to improvements in quality of life and survival of liver transplant recipients. PMID:21603030

Romero, Fabian A; Razonable, Raymund R

2011-01-01

291

Recent advances in liver imaging.  

PubMed

Liver surgery remains a difficult challenge in which preoperative data analysis and strategy definition may play a significant role in the success of the procedure. Medical image processing led to a major improvement of patient care by guiding the surgical gesture. From this initial data, new technologies of virtual reality and augmented reality can increase the potential of such images. The 3D modeling of the liver of patients from their CT scan or MRI thus allows an improved surgical planning. Simulation allows the procedure to be simulated preoperatively and offers the opportunity to train the surgical gesture before carrying it out. These three preoperative steps can be used intraoperatively thanks to the development of augmented reality, which consists of superimposing the preoperative 3D modeling of the patient onto the real intraoperative view of the patient and his/her organs. Augmented reality provides surgeons with a transparent view of the patient. This facilitated the intraoperative identification of the vascular anatomy and the control of the segmental arteries and veins in liver surgery, thus preventing intraoperative bleeding. It can also offer guidance due to the virtual improvement of their real surgical tools, which are tracked in real-time during the procedure. During the surgical procedure, augmented reality, therefore, offers surgeons a transparent view of their patient, which will lead to the automation of the most complex maneuvers. The new ways of processing and analyzing liver images have dramatically changed the approach to liver surgery. PMID:20932146

Mutter, D; Soler, L; Marescaux, J

2010-10-01

292

NAFLD, NASH and liver cancer.  

PubMed

NAFLD affects a large proportion of the US population and its incidence and prevalence are increasing to epidemic proportions around the world. As with other liver diseases that cause cirrhosis, NAFLD increases the risk of liver cancer, a disease with poor outcomes and limited therapeutic options. The incidences of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma are also rising, and HCC is now the leading cause of obesity-related cancer deaths in middle-aged men in the USA. In this Review, we summarize the correlations between liver cancer and NAFLD-related cirrhosis, and the role of the metabolic syndrome in the development of liver cancer from diverse aetiologies, including HCV-mediated cirrhosis. Recent advances in understanding the progression of NAFLD to HCC from preclinical models will also be discussed. Targeted genetic manipulation of certain metabolic or stress-response pathways, including one-carbon metabolism, NF-?B, PTEN and microRNAs, has been valuable in elucidating the pathways that regulate carcinogenesis in NAFLD. Although tremendous advances have occurred in the identification of diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities to reduce the progression of NAFLD, considerable gaps in our knowledge remain with regard to the mechanisms by which NAFLD and its risk factors promote liver cancer. PMID:24080776

Michelotti, Gregory A; Machado, Mariana V; Diehl, Anna Mae

2013-11-01

293

A review of techniques for liver resection.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: There has been a significant increase in the number of hepatic resections performed. The aim of this review was to assess available techniques for liver resection and their application. METHODS: A literature review was performed based on a Medline search to identify articles on liver resection. Keywords included liver resection, liver neoplasm, cancer, colorectal metastases and hepatocellular carcinoma. RESULTS: Improved understanding of the segmental anatomy of the liver has resulted in the evolution of liver resection. The development of new approaches to the biliovascular tree, combined with clamping to produce ischaemic demarcation, has been important in demonstrating segmental boundaries for resection. The combination of methods of vascular control such as the Pringle manoeuvre and techniques of parenchymal resection such as ultrasonic dissection allows hepatic resection with minimal blood loss and morbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Application of refined techniques for liver resection by specialised units allows liver resection to be performed on both normal and cirrhotic livers with low morbidity and mortality. PMID:12484574

Heriot, A. G.; Karanjia, N. D.

2002-01-01

294

Biliary complications after liver transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a The incidence of biliary complications after liver transplant is estimated to be 8% to 20%. Post-liver transplant biliary\\u000a complications may lead to acute and chronic liver injury. The early recognition and prompt treatment of such complications\\u000a improves the long-term survival of the patient and graft.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a An understanding of the type of biliary reconstruction, the rationale for

Sanjay Jagannath; Anthony N. Kalloo

2002-01-01

295

Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary tumor of the liver and is considered an aggressive tumor with mean survival estimated between 6 and 20 months. Hepatitis B and C are the most common etiologies. Pathological, laboratory and radiologic imaging all aid in diagnosis but much controversy exists in the utilization of any given modality. Many treatment options exist for management of HCC, each has its own limitation. Liver transplantation offers the most reasonable expectation for curative treatment while simultaneously removing the burden of the diseased liver. Still, advancements in the field have thus far not yet matched its potential, although new immunosuppressive and chemotherapy regimen may allow transplantation to push the envelope once again. PMID:24570911

Byam, Jerome; Renz, John

2013-01-01

296

LIVER REGENERATION: ALTERNATIVE EPITHELIAL PATHWAYS  

PubMed Central

Loss of hepatic tissue triggers a regenerative response in the whole organ. Under typical normal conditions, all hepatic cells (epithelial: hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells; non-epithelial: stellate cells, macrophages and endothelial cells) undergo one to three rounds of replication to establish the original number of cells and restore organ size. The review summarizes the literature of regenerative patterns in situations in which proliferation of either hepatocytes or biliary epithelial cells is inhibited. The evidence strongly suggests that under these circumstances, hepatocytes or biliary epithelial cells can function as facultative stem cells for each other and replenish the inhibited cellular compartment by a process of trans-differentiation, involving complex signaling pathways. These pathways are activated under experimental conditions in rodents and in fulminant hepatitis associated with liver failure in humans. Mechanistic analysis of these pathways has implications for liver biology and for potential therapeutic modalities in human liver disease. PMID:19788929

Michalopoulos, George K.

2009-01-01

297

Exploration of liver cancer genomes.  

PubMed

Liver cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Advances in sequencing technologies have enabled the examination of liver cancer genomes at high resolution; somatic mutations, structural alterations, HBV integration, RNA editing and retrotransposon changes have been comprehensively identified. Furthermore, integrated analyses of trans-omics data (genome, transcriptome and methylome data) have identified multiple critical genes and pathways implicated in hepatocarcinogenesis. These analyses have uncovered potential therapeutic targets, including growth factor signalling, WNT signalling, the NFE2L2-mediated oxidative pathway and chromatin modifying factors, and paved the way for new molecular classifications for clinical application. The aetiological factors associated with liver cancer are well understood; however, their effects on the accumulation of somatic changes and the influence of ethnic variation in risk factors still remain unknown. The international collaborations of cancer genome sequencing projects are expected to contribute to an improved understanding of risk evaluation, diagnosis and therapy for this cancer. PMID:24473361

Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Aburatani, Hiroyuki

2014-06-01

298

Liver transplantation for hilar cholangiocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

The most appropriate treatment for Klatskin tumor (KT) with a curative intention is multimodal therapy based on achieving resection with tumour-free margins (R0 resections) combined with other types of neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment (the most important factor affecting KT survival is the possibility of R0 resections, achieving 5-year survival rate of 40%-50%). Thirty to forty percent of patients with KT are inoperable and present a 5-year survival rate of 0%. In irresectable non-disseminated KT patients, using liver transplantation without neoadjuvant treatment, the 5-year survival rate increase to 38%, reaching 50% survival in early stage. In selected cases, with liver transplantation and neoadjuvant treatment (chemotherapy and radiotherapy), the actuarial survival rate is 65% at 5 years and 59% at 10 years. In conclusion, correct staging, neoadjuvant treatment, living donor and priority on the liver transplant waiting list may lead to improved results. PMID:24409049

Robles, Ricardo; Sánchez-Bueno, Francisco; Ramírez, Pablo; Brusadin, Roberto; Parrilla, Pascual

2013-01-01

299

Diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease  

PubMed Central

Alcohol is a hepatotoxin that is commonly consumed worldwide and is associated with a spectrum of liver injury including simple steatosis or fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a general term used to refer to this spectrum of alcohol-related liver injuries. Excessive or harmful alcohol use is ranked as one of the top five risk factors for death and disability globally and results in 2.5 million deaths and 69.4 million annual disability adjusted life years. All patients who present with clinical features of hepatitis or chronic liver disease or who have elevated serum elevated transaminase levels should be screened for an alcohol use disorder. The diagnosis of ALD can generally be made based on history, clinical and laboratory findings. However, the diagnosis of ALD can be clinically challenging as there is no single diagnostic test that confirms the diagnosis and patients may not be forthcoming about their degree of alcohol consumption. In addition, clinical findings may be absent or minimal in early ALD characterized by hepatic steatosis. Typical laboratory findings in ALD include transaminase levels with aspartate aminotransferase greater than alanine aminotransferase as well as increased mean corpuscular volume, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, and IgA to IgG ratio. In unclear cases, the diagnosis can be supported by imaging and liver biopsy. The histological features of ALD can ultimately define the diagnosis according to the typical presence and distribution of hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and Mallory-Denk bodies. Because of the potential reversible nature of ALD with sobriety, regular screening of the general population and early diagnosis are essential. PMID:25206273

Torruellas, Cara; French, Samuel W; Medici, Valentina

2014-01-01

300

Diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease.  

PubMed

Alcohol is a hepatotoxin that is commonly consumed worldwide and is associated with a spectrum of liver injury including simple steatosis or fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a general term used to refer to this spectrum of alcohol-related liver injuries. Excessive or harmful alcohol use is ranked as one of the top five risk factors for death and disability globally and results in 2.5 million deaths and 69.4 million annual disability adjusted life years. All patients who present with clinical features of hepatitis or chronic liver disease or who have elevated serum elevated transaminase levels should be screened for an alcohol use disorder. The diagnosis of ALD can generally be made based on history, clinical and laboratory findings. However, the diagnosis of ALD can be clinically challenging as there is no single diagnostic test that confirms the diagnosis and patients may not be forthcoming about their degree of alcohol consumption. In addition, clinical findings may be absent or minimal in early ALD characterized by hepatic steatosis. Typical laboratory findings in ALD include transaminase levels with aspartate aminotransferase greater than alanine aminotransferase as well as increased mean corpuscular volume, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, and IgA to IgG ratio. In unclear cases, the diagnosis can be supported by imaging and liver biopsy. The histological features of ALD can ultimately define the diagnosis according to the typical presence and distribution of hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and Mallory-Denk bodies. Because of the potential reversible nature of ALD with sobriety, regular screening of the general population and early diagnosis are essential. PMID:25206273

Torruellas, Cara; French, Samuel W; Medici, Valentina

2014-09-01

301

TIMPs of parasitic helminths - a large-scale analysis of high-throughput sequence datasets  

PubMed Central

Background Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMPs) are a multifunctional family of proteins that orchestrate extracellular matrix turnover, tissue remodelling and other cellular processes. In parasitic helminths, such as hookworms, TIMPs have been proposed to play key roles in the host-parasite interplay, including invasion of and establishment in the vertebrate animal hosts. Currently, knowledge of helminth TIMPs is limited to a small number of studies on canine hookworms, whereas no information is available on the occurrence of TIMPs in other parasitic helminths causing neglected diseases. Methods In the present study, we conducted a large-scale investigation of TIMP proteins of a range of neglected human parasites including the hookworm Necator americanus, the roundworm Ascaris suum, the liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini, as well as the schistosome blood flukes. This entailed mining available transcriptomic and/or genomic sequence datasets for the presence of homologues of known TIMPs, predicting secondary structures of defined protein sequences, systematic phylogenetic analyses and assessment of differential expression of genes encoding putative TIMPs in the developmental stages of A. suum, N. americanus and Schistosoma haematobium which infect the mammalian hosts. Results A total of 15 protein sequences with high homology to known eukaryotic TIMPs were predicted from the complement of sequence data available for parasitic helminths and subjected to in-depth bioinformatic analyses. Conclusions Supported by the availability of gene manipulation technologies such as RNA interference and/or transgenesis, this work provides a basis for future functional explorations of helminth TIMPs and, in particular, of their role/s in fundamental biological pathways linked to long-term establishment in the vertebrate hosts, with a view towards the development of novel approaches for the control of neglected helminthiases. PMID:23721526

2013-01-01

302

Vasoplegic syndrome during liver transplantation.  

PubMed

A 56-yr-old woman with chronic hepatitis B and decompensated hepatic cirrhosis was treated with liver transplantation. At the beginning of the neohepatic phase, her arterial blood pressure remained at 60/40 mm Hg for approximately 40 min and did not respond to vasoconstrictive drugs. Her other clinical and laboratory values remained normal, apart from a high cardiac output and low systemic vascular resistance. This patient was diagnosed with vasoplegic syndrome and was treated with i.v. infusion of methylene blue (0.5 mg/kg) and norepinephrine. This report has potential significance to treatment in patients who undergo orthotopic liver transplantation. PMID:19448226

Cao, Zhongping; Gao, Yuqi; Tao, Guocai

2009-06-01

303

Surgical treatment for liver cancer  

PubMed Central

Primary liver cancer is amongst the commonest tumors worldwide, particularly in parts of the developing world, and is increasing in incidence. Over the past three decades, surgical hepatic resection has evolved from a high risk, resource intensive procedure with limited application, to a safe and commonly performed operation with a range of indications. This article reviews the approach to surgical resection for malignancies such as hepatocellular cancer, metastatic liver deposits and neuroendocrine tumors. Survival data after resection is also reviewed, as well as indications for curative resection. PMID:20180230

Tsim, Nicole C; Frampton, Adam E; Habib, Nagy A; Jiao, Long R

2010-01-01

304

Organ reengineering through development of a transplantable recellularized liver graft using decellularized liver matrix  

PubMed Central

Orthotopic liver transplantation is the only available treatment for severe liver failure, but it is currently limited by organ shortage. One technical challenge that has thus far limited the development of a tissue-engineered liver graft is oxygen and nutrient transport. Here we demonstrate a novel approach to generate transplantable liver grafts using decellularized liver matrix. The decellularization process preserves the structural and functional characteristics of the native microvascular network, allowing efficient recellularization of the liver matrix with adult hepatocytes and subsequent perfusion for in vitro culture. The recellularized graft supports liver-specific function including albumin secretion, urea synthesis and cytochrome P450 expression at comparable levels to normal liver in vitro. The recellularized liver grafts can be transplanted into rats, supporting hepatocyte survival and function with minimal ischemic damage. These results provide a proof of principle for the generation of a transplantable liver graft as a potential treatment for liver disease. PMID:20543851

Uygun, Basak E; Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro; Yagi, Hiroshi; Izamis, Maria-Louisa; Guzzardi, Maria A; Shulman, Carley; Milwid, Jack; Kobayashi, Naoya; Tilles, Arno; Berthiaume, Francois; Hertl, Martin; Nahmias, Yaakov; Yarmush, Martin L; Uygun, Korkut

2010-01-01

305

Liver defatting: an alternative approach to enable steatotic liver transplantation.  

