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1

Developmental Transcriptomic Features of the Carcinogenic Liver Fluke, Clonorchis sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clonorchis sinensis is the causative agent of the life-threatening disease endemic to China, Korea, and Vietnam. It is estimated that about 15 million people are infected with this fluke. C. sinensis provokes inflammation, epithelial hyperplasia, and periductal fibrosis in bile ducts, and may cause cholangiocarcinoma in chronically infected individuals. Accumulation of a large amount of biological information about the adult

Won Gi Yoo; Dae-Won Kim; Jung-Won Ju; Pyo Yun Cho; Tae Im Kim; Shin-Hyeong Cho; Sang-Haeng Choi; Hong-Seog Park; Tong-Soo Kim; Sung-Jong Hong

2011-01-01

2

The draft genome of the carcinogenic human liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis  

PubMed Central

Background Clonorchis sinensis is a carcinogenic human liver fluke that is widespread in Asian countries. Increasing infection rates of this neglected tropical disease are leading to negative economic and public health consequences in affected regions. Experimental and epidemiological studies have shown a strong association between the incidence of cholangiocarcinoma and the infection rate of C. sinensis. To aid research into this organism, we have sequenced its genome. Results We combined de novo sequencing with computational techniques to provide new information about the biology of this liver fluke. The assembled genome has a total size of 516 Mb with a scaffold N50 length of 42 kb. Approximately 16,000 reliable protein-coding gene models were predicted. Genes for the complete pathways for glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and fatty acid metabolism were found, but key genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis are missing from the genome, reflecting the parasitic lifestyle of a liver fluke that receives lipids from the bile of its host. We also identified pathogenic molecules that may contribute to liver fluke-induced hepatobiliary diseases. Large proteins such as multifunctional secreted proteases and tegumental proteins were identified as potential targets for the development of drugs and vaccines. Conclusions This study provides valuable genomic information about the human liver fluke C. sinensis and adds to our knowledge on the biology of the parasite. The draft genome will serve as a platform to develop new strategies for parasite control.

2011-01-01

3

The zoonotic, fish-borne liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis felineus and Opisthorchis viverrini.  

PubMed

Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis felineus and Opisthorchis viverrini are the three most important liver flukes involved in human health, infecting more than 45 million people worldwide. Both C. sinensis and O. viverrini, and possibly O. felineus, can induce human cholangiocarcinoma as well as inducing other hepatobiliary pathology. Although the life cycles of all three species are similar, only that of O. felineus in Europe remains predominantly zoonotic, while O. felineus in Asia and C. sinensis have a stronger mixture of zoonotic and anthroponotic components in their life cycles. Opisthorchis viverrini from the Mekong area of southeastern Asia is predominantly anthroponotic. Here we discuss the comparative epidemiology of these three taxa comparing in detail the use of first, second and final animal hosts, and consider the potential role of humans in spreading these pathogens. In addition we discuss the genetic structure of all three species in relation to potentially cryptic species complexes. PMID:23978669

Petney, Trevor N; Andrews, Ross H; Saijuntha, Weerachai; Wenz-Mücke, Alexandra; Sithithaworn, Paiboon

2013-08-24

4

Adult Opisthorchis felineus major protein fractions deduced from transcripts: Comparison with liver flukes Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis.  

PubMed

The epidemiologically important liver flukes Opisthorchis felineus, Opisthorchis viverrini, and Clonorchis sinensis are of interest to health professionals, epidemiologists, pharmacologists, and molecular biologists. Recently the transcriptomes of the latter two species were intensively investigated. However our knowledge on molecular biology of O. felineus is scarce. We report the first results of the O. felineus transcriptome analysis. We isolated and annotated a total of 2560 expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences from adult O. felineus (deposited within the database of expressed sequence tags (dbEST), under accession numbers GenBank: JK624271-JK626790, JK006511-JK006547, JK649790-JK649792). Clustering and analysis resulted in the detection of 267 contigs. Of the protein sequences deduced from these, 82% had homologs in the NCBI (nr) protein database and 63% contained conserved domains, allowing the functions to be interpreted using the Gene Ontology terms. Comprehensive analysis of Opisthorchiidae- and Trematoda-specific substitutions within amino acid sequences deduced for the proteins myoglobin, vitelline precursor protein, cathepsin F, and 28kDa glutathione transferase was carried out. The gene set of the 32 ribosomal proteins for the three Opisthorchiidae species with the addition of available Schistosoma and Fasciola orthologs was created and is provided in the supplementary. The orthologous gene set created was used for inferring phylogeny within the Trematoda with special attention to interrelations within the Opisthorchiidae. The phylogenetic analysis revealed a closer relationship between C. sinensis and O. viverrini and some divergence of O. felineus from either O. viverrini or C. sinensis. PMID:23891942

Pomaznoy, Mikhail; Tatkov, Sergey; Katokhin, Alexey; Afonnikov, Dmitry; Babenko, Vladimir; Furman, Dagmara; Brusentsov, Ilya; Belavin, Pavel; Najakshin, Alexandr; Guselnikov, Sergey; Vasiliev, Gennady; Sivkov, Anton; Prokhortchouk, Egor; Skryabin, Konstantin; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav

2013-07-25

5

Expressed sequence tag analysis of adult Clonorchis sinensis , the Chinese liver fluke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expressed sequence tag (EST) pools represent partial profiles of the gene expressions of organisms. In an effort to construct a Clonorchis sinensis EST pool, 2,387 ESTs were collected from an adult C. sinensis cDNA library and assembled into 1,573 clusters. Of these clusters, 1,225 ESTs (51%) were singletons and 348 clusters consisted of more than two ESTs. There were 848

Pyo Yun Cho; Mi Jung Lee; Tae Im Kim; Shin-Yong Kang; Sung-Jong Hong

2006-01-01

6

Identification and biochemical characterization of two novel peroxiredoxins in a liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis.  

PubMed

We identified 2 novel genes encoding different 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (PRxs), designated CsPRx2 and CsPRx3, in Clonorchis sinensis, which invades the human hepatobiliary tracts. The CsPRx2 gene expression was temporally increased along with the parasite's development and its protein product was detected in almost all parts of adult worms including subtegument, as well as excretory-secretory products. Conversely, CsPRx3 expression was temporally maintained at a basal level and largely restricted within interior parts of various tissues/organs. The recombinant forms of CsPRx proteins exhibited reducing activity against various hydroperoxides in the presence of either thioredoxin or glutathione (GSH) as a reducing equivalent, although they preferred H2O2 and GSH as a catalytic substrate and electron donor, respectively. A steady-state kinetic study demonstrated that the CsPRx proteins followed a saturable, Michaelis-Menten-type equation with the catalytic efficiencies (kcat/Km) ranging from 103 to 104 M-1 s-1, somewhat lower than those for other PRxs studied (104-105 M-1 s-1). The expression patterns and histological distributions specific to CsPRx2 and CsPRx3 might suggest different physiological functions of the antioxidant enzymes in protecting the worms against oxidative damage. PMID:21777506

Bae, Y-A; Kim, S-H; Lee, E-G; Sohn, W-M; Kong, Y

2011-07-22

7

Liver Flukes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Food-borne trematodes (FBTs) contribute to parasitic zoonoses such as liver, lung, and intestinal flukes of humans and they\\u000a are contracted by the consumption of larval stages in food-related products. Food-borne trematodiasis has been recognized\\u000a as an important health problem in Asia (WHO, 1995, 2004). The infections are prevalent in developing countries and are closely\\u000a linked to poverty, pollution, and population

Paiboon Sithithaworn; Puangrat Yongvanit; Smarn Tesana; Chawalit Pairojkul

8

Taxonomy and biology of liver flukes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opisthorchis viverrini is a human liver fluke endemic in Thailand, Lao PDR and Cambodia. Three subspecies of Bithynia siamensis and 18 species of cyprinoid fish are susceptible first and second intermediate hosts, respectively. The differentiation between the adult worm of O. viverrini and that of the closely related species, Opisthorchis felineus and Clonorchis sinensis, is mainly based on the shape

Sasithorn Kaewkes

2003-01-01

9

Lung and liver flukes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluke infections are zoonoses (diseases of animals); humans are ‘accidentally’ infected by eating contaminated foods. In some areas, huge numbers of individuals are infected with lung or liver flukes. The adult worms produce symptoms by their presence in bile ducts (Chlonorchis, Opisthorchis and Fasciola) or lung tissue (Paragonimus). The typical patient is not a tourist but an indigenous individual. Diagnosis

Robert N Davidson

2005-01-01

10

Progress on the transcriptomics of carcinogenic liver flukes of humans—Unique biological and biotechnological prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver flukes, such as Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini, are food-borne parasites that have a major impact on the health of humans and animals, particularly in Asia. However, the impact of C. sinensis and O. viverrini, in particular, is exacerbated in that these parasites can induce a malignant, untreatable cancer (cholangiocarcinoma, CCA) in chronically infected people. As a result, these

Neil D. Young; Aaron R. Jex; Cinzia Cantacessi; Bronwyn E. Campbell; Thewarach Laha; Woon-Mok Sohn; Banchob Sripa; Alex Loukas; Paul J. Brindley; Robin B. Gasser

2010-01-01

11

The tumorigenic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini -multiple pathways to cancer  

PubMed Central

Liver fluke infection caused by Opisthorchis viverrini is a major public health problem in Thailand and adjacent countries. In addition to infection-associated morbidity, infection with O. viverrini and the related Clonorchis sinensis are unarguable risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma, bile duct cancer. Here we review the pathogenesis of opisthorchiasis and the association of O. viverrini infection and bile duct cancer, focusing on the molecular parallels between wound healing, chronic inflammation and cancer development. We review a schema for human disease progression from fluke infection, chronic opisthorchiasis, advanced periductal fibrosis, and cholangiocarcinogenesis, and present a rationale for biomarker discovery to facilitate early intervention. We conclude by addressing post-genomic advances with a view to developing new control strategies to combat this infectious cancer.

Sripa, Banchob; Brindley, Paul J.; Mulvenna, Jason; Laha, Thewarach; Smout, Michael J; Mairiang, Eimorn; Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Loukas, Alex

2012-01-01

12

Route of Entry of Clonorchis Sinensis to the Mammalian Liver.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Metacercariae were fed to animals in which the common bile duct had been ligated and severed. No adult flukes were found subsequently in the livers or ducts of any of the animals. In control animals infected in the same way, adult flukes were invariably f...

T. Sun S. T. Chou J. B. Gibson

1967-01-01

13

Identification of the rumen fluke, Calicophoron daubneyi, in GB livestock: possible implications for liver fluke diagnosis.  

PubMed

The liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, is common in many parts of Great Britain. To detect liver fluke infection and to assess whether fasciolicide treatment has been successful, the faecal egg count (FEC) and faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) are widely used. Rumen fluke is also increasingly reported from Great Britain, but its species identity is yet to be determined. Liver fluke and rumen fluke eggs are morphologically similar, which may lead to erroneous diagnoses of liver fluke infection or treatment failure. As an alternative to FEC, a coproantigen ELISA (cELISA) can be used. The potential for this test to cross-react with rumen fluke species from Great Britain has not been evaluated. Rumen fluke specimens from cattle and sheep in Scotland were identified to species level using DNA sequencing of the ITS-2 region. Subsequently, rumen and liver fluke obtained from naturally co-infected sheep were subjected to immunohistochemistry using antibodies from a commercially available cELISA kit for F. hepatica. Finally, faecal samples from naturally co-infected sheep flocks were examined by FEC and cELISA. Rumen fluke from imported and home-bred cattle and sheep in Scotland belonged to the species Calicophoron daubneyi, rather than Paramphistomum cervi, the species presumed to be most common in Great Britain. Intense staining of the gastrodermis was observed in F. hepatica but cross-reactivity with C. daubneyi was not seen. Faecal samples that contained rumen fluke eggs but not liver fluke eggs were all negative by cELISA. We conclude that C. daubneyi is the most common rumen fluke of domestic ruminants in Scotland and that cELISA reduction testing may be a valuable alternative to FECRT in herds or flocks that are co-infected with liver and rumen fluke. PMID:23411375

Gordon, D K; Roberts, L C P; Lean, N; Zadoks, R N; Sargison, N D; Skuce, P J

2013-01-24

14

Opisthorchis viverrini: The carcinogenic human liver fluke  

PubMed Central

Opisthorchiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini remains a major public health problem in many parts of Southeast Asia, including Thailand, Lao PDR, Vietnam and Cambodia. The infection is associated with a number of hepatobiliary diseases, including cholangitis, obstructive jaundice, hepatomegaly, cholecystitis and cholelithiasis. Multi-factorial etiology of cholangiocarcinoma, mechanical damage, parasite secretions, and immunopathology may enhance cholangiocarcinogenesis. Moreover, both experimental and epidemiological evidences strongly implicate liver fluke infection as the major risk factor in cholangiocarcinoma, cancer of the bile ducts. The liver fluke infection is induced by eating raw or uncooked fish products that is the tradition and popular in the northeastern and northern region, particularly in rural areas, of Thailand. The health education programs to prevent and control opisthorchiasis are still required in the high-risk areas.

Kaewpitoon, Natthawut; Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Pengsaa, Prasit; Sripa, Banchob

2008-01-01

15

Clonorchis sinensis Associated Cholangiocarcinoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clonorchis sinensis is a flat, leaf-shaped hermaphroditic trematode endemic throughout Southeast Asia. It belongs to the group of liver flukes, along with Opisthorchis viverrini and Opisthorchis felineus. According to the 1994 report of the World Health Organization and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), the global number of Clonorchis sinensis infestations is estimated as 7 million, found predominantly

Georgios I. Papachristou; Karen E. Schoedel; Ramesh Ramanathan; Mordechai Rabinovitz

2005-01-01

16

Excretion of lipids by the liver fluke ( Fasciola Hepatica L)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult liver flukes kept in a glucoseenriched medium were found to excrete lipids. Analysis of the incubation medium showed\\u000a that both neutral lipids (including cholesterol and its esters) and polar lipids were released. The rate of lipid excretion\\u000a was greatly reduced when the excretory pores and mouths of the flukes were ligated. Histochemical examination of the flukes\\u000a indicated that such

C. H. Burren; I. Ehrlich; P. Johnson

1967-01-01

17

Intermediary Metabolism in the Immature Liver Fluke, Fasciola hepatica L  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE adult and juvenile forms of the liver fluke differ in their susceptibilities to a number of anthelmintics1. If it is assumed that anthelmintic drugs exert their effects by acting on enzymes or multiple enzyme systems in the parasite then the adult and immature fluke may not possess identical patterns of metabolism. Some of the pathways of intermediary metabolism in

J. P. G. Williams

1963-01-01

18

Molecular characterization of Clonorchis sinensis tetraspanin 2 extracellular loop 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of examining EST of the liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis, a cDNA encoding the protein similar to tetraspanin 2 (TSP-2) of blood fluke schistosome was identified as CsTSP2. TSPs are\\u000a a family of eukaryotic cell membrane-spanning proteins thought to anchor multiple proteins to one area of the cell membrane.\\u000a Multiple sequence alignment of CsTSP2 revealed over 40% of

Tae Yun Kim; Eun Joo Chung; Woon-Mok Sohn; Sung-Hong Hong; Tai-Soon Yong

19

RNA interference targeting cathepsin B of the carcinogenic liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional genomics have not been reported for Opisthorchis viverrini or the related fish-borne fluke, Clonorchis sinensis. Here we describe the introduction by square wave electroporation of Cy3-labeled small RNA into adult O. viverrini worms. Adult flukes were subjected to square wave electroporation employing a single pulse for 20ms of 125V in the presence of 50?g\\/ml of Cy3-siRNA. The parasites tolerated

Jittiyawadee Sripa; Porntip Pinlaor; Paul J. Brindley; Banchob Sripa; Sasithorn Kaewkes; Mark W. Robinson; Neil D. Young; Robin B. Gasser; Alex Loukas; Thewarach Laha

2011-01-01

20

Gene discovery for the carcinogenic human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) – cancer of the bile ducts – is associated with chronic infection with the liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini. Despite being the only eukaryote that is designated as a 'class I carcinogen' by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, little is known about its genome. RESULTS: Approximately 5,000 randomly selected cDNAs from the adult stage of O.

Thewarach Laha; Porntip Pinlaor; Jason Mulvenna; Banchob Sripa; Manop Sripa; Michael J Smout; Robin B Gasser; Paul J Brindley; Alex Loukas

2007-01-01

21

Cathepsin F Cysteine Protease of the Human Liver Fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini  

PubMed Central

Background The liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini is classified as a class I carcinogen due to the association between cholangiocarcinoma and chronic O. viverrini infection. During its feeding activity within the bile duct, the parasite secretes several cathepsin F cysteine proteases that may induce or contribute to the pathologies associated with hepatobiliary abnormalities. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we describe the cDNA, gene organization, phylogenetic relationships, immunolocalization, and functional characterization of the cathepsin F cysteine protease gene, here termed Ov-cf-1, from O. viverrini. The full length mRNA of 1020 nucleotides (nt) encoded a 326 amino acid zymogen consisting of a predicted signal peptide (18 amino acids, aa), prosegment (95 aa), and mature protease (213 aa). BLAST analysis using the Ov-CF-1 protein as the query revealed that the protease shared identity with cathepsin F-like cysteine proteases of other trematodes, including Clonorchis sinensis (81%), Paragonimus westermani (58%), Schistosoma mansoni and S. japonicum (52%), and with vertebrate cathepsin F (51%). Transcripts encoding the protease were detected in all developmental stages that parasitize the mammalian host. The Ov-cf-1 gene, of ?3 kb in length, included seven exons interrupted by six introns; the exons ranged from 69 to 267 bp in length, the introns from 43 to 1,060 bp. The six intron/exon boundaries of Ov-cf-1 were conserved with intron/exon boundaries in the human cathepsin F gene, although the gene structure of human cathepsin F is more complex. Unlike Ov-CF-1, human cathepsin F zymogen includes a cystatin domain in the prosegment region. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the fluke, human, and other cathepsin Fs branched together in a clade discrete from the cathepsin L cysteine proteases. A recombinant Ov-CF-1 zymogen that displayed low-level activity was expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Although the recombinant protease did not autocatalytically process and activate to a mature enzyme, trans-processing by Fasciola hepatica cathepsin L cleaved the prosegment of Ov-CF-1, releasing a mature cathepsin F with activity against the peptide Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec >50 times that of the zymogen. Immunocytochemistry using antibodies raised against the recombinant enzyme showed that Ov-CF-1 is expressed in the gut of the mature hermaphroditic fluke and also in the reproductive structures, including vitelline glands, egg, and testis. Ov-CF-1 was detected in bile duct epithelial cells surrounding the flukes several weeks after infection of hamsters with O. viverrini and, in addition, had accumulated in the secondary (small) bile ducts where flukes cannot reach due to their large size. Conclusions/Significance A cathepsin F cysteine protease of the human liver fluke O. viverrini has been characterized at the gene and protein level. Secretion of this protease may contribute to the hepatobiliary abnormalities, including cholangiocarcinogenesis, observed in individuals infected with this parasite.

Laha, Thewarach; Sripa, Banchob; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Morales, Maria E.; Mann, Victoria H.; Parriott, Sandi K.; Suttiprapa, Sutas; Robinson, Mark W.; To, Joyce; Dalton, John P.; Loukas, Alex; Brindley, Paul J.

2009-01-01

22

A novel calmodulin-like protein from the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica.  

PubMed

An 18.2 kDa protein from the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica has been identified and characterised. The protein shows strongest sequence similarity to egg antigen proteins from Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma japonicum and Clonorchis sinensis. The protein is predicted to adopt a calmodulin-like fold; it thus represents the third calmodulin-like protein to be characterised in F. hepatica and has been named FhCaM3. Compared to the classical calmodulin structure there are some variations. Most noticeably, the central, linker helix is disrupted by a cysteine residue. Alkaline native gel electrophoresis showed that FhCaM3 binds calcium ions. This binding event increases the ability of the protein to bind the hydrophobic fluorescent probe 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulphonate, consistent with an increase in surface hydrophobicity as seen in other calmodulins. FhCaM3 binds to the calmodulin antagonists trifluoperazine and W7, but not to the myosin regulatory light chain binding compound praziquantel. Immunolocalisation demonstrated that the protein is found in eggs and vitelline cells. Given the critical role of calcium ions in egg formation and hatching this suggests that FhCaM3 may play a role in calcium signalling in these processes. Consequently the antagonism of FhCaM3 may, potentially, offer a method for inhibiting egg production and thus reducing the spread of infection. PMID:22727910

Russell, Sean L; McFerran, Neil V; Moore, Catherine M; Tsang, Yvonne; Glass, Peter; Hoey, Elizabeth M; Trudgett, Alan; Timson, David J

2012-06-19

23

Gene expression profiling in mouse liver infected with Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clonorchis sinensis, the parasite that causes clonorchiasis, is endemic in many Asian countries, and infection with the organism drives changes\\u000a in the liver tissues of the host. However, information regarding the molecular events in clonorchiasis remains limited, and\\u000a little is currently known about host–pathogen interactions in clonorchiasis. In this study, we assessed the gene expression\\u000a profiles in mice livers via

Dong Min Kim; Byung-Sam Ko; Jung-Won Ju; Shin-Hyeong Cho; Suk-Jin Yang; Young Il Yeom; Tong-Soo Kim; Yonggwan Won; Il-Chul Kim

2009-01-01

24

Molecular Changes in Opisthorchis viverrini (Southeast Asian Liver Fluke) during the Transition from the Juvenile to the Adult Stage  

PubMed Central

Background The Southeast Asian liver fluke (Opisthorchis viverrini) chronically infects and affects tens of millions of people in regions of Asia, leading to chronic illness and, importantly, inducing malignant cancer (?=?cholangiocarcinoma). In spite of this, little is known, at the molecular level, about the parasite itself, its interplay with its hosts or the mechanisms of disease and/or carcinogenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we generated extensive RNA-Seq data (Illumina) representing adult and juvenile stages of O. viverrini, and combined these sequences with previously published transcriptomic data (454 technology) for this species, yielding a combined assembly of significantly increased quality and allowing quantitative assessment of transcription in the juvenile and adult stage. Conclusions This enhanced assembly reveals that, despite the substantial biological similarities between the human liver flukes, O. viverinni and Clonorchis sinensis, there are previously unrecognized differences in major aspects of their molecular biology. Most notable are differences among the C13 and cathepsin L-like cysteine peptidases, which play key roles in tissue migration, immune evasion and feeding, and, thus, represent potential drug and/or vaccine targets. Furthermore, these data indicate that major lineages of cysteine peptidases of socioeconomically important trematodes have evolved through a process of gene loss rather than independent radiation, contrasting previous proposals.

Sripa, Jittiyawadee; Hall, Ross S.; Scheerlinck, Jean-Pierre; Laha, Thewarach; Sripa, Banchob; Gasser, Robin B.

2012-01-01

25

Liver flukes promote cholelithiasis in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this study was to investigate whether cholelithiasis in sheep is related to parasitism or other commonly observed disorders such as liver abscesses. Additionally, the features of the observed biliary calculi are described. The livers of 254 randomly selected clinically healthy adult dairy sheep were used. All visible concretions in the bile were considered as stones. Based

Panagiotis D. Katsoulos; Georgios Christodoulopoulos; Maria A. Karatzia; Konstantinos Pourliotis; Anastasios Minas

2011-01-01

26

Experimental infection of bighorn sheep with liver flukes (Fasciola hepatica).  

PubMed

Nine Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) were each inoculated orally with 250 metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica. Blood and fecal samples were collected at the time of inoculation and at 5, 10, 14, and 20 wk after inoculation. Numbers of fluke eggs in feces, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, and eosinophil values were determined. Five of the bighorn sheep were treated with triclabendazole at 40 mg/kg of body weight 14 wk after inoculation. Based on fecal evaluations, all bighorns developed patent infections. Six weeks after treatment, fluke eggs were not detected in feces from the five treated animals but were present in two of four untreated animals. One untreated bighorn sheep was euthanized 20 wk after inoculation, and 57 adult F. hepatica were recovered from the liver. Results from this experiment indicated that bighorn sheep are efficient hosts for F. hepatica. Triclabendazole at 40 mg/kg of body weight was safe and, based on fluke egg recovery in feces, apparently an effective treatment. To my knowledge, this is the first published report of F. hepatica in bighorn sheep. PMID:19901401

Foreyt, William J

2009-10-01

27

The detection of snail host habitats in liver fluke infected farms by use of plant indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field investigations in 361 liver fluke infected cattle- or sheep-breeding farms on acid soil were carried out during thirty years in March and April to record indicator plants in relation to the category of site colonized by the intermediate host of liver fluke, the snail Galba truncatula. Seven types of snail zones and six species of indicator plants were recorded

Daniel Rondelaud; Philippe Hourdin; Philippe Vignoles; Gilles Dreyfuss; Jacques Cabaret

2011-01-01

28

Physiological and morphological effects of genistein against the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A study has been carried out to determine the activity of genistein against adult liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica. Flukes were incubated in vitro in genistein at a concentration of 0.27 mg\\/ml (= 1m M). They ceased to move after 3 h, at which point the experiment was terminated and the specimens prepared for examination by scanning and transmission electron

E. TONER; K. WELLS; I. FAIRWEATHER

2008-01-01

29

Liver fluke (Fasciola hepatiuz) in slaughtered sheep and cattle in New Zealand, 1984–85  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 17175 lambs livers and 9 322 sheep livers randomly selected from animals slaughtered at export meatworks in 1984 were examined for liver fluke infection. Futher sheep livers from some regions were examined in 1985. The origins of the animals examined were recorded and used to estimate regional prevalences of infection. Infection in lambs was first detected in

W. A. G. Charleston; R. C. Kissling; L. A. Petreyt; B. L. Marshall; W. A. Royal

1990-01-01

30

Insights into SCP/TAPS Proteins of Liver Flukes Based on Large-Scale Bioinformatic Analyses of Sequence Datasets  

PubMed Central

Background SCP/TAPS proteins of parasitic helminths have been proposed to play key roles in fundamental biological processes linked to the invasion of and establishment in their mammalian host animals, such as the transition from free-living to parasitic stages and the modulation of host immune responses. Despite the evidence that SCP/TAPS proteins of parasitic nematodes are involved in host-parasite interactions, there is a paucity of information on this protein family for parasitic trematodes of socio-economic importance. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted the first large-scale study of SCP/TAPS proteins of a range of parasitic trematodes of both human and veterinary importance (including the liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica as well as the blood flukes Schistosoma mansoni, S. japonicum and S. haematobium). We mined all current transcriptomic and/or genomic sequence datasets from public databases, predicted secondary structures of full-length protein sequences, undertook systematic phylogenetic analyses and investigated the differential transcription of SCP/TAPS genes in O. viverrini and F. hepatica, with an emphasis on those that are up-regulated in the developmental stages infecting the mammalian host. Conclusions This work, which sheds new light on SCP/TAPS proteins, guides future structural and functional explorations of key SCP/TAPS molecules associated with diseases caused by flatworms. Future fundamental investigations of these molecules in parasites and the integration of structural and functional data could lead to new approaches for the control of parasitic diseases.

Cantacessi, Cinzia; Hofmann, Andreas; Young, Neil D.; Broder, Ursula; Hall, Ross S.; Loukas, Alex; Gasser, Robin B.

2012-01-01

31

Citrate synthase from the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica.  

PubMed

Citrate synthase catalyses the first step of the Krebs' tricarboxylic acid cycle. A sequence encoding citrate synthase from the common liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, has been cloned. The encoded protein sequence is predicted to fold into a largely ?-helical protein with high structural similarity to mammalian citrate synthases. Although a hexahistidine-tagged version of the protein could be expressed in Escherichia coli, it was not possible to purify it by nickel-affinity chromatography. Similar results were obtained with a version of the protein which lacks the putative mitochondrial targeting sequence (residues 1 to 29). However, extracts from bacterial cells expressing this version had additional citrate synthase activity after correcting for the endogenous, bacterial activity. The apparent K m for oxaloacetate was found to be 0.22 mM, which is higher than that observed in mammalian citrate synthases. Overall, the sequence and structure of F. hepatica citrate synthase are similar to ones from other eukaryotes, but there are enzymological differences which merit further investigation. PMID:23494154

Zinsser, Veronika L; Moore, Catherine M; Hoey, Elizabeth M; Trudgett, Alan; Timson, David J

2013-03-14

32

Relative activity of triclabendazole metabolites against the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study has been carried out to determine the relative activity of triclabendazole (TCBZ) and its sulphoxide (TCBZSO) and sulphone (TCBZSO2) metabolites against the adult stage of the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica. Flukes were incubated for 24h in vitro in 15?g\\/ml of each of the compounds and prepared for scanning and transmission electron microscopy.All three compounds induced changes to the

L. Halferty; G. P. Brennan; A. Trudgett; L. Hoey; I. Fairweather

2009-01-01

33

Liver fluke in Great Britain: a survey of affected livers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a period of 15 months data were collected from abattoirs in Great Britain on 213,082 cattle and 362,838 sheep livers to determine the distribution and prevalence of damage by Fasciola hepatica. The stock came from 8239 farms, and from livestock markets in 81 counties. 53 per cent of the farms had sent affected stock, with significant percentages in eastern

G Froyd

1975-01-01

34

Infection status of Clonorchis sinensis in residents of Hamyang-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oriental liver fluke (Clonorchis sinensis) infection was surveyed among residents of Hamyang-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea during the period of January 2001 to March 2002. Total 1,041 stool samples were collected from residents who visited Public Health Center and its branches in Hamyang-gun and examined using formalin-ether sedimentation method. The overall egg positive rate was 16%, male showing higher positive rate (21%)

Bong Jin Kim; Mee-Sun Ock; Ik Su Kim; Un Bo Yeo

2002-01-01

35

Altered drug influx/efflux and enhanced metabolic activity in triclabendazole-resistant liver flukes.  

PubMed

Triclabendazole (TCBZ) is a halogenated benzimidazole compound that possesses high activity against immature and adult stages of the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica. The intensive use of TCBZ in endemic areas of fascioliasis has resulted in the development of liver flukes resistant to this compound. TCBZ sulphoxide (TCBZSO) and TCBZ sulphone (TCBZSO2) are the main molecules recovered in the bloodstream of TCBZ-treated animals. In order to gain some insight into the possible mechanisms of resistance to TCBZ, the goals of the work described here were: to compare the ex vivo transtegumental diffusion of TCBZ parent drug and its sulpho-metabolites (TCBZSO and TCBZSO2) into TCBZ-susceptible and -resistant liver flukes; and to assess the comparative pattern of TCBZ biotransformation by TCBZ-susceptible and -resistant F. hepatica. For the tegumental diffusion studies, TCBZ-susceptible (Cullompton) and -resistant (Sligo) adult flukes collected from untreated infected sheep were incubated (15-180 min) in KRT buffer containing either TCBZ, TCBZSO or TCBZSO2 (5 nmol.ml-1). For the metabolism studies, microsomal fractions obtained from TCBZ-susceptible and -resistant flukes were incubated for 60 min with TCBZ (40 microM), and the amount of the formed metabolic product (TCBZSO) was measured. Drug/metabolite concentrations were quantified by HPLC. All the assayed TCBZ-related molecules penetrated through the tegument of both TCBZ-susceptible and -resistant flukes. However, significantly lower (approximately 50%) concentrations of TCBZ and TCBZSO were recovered within the TCBZ-resistant flukes compared to the TCBZ-susceptible ones over the 180 min incubation period. The rate of TCBZ sulphoxidative metabolism into TCBZSO was significantly higher (39%) in TCBZ-resistant flukes. The flavin-monooxigenase (FMO) enzyme system appears to be the main metabolic pathway involved in the formation of TCBZSO in both TCBZ-susceptible and -resistant flukes. The altered drug influx/efflux and enhanced metabolic capacity identified in TCBZ-resistant liver flukes may account for the development of resistance to TCBZ. PMID:16174415

Alvarez, L I; Solana, H D; Mottier, M L; Virkel, G L; Fairweather, I; Lanusse, C E

2005-10-01

36

The Sigma Class Glutathione Transferase from the Liver Fluke Fasciola hepatica  

PubMed Central

Background Liver fluke infection of livestock causes economic losses of over US$ 3 billion worldwide per annum. The disease is increasing in livestock worldwide and is a re-emerging human disease. There are currently no commercial vaccines, and only one drug with significant efficacy against adult worms and juveniles. A liver fluke vaccine is deemed essential as short-lived chemotherapy, which is prone to resistance, is an unsustainable option in both developed and developing countries. Protein superfamilies have provided a number of leading liver fluke vaccine candidates. A new form of glutathione transferase (GST) family, Sigma class GST, closely related to a leading Schistosome vaccine candidate (Sm28), has previously been revealed by proteomics in the liver fluke but not functionally characterised. Methodology/Principal Findings In this manuscript we show that a purified recombinant form of the F. hepatica Sigma class GST possesses prostaglandin synthase activity and influences activity of host immune cells. Immunocytochemistry and western blotting have shown the protein is present near the surface of the fluke and expressed in eggs and newly excysted juveniles, and present in the excretory/secretory fraction of adults. We have assessed the potential to use F. hepatica Sigma class GST as a vaccine in a goat-based vaccine trial. No significant reduction of worm burden was found but we show significant reduction in the pathology normally associated with liver fluke infection. Conclusions/Significance We have shown that F. hepatica Sigma class GST has likely multi-functional roles in the host-parasite interaction from general detoxification and bile acid sequestration to PGD synthase activity.

LaCourse, E. James; Perally, Samirah; Morphew, Russell M.; Moxon, Joseph V.; Prescott, Mark; Dowling, David J.; O'Neill, Sandra M.; Kipar, Anja; Hetzel, Udo; Hoey, Elizabeth; Zafra, Rafael; Buffoni, Leandro; Perez Arevalo, Jose; Brophy, Peter M.

2012-01-01

37

Evolutionary Origins, Diversification, and Biogeography of Liver Flukes (Digenea, Fasciolidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fasciolid flukes are among the largest and best known digenetic trematodes and have considerable his- torical and veterinary significance. Fasciola hepatica is commonly implicated in causing disease in humans. The origins, patterns of diversification, and biogeography of fasciolids are all poorly known. We have undertaken a molecular phylogenetic study using 28S, internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 (ITS-1 and ITS-2)

Wael M. Lotfy; Sara V. Brant; Randy J. DeJong; Aleksander Demiaszkiewicz; R. P. V. Jayanthe; Vijitha B. V. P. Perera; Jeff R. Laursen; Eric S. Loker

2008-01-01

38

Identification of two ß-tubulin isotypes of Clonorchis sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ß-tubulin coding sequences were investigated for the Chinese liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis. A cDNA library of adult C. sinensis was screened with cDNA probes synthesized by polymerase chain reaction using degenerate primers, and two ß-tubulin cDNAs,\\u000a CsTB1 and CsTB3, were subsequently cloned. The CsTB1 and CsTB3 cDNA were 2,082 and 1,486 bp long and encoded 445 and 444 amino\\u000a acids,

Shunyu Li; Sung-Jong Hong; Min-Ho Choi; Sung-Tae Hong

2009-01-01

39

High prevalence of liver and intestinal fluke infections among residents of Savannakhet Province in Laos  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of liver and intestinal fluke infections was surveyed on residents of Savannakhet Province, Laos. Fecal specimens were collected from a total of 981 residents in 4 Mekong riverside villages and examined by the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. The results revealed that the overall helminth egg positive rate was 84.2%, and the positive rate for small trematode eggs, including Opisthorchis viverrini, heterophyids, or lecithodendriids, was 67.1%. To obtain adult flukes, 38 small trematode egg positive cases were treated with a 20-30 mg/kg single dose of praziquantel and purged. Diarrheic stools were then collected from 29 people and searched for helminth parasites using stereomicroscopes. Mixed infections with O. viverrini and 6 kinds of intestinal flukes were found, namely, Haplorchis taichui, Haplorchis pumilio, Haplorchis yokogawai, Prosthodendrium molenkampi, Phaneropsolus bonnei, and echinostomes. The total number of flukes collected was 7,693 specimens (av. no. per treated person; 265.3). The most common species was O. viverrini, followed by H. taichui, P. molenkampi, echinostomes, H. pumilio, P. bonnei, and H. yokogawai. The results indicate that foodborne liver and intestinal fluke infections are prevalent among residents of Savannakhet Province, Laos.

Han, Eun-Taek; Guk, Sang-Mee; Shin, Eun-Hee; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S.; Lee, Keon-Hoon; Jeong, Hoo-Gn; Ryang, Yong-Sang; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Phommasack, Bounlay; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Rim, Han-Jong

2007-01-01

40

Survey of transcripts expressed by the invasive juvenile stage of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The common liver fluke Fasciola hepatica is the agent of a zoonosis with significant economic consequences in livestock production worldwide, and increasing relevance to human health in developing countries. Although flukicidal drugs are available, re-infection and emerging resistance are demanding new efficient and inexpensive control strategies. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the host-parasite interaction provide relevant clues in this

Martín Cancela; Natalia Ruétalo; Nicolás Dell'Oca; Edileuza da Silva; Pablo Smircich; Gabriel Rinaldi; Leda Roche; Carlos Carmona; Fernando Alvarez-Valín; Arnaldo Zaha; José F. Tort

2010-01-01

41

Molecular expression and enzymatic characterization of thioredoxin from the carcinogenic human liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, induces inflammation of the hepatobiliary system. Despite being constantly exposed to inimical oxygen radicals released from inflammatory cells, the parasite survives for years. Defense against oxidative damage can be mediated through glutathione and\\/or thioredoxin utilizing systems. Here, we report the molecular expression and biochemical characterization of a thioredoxin (Trx) from O. viverrini. O. viverrini

Sutas Suttiprapa; Pitchaya Matchimakul; Alex Loukas; Thewarach Laha; Sopit Wongkham; Sasithorn Kaewkes; Paul J. Brindley; Banchob Sripa

42

Characterization of the antioxidant enzyme, thioredoxin peroxidase, from the carcinogenic human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, induces inflammation of the hepatobiliary system. Despite being constantly exposed to inimical oxygen radicals released from inflammatory cells, the parasite survives for many years. The mechanisms by which it avoids oxidative damage are unknown. In this study, thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), a member of the peroxiredoxin superfamily, was cloned from an O. viverrini cDNA library.

Sutas Suttiprapa; Alex Loukas; Thewarach Laha; Sopit Wongkham; Sasithorn Kaewkes; Soraya Gaze; Paul J. Brindley; Banchob Sripa

2008-01-01

43

Morphological Features of the Testes of the Adult Liver Fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Infection of Opisthorchis viverrini is widely endemic mainly in Northeast of Thailand including Laos, Cambodia and South Vietnam. Its prevalence and pathogenic effects are associated with several hepatobiliary diseases in human. The liver fluke is monoecious, seft-fertilization can be occurred individually. The male reproductive organ usually consists of two deeply lobed testes, located in the posterior region of the

Siriluk Wannaprapo; Smarn Tesana; Channarong Arunyanat; Pipatpong Kanla

2008-01-01

44

Opisthorchis viverrini: Gene expression profiling of carcinogenic adult liver fluke worms using 5? SAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opisthorchis viverrini is the only liver fluke that has been proved to be associated with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). However, the mechanisms by which O. viverrini participates in the carcinogenesis of CCA are still unclear. To understand the biology and host–parasite interaction related to O. viverrini infection, gene expression profiling of this parasite is required. Here, we constructed the first 5? serial

Nopporn Chutiwitoonchai; Yan Shen; Huajun Zheng; Hui Xiong; Guoping Zhao; Kanokwan Imtawil; Pewpan M. Intapan; Sopit Wongkham; Chaisiri Wongkham

2008-01-01

45

Field trial on comparative efficacy of four fasciolicides against natural liver fluke infection in cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the current efficacy of albendazole (ABZ), rafoxanide (RFX), triclabendazole (TRC) or clorsulon (CLS) against Fasciola hepatica in naturally infected cattle. This trial was conducted in Turkey during the spring, the time of year when liver fluke infection is endemic. Fifty crossbred cattle were selected for inclusion in the trial based on finding eggs

Bülent Elitok; Özgül Mukaddes Elitok; Mustafa Kabu

2006-01-01

46

Evolutionary Origins, Diversification, and Biogeography of Liver Flukes (Digenea, Fasciolidae)  

PubMed Central

Fasciolid flukes are among the largest and best known digenetic trematodes and have considerable historical and veterinary significance. Fasciola hepatica is commonly implicated in causing disease in humans. The origins, patterns of diversification, and biogeography of fasciolids are all poorly known. We have undertaken a molecular phylogenetic study using 28S, internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA, and mitochondrial nicotinamide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) that included seven of the nine recognized species in the family. The fasciolids examined comprise a monophyletic group with the most basal species recovered from African elephants. We hypothesize fasciolids migrated from Africa to Eurasia, with secondary colonization of Africa. Fasciolids have been conservative in maintaining relatively large adult body size, but anatomical features of their digestive and reproductive systems are available. These flukes have been opportunistic, with respect to switching to new snail (planorbid to lymnaeid) and mammalian hosts and from intestinal to hepatic habitats within mammals.

Lotfy, Wael M.; Brant, Sara V.; DeJong, Randy J.; Le, Thanh Hoa; Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander; Rajapakse, R. P. V. Jayanthe; Perera, Vijitha B. V. P.; Laursen, Jeff R.; Loker, Eric S.

2008-01-01

47

Relative activity of triclabendazole metabolites against the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica.  

PubMed

A study has been carried out to determine the relative activity of triclabendazole (TCBZ) and its sulphoxide (TCBZSO) and sulphone (TCBZSO(2)) metabolites against the adult stage of the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica. Flukes were incubated for 24h in vitro in 15mug/ml of each of the compounds and prepared for scanning and transmission electron microscopy. All three compounds induced changes to the surface morphology of the fluke, the changes comprising swelling and blebbing to a greater or lesser extent in different regions of the fluke. TCBZSO(2) was more disruptive anteriorly and TCBZSO posteriorly. Internal ultrastructural changes were evident following incubation with each of the compounds, with an order of severity TCBZSO(2)>TCBZSO>TCBZ. Swelling of the basal infolds and mitochondria were observed in the tegumental syncytium. In the tegumental cell bodies, there was a reduction in the number of secretory bodies, disruption of the Golgi complexes and swelling of the mitochondria. Severe flooding of the internal tissues was observed with TCBZSO(2) and, to a lesser extent, with TCBZSO and TCBZ. The results demonstrate that both TCBZ and TCBZSO(2) are capable of disrupting the fluke in vitro and are not the inactive compounds they were assumed to be previously. They may well contribute to drug action in vivo as well, indicating that drug action is due to the additive effects of several metabolites, rather than being due to a single active metabolite, namely, TCBZSO. PMID:19027238

Halferty, L; Brennan, G P; Trudgett, A; Hoey, L; Fairweather, I

2008-10-11

48

Galectin secretion and binding to adult Fasciola hepatica during chronic liver fluke infection of sheep.  

PubMed

Galectins are increasingly recognised as important mediators of immune homeostasis and disease regulation, but comparatively little is known about their role in parasite infection. This study investigates the interaction between two ovine galectins, galectin-11 and galectin-14, and the parasitic liver fluke, F. hepatica. Galectin-14 was found in eosinophils infiltrating the tissue surrounding infected bile ducts and secreted in the connective tissue, while galectin-11 was specifically induced in epithelial cells of bile ducts from infected sheep. Strong nuclear staining was observed for galectin-11. Both galectins were found to be secreted into the bile fluid of parasite infected sheep, and were also detected in the excretory/secretory products of adult flukes, following their removal from the ovine host. Recombinant galectin-14, but not recombinant galectin-11, was found to bind specifically to the surface tegument of adult flukes in a carbohydrate dependent manner. This study shows for the first time that both galectin-14 and galectin-11 are produced in liver tissue after chronic liver fluke infection and that they can directly interact with the parasite in the bile ducts. Galectin-11 may also be involved in epithelial cell turnover and cancerogenesis. PMID:22261506

Young, Anna R; Barcham, Garry J; McWilliam, Hamish E; Piedrafita, David M; Meeusen, Els N

2011-12-21

49

Experimental infection of liver flukes, Fasciola hepatica and Fascioloides magna, in Bison (Bison bison).  

PubMed

This experimental study was conducted to evaluate the susceptibility of American bison (Bison bison) to liver flukes, Fascioloides magna and Fasciola hepatica. Six bison were each experimentally inoculated with 600 metacercariae of Fascioloides magna, and three were later treated with triclabendazole suspension at 40 mg/kg of body weight. Four additional bison were each experimentally inoculated with 600 metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica. Five control bison were placebo controls. Two controls and all inoculated bison were euthanized 10 mo (Fascioloides magna) and 7 mo (Fasciola hepatica) after inoculation. None of the control bison or the bison inoculated with Fascioloides magna had flukes or lesions characteristic of fluke infection at necropsy. All four bison inoculated with Fasciola hepatica had characteristic liver fluke lesions at necropsy, and three of four bison contained four, 103, and 111 adult flukes, respectively. Fluke eggs were detected in feces of all Fasciola hepatica-inoculated bison during the experiment, but not from the Fascioloides magna-infected bison or control bison. Clinical signs of infection were not observed during the experiment, but hemoglobin and packed cell volumes were lower in the Fasciola hepatica bison when compared to controls, and eosinophil levels were increased. Triclabendazole at 40 mg/kg of body weight appeared to be safe in bison because no toxic reactions were observed. Results from this study indicated bison are susceptible to infection with Fasciola hepatica and are efficient definitive hosts. Because no Fascioloides magna were recovered, bison may have a decreased susceptibility or innate resistance to Fascioloides magna infection, which may account for a lack of reported infections in this host. PMID:20090045

Foreyt, William J; Drew, M L

2010-01-01

50

Effects of the injectable contraceptive depot medroxyprogesterone acetate in Thai women with liver fluke infestation: results after six months  

PubMed Central

The effect of the three-monthly injectable contraceptive depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) on liver and lipid function was assessed in Thai women with liver fluke (Opisthorchis viverrini) infestation, DMPA administration being started in the immediate postpartum period. Immediate postpartum IUD and sterilization acceptors with fluke infestation were recruited as a comparison (control) group for the fluke-positiv DMPA acceptors. Comparable groups of fluke-negative acceptors were recruited in an area of Thailand free of liver fluke transmission. Results are presented for the first 6 follow-up months for 170 DMPA and 177 control fluke-positive subjects and for 153 DMPA and 150 control fluke-negative subjects. Small and similar increases occurred in each of the four groups for alanine amino transferase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and total bilirubin levels while aspartate amino transferase levels changed less in the DMPA groups than in their respective control groups. None of the subjects in either DMPA group had clearly abnormal results in these tests at 6 months. Alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol, and triglycerides levels were markedly lower in each group at 6 months than in the puerperal specimens. There was a greater decrease in triglycerides levels in both DMPA groups than in their respective control groups. However, the decrease in the alkaline phosphatase and cholesterol levels was greater only in the fluke-positive DMPA group than in the fluke-positive control group. None of these biochemical results were related to differences in age, parity, or lactation status between the groups. The results indicate that DMPA did not cause any early deleterious effects in the metabolic factors studied in women with liver fluke infestation.

Grossman, Richard A.; Assawasena, Vinich; Chalpati, Sopon; Taewtong, Dilok

1977-01-01

51

Infection with the carcinogenic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini modifies intestinal and biliary microbiome.  

PubMed

Opisthorchis viverrini is a fish-borne trematode endemic in East Asia. Following ingestion, the flukes locate to the biliary tre where chronic infection frequently leads to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). The mechanisms by which O. viverrini infection culminates in CCA remain unknown. An unexplored aspect is its influence on the host microbiome. In the hamster, infection with this pathogen reliably leads to CCA. Genomic DNAs of microbiota from colorectal contents and bile of hamsters and from whole O. viverrini were examined in this model of fluke-induced CCA. Microbial communities were characterized by high-throughput sequencing of variable regions 7-9 of prokaryotic 16S ribosomal DNA. Of ?1 million sequences, 536,009 with useable reads were assignable to 29,776 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) and, in turn, to 20 phyla and 273 genera of Bacteria or Archaea. Microbial community analyses revealed that fluke infection perturbed the gastrointestinal tract microbiome, increasing Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Lactobacillaceae, while decreasing Porphyromonadaceae, Erysipelotrichaceae, and Eubacteriaceae (P?0.05). More than 60 OTUs were detected in the biliary system, which confirmed bacteriobilia and a noteworthy community of microbes associated with the parasites. The fluke-associated microorganisms included potential pathogens from the Enterobacteriaceae and Listeriaceae and others, including Cyanobacteria and Deinococci, usually found in external environments. Given that opisthorchiasis is distinguished from other helminth infections by a robust inflammatory phenotype with conspicuously elevated IL-6, and that inflammation of the biliary system leads to periductal fibrosis, which is a precursor of CCA, the flukes and their microbiota may together drive this distinctive immune response.-Plieskatt, J. L., Raksawan, D., Mulvenna, J. P., Krause, L., Sripa, B., Bethony, J. M., Brindley, P. J. Infection with the carcinogenic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini modifies intestinal and biliary microbiome. PMID:23925654

Plieskatt, Jordan L; Deenonpoe, Raksawan; Mulvenna, Jason P; Krause, Lutz; Sripa, Banchob; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Brindley, Paul J

2013-08-07

52

Molecular Characterization of a Tetraspanin from the Human Liver Fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini  

PubMed Central

Background The human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, is designated as a group 1 carcinogen, and is the major risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma in endemic countries throughout Southeast Asia. Proteins in the excretory-secretory products and tegumental surface membranes of the fluke have been proposed to play pivotal roles in parasite survival in the host, and subsequent pathogenesis. These macromolecules are therefore valid targets for the development of vaccines and new drugs to control the infection. Tetraspanins (TSP) are prominent components of the tegument of blood flukes where they are essential for tegument formation, are directly exposed to the immune system, and are major targets for a schistosomiasis vaccine. We propose that similar molecules in the surface membranes of O. viverrini are integral to tegument biogenesis and will be efficacious vaccine antigens. Methodology/Principal Findings The cDNA sequence encoding O. viverrini tetraspanin-1 (Ov-TSP-1) was identified and cloned. The Ov-tsp-1gene was isolated from a cDNA library. Ov-tsp-1 mRNA was expressed most highly in metacercariae and eggs, and to a lesser extent in juvenile and adult worms. Immunolocalization with adult flukes confirmed that Ov-TSP-1 was expressed in the tegument and eggs in utero. Western blot analysis of rOv-TSP-1 probed with sera from O. viverrini-infected humans and hamsters indicated that both hosts raise antibody responses against the native TSP. Using RNA interference we silenced the expression level of Ov-tsp-1 mRNA in adult flukes by up to 72% by 10 days after delivery of dsRNA. Ultrastructural morphology of adult worms treated with Ov-tsp-1 dsRNA displayed a distinctly vacuolated and thinner tegument compared with controls. Conclusions/Significance This is the first report of a tetraspanin from the tegument of a liver fluke. Our data imply that tetraspanins play important structural roles in the development of the tegument in the adult fluke. Potential uses of O. viverrini tetraspanins as novel interventions are discussed.

Piratae, Supawadee; Tesana, Smarn; Jones, Malcolm K.; Brindley, Paul J.; Loukas, Alex; Lovas, Erica; Eursitthichai, Veerachai; Sripa, Banchob; Thanasuwan, Sirikanda; Laha, Thewarach

2012-01-01

53

Liver fluke ?-tubulin isotype 2 binds albendazole and is thus a probable target of this drug  

Microsoft Academic Search

Albendazole is a benzimidazole drug which can be used to treat liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) infections. Its mode of action is believed to be the inhibition of microtubule formation through binding to ?-tubulin. However,\\u000a F. hepatica expresses at least six different isotypes of ?-tubulin, and this has confused, rather than clarified, understanding of the\\u000a molecular mechanisms of benzimidazole drugs in

Emma Chambers; Louise A. Ryan; Elizabeth M. Hoey; Alan Trudgett; Neil V. McFerran; Ian Fairweather; David J. Timson

2010-01-01

54

Cathepsin F Cysteine Protease of the Human Liver Fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini is classified as a class I carcinogen due to the association between cholangiocarcinoma and chronic O. viverrini infection. During its feeding activity within the bile duct, the parasite secretes several cathepsin F cysteine proteases that may induce or contribute to the pathologies associated with hepatobiliary abnormalities.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsHere, we describe the cDNA, gene organization, phylogenetic relationships,

Porntip Pinlaor; Natthawut Kaewpitoon; Thewarach Laha; Banchob Sripa; Sasithorn Kaewkes; Maria E. Morales; Victoria H. Mann; Sandi K. Parriott; Sutas Suttiprapa; Mark W. Robinson; Joyce To; John P. Dalton; Alex Loukas; Paul J. Brindley

2009-01-01

55

Cathepsin F Cysteine Protease of the Human Liver Fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini is classified as a class I carcinogen due to the association between cholangiocarcinoma and chronic O. viverrini infection. During its feeding activity within the bile duct,the parasite secretes several cathepsin F cysteine proteases that may induce or contribute to the pathologies associated with hepatobiliary abnormalities. Methodology\\/Principal Findings: Here, we describe the cDNA, gene organization,

Porntip Pinlaor; Natthawut Kaewpitoon; Thewarach Laha; Banchob Sripa; Sasithorn Kaewkes; Maria E. Morales; Victoria H. Mann; Sandi K. Parriott; Sutas Suttiprapa; Mark W. Robinson; Joyce To; John P. Dalton; Alex Loukas; Paul J. Brindley

2009-01-01

56

Cloning and Characterization of a Female Genital Complex cDNA from the Liver Fluke Fasciola hepatica  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cDNA clone whose RNA is abundant in the female genital complex of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica has been isolated from a cDNA library in lambda gt10 by differential screening. The pattern of expression in different fluke tissues and at different stages of miracidium formation suggests that this gene is expressed in the F. hepatica vitelleria. The nucleotide sequence

Mario Zurita; David Bieber; Gordon Ringold; Tag E. Mansour

1987-01-01

57

Light and electron microscopy observations of embryogenesis and egg development in the human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini (Platyhelminthes, Digenea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eggs of most species digenean flukes hatch in the external environment to liberate larvae that seek and penetrate a snail\\u000a intermediate host. Those of the human liver flukes, Opisthorchis viverrini, hatch within the gastrointestinal canal of their snail hosts. While adult parasites are primarily responsible for the pathology\\u000a in cases of human opisthorchiasis, their eggs also contribute by inducing granulomata

Panita Khampoosa; Malcolm K. Jones; Erica M. Lovas; Tuanchai Srisawangwong; Thewarach Laha; Supawadee Piratae; Chalida Thammasiri; Apiporn Suwannatrai; Bungorn Sripanidkulchai; Veerachai Eursitthichai; Smarn Tesana

58

Comparative proteomic analysis of triclabendazole response in the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica.  

PubMed

Control of Fasciola hepatica infections of livestock in the absence of vaccines depends largely on the chemical triclabendazole (TCBZ) because it is effective against immature and adult parasites. Overdependence on a single drug and improper application is considered a significant factor in increasing global reports of fluke resistant to TCBZ. The mode(s) of action and biological target(s) of TCBZ are not confirmed, delaying detection and the monitoring of early TCBZ resistance. In this study, to further understand liver fluke response to TCBZ, the soluble proteomes of TCBZ-resistant and TCBZ-susceptible isolates of F. hepatica were compared with and without in vitro exposure to the metabolically active form of the parent drug triclabendazole sulphoxide (TCBZ-SO), via two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Gel image analysis revealed proteins displaying altered synthesis patterns and responses both between isolates and under TCBZ-SO exposure. These proteins were identified by mass spectrometry supported by a F. hepatica expressed sequence tag (EST) data set. The TCBZ responding proteins were grouped into three categories; structural proteins, energy metabolism proteins, and "stress" response proteins. This single proteomic investigation supported the reductionist experiments from many laboratories that collectively suggest TCBZ has a range of effects on liver fluke metabolism. Proteomics highlighted differences in the innate proteome profile of different fluke isolates that may influence future therapy and diagnostics design. Two of the TCBZ responding proteins, a glutathione transferase and a fatty acid binding protein, were cloned, produced as recombinants, and both found to bind TCBZ-SO at physiologically relevant concentrations, which may indicate a role in TCBZ metabolism and resistance. PMID:20726552

Chemale, Gustavo; Perally, Samirah; LaCourse, E James; Prescott, Mark C; Jones, Laura M; Ward, Deborah; Meaney, Myles; Hoey, Elizabeth; Brennan, Gerard P; Fairweather, Ian; Trudgett, Alan; Brophy, Peter M

2010-10-01

59

Characterization of the antioxidant enzyme, thioredoxin peroxidase, from the carcinogenic human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini  

PubMed Central

The human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, induces inflammation of the hepatobiliary system. Despite being constantly exposed to inimical oxygen radicals released from inflammatory cells, the parasite survives for many years. The mechanisms by which it avoids oxidative damage are unknown. In this study, thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), a member of the peroxiredoxin superfamily, was cloned from an O. viverrini cDNA library. O. viverrini TPx cDNA encoded a polypeptide of 212 amino acid residues, of molecular mass 23.57 kDa. The putative amino acid sequence shared 60-70% identity with TPXs from other helminths and from mammals, and phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relationship between TPxs from O. viverrini and other trematodes. Recombinant O. viverrini TPx was expressed as soluble protein in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein dimerized, and its antioxidant activity was deduced by observing protection of nicking of supercoiled plasmid DNA by hydroxyl radicals. Antiserum raised against O. viverrini TPx recognized native proteins from egg, metacercaria and adult developmental stages of the liver fluke and excretory-secretory products released by adult O. viverrini. Immunolocalization studies revealed ubiquitous expression of TPx in O. viverrini organs and tissues. TPx was also detected in bile fluid and bile duct epithelial cells surrounding the flukes two weeks after infection of hamsters with O. viverrini. In addition, TPx was observed in the secondary (small) bile ducts where flukes cannot reach due to their large size. These results suggested that O. viverrini TPx plays a significant role in protecting the parasite against damage induced by reactive oxygen species from inflammation.

Suttiprapa, Sutas; Loukas, Alex; Laha, Thewarach; Wongkham, Sopit; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Gaze, Soraya; Brindley, Paul J.; Sripa, Banchob

2013-01-01

60

Liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) in slaughtered sheep and cattle in New Zealand, 1984-85.  

PubMed

A total of 17175 lambs livers and 9322 sheep livers randomly selected from animals slaughtered at export meatworks in 1984 were examined for liver fluke infection. Futher sheep livers from some regions were examined in 1985. The origins of the animals examined were recorded and used to estimate regional prevalences of infection. Infection in lambs was first detected in February and the prevalence increased after then; the mean prevalence in July was 2.7% in the North Island and 2.0% in the South Island . In adult sheep in 1984, regional prevalences in the North Island ranged up to 16.9% (>10% in South Auckland, East Coast, Hawkes Bay and Taranaki) and in the South Island up to 29.4% in Westland (18% in Nelson). The overall prevalence in the North Island was 7.5% and in the South Island 1.1%, about double that recorded in 1969. Data for 1985 were incomplete but prevalences tended to be higher than in 1984. From April 1984 to August 1985 the origins of all lines of cattle with fluke-affected livers were recorded in all abattoirs and export meatworks. During 1985, 16 147 infected lines were traced to all countries in the North Island, with over 60% from the Whangarei, Hamilton, Taumarunui, Gisborne and Hastings areas. In the South Island , over 90% of 1585 infected lines originated from Westland, Waimea, Grey, Inangahua and Buller Counties. PMID:16031580

Charleston, W A; Kissling, R C; Petrey, L A; Marshall, B L; Royal, W A

1990-06-01

61

Raw fish consumption in liver fluke endemic areas in rural southern Laos.  

PubMed

Consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked fish is a major public health concern in Southeast Asia, and in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), in particular. We aimed to assess the knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices of villagers in liver fluke endemic areas related to raw fish preparation, consumption and its health consequences. In February 2010, eight focus group discussions (FGDs, 35 men and 37 women total) and direct observations were conducted in four randomly selected villages in Saravane District, Saravane Province (Lao PDR). FGDs distilled the knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices of adult community members on raw fish preparation, consumption and its consequences for health. Conversations were transcribed from notes and tape-recorders. MaxQDA software was used for content analysis. Knowledge regarding the health effects of raw fish consumption was heterogeneous. Some participants did not associate liver fluke infection with any ill health, while others linked it to digestive problems. Participants also associated vegetables and tree leave consumption with liver fluke infection. The majority of FGD participants considered fish flesh that had been prepared with weaver ant extract to be safe for consumption. Visual appearance, taste, smell and personal preference were given as reasons for consuming raw fish dishes. Moreover, participants considered it a traditional way of food preparation, practiced for generations in Laos. Ten different fish dishes that use raw or fermented fish were identified. All FGD participants reported consuming dishes with raw fish. This study reveals a low degree of knowledge among local people on the health risks related to frequent consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked fish. Fish dishes were considered to be 'well-prepared' (that is, 'cooked') even though the fish had not been heated. In future, successful health education campaigns will have to address the specific knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices of the concerned population. PMID:23567553

Xayaseng, Vilavanh; Phongluxa, Khampheng; van Eeuwijk, Peter; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Odermatt, Peter

2013-04-06

62

Reducing the future threat from (liver) fluke: realistic prospect or quixotic fantasy?  

PubMed

The liver fluke remains an economically significant parasite of livestock and is emerging as an important zoonotic infection of humans. The incidence of the disease has increased in the last few years, as a possible consequence of changes to the World's climate. Future predictions suggest that this trend is likely to continue. Allied to the changing pattern of disease, reports of resistance to triclabendazole (TCBZ) have appeared in the literature, although they do not all represent genuine cases of resistance. Nevertheless, any reports of resistance are a concern, because triclabendazole is the only drug that has high activity against the migratory and damaging juvenile stages of infection. How to deal with the twin problems (of increasing incidence and drug resistance) is the overall theme of the session on "Trematodes: Fasciola hepatica epidemiology and control" and of this review to introduce the session. Greater knowledge of fluke epidemiology and population genetics will highlight those regions where surveillance is most required and indicate how quickly resistant populations of fluke may arise. Models of disease risk are becoming increasingly sophisticated and precise, with more refined data analysis programmes and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data. Recent improvements have been made in our understanding of the action of triclabendazole and the ways in which flukes have become resistant to it. While microtubules are the most likely target for drug action, tubulin mutations do not seem to be involved in the resistance mechanism. Rather, upregulation of drug uptake and metabolism processes appear to be more important and the data relating to them will be discussed. The information may help in the design of new treatment strategies or pinpoint potential molecular markers for monitoring fluke populations. Advances in the identification of novel targets for drugs and vaccines will be made by the various "-omics" technologies that are now being applied to Fasciola. A major area of concern in the current control of fasciolosis is the lack of reliable tests for the diagnosis of drug (TCBZ) resistance. This has led to inaccurate reports of resistance, which is hindering successful disease management, as farmers may be encouraged to switch to less effective drugs. Progress with the development of a number of new diagnostic tests will be reviewed. PMID:21703766

Fairweather, Ian

2011-05-27

63

CpG-island methylation study of liver fluke-related cholangiocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background: Genetic changes have been widely reported in association with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), while epigenetic changes are poorly characterised. We aimed to further evaluate CpG-island hypermethylation in CCA at candidate loci, which may have potential as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers. Methods: We analysed methylation of 26 CpG-islands in 102 liver fluke related-CCA and 29 adjacent normal samples using methylation-specific PCR (MSP). Methylation of interest loci was confirmed using pyrosequencing and/or combined bisulfite restriction analysis, and protein expression by immunohistochemistry. Results: A number of CpG-islands (OPCML, SFRP1, HIC1, PTEN and DcR1) showed frequency of hypermethylation in >28% of CCA, but not adjacent normal tissues. The results showed that 91% of CCA were methylated in at least one CpG-island. The OPCML was the most frequently methylated locus (72.5%) and was more frequently methylated in less differentiated CCA. Patients with methylated DcR1 had significantly longer overall survival (Median; 41.7 vs 21.7 weeks, P=0.027). Low-protein expression was found in >70% of CCA with methylation of OPCML or DcR1. Conclusion: Aberrant hypermethylation of certain loci is a common event in liver fluke-related CCA and may potentially contribute to cholangiocarcinogenesis. The OPCML and DcR1 might serve as methylation biomarkers in CCA that can be readily examined by MSP.

Sriraksa, R; Zeller, C; El-Bahrawy, M A; Dai, W; Daduang, J; Jearanaikoon, P; Chau-in, S; Brown, R; Limpaiboon, T

2011-01-01

64

Cathepsin L proteinases as vaccines against infection with Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke) in ruminants.  