PubMed

Macrovesicular steatosis in greater than 30% of hepatocytes is a significant risk factor for primary graft nonfunction due to increased sensitivity to ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury. The growing prevalence of hepatic steatosis due to the obesity epidemic, in conjunction with an aging population, may negatively impact the availability of suitable deceased liver donors. Some have suggested that metabolic interventions could decrease the fat content of liver grafts prior to transplantation. This concept has been successfully tested through nutritional supplementation in a few living donors. Utilization of deceased donor livers, however, requires defatting of explanted organs. Animal studies suggest that this can be accomplished by ex vivo warm perfusion in a time scale of a few hours. We estimate that this approach could significantly boost the size of the donor pool by increasing the utilization of steatotic livers. Here we review current knowledge on the mechanisms whereby excessive lipid storage and macrosteatosis exacerbate hepatic I/R injury, and possible approaches to address this problem, including ex vivo perfusion methods as well as metabolically induced defatting. We also discuss the challenges ahead that need to be addressed for clinical implementation. PMID:23057797

Nativ, N I; Maguire, T J; Yarmush, G; Brasaemle, D L; Henry, S D; Guarrera, J V; Berthiaume, F; Yarmush, M L

2012-12-01

306

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: diagnosis and management.  

PubMed

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the liver (hepatic steatosis). Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is characterized by steatosis, liver cell injury, and inflammation. The mechanism of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is unknown but involves the development of insulin resistance, steatosis, inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with physical inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Screening is not recommended in the general population. The diagnosis is usually made after an incidental discovery of unexplained elevation of liver enzyme levels or when steatosis is noted on imaging (e.g., ultrasonography). Patients are often asymptomatic and the physical examination is often unremarkable. No single laboratory test is diagnostic, but tests of liver function, tests for metabolic syndrome, and tests to exclude other causes of abnormal liver enzyme levels are routinely performed. Imaging studies, such as ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, can assess hepatic fat, measure liver and spleen size, and exclude other diseases. Liver biopsy remains the criterion standard for the diagnosis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Noninvasive tests are available and may reduce the need for liver biopsy. A healthy diet, weight loss, and exercise are first-line therapeutic measures to reduce insulin resistance. There is insufficient evidence to support bariatric surgery, metformin, thiazolidinediones, bile acids, or antioxidant supplements for the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The long-term prognosis is not associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, cancer, or liver disease. PMID:23939604

Wilkins, Thad; Tadkod, Altaf; Hepburn, Iryna; Schade, Robert R

2013-07-01

307

Even Decaf Coffee May Help the Liver  

MedlinePLUS

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Even Decaf Coffee May Help the Liver New study echoes prior ... 10, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Another study suggests that coffee might actually be healthy for your liver, and ...

308

Regional Chemotherapy for Inoperable Liver Metastases  

Cancer.gov

In this trial, doctors are testing a method of delivering chemotherapy regionally to the liver called percutaneous isolated hepatic arterial perfusion (PHP) in patients with liver metastases from ocular (eye) or cutaneous (skin) melanoma.

309

Obesity May Speed Aging of the Liver  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Obesity May Speed Aging of the Liver, Study Suggests ... MedlinePlus Pages Genes and Gene Therapy Liver Diseases Obesity MONDAY, Oct. 13, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Extra pounds ...

310

Multiscale tissue engineering for liver reconstruction  

PubMed Central

The liver is a target of in vitro tissue engineering despite its capability to regenerate in vivo. The construction of liver tissues in vitro remains challenging. In this review, conventional 3D cultures of hepatocytes are first discussed. Recent advances in the 3D culturing of liver cells are then summarized in the context of in vitro liver tissue reconstruction at the micro- and macroscales. The application of microfluidics technology to liver tissue engineering has been introduced as a bottom-up approach performed at the microscale, whereas whole-organ bioengineering technology was introduced as a top-down approach performed at the macroscale. Mesoscale approaches are also discussed in considering the integration of micro- and macroscale approaches. Multiple parallel multiscale liver tissue engineering studies are ongoing; however, no tissue-engineered liver that is appropriate for clinical use has yet been realized. The integration of multiscale tissue engineering studies is essential for further understanding of liver reconstruction strategies. PMID:24500493

Sudo, Ryo

2014-01-01

311

Humanized mice with ectopic artificial liver tissues  

E-print Network

“Humanized” mice offer a window into aspects of human physiology that are otherwise inaccessible. The best available methods for liver humanization rely on cell transplantation into immunodeficient mice with liver injury ...

Thomas, David K.

312

Platelet-Derived Serotonin Mediates Liver Regeneration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The liver can regenerate its volume after major tissue loss. In a mouse model of liver regeneration, thrombocytopenia, or impaired platelet activity resulted in the failure to initiate cellular proliferation in the liver. Platelets are major carriers of serotonin in the blood. In thrombocytopenic mice, a serotonin agonist reconstituted liver proliferation. The expression of 5-HT2A and 2B subtype serotonin receptors in the liver increased after hepatectomy. Antagonists of 5-HT2A and 2B receptors inhibited liver regeneration. Liver regeneration was also blunted in mice lacking tryptophan hydroxylase 1, which is the rate-limiting enzyme for the synthesis of peripheral serotonin. This failure of regeneration was rescued by reloading serotonin-free platelets with a serotonin precursor molecule. These results suggest that platelet-derived serotonin is involved in the initiation of liver regeneration.

Lesurtel, Mickael; Graf, Rolf; Aleil, Boris; Walther, Diego J.; Tian, Yinghua; Jochum, Wolfram; Gachet, Christian; Bader, Michael; Clavien, Pierre-Alain

2006-04-01

313

Transplantation in autoimmune liver diseases  

PubMed Central

Liver transplantation remains an effective treatment for those with end-stage disease and with intractable liver-related symptoms. The shortage of organs for transplantation has resulted in the need for rationing. A variety of approaches to selection and allocation have been developed and vary from country to country. The shortage of donors has meant that new approaches have to be adopted to make maximal use of the available organs; these include splitting grafts, use of extended criteria livers, livers from non-heart-beating donors and from living donors. Post transplantation, most patients will need life-long immunosuppression, although a small proportion can have immunosuppression successfully withdrawn. Newer immunosuppressive drugs and different strategies may allow a more targeted approach with a reduction in side-effects and so improve the patient and graft survival. For autoimmune diseases, transplantation is associated with significant improvement in the quality and length of life. Disease may recur after transplantation and may affect patient and graft survival. PMID:18528936

Mottershead, Marcus; Neuberger, James

2008-01-01

314

Abnormality on Liver Function Test  

PubMed Central

Children with abnormal liver function can often be seen in outpatient clinics or inpatients wards. Most of them have respiratory disease, or gastroenteritis by virus infection, accompanying fever. Occasionally, hepatitis by the viruses causing systemic infection may occur, and screening tests are required. In patients with jaundice, the tests for differential diagnosis and appropriate treatment are important. In the case of a child with hepatitis B virus infection vertically from a hepatitis B surface antigen positive mother, the importance of the recognition of immune clearance can't be overstressed, for the decision of time to begin treatment. Early diagnosis changes the fate of a child with Wilson disease. So, screening test for the disease should not be omitted. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is mainly discovered in obese children, is a new strong candidate triggering abnormal liver function. Muscular dystrophy is a representative disease mimicking liver dysfunction. Although muscular dystrophy is a progressive disorder, and early diagnosis can't change the fate of patients, it will be better to avoid parent's blame for delayed diagnosis. PMID:24511518

2013-01-01

315

Liver transplantation for biliary atresia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthotopic liver transplantation was performed 15 months to 20 years ago in 126 recipients, all of whom were under 18 years of age. Eighty-six of these pediatric recipients were treated before 1980 with azathioprine (or eyclophosphamide) and prednisone, to which antilymphocyte globulin (ALG) usually was added. One-year patient survival was 40%. In the last 40 cases, the new drug cyclosporine

Shunzaburo Iwatsuki; Byers W. Shaw; Thomas E. Starzl

1984-01-01

316

[Pulmonary hypertension in liver diseases].  

PubMed

Portopulmonary hypertension (PoPH) is defined by the combination of portal hypertension and precapillary pulmonary hypertension (mPAP ? 25 mmHg, PCWP < 15 mmHg and PVR > 3 Wood units). PoPH is characterised by pathobiological mechanisms that are similar to other forms of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Prevalence of PoPH is estimated at 0.5-5% among patients with portal hypertension with or without cirrhosis. Treatment strategies most commonly employed for PoPH patients are based on recommendations for idiopathic PAH management. Indeed, the choice of specific PAH treatment must take account the severity of the underlying liver disease. Prognosis of PoPH patients is dependent on both the severity of PAH and of the underlying liver disease. PoPH may be a contraindication for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) if mean pulmonary arterial pressure is > 35 mmHg associated with severe right ventricular dysfunction or high level of pulmonary vascular resistance (> 3-4 Wood units). Bridge therapy with specific PAH therapies should be considered in those patients in an attempt to improve pulmonary hemodynamic and thereby allow OLT with acceptable risk. Recent data suggest that stabilize, improve or cure PoPH seems to be possible by combining specific PAH therapies and liver transplantation in selected patients. Clinical and experimental evidences suggest that IFN therapy may be a possible risk factor for PAH. PMID:25148949

Savale, Laurent; Sattler, Caroline; Sitbon, Olivier

2014-09-01

317

Multidisciplinary imaging of liver hydatidosis  

PubMed Central

Liver hydatidosis is a parasitic endemic disease affecting extensive areas in our planet, a significant stigma within medicine to manage because of its incidence, possible complications, and diagnostic involvements. The diagnosis of liver hydatidosis should be as fast as possible because of the relevant complications that may arise with disease progression, involving multiple organs and neighboring structures causing disruption, migration, contamination. The aim of this essay is to illustrate the role of imaging as ultrasonography (US), multi detector row computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of liver hydatidosis: the diagnosis, the assessment of extension, the identification of possible complications and the monitoring the response to therapy. US is the screening method of choice. Computed tomography (CT) is indicated in cases in which US is inadequate and has high sensitivity and specificity for calcified hydatid cysts. Magnetic resonance is the best imaging procedure to demonstrate a cystic component and to show a biliary tree involvement. Diagnostic tests such as CT and MRI are mandatory in liver hydatidosis because they allow thorough knowledge regarding lesion size, location, and relations to intrahepatic vascular and biliary structures, providing useful information for effective treatment and decrease in post-operative morbidity. Hydatid disease is classified into four types on the basis of their radiologic appearance. PMID:22509075

Marrone, Gianluca; Crino', Francesca; Caruso, Settimo; Mamone, Giuseppe; Carollo, Vincenzo; Milazzo, Mariapina; Gruttadauria, Salvatore; Luca, Angelo; Gridelli, Bruno

2012-01-01

318

Clinical update in liver transplantation.  

PubMed

There has been considerable recent progress liver transplantation (LTX). The postreperfusion syndrome has clearly defined and typically responds to vasopressin and/or methylene blue when refractory to catecholamine therapy. Diastolic dysfunction and cirrhotic cardiomyopathy are prevalent and important in LTX recipients. The high cardiovascular risk and the increasing medical complexity of the current liver transplant recipient have stimulated the publication of guidelines for cardiovascular assessment before LTX. Cardiac surgery is increasingly more successful in patients with cirrhosis, including simultaneous heart-liver transplantation. Cardiopulmonary bypass in LTX is indicated for hemodynamic rescue and, at some centers, serves as the hemodynamic platform for liver implantation. Although acute renal injury is common after LTX, early diagnosis is now possible with novel biomarkers. Earlier detection of postoperative renal dysfunction may prompt intervention for renal rescue. The metabolic milieu in LTX remains critical. Regular insulin therapy may be more effective than infrequent large bolus therapy for potassium homeostasis. Careful titration of insulin therapy may improve freedom from severe hyperglycemia to decrease morbidity. Since the organization of dedicated anesthesia care teams for LTX improves perioperative outcome, this aspect of perioperative care is receiving systematic attention to optimize safety and quality. The specialty of LTX is likely to continue to flourish even more, given these pervasive advances. PMID:23849528

Valentine, Elizabeth; Gregorits, Madeline; Gutsche, Jacob T; Al-Ghofaily, Lourdes; Augoustides, John G T

2013-08-01

319

Liver Transplantation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is the best available option for early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), although its application is limited by stringent selection criteria, costs, and deceased donor graft shortage, particularly in Asia, where living donor liver transplant (LDLT) has been developed. Methods This article reviews the present standards for patient selection represented by size-and-number criteria with particular references to Milan Criteria and novel prediction models based on results achieved in patients exceeding those limits, with consideration of the expanded indication represented by the UCSF Criteria. Results The expected outcomes after deceased donor liver transplant (DDLT) or LDLT are favorable if predetermined selection criteria are applied. However, selection bias, difference in waiting time, and ischemia-regeneration injuries of the graft among DDLT vs LDLT may influence long-term results. In the article, the differences between East and West in first-line treatments for HCC (resection vs transplantation), indications, and ethics for the donor, are summarized as well as possible novel predictors of tumor biology (especially DNA mutation and fractional allelic loss, FAI) to be considered for better outcome prediction. Conclusions Liver transplantation remains the most promising product of modern surgery and represents a cornerstone in the management of patients with HCC. PMID:18236119

Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; Chun, Yun Shin; Poon, Ronnie T. P.; Schwartz, Myron E.; Yao, Francis Y.; Marsh, J. Wallis; Bhoori, Sherrie

2008-01-01

320

Predictive Models of Liver Cancer  

EPA Science Inventory

Predictive models of chemical-induced liver cancer face the challenge of bridging causative molecular mechanisms to adverse clinical outcomes. The latent sequence of intervening events from chemical insult to toxicity are poorly understood because they span multiple levels of bio...

321

Multimodal Phantom of Liver Tissue  

PubMed Central

Medical imaging plays an important role in patients' care and is continuously being used in managing health and disease. To obtain the maximum benefit from this rapidly developing technology, further research is needed. Ideally, this research should be done in a patient-safe and environment-friendly manner; for example, on phantoms. The goal of this work was to develop a protocol and manufacture a multimodal liver phantom that is suitable for ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging modalities. The proposed phantom consists of three types of mimicked soft tissues: liver parenchyma, tumors, and portal veins, that are made of six ingredients: candle gel, sephadex®, agarose, glycerol, distilled water, and silicone string. The entire procedure is advantageous, since preparation of the phantom is simple, rather cost-effective, and reasonably quick – it takes around 2 days. Besides, most of the phantom's parts can be reused to manufacture a new phantom. Comparison of ultrasound images of real patient's liver and the developed phantom shows that the phantom's liver tissue and its structures are well simulated. PMID:23691165

Chmarra, Magdalena K.; Hansen, Rune; Mårvik, Ronald; Langø, Thomas

2013-01-01

322

Multimodal phantom of liver tissue.  

PubMed

Medical imaging plays an important role in patients' care and is continuously being used in managing health and disease. To obtain the maximum benefit from this rapidly developing technology, further research is needed. Ideally, this research should be done in a patient-safe and environment-friendly manner; for example, on phantoms. The goal of this work was to develop a protocol and manufacture a multimodal liver phantom that is suitable for ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging modalities. The proposed phantom consists of three types of mimicked soft tissues: liver parenchyma, tumors, and portal veins, that are made of six ingredients: candle gel, sephadex®, agarose, glycerol, distilled water, and silicone string. The entire procedure is advantageous, since preparation of the phantom is simple, rather cost-effective, and reasonably quick - it takes around 2 days. Besides, most of the phantom's parts can be reused to manufacture a new phantom. Comparison of ultrasound images of real patient's liver and the developed phantom shows that the phantom's liver tissue and its structures are well simulated. PMID:23691165

Chmarra, Magdalena K; Hansen, Rune; Mårvik, Ronald; Langø, Thomas

2013-01-01

323

Urea Biosynthesis Using Liver Slices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a practical scheme to enable introductory biology students to investigate the mechanism by which urea is synthesized in the liver. The tissue-slice technique is discussed, and methods for the quantitative analysis of metabolites are presented. (Author/SL)

Teal, A. R.

1976-01-01

324

Fibrogenesis in alcoholic liver disease  

PubMed Central

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In developed countries, ALD is a major cause of end-stage liver disease that requires transplantation. The spectrum of ALD includes simple steatosis, alcoholic hepatitis, ?brosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Alcohol abstinence is the most effective therapy for ALD. However, targeted therapies are urgently needed for patients with severe ALD (i.e., alcoholic hepatitis) or those who do not abstain from alcohol. The lack of studies and the availability of animal models that do not reflect all the features of this disease in humans inhibit the development of new drugs for ALD. In ALD-associated fibrosis, hepatic stellate cells are the principal cell type responsible for extracellular matrix production. Although the mechanisms underlying fibrosis in ALD are largely similar to those observed in other chronic liver diseases, oxidative stress, methionine metabolism abnormalities, hepatocyte apoptosis, and endotoxin lipopolysaccharides that activate Kupffer cells may play unique roles in disease-related fibrogenesis. Lipogenesis during the early stages of ALD has recently been implicated as a risk factor for the progression of cirrhosis. Other topics include osteopontin, interleukin-1 signaling, and genetic polymorphism. In this review, we discuss the basic pathogenesis of ALD and focus on liver fibrogenesis. PMID:25009376

Fujii, Hideki; Kawada, Norifumi

2014-01-01

325

An update on the mouse liver proteome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Decoding of the liver proteome is subject of intense research, but hampered by methodological constraints. We recently developed an improved protocol for studying rat liver proteins based on 2-DE-MALDI-TOF-MS peptide mass finger printing. This methodology was now applied to develop a mouse liver protein database. RESULTS: Liver proteins were extracted by two different lysis buffers in sequence followed by

Giuseppe Gazzana; Jürgen Borlak

2009-01-01

326

Clinical Strategies for Chemoprevention of Liver Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary liver cancer includes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, hepatoblastoma, and other rare\\u000a tumors of mesodermal origin such as angiosarcoma. The terms “primary liver cancer” and “hepatocellular carcinoma” are often\\u000a used interchangeably in the literature. HCC accounts for 70–85% of primary liver cancers (1), and although intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is rare, it accounts for 5–30% of all liver cancers (2). Hepatoblastoma,

Ziad Hassoun; Gregory J. Gores

327

Management of drug-induced liver disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment and prevention of drug-induced liver injury starts with the recognition of hepatotoxicity at the earliest possible\\u000a time so that the suspected drug can be discontinued expeditiously. Both liver enzyme monitoring and vigilance for signs of\\u000a hypersensitivity involving the liver are useful strategies for many agents known to cause hepatocellular necrosis leading\\u000a to liver failure. Specific antidotes to prevent

Gustavo Marino; Hyman J. Zimmerman; James H. Lewis

2001-01-01

328

Multiple Adaptive Mechanisms to Chronic Liver Disease Revealed at Early Stages of Liver Carcinogenesis  

E-print Network

Multiple Adaptive Mechanisms to Chronic Liver Disease Revealed at Early Stages of Liver-knockout (Mdr2-KO) mice. These mice lack the liver-specific P-glycoprotein responsible by hepatocellular carcinoma development after the age of 1 year. Liver tissue samples of Mdr2-KO mice in the early

Domany, Eytan

329

LIVER BIOLOGY AND PATHOBIOLOGY Liver Tissue Engineering at Extrahepatic Sites in Mice  

E-print Network

LIVER BIOLOGY AND PATHOBIOLOGY BIOLOGY Liver Tissue Engineering at Extrahepatic Sites in Mice as a Potential New Therapy for Genetic Liver Diseases Kazuo Ohashi,1,3 Jacob M. Waugh,2 Michael D. Dake,2 Takashi and Mark A. Kay1 Liver tissue engineering using hepatocyte transplantation has been proposed as an alterna

Kay, Mark A.

330

Liver Transplantation Is Possible in Some Patients with Liver Metastasis of Colon Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver metastases from colorectal cancer are an absolute contraindication for liver transplantation. Aggressive therapy with liver resection and local chemotherapy in selected patients may be able to provide long-term cure. Given the risks of tumor recurrence, whether patients with post chemotherapy complications leading to liver failure should be offered transplantation is a challenging question in an era of limited organ

O. Uskudar; K. Raja; T. D. Schiano; M. I. Fiel; J. del Rio Martin; C. Chang

2011-01-01

331

[Liver cirrhosis--procoagulant stasis].  

PubMed

Abnormal hemostasis tests and bleeding are often associated in liver cirrhosis. In these patients the balance between hypo- and hypercoagulation status is more fragile than in healthy people. In the hemostatic abnormalities associated with chronic liver disease are two main chategory factors: favoring hemorrage and favoring thrombosis. The main factors that favoring hemorrage are: low platelet count, impaired platelet function, decreased levels coagulation factors (II, V, VII, IX, X, XI), quantitative and qualitative abnormalities of fibrinogen, vitamin K defiency, low levels of trombin activable fibrinolisis inhibitor, activat plasminogenic tisular. The factors favoring thrombosis are elevated levels of factors VIII and von Willebrand, decreased levels of protein C, protein S, antithrombin, decreased levels of plasminogen. Traditionally it was thought that arterial and venous thrombosis is rare events in cirrhotic patients but recent studies have indicated that thrombotic complications can paradoxically occur even if clinically an increased risk of hemorrhage is considered. Treatment of venous thrombosis in patients with cirrhosis using routine anticoagulation with heparin and vitamin K antagonists has been described but with a high level of bleeding complications. So, based on the limited data available, AASLD guidelines stated no recommendations for or against the use of anticoagulation in cirrhotic patients with portal thrombosis. Although abnormal hemostasis tests and bleeding are often associated in patients with chronic liver disease it is a relatively poor correlation between hemorrhagic risk and routine diagnostic tests of hemostasis. Management of bleeding complications in liver cirrhosis varies and no general guidelines are available. The main therapeutic strategies are: red cell concentrate, plasma, platelet concentrate, recombinant factor VIIa, factor concentrates, desmopressin, antifibrynolitic agents, thrombopoietin receptor agonists, antibiotics. Clinical studies examining safety and efficacy of the various products for the different bleedeing or trombotic complications of liver cirrhosis need to be initiaded. PMID:22046771

Prelipcean, Cristina Cijevschi; Fierbinteanu-Braticevici, Carmen; Drug, V L; L?c?tu?u, Cristina; Mihai, B; Mihai, C?t?lina

2011-01-01

332

Gray scale ultrasonography of calcified liver metastases.  

PubMed

Three cases of calcified liver metastases demonstrating acoustical shadowing on gray scale ultrasonography are reported. Ultrasonography may show calcified liver masses that are not readily apparent on plain film radiographs. The discovery of calcified liver metastases by ultrasound can suggest a primary site of malignancy. PMID:409227

Katragadda, C S; Goldstein, H M; Green, B

1977-10-01

333

Study to Compare Liver Transplantation Costs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Liver transplantation has become a therapeutic modality for treatment of end-stage liver disease. The number of liver transplants performed in America has seen a steady increase over the past 10 years as has the patient survival rates. The cost associated...

J. M. Foley

1990-01-01

334

Noninvasive Biochemical Markers of Liver Fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assessment of liver fibrosis provides useful information not only for diagnosis but also for therapeutic decision. Although needle biopsy of the liver is the gold standard for fibrosis assessment, it has some technical limitations and risks. This has led to the development of noninvasive biochemical markers of liver fibrosis: direct markers which reflect extracellular matrix turnover and indirect markers

Mircea Grigorescu

335

Transcriptional Ontogeny of the Developing Liver  

EPA Science Inventory

During embryogenesis the liver is derived from endodermal cells lining the digestive tract. These endodermal progenitor cells contribute to forming the parenchyma of a number of organs including the liver and pancreas. Early in organogenesis the fetal liver is populated by hemato...

336

Chronic renal dysfunction late after liver transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing success of liver transplantation, more patients are developing late complications such as renal dysfunction. The goal of the current study was to assess the prevalence of renal dysfunction years after liver transplantation and to identify patients at risk for the development of this complication. Of the 527 liver transplantations performed at our institution between April 1990 and

Ari J. Cohen; Mark D. Stegall; Charles B. Rosen; Russell H. Wiesner; Nelson Leung; Walter K. Kremers; Nizar N. Zein

2002-01-01

337

Oral arginine supplementation in acute liver injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute liver failure is accompanied by a high rate of bacterial and septic complications. Arginine has a potent effect on the immune system and modulates bacterial clearance in septic models. We studied the effect of oral arginine supplementation on the extent of liver injury and the associated bacterial translocation in an acute liver injury model in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were

Diya Adawi; F. Behzad Kasravi; Göran Molin; Bengt Jeppsson

1996-01-01

338

Liver regeneration: molecular mechanisms of growth control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular signals controlling liver regeneration are becoming rapidly defined. Control of growth in regener- ating liver has advanced from elusive serum factors and nutrient effects to identification of entirely new growth factors with apparent liver specificity as well as estab- lishment of meaningful gene expression patterns for growth factors already known. Based on studies with hepatocyte cultures and gene

GEORGE K. MICHALOPOULOS

339

Liver in Leprosy: Histological and Biochemical Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The histological findings and their correlation with biochemical functions of the liver in 240 leprosy patients are presented. In 21% with tuberculoid leprosy and in 62% with lepromatous leprosy leprous granulomata were found in the liver. A significant prevalence of granulomatous lesions in the liver among patients with tuberculoid and borderline-tuberculoid leprosy of less than one year's duration suggests that

A. B. A. Karat; C. K. Job; P. S. S. Rao

1971-01-01

340

Percutaneous needle treatment of liver tumors  

E-print Network

· Percutaneous needle treatment of liver tumors · Target multiple tumors through a single incisionmm x 90mm x 260mm · Autoclavable I. Free Space III. Bovine Liver · Precurved concentric nitinol tubes.80 Bovine Liver (mm) 3.32 ± 2.66 II. Ethanol Solution Future Work · Human trials with manual unit · Fully

Webster III, Robert James

341

HCV-associated liver cancer without cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is regarded as a risk factor for hepatocellular cancer, mostly in patients with liver cirrhosis. We looked for HCV genomes in the livers of patients with hepatocellular cancer who did not have cirrhosis to see whether HCV was directly oncogenic. Cancerous and non-cancerous liver tissue, and serum samples from 19 patients negative for

M. S. De Mitri; E. Pisi; K. Poussin; P. Paterlini; C. Bréchot; P. Baccarini; A. D'Errico; W. Grigiani; A. Alberti; P. Pontisso; N. Simon; M. Beaugrand

1995-01-01

342

Ochrobactrum intermedium Infection after Liver Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of bacteremia due to Ochrobactrum intermedium, with concomitant liver abscesses, in an orthotopic liver transplant recipient is presented. Identical microorganisms were isolated from fecal specimens and from an aspirate of a liver abscess that was indicative of invasion of the graft by gastrointestinal spread. 16S DNA sequence analysis of the blood isolate revealed the recovery of the recently

LIEKE V. M. MOLLER; JAN P. ARENDS; HERMIE J. M. HARMSEN; ADRIAAN TALENS; PETER TERPSTRA; MAARTEN J. H. SLOOFF

343

Acute liver damage and ecstasy ingestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight cases of ecstasy related acute liver damage referred to a specialised liver unit are described. Two patients presented after collapse within six hours of ecstasy ingestion with hyperthermia, hypotension, fitting, and subsequently disseminated intravascular coagulation with rhabdomyolysis together with biochemical evidence of severe hepatic damage. One patient recovered and the other with evidence of hyperacute liver failure was transplanted

A J Ellis; J A Wendon; B Portmann; R Williams

1996-01-01

344

Liver regeneration: from myth to mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unusual regenerative properties of the liver are a logical adaptation by organisms, as the liver is the main detoxifying organ of the body and is likely to be injured by ingested toxins. The numerous cytokine- and growth-factor-mediated pathways that are involved in regulating liver regeneration are being successfully dissected using molecular and genetic approaches. So what is known about

Rebecca Taub

2004-01-01

345

Acute-on-chronic liver failure.  