PubMed

Fasciolosis, caused by trematodes of the genus Fasciola, is one of the most important diseases of farmed ruminants in temperate and tropical zones. The appearance of Fasciola hepatica populations that are resistant to common flukicidal drugs means that new methods of treatment will soon be required. The future prospect for the development of anti-liver fluke vaccines is optimistic and given their consumer acceptability and environmental friendliness, offer the best way forward. Cathepsin L proteases (Fhe CL 1 and Fhe CL 2), secreted by liver flukes at all stages of their development in the mammalian host, are believed to play important roles in facilitating parasite migration (tissue degradation), feeding and immuno-evasion. The authors consider them prime targets for which new vaccines can be developed. Vaccine studies in cattle and sheep have shown that protection levels of up to 72 and 79 per cent, respectively, can be obtained with immunisations of cathepsin Ls in Freunds' adjuvant. The vaccine also exhibited high anti-embryonation/anti-fecundity effects on parasites that survived in vaccinated animals and thus could have a major impact on the transmission of disease to the intermediate host. While natural infections in sheep and cattle appear to elicit non-protective Th2 immune responses, the authors' studies indicate that the protection induced by vaccination involves elements of a Th1 response. PMID:11170858

Mulcahy, G; Dalton, J P

2001-02-01

65

Molecular expression and enzymatic characterization of thioredoxin from the carcinogenic human liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini.  

PubMed

The human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, induces inflammation of the hepatobiliary system. Despite being constantly exposed to inimical oxygen radicals released from inflammatory cells, the parasite survives for years. Defense against oxidative damage can be mediated through glutathione and/or thioredoxin utilizing systems. Here, we report the molecular expression and biochemical characterization of a thioredoxin (Trx) from O. viverrini. O. viverrini Trx cDNA encoded a polypeptide of 105 amino acid residues, of molecular mass 11.63 kDa. The predicted protein has similarity to previously characterized thioredoxins with 26-51% identity. Recombinant O. viverrini Trx (Ov-Trx-1) was expressed as soluble protein in E. coli. The recombinant protein showed insulin reduction activity and supported the enzymatic function of O. viverrini thioredoxin peroxidase. Expression of Ov-Trx-1 at mRNA and protein levels was observed in all obtainable developmental stages of the liver fluke. Ov-Trx-1 was also detected in excretory-secretory products released by adult O. viverrini. Immunohistochemistry, Ov-Trx-1 was expressed in nearly all parasite tissue excepted ovary and mature sperms. Interestingly, Ov-Trx-1 was observed in the infected biliary epithelium but not in normal bile ducts. These results suggest that Ov-Trx-1 is essential for the parasite throughout the life cycle. In the host-parasite interaction aspect, Ov-Trx-1 may support thioredoxin peroxidase in protecting the parasite against damage induced by reactive oxygen species from inflammation. PMID:21740981

Suttiprapa, Sutas; Matchimakul, Pitchaya; Loukas, Alex; Laha, Thewarach; Wongkham, Sopit; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Brindley, Paul J; Sripa, Banchob

2011-06-29

66

Dynamics of host–parasite interactions: the example of population biology of the liver fluke ( Fasciola hepatica )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the population dynamics of parasites and their hosts is essential to build veterinary and health programs. The example chosen is that of Fasciola hepatica, a food-borne trematode responsible for severe human and animal infections on the five continents. In this paper, we review the relationships between the liver fluke and its intermediate (mollusc) and definitive (vertebrate) hosts.

Sylvie Hurtrez-Boussès; Cécile Meunier; Patrick Durand; François Renaud

2001-01-01

67

Effect of gastrointestinal nematode and liver fluke infections on weight gain and reproductive performance of beef heifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spring born, crossbred beef heifers (n=372) were utilized over four years to measure reductions in body weights, reproductive performance and calf weights caused by gastrointestinal nematodes (primarily Ostertagia ostertagi) and the bovine liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) and to differentiate losses attributable to each type of parasitism. Each year, weaned heifers were allotted to one of the four treatment regimens: Group

A. F Loyacano; J. C Williams; J Gurie; A. A DeRosa

2002-01-01

68

The effect of the hydrogen ionophore closantel upon the pharmacology and ultrastructure of the adult liver fluke Fasciola hepatica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study describes the effects of the H+ ionophore and anthelmintic closantel upon the in vitro motility and in vivo ultrastructure of the liver fluke,Fasciola hepatica. At a concentration of 50 µg\\/ml, closantel caused an initial stimulation, then suppression of activity, which was accompanied by an increase in muscle tone and led to a spastic paralysis within 2 h.

P. J. Skuce; I. Fairweather

1990-01-01

69

Cloning and Expression of the Major Secreted Cathepsin B-Like Protein from Juvenile Fasciola hepatica and Analysis of Immunogenicity following Liver Fluke Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functions of the cathepsin B-like proteases in liver flukes are unknown and analysis has been hindered by a lack of protein for study, since the protein is produced in small amounts by juvenile flukes. To circumvent this, we isolated and characterized a cDNA encoding the major secreted cathepsin B from Fasciola hepatica. The predicted preproprotein is 339 amino acids

Ruby H. P. Law; Peter M. Smooker; James A. Irving; David Piedrafita; Rebecca Ponting; Nicholas J. Kennedy; James C. Whisstock; Robert N. Pike; Terry W. Spithill

2003-01-01

70

Field trial on comparative efficacy of four fasciolicides against natural liver fluke infection in cattle.  

PubMed

A controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the current efficacy of albendazole (ABZ), rafoxanide (RFX), triclabendazole (TRC) or clorsulon (CLS) against Fasciola hepatica in naturally infected cattle. This trial was conducted in Turkey during the spring, the time of year when liver fluke infection is endemic. Fifty crossbred cattle were selected for inclusion in the trial based on finding eggs of F. hepatica in the feces. The cattle were weighed and randomly allotted into five groups of 10 cattle and treatments were as follows: Group 1 served as non-treated control (CONT), Group 2 was treated orally with ABZ at 12 mg/kg, Group 3 was treated orally with RFX at 10 mg/kg, Group 4 received TRC orally at 12 mg/kg and Group 5 received CLS administered subcutaneously (s.c.) at 2 mg/kg. On day 0 (inclusion day), individual fecal samples were collected on days 0 (inclusion day), 7, 14, 28 and 56, after treatment. The drug efficacy was assessed as a percentage of the egg or fluke reduction and body weight gain relative to the untreated control. The results in the study showed a mean reduction of egg counts by 66.7%, 68.2%, 78% and 84.2% in Groups 2-5, respectively. In conclusion, our results indicate that CLS is a highly effective compound for the treatment of F. hepatica in cattle under these field conditions. PMID:16289862

Elitok, Bülent; Elitok, Ozgül Mukaddes; Kabu, Mustafa

2005-11-11

71

The giant liver fluke Fascioloides magna (Bassi 1875) in cervids in the Czech Republic and potential of its spreading to Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

The giant liver fluke Fascioloides magna is an important parasite of cervids in Europe. From September 2003 to December 2005, faecal samples and livers of red deer\\u000a (Cervus elaphus) and fallow deer (Dama dama) were investigated to determine the current distribution of the fluke in the Czech Republic. Faecal samples were collected\\u000a from 20 different areas, and livers of hunted

Adam Novobilský; Eva Horá?ková; Lenka Hirtová; David Modrý; B?etislav Koudela

2007-01-01

72

Effect of gastrointestinal nematode and liver fluke infections on weight gain and reproductive performance of beef heifers.  

PubMed

Spring born, crossbred beef heifers (n=372) were utilized over four years to measure reductions in body weights, reproductive performance and calf weights caused by gastrointestinal nematodes (primarily Ostertagia ostertagi) and the bovine liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) and to differentiate losses attributable to each type of parasitism. Each year, weaned heifers were allotted to one of the four treatment regimens: Group 1, untreated controls; Group 2, treated for nematodes; Group 3, treated for liver fluke; and Group 4, treated for both nematodes and liver fluke. Nematodes were controlled with subcutaneous injections of either ivermectin (Ivomec, Merial) or doramectin (Dectomax, Pfizer), both at the recommended dose of 200 ug/kg bodyweight. Clorsulon (Curatrem, Merial) drench was given at the recommended rate of 7 mg/kg bodyweight to control flukes. Treatments and fecal collections were initiated at allotment each year and were repeated at 28-84-day intervals until palpation for pregnancy diagnosis. Open heifers were removed from the study at this time. Treatment dates were based on expected length of treatment efficacy, the stage of growth of the heifers and the seasonal risk of infection by the parasites. Pregnant females were pooled and received their assigned treatments prior to their calving and breeding seasons and remained together until their calves were weaned. Heifers treated for nematode infections were heavier and had higher condition scores (P<0.01) than untreated control heifers at initiation of breeding, and maintained that difference through pregnancy diagnosis. Liver fluke infection did not affect heifer gains or condition scores prior to palpation (P<0.01). At palpation, heifers treated for both forms of parasitism had the highest condition scores and weight gains (P<0.01), and also higher pregnancy rates than control heifers and heifers treated for nematodes only (P<0.01). Pregnancy rates for heifers treated for flukes only were not significantly different from those treated for both nematodes and flukes. Heifers treated for nematodes weaned heavier calves than those not treated for nematodes (P<0.05). PMID:12127252

Loyacano, A F; Williams, J C; Gurie, J; DeRosa, A A

2002-08-01

73

Opisthorchis felineus and Metorchis bilis are the main agents of liver fluke infection of humans in Russia.  

PubMed

Liver fluke infections are gradually transforming from a local problem of individual geographic regions to a widespread problem. The observed expansion is likely to be connected with the ever-increasing intensity of traffic flow and migration of the infected carriers between cities, regions, and countries. Opisthorchis felineus, the trematode belonging to the family Opisthorchiidae, is a well known causative agent of the infection called opisthorchiasis. Metorchis bilis, also a member of the family Opisthorchiidae, causes metorchiasis, a disease very close to opisthorchiasis in symptomatology. Genetic markers can be used to develop methods for differential diagnostics of these diseases. However, the questions connected with epidemiology of these trematode infections, their clinical characteristics, prognosis and therapy remain open. This review briefs the general biological characteristics of O. felineus and M. bilis persisting in various countries of Eurasia, their geographical range, epidemiology and molecular diagnostics of these liver flukes. PMID:21840415

Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A; Yurlova, Natalia I; Ogorodova, Ludmila M; Katokhin, Aleksey V

2011-08-05

74

Developmental differences in the uterus of Fasciola hepatica between livestock liver fluke populations from Bolivian highlands and European lowlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A morphometric study of the uterus area (UA) of Fasciola hepatica adults was carried out with the aid of a computer linked to a stereomicroscopic 3CCD colour video camera using image analysis\\u000a software. The UA of adult liver flukes found in naturally infected sheep, cattle and pig from the endemic human fascioliasis\\u000a zone of the northern Bolivian Altiplano highlands was

M. A. Valero; M. Panova; S. Mas-Coma

2001-01-01

75

The formation of propionate and acetate as terminal processes in the energy metabolism of the adult liver fluke Fasciola hepatica  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. 1. The formation of propionate from succinate occurs in the mitochondria of the adult common liver fluke essentially by a reversal of the pathway operating in mammalian mitochondria in the conversion of propionate into succinate.\\u000a\\u000a2. 2. The conversion of succinate into its CoA ester is linked by a CoA transferase to the splitting of propionyl-CoA.\\u000a\\u000a3. 3. The

F. van Vugt; P. van der Meer; S. G. van den Bergh

1979-01-01

76

Ov-APR-1, an aspartic protease from the carcinogenic liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini: Functional expression, immunolocalization and subsite specificity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini is endemic in Thailand, Laos and Cambodia where long standing infection is associated with cancer of the bile ducts, cholangiocarcinoma. Here we describe a cathepsin D-like aspartic protease from the gut and other tissues in O. viverrini. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Ov-APR-1 is cathepsin D-like, conforming with Clan AA, Family A1 of the MEROPS

Sutas Suttiprapa; Jason Mulvenna; Ngo Thi Huong; Mark S. Pearson; Paul J. Brindley; Thewarach Laha; Sopit Wongkham; Sasithorn Kaewkes; Banchob Sripa; Alex Loukas

2009-01-01

77

Fasciola hepatica: Characterization and Cloning of the Major Cathepsin B Protease Secreted by Newly Excysted Juvenile Liver Fluke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wilson, L. R., Good, R. T., Panaccio, M., Wijffels, G. L., Sandeman, R. M., and Spithill, T. W. 1998.Fasciola hepatica:Characterization and cloning of the major cathepsin B protease secreted by newly excysted juvenile liver fluke.Experimental Parasitology88, 85–94. Proteolytic activity present in the excreted\\/secreted (ES) material of newly excysted juvenile (NEJ)Fasciola hepaticawas biochemically analyzed. By gelatin substrate SDS-PAGE, only one region

Lachlan R. Wilson; Robert T. Good; Michael Panaccio; Gene L. Wijffels; R. Mark Sandeman; Terry W. Spithill

1998-01-01

78

Hysteresis in thioredoxin-glutathione reductase (TGR) from the adult stage of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thioredoxin-glutathione reductase (TGR) was purified from the adult stage of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica. At 38°C and pH 7.8, specific activity values were 10.2U mg?1 and 64.5U mg?1, with DTNB or GSSG as substrates, respectively. Under the same conditions, apparent Km values were 46±8?M (DTNB) and 30±5?M (GSSG). The enzyme was also able to catalyze thiol\\/disulfide exchange reactions. A

Alberto Guevara-Flores; Juan Pablo Pardo; Juan L. Rendón

2011-01-01

79

Cyclophilin A enhances cell proliferation and tumor growth of liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Cyclophilin A (CypA) expression is associated with malignant phenotypes in many cancers. However, the role and mechanisms of CypA in liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) are not presently known. In this study, we investigated the expression of CypA in CCA tumor tissues and CCA cell lines as well as regulation mechanisms of CypA in tumor growth using CCA cell lines. Methods CypA expression was determined by real time RT-PCR, Western blot or immunohistochemistry. CypA silence or overexpression in CCA cells was achieved using gene delivery techniques. Cell proliferation was assessed using MTS assay or Ki-67 staining. The effect of silencing CypA on CCA tumor growth was determined in nude mice. The effect of CypA knockdown on ERK1/2 activation was assessed by Western blot. Results CypA was upregulated in 68% of CCA tumor tissues. Silencing CypA significantly suppressed cell proliferation in several CCA cell lines. Likewise, inhibition of CypA peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) activity using cyclosporin A (CsA) decreased cell proliferation. In contrast, overexpression of CypA resulted in 30% to 35% increases in proliferation of CCA cell lines. Interestingly, neither silence nor overexpression of CypA affected cell proliferation of a non-tumor human cholangiocyte cell line, MMNK1. Suppression of CypA expression attenuated ERK1/2 activity in CCA M139 cells by using both transient and stable knockdown methods. In the in vivo study, there was a 43% reduction in weight of tumors derived from CypA-silenced CCA cell lines compared with control vector CCA tumors in mice; these tumors with stable CypA silencing showed a reduced cell proliferation. Conclusions CypA is upregulated in majority of CCA patients' tissues and confers a significant growth advantage in CCA cells. Suppression of CypA expression decreases proliferation of CCA cell lines in vitro and reduces tumor growth in the nude mouse model. Inhibition of CypA activity also reduces CCA cell proliferation. The ERK1/2 pathway may be involved in the CypA-mediated CCA cell proliferation. Thus, CypA may represent an important new therapeutic target for liver fluke-associated CCA.

2011-01-01

80

Molecular characterization of Clonorchis sinensis tetraspanin 2 extracellular loop 2.  

PubMed

In the course of examining EST of the liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis, a cDNA encoding the protein similar to tetraspanin 2 (TSP-2) of blood fluke schistosome was identified as CsTSP2. TSPs are a family of eukaryotic cell membrane-spanning proteins thought to anchor multiple proteins to one area of the cell membrane. Multiple sequence alignment of CsTSP2 revealed over 40% of identities with those of schistosomes. The CCC, PXSC, and CG motives characteristic to extracellular loop 2 (EC2) region of TSP-2 were well conserved. PCR-amplified EC2 of CsTSP2 (CsTSP2EC2) was subcloned into pEXP5 NT/TOPO bacterial expression plasmid vector. Recombinant CsTSP2EC2 protein (rCsTSP2EC2) fused with 6X His tag was overexpressed bacterially and purified by using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography under denaturing condition. The purified rCsTSP2EC2 was recognized specifically by the sera from human infected with C. sinensis. Considering biological role and specific immunity of TSPs, rCsTSP2EC2 might be a probable vaccine candidate against clonorchiasis. Protective effects of immunizing rCsTSP2EC2 should be further studied. PMID:21842393

Kim, Tae Yun; Chung, Eun Joo; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Hong, Sung-Hong; Yong, Tai-Soon

2011-08-14

81

Evaluation of the comparative efficacy of a moxidectin plus triclabendazole pour-on solution against adult and immature liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, in cattle.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a pour-on solution containing moxidectin plus triclabendazole (MOX plus TCBZ) against immature and adult stages of the liver fluke in cattle and compare the efficacy with other commercially available preparations. To this end, 104 male Holstein-Friesian calves aged between 3 and 4 months, were randomly allocated to 13 groups of eight animals each, and infected with approximately 500 Fasciola hepatica metacercariae. One group remained untreated, four groups were treated with MOX plus TCBZ at a dose rate of 0.1 mL/kg, four other groups were treated with ivermectin (IVM) plus clorsulon injectable at a dose rate of 0.02 mL/kg, and the remaining four groups were treated with IVM plus closantel pour-on at a dose rate of 0.1 mL/kg. Each treatment was applied to one of the groups at 4 weeks, 6 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks after the experimental infection. At necropsy (99-102 days after infection), all untreated animals were infected with a minimum of 30 flukes. The MOX plus TCBZ treated animals had significantly (P<0.0001) lower fluke counts compared to the untreated control animals at all time points after treatment. Efficacy against 8-week old and adult flukes was >99.5%. For 6-week old immature fluke, the efficacy was 98.0% and for 4-week old immature fluke the efficacy was 90.9%. The IVM plus closantel pour-on treated animals had significantly lower fluke counts compared to the untreated control animals for adult and 8-week old flukes (P<0.0001), and for 6-week old flukes (P=0.002). The efficacy was 26.8%, 68.2%, 90.6% and 99.3% against 4-week, 6-week and 8-week old immature flukes, and adult flukes respectively. The IVM plus clorsulon treated animals had significantly lower fluke counts compared to the untreated control animals for adult (P<0.0001) and 8-week old (P<0.05) flukes. The efficacy was 29.7%, 43.4%, 53.2% and 99.2% against 4-week, 6-week and 8-week old immature flukes, and adult flukes respectively. For treatments at 4, 6 and 8 weeks after infection, the fluke counts were significantly (P<0.0001) lower for the MOX plus TCBZ treatment than for IVM plus closantel or IVM plus clorsulon. The results confirm the high efficacy (>90%) of the MOX plus TCBZ pour-on combination against 4-week old to adult liver fluke in cattle. The IVM plus closantel pour-on combination was effective (>90%) against 8-week old and adult flukes, but had low efficacy against 4- and 6-week old fluke. The IVM plus clorsulon injectable combination was effective (>90%) against adult fluke only. PMID:22579500

Geurden, Thomas; Bartram, David; Van Brussel, Leen; Bo, Liu; Scott-Baird, Emer; Rugg, Douglas

2012-04-20

82

Chromosomes and karyotype analysis of a liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, by scanning electron microscopy.  

PubMed

Opisthorchis viverrini, a human liver fluke, has been categorized as the carcinogenic organism according to the strong association with carcinogenesis of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). The infection of this food-borne parasite is a major impact on the health of humans, especially CCA patients in the northeast of Thailand. Taxonomy, morphology, epidemiology and molecular study of O. viverrini have been publicized increasingly but the precise karyotypic study is still incomplete. In this study, the chromosomes of O. viverrini were prepared from the testes of adult worms retrieved from metacercariae infected-hamsters. The chromosomes of O. viverrini were identified in haploid (n=6) meiotic metaphase and in diploid (2n=12) mitotic metaphase by light microscopy. The chromosome number, length and nomenclature of each chromosome were determined by scanning electron microscopy. The six chromosomes consist of one large-sized metacentric, one medium-sized metacentric, two small-sized metacentric, one small-sized submetacentric and one small-sized acrocentric chromosomes with the lengths of 2.84±0.03, 2.12±0.10, 1.71±0.13, 1.44±0.04, 1.23±0.03 and 0.84±0.13 ?m, respectively. This is the first karyotype analysis of O. viverrini with defined complete nomenclature. PMID:22504416

Kaewkong, Worasak; Choochote, Wej; Kanla, Pipatpong; Maleewong, Wanchai; Intapan, Pewpan M; Wongkham, Sopit; Wongkham, Chaisiri

2012-04-04

83

Evaluation of liver fluke recombinant cathepsin B-1 protease as a serodiagnostic antigen for human opisthorchiasis.  

PubMed

A cathepsin B-like cysteine protease belonging to family C1 is abundantly expressed in the transcriptome and proteome of the carcinogenic liver fluke of humans, Opisthorchis viverrini. This enzyme is present in excretory/secretory (ES) products released by parasites cultured in vitro. This study evaluated the performance of recombinant O. viverrini cathepsin B1 (rOv-CB-1) as an antigen for immunodiagnosis of opisthorchiasis. The full length Ov-CB-1 cDNA was cloned and recombinant protein was produced in catalytically active form in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant Ov-CB-1 (rOv-CB-1) was affinity purified via nickel-NTA chromatography and tested in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) with human sera from an opisthorchiasis endemic area. Sera from egg-positive O. viverrini infections produced a strong IgG antibody response to rOv-CB-1 both in ELISA and immunoblot analysis. The sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA test was 67% and 81%, respectively. These findings support the feasibility of using recombinant Ov-CB-1 in ELISA for the serodiagnosis of human opisthorchiasis. PMID:21704728

Sripa, Jittiyawadee; Brindley, Paul J; Sripa, Banchob; Loukas, Alex; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Laha, Thewarach

2011-06-17

84

Albendazole enantiomeric metabolism and binding to cytosolic proteins in the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fascioliasis causes important economic losses in ruminant species all over the world. Its control is largely based on the\\u000a use of the flukicidal compound triclabendazole (TCBZ). However, its chemically related benzimidazole anthelmintic albendazole\\u000a (ABZ) is being successfully used to control TCBZ-resistance flukes. This research gains some insights into the comparative\\u000a molecular behaviour of both anthelmintics within the target fluke. The

H. Solana; S. Scarcella; G. Virkel; C. Ceriani; J. Rodríguez; C. Lanusse

2009-01-01

85

Development of mitochondrial loop-mediated isothermal amplification for detection of the small liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini (Opisthorchiidae; Trematoda; Platyhelminthes).  

PubMed

Mitochondrial DNA sequences offer major advantages over the more usual nuclear targets for loop-mediated isothermal amplification approaches (mito-LAMP) because multiple copies occur in every cell. Four LAMP primers [F3, FIP(F1c+F2), BIP(B1c+B2), and B3] were designed based on the mitochondrial nad1 sequence of Opisthorchis viverrini and used for a highly specific assay (mito-OvLAMP) to distinguish DNA of O. viverrini from that of another opisthorchiid (Clonorchis sinensis) and other trematodes (Haplorchis pumilio, Haplorchis taichui, Fasciola hepatica, and Fasciola gigantica). Conventional PCR was applied using F3/B3 primer pairs to verify the specificity of the primers for O. viverrini DNA templates. All LAMP-positive samples could be detected with the naked eye in sunlight, by gel electrophoresis (stained with ethidium bromide), and by addition of SYBR green I to the product in sunlight or under UV light. Only DNA from O. viverrini yielded amplification products by LAMP (and by PCR verification), and the LAMP limit of detection was as little as 100 fg (10(-4) ng DNA), indicating that this assay is 10 to 100 times more sensitive than PCR. Field testing was done using representative egg and metacercarial samples collected from localities where the fluke is endemic. With the advantages of simplicity, rapidity, sensitivity, and cost effectiveness, mito-OvLAMP is a good tool for molecular detection and epidemiology studies in regions or countries where O. viverrini is endemic, which can lead to more effective control of opisthorchiasis and trematodiasis. PMID:22322346

Le, Thanh Hoa; Nguyen, Nga Thi Bich; Truong, Nam Hai; De, Nguyen Van

2012-02-08

86

Development of Mitochondrial Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Detection of the Small Liver Fluke Opisthorchis viverrini (Opisthorchiidae; Trematoda; Platyhelminthes)  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial DNA sequences offer major advantages over the more usual nuclear targets for loop-mediated isothermal amplification approaches (mito-LAMP) because multiple copies occur in every cell. Four LAMP primers [F3, FIP(F1c+F2), BIP(B1c+B2), and B3] were designed based on the mitochondrial nad1 sequence of Opisthorchis viverrini and used for a highly specific assay (mito-OvLAMP) to distinguish DNA of O. viverrini from that of another opisthorchiid (Clonorchis sinensis) and other trematodes (Haplorchis pumilio, Haplorchis taichui, Fasciola hepatica, and Fasciola gigantica). Conventional PCR was applied using F3/B3 primer pairs to verify the specificity of the primers for O. viverrini DNA templates. All LAMP-positive samples could be detected with the naked eye in sunlight, by gel electrophoresis (stained with ethidium bromide), and by addition of SYBR green I to the product in sunlight or under UV light. Only DNA from O. viverrini yielded amplification products by LAMP (and by PCR verification), and the LAMP limit of detection was as little as 100 fg (10?4 ng DNA), indicating that this assay is 10 to 100 times more sensitive than PCR. Field testing was done using representative egg and metacercarial samples collected from localities where the fluke is endemic. With the advantages of simplicity, rapidity, sensitivity, and cost effectiveness, mito-OvLAMP is a good tool for molecular detection and epidemiology studies in regions or countries where O. viverrini is endemic, which can lead to more effective control of opisthorchiasis and trematodiasis.

Nguyen, Nga Thi Bich; Truong, Nam Hai; De, Nguyen Van

2012-01-01

87

Biochemical characterisation of triose phosphate isomerase from the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica.  

PubMed

Triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) catalyses the interconversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, a reaction in the glycolytic pathway. TPI from the common liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, has been cloned, sequenced and recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli. The protein has a monomeric molecular mass of approximately 28 kDa. Crosslinking and gel filtration experiments demonstrated that the enzyme exists predominantly as a dimer in solution. F. hepatica TPI is predicted to have a ?-barrel structure and key active site residues (Lys-14, His-95 and Glu-165) are conserved. The enzyme shows remarkable stability to both proteolytic degradation and thermal denaturation. The melting temperature, estimated by thermal scanning fluorimetry, was 67 °C and this temperature was increased in the presence of either dihydroxyacetone phosphate or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. Kinetic studies showed that F. hepatica TPI demonstrates Michaelis-Menten kinetics in both directions, with Km values for dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate of 2.3 mM and 0.66 mM respectively. Turnover numbers were estimated at 25,000 s(-1) for the conversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate and 1900 s(-1) for the conversion of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. Phosphoenolpyruvate acts as a weak inhibitor of the enzyme. F. hepatica TPI has many features in common with mammalian TPI enzymes (e.g. ?-barrel structure, homodimeric nature, high stability and rapid kinetic turnover). Nevertheless, recent successful identification of specific inhibitors of TPI from other parasites, suggests that small differences in structure and biochemical properties could be exploited in the development of novel, species-specific inhibitors. PMID:23973283

Zinsser, Veronika L; Hoey, Elizabeth M; Trudgett, Alan; Timson, David J

2013-08-20

88

A plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA) from the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica.  

PubMed

Fasciolosis is a parasitic infection by the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica, which costs the global agricultural community over US $2 billion per year. Its prevalence is rising due to factors such as climate change and drug resistance. ATP-dependent membrane transporters are considered good potential drug targets as they are essential for cellular processes and are in an exposed, accessible position in the cell. Immunolocalisation studies demonstrated that a plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) was localised to the parenchymal tissue in F. hepatica. The coding sequence for a F. hepatica PMCA (FhPMCA) has been obtained. This sequence encodes a 1,163 amino acid protein which contains motifs which are commonly conserved in PMCAs. Molecular modelling predicted that the protein has 10 transmembrane segments which include a potential calcium ion binding site and phosphorylation motif. FhPMCA interacts with the calmodulin-like protein FhCaM1, but not the related proteins FhCaM2 or FhCaM3, in a calcium-ion dependent manner. This interaction occurs through a region in the C-terminal region of FhPMCA which most likely adopts an ?-helical conformation. When FhPMCA was heterologously expressed in a budding yeast strain deleted for its PMCA (Pmc1p), it restored viability. Microsomes prepared from these yeast cells had calcium ion stimulated ATPase activity which was inhibited by the known PMCA inhibitors, bisphenol and eosin. The potential of FhPMCA as a new drug target is discussed. PMID:22819963

Moore, Catherine M; Hoey, Elizabeth M; Trudgett, Alan; Timson, David J

2012-07-20

89

The role of hepatic myofibroblasts in liver cirrhosis in fallow deer (Dama dama) naturally infected with giant liver fluke (Fascioloides magna)  

PubMed Central

Background This paper describes liver cirrhosis in 35 fallow deer infected with the giant liver fluke, as well as the distribution, origin, and role of myofibroblasts in its development. Results In liver of infected deer, stripes of connective tissue are wound around groups of degenerated and regenerated liver lobuli. In the connective tissue, lymphocytes and macrophages which often contain parasite hematin are also present. The walls of the bile ducts are thickened, the epithelium multiplied with mucous metaplasia, and desquamated cells, parasite eggs and brown pigment are present in their lumen. In the livers with cirrhosis, immunopositivity to ?-SMA and desmin was observed in cells in portal and septal spaces, at the edge between fibrotic septa and the surrounding parenchyma and in perisinusoidal spaces. These cells vary in size, they are round, oval, spindle-shaped or irregular in shape, similar to vascular smooth muscle cells. The derangement of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions detected in chronic cholangiopathies is most probably the pro-fibrogenic mechanism in liver cirrhosis of fallow deer (Dama dama) infected with the giant liver fluke (Fascioloides magna). Conclusion Myofibroblasts, especially hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), play an important role in the synthesis of extracellular matrix components in the development of parasitic fibrosis and cirrhosis in the liver of fallow deer.

2013-01-01

90

Mitochondrial DNA haplotype analysis of liver fluke in bison from Bialowieza Primaeval Forest indicates domestic cattle as the likely source of infection.  

PubMed

We have determined the mitochondrial genotype of liver fluke present in Bison (Bison bonasus) from the herd maintained in the Bialowieza National Park in order to determine the origin of the infection. Our results demonstrated that the infrapopulations present in the bison were genetically diverse and were likely to have been derived from the population present in local cattle. From a consideration of the genetic structure of the liver fluke infrapopulations we conclude that the provision of hay at feeding stations may be implicated in the transmission of this parasite to the bison. This information may be of relevance to the successful management of the herd. PMID:22925823

Walker, Stephen M; Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W; Kozak, Monika; Wedrychowicz, Halina; Teofanova, Denitsa; Prodohl, Paulo; Brennan, Gerry; Fairweather, Ian; Hoey, Elizabeth M; Trudgett, Alan

2012-08-09

91

A Case of Probable Mixed-Infection with Clonorchis sinensis and Fasciola sp.: CT and Parasitological Findings  

PubMed Central

We report here a human case probably mixed-infected with Clonorchis sinensis and Fasciola sp. who was diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) scan, serological findings, and/or fecal examination. The patient was a 43-year-old Korean female and was admitted to Kyung Hee University Hospital with the complaints of fever and abdominal pain. On admission, marked eosinophilia was noted in her peripheral blood. CT scan showed specific lesions for clonorchiasis and fascioliasis in the liver, along with lesions suggestive of amebic abscess. Micro-ELISA revealed positive results for the 2 helminthic infections. Eggs of C. sinensis and trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica were observed in the stool. Treatment with praziquantel followed by metronidazole and tinidazole reduced abnormalities in the liver and eosinophilia. This is the first case report of a possible co-infection with 2 kinds of liver flukes in the Republic of Korea.

Kim, Tae Yun; Lee, Yun-Sik; Yun, Ji Hye; Kim, Jeong Ju; Choi, Won Hyung; Oh, In Hwan; Song, Hyun Ouk

2010-01-01

92

High prevalence of human liver infection by Amphimerus spp. flukes, Ecuador.  