PubMed

The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) has been the single best predictor of outcome of the progression of cirrhosis. Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) has been proposed as an alternative path in the natural history of cirrhosis. ACLF occurs in patients with chronic liver disease and is characterized by a precipitating event, resulting in acute deterioration in liver function, multiorgan system failure, and high short-term mortality. In this review, the natural course of patients with ACLF, especially as it relates to management of cirrhotic patients on the transplant waiting list, and its impact on liver transplantation outcomes are defined. PMID:25017076

Asrani, Sumeet K; O'Leary, Jacqueline G

2014-08-01

346

Liver ischemia/reperfusion injury: an overview.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The present review discusses strategies for minimizing the ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) experienced during liver surgery and transplantation. We present the experimental models used to study the complexity of hepatic IRI and new surgical and pharmacologic strategies for manipulating and improving liver function after liver surgery and transplantation. This would be of clinical interest to reduce the prevalence of IRI and improve patient management and outcomes. The ongoing effort to expand the pool of usable liver grafts has made it clear that a better understanding of the mechanisms of IRI and other consequences of using expanded criteria donor (ECD) liver allografts are critical to improving results with these grafts. PMID:25058854

Saidi, Rezà F; Kenari, Seyed Kamran Hejazi

2014-12-01

347

Engineering of implantable liver tissues.  

PubMed

In this chapter, from the engineering point of view, we introduce the results from our group and related research on three typical configurations of engineered liver tissues; cell sheet-based tissues, sheet-like macroporous scaffold-based tissues, and tissues based on special scaffolds that comprise a flow channel network. The former two do not necessitate in vitro prevascularization and are thus promising in actual human clinical trials for liver diseases that can be recovered by relatively smaller tissue mass. The third approach can implant a much larger mass but is still not yet feasible. In all cases, oxygen supply is the key engineering factor. For the first configuration, direct oxygen supply using an oxygen-permeable polydimethylsiloxane membrane enables various liver cells to exhibit distinct behaviors, complete double layers of mature hepatocytes and fibroblasts, spontaneous thick tissue formation of hepatocarcinoma cells and fetal hepatocytes. Actual oxygen concentration at the cell level can be strictly controlled in this culture system. Using this property, we found that initially low then subsequently high oxygen concentrations were favorable to growth and maturation of fetal cells. For the second configuration, combination of poly-L: -lactic acid 3D scaffolds and appropriate growth factor cocktails provides a suitable microenvironment for the maturation of cells in vitro but the cell growth is limited to a certain distance from the inner surfaces of the macropores. However, implantation to the mesentery leaves of animals allows the cells again to proliferate and pack the remaining spaces of the macroporous structure, suggesting the high feasibility of 3D culture of hepatocyte progenitors for liver tissue-based therapies. For the third configuration, we proposed a design criterion concerning the dimensions of flow channels based on oxygen diffusion and consumption around the channel. Due to the current limitation in the resolution of 3D microfabrication processes, final cell densities were less than one-tenth of those of in vivo liver tissues; cells preferentially grew along the surfaces of the channels and this fact suggested the necessity of improved 3D fabrication technologies with higher resolution. In any case, suitable oxygen supply, meeting the cellular demand at physiological concentrations, was the most important factor that should be considered in engineering liver tissues. This enables cells to utilize aerobic respiration that produces almost 20 times more ATP from the same glucose consumption than anaerobic respiration (glycolysis). This also allows the cells to exhibit their maximum reorganization capability that cannot be observed in conventional anaerobic conditions. PMID:22167650

Sakai, Yasuyuki; Nishikawa, M; Evenou, F; Hamon, M; Huang, H; Montagne, K P; Kojima, N; Fujii, T; Niino, T

2012-01-01

348

Liver bioengineering: Current status and future perspectives  

PubMed Central

The present review aims to illustrate the strategies that are being implemented to regenerate or bioengineer livers for clinical purposes. There are two general pathways to liver bioengineering and regeneration. The first consists of creating a supporting scaffold, either synthetically or by decellularization of human or animal organs, and seeding cells on the scaffold, where they will mature either in bioreactors or in vivo. This strategy seems to offer the quickest route to clinical translation, as demonstrated by the development of liver organoids from rodent livers which were repopulated with organ specific cells of animal and/or human origin. Liver bioengineering has potential for transplantation and for toxicity testing during preclinical drug development. The second possibility is to induce liver regeneration of dead or resected tissue by manipulating cell pathways. In fact, it is well known that the liver has peculiar regenerative potential which allows hepatocyte hyperplasia after amputation of liver volume. Infusion of autologous bone marrow cells, which aids in liver regeneration, into patients was shown to be safe and to improve their clinical condition, but the specific cells responsible for liver regeneration have not yet been determined and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. A complete understanding of the cell pathways and dynamics and of the functioning of liver stem cell niche is necessary for the clinical translation of regenerative medicine strategies. As well, it will be crucial to elucidate the mechanisms through which cells interact with the extracellular matrix, and how this latter supports and drives cell fate. PMID:23322990

Booth, Christopher; Soker, Tom; Baptista, Pedro; Ross, Christina L; Soker, Shay; Farooq, Umar; Stratta, Robert J; Orlando, Giuseppe

2012-01-01

349

Prevalence of liver disease in cystic fibrosis.  

PubMed Central

To assess the prevalence, demography, and clinical features of liver disease among patients with cystic fibrosis the case notes of 524 patients of all ages who were attending the cystic fibrosis clinic were studied. Computer databases were used to establish the condition of the liver in a further 576 such patients. The overall prevalence of overt liver disease indicated by the presence of an enlarged liver or spleen (or both) was 4.2%. The age related prevalence rose to a peak in adolescence, and then fell in patients over 20 years old. The implied increase in mortality among those with liver disease was not explained by deaths from liver disease, which were rare. Male patients were significantly more affected than female, the ratio being 3:1 among adolescents. Increasing prevalence of liver disease in patients with cystic fibrosis is, therefore, not just a result of longevity. PMID:2053791

Scott-Jupp, R; Lama, M; Tanner, M S

1991-01-01

350

Gender affects reperfusion injury in rat liver.  

PubMed

Sex mismatch is a well-known risk factor for chronic rejection of liver allografts, but the mechanisms involved remain unclear. Since experimental observations suggest that female liver is more sensitive to reperfusion injury than male liver, we assessed the influence of gender on oxidative stress. Livers from male and female rats were exposed to warm ischemia and reperfused by an oxygenated buffer. Chemiluminescence was continuously recorded. Reduced and oxidized glutathione and malondialdehyde lactic dehydrogenase values were also determined. Chemiluminescence increased during reperfusion in both groups, but was significantly greater in livers from female rats. Malondyaldehyde and lactic dehydrogenase progressively increased in all animals, reaching significantly greater values in female rats. Livers from female rats showed an increase in all the parameters of oxidative stress compared to male animals. A greater susceptibility to reperfusion injury may be evoked as an alternative mechanism to explain the poor outcome of female organ after liver transplantation. PMID:11414309

Gasbarrini, A; Addolorato, G; Di Campli, C; Simoncini, M; Montemagno, S; Castagneto, M; Padalino, C; Pola, P; Gasbarrini, G

2001-06-01

351

Chemotherapy induced liver abnormalities: an imaging perspective  

PubMed Central

Treating patients undergoing chemotherapy who display findings of liver toxicity, requires a solid understanding of these medications. It is important for any clinician to have an index of suspicion for liver toxicity and be able to recognize it, even on imaging. Cancer chemotherapy has evolved, and newer medications that target cell biology have a different pattern of liver toxicity and may differ from the more traditional cytotoxic agents. There are several hepatic conditions that can result and keen clinical as well as radiographic recognition are paramount. Conditions such as sinusoidal obstructive syndrome, steatosis, and pseudocirrhosis are more commonly associated with chemotherapy. These conditions can display clinical signs of acute hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and even liver failure. It is important to anticipate and recognize these adverse reactions and thus appropriate clinical action can be taken. Often times, patients with these liver manifestations can be managed with supportive therapies, and liver toxicity may resolve after discontinuation of chemotherapy. PMID:25320738

Houshyar, Roozbeh; Bhosale, Priya; Choi, Joon-Il; Gulati, Rajesh; Lall, Chandana

2014-01-01

352

Evolving therapies for liver fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Fibrosis is an intrinsic response to chronic injury, maintaining organ integrity when extensive necrosis or apoptosis occurs. With protracted damage, fibrosis can progress toward excessive scarring and organ failure, as in liver cirrhosis. To date, antifibrotic treatment of fibrosis represents an unconquered area for drug development, with enormous potential but also high risks. Preclinical research has yielded numerous targets for antifibrotic agents, some of which have entered early-phase clinical studies, but progress has been hampered due to the relative lack of sensitive and specific biomarkers to measure fibrosis progression or reversal. Here we focus on antifibrotic approaches for liver that address specific cell types and functional units that orchestrate fibrotic wound healing responses and have a sound preclinical database or antifibrotic activity in early clinical trials. We also touch upon relevant clinical study endpoints, optimal study design, and developments in fibrosis imaging and biomarkers. PMID:23635787

Schuppan, Detlef; Kim, Yong Ook

2013-01-01

353

Saturated hydrocarbons in bovine liver  

PubMed Central

A homologous series of n-alkanes (C14–C33) and two isoprenoid hydrocarbons, 2,6,10,14-tetramethylhexadecane (phytane) and 2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane (pristane) have been identified in bovine liver. Another branched but non-isoprenoid alkane and three isomers of molecular formula C20H40 were partially identified. Phytane and the C18–C22 and C29–C33 n-alkanes were found to be the major components in liver, suggesting that at least the main hydrocarbon components were derived from various plants in the diet. The hydrocarbons were separated and identified by a series of steps involving solvent extraction, saponification, elution chromatography on alumina and silica gel columns, molecular sieving and by infrared and ultraviolet spectroscopy, followed by combined capillary gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. PMID:5820649

Nagy, Bartholomew; Modzeleski, Vincent E.; Scott, Ward M.

1969-01-01

354

Resection of colorectal liver metastases  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1960 to 1992 a total of 1718 patients with liver metastases from colorectal carcinoma were recorded. Of these patients, 469 (27.3%) underwent hepatic resection, which was performed with curative intent in 434 patients (25.3%). Operative mortality in this group was 4.4%, being 1.8% (2 of 114) during the last 3 years. Significant morbidity was observed in 16% of patients

Johannes Scheele; Richard Stang; Annelore Altendorf-Hofmann; Martin Paul

1995-01-01

355

Detoxification Functions of the Liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The body is exposed to a variety of chemicals everyday in the form of pharmaceutical agents, household chemicals, dietary\\u000a supplements, and environmental contaminants, many of which are extremely toxic. The primary defense mechanisms against xenobiotics\\u000a in the body are the drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) involved in metabolism and excretion of xenobiotics [1]. Liver is the\\u000a primary organ involved in the

Udayan Apte; Partha Krishnamurthy

356

Alcoholic disease: Liver and beyond  

PubMed Central

The harmful use of alcohol is a worldwide problem. It has been estimated that alcohol abuse represents the world’s third largest risk factor for disease and disability; it is a causal factor of 60 types of diseases and injuries and a concurrent cause of at least 200 others. Liver is the main organ responsible for metabolizing ethanol, thus it has been considered for long time the major victim of the harmful use of alcohol. Ethanol and its bioactive products, acetaldehyde-acetate, fatty acid ethanol esters, ethanol-protein adducts, have been regarded as hepatotoxins that directly and indirectly exert their toxic effect on the liver. A similar mechanism has been postulated for the alcohol-related pancreatic damage. Alcohol and its metabolites directly injure acinar cells and elicit stellate cells to produce and deposit extracellular matrix thus triggering the “necrosis-fibrosis” sequence that finally leads to atrophy and fibrosis, morphological hallmarks of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Even if less attention has been paid to the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, ethanol produces harmful effects by inducing: (1) direct damaging of the mucosa of the esophagus and stomach; (2) modification of the sphincterial pressure and impairment of motility; and (3) alteration of gastric acid output. In the intestine, ethanol can damage the intestinal mucosa directly or indirectly by altering the resident microflora and impairing the mucosal immune system. Notably, disruption of the intestinal mucosal barrier of the small and large intestine contribute to liver damage. This review summarizes the most clinically relevant alcohol-related diseases of the digestive tract focusing on the pathogenic mechanisms by which ethanol damages liver, pancreas and gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25356028

Rocco, Alba; Compare, Debora; Angrisani, Debora; Sanduzzi Zamparelli, Marco; Nardone, Gerardo

2014-01-01

357

Ontogenetic Aspects of Liver Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Hepatoblastomas and related tumors display morphologic features that reflect distinct phases of normal hepatic ontogeny. The\\u000a histologic tumor patterns mimicking ontogenesis of the liver include primitve epithelia resembling early derivatives of primed\\u000a endoderm, populations of potential hepatic progenitor cells, hepatoblasts in various phases of differentiation, and specific\\u000a immature mesenchymes, which are known to occur in early hepatogenesis. An impressive amount

Arthur Zimmermann

358

Psychosomatic Aspects of Liver Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty patients received orthotopic liver transplants at Massachusetts General Hospital between May 21, 1983 and July 21, 1987 (mean follow-up: 64 weeks, range: 2–186 weeks). Twenty-seven patients (68%) were living as of July 21. Among survivors, 15 (56%) returned to full activity; and 7 (26 %) were partially rehabilitated. Five patients were rehospitalized or recently transplanted. Successful outcome occurred most

Owen S. Surman; Jules L. Dienstag; Benedict Cosimi; Susan Chauncey; Paul S. Russell

1987-01-01

359

Extracorporeal Artificial Liver Support Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a One of the most appealing therapeutic approaches for treating any organ failure is the possibility to provide a temporary\\u000a artificial support of its function. In some cases (for example kidney failure) dialysis procedures are widely accepted and\\u000a used, while in others (for example cardiac failure) artificial devices remain largely investigational. In this context, the\\u000a concept of artificial liver support (ALS)

Rafael Bañares; María-Vega Catalina

360

Gastrointestinal dysfunction in liver cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Patients with liver cirrhosis exhibit several features of gut dysfunction which may contribute to the development of cirrhosis complications as well as have an impact on nutritional status and health-related quality of life. Gastrointestinal symptoms are common in cirrhosis and their pathophysiology probably involves factors related to liver disease severity, psychological distress, and gut dysfunction (e.g., increased gastric sensitivity to distension and delayed gut transit). They may lead to reduced food intake and, thus, may contribute to the nutritional status deterioration in cirrhotic patients. Although tense ascites appears to have a negative impact on meal-induced accommodation of the stomach, published data on gastric accommodation in cirrhotics without significant ascites are not unanimous. Gastric emptying and small bowel transit have generally been shown to be prolonged. This may be related to disturbances in postprandial glucose, insulin, and ghrelin levels, which, in turn, appear to be associated to insulin resistance, a common finding in cirrhosis. Furthermore, small bowel manometry disturbances and delayed gut transit may be associated with the development of small bowel bacterial overgrowth. Finally, several studies have reported intestinal barrier dysfunction in patients with cirrhosis (especially those with portal hypertension), which is related to bacterial translocation and permeation of intestinal bacterial products, e.g., endotoxin and bacterial DNA, thus potentially being involved in the pathogenesis of complications of liver cirrhosis. PMID:25356031

Kalaitzakis, Evangelos

2014-01-01

361

Cannabinoid signaling and liver therapeutics.  

PubMed

Over the last decade, the endocannabinoid system has emerged as a pivotal mediator of acute and chronic liver injury, with the description of the role of CB1 and CB2 receptors and their endogenous lipidic ligands in various aspects of liver pathophysiology. A large number of studies have demonstrated that CB1 receptor antagonists represent an important therapeutic target, owing to beneficial effects on lipid metabolism and in light of its antifibrogenic properties. Unfortunately, the brain-penetrant CB1 antagonist rimonabant, initially approved for the management of overweight and related cardiometabolic risks, was withdrawn because of an alarming rate of mood adverse effects. However, the efficacy of peripherally-restricted CB1 antagonists with limited brain penetrance has now been validated in preclinical models of NAFLD, and beneficial effects on fibrosis and its complications are anticipated. CB2 receptor is currently considered as a promising anti-inflammatory and antifibrogenic target, although clinical development of CB2 agonists is still awaited. In this review, we highlight the latest advances on the impact of the endocannabinoid system on the key steps of chronic liver disease progression and discuss the therapeutic potential of molecules targeting cannabinoid receptors. PMID:23567085

Mallat, Ariane; Teixeira-Clerc, Fatima; Lotersztajn, Sophie

2013-10-01

362

Radiofrequency Ablation Beyond the Liver  

PubMed Central

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has begun to show promise for extrahepatic indications. Although much of the reported work on image-guided RFA of liver neoplasms is quite promising, it is even earlier in the evaluation and validation process for extrahepatic RFA, with few short-term and no long-term studies reported. Although there are much more data for liver RFA with almost 3,000 cases reported in the literature, there are a number of ongoing investigations of RFA for tumors in the kidney, lung, bone, breast, bone, and adrenal gland. Debulking and pain control with RFA present palliative options becoming increasingly popular weapons in the interventionalist's oncology arsenal. Metastatic disease with a wide variety of primary histologies in a myriad of locations may be treated with RFA after a careful consideration of the risk-to-benefit ratio balance. The RFA technique can be slightly different outside the liver. Specifically, differing dielectric tissue characteristics may markedly alter the RFA treatment. Each different RFA system has a unique risk and advantage profile. Extrahepatic indications and contraindications will be suggested. Treatment tips and the unique complications and considerations will be introduced for some of the more common extrahepatic locations. PMID:12524646

Neeman, Ziv; Wood, Bradford J.

2008-01-01

363

Horizontal Liver Cleft: A Rare Anatomic Variant  

PubMed Central

Patient: Female, 74 Final Diagnosis: Horizontal liver cleft Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Surgery Objective: Congenital defects/diseases Background: Improvements in hepatobiliary surgical techniques, with increased usage of segmental and subsegmental re-section, make accurate preoperative radiological assessment delineation of the liver segments ever more crucial. Conventionally, this is done by drawing imaginary straight planes along the portal and hepatic veins. We herein report a rare case of a horizontal cleft between the superior and inferior liver segments seen on CT. Case Report: A 74-year-old female patient with a known medical history of ovarian cancer with peritoneal metastasis and retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy was referred to our department for CT to assess disease response after treatment. On contrast-enhanced CT, apart from the ovarian cancer, the liver had a smooth, well-defined horizontally orientated cleft that broadly divided the organ into 2 halves. The cleft contained the right and left main portal veins, and consequently had a curved down-sloping configuration accommodating the curved course of these veins. This liver cleft was present from an earlier CT study performed 3 years ago, and there was no history of preceding liver surgery. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the anomaly of a horizontal liver cleft, which may be attributed to early cessation of the embryological formation of the liver. This liver cleft also illustrates the difficulties in liver segmentation using Couinaud’s classification. PMID:25238973

Ting, Yong Han; Lim, Kian Soon

2014-01-01

364

Metabolism of nitrogenous compounds by ruminant liver.  

PubMed

Ruminants absorb substantial amounts of ammonia nitrogen and very little glucose. Ammonia absorbed is removed by the liver and converted to urea, which can be recycled to the digestive tract and add to the pool of ammonia absorbed. When ammonia absorption and liver urea production are increased by changes in nitrogen intake, an associated increase in liver alpha-amino nitrogen removal has been observed. Reasons for the increase in liver removal of amino acids with greater ureagenesis are uncertain, but the aspartate/glutamate requirement of ureagenesis and the complex relationships between ureagenesis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, glucogenesis, liver energy metabolism and redox state all may be involved. Amino acids represent potential sources of carbon for liver glucogenesis and precise reckonings of the contributions of amino acid carbon to glucogenesis are needed for ruminants fed differing diets. There is evidence for the involvement of peptides in liver nitrogen exchanges and amino acids in peptides represent a potential source of carbon for glucogenesis and nitrogen for ureagenesis. A number of endocrine factors have an impact on liver nitrogen metabolism in ruminants. Growth hormone decreases liver urea release and increases liver glutamate release. PMID:1542057

Reynolds, C K

1992-03-01

365

Liver and diabetes. A vicious circle  

PubMed Central

The complex and bi-directional relationship linking the liver and diabetes has recently gained intense new interest. This critical review of the published work aims to highlight the most recent basic and clinical data underlying the development of type 2 diabetes, in those with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Moreover, the potentially detrimental effects of type 2 diabetes in liver injury are also discussed in each of the two sections of the present paper. Fatty liver and diabetes share insulin resistance as their chief pathogenic determinant. The roles of the hypothalamus, the intestinal microbiome, white adipose tissue and inflammation are discussed in detail. Molecular insights into hepatocyte insulin resistance as the initiator of systemic insulin resistance are also presented with full coverage of the danger of fatty acids. Lipotoxicity, apoptosis, lipoautophagy, endoplasmic reticular stress response and recent developments in genetics are discussed. Closing the circle, special emphasis is given to biochemical pathways and clinical evidence supporting the role of type 2 diabetes as a risk factor for the development of progressive liver disease, including non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and primary liver cancer. In conclusion, data support non-alcoholic fatty liver disease as a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes which is, in turn, a major contributor to progressive liver disease. This pathway leading from fatty liver to type 2 diabetes and back from the latter to the progressive liver disease is a vicious circle. PMID:23332087

Loria, Paola; Lonardo, Amedeo; Anania, Frank

2013-01-01

366

Liver cancer mortality rate model in Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liver Cancer has been a leading cause of death in Thailand. The purpose of this study was to model and forecast liver cancer mortality rate in Thailand using death certificate reports. A retrospective analysis of the liver cancer mortality rate was conducted. Numbering of 123,280 liver cancer causes of death cases were obtained from the national vital registration database for the 10-year period from 2000 to 2009, provided by the Ministry of Interior and coded as cause-of-death using ICD-10 by the Ministry of Public Health. Multivariate regression model was used for modeling and forecasting age-specific liver cancer mortality rates in Thailand. Liver cancer mortality increased with increasing age for each sex and was also higher in the North East provinces. The trends of liver cancer mortality remained stable in most age groups with increases during ten-year period (2000 to 2009) in the Northern and Southern. Liver cancer mortality was higher in males and increase with increasing age. There is need of liver cancer control measures to remain on a sustained and long-term basis for the high liver cancer burden rate of Thailand.

Sriwattanapongse, Wattanavadee; Prasitwattanaseree, Sukon

2013-09-01

367

In vitro models for liver toxicity testing  

PubMed Central

Over the years, various liver-derived in vitro model systems have been developed to enable investigation of the potential adverse effects of chemicals and drugs. Liver tissue slices, isolated microsomes, perfused liver, immortalized cell lines, and primary hepatocytes have been used extensively. Immortalized cell lines and primary isolated liver cells are currently most widely used in vitro models for liver toxicity testing. Limited throughput, loss of viability, and decreases in liver-specific functionality and gene expression are common shortcomings of these models. Recent developments in the field of in vitro hepatotoxicity include three-dimensional tissue constructs and bioartificial livers, co-cultures of various cell types with hepatocytes, and differentiation of stem cells into hepatic lineage-like cells. In an attempt to provide a more physiological environment for cultured liver cells, some of the novel cell culture systems incorporate fluid flow, micro-circulation, and other forms of organotypic microenvironments. Co-cultures aim to preserve liver-specific morphology and functionality beyond those provided by cultures of pure parenchymal cells. Stem cells, both embryonic- and adult tissue-derived, may provide a limitless supply of hepatocytes from multiple individuals to improve reproducibility and enable testing of the individual-specific toxicity. This review describes various traditional and novel in vitro liver models and provides a perspective on the challenges and opportunities afforded by each individual test system. PMID:23495363

Soldatow, Valerie Y.; LeCluyse, Edward L.; Griffith, Linda G.; Rusyn, Ivan

2013-01-01

368

[Autoimmune liver disease: diagnosis and therapy].  

PubMed

Autoimmune Hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and overlap syndromes of these three disease entities are regarded as autoimmune liver diseases. These conditions are important differential diagnoses of elevated liver function tests as about 10 % of liver transplantations in Europe and North America are for these indications. The diagnosis is often difficult but can be facilitated by sequential measurement of relevant autoantibodies, exclusion of other liver disease, ultrasound, ERCP and liver histology. In AIH immunosuppressive therapy has been shown to prevent or stop the development of cirrhosis and improve the prognosis of the patients decisively. In other autoimmune liver diseases this evidence is missing making individual therapeutic decisions necessary. Ursodesoxycholic acid (UDCA) seems to slow disease progression in particular in early stages of PBC. PMID:14997400

Bayer, E M; Schramm, C; Kanzler, S; Lohse, A W

2004-01-01

369

Liver transplantation: Advances and perioperative care  

PubMed Central

Liver transplantation is one of the treatments for many-life threatening liver diseases. Numerous advances in liver transplant surgery, anaesthesia and perioperative care have allowed for an increasing number of these procedures. The purpose of this review is to consider some of the important advances in perioperative care of liver transplant patients such as pre-operative evaluation, intraoperative monitoring and management and early extubation. A PubMed and EMBASE search of terms “Anaesthesia” and “Liver Transplantation” were performed with filters of articles in “English”, “Adult” and relevant recent publications of randomised control trial, editorial, systemic review and non-systemic review were selected and synthesized according to the author's personal and professional perspective in the field of liver transplantation and anaesthesia. The article outlines strategies in organ preservation, training and transplant database for further research. PMID:23087453

Nandhakumar, Amar; McCluskey, Stuart A; Srinivas, Coimbatore; Chandy, Tony T

2012-01-01

370

Focus On: Alcohol and the Liver  

PubMed Central

Thirty-five years ago Charles Lieber and colleagues (1975) published a seminal article in liver research, showing that alcohol itself is the primary cause for the higher prevalence of liver disease seen in alcoholic patients and not dietary deficiencies and malnutrition that often accompany alcoholism. Their groundbreaking research dispelled previously held theories that alcohol was not a major cause of liver damage and led to several decades of study of the deleterious effects of alcohol and its metabolism on the liver. Since that early study, clinical and experimental studies have continued to show a firm connection between high amounts of alcohol consumption and liver disease. This article tracks advances in alcohol-related liver disease research over the past 40 years and describes how these discoveries are helping scientists to gain insight into therapeutic targets that may help to combat this life-threatening disease. PMID:23579939

Szabo, Gyongyi; Mandrekar, Pranoti

2010-01-01

371

Nonsurgical treatment for symptomatic nonparasitic liver cyst.  