PubMed

Amphimerus spp. flukes are known to infect mammals, but human infections have not been confirmed. Microscopy of fecal samples from 397 persons from Ecuador revealed Opisthorchiidae eggs in 71 (24%) persons. Light microscopy of adult worms and scanning electron microscopy of eggs were compatible with descriptions of Amphimerus spp. This pathogen was only observed in communities that consumed undercooked fish. PMID:22172165

Calvopiña, Manuel; Cevallos, William; Kumazawa, Hideo; Eisenberg, Joseph

2011-12-01

93

Low Genetic Diversity in Wide-Spread Eurasian Liver Fluke Opisthorchis felineus Suggests Special Demographic History of This Trematode Species  

PubMed Central

Opisthorchis felineus or Siberian liver fluke is a trematode parasite (Opisthorchiidae) that infects the hepato-biliary system of humans and other mammals. Despite its public health significance, this wide-spread Eurasian species is one of the most poorly studied human liver flukes and nothing is known about its population genetic structure and demographic history. In this paper, we attempt to fill this gap for the first time and to explore the genetic diversity in O. felineus populations from Eastern Europe (Ukraine, European part of Russia), Northern Asia (Siberia) and Central Asia (Northern Kazakhstan). Analysis of marker DNA fragments from O. felineus mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 3 (cox1, cox3) and nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences revealed that genetic diversity is very low across the large geographic range of this species. Microevolutionary processes in populations of trematodes may well be influenced by their peculiar biology. Nevertheless, we suggest that lack of population genetics structure observed in O. felineus can be primarily explained by the Pleistocene glacial events and subsequent sudden population growth from a very limited group of founders. Rapid range expansion of O. felineus through Asian and European territories after severe bottleneck points to a high dispersal potential of this trematode species.

Brusentsov, Ilja I.; Katokhin, Alexey V.; Brusentsova, Irina V.; Shekhovtsov, Sergei V.; Borovikov, Sergei N.; Goncharenko, Grigoriy G.; Lider, Lyudmila A.; Romashov, Boris V.; Rusinek, Olga T.; Shibitov, Samat K.; Suleymanov, Marat M.; Yevtushenko, Andrey V.; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A.

2013-01-01

94

Low genetic diversity in wide-spread Eurasian liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus suggests special demographic history of this trematode species.  

PubMed

Opisthorchis felineus or Siberian liver fluke is a trematode parasite (Opisthorchiidae) that infects the hepato-biliary system of humans and other mammals. Despite its public health significance, this wide-spread Eurasian species is one of the most poorly studied human liver flukes and nothing is known about its population genetic structure and demographic history. In this paper, we attempt to fill this gap for the first time and to explore the genetic diversity in O. felineus populations from Eastern Europe (Ukraine, European part of Russia), Northern Asia (Siberia) and Central Asia (Northern Kazakhstan). Analysis of marker DNA fragments from O. felineus mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 3 (cox1, cox3) and nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences revealed that genetic diversity is very low across the large geographic range of this species. Microevolutionary processes in populations of trematodes may well be influenced by their peculiar biology. Nevertheless, we suggest that lack of population genetics structure observed in O. felineus can be primarily explained by the Pleistocene glacial events and subsequent sudden population growth from a very limited group of founders. Rapid range expansion of O. felineus through Asian and European territories after severe bottleneck points to a high dispersal potential of this trematode species. PMID:23634228

Brusentsov, Ilja I; Katokhin, Alexey V; Brusentsova, Irina V; Shekhovtsov, Sergei V; Borovikov, Sergei N; Goncharenko, Grigoriy G; Lider, Lyudmila A; Romashov, Boris V; Rusinek, Olga T; Shibitov, Samat K; Suleymanov, Marat M; Yevtushenko, Andrey V; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A

2013-04-25

95

Survey of transcripts expressed by the invasive juvenile stage of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica  

PubMed Central

Background The common liver fluke Fasciola hepatica is the agent of a zoonosis with significant economic consequences in livestock production worldwide, and increasing relevance to human health in developing countries. Although flukicidal drugs are available, re-infection and emerging resistance are demanding new efficient and inexpensive control strategies. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the host-parasite interaction provide relevant clues in this search, while enlightening the physiological adaptations to parasitism. Genomics and transcriptomics are still in their infancy in F. hepatica, with very scarce information available from the invasive newly excysted juveniles (NEJ). Here we provide an initial glimpse to the transcriptomics of the NEJ, the first stage to interact with the mammalian host. Results We catalogued more than 500 clusters generated from the analysis of F. hepatica juvenile expressed sequence tags (EST), several of them not detected in the adult stage. A set of putative F. hepatica specific transcripts, and a group of sequences conserved exclusively in flatworms were identified. These novel sequences along with a set of parasite transcripts absent in the host genomes are putative new targets for future anti-parasitic drugs or vaccine development. Comparisons of the F. hepatica sequences with other metazoans genomes or EST databases were consistent with the basal positioning of flatworms in the bilaterian phylogeny. Notably, GC content, codon usage and amino acid frequencies are remarkably different in Schistosomes to F. hepatica and other trematodes. Functional annotation of predicted proteins showed a general representation of diverse biological functions. Besides proteases and antioxidant enzymes expected to participate in the early interaction with the host, various proteins involved in gene expression, protein synthesis, cell signaling and mitochondrial enzymes were identified. Differential expression of secreted protease gene family members between juvenile and adult stages may respond to different needs during host colonization. Conclusion The knowledge of the genes expressed by the invasive stage of Fasciola hepatica is a starting point to unravel key aspects of this parasite's biology. The integration of the emerging transcriptomics, and proteomics data and the advent of functional genomics tools in this organism are positioning F. hepatica as an interesting model for trematode biology.

2010-01-01

96

Identification, sequence analysis and characterization of Clonorchis sinensis ubiquitin.  

PubMed

Ubiquitin is a functionally important protein expressed in eukaryotic cells usually encoded by multigenic families containing two types of genes, ubiquitin extension genes and polyubiquitin genes. One independent monomeric locus and two independent polyubiquitin loci were firstly identified from the genome of carcinogenic liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis). The nucleotide and amino acid sequence of C. sinensis polyubiquitin, especially polyubiquitin with five tandem ubiquitin repeats (CsPUB5), were analyzed. We obtained recombinant CsPUB5 (rCsPUB5) and anti-rCsPUB5 IgG. The ubiquitin transcripts in life cycle of C. sinensis were investigated. In addition, we found that ubiquitin or ubiquitination was ubiquitous in adult worm of C. sinensis and significantly observed in the content of biliary tract and intrahepatic biliary epithelium of liver from C. sinensis infected rat. We confirmed that rCsPUB5 could bind to human intrahepatic biliary epithelial cell by immunofluorescence in vitro. It was considered that ubiquitin family constitutively expressed in C. sinensis for variety of cellular processes and might be implicated in the genesis and progression of cholangiocarcinoma induced by the infection of C. sinensis. PMID:23149166

Huang, Yan; Liao, Hua; Li, Wenfang; Hu, Yue; Huang, Lisi; Wang, Xiaoyun; Sun, Jiufeng; Chen, Wenjun; Deng, Chuanhuan; Liang, Chi; Wu, Zhongdao; Li, Xuerong; Xu, Jin; Yu, Xinbing

2012-11-10

97

A cross-sectional coprological survey of liver flukes in cattle and sheep from an area of the southern Italian Apennines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional coprological survey of liver flukes (Fasciola hepatica and Dicrocoelium dendriticum) was conducted on 81 bovine farms and 197 ovine farms with animals pasturing in an area (3971km2) of the southern Italian Apennines. The farms were selected to be uniformly distributed throughout the study area using geographical information system (GIS) software. Between June 1999 and March 2000, faecal samples

G Cringoli; L Rinaldi; V Veneziano; G Capelli; J. B Malone

2002-01-01

98

A granulin-like growth factor secreted by the carcinogenic liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, promotes proliferation of host cells.  

PubMed

The human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, infects millions of people throughout south-east Asia and is a major cause of cholangiocarcinoma, or cancer of the bile ducts. The mechanisms by which chronic infection with O. viverrini results in cholangiocarcinogenesis are multi-factorial, but one such mechanism is the secretion of parasite proteins with mitogenic properties into the bile ducts, driving cell proliferation and creating a tumorigenic environment. Using a proteomic approach, we identified a homologue of human granulin, a potent growth factor involved in cell proliferation and wound healing, in the excretory/secretory (ES) products of the parasite. O. viverrini granulin, termed Ov-GRN-1, was expressed in most parasite tissues, particularly the gut and tegument. Furthermore, Ov-GRN-1 was detected in situ on the surface of biliary epithelial cells of hamsters experimentally infected with O. viverrini. Recombinant Ov-GRN-1 was expressed in E. coli and refolded from inclusion bodies. Refolded protein stimulated proliferation of murine fibroblasts at nanomolar concentrations, and proliferation was inhibited by the MAPK kinase inhibitor, U0126. Antibodies raised to recombinant Ov-GRN-1 inhibited the ability of O. viverrini ES products to induce proliferation of murine fibroblasts and a human cholangiocarcinoma cell line in vitro, indicating that Ov-GRN-1 is the major growth factor present in O. viverrini ES products. This is the first report of a secreted growth factor from a parasitic worm that induces proliferation of host cells, and supports a role for this fluke protein in establishment of a tumorigenic environment that may ultimately manifest as cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:19816559

Smout, Michael J; Laha, Thewarach; Mulvenna, Jason; Sripa, Banchob; Suttiprapa, Sutas; Jones, Alun; Brindley, Paul J; Loukas, Alex

2009-10-09

99

A New PCR-Based Approach Indicates the Range of Clonorchis sinensis Now Extends to Central Thailand  

PubMed Central

Differentiation of the fish-borne trematodes belonging to the Opisthorchiidae, Heterophyidae and Lecithodendriidae is important from a clinical and epidemiological perspective, yet it is impossible to do using conventional coprological techniques, as the eggs are morphologically similar. Epidemiological investigation therefore currently relies on morphological examination of adult worms following expulsion chemotherapy. A PCR test capable of amplifying a segment of the internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA for the opisthorchiid and heterophyid flukes eggs taken directly from faeces was developed and evaluated in a rural community in central Thailand. The lowest quantity of DNA that could be amplified from individual adults of Opisthorchis viverrini, Clonorchis sinensis and Haplorchis taichui was estimated at 0.6 pg, 0.8 pg and 3 pg, respectively. The PCR was capable of detecting mixed infection with the aforementioned species of flukes under experimental conditions. A total of 11.6% of individuals in rural communities in Sanamchaikaet district, central Thailand, were positive for ‘Opisthorchis-like’ eggs in their faeces using conventional parasitological detection techniques. In comparison to microscopy, the PCR yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 71.0% and 76.7%, respectively. Analysis of the microscopy-positive PCR products revealed 64% and 23% of individuals to be infected with O. viverrini and C. sinensis, respectively. The remaining 13% (three individuals) were identified as eggs of Didymozoidae, presumably being passed mechanically in the faeces following the ingestion of infected fishes. An immediate finding of this study is the identification and first report of a C. sinensis–endemic community in central Thailand. This extends the known range of this liver fluke in Southeast Asia. The PCR developed herein provides an important tool for the specific identification of liver and intestinal fluke species for future epidemiological surveys.

Traub, Rebecca J.; Macaranas, Julie; Mungthin, Mathirut; Leelayoova, Saovanee; Cribb, Thomas; Murrell, K. Darwin; Thompson, R. C. Andrew

2009-01-01

100

Effects of Bayluscide on Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos, the first intermediate host of the human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, in laboratory and field trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molluscicidal effects of Bayluscide (niclosamide) were investigated on Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos, the first intermediate host of human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini. Lethal concentrations of 50% (LC50) and 95% (LC95) against young and adult males were 0.38 and 0.80, 0.42 and 0.86ppm, respectively. The LC50 and LC95 against young and adult females were 0.42 and 0.86, 0.46 and 0.97ppm, respectively.

S. Tesana; P. Thapsripair; C. Thammasiri; S. Prasopdee; A. Suwannatrai; S. Harauy; S. Piratae; P. Khampoosa; J. Kulsantiwong; C. Donthaisong; P. Chalokepanrat; V. Viyanant; J. B. Malone

101

Microarray analysis of rat immune responses to liver fluke infection following vaccination with Fasciola hepatica phosphoglycerate kinase.  

PubMed

Fasciolosis is a considerable veterinary problem, causing significant economic losses to livestock production and the food industry. Research in the area of Fasciola hepatica infection immunology is necessary to improve our knowledge about immunological mechanism evoked by the parasite and to develop new control strategies against liver fluke. In this present paper we analyzed the expression levels of cytokines in rats infected with F. hepatica following immunization with F. hepatica phosphoglycerate kinase - a novel vaccine antigen. Immune response analysis using microarray was undertaken six weeks after infection. Expression levels of INF-? and IL-4, which are characteristic cytokines secreted during Th1-like and Th2-like immune responses, respectively, were unchanged in vaccinated animals as compared to control animals. This indicates the vaccine did not influence the major modulation of immune responses typically observed during Fasciola infections, however, other subtle but significant variations were observed that indicated altered inflammatory and possibly T helper cell responses. A significant rise in IL-12? chain expression levels was observed. Expression levels of TNF-? and some related molecules, such as ADAM17, FasL, CD40 and TRAF3 were also elevated. Expression levels of molecules involved in IL-1 signaling pathways were reduced, although a rise in IL-1? expression was noted. PMID:23376446

Weso?owska, Agnieszka; Jaros, S?awomir; Norbury, Luke J; Jaros, Dorota; Zygner, Wojciech; W?drychowicz, Halina

2013-01-29

102

Proteomics and in silico approaches to extend understanding of the glutathione transferase superfamily of the tropical liver fluke Fasciola gigantica.  

PubMed

Fasciolosis is an important foodborne, zoonotic disease of livestock and humans, with global annual health and economic losses estimated at several billion US$. Fasciola hepatica is the major species in temperate regions, while F. gigantica dominates in the tropics. In the absence of commercially available vaccines to control fasciolosis, increasing reports of resistance to current chemotherapeutic strategies and the spread of fasciolosis into new areas, new functional genomics approaches are being used to identify potential new drug targets and vaccine candidates. The glutathione transferase (GST) superfamily is both a candidate drug and vaccine target. This study reports the identification of a putatively novel Sigma class GST, present in a water-soluble cytosol extract from the tropical liver fluke F. gigantica. The GST was cloned and expressed as an enzymically active recombinant protein. This GST shares a greater identity with the human schistosomiasis GST vaccine currently at Phase II clinical trials than previously discovered F. gigantica GSTs, stimulating interest in its immuno-protective properties. In addition, in silico analysis of the GST superfamily of both F. gigantica and F. hepatica has revealed an additional Mu class GST, Omega class GSTs, and for the first time, a Zeta class member. PMID:23167294

Morphew, Russell M; Eccleston, Neil; Wilkinson, Toby J; McGarry, John; Perally, Samirah; Prescott, Mark; Ward, Deborah; Williams, Diana; Paterson, Steve; Raman, M; Ravikumar, G; Khalid Saifullah, M; Abbas Abidi, S M; McVeigh, Paul; Maule, Aaron G; Brophy, Peter M; LaCourse, E James

2012-11-28

103

Activity of tribendimidine and praziquantel combination therapy against the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Opisthorchiasis, caused by the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini, a food-borne trematode, is an important public health problem; however, only a single drug, praziquantel is available. We investigated tribendimidine-praziquantel combinations against O. viverrini in vitro and in vivo. The IC50 values of 0.16 ?g/ml and 0.05 ?g/ml were determined for praziquantel and tribendimidine, respectively, against adult O. viverrini in vitro. When O. viverrini was exposed to both drugs simultaneously (using a drug ratio based on the IC50 (1:3.2)) a synergistic effect was calculated (combination index (CI) at the IC50= 0.7). A similar result was observed when drug addition in vitro was spaced by the respective half-lives of the drugs (a CI of 0.78 at the IC50 for tribendimidine followed by praziquantel and a CI of 0.47 at the IC50 for praziquantel followed by tribendimidine). In vivo median-effect dose (ED50) values of 191 mg/kg and 147 mg/kg were calculated for praziquantel and tribendimidine, respectively. Low to moderate worm burden reductions (38-62%) were observed in O. viverrini infected hamsters when both drugs were administered simultaneously or on subsequent days, pointing to antagonistic effects in vivo. Further studies are necessary to understand the striking differences between the in vitro and in vivo observations using combinations of praziquantel and tribendimidine on O. viverrini. PMID:22892101

Keiser, J; Adelfio, R; Vargas, M; Odermatt, P; Tesana, S

2012-08-15

104

Impact of compound alpha treatment in vivo on egg production by the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica.  

PubMed

Sheep infected with the triclabendazole-susceptible Cullompton isolate of Fasciola hepatica were treated with compound alpha at a dosage of 15 mg/kg at 12 weeks post-infection. Adult flukes were recovered from the bile ducts at 24h, 48 h and 72 h post-treatment (pt). They were processed for whole mount analysis, histology and transmission electron microscopy of the female reproductive system: specifically, the uterus, Mehlis' gland, ovary and vitellaria. As judged by the appearance of the uterus, normal egg production ceased within 24h of treatment; this phenomenon preceded significant changes to the other reproductive organs. Over the 3-day pt period, there was a progressive decline in the number of oogonia in the ovary, together with an increase in the number of eosinophilic and apoptotic oocytes and vacuolation and shrinkage of the ovarian tubules. There was a shift in the cell population within the vitelline follicles at 48 h pt, with relatively greater numbers of mature vitelline cells and fewer immature cells. The follicles were vacuolated and the shell globule clusters in the mature cells were disorganised. Greater disruption was seen at 72 h pt, with a reduction in the size of the follicles and rupture of cells, releasing their content into the lumen of the follicles. These histological observations were confirmed and extended at the TEM level. Thus, examination of electron micrographs showed that disruption of the shell globule clusters was evident at 48 h pt, which coincided with the start of the breakdown of the mature cells and of the nurse cell network. These degenerative changes were more conspicuous at 72 h pt. In the Mehlis' gland, shrinkage and vacuolation of the cells and their cytoplasmic extensions became progressively greater from 48 h to 72 h pt, and secretory activity declined. The changes in the reproductive organs and inhibition of egg production are put in context of the overall time-course of drug action. PMID:22285009

McConville, M; Hanna, R E B; Brennan, G P; Edgar, H W J; McConnell, S; McCoy, M; Castillo, R; Hernández-Campos, A; Fairweather, I

2011-12-28

105

Light and electron microscopy observations of embryogenesis and egg development in the human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini (Platyhelminthes, Digenea).  

PubMed

Eggs of most species digenean flukes hatch in the external environment to liberate larvae that seek and penetrate a snail intermediate host. Those of the human liver flukes, Opisthorchis viverrini, hatch within the gastrointestinal canal of their snail hosts. While adult parasites are primarily responsible for the pathology in cases of human opisthorchiasis, their eggs also contribute by inducing granulomata and in serving as nidi for gallstone formation. In view of the peculiar biology of O. viverrini eggs and their contribution to pathology, we investigated embryogenesis in this species by light and transmission electron microscopy. Egg development was traced from earliest stages of coalescence in the ootype until full embryonation in the distal region of the uterus. Fully mature eggs were generally impermeable to resin and could not be examined by conventional electron microscopy methods. However, the use of high-pressure freezing and freeze-substitution fixation of previously fixed eggs enabled the internal structure of mature eggs, particularly the subshell envelopes, to be elucidated. Fertilization occurs in the ootype, and the large zygote is seen therein with a single spermatozoon wrapped around its plasma membrane. As the zygote begins to divide, the spent vitellocytes are pushed to the periphery of the eggs, where they progressively degrade. The early eggshell is formed in the ootype by coalescing eggshell precursor material released by approximately six vitelline cells. The early eggs have a thinner eggshell and are larger than, but lack the characteristic shape of, mature eggs. Characteristic shell ornamentation, the "muskmelon" appearance of eggs, appears after eggshell polymerization in the ootype. Pores are not present in the shell of O. viverrini eggs. The inner and outer envelopes are poorly formed in this species, with the outer envelope evident beneath the eggshell at the opercular pole of the mature egg. The miracidium has a conical anterior end that lacks the distinctive lamellar appearance of the terebratorium of other digeneans, such as the schistosomes. The miracidium is richly glandular, containing an apical gland in the anterior end, large cephalic gland, and posterior secretory glands. Each gland contains a secretory product with different structure. The paucity of vitelline cells associating with eggs, the reduced size of eggs, and reduced complexity of the extraembryonic envelopes are interpreted as adaptations to the peculiar hatching biology of the miracidia. PMID:21786067

Khampoosa, Panita; Jones, Malcolm K; Lovas, Erica M; Srisawangwong, Tuanchai; Laha, Thewarach; Piratae, Supawadee; Thammasiri, Chalida; Suwannatrai, Apiporn; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn; Eursitthichai, Veerachai; Tesana, Smarn

2011-07-23

106

Preliminary estimates of economic impact of liver fluke infection in Thailand and the feasibility of irradiation as a control measure.  

PubMed

Liver fluke infection by Opisthorchis viverrini is the leading cause of food-borne parasitic disease in Thailand. Approximately one third of the population in the northeastern region of the country, ie, 6-7 million, are infected by this parasite through the habit of consuming raw or insufficiently cooked freshwater fish, especially those of cyprinoid family. A recent survey showed that 60% of the work force in the Northeast between the age of 15 and 60 is infected. The estimated wage loss of this population may be approximately Baht 1,620 million (US$65 million) per annum. The estimated direct cost of medical care may be as high as Baht 495 million (US$19.4 million) per annum. Thus, the total direct cost of the infected work force is estimated to be Baht 2115 million (US$84.6 million) per annum. Irradiation of fish flesh infected by metacercaria of O. viverrini has been demonstrated as an effective method of control. A minimum dose of 0.1 kGy is effective without changing physiochemical properties of the fish flesh. This technology, therefore, shows promise as a method to control infection by O. viverrini acquired by the habit of consuming raw freshwater fish in the country. Preliminary economic analyses indicate that the public health benefit from preventing infection with this parasite could outweigh the investment cost of irradiation facilities. Detailed economic feasibility studies should be carried out to demonstrate the practical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of the treatment as a public health intervention measure in the country. PMID:1822933

Loaharanu, P; Sornmani, S

1991-12-01

107

Molecular characterization of an ?-N-acetylgalactosaminidase from Clonorchis sinensis.  

PubMed

The ?-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (?-NAGAL) is an exoglycosidase that selectively cleaves terminal ?-linked N-acetylgalactosamines from a variety of sugar chains. A complementary DNA (cDNA) clone encoding a novel Clonorchis sinensis ?-NAGAL (Cs-?-NAGAL) was identified in the expressed sequence tags database of the adult C. sinensis liver fluke. The complete coding sequence was 1,308 bp long and encoded a 436-residue protein. The selected glycosidase was manually curated as ?-NAGAL (EC 3.2.1.49) based on a composite bioinformatics analysis including a search for orthologues, comparative structure modeling, and the generation of a phylogenetic tree. One orthologue of Cs-?-NAGAL was the Rattus norvegicus ?-NAGAL (accession number: NP_001012120) that does not exist in C. sinensis. Cs-?-NAGAL belongs to the GH27 family and the GH-D clan. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that the GH27 family of Cs-?-NAGAL was distinct from GH31 and GH36 within the GH-D clan. The putative 3D structure of Cs-?-NAGAL was built using SWISS-MODEL with a Gallus gallus ?-NAGAL template (PDB code 1ktb chain A); this model demonstrated the superimposition of a TIM barrel fold (?/?) structure and substrate binding pocket. Cs-?-NAGAL transcripts were detected in the adult worm and egg cDNA libraries of C. sinensis but not in the metacercaria. Recombinant Cs-?-NAGAL (rCs-?-NAGAL) was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the purified rCs-?-NAGAL was recognized specifically by the C. sinensis-infected human sera. This is the first report of an ?-NAGAL protein in the Trematode class, suggesting that it is a potential diagnostic or vaccine candidate with strong antigenicity. PMID:22926676

Lee, Myoung-Ro; Yoo, Won Gi; Kim, Yu-Jung; Kim, Dae-Won; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Hwang, Kwang Yeon; Ju, Jung-Won; Lee, Won-Ja

2012-08-29

108

[Liver fluke infestation in New World camelids. Parasitology, pathology, clinical findings and therapy].  

PubMed

In Llamas and Alpacas infestation with Fasciola hepatica or Dicrocoelium dendriticum can cause liver damage, sometimes even with lethal outcome. Once infected South American Camelids (SACs) react more sensitively to these parasites than other domestic ruminants. We report here on the pathology, parasitology, clinics and therapy of this disease. Concerning Dicrocoelium dendriticum we describe own clinical results and therapeutic outcome in addition to the pathological investigation. According to anatomic corrosion casts, the bile ducts of SACs show more similarity with the equine bile system than with the bile system of domestic ruminants. PMID:10384709

Gunsser, I; Hänichen, T; Maierl, J

1999-05-01

109

The rat-like hamster, Tscherskia triton, as a host for the parthenogenetic liver fluke Fasciola sp.  

PubMed

Metacercariae of parthenogenetic Fasciola sp. triploid were inoculated into the rat-like hamster Tscherskia triton. Flukes at various stages of growth were found in the bile ducts of all 8 (50%) animals that survived from 42 to 90 days. The body length to width ratio ranged from 1.8 to 2.9, and flukes with the highest ratio were passed 68 days after inoculation. Our results indicate that T. triton is a suitable host for experimental infection when induced by a small number of metacercariae (less than 5) of Fasciola sp. PMID:12435155

Terasaki, Kunio; Noda, Yasutaka; Itagaki, Tadahi; Shibahara, Toshiyuki; Tsuchiya, Kimiyuki; Fukuda, Koichi; Inoue, Yuko; Iwamura, Mizue; Hino, Ayaka

2002-10-01

110

In vitro evaluation of anthelmintic property of ethno-veterinary plant extracts against the liver fluke Fasciola gigantica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was envisaged to evaluate the efficacy of ethno-medicinal plant aqueous extracts such as Allium sativum, Lawsonia inermis, and Opuntia ficus indica in vitro in comparison with the chemotherapeutic agent, Oxyclozanide on Fasciola gigantica adults. The efficacy was evaluated by gross visual motility and mortality of F. gigantica with score index, light microscopic examination of carmine stained flukes

N. Jeyathilakan; K. Murali; A. Anandaraj; S. Abdul Basith

111

Comparative Proteomics of Excretory Secretory Proteins Released by the Liver Fluke Fasciola hepatica in Sheep Host Bile and  

Microsoft Academic Search

Livestock infection by the parasitic fluke Fasciola hepat- ica causes major economic losses worldwide. The excre- tory-secretory (ES) products produced by F. hepatica are key players in understanding the host-parasite interaction and offer targets for chemo- and immunotherapy. For the first time, subproteomics has been used to compare ES products produced by adult F. hepatica in vivo, within ovine host

Russell M. Morphew; Hazel A. Wright; E. James LaCourse; Debra J. Woods; Peter M. Brophy

112

A scanning electron microscope study on the route of entry of clorsulon into the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments were carried out in vitro to determine the roles of the tegument and gut of Fasciola hepatica in the uptake of the flukicidal drug, clorsulon. Changes to the two surfaces were assessed by scanning electron microscopy. In the first experiment, the flukes were ligatured to prevent the oral ingestion of drug and treated for 24 h in clorsulon (10 µg\\/ml).

M. Meaney; S. Haughey; G. P. Brennan; I. Fairweather

2005-01-01

113

A scanning electron microscope study on the route of entry of clorsulon into the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica.  

PubMed

Three experiments were carried out in vitro to determine the roles of the tegument and gut of Fasciola hepatica in the uptake of the flukicidal drug, clorsulon. Changes to the two surfaces were assessed by scanning electron microscopy. In the first experiment, the flukes were ligatured to prevent the oral ingestion of drug and treated for 24 h in clorsulon (10 microg/ml). The gastrodermal surface remained normal and few changes to the tegumental surface were observed. In the second experiment, flukes were fed for 24 h on red blood cells isolated from rats dosed with clorsulon at 12.5 mg/kg body weight; this experiment was designed to prevent the exposure of the tegumental surface to the drug. The gastrodermal surface was severely disrupted and the gut lamellae were disorganised and necrotic. Swelling of the tegument and blebbing on the tegumental surface were evident, but the changes were not severe. More severe swelling of the tegument was observed in the third experiment, in which flukes were incubated for 24 h in clorsulon (10 microg/ml), with both absorptive surfaces being available for drug uptake. The gastrodermal surface was badly disrupted and the gut lamellae were disorganised and necrotic. Taking the results of the three experiments together, the gastrodermal surface was more affected than the tegument and the greatest disruption to the two surfaces was seen when both routes of entry were available to the fluke. The data support a previous study which indicated that entry of clorsulon into the fluke in vivo is principally by the oral ingestion of drug bound to the red blood cells. PMID:15592937

Meaney, M; Haughey, S; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

2004-12-10

114

Accuracy of the Kato-Katz method and formalin-ether concentration technique for the diagnosis of Clonorchis sinensis, and implication for assessing drug efficacy  

PubMed Central

Background Clonorchiasis is a chronic neglected disease caused by a liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis. Chemotherapy is the mainstay of control and treatment efficacy is usually determined by microscopic examination of fecal samples. We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the Kato-Katz method and the formalin-ether concentration technique (FECT) for C. sinensis diagnosis, and studied the effect of diagnostic approach on drug efficacy evaluation. Methods Overall, 74 individuals aged ?18 years with a parasitological confirmed C. sinensis infection at baseline were re-examined 3 weeks after treatment. Before and after treatment, two stool samples were obtained from each participant and each sample was subjected to triplicate Kato-Katz thick smears and a single FECT examination. Results Thirty-eight individuals were still positive for C. sinensis according to our diagnostic ‘gold’ standard (six Kato-Katz thick smears plus two FECT). Two FECT had a significantly lower sensitivity than six Kato-Katz thick smears (44.7% versus 92.1%; p <0.001). Examination of single Kato-Katz and single FECT considerably overestimated cure rates. Conclusions In settings where molecular diagnostic assays are absent, multiple Kato-Katz thick smears should be examined for an accurate diagnosis of C. sinensis infection and for assessing drug efficacy against this liver fluke infection.

2013-01-01

115

In vitro evaluation of anthelmintic property of ethno-veterinary plant extracts against the liver fluke Fasciola gigantica.  

PubMed

The present study was envisaged to evaluate the efficacy of ethno-medicinal plant aqueous extracts such as Allium sativum, Lawsonia inermis, and Opuntia ficus indica in vitro in comparison with the chemotherapeutic agent, Oxyclozanide on Fasciola gigantica adults. The efficacy was evaluated by gross visual motility and mortality of F. gigantica with score index, light microscopic examination of carmine stained flukes and histopathology of treated flukes. Based on the in vitro trials conducted using above plant extracts at 1 percent, 2.5 percent and 5 percent concentration, the extracts of O. ficus indica showed flukicidal effect at 2.5 and 5% concentration. However A. sativum and L. inermis were effective at 5% concentration only. The study indicated the potential for developing herbal-based anthelmintics to control F. gigantica in livestock. PMID:23543611

Jeyathilakan, N; Murali, K; Anandaraj, A; Abdul Basith, S

2011-08-24

116

Distribution and fate of 2-C 14 -glucose in the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica L., after short in vitro incubation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult stages of Fasciola hepatica L. were incubated in 2-C14-glucose for 10 minutes. The distribution and fate of C14 was followed by microautoradiography and paper electrophoresis and paper chromatography in combination with autoradiography. It was found that C14 accumulated predominately in the parenchyme and in the suckers. Within the fluke C14 was found in high molecular weight compounds like glycogen

Walborg Thorsell; Lars-Erik Appelgren; Maarja Kippar

1968-01-01

117

Ultrastructural observations on oral ingestion and trans-tegumental uptake of clorsulon by the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments have been carried out in vitro to determine the effect of oral and trans-tegumental uptake of clorsulon on the fine structure of the tegument and gut of Fasciola hepatica. Changes were assessed by transmission electron microscopy. In the first experiment, the flukes were ligatured to prevent the oral ingestion of drug and treated for 24 h in clorsulon (10 ?g\\/ml).

M. Meaney; S. Haughey; G. P. Brennan; I. Fairweather

2005-01-01

118

Unlocking the Transcriptomes of Two Carcinogenic Parasites, Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini  

PubMed Central

The two parasitic trematodes, Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini, have a major impact on the health of tens of millions of humans throughout Asia. The greatest impact is through the malignant cancer (?=?cholangiocarcinoma) that these parasites induce in chronically infected people. Therefore, both C. sinensis and O. viverrini have been classified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as Group 1 carcinogens. Despite their impact, little is known about these parasites and their interplay with the host at the molecular level. Recent advances in genomics and bioinformatics provide unique opportunities to gain improved insights into the biology of parasites as well as their relationships with their hosts at the molecular level. The present study elucidates the transcriptomes of C. sinensis and O. viverrini using a platform based on next-generation (high throughput) sequencing and advanced in silico analyses. From 500,000 sequences, >50,000 sequences were assembled for each species and categorized as biologically relevant based on homology searches, gene ontology and/or pathway mapping. The results of the present study could assist in defining molecules that are essential for the development, reproduction and survival of liver flukes and/or that are linked to the development of cholangiocarcinoma. This study also lays a foundation for future genomic and proteomic research of C. sinensis and O. viverrini and the cancers that they are known to induce, as well as novel intervention strategies.