PubMed

Liver cysts seldom become symptomatic. For the few requiring intervention, various surgical modalities have been described. Cyst fluid has been removed by simple needle aspiration. Injection of formalin into echinococcus cysts at time of operation is not uncommon. In an analogy to the treatment of kidney cysts, we evacuated a large symptomatic liver cyst by percutaneous drainage and instilled alcohol as a sclerosing agent. This simple procedure may be sufficient treatment for selected symptomatic nonparasitic liver cysts. PMID:3901732

Trinkl, W; Sassaris, M; Hunter, F M

1985-11-01

372

Chronic Liver Disease in the Intensive Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Chronic liver disease (CLD) accounts for a significant portion of the current health burden. If figures and projections are\\u000a extrapolated from historical data for the viral hepatitides, particularly hepatitis C, then this is set to rise significantly\\u000a over the coming decades. Furthermore, the incidence of alcoholic liver disease and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease will\\u000a add to this workload, primarily due

Andrew Slack; Julia Wendon

373

Liver Regeneration Is an Angiogenesis- Associated Phenomenon  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate whether liver regeneration is an angiogenesis-associated phenomenon. Summary Background Data Angiogenesis is predominantly known for its pivotal role in tumor growth. However, angiogenesis could also play a role in physiologic processes involving tissue repair, such as liver regeneration. Methods Mice subjected to 70% partial hepatectomy were treated with human angiostatin (100 mg/kg body weight). Regeneration-induced hepatic angiogenesis was determined by assessing intrahepatic microvascular density using CD31 staining of frozen liver sections. Liver regeneration was evaluated by assessing wet liver weights and BrdU incorporation in DNA at regular intervals after partial hepatectomy. Possible direct effects of angiostatin on hepatocytes were studied by assessment of liver enzymes (ASAT, ALAT, bilirubin, lactate dehydrogenase), MTT assay (cytotoxicity), aminophenol production (metabolic function), and TUNEL (apoptosis). Results In a regenerating liver, microvascular density increased by 38%. Angiostatin significantly inhibited this response by 60%. In addition, angiostatin inhibited liver regeneration by 50.4% and 24.9% on postoperative days 7 and 14, respectively. In control mice liver weights regained normalcy in 8 days, whereas those in angiostatin-treated mice normalized after 21 days. In angiostatin-treated mice, the maximal BrdU incorporation was decreased and delayed. Direct adverse effects of angiostatin on cultured and in vivo hepatocytes were not observed. Angiostatin neither induced necrosis on hematoxylin and eosin staining nor affected serum levels of liver enzymes. Conclusions Liver regeneration is accompanied by intrahepatic angiogenesis. Antiangiogenic treatment using angiostatin inhibits both phenomena. The authors conclude that liver regeneration is, at least in part, an angiogenesis-dependent phenomenon. PMID:12454508

Drixler, Tom A.; Vogten, Mathys J.; Ritchie, Ewan D.; van Vroonhoven, Theo J. M. V.; Gebbink, Martijn F. B. G.; Voest, Emile E.; Borel Rinkes, Inne H. M.

2002-01-01

374

XANTHINE OXIDASE ACTIVITY IN REGENERATING LIVER*  

E-print Network

The xanthine oxiclase activity of mouse regenerating liver has been shown to be elevated during the period of rapid liver growth and proliferation. This increase is evident when the enzyme activity is expressed per unit wet tissue weight, per unit nitrogen, or per cell. The adrenal cortex probably plays only a minor role in implementing this phenomenon. Further augmentation of the xanthine oxidase level of regenerating liver is not induced by the administration of large quantities of the substrate, xanthine, to the animal.

Muriel Feigelson; Philip Feigelson; Paul; R. Gross; Ab Stract

375

Focal liver lesions: sinusoidal phase of CEUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasound examination is the first imaging modality for hepatic study in neoplastic and chronic liver diseases. Focal liver\\u000a lesions frequently cause diagnostic problems in terms of characterization, especially when small and hypoechoic to the rest\\u000a of the parenchyma. Contrast- enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) has shown its value in the characterization of focal liver lesions.\\u000a This study assessed the value of the

M. D’Onofrio; E. Martone; N. Faccioli; G. Zamboni; R. Pozzi Mucelli

2006-01-01

376

Acute Liver Failure due to Enalapril  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents a 46-year-old man who was treated for hypertension with the angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitor enalapril. After 3 years of continuous treatment he presented with jaundice and progressive liver failure that continued despite withdrawal of the medication. The patient was taking no other medication. All known causes of acute liver failure could be excluded indicating a drug-induced liver damage

Michael Jeserich; Christian Ihling; Hans-Peter Allgaier; Peter A. Berg; Claus Heilmann

2000-01-01

377

Hydatid disease of the liver.  

PubMed

Echinococcus granulosus remains a clinical problem in sheep and subsistence farming communities in South Africa. The most commonly affected organs are the liver and the lung. Most cysts remain clinically silent and are diagnosed incidentally or when complications occur. Clinical examination is unreliable in making the diagnosis. Serological testing has a broad range of sensitivity and specificity and is dependent on the purity of the antigens utilised. Ultrasound examination of the abdomen is gens utilised. Ultrasound examination of the abdomen is both sensitive and cost effective. Computed tomography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) are reserved for complicated cases. The differential diagnosis includes any cystic lesion of the liver. Liver hydatid cysts can be treated by medical or minimally invasive (laparoscopic and percutaneous) means or by conventional open surgery. The most effective chemotherapeutic agents against the parasite are the benzimidazole carbamates, albendazole and mebendazole. Albendazole is more efficacious, but recommended treatment regimens differ widely in terms of timing, length of treatment and dose. Medical treatment alone is not an effective and durable treatment option. PAIR (puncture, aspiration, injection, reaspiration) is the newest and most widely practised minimally invasive technique with encouraging results, but it requires considerable expertise. Open surgery remains the most accessible and widely practised method of treatment in South Africa. The options are either radical (pericystectomy and hepatic resection) or conservative (deroofing and management of the residual cavity). Various scolicidal agents are used intraoperatively (Eusol, hypertonic saline and others), although none have been tested in a formal randomised controlled trial. Laparoscopic surgery trials are small and unconvincing at present and should be limited to centres with expertise. Complicated cysts (intrabiliary rupture and secondary infection) may require ERCP to obtain biliary clearance before surgery, and referral to a specialist centre may be indicated. PMID:16878513

Shaw, J M; Bornman, P C; Krige, J E J

2006-05-01

378

LIVER  

Cancer.gov

The Est. Annual PC is the Estimated Annual Percent Change (EAPC) over the time interval. SEER Program. NCHS public use tape. The EAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). The EAPC for 1991-95 is significantly different from the EAPC for

379

Pathology Case Study: Liver Transplant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 34-year-old is experiencing complications following a liver transplant. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in transplant pathology.

Richert, Charles A.

2007-08-22

380

Microbiota-Liver Axis in Hepatic Disease  

PubMed Central

Accumulating evidence indicates that the gut microbiota, long appreciated to be a key determinant of intestinal inflammation, is also playing a key role in chronic inflammatory disease of the liver. Such studies have yielded a general central hypothesis whereby microbiota products activate the innate immune system to drive pro-inflammatory gene expression thus promoting chronic inflammatory disease of the liver. This article reviews the background supporting this hypothesis, outlines how it can potentially explain classic and newly emerging epidemiological chronic inflammatory liver disease, and discusses potential therapeutic means to manipulate the microbiota so as to prevent and/or treat liver disease. PMID:23703735

Chassaing, Benoit; Etienne-Mesmin, Lucie; Gewirtz, Andrew T.

2014-01-01

381

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) incidence is increasing worldwide in recent years. Most HCC cases develop in the presence of advanced chronic liver disease related to chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, chronic hepatitis B (HBV) infection, and alcohol abuse. Approximately 15–50% of HCC cases are classified as idiopathic, suggesting that other risk factors are responsible for its rising incidence. Recent studies suggest that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can be associated with these “idiopathic” cases. NAFLD progresses slowly and can develop into liver cirrhosis, liver failure, and HCC. In the last few years, NAFLD has received more attention because of its high prevalence worldwide. PMID:24738043

Kikuchi, Luciana; Oliveira, Claudia P.; Carrilho, Flair J.

2014-01-01

382

Endocannabinoids in liver disease and hepatic encephalopathy.  

PubMed

Chronic liver disease results from a variety of causes such as hepatitis virus infections, autoimmune processes and alcohol consumption. Its complications include fat deposition, hemodynamic changes and fibrosis. Clinically there may be progression to portal-hypertension and porto-systemic encephalopathy. Pioneering research from the laboratory of Kunos at NIH has stressed the importance of endocannabinoids (ECs) as mediators of some of the pathological processes in chronic liver disease. The present review summarizes the literature on the association between ECs and liver disease, as well as the therapeutic potential of ECs and exogenous cannabinoids in liver disease with emphasis on hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:18781986

Magen, Iddo; Avraham, Yosefa; Berry, Elliot; Mechoulam, Raphael

2008-01-01

383

Liver dysfunction in alcoholics in Western Nepal.  

PubMed

To estimate liver function tests in patients with alcoholic fatty liver disease, alcoholic hepatitis and alcoholic cirrhosis and to compare the levels of enzymes between the groups. A hospital based case control study was carried out at Nepalgunj Medical College, Nepal from January 2013 to June 2013. A total of 150 alcoholic associated liver disorders patients aged between 20-70 years and 50 sex age matched normal healthy controls were taken to assess liver function tests (LFTs) by measuring Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Gamma glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) & Albumin. The mean±SD of liver function tests (LFTs) of patients of alcoholic fatty liver disease is highest followed by alcoholic hepatitis patients. All the 3 groups of alcoholic associated liver disorders patients when compared to normal healthy control subjects showed statistically significant increase in the levels of AST (p<0.000), ALT (p<0.000), ALP (p<0.006), GGT (p<0.000), & Albumin (p<0.000). Liver function tests values for alcoholic associated liver disorders patients when compared to the healthy control subjects was significantly altered. PMID:24858167

Thanpari, C; Shrewastwa, M K; Takhelmayum, R; Yadav, N K; Thapa, P; Mittal, R K

2014-04-01

384

Kupffer cells and alcoholic liver disease.  

PubMed

Liver disease is a major cause of illness and death worldwide. A central component in the complex network leading to the development of alcoholic liver disease is the activation of Kupffer cells by endotoxin and other soluble mediators. Alcohol consumption induces a state of "leaky gut increasing plasma and liver endotoxin levels. When Kupffer cells become activated, they interact with a complex of proteins located on the extracellular membrane signaling to produce a wide array of soluble factors, including cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase metabolites, and reactive oxygen species such as superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric oxide, all of which provide physiologically diverse and pivotal paracrine effects on all other liver cell types and, ultimately, liver injury. Kupffer cells are also central to the liver homeostatic response to injury as upon cellular degenerative changes, they immediately respond to the insult and release mediators to orchestrate inflammatory and reparative responses. Thus, the homeostatic responses are initiated by Kupffer cell-derived mediators at the cellular level and underlie the liver s defense and reparative mechanisms against injury. In order to understand better the role of Kupffer cells in the onset of liver injury, animal models in which Kupffer cells are inactivated, and cell culture settings (e.g. co-cultures) are being used with promising results that advance our understanding of alcoholic liver disease. PMID:16948545

Cubero, F J; Nieto, N

2006-06-01

385

Changes in nutritional status after liver transplantation.  

PubMed

Chronic liver disease has an important effect on nutritional status, and malnourishment is almost universally present in patients with end-stage liver disease who undergo liver transplantation. During recent decades, a trend has been reported that shows an increase in number of patients with end-stage liver disease and obesity in developed countries. The importance of carefully assessing the nutritional status during the work-up of patients who are candidates for liver replacement is widely recognised. Cirrhotic patients with depleted lean body mass (sarcopenia) and fat deposits have an increased surgical risk; malnutrition may further impact morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. After transplantation and liver function is restored, many metabolic alterations are corrected, dietary intake is progressively normalised, and lifestyle changes may improve physical activity. Few studies have examined the modifications in body composition that occur in liver recipients. During the first 12 mo, the fat mass progressively increases in those patients who had previously depleted body mass, and the muscle mass recovery is subtle and non-significant by the end of the first year. In some patients, unregulated weight gain may lead to obesity and may promote metabolic disorders in the long term. Careful monitoring of nutritional changes will help identify the patients who are at risk for malnutrition or over-weight after liver transplantation. Physical and nutritional interventions must be investigated to evaluate their potential beneficial effect on body composition and muscle function after liver transplantation. PMID:25152572

Giusto, Michela; Lattanzi, Barbara; Di Gregorio, Vincenza; Giannelli, Valerio; Lucidi, Cristina; Merli, Manuela

2014-08-21

386

Transient bacteremia associated with percutaneous liver biopsy.  

PubMed

Transient bacteremia associated with percutaneous liver biopsy was studied by pour-plate blood cultures, which were obtained immediately before and after the procedure and 5, 10, 15, and 30 min later in 89 patients. Part of the liver tissue was also cultured in all patients. Histological diagnoses included hepatitis, cirrhosis, cholangitis, fatty liver, granulomata, metastatic liver disease, lymphoma, and miscellaneous disorders. All blood cultures obtained before liver biopsy were sterile. Bacteremia was demonstrable in 12 patients (13.48%). In most of these patients, blood cultures were positive for as long as 15 min after liver biopsy; all cultures were negative at 30 min. Among the bacteria associated with 12 episodes of bacteremia were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Bacteroides, enterococci, diphtheroids, Staphylococcus aureus, alpha-hemolytic Streptococcus, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The patients with positive liver biopsies had a higher incidence of bacteremia (83.3%) than did the patients whose liver biopsies were sterile (8.r%); this difference is stastically significant (P smaller than 0.01). Thus, liver biopsy can be associated with transient bactermia. PMID:1092772

Le Frock, J L; Ellis, C A; Turchik, J B; Zawacki, J K; Weinstein, L

1975-05-01

387

Liver Involvement with Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Liver involvement with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is rarely reported. The majority of published cases suggest a cholestatic picture and obstructive jaundice at presentation. On the contrary, our patient presented with transaminitis without cholestasis. Elevated liver function tests persisted in our patient despite cholecystectomy; however, they normalized with chemotherapy administration, suggesting that AML was the causative effect of the hepatitis-like picture. Our review of the literature revealed that most reported cases of AML with liver involvement had short-lived remissions and an overall ominous prognosis. In our opinion, patients who have liver involvement with AML should be offered alternative investigational therapies with a low hepatic toxicity profile. PMID:21490850

Mathews, Emily; Laurie, Timothy; O'Riordan, Kenneth; Nabhan, Chadi

2008-01-01

388

Liver Size in Saudi Children and Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background/Aim: To examine the liver size in Saudi children and adolescents. Methods: A large sample of children was selected from the general population by multistage random probability sampling for the assessment of physical growth. A random subsample of children–newborns to 18 years old–was taken from this larger sample for this study. Liver size below the costal margin and liver span along the midclavicular line were determined by physicians. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and medians and standard deviations were calculated. Results: Between 2004 and 2005, 18 112 healthy children up to 18 years of age were examined. All were term and appropriate for gestational age. There were 9 130 boys and 8 982 girls, yielding a nearly 1:1 male to female ratio. The maximum palpable liver size below the costal margin was 2.4 cm. The median and + 2 SD liver span at birth were 4 and 6.9 cm, respectively. There was no difference in the liver span between boys and girls of up to 60 months of age. Thereafter, a difference could be seen increasing with age, with girls having smaller liver spans than boys. Conclusion: This manuscript reports the liver size in Saudi children and adolescents. The data should help physicians in the interpretation of liver size determined by physical examination of children and adolescents. PMID:19568553

El Mouzan, Mohammad I.; Al Salloum, Abdulla A.; Al Herbish, Abdulla S.; Qurachi, Mansour M.; Al Omar, Ahmad A.

2009-01-01

389

Application of liver stem cells for cell therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The worldwide shortage of donor livers to transplant end stage liver disease patients has prompted the search for alternative cell therapies for intractable liver disease. Embryonic stem cells can be readily differentiated into hepatocytes, and their transplantation into animals has improved liver function in the absence of teratoma formation: their use in bioartificial liver support is an obvious application. In

Malcolm R. Alison; Cleo Choong; Susan Lim

2007-01-01

390

Evaluation of potential liver donors: Limits imposed by donor variables in liver transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of different donor and recipient parameters that have been recognised previously as proven and to suggest prognostic factors for immediate liver function and final outcome after liver transplantation. We evaluated a total of 228 liver grafts transplanted in the last 3 years in our institution. Parameters were recorded for

Ramón Rull; Oscar Vidal; Dulce Momblan; Francisco Xavier González; Miguel Angel López-Boado; Jose Fuster; Luis Grande; Miguel Bruguera; Katiana Cabrer; Juan Carlos Garc??a-Valdecasas

2003-01-01

391

Analysis of Genetically Defined Liver Enzymes in Transplantable Hepatomas and Developing Liver of the Mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activities and isozyme patterns of seven enzymes involved in glycolysis, the malate-aspartate shuttle and the pentose phosphate pathway have been examined in five transplantable murine hepatomas, adult liver and fetal liver. The liver marker enzyme, alcohol dehydrogenase, has also been studied. The developmental expression of the activity and isozyme pattern of these enzymes have been determined. Seven defined loci

Michael R. Felder; Wesley K. Church; Jaquelin B. Shaffer

1982-01-01

392

A Clinical Perspective on the Criteria for Liver Resection and the Use of Liver Function Tests  

E-print Network

Ó The Author(s) 2009. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com To the Editor, In a recently published survey of 100 liver centers, Breitenstein et al. [1] reported that on a global scale, (1) the average minimal remnant liver volume for resection is 25% (range = 15-40%) for normal liver parenchyma and 50% (range = 25–90%) for cirrhotic livers, (2) portal vein occlusion is employed in 89 % of the centers for purposes of augmenting liver volume before surgery, and that (3) 38 % of the centers employed liver function tests as part of their clinical routine, of which 76 % used the ICG clearance test. The interesting survey provoked a few issues that we feel obliged to address. The authors contend that ‘‘below a certain volume, a remnant liver cannot sustain metabolic, synthetic, and detoxifying functions’ ’ [1]—a statement that is unequivocal and uncontested. However, it should be born in mind that liver volume is not a directly proportional measure of liver function. We have demonstrated a few fundamental aspects of the volume-function relationship that support this notion: (i) Whereas liver function correlates with volume in uncompromised livers [2], there is significantly less correlation between liver volume and

Michal Heger; Wilmar Graaf; Roelof J. Bennink; Ulrich Beuers; Thomas M. Gulik; M. Heger; R. J. Bennink; U. Beuers

2009-01-01

393

Bacterial infection after liver transplantation  

PubMed Central

Infectious complications are major causes of morbidity and mortality after liver transplantation, despite recent advances in the transplant field. Bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites can cause infection before and after transplantation. Among them, bacterial infections are predominant during the first two months post-transplantation and affect patient and graft survival. They might cause surgical site infections, including deep intra-abdominal infections, bacteremia, pneumonia, catheter-related infections and urinary tract infections. The risk factors for bacterial infections differ between the periods after transplant, and between centers. Recently, the emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria is great concern in liver transplant (LT) patients. The instructive data about effects of infections with extended-spectrum beta lactamase producing bacteria, carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacteria, and glycopeptide-resistant gram-positive bacteria were reported on a center-by-center basis. To prevent post-transplant bacterial infections, proper strategies need to be established based upon center-specific data and evidence from well-controlled studies. This article reviewed the recent epidemiological data, risk factors for each type of infections and important clinical issues in bacterial infection after LT. PMID:24876741

Kim, Sang Il

2014-01-01

394

Adiponectin signaling in the liver.  

PubMed

High glucose production contributes to fed and fasted hyperglycemia in Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). The breakdown of the adiponectin signaling pathway in T1D and the reduction of circulating adiponectin in T2D contribute to this abnormal increase in glucose production. Sufficient amounts of insulin could compensate for the loss of adiponectin signaling in T1D and T2D and reduce hyperglycemia. However, the combination of low adiponectin signaling and high insulin resembles an insulin resistance state associated with cardiovascular disease, fatty liver disease and decreased life expectancy. The future development of "adiponectin sensitizers", medications that correct the deficiency in adiponectin signaling, could restore the metabolic balance in T1D and T2D and reduce the need for insulin. This article reviews the adiponectin signaling pathway in the liver through T-cadherin, AdipoR1, AdipoR2, AMPK, ceramidase activity, APPL1 and the recently discovered Suppressor Of Glucose from Autophagy (SOGA). PMID:24297186

Combs, Terry P; Marliss, Errol B

2014-06-01

395

Liver scintigraphy in veterinary medicine.  

PubMed

The most common veterinary application of liver scintigraphy is for the diagnosis of portosystemic shunts (PSSs). There has been a continual evolution of nuclear medicine techniques for diagnosis of PSS, starting in the early 1980s. Currently, transplenic portal scintigraphy using pertechnetate or (99m)Tc-mebrofenin is the technique of choice. This technique provides both anatomical and functional information about the nature of the PSS, with high sensitivity and specificity. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy has also been used in veterinary medicine for the evaluation of liver function and biliary patency. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy provides information about biliary patency that complements finding in ultrasound, which may not be able to differentiate between biliary ductal dilation from previous obstruction vs current obstruction. Hepatocellular function can also be determined by deconvolutional analysis of hepatic uptake or by measuring the clearance of the radiopharmaceutical from the plasma. Plasma clearance of the radiopharmaceutical can be directly measured from serial plasma samples, as in the horse, or by measuring changes in cardiac blood pool activity by region of interest analysis of images. The objective of this paper is to present a summary of the reported applications of hepatobiliary scintigraphy in veterinary medicine. PMID:24314042

Morandi, Federica

2014-01-01

396

Outcomes following liver trauma in equestrian accidents  

PubMed Central

Background Equestrian sports are common outdoor activities that may carry a risk of liver injury. Due to the relative infrequency of equestrian accidents the injury patterns and outcomes associated with liver trauma in these patients have not been well characterized. Methods We examined our experience of the management of equestrian liver trauma in our regional hepatopancreaticobiliary unit at a tertiary referral center. The medical records of patients who sustained liver trauma secondary to equestrian activities were analysed for parameters such as demographic data, liver function tests, patterns of injury, radiological findings, the need for intervention and outcomes. Results 20 patients sustained liver trauma after falling from or being kicked by a horse. The majority of patients were haemodynamically stable on admission. Alanine transaminase (ALT) levels were elevated in all patients and right-sided rib fractures were a frequently associated finding. CT demonstrated laceration of the liver in 12 patients, contusion in 3 and subcapsular haematoma in 2. The right lobe of the liver was most commonly affected. Only two patients required laparotomy and liver resection; the remaining 18 were successfully managed conservatively. Conclusions The risk of liver injury following a horse kick or falling off a horse should not be overlooked. Early CT imaging is advised in these patients, particularly in the presence of high ALT levels and concomitant chest injuries such as rib fractures. Despite significant liver trauma, conservative management in the form of close observation, ideally in a high-dependency setting, is often sufficient. Laparotomy is only rarely warranted and associated with a significantly higher risk of post-operative bile leaks. PMID:25177363

2014-01-01

397

Liver Resection and Transplantation in Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Liver resection is the most available, efficient treatment for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Better liver function assessment, increased understanding of segmental liver anatomy using more accurate imaging studies, and surgical technical progress are the most important factors that have led to reduced mortality, with an expected 5 year survival of 70%. Impairment of liver function and the risk of tumor recurrence lead to consideration of liver transplantation (LT) as the ideal treatment for removal of the existing tumor and the preneoplastic underlying liver tissue. However, LT, which is not available in many countries, is restricted to patients with minimum risk of tumor recurrence under immunosuppression. Limited availability of grafts as well as the risk and the cost of the LT procedure has led to considerable interest in combined treatment involving resection and LT. An increasing amount of evidence has shown that initial liver resection in transplantable patients with a single limited tumor and good liver function is a valid indication. Histological analysis of specimens allows identification of the subgroup of patients who could benefit from follow-up with LT in case of recurrence. PMID:24159575

Belghiti, J.; Fuks, D.

2012-01-01

398

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Clinical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease may be the most common liver disease in the United States, with a high prevalence in the obese, type 2 diabetic population, and it is probably underestimated as a cause for cirrhosis. Clinicopathologically, it represents a wide spectrum of histologic abnormalities and clinical outcomes, ranging from benign hepatic steatosis to cirrhosis. Pathophysiologically, insulin resistance is thought

David A. Sass; Parke Chang; Kapil B. Chopra

2005-01-01

399

Orthotopic liver transplantation for massive hepatic lymphangiomatosis  

PubMed Central

Lymphangiomatosis is a rare malformation of the lymphatic system that causes severe symptoms secondary to progressive growth into or close to vital structures. A case report of liver failure related to this space-occupying intrahepatic mechanism is taken as a starting point for a discussion of the problems of liver transplantation related to large hepatomegalies. PMID:3281302

Miller, Charles; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; Makowka, Leonard; ChapChap, Paulo; Demetris, Jake; Tzakis, Andreas; Esquivel, Carlos O.; Iwatsuki, Shunzaburo; Starzl, Thomas E.

2010-01-01

400

Ruptured liver abscess in a neonate.  

PubMed

We report a rare case of 17-day-old neonate, diagnosed to have ruptured liver abscess secondary to Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcal aureus infection. The child presented with septicemia and abdominal distension. On exploration, there was pyoperitoneum with ruptured liver abscess. PMID:22382113

Jain, Prashant; Mishra, Ashwani; Agarawal, Vyom

2012-01-01

401

Liver from Bone Marrow in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown in animal models that hepatocytes and cholangiocytes can derive from bone marrow cells. We have investigated whether such a process occurs in humans. Archival autopsy and biopsy liver specimens were obtained from 2 female recipients of therapeutic bone marrow transplantations with male donors and from 4 male recipients of orthotopic liver transplantations from female donors. Immunohistochemical

Neil D. Theise; Manjunath Nimmakayalu; Rebekah Gardner; Peter B. Illei; Glyn Morgan; Lewis Teperman; Octavian Henegariu; Diane S. Krause

2000-01-01

402

Postoperative care in pediatric liver transplantation  

PubMed Central

In the last 25 years, liver transplantation in children has become an effective, definitive, and universally accepted treatment for terminal liver diseases. Long-term survival exceeds 80% and improves each year as the result of constant technical advancements and improvements in immediate postoperative intensive care and clinical control. PMID:24860858

Tannuri, Uenis; Tannuri, Ana Cristina Aoun

2014-01-01

403

Polycystic kidney and liver disease in cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews 27 cases of polycystic disease of the kidneys and\\/or liver in cats. The multiple cysts in the kidneys were rounded in all but one case, as described in adult polycystic kidney disease in humans. In 68% of the cats presented with polycystic kidneys, there were also cystic changes of the liver (uni? or multilocular cysts and\\/or congenital

J. T. Bosje; T. S. G. A. M. van den Ingh

1998-01-01

404

Gene Expression Patterns in Human Liver Cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of death worldwide. Using cDNA microarrays to characterize patterns of gene expression in HCC, we found consistent differences between the expression patterns in HCC compared with those seen in nontumor liver tissues. The expression patterns in HCC were also readily distinguished from those associated with tumors metastatic to liver. The global gene expression

Xin Chen; Siu Tim Cheung; Samuel So; Sheung Tat Fan; Christopher Barry; John Higgins; Kin-Man Lai; Jiafu Ji; Sandrine Dudoit; Irene O. L. Ng; Matt van de Rijn; David Botstein; Patrick O. Brown

2002-01-01

405

Hepatic anomalous lobulation demonstrated by liver and hepatobiliary scintigraphy  

SciTech Connect

The use of liver and hepatobiliary scintigraphy for evaluation of the hepatobiliary system in patients with hepatic disease is now widespread. In the present case, the usefulness of liver and hepatobiliary scintigraphy for the diagnosis of liver malformation is described.

Arakawa, K.; Hoshi, H.; Jinnouchi, S.; Ono, S.; Kihara, Y.; Takeuchi, M.; Wakuta, Y.; Kakitsubata, Y.; Watanabe, K.

1984-10-01

406

Liver transplantation for pediatric metabolic disease.  