Young, Neil D.; Campbell, Bronwyn E.; Hall, Ross S.; Jex, Aaron R.; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Laha, Thewarach; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Sripa, Banchob; Loukas, Alex; Brindley, Paul J.; Gasser, Robin B.

2010-01-01

119

Ultrastructural observations on oral ingestion and trans-tegumental uptake of clorsulon by the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica.  

PubMed

Three experiments have been carried out in vitro to determine the effect of oral and trans-tegumental uptake of clorsulon on the fine structure of the tegument and gut of Fasciola hepatica. Changes were assessed by transmission electron microscopy. In the first experiment, the flukes were ligatured to prevent the oral ingestion of drug and treated for 24 h in clorsulon (10 microg/ml). Limited swelling of the basal infolds was observed in the tegumental syncytium. Swollen mitochondria were present in the syncytium, the underlying tegumental cells and in the gastrodermal cells. Swelling and vesiculation of the cisternae of the granular endoplasmic reticulum (ger) was evident in the gastrodermal cells, together with a reduction in secretory activity. In the second experiment, flukes were fed for 24 h on red blood cells isolated from rats dosed with clorsulon at 12.5 mg/kg body weight; this experiment was designed to prevent the exposure of the tegumental surface to the drug. There was severe swelling of the basal infolds in the tegumental syncytium and swelling of mitochondria in the syncytium, tegumental cells and gastrodermal cells. In the tegumental cells there was a decrease in the number of Golgi complexes as well. A number of changes were evident in the gastrodermal cells: swelling of the ger cisternae, an increase in the number of autophagic vacuoles, a reduction in the number of secretory bodies and disruption of the lamellae projecting from the surface of the cells. In the third experiment, flukes were incubated for 24 h in clorsulon (10 microg/ml), with both absorptive surfaces being available for drug uptake. There was severe swelling of the basal infolds in the tegumental syncytium and large autophagic vacuoles were present. Swollen mitochondria were a feature of the tegument, tegumental cells and gastrodermal cells, as were swollen cisternae of ger in the tegumental and gastrodermal cells. Fewer Golgi complexes were observed in the tegumental cells and in the gastrodermal cells there were fewer secretory bodies and an increased number of autophagic vacuoles. Overall, the gastrodermal cells were more severely affected than the tegument. Greater disruption of the tegument occurred when the oral route of uptake was available. The results support those of previous studies which point to oral uptake of clorsulon being the major route of entry into the fluke. PMID:15645289

Meaney, M; Haughey, S; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

2005-01-06

120

Identification of a serodiagnostic antigen, legumain, by immunoproteomic analysis of excretory-secretory products of Clonorchis sinensis adult worms.  

PubMed

Clonorchis sinensis, the Chinese liver fluke, is the causative agent of clonorchiasis as well as liver and biliary diseases. The excretory-secretory products (ESPs) of the parasites play important roles in host-parasite interactions. In this study, we have investigated the proteome of ESPs obtained from C. sinensis adult worms. Although the full genome database of C. sinensis is not yet available, we have successfully identified 62 protein spots using 2-DE-based mass analysis and EST database of C. sinensis. The proteins identified include detoxification enzymes, such as glutathione S-transferase and thioredoxin peroxidase, myoglobin and a number of cysteine proteases that are expressed abundantly. In order to identify potential targets for the diagnosis and therapy of clonorchiasis, we conducted immunoblot analysis of the ESPs proteome using the sera obtained from clonorchiasis patients and identified legumains and cysteine proteases as antigens present in the ESPs. Although the cysteine proteases were previously reported to elicit antigenicity, the legumains are found herein for the first time as a serological antigen of C. sinensis. To confirm these findings, we expressed recombinant legumain in Escherichia coli and verified that recombinant legumain also functions as a potent antigen against the sera of clonorchiasis patients. Our results illustrate the validity of immuno-proteomic approaches in the identification of serodiagnostic antigens in the parasites. PMID:19526557

Ju, Jung-Won; Joo, Hyun-Na; Lee, Myoung-Ro; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Cheun, Hyeng-Il; Kim, Jung-Yeon; Lee, Young-Hee; Lee, Kwang-Jun; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Kim, Dong-Min; Kim, Il-Chul; Park, Byoung Chul; Kim, Tong-Soo

2009-06-01

121

Evaluation of the immune responses induced by four targeted DNA vaccines encoding the juvenile liver fluke antigen, cathepsin B in a mouse model  

PubMed Central

Background Liver fluke can infect cattle and sheep, and is also emerging as a human pathogen in developing countries. Cathepsin B (Cat B2) is a major cysteine protease secreted by the juvenile flukes. To enhance the immune responses of Cat B2, the cDNA sequence was fused with four different DNA vaccine vectors. The induced cellular and antibody responses were compared in vaccinated mice. Methods The following recombinant DNA vaccine constructs were constructed: empty vector VR1012 as negative control, cytoplasmic construct pVR1012 Cat B2, secretory construct pVR1020 Cat B2, chemokine-fused construct pMCP3 Cat B2 and lymph node targeting construct pCTLA-4 Cat B2. Plasmids were constructed using standard procedures, and positive constructs screened and selected using restriction digestion analysis followed by sequence analysis. The constructs were then tested in Cos-7 cells for in vitro expression, which was analysed using immunoblotting. Subsequently, female BALB/c mice were immunised with DNA constructs as vaccines. Elicited antibody responses were measured using ELISA. The ratio between IgG1 and IgG2a antibody responses was estimated among different vaccine groups. IgG antibody avidity assay was performed and the relative avidity index was calculated. The induced cytokine production from splenocytes of vaccinated animals was estimated using ELISPOT. Results DNA vaccine constructs carrying Cat B2 were expressed in Cos-7 cell lines and encoded protein was recognised using western blotting using rat anti- cathepsin B antibody. DNA vaccines elicited high Cat B2- specific IgG, IgG1, IgE and also modest IgG2a antibody responses. Cat B2 specific IL-4?T cell responses were also observed in Cat B2 vaccinated mice. The comparison of immunogenic potential in each of these constructs was demonstrated as enhanced antibody responses on the lymph-node targeting vector pCTLA-4 Cat B2, the high antibody avidity of chemo-attractant pMCP3 Cat B2 and stronger T cellular responses of non-secretory DNA vaccine pVR1012 Cat B2 in vaccinated animals. Conclusion This study showed that the targeting DNA vaccine strategies enhanced specific immune responses to juvenile fluke Cat B2. The results of our current study have demonstrated that a gene-based vaccine as an immunotherapeutic approach to combat Fasciola infection may be feasible.

2012-01-01

122

Identification and characterization of a novel 21.6-kDa tegumental protein from Clonorchis sinensis.  

PubMed

Tegumental proteins form a membrane-bound outer surface and are thus involved in host-parasite interactions and parasite survival. A complementary DNA clone encoding a novel 21.6-kDa tegumental protein (CsTegu21.6, accession number JF911532) was identified in a sequence library for the adult Clonorchis sinensis liver fluke. The complete coding sequence was 564 bp and encoded a protein of 188 amino acids. A BLASTX search revealed identities from 43 to 47% with previously identified tegumental proteins in C. sinensis and other helminthic parasites. Multiple alignment of the amino acids of CsTegu21.6 with those of four other C. sinensis tegumental proteins, CsTegu21.1, CsTegu22.3, CsTegu20.8 and CsTegu31.8, revealed pair-wise sequence identities ranging from 24 to 31.8%. A calcium-binding EF-hand domain containing a basic helix-loop-helix structure at the N terminus and a dynein light chain domain at the C terminus were found in CsTegu21.6; these motifs are common in tegumental proteins. CsTegu21.6 was specifically observed on the tegument of adult worms using immunolocalization analysis. PMID:22015384

Kim, Yu-Jung; Yoo, Won Gi; Lee, Myoung-Ro; Kim, Dae-Won; Lee, Won-Ja; Kang, Jung-Mi; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Ju, Jung-Won

2011-10-21

123

The identification of antigenic proteins: 14-3-3 protein and propionyl-CoA carboxylase in Clonorchis sinensis.  

PubMed

Clonorchis sinensis, the causative agent of clonorchiasis, is widespread in East and Southeast Asia, including China, Vietnam and the Republic of Korea. We identified antigenic proteins from adult C. sinensis liver flukes using immunoproteomic analysis. In this study, we found 23 candidate antigenic proteins with a pI in the range of 5.4-6.2 in total lysates of C. sinensis. The antigenic protein spots reacted against sera from clonorchiasis patients and were identified as cysteine proteases, glutathione transferases, gelsolin, propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC), prohibitin and 14-3-3 protein (14-3-3) using LC-coupled ESI-MS/MS and an EST database for C. sinensis. PCC and 14-3-3 were identified for the first time as serological antigens for the diagnosis of C. sinensis. To validate the antigenicity of PCC and 14-3-3, recombinant proteins were immunoblotted with sera from clonorchiasis patients. The structural, functional and immunological characteristics of the putative amino acid sequence were predicted by bioinformatics analysis. Our novel finding will contribute to the development of diagnostics for clonorchiasis. These results suggest that immunoproteomic approaches are valuable tools to identify antigens that could be used as targets for effective parasitic infection control strategies. PMID:22119288

Lee, Myoung-Ro; Kim, Yu-Jung; Kim, Dae-Won; Yoo, Won Gi; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Hwang, Kwang Yeon; Ju, Jung-Won; Lee, Won-Ja

2011-11-15

124

A proteomic approach to investigate the distribution and abundance of surface and internal Fasciola hepatica proteins during the chronic stage of natural liver fluke infection in cattle.  

PubMed

Fasciola hepatica, a trematode helminth, causes an economically important disease (fasciolosis) in ruminants worldwide. Proteomic analysis of the parasite provides valuable information to understand the relationship between the parasite and its host. Previous studies have identified various parasite proteins, some of which are considered as vaccine candidates or important drug targets. However, the approximate distribution and abundance of the proteins on the surface and within internal parts of the liver fluke are unknown. In this study, two fractions including surface protein fraction (representing surface part of the parasite, near subplasma membrane of the tegument and above the basal membrane of the tegument) and internal protein fraction (representing internal part of the parasite, mainly deeper sides of the tegument including subbasal membrane and other further internal elements of the parasite) were obtained. Components of these two fractions were investigated by an advanced proteomics approach using a high-definition mass spectrometer with nano electrospray ionization source coupled to a high-performance liquid chromatography system (nanoUPLC-ESI-qTOF-MS). FABP1 was found highly abundant in the SPF fraction. Potentially novel F. hepatica proteins showing homology with AKT interacting protein (Xenopus tropicalis), sterol O-acyltransferase 2 (Homo sapiens), and integrin beta 7 (Mus musculus) were identified with high quantities in only the surface fraction of the parasite and may be possible candidates for future control strategies. PMID:22642211

Haçar?z, Orçun; Sayers, Gearóid; Baykal, Ahmet Tar?k

2012-05-29

125

A novel GlcNAcalpha1-HPO3-6Gal(1-1)ceramide antigen and alkylated inositol-phosphoglycerolipids expressed by the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica.  

PubMed

The acidic (glyco)lipids of the parasitic liver fluke Fasciola hepatica exhibited two different phosphate-containing species, designated AL-I and AL-II, which were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS, ESI MS, NMR, methylation analysis, and combined GC-MS in conjunction with HF treatment. AL-I was structurally determined as 1-O-hexadecyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphoinositol, an ether bond variant of lysophosphatidylinositol. The structure of AL-II was shown to be GlcNAcalpha1-HPO3-6Gal(1-1)ceramide. Ceramide analysis revealed as major components 2-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid [18:0(2-OH)] together with C18- and C20-phytosphingosines. AL-II was apparently highly antigenic and strongly recognized by both animal- and human-F. hepatica infection sera. Furthermore, inhibition ELISAs revealed that the unusual antigenic determinant GlcNAcalpha1-HPO3- phosphate might have a potential in the serodiagnosis of F. hepatica infections. PMID:12626405

Wuhrer, Manfred; Grimm, Christiane; Zahringer, Ulrich; Dennis, Roger D; Berkefeld, Clemens M; Idris, Mohamed A; Geyer, Rudolf

2002-10-30

126

Genetic differentiation in eastern European and western Asian populations of the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, as revealed by mitochondrial nad1 and cox1 genes.  

PubMed

Partial sequences of mitochondrial genes nad1 (316 bp) and cox1 (429 bp) were analyzed to estimate the variability of the liver fluke samples collected in 20 localities in Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, and China. The sequences had 4.1% (nad1) and 2.3% (cox1) of variable sites, and 13 and 10 haplotypes were identified among nad1 and cox1 genes, respectively. Spatial analysis of genetic and nucleotide diversity indicated little or no structuring of genetic variation between hosts or regions. The analysis of distribution of both separate and combined (nad1 + cox1) haplotypes revealed the existence of 2 well-defined lineages with 2 main haplotypes and a number of shared divergent haplotypes. Our study showed that the first lineage included the main N1-C1 haplotype, which was found in Australia, China, Georgia, Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and in all European populations (from Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Bulgaria). The second lineage was found in all European populations and in populations from Armenia and Azerbaijan. It was suggested that one of the lineages (I) has an Asian origin. The possible source of mtDNA variability and associations between lineage divergence of parasite and its definitive hosts (cattle and sheep) are discussed. PMID:16883995

Semyenova, Seraphima K; Morozova, Elena V; Chrisanfova, Galina G; Gorokhov, Vladimir V; Arkhipov, Ivan A; Moskvin, Alexander S; Movsessyan, Sergey O; Ryskov, Alexei P

2006-06-01

127

Overexpression of microRNA-21 regulating PDCD4 during tumorigenesis of liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinoma contributes to tumor growth and metastasis.  

PubMed

MicroRNA, an endogenous noncoding RNA modulating gene expression, is a key molecule that by its dysregulation plays roles in inflammatory-driven carcinogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the role of oncomiR miR-21 and its target, the programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) in tumor growth and metastasis of the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini-associated cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). The expression levels of miR-21 and PDCD4 were analyzed using the TaqMan miRNA expression assay and immunohistochemistry in liver tissues of both O. viverrini plus N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)-treated hamsters and human CCA samples (n=23 cases). The functional assay for miR-21 was performed in CCA cell lines by the anti-miR-21 and pre-miR-21 transfection procedures. The peak of miR-21 levels were reached at 2 (hyperplastic lesions) and 6 (CCA)?months of the O. viverrini plus NDMA-induced group and had a reverse response with its target PDCD4 proteins. In human CCA, miR-21 was overexpressed in tumor tissues when compared with nontumor tissues (P=0.0034) and had a negative correlation with PDCD4 protein (P=0.026). It was also found that high expression of miR-21 was significantly correlated with shorter survival (P<0.05) and lymph node metastasis (P=0.037) of CCA patients. Transient transfection of pre-miR-21 reduced the PDCD4 level and resulted in an increase of M213 CCA cell growth and wound-induced migration ability. These results indicated that miR-21 plays a role in the carcinogenesis and metastasis of O. viverrini-associated CCA by suppressing the function of PDCD4. Modulation of aberrantly expressed miR-21 may be a useful strategy to inhibit tumor cell phenotypes or improve response to chemotherapy. PMID:23417858

Chusorn, P; Namwat, N; Loilome, W; Techasen, A; Pairojkul, C; Khuntikeo, N; Dechakhamphu, A; Talabnin, C; Chan-On, W; Ong, C K; Teh, B T; Yongvanit, P

2013-02-17

128

Curcumin induces a nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2-driven response against oxidative and nitrative stress after praziquantel treatment in liver fluke-infected hamsters.  

PubMed

Praziquantel has been used for the treatment of liver fluke infection, but an oxidative/nitrative stress may occur after a short-term treatment and participate in side effects. In an attempt to reduce the adverse effects, we administered curcumin, an anti-inflammatory agent, to Opisthorchis viverrini-infected hamsters treated with praziquantel. At 12h after treatment, curcumin decreased eosinophil infiltration and increased mononuclear cell infiltration in parallel with nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 expression at the transcriptional and protein levels. Curcumin also enhanced the expression of genes involved in the Nrf2-regulated stress pathway (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1, NAD(P)H:quinine oxidoreductase 1, glutamate cysteine ligase, and activating transcription factor 3, peroxiredoxin 3, peroxiredoxin 6, manganese superoxide dismutase, and catalase), leading to increased ferric antioxidant capacity in the plasma. In contrast, curcumin decreased the level of oxidative and nitrative stress markers such as urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine, plasma levels of malondialdehyde and nitrate/nitrite, and activity of plasma alanine transaminase, a liver injury marker. This correlated with the suppression of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) and related molecules (cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1? and TNF-?). In conclusion, curcumin may be an effective chemopreventive agent against oxidative and nitrative stress derived from praziquantel treatment during O. viverrini infection via induction of Nrf2 and suppression of NF-?B-mediated pathways. Nrf2 may also be a novel therapeutic target for not only parasitic diseases but other types of inflammation-mediated diseases. PMID:21256849

Charoensuk, Lakhanawan; Pinlaor, Porntip; Prakobwong, Suksanti; Hiraku, Yusuke; Laothong, Umawadee; Ruangjirachuporn, Wipaporn; Yongvanit, Puangrat; Pinlaor, Somchai

2011-01-21

129

Fasciola hepatica phenotypic characterization in Andean human endemic areas: valley versus altiplanic patterns analysed in liver flukes from sheep from Cajamarca and Mantaro, Peru.  

PubMed

Fascioliasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. Of both species, F. hepatica is the only one described in the Americas, mainly transmitted by lymnaeid snail vectors of the Galba/Fossaria group. Human fascioliasis endemic areas are mainly located in high altitude areas of Andean countries. Given the necessity to characterize F. hepatica populations involved, the phenotypic features of fasciolid adults infecting sheep present in human fascioliasis endemic areas were analysed in the Cajamarca Valley and Mantaro Valley (valley transmission patterns) and the northern Bolivian Altiplano (altiplanic transmission pattern). A computer image analysis system (CIAS) was applied on the basis of standardized measurements. The aforementioned highland populations were compared to standard lowland natural and experimental populations of European origin. Liver fluke size was studied by multivariate analyses. Two phenotypic patterns could be distinguished in F. hepatica adult size: the valley pattern (Cajamarca and Mantaro, Peru) and the altiplanic pattern (northern Altiplano, Bolivia). Results showed that the Andean valley population and European standard populations presented a phenotypic homogeneity. The Altiplano population showed a large size range with a pronouncedly lower minimum size indicating that uterus gravidity is reached at a smaller size than in valley populations. The results of this study demonstrate that there is no apparent relationship between the shape of fasciolid adults with regard to altitudinal difference or geographical origin and that allometry-free shape appears as a more stable trait than size in fasciolid species. Results are analysed in terms of intensity/crowding effect aspects and permanent/seasonal transmission characteristics. PMID:22285769

Valero, M Adela; Perez-Crespo, Ignácio; Khoubbane, Messaoud; Artigas, Patricio; Panova, Miroslava; Ortiz, Pedro; Maco, Vicente; Espinoza, José R; Mas-Coma, Santiago

2012-01-20

130

The prevalence of American liver fluke Fascioloides magna (Bassi 1875) in red deer from Croatian hunting grounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

From October 2002 till April 2003, 194 feces samples and 28 liver samples of red deer shot in the Republic of Croatia territory\\u000a were examined to determine the prevalence of Fascioloides magna in this game population. The majority of study samples were obtained from animals originating from the east part of Croatia,\\u000a and only a minor proportion from animals originating

Ranka Rajkovi?-Janje; Sanja Bosni?; Damir Rimac; Tihomira Gojmerac

2008-01-01

131

The effect of the sulphoxide metabolite of triclabendazole ('Fasinex') on the tegument of mature and immature stages of the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica.  

PubMed

The effects of the novel benzimidazole, triclabendazole (TCBZ) ('Fasinex', Ciba-Geigy), in its active sulphoxide metabolite form (TCBZ-SX), on the tegumental ultrastructure of Fasciola hepatica were determined in vitro by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), using both intact flukes and tissue-slice material. At a concentration of 15 micrograms/ml, the tegument of the whole adult fluke showed ultrastructural changes only after prolonged time-periods, with vacuolation at the base of the syncytium and accumulation of T2 secretory bodies in the tegumental cells. At a concentration of 50 micrograms/ml, with both whole flukes and tissue-slices, the tegument appeared extremely abnormal with accumulation of secretory bodies towards the base of the syncytium. With longer incubation times, the tegument was completely sloughed away and the tegumental cells became synthetically inactive. The tegument of the 3-week-old juvenile became progressively convoluted at the apex, while in the basal regions there was severe vacuolation. In the tegumental cells, there were accumulations of T1 secretory bodies. These results confirm TCBZ as a potent fasciolicide, being very effective in disrupting the fluke tegument. They may go some way to explain the mode of action of this important fasciolicide. PMID:8052511

Stitt, A W; Fairweather, I

1994-06-01

132

Rapid detection and differentiation of Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini eggs in human fecal samples using a duplex real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer PCR and melting curve analysis.  

PubMed

We developed a single step duplex real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) PCR merged with melting curve analysis for the fast detection and differentiation of Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini eggs in human fecal samples. Two species of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (nad2) DNA elements, the 165-bp nad2 product of C. sinensis and the 209-bp nad2 product of O. viverrini, were amplified by species-specific primers, and the fluorescence melting curve analyses were generated from hybrid of amplicons and two pairs of species-specific fluorophore-labeled probes. By their different fluorescence channels and melting temperatures, both C. sinensis and O. viverrini eggs in infected human fecal samples were detected and differentiated with high (100%) sensitivity and specificity. Detection limit was as little as a single C. sinensis egg and two O. viverrini eggs in 100 mg of fecal sample. The assay could distinguish the DNA of both parasites from the DNA of negative fecal samples and fecal samples with other parasitosis, as well as from the well-defined genomic DNA of human leukocytes and other parasites. It can reduce labor time of microscopic examination and is not prone to carry over contamination of agarose electrophoresis. Our duplex real-time FRET PCR method would be useful to determine the accurate range of endemic areas and/or to discover the co-endemic areas of two liver flukes, C. sinensis and O. viverrini, in Asia. This method also would be helpful for the differential diagnosis of the suspected cases of liver fluke infections among travelers who had visited the endemic countries of those parasites. PMID:22246366

Sanpool, Oranuch; Intapan, Pewpan M; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Janwan, Penchom; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Van Hien, Hoang; Dung, Do Trung; Maleewong, Wanchai; Nawa, Yukifumi

2012-01-13

133

Biochemical Characterization and Differential Expression of a 16.5-Kilodalton Tegument-Associated Antigen from the Liver Fluke Fasciola hepatica  

PubMed Central

A cDNA encoding a 16.5-kDa protein termed FhTP16.5 was identified by immunoscreening of a cDNA library from Fasciola hepatica adult flukes using pooled sera from rabbits infected with F. hepatica for 4 weeks. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qPCR) analysis revealed that FhTP16.5 is not expressed in unembryonated eggs. It is poorly expressed in miracidia and highly expressed at the juvenile and adult stages; however, significant differences were found between the expression levels of FhTP16.5 in juveniles versus adult flukes. Recombinant FhTP16.5 was expressed at high levels in Escherichia coli, purified by affinity chromatography, and used to raise anti-FhTP16.5 polyclonal antibodies in rabbits. Immunoblot analysis using the anti-FhTP16.5 IgG antibody identified FhTP16.5 in crude and tegumental extracts and in excretory-secretory products of F. hepatica. The protein was not detected in crude extracts of Schistosoma mansoni or Schistosoma japonicum. Antibodies to FhTP16.5 were detected in the sera of rabbits at 3 to 12 weeks of F. hepatica infection as well as in the sera of humans with chronic fascioliasis; these findings suggest that FhTP16.5 could be a good antigen for serodiagnosis of fascioliasis. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that FhTP16.5 localizes to the surface of the tegument of various developmental stages and in parenchymal tissues of the adult fluke. Such specific localization makes FhTP16.5 an attractive target for immunoprophylaxis or chemotherapy.

Gaudier, Jose F.; Caban-Hernandez, Kimberly; Osuna, Antonio

2012-01-01

134

Biochemical characterization and differential expression of a 16.5-kilodalton tegument-associated antigen from the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica.  

PubMed

A cDNA encoding a 16.5-kDa protein termed FhTP16.5 was identified by immunoscreening of a cDNA library from Fasciola hepatica adult flukes using pooled sera from rabbits infected with F. hepatica for 4 weeks. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qPCR) analysis revealed that FhTP16.5 is not expressed in unembryonated eggs. It is poorly expressed in miracidia and highly expressed at the juvenile and adult stages; however, significant differences were found between the expression levels of FhTP16.5 in juveniles versus adult flukes. Recombinant FhTP16.5 was expressed at high levels in Escherichia coli, purified by affinity chromatography, and used to raise anti-FhTP16.5 polyclonal antibodies in rabbits. Immunoblot analysis using the anti-FhTP16.5 IgG antibody identified FhTP16.5 in crude and tegumental extracts and in excretory-secretory products of F. hepatica. The protein was not detected in crude extracts of Schistosoma mansoni or Schistosoma japonicum. Antibodies to FhTP16.5 were detected in the sera of rabbits at 3 to 12 weeks of F. hepatica infection as well as in the sera of humans with chronic fascioliasis; these findings suggest that FhTP16.5 could be a good antigen for serodiagnosis of fascioliasis. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that FhTP16.5 localizes to the surface of the tegument of various developmental stages and in parenchymal tissues of the adult fluke. Such specific localization makes FhTP16.5 an attractive target for immunoprophylaxis or chemotherapy. PMID:22278327

Gaudier, José F; Cabán-Hernández, Kimberly; Osuna, Antonio; Espino, Ana M

2012-01-25

135

Production and deformation of Clonorchis sinensis eggs during in vitro maintenance.  

PubMed

Clonorchis sinensis is a carcinogenic human liver fluke. The present study monitored eggs produced by long-term maintained adult worms of C. sinensis to confirm their egg productivity in vitro. The worms from infected rabbits were incubated in vitro in 1× Locke's solution and broth media (RPMI-1640, DMEM and IMDM). Numbers of expelled eggs were counted sequentially and their morphological changes were monitored by microscopy after 1, 30, 60, and 90 days of cultivation. On the 1-3 days of cultivation, the eggs counted maximum 4,756±202 eggs/worm/day in IMDM medium. The number of eggs gradually decreased less than 1,000 at 7-14 days and below 100 at 21days but continued to pass eggs after 56 days in all media. Length of the eggs were reduced about 1 µm at 30 days, and the length/width ratio was maintained around 1.8 at 30 days but decreased to 1.7 at 60 days and 1.5 at 90 days. Faust-Meleney index (FMI) decreased as the cultivation duration increased and lowest FMI (5662.9±974.7) observed in IMDM media at day 90 (P?=?0.001). Microscopic findings of the eggs recognized the miracidium in most of eggs at 60 days but not in those at 90 days. Instead, the eggs contained dark granules or vacuoles in the deformed shell at 90 days. Scanning electron microscopy revealed partial loss of wrinkles on the deformed egg surface and prominent abopercular knob. Eggs viability decreased as the cultivation progressed and showed significant positive correlation with FMI and length/width ratio. In conclusion, the cultivated worms pass only the eggs which are preformed in their uterus before cultivation. One gravid C. sinensis contains about 37,000 eggs in its uterus and produces about 4,000 eggs every day. The deformed eggs with FMI less than 7,000 and length/width ratio lower than 1.7 are non-viable. PMID:23285144

Uddin, Md Hafiz; Bae, Young Mee; Choi, Min-Ho; Hong, Sung-Tae

2012-12-20

136

Antigenic profile and localization of Clonorchis sinensis proteins in the course of infection  

PubMed Central

In the course of Clonorchis sinensis infection, antigens presented to the hosts may be in a close relation to growth of the fluke. The antigenic proteins stimulating IgG antibody production were chronologically identified by immunoblot and localized by immunohistochemical staining. In the early stage of infection until 12 weeks post-infection (PI), antigens were proteins with molecular mass larger than 34 kDa which were derived from the tegument, testes and intrauterine eggs. After 20 weeks PI, antigens recognized were 29, 27 and 26 kDa proteins from the intestine, excretory bladder and reproductive organs. It is suggested that the tegumental proteins are the most potent antigens and the excretory-secretory proteins with middle molecular mass of 26-45 kDa contribute to the high level production of antibodies after 20 weeks of the C. sinensis infection.

Kim, Tae Yun; Song, Kye-Yong; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Kang, Shin-Yong

2001-01-01

137

Functional Genes and Proteins of Clonorchis sinensis  

PubMed Central

During the past several decades, researches on parasite genetics have progressed from biochemical and serodiagnostic studies to protein chemistry, molecular biology, and functional gene studies. Nowadays, bioinformatics, genomics, and proteomics approaches are being applied by Korean parasitology researchers. As for Clonorchis sinensis, investigations have been carried out to identify its functional genes using forward and reverse genetic approaches and to characterize the biochemical and biological properties of its gene products. The authors review the proteins of cloned genes, which include antigenic proteins, physiologic and metabolic enzymes, and the gene expression profile of Clonorchis sinensis.

Kim, Tae Im; Na, Byoung-Kuk

2009-01-01

138

Identification and characterization of microRNAs in Clonorchis sinensis of human health significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Clonorchis sinensis is a zoonotic parasite causing clonorchiasis-associated human disease such as biliary calculi, cholecystitis, liver cirrhosis, and it is currently classified as carcinogenic to humans for cholangiocarcinoma. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding, regulating small RNA molecules which are essential for the complex life cycles of parasites and are involved in parasitic infections. To identify and characterize miRNAs expressed in

Min-Jun Xu; Quan Liu; Alasdair J Nisbet; Xian-Quan Cai; Chao Yan; Rui-Qing Lin; Zi-Guo Yuan; Hui-Qun Song; Xian-Hui He; Xing-Quan Zhu

2010-01-01

139

Epidemiological Survey on the Infection of Intestinal Flukes in Residents of Muan-gun, Jeollanam-do, the Republic of Korea  

PubMed Central

Infection status of intestinal flukes was investigated in residents of Muan-gun, Jeollanam-do, the Republic of Korea. Total 1,257 fecal samples of residents were examined by formalin-ether sedimentation technique and Kato-Katz thick smear method. Helminth eggs were detected from 95 (7.6%) residents, and eggs of heterophyid flukes and Clonorchis sinensis were found from 62 (4.9%) and 40 (3.2%) cases, respectively. The larger heterophyid eggs, somewhat dark-brown in color and 37.7 × 21.5 µm in average size, and found in 32 (2.6%) out of 62 egg positive cases of heterophyid flukes. To confirm the adult flukes, we performed worm recovery from 12 cases after praziquantel treatment and purgation with MgSO4. A total of 1,281 adult flukes, assigned to 7 species, were recovered from 9 cooperative cases. Heterophyes nocens (total 981 specimens) was collected from 9 cases, Stictodora fuscata (80) from 7, Gymnophalloides seoi (75) from 5, Pygidiopsis summa (140) from 3, Stellantchasmus falcatus (3) from 2, and Stictodora lari and Acanthotrema felis (each 1 worm) from 1 case each. The intrauterine eggs of S. fuscata collected from the recovered worm were identical with the larger heterophyid eggs detected in the stool examination. By the present study, it was confirmed that A. felis is a new intestinal fluke infecting humans, and residents in Muan-gun, Jeollanam-do are infected with variable species of intestinal trematodes.

Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Cho, Pyo-Yun; Lee, Dong-Min; Kim, Tong-Soo; Kim, In-Sang; Hwang, Eun-Jung; Na, Byoung-Kuk

2010-01-01

140

Liver cancer: descriptive epidemiology and risk factors other than HBV and HCV infection.  

PubMed

The incidence of liver cancer is high in all low-resource regions of the world, with the exception of Northern Africa and Western Asia. The estimated worldwide number of new cases of liver cancer in 2002 is 600,000, of which 82% are from developing countries. Given the poor survival from this disease, the estimated number of deaths is similar to that of new cases. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the main form of liver cancer. A part from chronic infections with Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C viruses, which are the main causes of HCC, contamination of foodstuff with aflatoxins, a group of mycotoxins produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is an important contributor to HCC burden in many low-income country. Alcoholic cirrhosis is an important risk factor for HCC in populations with low prevalence of HBV and HCV infection, and the association between tobacco smoking and HCC is now established. Diabetes is also related to an excess risk of HCC and the increased prevalence of overweight and obesity likely contributes to it. The second most important type of liver cancer is cholangiocarcinoma, whose main known cause is infestation with the liver flukes, Opistorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis, which is frequent in some areas in South-East Asia. Angiosarcoma is a rare form of liver cancer whose occurence is linked to occupational exposure to vinyl chloride. PMID:19091458

Chuang, Shu-Chun; La Vecchia, Carlo; Boffetta, Paolo

2008-12-16

141

PRKAR1A overexpression is associated with increased ECPKA autoantibody in liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinoma: application for assessment of the risk group.  