PubMed

Liver transplantation (LTx) was initially developed as a therapy for liver diseases known to be associated with a high risk of near-term mortality but is based upon a different set of paradigms for inborn metabolic diseases. As overall outcomes for the procedure have improved, LTx has evolved into an attractive approach for a growing number of metabolic diseases in a variety of clinical situations. No longer simply life-saving, the procedure can lead to a better quality of life even if not all symptoms of the primary disorder are eliminated. Juggling the risk-benefit ratio thus has become more complicated as the list of potential disorders amenable to treatment with LTx has increased. This review summarizes presentations from a recent conference on metabolic liver transplantation held at the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC on the role of liver or hepatocyte transplantation in the treatment of metabolic liver disease. PMID:24495602

Mazariegos, George; Shneider, Benjamin; Burton, Barbara; Fox, Ira J; Hadzic, Nedim; Kishnani, Priya; Morton, D Holmes; McIntire, Sara; Sokol, Ronald J; Summar, Marshall; White, Desiree; Chavanon, Vincent; Vockley, Jerry

2014-04-01

407

Innate Immune Cells in Liver Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Innate immune system is the first line of defence against invading pathogens that is critical for the overall survival of the host. Human liver is characterised by a dual blood supply, with 80% of blood entering through the portal vein carrying nutrients and bacterial endotoxin from the gastrointestinal tract. The liver is thus constantly exposed to antigenic loads. Therefore, pathogenic microorganism must be efficiently eliminated whilst harmless antigens derived from the gastrointestinal tract need to be tolerized in the liver. In order to achieve this, the liver innate immune system is equipped with multiple cellular components; monocytes, macrophages, granulocytes, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells which coordinate to exert tolerogenic environment at the same time detect, respond, and eliminate invading pathogens, infected or transformed self to mount immunity. This paper will discuss the innate immune cells that take part in human liver inflammation, and their roles in both resolution of inflammation and tissue repair. PMID:22933833

Liaskou, Evaggelia; Wilson, Daisy V.; Oo, Ye H.

2012-01-01

408

Uridine Prevents Fenofibrate-Induced Fatty Liver  

PubMed Central

Uridine, a pyrimidine nucleoside, can modulate liver lipid metabolism although its specific acting targets have not been identified. Using mice with fenofibrate-induced fatty liver as a model system, the effects of uridine on liver lipid metabolism are examined. At a daily dosage of 400 mg/kg, fenofibrate treatment causes reduction of liver NAD+/NADH ratio, induces hyper-acetylation of peroxisomal bifunctional enzyme (ECHD) and acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX1), and induces excessive accumulation of long chain fatty acids (LCFA) and very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA). Uridine co-administration at a daily dosage of 400 mg/kg raises NAD+/NADH ratio, inhibits fenofibrate-induced hyper-acetylation of ECHD, ACOX1, and reduces accumulation of LCFA and VLCFA. Our data indicates a therapeutic potential for uridine co-administration to prevent fenofibrate-induced fatty liver. PMID:24475249

Le, Thuc T.; Urasaki, Yasuyo; Pizzorno, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

409

HAART and the liver: friend or foe?  

PubMed Central

The overall effect of HAART on the liver is the result of the balance between hepatotoxicity and the consequences of immunoreconstitution on the evolution of HIV-associated liver diseases, particularly viral hepatitis. HAART may lead to the emergence of acute toxic hepatitis, steatosis, steatohepatitis, liver fibrosis, and noncirrhotic portal hypertension. On the other hand, HAART use has been associated with slower fibrosis progression in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients in most studies dealing with this issue. As well, an improvement of the clinical outcome of liver disease has been reported in patients taking HAART. For these reasons, the short- and mid-term effects of HAART on the liver are mostly beneficial. PMID:20452892

2010-01-01

410

Liver Fibrogenesis in Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis  

PubMed Central

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is emerging as one of the most common chronic liver diseases in developed western countries. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the most severe form of NAFLD, and can progress to more severe forms of liver disease, including fibrosis, cirrhosis, and even hepatocellular carcinoma. The activation of hepatic stellate cells plays a critical role in NASH-related fibrogenesis. Multiple factors, such as insulin resistance, oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines, and innate immune responses, are known to contribute to the development of NASH-related fibrogenesis. Furthermore, these factors may share synergistic interactions, which could contribute to the process of liver fibrosis. Given the complex etiology of NASH, combined treatment regimes that target these different factors provide potential treatment strategies for NASH-related liver fibrosis. PMID:22934006

Bian, Zhaolian; Ma, Xiong

2012-01-01

411

Hepatocellular carcinoma in a liver-cell adenoma within a non-cirrhotic liver.  

PubMed

Liver-cell adenomas are benign lesions of the liver occurring predominantly in young women. Hepatocellular carcinomas in most of the cases arise in a cirrhotic liver during the fifth or sixth decade. We describe the case of a 40-year-old woman in whom work-up for epigastric pain revealed a peptic ulcer and a large hepatic mass. Tests for chronic liver diseases were negative. Imaging findings and biopsy specimens of the tumour were inconclusive. The tumour was surgically removed and a hepatocellular carcinoma arising within a liver-cell adenoma in a non-cirrhotic liver was found. Malignant transformation of liver-cell adenoma has only been reported in a few case reports. Mechanisms of transformation remain unclear. The imaging findings as well as histological features are presented in detail and the literature is discussed. PMID:16538118

Burri, Emanuel; Steuerwald, Michael; Cathomas, Gieri; Mentha, Gilles; Majno, Pietro; Rubbia-Brandt, Laura; Meier, Rémy

2006-04-01

412

The fetal liver as cell source for the regenerative medicine of liver and pancreas  

PubMed Central

Patients affected by liver diseases and diabetes mellitus are in need for sources of new cells to enable a better transition into clinic programs of cell therapy and regenerative medicine. In this setting, fetal liver is becoming the most promising and available source of cells. Fetal liver displays unique characteristics given the possibility to isolate cell populations with a wide spectrum of endodermal differentiation and, the co-existence of endodermal and mesenchymal-derived cells. Thus, the fetal liver is a unique and highly available cell source contemporarily candidate for the regenerative medicine of both liver and pancreas. The purpose of this review is to revise the recent literature on the different stem cells populations isolable from fetal liver and candidate to cell therapy of liver diseases and diabetes and to discuss advantages and limitation with respect to other cell sources. PMID:25332958

Semeraro, Rossella; Cardinale, Vincenzo; Carpino, Guido; Gentile, Raffaele; Napoli, Cristina; Venere, Rosanna; Gatto, Manuela; Brunelli, Roberto; Gaudio, Eugenio

2013-01-01

413

Liver transplantation for polycystic liver with massive hepatomegaly: A case report  

PubMed Central

A previous study has shown that liver or combined liver-kidney transplantation can be a valuable surgical technique for the treatment of polycystic liver disease. Herein, we present the case of a 35-year-old woman with polycystic liver disease, who underwent orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) on November 11, 2008. The whole-size graft was taken from a deceased donor (a 51-year-old man who died of a heart attack). Resection in a patient with massive hepatomegaly is very difficult. Thus, after intercepting the portal hepatic vein, left hepatectomy was performed, then the vena cava was intercepted, the second and third porta hepatic isolated, and finally, right hepatectomy was performed. OLT was performed successfully. The recipient did well after transplantation. This case suggested that OLT is an effective therapeutic option for polycystic liver disease and left hepatectomy can be performed first during OLT if the liver is over enlarged. PMID:19860009

Jiang, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Feng; Pu, Li-Yong; Wang, Xue-Hao; Kong, Lian-Bao

2009-01-01

414

Section 1. Image evaluation of fatty liver in living donor liver transplantation.  

PubMed

Preoperative evaluation of donors for living-donor liver transplantation aims to select a suitable donor with optimal graft quality and to ensure donor safety. Hepatic steatosis, a common finding in living liver donors, not only influences the outcome of liver transplantation for the recipient but also affects the recovery of the living donor after partial hepatectomy. Histopathologic analysis is the reference standard to detect and quantify fat in the liver, but it is invasive, and results are vulnerable to sampling error. Imaging can be repeated regularly and allows assessment of the entire liver, thus avoiding sampling error. Selection of appropriate imaging methods demands understanding of their advantages and limitations and the suitable clinical setting. This article describes potential clinical applications for liver fat quantification of imaging methods for fat detection and quantification, with an emphasis on the advantages and limitations of ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging for quantifying liver fat. PMID:24849828

Cheng, Yu-Fan; Yu, Chun-Yen; Ou, Hsin-You; Tsang, Leo Leung-Chit; Huang, Tung-Liang; Chen, Tai-Yi; Concejero, Allan; Wang, Chih-Chi; Wang, Shih-Ho; Lin, Tsan-Shiun; Liu, Yueh-Wei; Yang, Chin-Hsiang; Yong, Chee-Chien; Chiu, King-Wah; Jawan, Bruno; Eng, Hock-Liew; Chen, Chao-Long

2014-04-27

415

The cost-effectiveness of non-invasive liver tests for the detection of liver fibrosis in patients with suspected alcohol-related liver disease  

E-print Network

The cost-effectiveness of non-invasive liver tests for the detection of liver fibrosis in patients with suspected alcohol-related liver disease A systematic literature review was undertaken of the morbidity and mortality associated with liver biopsy (both percutaneous and transjugular). A review of health economic

Oakley, Jeremy

416

Inflammation in Alcoholic Liver Disease  

PubMed Central

Frank Burr Mallory’s landmark observation in 1911 on the histopathology of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) was the first identification of a link between an inflammation and ALD. In this review, we summarize recent advances regarding the origins and roles of various inflammatory components in ALD. Metabolism of ethanol generates a number of metabolites, including acetate, reactive oxygen species, acetaldehyde, and epigenetic changes, that can induce inflammatory responses. Alcohol and its metabolites can also initiate and aggravate inflammatory conditions by promoting gut leakiness of microbial products, by sensitizing immune cells to stimulation and by activating innate immune pathways, such as complement. Chronic alcohol consumption also sensitizes non-immune cells, e.g., hepatocytes, to inflammatory signals and impairs their ability to respond to protective signals. Based on these advances, a number of inflammatory targets have been identified with potential for therapeutic intervention in ALD, presenting new opportunities and challenges for translational research. PMID:22524187

Wang, H. Joe; Gao, Bin; Zakhari, Samir; Nagy, Laura E.

2013-01-01

417

Dissociating Fatty Liver and Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Fatty liver disease is epidemiologically associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), leading to a speculation of a reciprocal cause-effect relationship and a vicious cycle of pathology. Here, we summarize recent literature reporting dissociation of hepatosteatosis from insulin resistance, in genetic mouse models and clinical studies. We highlight rhythmic flows of metabolic intermediates between hepatic lipid synthesis and glucose production in normal circadian physiology. Blocking triglyceride (TG) secretion, subcellular lipid sequestration, lipolysis deficiency, enhanced lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis defects, or inhibition of fatty acid oxidation, all result in hepatosteatosis without causing hyperglycemia or insulin resistance, suggesting that the cause-effect relationship between hepatosteatosis and diabetes does not exist in all situations. PMID:23043895

Sun, Zheng; Lazar, Mitchell A.

2012-01-01

418

Gastric bypass after liver transplantation.  

PubMed

Few data are available for assessing the outcomes of bariatric surgery for patients who have undergone orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). The University of Minnesota bariatric surgery database and transplant registry were retrospectively reviewed to identify patients who had undergone OLT and then open Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery between 2001 and 2009. Comorbidity-appropriate laboratory values, body mass indices (BMIs), histopathology reports, and immunosuppressive regimens were collected. Seven patients were identified with a mean age of 55.4 ± 8.64 years and a mean follow-up of 59.14 ± 41.49 months from the time of RYGB. The mean time between OLT and RYGB was 26.57 ± 8.12 months. The liver disease etiologies were hepatitis C (n = 4), jejunoileal bypass surgery (n = 1), hemangioendothelioma (n = 1), and alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 1). There were 2 deaths for patients with hepatitis C 6 and 9 months after bariatric surgery due to multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome and metastatic esophageal squamous carcinoma, respectively. One patient with hepatitis C required a reversal of the RYGB because of malnutrition and an inability to tolerate oral intake. Four of the 7 patients had type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), 4 had hypertension, and 6 patients had dyslipidemia. All patients were on immunosuppressive medications, but only 4 were on corticosteroids. Glycemic control was improved in all surviving patients with T2DM. The mean BMI was 34.27 ± 5.51 kg/m(2) before OLT and 44.34 ± 6.08 kg/m(2) before RYGB; it declined to 26.47 ± 5.53 kg/m(2) after RYGB. In conclusion, in this case series of patients undergoing RYGB after OLT, we observed therapeutic weight loss, improved glycemic control, and improved high-density lipoprotein levels in the presence of continued dyslipidemia. RYGB may have contributed to the death of 1 patient due to multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome. PMID:24039124

Al-Nowaylati, Abdl-Rawf; Al-Haddad, Benjamin J S; Dorman, Rob B; Alsaied, Osama A; Lake, John R; Chinnakotla, Srinath; Slusarek, Bridget M; Sampson, Barbara K; Ikramuddin, Sayeed; Buchwald, Henry; Leslie, Daniel B

2013-12-01

419

PET-CT in Determining the Radioembolization Dose Delivered to Patients With Liver Metastasis, Primary Liver Cancer, or Biliary Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Metastatic Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Stage D Adult Primary Liver Cancer (BCLC); Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

2014-03-14

420

Liver laceration in an intercollegiate football player.  

PubMed

Serious abdominal injuries in athletics, including liver trauma, are relatively rare. When they do occur, the athletic trainer and the team physician must be able to recognize the signs and symptoms and employ the appropriate first aid and follow-up care. In this paper, we present a case study of a football player who suffered a lacerated liver as a result of a forceful blow to the right side of the chest. Although his case was typical of most isolated liver injuries and he did not experience massive internal bleeding, the potential for life-threatening exsanguination exists and must be recognized by by sports health care practitioners. Most isolated liver injuries can be treated nonsurgically. However, those patients with multiple organ trauma, deteriorating vital signs, or diminishing hemodynamic stability generally require immediate surgery. Athletes with persistent right upper quadrant pain, especially when accompanied by referred pain to the right shoulder, abdominal rigidity, guarding, or rebound pain should be considered to have a liver injury until ruled out by CT scan and liver enzyme studies. Our subject was typical of most athletic liver patients and he was able to resume light exercise after 5 weeks and full activity after 3 months. PMID:16558356

Ray, R; Lemire, J E

1995-10-01