PubMed

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) associated with Opisthorchis viverrini (Ov) chronic infection is the most frequent primary liver cancer in Thailand, and current approaches to early diagnosis and curative treatments are largely disappointing. We hypothesize a role for protein kinase A (PKA) in Ov-induced CCA. First, we studied the PKA isozyme switching in the liver from the hamster CCA model using quantitative (q) PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemical and western blot analysis. Second, the presence of extracellular PKA (ECPKA) in CCA cell lines and their conditioned media was demonstrated by western blot and PKA activity assay. Third, we determined the association between PRKAR1A expression and serum ECPKA autoantibody in patients with CCA by ELISA. We demonstrated that an increased PRKAR1A expression is restricted to the biliary cells starting from week 1, with remarkable up-regulation when CCA has completely developed by week 24. The switching of the PKA regulatory subunit isoforms from PRKAR2B/PKAII to PRKAR1A/PKAI is significantly associated with cholangiocyte proliferation. Further, we observed that human CCA cell lines express PRKAR1A but not PRKAR2B and excrete ECPKA. Finally, ECPKA autoantibodies are detected in serum of patients with CCA, adenocarcinoma, and Ov infection with periductal fibrosis, but not from Ov-infected subjects without periductal fibrosis lesion and healthy controls. We conclude that PKA isozyme switching and the PRKAR1A/PKAI pathway might contribute to the induction of cholangiocyte transformation and proliferation in Ov-induced CCA. Overexpression of PRKAR1A leads to secretion of ECPKA which is associated with serum autoantibody that may constitute a biomarker for human CCA genesis. PMID:22922884

Loilome, Watcharin; Yooyuen, Sasithorn; Namwat, Nisana; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Puapairoj, Anucha; Kano, Junko; Noguchi, Masayuki; Miwa, Masanao; Yongvanit, Puangrat

2012-08-26

142

A major cathepsin B protease from the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica has atypical active site features and a potential role in the digestive tract of newly excysted juvenile parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The newly excysted juvenile (NEJ) stage of the Fasciola hepatica lifecycle occurs just prior to invasion into the wall of the gut of the host, rendering it an important target for drug development. The cathepsin B enzymes from NEJ flukes have recently been demonstrated to be crucial to invasion and migration by the parasite. Here we characterize one of the

Simone A. Beckham; David Piedrafita; Carolyn I. Phillips; Nirma Samarawickrema; Ruby H. P. Law; Peter M. Smooker; Noelene S. Quinsey; James A. Irving; Deanne Greenwood; Steven H. L. Verhelst; Matthew Bogyo; Boris Turk; Theresa H. Coetzer; Lakshmi C. Wijeyewickrema; Terry W. Spithill; Robert N. Pike

2009-01-01

143

Organ-specific antigens of Clonorchis sinensis  

PubMed Central

This study was carried out to find out specific proteins from different organs of Clonorchis sinensis. Crude extract, organ-specific and excretory-secretory (ES) proteins were analyzed by immunoblot with infected human sera. The bands of 7- and 17-kDa were main component of intestinal fluid and ES protein and commonly found in all organspecific proteins. The 17-kDa protein was observed from ES antigen, intestinal fluid, eggs and sperms, 26- and 28-kDa proteins were from the uterus, vitellaria, and ovary, and 34-, 37-, 43- and 50-kDa proteins were mainly from the testis and sperms. Serum of mice immunized with sperms reacted to the 50-kDa protein by immunoblotting and immunohistochemical staining showed a positive reaction at the seminal receptacle and seminiferous tubule. The present results show that the 7-kDa protein is a common antigen of every part or organ of C. sinensis, but different organs express their specific antigenic protein bands.

Li, Shunyu; Chung, Byung-Suk; Choi, Min-Ho

2004-01-01

144

Proteomic analysis of excretory secretory products from Clonorchis sinensis adult worms: molecular characterization and serological reactivity of a excretory–secretory antigen-fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clonorchis sinensis is a food-borne zoonotic parasite that resides in bile ducts and causes clonorchiasis, which may result in cholelithiasis,\\u000a cholecystitis, hepatic fibrosis, and liver tumors. Although total excretory secretory products (ESP) of C. sinensis adults induce hepatic fibrosis in vivo in rats, the causative mechanism is not well understood. To study components of the\\u000a ESP, C. sinensis culture medium

Minghui Zheng; Kunhua Hu; Wei Liu; Xuchu Hu; Fengyu Hu; Lisi Huang; Peng Wang; Yue Hu; Yan Huang; Wenfang Li; Chi Liang; Xingfeng Yin; Qingyu He; Xinbing Yu

145

Fasciola hepatica: Comparative effects of host resistance and parasite intra-specific interactions on size and reproductive histology in flukes from rats infected with isolates differing in triclabendazole sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacies of putative fasciolicides and vaccines against Fasciola hepatica are frequently monitored in clinical and field trials by determination of fluke egg output in host faeces and by worm counts in the host liver at autopsy. Less often used are parameters based on fluke size and histology, yet these can provide important indications of specific effects on the development

R. E. B. Hanna; A. W. Gordon; D. Moffett; H. W. J. Edgar; L. F. Oliver; S. McConnell; L. Shaw; G. P. Brennan; I. Fairweather

2011-01-01

146

Ultrastructural localization of phosphoglycerate kinase in adult Clonorchis sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) is an enzyme that produces one ATP molecule in the glycolytic pathway. Clonorchis sinensis is largely dependent on glycolysis for energy production. We performed immunoelectron microscopy on adult C. sinensis by using mouse immune serum raised against recombinant C. sinensis PGK. A high density of gold particles was found in the microvilli of the intestinal epithelium and

Sung-Jong Hong; Jung-Kook Shin; Shin-Yong Kang; Jae-Ran Ryu

2003-01-01

147

A major cathepsin B protease from the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica has atypical active site features and a potential role in the digestive tract of newly excysted juvenile parasites  

PubMed Central

The newly excysted juvenile (NEJ) stage of the Fasciola hepatica lifecycle occurs just prior to invasion into the wall of the gut of the host, rendering it an important target for drug development. The cathepsin B enzymes from NEJ flukes have recently been demonstrated to be crucial to invasion and migration by the parasite. Here we characterize one of the cathepsin B enzymes (recombinant FhcatB1) from NEJ flukes. FhcatB1 has biochemical properties distinct from mammalian cathepsin B enzymes, with an atypical preference for Ile over Leu or Arg residues at the P2 substrate position and an inability to act as an exopeptidase. FhcatB1 was active across a broad pH range (optimal activity at pH 5.5–7.0) and resistant to inhibition by cystatin family inhibitors from sheep and humans, suggesting that this enzyme would be able to function in extracellular environments in its mammalian hosts. It appears, however, that the FhcatB1 protease functions largely as a digestive enzyme in the gut of the parasite, due to the localization of a specific, fluorescently labeled inhibitor with an Ile at the P2 position. Molecular modelling and dynamics were used to predict the basis for the unusual substrate specificity: a P2 Ile residue positions the substrate optimally for interaction with catalytic residues of the enzyme, and the enzyme lacks an occluding loop His residue crucial for exopeptidase activity. The unique features of the enzyme, particularly with regard to its specificity and likely importance to a vital stage of the parasite’s life cycle, make it an excellent target for therapeutic inhibitors or vaccination.

Beckham, Simone A.; Piedrafita, David; Phillips, Carolyn I.; Samarawickrema, Nirma; Law, Ruby H.P.; Smooker, Peter M.; Quinsey, Noelene S.; Irving, James A.; Greenwood, Deanne; Verhelst, Steven H. L.; Bogyo, Matthew; Turk, Boris; Coetzer, Theresa H.; Wijeyewickrema, Lakshmi C.; Spithill, Terry W.; Pike, Robert N.

2012-01-01

148

Cytochrome P450 in fluke Opisthorchis felineus: identification and characterization.  

PubMed

Infection with the human liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus is a serious public health problem in Russia and other Eastern Europe countries. The aim of this work was to identify and sequence cytochrome P450 mRNA from O. felineus and to analyze its expression at different developmental stages. We found only one cytochrome P450 in O. felineus. It contains a conserved Pfam00067 domain which was typical of the CYP450 II eukaryotic microsomal type, and a putative transmembrane domain. Additionally, we identified a high degree of homology between a 3D model of O. felineus CYP450 and mammalian CYP2 structures. The level of O. felineus CYP mRNA expression in maritae (adult stage in definitive mammal host) is significantly higher than in metacercaria. This fact indicates an important role of this biotransformation enzyme in the biochemistry of the parasite at the maritae stage. PMID:22115821

Pakharukova, Maria Y; Ershov, Nikita I; Vorontsova, Elena V; Katokhin, Alexei V; Merkulova, Tatiana I; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A

2011-11-18

149

Discovery of Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae in freshwater fish in southern Cambodia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small liver flukes, Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverini, are fish-borne trematodes (FBTs) causing significant public health problems in Asia. While C. sinensis is distributing mainly in far east Asia, O. viverini is distributing in Indochina peninsula. Recently, however, the geographical distributions of those small liver flukes were proven to be far wider than expected. Nevertheless, little is known about the

Sarun Touch; Chalit Komalamisra; Prayong Radomyos; Jitra Waikagul

2009-01-01

150

Prevalence, distribution and pathological significance of the bile fluke Pseudamphistomum truncatum in Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) in Great Britain.  

PubMed

Postmortem examinations on 160 otters found dead in Great Britain from 2005 to 2007 showed a high prevalence of infection with the bile fluke Pseudamphistomum truncatum in otters from Somerset and Dorset but no infection in otters from other areas, including Cornwall, the western half of Devon, north-east England and Scotland. Cases were also recorded for the first time in Gloucestershire and East Anglia. Eighteen of the 28 infected otters were male and no cubs were infected, but there was no significant correlation between infection status and sex or age. There was a strong positive correlation between bile fluke infection and gall bladder pathology. Thirty otters had thickened gall bladders resulting from hyperplasia of the epithelial and smooth muscle layers, fibrosis and infiltration by inflammatory cells and 19 of these were infected. No flukes were detected in the other 11 otters with abnormal gall bladders, possibly as a result of a successful immune response. The majority of otters with thickened gall bladders were in good physical condition but a positive association was not confirmed statistically. Fluke infection was also detected in nine of the 130 otters with apparently normal gall bladders. Liver pathology ranged from mild bile duct hyperplasia and periportal fibrosis to severe sclerosing cholangitis, hepatocyte necrosis and bile stasis. No otters were found to have died as a result of fluke infection, but there was a negative association, approaching significance, between infection and body condition. PMID:19329809

Simpson, V R; Tomlinson, A J; Molenaar, F M

2009-03-28

151

Screening of the wormicidal Chinese raw drugs on Clonorchis sinensis.  

PubMed

The wormicidal effect on Clonorchis sinensis in boiled water extracts of 223 species (vegetable origin 206, animal origin 10, mineral origin 7) of raw drugs prescribed in Oriental medicine was observed in vitro. The wormicidal substances were detected from 31 of the above-mentioned species. The wormicidal substances extracted from Platycodon grandiflorum (radix), Schizandra chinensis (fruit), Polygala tenuifolia (herb) and Aster tataricus (radix) were most effective. Those from Smilax glabra (radix), Pueraria thunbergiana (flower, radix), Polygala tenuifolia (radix), Scutellaria baicalensis (radix), Prunus mume (fruit), Glycyrrhiza uralensis (radix), Angelica koreana (radix), Phytolacca esculenta (radix) and Cyrtomium fortunei (rhizoma) were effective. The rest of the raw drugs were less effective. PMID:6764091

Rhee, J K; Woo, K J; Baek, B K; Ahn, B J

1981-01-01

152

Manipulation of vascular function by blood flukes?  

PubMed Central

Schistosomes (blood flukes) are long lived, intravascular parasites that afflict ~200 million people worldwide. Here we review the potential ability of these parasites to exert control on local vascular physiology. We examine schistosome kallikrein-like proteins that drive vasodilation. We review biogenic amine metabolism in the parasites that involve the vasodilator histamine and its receptors and the vasoconstrictor serotonin and its receptor. Schistosomes can trigger the release of histamine from host cells and can import serotonin. We consider the ability of schistosomes to generate and release the eicosanoid vasodilators PGD2 and PGE2 and the vasoconstrictors LTB4 and LTC4. The literature on nitric oxide metabolism in these blood flukes is assessed. Finally the potential impact of other schistosome metabolic processes (e.g. exogenous adenosine generation and acetylcholine degradation) on vascular function is appraised. An increased understanding of these processes could lead to novel anti-parasitics as well as new therapies to treat vascular dysfunction.

Da'darah, Akram

2011-01-01

153

Paragonimus kellicotti flukes in Missouri, USA.  

PubMed

Paragonimiasis is an infection caused by lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. In Asia, P. westermani infections are relatively common because of dietary practices. However, in North America, cases of paragonimiasis, which are caused by P. kellicotti flukes, are rare. Only 7 autochthonous cases of paragonimiasis were reported during 1968-2008. In 2009, we reported 3 new case-patients with paragonimiasis who had been seen at our medical center over an 18-month period. Six additional case-patients were identified in St. Louis, Missouri, USA, and treated at Washington University-affiliated health centers in 2009-2010. We report detailed descriptions of these case-patients, which includes unusual clinical manifestations. We also describe public health interventions that were undertaken to inform the general public and physicians about the disease and its mode of transmission. PMID:22840191

Lane, Michael A; Marcos, Luis A; Onen, Nur F; Demertzis, Lee M; Hayes, Ericka V; Davila, Samuel Z; Nurutdinova, Diana R; Bailey, Thomas C; Weil, Gary J

2012-08-01

154

Foodborne Intestinal Flukes in Southeast Asia  

PubMed Central

In Southeast Asia, a total of 59 species of foodborne intestinal flukes have been known to occur in humans. The largest group is the family Heterophyidae, which constitutes 22 species belonging to 9 genera (Centrocestus, Haplorchis, Heterophyes, Heterophyopsis, Metagonimus, Procerovum, Pygidiopsis, Stellantchasmus, and Stictodora). The next is the family Echinostomatidae, which includes 20 species in 8 genera (Artyfechinostomum, Acanthoparyphium, Echinochasmus, Echinoparyphium, Echinostoma, Episthmium, Euparyphium, and Hypoderaeum). The family Plagiorchiidae follows the next containing 5 species in 1 genus (Plagiorchis). The family Lecithodendriidae includes 3 species in 2 genera (Phaneropsolus and Prosthodendrium). In 9 other families, 1 species in 1 genus each is involved; Cathaemaciidae (Cathaemacia), Fasciolidae (Fasciolopsis), Gastrodiscidae (Gastrodiscoides), Gymnophallidae (Gymnophalloides), Microphallidae (Spelotrema), Neodiplostomidae (Neodiplostomum), Paramphistomatidae (Fischoederius), Psilostomidae (Psilorchis), and Strigeidae (Cotylurus). Various types of foods are sources of human infections. They include freshwater fish, brackish water fish, fresh water snails, brackish water snails (including the oyster), amphibians, terrestrial snakes, aquatic insects, and aquatic plants. The reservoir hosts include various species of mammals or birds.The host-parasite relationships have been studied in Metagonimus yokogawai, Echinostoma hortense, Fasciolopsis buski, Neodiplostomum seoulense, and Gymnophalloides seoi; however, the pathogenicity of each parasite species and host mucosal defense mechanisms are yet poorly understood. Clinical aspects of each parasite infection need more clarification. Differential diagnosis by fecal examination is difficult because of morphological similarity of eggs. Praziquantel is effective for most intestinal fluke infections. Continued efforts to understand epidemiological significance of intestinal fluke infections, with detection of further human cases, are required.

Shin, Eun-Hee; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Rim, Han-Jong

2009-01-01

155

Comparative Morphology of Minute Intestinal Fluke Eggs That Can Occur in Human Stools in the Republic of Korea  

PubMed Central

The egg morphology of minute intestinal flukes (MIF) that can occur as human infections in the Republic of Korea, i.e., Metagonimus yokogawai, M. miyatai, M. takahashii, Heterophyes nocens, Heterophyopsis continua, Stellantchasmus falcatus, Stictodora fuscata, Pygidiopsis summa, and Gymnophalloides seoi, was studied in comparison with Clonorchis sinensis. The adult worms were obtained from residents of endemic areas, and their intrauterine eggs were studied and measured using light microscopy; the length, width, length-width ratio (LWR), and Faust-Meleney index (FMI). Several specimens were processed for scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and before gold-coating, the uterine portion of each fluke was etched with a sharp pin in order to expose the eggs. The MIF eggs were ovoid, pyriform, or elliptical with a size range of 21-35×12-21 µm. S. fuscata eggs revealed the highest FMI (largest in the area) and lowest LWR, whereas P. summa eggs showed the lowest FMI and medium LWR. SEM revealed that G. seoi and S. fuscata had remarkably clean shell surface lacking the muskmelon-like structure which is prominent in C. sinensis eggs. In Metagonimus spp., H. continua, H. nocens, and S. falcatus eggs, minute surface ridges were recognizable though less prominent compared with C. sinensis. On the surface of P. summa eggs, thread-like curly structures were characteristically seen. The results revealed that important differential keys for MIF eggs include the length, width, area (FMI), shape of the eggs, and the extent of the muskmelon-like structure or ridges on their shell surface and operculum.

Lee, Jin-Joo; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lim, Hyemi; Lee, Mi Youn; Choi, Sung-Yil; Shin, Eun-Hee

2012-01-01

156

Molecular cloning, expression, and characterization of cyclophilin A from Clonorchis sinensis.  

PubMed

This study described the recognization, cloning, and recombinant expression of cyclophilin A-like gene from Clonorchis sinensis adult complementary DNA library (CsCyPA) and its expression and secretion in adult. Western blotting demonstrated the recombinant CsCyPA could be recognized by sera of clonorchiasis patients and a sole protein of the same size in the excretory-secretory antigens of in vitro cultured adult could be recognized by antiserum raised against the recombinant CsCyPA. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the CsCyPA was secreted in scattered vesicles from subtegumental parenchyma cells to the surface of tegument and mainly released from the tegument. ELISA showed the serum levels of IgG against CsCyPA in clonorchiasis patients negatively correlated with worm loads. This study suggested that C. sinensis adult in biliary ducts could release CsCyPA without signal peptide through nonclassical secretory pathway into the liver and might play a role in inflammation and biliary epithelium proliferation and adenomatoid hyperplasia. PMID:21360097

Wu, Weihua; Chen, Jiajia; Zeng, Suxiang; Zhang, Zhaoping; Gan, Wenjia; Yu, Xinbing; Hu, Xuchu

2011-03-01

157

Comparative effect of mebendazole, albendazole, tribendimidine, and praziquantel in treatment of rats infected with Clonorchis sinensis.  

PubMed

The aim of the study is to understand the anti-Clonorchis sinensis properties of mebendazole and albendazole, and compare to praziquantel and tribendimidine. Two hundred and thirty rats were divided into five batches for experimental treatment. In four batches, each rat was infected orally with 50 or 100 C. sinensis metacercariae. Twenty-eight to 46 days post-infection, groups of rats were treated orally with single doses of mebendazole, albendazole, praziquantel, tribendimidine, or multiple daily doses of albendazole. While in the remaining batch, mebendazole or praziquantel was administered to groups of rats infected each with 50 metacercariae for 7 or 14 days. In each batch of test, untreated but infected rats served as control. All rats were euthanized 2-4 weeks post-drug administration for assessment of efficacy. In the first batch of test, rats treated with mebendazole or tribendimidine at single doses of 150, 75, and 37.5 mg/kg resulted in worm burden reductions of 99.0%, 94.0%, and 73.1%, or 98.0%, 80.6%, and 60.4%, respectively. When rats were treated with albendazole at the same dose levels, no or poor effect was seen. In the second batch of test, promising effect against adult C. sinensis in rats treated with mebendazole or tribendimidine at single doses of 100 and 50 mg/kg were also observed, but under the single dose of 25 mg/kg, only tribendimidine still remained the effect. In the third batch of test, the aforementioned three single dose levels of mebendazole, albendazole and praziquantel were applied. Again, mebendazole exhibited higher effect and albendazole exhibited no or poor effect. While praziquantel, administered at a higher dose of 300 mg/kg, also showed promising effect. In the fourth batch of test, oral administration of albendazole at a daily dose of 150 or 100 mg/kg for 2 or 3 days resulted in moderate or higher efficacy with worm burden reductions of 79.2% and 91.9%, respectively. In the fifth batch of test, single mebendazole doses of 150 or 75 mg/kg exhibited promising effect against 14-day-old C. sinensis in rats with worm burden reductions of 95.3% and 86.4%, respectively, but mebendazole was short of the effect against 7-day-old worms. Under the same dose level, praziquantel possessed an effect against both 7- and 14-day-old juvenile C. sinensis. The results confirm that in infected rats, mebendazole administered orally at a single dose of 150 mg/kg exhibits potential effect against juvenile (14-day-old) and adult C. sinensis. No or less effect is obtained from albendazole under the same dose levels, but extension of treatment course may enhance the effect of albendazole against this species of fluke. The single effective dose ranges of mebendazole and tribendimidine against C. sinensis in rats are similar with a broad window, while the window for praziquantel is narrow. PMID:21136080

Xiao, Shu-hua; Xue, Jian; Xu, Li-li; Zhang, Yong-nian; Qiang, Hui-qin

2010-12-07

158

Stage-specific expression, immunolocalization of Clonorchis sinensis lysophospholipase and its potential role in hepatic fibrosis.  

PubMed

Lysophospholipase, belonging to the complex family of phospholipases, is supposed to play a vital role in virulence and pathogenesis of parasites and fungi. In the current study, the potential role of Clonorchis sinensis lysophospholipase (CslysoPLA) in hepatic fibrosis induced by C. sinensis was explored for the first time. In the liver of the cat infected with C. sinensis, CslysoPLA was recognized in the lumen between adult worms and surrounding bile duct epithelia together with some inside the cells by means of immunolocalization. Both Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8 assay) and cell cycle analysis of human hepatic stellate cell line LX-2 showed that a higher percentage of cells were at proliferation phase after incubation with lower concentrations of recombinant CslysoPLA (rCslysoPLA). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) demonstrated an upregulation in fibrogenic genes of smooth muscle ?-actin, collagen III, matrix metalloproteinase 2 and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase II in LX-2 treated with rCslysoPLA. Moreover, human biliary epithelial cell line 5100 proliferated significantly in response to rCslysoPLA. Notably, CslysoPLA was localized in the adenomatoid hyperplastic tissue within the intrahepatic bile duct of experimentally infected rats by immunolocalization analysis. In addition, quantitative RT-PCR implied that CslysoPLA was differentially expressed at the developmental stages of C. sinensis (metacercariae, adult worms and eggs), with the highest level at metacercariae stage. Immunolocalization analysis showed that CslysoPLA was distributed in the intestine, vitelline gland, tegument and eggs in the adult worms and in the tegument and vitelline gland in the metacercariae, respectively. Collectively, it suggests that CslysoPLA might be involved in the initiation and promotion of C. sinensis-related human hepatic fibrosis and advance future studies on its promotion to C. sinensis-induced cholangiocarcinogenesis. PMID:23183703

Zhang, Fan; Liang, Pei; Chen, Wenjun; Wang, Xiaoyun; Hu, Yue; Liang, Chi; Sun, Jiufeng; Huang, Yan; Li, Ran; Li, Xuerong; Xu, Jin; Yu, Xinbing

2012-11-25

159

Clonorchis sinensis: Molecular Cloning and Characterization of 28-kDa Glutathione S-Transferase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kang, S-Y., Ahn, I.-Y., Park, C-Y., Chung, Y-B., Hong, S.-T., Kong, Y., Cho, S-Y., and Hong, S-J. 2001. Clonorchis sinensis: Molecular cloning and characterization of 28-kDa glutathione S-transferase. Experimental Parasitology97, 186–195. A 28-kDa glutathione S-transferase (Cs28GST) was purified from a Clonorchis sinensis cytosolic fraction through anion-exchange and glutathione-affinity column chromatographies. A monoclonal antibody raised against Cs28GST reacted specifically to the

Shin-Yong Kang; Il-Young Ahn; Chi-Young Park; Young-Bae Chung; Sung-Tae Hong; Yoon Kong; Seung-Yull Cho; Sung-Jong Hong

2001-01-01

160

Molecular cloning and characterization of a paramyosin from Clonorchis sinensis.  

PubMed

Paramyosin is a myofibrillar protein present in helminth parasites and plays multifunctional roles in host-parasite interactions. In this study, we identified the gene encoding paramyosin of Clonorchis sinensis (CsPmy) and characterized biochemical and immunological properties of its recombinant protein. CsPmy showed a high level of sequence identity with paramyosin from other helminth parasites. Recombinant CsPmy (rCsPmy) expressed in bacteria had an approximate molecular weight of 100 kDa and bound both human collagen and complement 9. The protein was constitutively expressed in various developmental stages of the parasite. Imunofluorescence analysis revealed that CsPmy was mainly localized in the tegument, subtegumental muscles, and the muscle layer surrounding the intestine of the parasite. The rCsPmy showed high levels of positive reactions (74.6%, 56/75) against sera from patients with clonorchiasis. Immunization of experimental rats with rCsPmy evoked high levels of IgG production. These results collectively suggest that CsPmy is a multifunctional protein that not only contributes to the muscle layer structure but also to non-muscular functions in host-parasite interactions. Successful induction of host IgG production also suggests that CsPmy can be applied as a diagnostic antigen and/or vaccine candidate for clonorchiasis. PMID:19967083

Park, Tae-Joon; Kang, Jung-Mi; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Sohn, Woon-Mok

2009-12-01

161

Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a Paramyosin from Clonorchis sinensis  

PubMed Central

Paramyosin is a myofibrillar protein present in helminth parasites and plays multifunctional roles in host-parasite interactions. In this study, we identified the gene encoding paramyosin of Clonorchis sinensis (CsPmy) and characterized biochemical and immunological properties of its recombinant protein. CsPmy showed a high level of sequence identity with paramyosin from other helminth parasites. Recombinant CsPmy (rCsPmy) expressed in bacteria had an approximate molecular weight of 100 kDa and bound both human collagen and complement 9. The protein was constitutively expressed in various developmental stages of the parasite. Imunofluorescence analysis revealed that CsPmy was mainly localized in the tegument, subtegumental muscles, and the muscle layer surrounding the intestine of the parasite. The rCsPmy showed high levels of positive reactions (74.6%, 56/75) against sera from patients with clonorchiasis. Immunization of experimental rats with rCsPmy evoked high levels of IgG production. These results collectively suggest that CsPmy is a multifunctional protein that not only contributes to the muscle layer structure but also to non-muscular functions in host-parasite interactions. Successful induction of host IgG production also suggests that CsPmy can be applied as a diagnostic antigen and/or vaccine candidate for clonorchiasis.

Park, Tae-Joon; Kang, Jung-Mi; Na, Byoung-Kuk

2009-01-01

162

Exome sequencing of liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Opisthorchis viverrini-related cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a fatal bile duct cancer, is a major public health concern in areas endemic for this parasite. We report here whole-exome sequencing of eight O. viverrini-related tumors and matched normal tissue. We identified and validated 206 somatic mutations in 187 genes using Sanger sequencing and selected 15 genes for mutation prevalence screening in an additional 46 individuals with CCA (cases). In addition to the known cancer-related genes TP53 (mutated in 44.4% of cases), KRAS (16.7%) and SMAD4 (16.7%), we identified somatic mutations in 10 newly implicated genes in 14.8-3.7% of cases. These included inactivating mutations in MLL3 (in 14.8% of cases), ROBO2 (9.3%), RNF43 (9.3%) and PEG3 (5.6%), and activating mutations in the GNAS oncogene (9.3%). These genes have functions that can be broadly grouped into three biological classes: (i) deactivation of histone modifiers, (ii) activation of G protein signaling and (iii) loss of genome stability. This study provides insight into the mutational landscape contributing to O. viverrini-related CCA. PMID:22561520

Ong, Choon Kiat; Subimerb, Chutima; Pairojkul, Chawalit; Wongkham, Sopit; Cutcutache, Ioana; Yu, Willie; McPherson, John R; Allen, George E; Ng, Cedric Chuan Young; Wong, Bernice Huimin; Myint, Swe Swe; Rajasegaran, Vikneswari; Heng, Hong Lee; Gan, Anna; Zang, Zhi Jiang; Wu, Yingting; Wu, Jeanie; Lee, Ming Hui; Huang, DaChuan; Ong, Pauline; Chan-on, Waraporn; Cao, Yun; Qian, Chao-Nan; Lim, Kiat Hon; Ooi, Aikseng; Dykema, Karl; Furge, Kyle; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Sripa, Banchob; Wongkham, Chaisiri; Yongvanit, Puangrat; Futreal, P Andrew; Bhudhisawasdi, Vajarabhongsa; Rozen, Steve; Tan, Patrick; Teh, Bin Tean

2012-05-06

163

Improving animal and human health through understanding liver fluke immunology.  

PubMed

Sheep, goats and cattle represent the most numerous and economically important agricultural species worldwide used as sources for milk, fibre and red meat. In addition, in the developing world, these species often represent the sole asset base for small-holder livestock farmers and cattle/buffaloes often provide the majority of draught power for crop production. Production losses caused by helminth diseases of these animals are a major factor in extending the cycle of poverty in developing countries and a major food security issue for developed economies. Fasciola spp. are one of the most important zoonotic diseases with a global economic impact in livestock production systems and a poorly defined but direct effect on human health. Improvements in human and animal health will require a concerted research effort into the development of new accurate and simple diagnostic tests and increased vaccine and drug development against Fasciola infections. Here, the use of definitive natural host breeds with contrasting resistance to Fasciola infections is discussed as a resource to contrast parasite-host interactions and identify parasite immune evasion strategies. Such studies are likely to boost the discovery of new vaccine, drug and diagnostic candidates and provide the foundation for future genetic selection of resistant animals. PMID:20626812

Piedrafita, D; Spithill, T W; Smith, R E; Raadsma, H W

2010-08-01

164

Localisation of actin in the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult and 3-week-old juvenileFasciola hepatica were examined for the presence of the cytoskeletal protein actin. Techniques of direct fluorescence using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-phalloidin and of indirect immunofluorescence using a monoclonal anti-actin antibody (MAA) demonstrated actin in the testes, sub-tegumental and gut musculature, tegumental cell bodies and tegumental spines. In contrast, polyclonal anti-actin antibody (PAA) revealed immunostaining only in the vitellaria.

A. W. Stitt; I. Fairweather; A. G. Trudgett; C. F. Johnston; S. M. L. Anderson

1992-01-01

165

Molecular cloning and immunological characterization of phosphoglycerate kinase from Clonorchis sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parasite Clonorchis sinensis was determined to utilize a large amount of external glucose to carry its energy metabolism. Phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK), a glycolytic enzyme, found in many parasites, has been identified as one of the candidate molecules distinguished from human counterparts for vaccine and drug developments. A cDNA clone purified by screening a C. sinensis cDNA library using a

Sung-Jong Hong; Kee-Young Seong; Woon-Mok Sohn; Kye-Yong Song

2000-01-01

166

Clonorchis sinensis enolase: Identification and biochemical characterization of a glycolytic enzyme from excretory\\/secretory products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enolase plays a key role in energy metabolism and development of most organisms. We isolated a gene encoding enolase from Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) adult cDNA library and expressed the recombinant protein in Escherichia coli. C. sinensis enolase (Csenolase) was identified as both an excretory\\/secretory product and a tegumental component of C. sinensis by western blot analysis. The transcriptional level

Xiaoyun Wang; Wenjun Chen; Fengyu Hu; Chuanhuan Deng; Chenhui Zhou; Xiaoli Lv; Yongxiu Fan; Jingtao Men; Yan Huang; Jiufeng Sun; Dong Hu; Jingfang Chen; Yabo Yang; Chi Liang; Huanqin Zheng; Xuchu Hu; Jin Xu; Zhongdao Wu; Xinbing Yu

2011-01-01

167

Identification and functional characterization of CsStefin-1, a cysteine protease inhibitor of Clonorchis sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cathepsin Fs of Clonorchis sinensis (CsCFs) are major secreted proteins that are expressed in the intestine of the parasite and play pivotal roles in parasite nutrition and host–parasite interactions. However, strict regulation of their activities is also essential to minimize inadequate superfluous damage to the parasite and host. In this study, we identified and characterized a novel cysteine protease inhibitor

Jung-Mi Kang; Kon-Ho Lee; Woon-Mok Sohn; Byoung-Kuk Na

2011-01-01

168

In vitro maintenance of clonorchis sinensis adult worms.  

PubMed

Clonorchis sinensis is a biological carcinogen inducing human cholangiocarcinoma, and clonorchiasis is one of the important endemic infectious diseases in East Asia. The present study investigated survival longevity of C. sinensis adult worms in various in vitro conditions to find the best way of keeping the worms longer. The worms were maintained in 0.85% NaCl, 1×PBS, 1×Locke's solution, RPMI-1640, DMEM, and IMDM media, and in 1×Locke's solution with different supplements. All of the worms died within 3 and 7 days in 0.85% NaCl and 1×PBS, respectively, but survived up to 57 days in 1×Locke's solution. The worms lived for 106 days in DMEM, and 114 days in both RPMI-1640 and IMDM media. The survival rate in RPMI-1640 medium was the highest (50%) compared to that in DMEM (20±10%) and in IMDM (33.3±25.2%) after 3 months. The 1×Locke's solution with 0.005% bovine bile supplement showed increased duration of maximum survival from 42 days to 70 days. Higher concentration of bile supplements than 0.005% or addition of glucose were disadvantageous for the worm survival. The worms died rapidly in solutions containing L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid, and adenine compared to L-arginine, L-serine, and L-tryptophan. In conclusion, the 1×Locke's solution best supports the worms alive among inorganic solutions for 57 days, and the RPMI-1640 medium maintains living C. sinensis adults better and longer up to 114 days in vitro than other media. PMID:23230328

Uddin, Md Hafiz; Li, Shunyu; Bae, Young Mee; Choi, Min-Ho; Hong, Sung-Tae

2012-11-26

169

In Vitro Maintenance of Clonorchis sinensis Adult Worms  

PubMed Central

Clonorchis sinensis is a biological carcinogen inducing human cholangiocarcinoma, and clonorchiasis is one of the important endemic infectious diseases in East Asia. The present study investigated survival longevity of C. sinensis adult worms in various in vitro conditions to find the best way of keeping the worms longer. The worms were maintained in 0.85% NaCl, 1×PBS, 1×Locke's solution, RPMI-1640, DMEM, and IMDM media, and in 1×Locke's solution with different supplements. All of the worms died within 3 and 7 days in 0.85% NaCl and 1×PBS, respectively, but survived up to 57 days in 1×Locke's solution. The worms lived for 106 days in DMEM, and 114 days in both RPMI-1640 and IMDM media. The survival rate in RPMI-1640 medium was the highest (50%) compared to that in DMEM (20±10%) and in IMDM (33.3±25.2%) after 3 months. The 1×Locke's solution with 0.005% bovine bile supplement showed increased duration of maximum survival from 42 days to 70 days. Higher concentration of bile supplements than 0.005% or addition of glucose were disadvantageous for the worm survival. The worms died rapidly in solutions containing L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid, and adenine compared to L-arginine, L-serine, and L-tryptophan. In conclusion, the 1×Locke's solution best supports the worms alive among inorganic solutions for 57 days, and the RPMI-1640 medium maintains living C. sinensis adults better and longer up to 114 days in vitro than other media.

Uddin, Md. Hafiz; Li, Shunyu; Bae, Young Mee; Choi, Min-Ho

2012-01-01

170

Molecular identification, immunolocalization, and characterization of Clonorchis sinensis calmodulin.  

PubMed

One cDNA clone (Cs18h09) encoding Clonorchis sinensis calmodulin (CsCaM) was isolated from our adult cDNA plasmid library. The open reading frame of CsCaM contains 450 bp which encodes 149 amino acids. CsCaM protein comprises four calcium-binding EF-hand motifs. The amino acid sequence of CsCaM shares very high homology with other species. Quantitative RT-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed that CsCaM mRNA was constitutively transcribed in development cycle stages of the parasite, including adult worm, metacercaria, excysted metacercaria, and egg. In addition, recombinant CsCaM (rCsCaM) was expressed as a soluble protein and anti-rCsCaM rat serum could detect CsCaM in the C. sinensis somatic extracts but not in the C. sinensis excretory-secretory products (ESPs). Moreover, immunolocalization assay showed that CsCaM was located in tegument, intestine, pharynx, and eggs. Furthermore, rCsCaM was found to bind calcium ion (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+) in electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Ca2+ binding increased the ability of rCsCaM to bind the hydrophobic fluorescent probe 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulphonate, causing a blue shift in the fluorescence emission from 540 to 515 nm with an excitation wavelength of 380 nm and substantial increase in fluorescence intensity but not Mg2+. Collectively, here we showed the basic characterization of CsCaM and inferred that CsCaM could be a Ca2+ sensor protein, and CsCaM may possibly participate in growth and development of adult worm and egg of C. sinensis through binding Ca2+. PMID:23417096

Zhou, Juanjuan; Sun, Jiufeng; Huang, Yan; Zhou, Chenhui; Liang, Pei; Zheng, Minghui; Liang, Chi; Xu, Jin; Li, Xuerong; Yu, Xinbing

2013-02-17

171

The in vitro and in vivo effect of tribendimidine and its metabolites against Clonorchis sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to understand the in vitro and in vivo effect of tribendimidine (TBD) and its metabolites of\\u000a p-(1-dimethylamino ethylimino)aniline (aminoamidine, deacylated amidantel, BAY d 9216, dADT), acetylated dADT (AdADT), terephthalaldehyde\\u000a (TPAL), and terephthalic acid (TPAC) against adult Clonorchis sinensis. In in vitro test, the adults of C. sinensis were placed to each of the 24

Shu-hua Xiao; Jian Xue; Li-li Xu; Qi Zheng; Hui-qin Qiang; Yong-nian Zhang

2009-01-01

172

Clonorchis sinensis: molecular cloning and functional expression of novel cytosolic malate dehydrogenase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NAD-dependent cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (cMDH, EC 1.1.1.37) plays a pivotal role in the malate–aspartate shuttle pathway that operates in a metabolic coordination between cytosol and mitochondria, and thus is crucial for the survival and pathogenicity of the parasite. In the high throughput sequencing of the cDNA library constructed from the adult stage of Clonorchis sinensis, a cDNA clone containing

Nancai Zheng; Jin Xu; Zhongdao Wu; Jinzhong Chen; Xuchu Hu; Linxia Song; Guang Yang; Chaoneng Ji; Shouyi Chen; Shaohua Gu; Kang Ying; Xinbing Yu

2005-01-01

173

Comparative effect of mebendazole, albendazole, tribendimidine, and praziquantel in treatment of rats infected with Clonorchis sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study is to understand the anti-Clonorchis sinensis properties of mebendazole and albendazole, and compare to praziquantel and tribendimidine. Two hundred and thirty rats were\\u000a divided into five batches for experimental treatment. In four batches, each rat was infected orally with 50 or 100 C. sinensis metacercariae. Twenty-eight to 46 days post-infection, groups of rats were treated orally

Shu-hua Xiao; Jian Xue; Li-li Xu; Yong-nian Zhang; Hui-qin Qiang

2011-01-01

174

Molecular characterization and serodiagnosis analysis of a novel lysophospholipase from Clonorchis sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cDNA clone encoding a novel lysophospholipase with a predicted molecular weight of 25.2 kDa was isolated from a Clonorchis sinensis adult cDNA library. The enzyme activity of the recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli was determined using phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine as substrates. Western blotting analysis indicated that\\u000a it belonged to excretory\\/secretory proteins of the adults. The sensitivity and specificity of

Changling Ma; Xuchu Hu; Fengyu Hu; Yanwen Li; Xiaoxiang Chen; Zhenwen Zhou; Fangli Lu; Jin Xu; Zhongdao Wu; Xinbing Yu

2007-01-01

175

Differential gene expression profiling in human cholangiocarcinoma cells treated with Clonorchis sinensis excretory-secretory products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clonorchiasis is associated with bile duct malignancy and the subsequent development of cholangiocarcinoma. Although this\\u000a is likely caused by adult Clonorchis sinensis and its excretory–secretory products (ESP), the precise molecular mechanisms remain obscure. To evaluate the effect of C. sinensis infection on differential gene expression in host hepatocytes, we examined the kinetics of changes in gene expression in\\u000a the human

Jhang Ho Pak; Dong-Wook Kim; Ju Hyun Moon; Joo-Hyun Nam; Jong-Hyeok Kim; Jung Won Ju; Tong-Soo Kim; Sang-Beom Seo

2009-01-01

176

Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel adenylate kinase 3 gene from Clonorchis sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adenylate kinase (AK) is a ubiquitous enzyme that contributes to the homeostasis of adenine nucleotides in living cells. AK catalyzes reversible high energy phosphoryl transfer reactions between ATP (or GTP) and AMP to generate ADP (or GDP). From a Clonorchis sinensis adult worm cDNA library, we isolated a cDNA clone encoding a novel AK3 isozyme. The 956 bp cDNA encodes a

Guang Yang; Xinbing Yu; Zhongdao Wu; Jin Xu; Linxia Song; Hongmei Zhang; Xuchu Hu; Nancai Zheng; Lingchen Guo; Jian Xu; Jianfeng Dai; Chaoneng Ji; Shaohua Gu; Kang Ying

2005-01-01

177

Molecular cloning and characterization of a mu-class glutathione S-transferase from Clonorchis sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In biliary passages, Clonorchis sinensis causes epithelial hyperplasia and is assumed to promote carcinogenesis. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is an antioxidant enzyme involved in phase II defense in trematodes. A clone (pcsGSTM1) encoding a GST was identified by screening a C. sinensis cDNA library with a PCR-synthesized cDNA probe. The predicted amino acid sequence encoded by pcsGSTM1 cDNA had a high

Sung-Jong Hong; Ji-Yun Lee; Dong-Hwa Lee; Woon-Mok Sohn; Seung-Yull Cho

2001-01-01

178

Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel lactate dehydrogenase gene from Clonorchis sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

From a Clonorchis sinensis adult worm cDNA library, we isolated a cDNA clone encoding a novel lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) gene which encoded a putative protein with a predicted molecular weight of 35.6 kDa. The optimum pH and temperature for the enzyme were 7.5 and 50°C in the pyruvate reduction while 11 and 80°C in the lactate oxidation reaction, respectively. CsLDH showed

Guang Yang; Chunxia Jing; Peixian Zhu; Xuchu Hu; Jin Xu; Zhongdao Wu; Xinbing Yu

2006-01-01

179

Cloning and characterization of Clonorchis sinensis myoglobin using immune sera against excretory–secretory antigens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clonorchis sinensis excretory–secretory (ES) antigens were separated by gradient SDS-PAGE and the antigenic protein isolated at 21 kDa was injected into rats. A C. sinensis cDNA library was then immunoscreened with sera from the 21-kDa antigenic protein-immunized rats. The selected genes, which were named C. sinensis myoglobin, contained a single open reading frame of 450 base pairs encoding 150 amino acids. A single

Seobo Sim; Gab-Man Park; Tai-Soon Yong

2003-01-01

180

Molecular cloning and immunolocalization of the 17 kDa myoglobin of Clonorchis sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We purified the 17 kDa protein abundant in Clonorchis sinensis crude extracts. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of this protein was determined and an oligonucleotide probe synthesized. Using this probe, the cDNA encoding the protein was cloned and sequenced from the C. sinensis cDNA library. It was found to consist of a total of 150 amino acids and to have 41%

Young-Bae Chung; Hyun-Jong Yang; Sung-Jong Hong; Shin-Yong Kang; Mejeong Lee; Tae Yun Kim; Min-Ho Choi; Jong-Yil Chai; Sung-Tae Hong

2003-01-01

181

Cloning, characterization, and expression of a novel secretory lipase-like gene from Clonorchis sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A secretory lipase-like gene was isolated from total cDNA of adult Clonorchis sinensis. The gene has an open reading frame of 1,218 bp long and encodes for a protein of 406 amino acids including a putative signal\\u000a peptide of 20 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence including signal peptide has 42–45% identity with lipase of other\\u000a species and two typical

Fengyu Hu; Wanshan Chen; Linhua Li; Yecheng Lu; Weinan Song; Yanling Kuang; Fuchun Zhang

2009-01-01

182

Characterization of partially purified 8 kDa antigenic protein of Clonorchis sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 8 kDa antigenic protein of Clonorchis sinensis was partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and subsequently by a column chromatographic steps. The purified protein was separated into 7 and 8 kDa protein bands through SDS-tricine gel electrophoresis, while the protein was found to migrate to a 8 kDa band in 7.5-15% SDS-PAGE. The molecular weight of the antigen was

Young-Bae Chung; Mejeong Lee; Hyun-Jong Yang; Byung-Suk Chung; Shun-Yu Lee; Min-Ho Choi; Sung-Tae Hong

2002-01-01

183

Clonorchis sinensis: immunolocalization of 26 kDa glutathione S-transferase in adult worms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mu-class glutathione S-transferase (Cs26GST) of molecular mass 26kDa was characterized from Clonorchis sinensis. In adult C. sinensis, the distribution of the Cs26GST was investigated by immuno-histochemistry and electron microscopy. Cs26GST was localized to the tegument and parenchyma. Immunogold labeling was strong in the tegumental cell bodies and moderate in the tegument and ova in the oviduct. It is suggested

Sung-Jong Hong; Tae Yun Kim; Shin-Yong Kang; Jae-Ran Yu; Kye-Yong Song; Seung-Yull Cho

2002-01-01

184

Molecular cloning, expression, and characterization of cyclophilin A from Clonorchis sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study described the recognization, cloning, and recombinant expression of cyclophilin A-like gene from Clonorchis sinensis adult complementary DNA library (CsCyPA) and its expression and secretion in adult. Western blotting demonstrated the recombinant\\u000a CsCyPA could be recognized by sera of clonorchiasis patients and a sole protein of the same size in the excretory-secretory\\u000a antigens of in vitro cultured adult could

Weihua Wu; Jiajia Chen; Suxiang Zeng; Zhaoping Zhang; Wenjia Gan; Xinbing Yu; Xuchu Hu

185

Molecular characterization and expression of the MYND-ZF gene from Clonorchis sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MYND-type zinc finger protein (MYND-ZF) is a large group of proteins containing the MYND domain which play an important\\u000a role in protein–protein interactions. A cDNA clone encoding a novel MYND-ZF was isolated and identified from a Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) adult cDNA library. The open reading frame of this novel cDNA sequence contains 1,440 base pairs with a putative

Lexun Wang; Xinbing Yu; Yabo Yang; Jingfang Chen; Dong Hu; Chuanhuan Deng; Xiao Yang; Xuchu Hu; Jin Xu

2010-01-01

186

Identification and characterization of a serine protease inhibitor of Clonorchis sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gene encoding a serine protease inhibitor of Clonorchis sinensis (CsSERPIN) was identified and characterized. CsSERPIN contained an open reading frame of 1158bp that encoded 385 amino acid residues. Sequence analysis of the primary structure of CsSERPIN revealed that it had essential structural motifs including a reactive central loop (RCL), which well conserved in the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) superfamily.

Jung-Mi Kang; Woon-Mok Sohn; Jung-Won Ju; Tong-Soo Kim; Byoung-Kuk Na

2010-01-01

187

Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel ras-related protein (rap2) from Clonorchis sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ras are key components of diverse signal transduction pathways and play important roles in growth and development. To know\\u000a about growth regulation in Clonorchis sinensis, we have identified a full-length sequence encoding a ras-related protein (rap2) from our adult cDNA library. The open reading\\u000a frame contains 561 bp encoding 186 amino acids. The hypothetical amino acid sequence shared high identities with

Wenjun Chen; Xiaoyun Wang; Chuanhuan Deng; Xiaoli Lv; Yongxiu Fan; Jingtao Men; Chi Liang; Xinbing Yu

2011-01-01

188

The inability of tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta and fluke Dicrocoelium dendriticum to metabolize praziquantel.  

PubMed

Biotransformation enzymes can, to a certain extent, protect parasitic worms against the toxic effects of anthelmintics and can contribute to drug-resistance development. The objective of our work was (1) to find and identify phase I and II metabolites of the anthelmintic praziquantel (PZQ) formed by the lancet fluke (Dicrocoelium dendriticum) and the rat tapeworm (Hymenolepis diminuta) and (2) to compare PZQ metabolites in helminths with PZQ biotransformation in rat as host species. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS/MS) was used for this purpose. During in vitro incubations, mitochondria-like and microsomes-like fractions (prepared from homogenates of adult worms or from rat liver homogenate) were incubated with 10 and 100 ?M PZQ. Liquid/liquid extraction was used for samples during in vitro experiments. In the ex vivo study, living D. dendriticum and H. diminuta adults were incubated in RPMI-1640 medium in the presence of 50 nM or 100 nM PZQ for 24h. After incubation, the worms were removed from the medium and homogenized. Homogenates of worms, medium from the incubation of worms or rat hepatocytes and rat urine (collected during 24h after oral PZQ administration) were separately extracted using solid-phase extraction. The results showed that both D. dendriticum and H. diminuta enzymatic systems are not able to metabolize PZQ. On the other hand, thirty one different phase I and four phase II PZQ metabolites were detected in rat samples using UHPLC/MS/MS analyses. These results show that our experimental helminths, as the members of tapeworm and fluke groups of parasites, are not able to deactivate PZQ, and that the biotransformation enzymes of the studied helminths do not contribute to PZQ-resistance. PMID:21996005

Vok?ál, Ivan; Jirásko, Robert; Jedli?ková, Veronika; Bártíková, Hana; Skálová, Lenka; Lamka, Ji?í; Hol?apek, Michal; Szotáková, Barbora

2011-09-22

189

Cathepsin B proteases of flukes: the key to facilitating parasite control?  

PubMed

Cysteine proteases are important virulence factors for parasites. This review will focus on the cathepsin B proteases of trematodes (also known as flukes) which are abundant in juvenile and immature flukes. Recent research, primarily in Fasciola, using inhibitors, RNA interference (RNAi) and vaccination studies indicates that cathepsin Bs play a key role in the biology of trematodes. As these proteases are largely expressed by infective parasite stages, their inactivation by chemotherapy or vaccination will greatly reduce the damage wrought by flukes as they invade host tissues. This validates cathepsin Bs as key strategic targets for fluke control. PMID:20580610

Smooker, Peter M; Jayaraj, Rama; Pike, Robert N; Spithill, Terry W

2010-06-30

190

Molecular cloning, expression, and immunolocalization of protein disulfide isomerase in excretory-secretory products from Clonorchis sinensis.  

PubMed

Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is an essential catalyst of the endoplasmic reticulum with folding and chaperone activities in different biological systems. Here, PDI of Clonorchis sinensis (CsPDI) was isolated from the cDNA library of adult C. sinensis. The open reading frame contains 1,317 bp encoding 438 amino acids and shares 53 %, 49 %, and 43 % identity with PDI from Bos taurus, Homo sapiens, and Schistosoma mansoni, respectively. Two catalytic thioredoxin motifs CxxC were found in this sequence, which were characteristic domains of thioredoxin superfamily. The CsPDI protein was expressed and purified from Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). According to western blotting analysis, the recombinant CsPDI could be recognized by anti-CsPDI rat serum, anti-excretory/secretory products rat serum, and serum of rat infected with C. sinensis, respectively. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that transcription level of CsPDI in the metacercaria stage was six and four times higher than that in the adult worm and egg stage, respectively. Immunolocalization analysis showed CsPDI could be detected in the intestine, vitellarium, and intrauterine eggs of adult worm, as well as in the cyst wall and vitellarium of metacercaria. In addition, the strong fluorescence signal was observed both on the wall of bile duct and in the lumen of liver tissue of C. sinensis-infected cat. Those results demonstrated that CsPDI was a component of C. sinensis excretory-secretory products. The present study will enhance our understanding of biological functions of CsPDI and pave the way for further studies on host-parasite interaction during C. sinensis infection. PMID:22538482

Hu, Yue; Huang, Lisi; Huang, Yan; He, Lei; Zhang, Fan; Li, Wenfang; Liang, Pei; Li, Ran; Sun, Jiufeng; Wang, Xiaoyun; Liang, Chi; Li, Xuerong; Yu, Xinbing

2012-04-27

191

A natural focus of the blood fluke Orientobilharzia turkestanica (Skrjabin, 1913) (Trematoda: Schistosomatidae) in red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Hungary.  

PubMed

The large American liver fluke, Fascioloides magna - introduced to Europe before 1875 - was the first non-indigenous trematode to be detected in Hungarian cervids in 1995. As the most precious deer population became infected in the Gemenc game reserve a study has been launched to assess the extent and the effect of F. magna infections and to examine the options for the treatment of infected deer populations. Livers of red deer shot during regular hunting were submitted for the survey and were investigated by necropsy for the presence of F. magna and other liver dwelling trematodes. Recovered parasites were counted, sorted and stored in 70% ethanol. Unexpectedly, blood flukes were found in liver blood vessels at necropsy. They were identified as Orientobilharzia turkestanica (Skrjabin, 1913) by their morphological features as well as by molecular methods. This parasite is widespread in the middle belt of Asia from Korea to the eastern part of Turkey and infects mainly bovids. It was never found in red deer until now and this is the first report of its occurrence in Hungary and Europe. A subsequent search for the local intermediate host of O. turkestanica in the Gemenc area identified only the pulmonate snail Radix auricularia (Linnaeus, 1758) [syn: Lymnaea auricularia] as a vector capable of producing cercariae of this trematode. Cercariae of O. turkestanica were examined morphologically and were confirmed to be the larvae of this trematode by PCR. O. turkestanica appears to be fairly common in red deer of the Gemenc area. No clinical or pathological effect of the infection could be identified in this study. A form of cercarial dermatitis locally called "water mange" was formerly attributed to the larvae of avian shistosomes. It regularly occurred among fishermen fishing in shallow ponds remaining after floods along the Danube in the Gemenc area. This isolated habitat of O. turkestanica presents an exceptional opportunity to study epidemical situations of typical mammalian schistosomosis under temperate climatic conditions. PMID:20347227

Majoros, Gábor; Dán, Adám; Erdélyi, Károly

2010-03-01

192

Molecular cloning and characterization of WD40-repeat protein from Clonorchis sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

WD40-repeat proteins have four to eight repeating units flanked by Gly-His (GH) and Trp-Asp (WD) at both termini and folds\\u000a into a ?-propeller. A polypeptide deduced from a Clonorchis sinensis cDNA clone analyzed to have seven WD40-repeats and predicted to form a ?-propeller (CsWD1). The CsWD1 protein was expressed\\u000a stage-specifically in the metacercariae and localized in the tegumental syncytium. The

Pyo Yun Cho; Tea Im Kim; Won Gi Yoo; Shunyu Li; Sung-Jong Hong; Tae Yun Kim; Young Soon Park; Kye-Yong Song; Min-Ho Choi; Sung-Tae Hong; Yong Je Chung; Philip T. LoVerde; Ahmed Osman

2007-01-01

193

Molecular cloning and characterization of a phosphoglycerate mutase gene from Clonorchis sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphoglycerate mutase (PGM) is a widely distributed glycolytic enzyme. Two known distinct classes of PGM enzymes were identified,\\u000a a cofactor-dependent one (dPGM) and a cofactor-independent one (iPGM). A complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding a PGM was cloned\\u000a from a Clonorchis sinensis cDNA library by large-scale sequencing. This new cDNA contains 955 bp with a putative open reading frame of 256 amino acids,

Linxia Song; Zhenbiao Xu; Xinbing Yu

2007-01-01

194

Molecular analysis of aspermic Fasciola flukes from Korea on the basis of the nuclear ITS1 region and mitochondrial DNA markers and comparison with Japanese aspermic Fasciola flukes.  

PubMed

It has been speculated that populations of aspermic Fasciola flukes in Korea and Japan have a close phylogenetic relationship. To evaluate this, we analyzed 33 Korean aspermic Fasciola flukes on the basis of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) and cytochrome c oxidase 1 (cox1) sequences. Fh, Fg, and Fh/Fg types were detected in the ITS1 region and displayed the fragment patterns of F. hepatica, F. gigantica, and both species, respectively by a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Additionally, three concatenated haplotypes of nad1 and cox1(nad1/cox1) were detected, and 2 of these, Kor1/Kor1 (Fsp1/Fsp1) haplotype and Kor2a/Kor2 (Fsp2/Fsp2) haplotype, were shared by Korean and Japanese aspermic flukes. The Fst value (0.019), calculated using the concatenated sequences, indicated that Korean and Japanese aspermic Fasciola populations were genetically undifferentiated. Interestingly, a combination of the Fh/Fg type and Kor1/Kor1 haplotype was found at the highest frequency in Korean aspermic flukes, whereas the Fg type and Fsp2/Fsp2 haplotype combination was found at a conspicuously high frequency in Japanese aspermic flukes. This indicates that a founder effect caused by the introduction of infected hosts may have played a key role in the introduction of aspermic Fasciola flukes from Korea into Japan. PMID:22446395

Ichikawa, Madoka; Itagaki, Tadashi

2012-03-09

195

Proteomic analysis of excretory secretory products from Clonorchis sinensis adult worms: molecular characterization and serological reactivity of a excretory-secretory antigen-fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase.  

PubMed

Clonorchis sinensis is a food-borne zoonotic parasite that resides in bile ducts and causes clonorchiasis, which may result in cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, hepatic fibrosis, and liver tumors. Although total excretory secretory products (ESP) of C. sinensis adults induce hepatic fibrosis in vivo in rats, the causative mechanism is not well understood. To study components of the ESP, C. sinensis culture medium was collected and analyzed using shotgun LC-MS/MS. We identified a total of 110 proteins, including glycometabolic enzymes (such as fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) and enolase), detoxification enzymes (such as glutamate dehydrogenase, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase and cathepsin B endopeptidase), and a number of RAB family proteins. To identify a potential causative agent for hepatic fibrosis, we expressed and purified a recombinant FBPase, a 1,041-bp gene product that encodes a 41.7-kDa protein with prototypical FBPase domains and that can form a tetramer with a molecular mass of 166.8 kDa. In addition, we found that FBPase is an antigen present in the ESP and in circulation. Immunofluorescence showed that FBPase localizes to the intestinal cecum and vitellarium in C. sinensis adults. Our results describe the components of the excretory secretory products from C. sinensis adult worms and suggest that FBPase may be an important antigen present in the ESP of C. sinensis and may lay the foundation for additional studies on the development of clonorchiasis-associated hepatic fibrosis. PMID:21424807

Zheng, Minghui; Hu, Kunhua; Liu, Wei; Hu, Xuchu; Hu, Fengyu; Huang, Lisi; Wang, Peng; Hu, Yue; Huang, Yan; Li, Wenfang; Liang, Chi; Yin, Xingfeng; He, Qingyu; Yu, Xinbing

2011-03-22

196

Gill trematodes (flukes) in wild-caught killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus).  

PubMed

Three wild caught killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) on an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee-approved protocol were found dead within 2 days after being received. The fish were housed in two separate aquaria. Aquarium water was evaluated, and pH, salinity, ammonia, nitrate, and nitrite levels were within acceptable parameters. Several remaining fish appeared to be slow-moving and were presented for necropsy. Multiple, scattered, ulcerated skin lesions (diameter, 1 to 5 mm) were noted at necropsy and were cultured. No pathogenic bacteria were isolated. Wet-mount samples of the gills revealed multiple cysts at the gill margins, each containing a motile organism. No other gill parasites were detected. A diagnosis of trematodiasis was made. The cysts were identified as encysted metacercariae of a digenetic trematode. We surmise that the large numbers of gill flukes combined with the stress of recent shipment likely caused the observed morbidity and mortality. PMID:15053506

Goulding, David R; Blankenship-Paris, Terry L; Lewbart, Gregory A; Myers, Page H; Demianenko, Tracy K; Clark, James A; Forsythe, Diane B

2004-03-01

197

Cloning and characterization of Clonorchis sinensis myoglobin using immune sera against excretory-secretory antigens.  

PubMed

Clonorchis sinensis excretory-secretory (ES) antigens were separated by gradient SDS-PAGE and the antigenic protein isolated at 21 kDa was injected into rats. A C. sinensis cDNA library was then immunoscreened with sera from the 21-kDa antigenic protein-immunized rats. The selected genes, which were named C. sinensis myoglobin, contained a single open reading frame of 450 base pairs encoding 150 amino acids. A single hybridized band of 0.57 kb and two to four hybridized bands were detected by Northern and Southern blotting. Purified recombinant C. sinensis myoglobin was recognized by clonorchiasic rabbit sera (50%) and clonorchiasic human sera (25%). An indirect immunofluorescence assay showed that C. sinensis myoglobin is distributed over the whole body of the adult worm. It is believed that the abundance of C. sinensis myoglobin plays an important role as an oxygen reservoir under anaerobic conditions. PMID:14574567

Sim, Seobo; Park, Gab-Man; Yong, Tai-Soon

2003-09-16

198

Eurytrema pancreaticum: The in vitro effect of praziquantel and triclabendazole on the adult fluke  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy and tolerance of the 80?g\\/ml praziquantel (PZQ) and 40?g\\/ml triclabendazole (TCZ) against adult stage Eurytrema pancreaticum in vitro were investigated at 3, 12, and 15h incubation. Motility of the flukes and histopathological changes were studied. Sudden paralysis and death were observed after exposed to PZQ as early as 3h incubation. In contrast, the TCZ treated flukes showed active

Wannee Jiraungkoorskul; Somphong Sahaphong; Tawewan Tansatit; Niwat Kangwanrangsan; Siriporn Pipatshukiat

2005-01-01

199

Fasciola hepatica: morphological effects of a combination of triclabendazole and clorsulon against mature fluke.  

PubMed

A study has been carried out to investigate the morphological effects of half-strength triclabendazole (TCBZ), half-strength clorsulon, and a combination of these two drugs against mature Fasciola hepatica. The Cullompton TCBZ-susceptible isolate was used for these experiments. Flukes were incubated for 24 h in vitro in TCBZ sulphoxide (7.5 microg/ml), clorsulon (5 microg/ml), or a combination of the two drugs. For the in vivo experiment, rats were dosed with TCBZ (6.25 mg/kg body weight), clorsulon (5 mg/kg body weight), or a combination of the two drugs and flukes recovered after 48 h. Surface changes to the flukes were assessed by scanning electron microscopy. Treatment with the combination of drugs produced greater disruption to the flukes than the individual drugs at half-strength, both in vivo and in vitro. Disruption to the tegument of the flukes induced by the individual drugs at half-strength was relatively minor and less than that caused by the drugs at full-strength. The results suggest that there are additive effects between TCBZ and clorsulon, which may be indicative of synergy: the use of drug combinations would be of value in the treatment of triclabendazole-resistant fluke. PMID:16896655

Meaney, M; Allister, J; McKinstry, B; McLaughlin, K; Brennan, G P; Forbes, A B; Fairweather, I

2006-08-02

200

Effect of single-dose oral artemether and tribendimidine on the tegument of adult Clonorchis sinensis in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tegument of trematodes plays a key role in nutrient absorption, exerts secretory functions, protects the parasite against\\u000a the immune system of the host, and is a target for anti-trematocidal drugs. We performed a temporal examination of tegumental\\u000a changes following artemether and tribendimidine administration on adult Clonorchis sinensis in rats using scanning electron microscopy. Rats infected with C. sinensis for

Shu-Hua Xiao; Jennifer Keiser; Jian Xue; Marcel Tanner; Gianni Morson; Jürg Utzinger

2009-01-01

201

Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel serpin gene of Clonorchis sinensis , highly expressed in the stage of metacercaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The serpins are a superfamily of proteins (350–500 amino acids in size) that fold into a conserved structure. From about 3,475\\u000a unigenes of Clonorchis sinensis metacercaria, a novel gene-encoding serpin was identified and characterized. The opening reading frame is 1,149 bp encoding\\u000a 382 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence shows high identity to previously reported serpins from C. sinensis

Yabo Yang; Dong Hu; Lexun Wang; Chi Liang; Xuchu Hu; Xiaoyun Wang; Jingfang Chen; Jin Xu; Xinbing Yu

2009-01-01

202

Molecular cloning and analysis of stage and tissue-specific expression of Cathepsin L-like protease from Clonorchis sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cathepsin L of parasite plays multiple roles in growth, food uptake, and invasion into host and pathogenesis, which makes\\u000a it a valuable target for diagnosis, vaccine, and drug. In this study, we identified a cDNA encoding cathepsin L homolog (CsCPL)\\u000a from the library of Clonorchis sinensis adult by bioinformatics analysis. Sequence encoding proenzyme of CsCPL (removal of signal peptide, CsproCPL)

Yanwen Li; Xuchu Hu; Xiaoquan Liu; Jing Xu; Fengyu Hu; Changling Ma; Xinbing Yu

2009-01-01

203

Identification and Characterization of Paramyosin from Cyst Wall of Metacercariae Implicated Protective Efficacy against Clonorchis sinensis Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human clonorchiasis has been increasingly prevalent in recent years and results in a threat to the public health in epidemic regions, motivating current strategies of vaccines to combat Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis). In this study, we identified C. sinensis paramyosin (CsPmy) from the cyst wall proteins of metacercariae by proteomic approaches and characterized the expressed recombinant pET-26b-CsPmy protein (101 kDa).

Xiaoyun Wang; Wenjun Chen; Xiaoli Lv; Yanli Tian; Jingtao Men; Xifeng Zhang; Huali Lei; Chenhui Zhou; Fangli Lu; Chi Liang; Xuchu Hu; Jin Xu; Zhongdao Wu; Xuerong Li; Xinbing Yu

2012-01-01

204

Molecular cloning and characterization of cDNA encoding a novel cytosolic glutathione transferase from Clonorchis sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are a group of multifunction isoenzymes coded by many genes. A cDNA encoding a novel cytosolic GST enzyme was cloned from a Clonorchis sinensis (Cs) adult worm cDNA library by large-scale sequencing. This new cDNA contains 786 bp with a putative open reading frame of 212 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibits 61% identity to C.

Zhongluan Wu; De Wu; Xuchu Hu; Jin Xu; Shouyi Chen; Zhongdao Wu; Xinbing Yu

2006-01-01

205

Molecular cloning and characterization of cDNA encoding a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme from Clonorchis sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ubiquitin–proteasome system is an essential mechanism for protein degradation in eukaryotes. Protein ubiquitination is composed of a series of enzymatic reactions. The ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) is one of the important enzymes involved in the process. A cDNA encoding an E2 enzyme was cloned from a Clonorchis sinensis cDNA library by large-scale sequencing. This new cDNA contains 862 bp with a

Linxia Song; Shouyi Chen; Xinbing Yu; Zhongdao Wu; Jin Xu; Guang Yang; Nancai Zheng; Xuchu Hu; Lingchen Guo; Jianfeng Dai; Jian Xu; Chaoneng Ji; Shaohua Gu; Kang Ying

2004-01-01

206

Molecular characterization of a novel Clonorchis sinensis secretory phospholipase A 2 and investigation of its potential contribution to hepatic fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gene encoding a homologue of phospholipase A2 was identified from the Clonorchis sinensis adult cDNA plasmid library. The deduced amino acid sequence including a signal peptide that has 28–46% identity with secretory phospholipase A2, group III (group III sPLA2) of other species. It also has typical features of group III sPLA2s including 10 cysteines, the key residues of the

Fengyu Hu; Xuchu Hu; Changling Ma; Junhong Zhao; Jin Xu; Xinbing Yu

2009-01-01

207

Clonorchis sinensis: Expression, characterization, immunolocalization and serological reactivity of one excretory\\/secretory antigen-LPAP homologue  

Microsoft Academic Search

From a Clonorchis sinensis adult cDNA plasmid library, a cDNA clone encoding a novel lysophosphatidic acid phosphatase (LPAP) homologue was isolated. The predicted molecular weight of putative protein was 48.8kDa and the deduced amino acid sequence had 45%, 32%, and 29% identity with LPAP of Schistosoma japonicum, Danio rerio, and Homo sapiens, respectively. Prediction of signal peptide and Western blot

Fengyu Hu; Xinbing Yu; Changling Ma; Hongjuan Zhou; Zhenwen Zhou; Yanwen Li; Fangli Lu; Jin Xu; Zhongdao Wu; Xuchu Hu

2007-01-01

208

Human infection with the pancreas fluke, Eurytrema pancreaticum.  

PubMed

A 70-year-old Japanese woman with gastric cancer in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan, was found at autopsy to have about 15 adult flukes, Eurytrema pancreaticum, in the dilated pancreatic ducts. The number of eosinophils in the blood was within normal limits. The two worms which were least damaged when removed from the gland were used for stained specimens, and another two were macerated to collect the eggs. The parasites (10 X 5, 11 X 7 mm in size) were broad, flattened, oval to fusiform. The suckers were large, the oral (2.1 X 2.0, 2.0 X 1.9 mm) being larger than the ventral (1.6 X 1.6, 1.4 X 1.5 mm). The eggs (47.06 +/- 3.88 X 30.35 +/- 2.74 microns) were embryonated in the uterus. These findings led to the identification of E. pancreaticum. This is the second documented case of eurytremiasis in man. PMID:6625056

Ishii, Y; Koga, M; Fujino, T; Higo, H; Ishibashi, J; Oka, K; Saito, S

1983-09-01

209

Multiple recombinant antigens of Clonorchis sinensis for serodiagnosis of human clonorchiasis.  

PubMed

Antigenic proteins from Clonorchis sinensis have been previously purified and evaluated for their antigenicity to enable the serodiagnosis of clonorchiasis. Though they were of high specificity, molecularly defined proteins were reported to be less sensitive as single antigens than crude antigen. To resolve this issue, 11 clones were selected by immunoscreening an adult C. sinensis cDNA library using infected human sera. Mixed antigens were prepared using recombinant proteins of positive clones and investigated for antigenicity by immunoblotting against C. sinensis- and helminth-infected patient sera. A mixed antigen of recombinant 28 and 26 kDa glutathion S-transferases (Cs28GST and Cs26GST) produced 76% sensitivity and 95% specificity. Furthermore, a triple mix of recombinant Cs26GST and Cs28GST with vitelline precursor protein pushed up the sensitivity to 87% and maintained specificity at 95%. It is proposed that multiple antigen mixes should be further studied to develop rapid serodiagnostic test kits for the serodiagnosis of human clonorchiasis. PMID:21125293

Li, Shunyu; Shin, Jung Guk; Cho, Pyo Yun; Kim, Tae Im; Hong, Sung-Tae; Hong, Sung-Jong

2010-12-02

210

Molecular cloning and characterization of an antigenic protein with a repeating region from Clonorchis sinensis  

PubMed Central

In the course of immunoscreening of Clonorchis sinensis cDNA library, a cDNA CsRP12 containing a tandem repeat was isolated. The cDNA CsRP12 encodes two putative peptides of open reading frames (ORFs) 1 and 2 (CsRP12-1 and -2). The repetitive region is composed of 15 repeats of 10 amino acids. Of the two putative peptides, CsRP12-1 was proline-rich and found to have homologues in several organisms. Recombinant proteins of the putative peptides were bacterially produced and purified by an affinity chromatography. Recombinant CsRP12-1 protein was recognized by sera of clonorchiasis patients and experimental rabbits, but recombinant CsRP12-2 was not. One of the putative peptide, CsRP12-1, is designated CsPRA, proline-rich antigen of C. sinensis. Both the C-termini of CsRP12-1 and -2 were bacterially produced and analysed to show no antigenicity. Recombinant CsPRA protein showed high sensitivity and specificity. In experimental rabbits, IgG antibodies to CsPRA was produced between 4 and 8 weeks after the infection and decreased thereafter over one year. These results indicate that CsPRA is equivalent to a natural protein and a useful antigenic protein for serodiagnosis of human clonorchiasis.

Kim, Tae Yun; Kang, Shin-Yong; Ahn, Il-Young; Cho, Seung-Yull

2001-01-01

211

Infection Status of Freshwater Fish with Metacercariae of Clonorchis sinensis in Korea  

PubMed Central

This study investigated freshwater fish for their current infection status with metacercariae of Clonorchis sinensis in Korea. Twenty-one species of freshwater fish (n = 677) were collected from 34 regions nationwidely from February 2007 to June 2008. They were individually examined by digestion technique. Eight species of freshwater fish from 17 different regions were recognized positive for the metacercariae of C. sinensis. The positive rates (range of metacercariae number per fish) of fish by the species were as follows: 48% (1-1,142) in Pseudorasbora parva, 60% (1-412) in Pungtungia herzi, 15.7% (1-23) in Pseudogobio esocinus, 29% (1-7) in Acheilognathus intermedia, 21% (1-4) in Odontobutis interrupta, 33% (1-6) in Zacco temmincki, 3.6% (1-4) in Zacco platypus, and 26.3% (1) in Hemibarbus labeo. The two species, P. parva and P. herzi, are able to be the index fish for estimation of C. sinensis transmission in a certain locality. Still several species of freshwater fish are briskly transmitting C. sinensis infection in many riverside areas of southern Korea.

Kim, Eun-Min; Kim, Jae-Lip; Choi, Sung Yil; Kim, Jae-Whan; Kim, Siwon; Choi, Min-Ho; Bae, Young Mee; Lee, Soon-Hyung

2008-01-01

212

Purification and characterization of a 7-kDa protein from Clonorchis sinensis adult worms.  

PubMed

A 7-kDa protein was purified from extracts of adult Clonorchis sinensis by a combination of ammonium sulfate precipitation, anion exchange chromatography, cation exchange chromatography, gel-filtration chromatography, and reversed-phase FPLC. The 7-kDa protein exists in the excretory-secretory products of adult C. sinensis, but not in extracts of adult Paragonimus westermani. Also, the 7-kDa protein reacted with the sera of patients with clonorchiasis but not with paragonimiasis or normal human sera. To observe the localization of the 7-kDa protein in the tissue of adult C. sinensis, an immunogold labeling method was followed using anti-7-kDa antibody. The gold particles were observed in the basal layer below the tegumental syncytium, in the interstitial matrix of the parenchyma, and in the content of the uterus. The 7-kDa cDNA was obtained through reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction using a primer designed from N-terminal sequence analysis. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (5'-RACE) was used to obtain the complete protein coding sequence. The sequence encodes a 90-amino acid polypeptide. The deduced amino acid sequence of the 7-kDa protein revealed no homology with proteins of different organisms reported so far. These results suggest that the 7-kDa protein is a fluid antigen and may be valuable as a tool for the immunodiagnosis of clonorchiasis. PMID:12099418

Lee, Hye-Jeong; Lee, Chang-Seok; Kim, Beom-Su; Joo, Kyoung-Hwan; Lee, Joon-Sang; Kim, Tong-Soo; Kim, Hak R

2002-06-01

213

Cloning, characterization, and expression of a novel secretory lipase-like gene from Clonorchis sinensis.  

PubMed

A secretory lipase-like gene was isolated from total cDNA of adult Clonorchis sinensis. The gene has an open reading frame of 1,218 bp long and encodes for a protein of 406 amino acids including a putative signal peptide of 20 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence including signal peptide has 42-45% identity with lipase of other species and two typical enzymic active sites that contain consensus sequence (Gly-X-Ser-X-Gly) of lipase. The cDNA encoding this protein was subcloned into pET-28a (+) expression vector and expressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed fusion protein has a molecular mass of about 45 kDa. Prediction of signal peptide and Western blot analysis indicated that the secretory lipase-like protein is an excretory-secretory product of C. sinensis. Immunostaining revealed that the secretory lipase-like protein was localized in the tegument of the adult worm and metacercaria. These results provide basis for further studies on the nutrition taking and invasion of C. sinensis mediated by the secretory lipase-like protein. PMID:19756752

Hu, Fengyu; Chen, Wanshan; Li, Linhua; Lu, Yecheng; Song, Weinan; Kuang, Yanling; Zhang, Fuchun

2009-09-16

214

Clonorchis sinensis enolase: identification and biochemical characterization of a glycolytic enzyme from excretory/secretory products.  

PubMed

Enolase plays a key role in energy metabolism and development of most organisms. We isolated a gene encoding enolase from Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) adult cDNA library and expressed the recombinant protein in Escherichia coli. C. sinensis enolase (Csenolase) was identified as both an excretory/secretory product and a tegumental component of C. sinensis by western blot analysis. The transcriptional level of Csenolase was examined at adult worm, metacercaria, cercaria and egg of C. sinensis, and results showed that Csenolase is transcribed at the four life stages of C. sinensis while showing a significant higher expression level at the stage of adult worm. Immunohistochemical localization indicated that Csenolase was specifically deposited on the tegument of adult worm and cyst wall of metacercaria. Ligand blot assay revealed a specific characteristic of dose-dependent plasminogen-binding activity of Csenolase and kinetic parameters were explored using 2-phospho-D-glycerate (2-PGA) as the primary substrate by monitoring the conversion of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NADH) into nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). In addition, Csenolase exhibited active enzyme activity in catalytic reactions while the anti-Csenolase serum inhibited the enzyme activity. In vitro incubation experiments revealed that Csenolase might play key roles in the growth of the parasites. In conclusion, Csenolase is an important glycolytic enzyme required for the development of C. sinensis, and may be a potential vaccine candidate and drug target against C. sinensis infection. PMID:21382423

Wang, Xiaoyun; Chen, Wenjun; Hu, Fengyu; Deng, Chuanhuan; Zhou, Chenhui; Lv, Xiaoli; Fan, Yongxiu; Men, Jingtao; Huang, Yan; Sun, Jiufeng; Hu, Dong; Chen, Jingfang; Yang, Yabo; Liang, Chi; Zheng, Huanqin; Hu, Xuchu; Xu, Jin; Wu, Zhongdao; Yu, Xinbing

2011-03-04

215

Molecular expression and characterization of a novel protein phosphatase 2A gene from Clonorchis sinensis.  

PubMed

Reversible phosphorylation of proteins is a critical mechanism involved in physiological function of organisms, including Clonorchis sinensis. In the present study, One cDNA clone encoding protein phosphatase 2A (CsPP2A) was isolated from a C. sinensis adult cDNA plasmid library. The open reading frame of the novel gene contains 924 bp and encoded a putative protein of 307 amino acids. A similarity analysis showed high homology with Schistosoma japonicum (76.3%) and Homo sapiens (84.4%), respectively. Recombinant CsPP2A (rCsPP2A) was expressed and purified from Escherichia coli BL21 using pET28a (+) as an expression vector. CsPP2A showed higher transcript level in adult worm but excysted metacercaria (P > 0.05), metacercaria (P < 0.05), and egg (P < 0.05) using real-time RT-PCR. Western blotting analysis showed that rCsPP2A could be identified by anti-rCsPP2A rat serum, C. sinensis-infected rat serum, and the serum from the rats immunized with excretory-secretory products of C. sinensis. Immunohistochemical assay showed that CsPP2A was deposited at the egg, the vitellarium of adult worm, and the excretory bladder of metacercaria. Collectively, the results of this study suggested that CsPP2A may be involved in the development of adult and metacercaria of C. sinensis. PMID:22167368

Deng, Chuanhuan; Yu, Xinbing; Li, Xuerong; Sun, Jiufeng; Wang, Lexun; Wang, Xiaoyun; Chen, Wenjun; Lv, Xiaoli; Hu, Xuchu; Wu, Zhongdao; Liang, Chi; Xu, Jin

2011-12-14

216

Characterization of partially purified 8 kDa antigenic protein of Clonorchis sinensis  

PubMed Central

The 8 kDa antigenic protein of Clonorchis sinensis was partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and subsequently by a column chromatographic steps. The purified protein was separated into 7 and 8 kDa protein bands through SDS-tricine gel electrophoresis, while the protein was found to migrate to a 8 kDa band in 7.5-15% SDS-PAGE. The molecular weight of the antigen was estimated to be 110 kDa by Superose 6 HR 10/30 gel filtration. The purified antigen strongly reacted with the human sera of clonorchiasis. The hyperimmune sera of BALB/c mice immunized against the 8 kDa protein were reacted with both the crude extract and the excretory-secretory product of adult worms, but not with the metacercarial extract. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that the protein was distributed to the tegument and subtegumental cells and also to the seminal receptacle. The present findings suggest that the 8 kDa protein is a partition of the multicomplex protein originating from various organs of adult C. sinensis, and that it is composed of several 7 and 8 kDa proteins.

Chung, Young-Bae; Lee, Mejeong; Yang, Hyun-Jong; Chung, Byung-Suk; Lee, Shun-Yu; Hong, Sung-Tae

2002-01-01

217

Molecular characterization and serodiagnosis analysis of a novel lysophospholipase from Clonorchis sinensis.  

PubMed

A cDNA clone encoding a novel lysophospholipase with a predicted molecular weight of 25.2 kDa was isolated from a Clonorchis sinensis adult cDNA library. The enzyme activity of the recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli was determined using phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine as substrates. Western blotting analysis indicated that it belonged to excretory/secretory proteins of the adults. The sensitivity and specificity of the recombinant antigen for serodiagnosis were evaluated with immunoglobulin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using serum samples from 20 patients with clonorchiasis and 20 patients with schistosomiasis. The sensitivity (75%) and specificity (80%) of the recombinant protein were comparable to those of crude extracts, at 65 and 82.5%, respectively. The sensitivity of the recombinant protein was 77% using 100 serum samples of clonorchiasis patients with various parasite burden. The results suggested that the recombinant lysophospholipase protein was not a satisfactory candidate for diagnosis of clonorchiasis, although it might be an excretory/secretory protein. PMID:17318582

Ma, Changling; Hu, Xuchu; Hu, Fengyu; Li, Yanwen; Chen, Xiaoxiang; Zhou, Zhenwen; Lu, Fangli; Xu, Jin; Wu, Zhongdao; Yu, Xinbing

2007-02-23

218

Characterization of partially purified 8 kDa antigenic protein of Clonorchis sinensis.  

PubMed

The 8 kDa antigenic protein of Clonorchis sinensis was partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and subsequently by a column chromatographic steps. The purified protein was separated into 7 and 8 kDa protein bands through SDS-tricine gel electrophoresis, while the protein was found to migrate to a 8 kDa band in 7.5-15% SDS-PAGE. The molecular weight of the antigen was estimated to be 110 kDa by Superose 6 HR 10/30 gel filtration. The purified antigen strongly reacted with the human sera of clonorchiasis. The hyperimmune sera of BALB/c mice immunized against the 8 kDa protein were reacted with both the crude extract and the excretory-secretory product of adult worms, but not with the metacercarial extract. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that the protein was distributed to the tegument and subtegumental cells and also to the seminal receptacle. The present findings suggest that the 8 kDa protein is a partition of the multicomplex protein originating from various organs of adult C. sinensis, and that it is composed of several 7 and 8 kDa proteins. PMID:12073733

Chung, Young-Bae; Lee, Mejeong; Yang, Hyun-Jong; Chung, Byung-Suk; Lee, Shun-Yu; Choi, Min-Ho; Hong, Sung-Tae

2002-06-01

219

Evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against ticks and fluke.  

PubMed

The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacies of leaf hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wallich ex Nees., Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels, Eclipta prostrata L., and Tagetes erecta L. against the adult cattle tick Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann 1897 (Acarina: Ixodidae), the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Canestrini 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae) and sheep fluke Paramphistomum cervi Zeder 1790 (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae). All plant extracts showed moderate toxic effect on parasites after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest parasitic activity was found in leaf ethyl acetate extract of A. lineata, methanol extract of A. marmelos, A. paniculata, and C. hirsutus against H. bispinosa (LC(50)?= 395.27, 358.45, 327.21 and 420.50 ppm); ethyl acetate extract of A. paniculata, C. hirsutus, methanol extracts of A. marmelos, A. lineata, and E. prostrata against the larvae of R. microplus (LC(50)?= 207.70, 258.61, 134.09, 206.00, and 274.33 ppm); hexane extract of A. lineata, ethyl acetate extract of A. paniculata, E. prostrata, acetone extracts of T. erecta, methanol extracts of A. marmelos and C. hirsutus against P. cervi (LC(50)?= 254.23, 451.17, 425.73, 253.60, 542.71, and 360.17 ppm), respectively. The present study is the first report on the veterinary parasitic activity of plant extracts from Southern India. PMID:20922419

Elango, Gandhi; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul

2010-10-05

220

Fasciola hepatica: histological changes in the reproductive structures of triclabendazole (TCBZ)-sensitive and TCBZ-resistant flukes after treatment in vivo with TCBZ and the related benzimidazole derivative, Compound Alpha.  

PubMed

Twenty-four shed-reared lambs were each infected orally with 250 metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica, using either the triclabendazole (TCBZ)-sensitive Cullompton isolate or the TCBZ-resistant Sligo isolate. Twelve weeks after infection the lambs were treated with TCBZ (10mg/kg) or with the experimental fasciolicide, Compound Alpha (Cpd alpha), a benzimidazole derivative of TCBZ (15mg/kg). The lambs were euthanised 48, 72 and 96h after TCBZ treatment, or 24, 48 and 72h after Cpd alpha treatment, and flukes were collected from the liver and/or gall bladder of each animal. Untreated animals harbouring 12-week infections were euthanized 24h after administration of anthelmintic to the treatment groups, and the untreated flukes provided control material. A semi-quantitative assessment of the degree of histological change induced by the two drugs after different times of exposure was achieved by scoring the intensity of three well-defined lesions that developed in the testes and uteri of a representative sample of flukes from each lamb. In general, it was found that in those tissues where active meiosis and/or mitosis occurred (testis, ovary, and vitelline follicles), there was progressive loss of cell content due to apparent failure of cell division to keep pace with expulsion of the mature or effete products. Further, actively dividing cell types tended to become individualised, rounded and condensed, characteristic of apoptotic cell death. Protein synthetic activity was apparently inhibited in the Mehlis' secretory cells. In the uterus, where successful formation of shelled eggs represents the culmination of a complex sequence of cytokinetic, cytological and synthetic activity involving the vitelline follicles, the ovary and the Mehlis' gland, histological evidence indicating failure of ovigenesis was evident from 24h post-treatment onwards. The development of these lesions may be related to the known anti-tubulin activity of the benzimidazole class of anthelmintics, to the induction of apoptosis in cells where mitosis or meiosis has aborted due to failure of spindle formation, and to drug-induced inhibition of protein synthesis. The semi-quantitative findings indicated that Cpd alpha is slightly less efficacious than TCBZ itself in causing histological damage to the reproductive structures of TCBZ-sensitive flukes, and that, like TCBZ, it caused no histological damage in flukes of the TCBZ-resistant isolate. This study illustrates the potential utility of histological techniques for conveniently screening representative samples of flukes in field trials designed to validate instances of drug resistance or to test the efficacy of new products against known drug-resistant and drug-susceptible fluke isolates. It also provides reference criteria for drug-induced histopathological changes in fluke reproductive structures which may aid interpretation of TEM findings. PMID:20053501

Hanna, R E B; Edgar, H W J; McConnell, S; Toner, E; McConville, M; Brennan, G P; Devine, C; Flanagan, A; Halferty, L; Meaney, M; Shaw, L; Moffett, D; McCoy, M; Fairweather, I

2009-11-27

221

Clonorchis sinensis metacercarial infection in the pond smelt Hypomesus olidus and the minnow Zacco platypus collected from the Soyang and Daechung Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pond smelt Hypomesus olidus and minnow Zacco platypus were collected from the Soyang and Daechung Lakes in January 2003, and their metacercarial infections was examined by the muscle compression and artificial digestion techniques. In the Soyang Lake, 161 metacercariae of Clonorchis sinensis (0.35 per fish) were harvested from 459 pond smelts examined. Also, 13 metacercariae of C. sinensis (0.43

Jae-Hwan Park; Sang-Mee Guk; Tae-Yun Kim; Eun-Hee Shin; Aifen Lin; Ji-Yeon Park; Jae-Lip Kim; Sung-Tae Hong; Jong-Yil Chai

2004-01-01

222

Transcriptional induction of minichromosome maintenance protein 7 (Mcm7) in human cholangiocarcinoma cells treated with Clonorchis sinensis excretory–secretory products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clonorchiasis is an infection associated with bile duct malignancy and subsequent development of cholangiocarcinoma. This disease is mainly caused by Clonorchis sinensis worms and their excretory–secretory products (ESP). However, the precise molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain to be determined. Previously, we established differential gene expression profiles from microarrays containing 23,920 human genes of known function in a human cholangiocarcinoma cell

Dong-Wook Kim; Ji-Young Kim; Ju Hyun Moon; Kee-Beom Kim; Tong-Soo Kim; Sung-Jong Hong; Young Pil Cheon; Jhang Ho Pak; Sang-Beom Seo

2010-01-01

223

Epidemiological profile of Clonorchis sinensis infection in one community, Guangdong, People's Republic of China  

PubMed Central

Background Clonorchiasis caused by ingesting improperly prepared fish ranks among the most important but still neglected food-borne parasitic diseases, especially in the People’s Republic of China (P.R. China). To promote the implementation of interventions efficiently, the demonstration of an epidemiological profile of Clonorchis sinensis infection is essential in hyper-epidemic areas. Methods In one community with higher levels of economic development in Guangdong province, P.R. China, villagers were motivated to provide stool samples for examining helminth eggs. Then, those infected with C. sinensis completed the structured questionnaire including demographical characteristics, knowledge and behavior. Results A total of 293 villagers infected with C. sinensis participated in questionnaire investigation. Among them, 94.54% were adult and 93.17% were indigenous. The geometric mean of C. sinensis eggs per gram of feces in the children, adult females and adult males was 58, 291 and 443, respectively. The divergence between knowledge and behavior in the adults, especially the adult males, was shown. Out of 228 persons eating raw fish, 160 did it more frequently at restaurants, the proportion of which varied in different populations, showing 25.00%, 54.88% and 80.28% in the children, adult females and adult males, respectively. Conclusions Different interventions need to be adopted in different populations. Chemotherapy should be prioritized in the adults, especially the adult males. In addition, health education targeting the children, is essential and may play a crucial role in controlling clonorchiasis in the long term. In order to successfully control clonorchiasis, intervention in the restaurant should not be overlooked in some endemic areas.

2013-01-01

224

Comparative biochemical and functional properties of two leucine aminopeptidases of Clonorchis sinensis.  

PubMed

Leucine aminopeptidases (LAP; EC 3.4.11.1) are a group of metalloexopeptidases, which catalyze the sequential removal of leucine amino acids from the N-termini of the polypeptides or proteins. In this study, we identified two novel genes that encode LAPs of Clonorchis sinensis (CsLAP1 and CsLAP2) and characterized their biochemical and functional properties. Multiple sequence alignment of the deduced amino acid sequences of CsLAP1 and CsLAP2 with those of other organisms revealed that typical metal-binding coordinating and active site residues for LAPs were well conserved in CsLAP1 and CsLAP2. Recombinant CsLAP1 and CsLAP2 showed similar biochemical properties such as pH optima at pH 8.0 and stability at neutral pHs. Both enzymes were specifically inhibited by bestatin and showed preferential substrate specificity for Leu-MCA. However, the enzymes differed in that they required different metal ions for maximum activity. Expressions of CsLAP1 and CsLAP2 were detected throughout the various developmental stages of C. sinensis, and their transcription levels increased gradually in accordance with the maturation of the parasite. Both enzymes were identified in soluble worm extract of C. sinensis, but not in excretory and secretory products. Immunolocalization studies showed that both enzymes were co-localized to the intestinal epithelial cells and gastrodermis of the parasite. These results collectively suggest that CsLAP1 and CsLAP2 are synthesized in the intestinal epithelial and gastrodermal cells of C. sinensis and may be involved in the final digestion of peptides that hydrolyzed within intestinal lumen followed by absorbed into gastrodermal cells of the parasite. PMID:22155540

Kang, Jung-Mi; Ju, Hye-Lim; Ju, Jung-Won; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Kim, Tong-Soo; Bahk, Young-Yil; Hong, Sung-Jong; Na, Byoung-Kuk

2011-11-28

225

[A study on the body fluid antigen of Clonorchis sinensis using immunogold labeling method].  

PubMed

In order to observe the antigenic localization in the tissues of the adult Clonorchis sinensis, immunogold labeling method was applied using serum immunoglobulins (IgG) of either worm-infected rabbits (group I) or antigen-immunized rabbits (group II) (by the body fluid obtained from the adult worms). The electron micrographs of the sectioned worm tissue antigens, embedded in Lowicryl HM 20 medium and stained with protein A-gold complex (particle size: 12 nm), were compared between the group I and group II. The gold particles were observed in the interstitial matrix of the worm parenchyma, the epithelial lamellae of the cecum, and the cecal lumen both in group I and II. But the particles were in general more concentrated in group II. The gold particles were not observed on the basal lamina of the tegument or on vitelline glands in group I, while they were highly concentrated on those areas in group II. There were also differences in the antigenicity of interstitial matrix(reacted with group I IgG) and head part(reacted with group II IgG) of the sperm cells in the seminal receptacle. Conclusively, it is suggested that the substances comprising the basal lamina of the tegument or vitelline glands act as specific antigens reacting with antigen(body fluid) immunized rabbit IgG. On the other hand, the substances in the cecal lumen and cecal epithelial lamellae are thought to be the specific antigen that react with the worm-infected rabbit IgG. PMID:2271496

Chu, B D; Rim, H J; Kim, S J

1990-03-01

226

Identification and functional characterization of CsStefin-1, a cysteine protease inhibitor of Clonorchis sinensis.  

PubMed

Cathepsin Fs of Clonorchis sinensis (CsCFs) are major secreted proteins that are expressed in the intestine of the parasite and play pivotal roles in parasite nutrition and host-parasite interactions. However, strict regulation of their activities is also essential to minimize inadequate superfluous damage to the parasite and host. In this study, we identified and characterized a novel cysteine protease inhibitor of C. sinensis, CsStefin-1, as a modulator of CsCFs. CsStefin-1 was shown to be a typical cysteine protease inhibitor of family 1 cystatins that lacks the N-terminal signal peptide and C-terminal cysteine residues required for disulfide bond formation. Phylogenetic and structural analyses also showed that CsStefin-1 is a family 1 intracellular cystatin. Bacterially expressed CsStefin-1 effectively inhibited various cysteine proteases, including human cathepsin B, human cathepsin L, papain, and CsCFs. CsStefin-1 was active over a wide pH range and was highly stable under physiological conditions. CsStefin-1 also inhibited the processing of CsCFs. CsStefin-1 was expressed throughout various developmental stages of the parasite from metacercaria to adult worm and the protein was detected in worm extract, but not in the excretory and secretory products of adult worm. Immunolocalization analysis showed that CsStefin-1 was mainly localized to the intestinal epithelium, where CsCFs are actively synthesized. Our results collectively suggest the regulatory functions of CsStefin-1, modulation of CsCFs activity and processing, to protect the parasite from superfluous damage by the endogenous cysteine proteases. PMID:21354219

Kang, Jung-Mi; Lee, Kon-Ho; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk

2011-02-24

227

Identification and immunological characterization of thioredoxin transmembrane-related protein from Clonorchis sinensis.  

PubMed

Thioredoxin transmembrane related protein (TMX), a member of thioredoxin superfamily, is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and possesses a thioredoxin-like domain that plays an important role as an oxidoreductase. The functions of TMX in Clonorchis sinensis remain to be elucidated. In this study, we cloned and characterized a novel TMX of C. sinensis (CsTMX). The CsTMX cDNA sequence contained a 414-nucleotide open-reading frame encoding a protein of 137 amino acids. A thioredoxin domain was found in the position of aa21-117 and contained the putative active-site motif Cys-Pro-Ala-Cys. BLASTx analysis showed that CsTMX shared 39-57% amino acid identities with TMX of other organisms. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that CsTMX was differentially transcribed, with the highest level of expression in the adult worm stage and the lowest expression in egg stage. In addition, immunofluorescence assay showed CsTMX was localized in the tegument, vitelline gland, intestine, and intrauterine eggs of adult worm. Besides, immunoblot assay revealed that the recombinant CsTMX (rCsTMX) could be recognized by the sera from rats infected with C. sinensis and the sera from rats immunized by excretory-secretory products. Furthermore, analysis of the antibody isotype profile revealed that rats subcutaneously immunized with rCsTMX developed rCsTMX-specific antibody, which is dominance of IgG2a in sera. Meanwhile, production of IFN-? was elevated strongly in the supernatants of spleen cell. The results collectively indicated that CsTMX might play an important role in the host-parasite interaction, as well as CsTMX probably involved in immunoregulation of host by inducing Th1-type dominated immune response in rats. PMID:23403994

Zhou, Chenhui; Bian, Meng; Liao, Hua; Mao, Qiong; Li, Ran; Zhou, Juanjuan; Wang, Xiaoyun; Li, Shan; Liang, Chi; Li, Xuerong; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xinbing

2013-02-13

228

The biochemical and immunological characterization of two serpins from Clonorchis sinensis.  

PubMed

Serpins (serine proteinase inhibitors) are evidenced to regulate numerous biological processes such as immunoregulation in parasitic helminths. The functions of serpins from Clonorchis sinensis remain unclear to date. In this study, two serpin genes, respectively denominated as CsproSERPIN and CsSERPIN2, had been selected from metacercaria cDNA library of C. sinensis. The biochemical activities of both recombinant proteins (rCsproSERPIN and rCsSERPIN2) were analyzed by assays of inhibition on some serine or cysteine proteases, the results showed that rCsproSERPIN significantly inhibited trypsin, chymotrypsin and thrombin, while rCsSERPIN2 inhibited only chymotrypsin. Moreover, cytokine and antibody measurements indicated that rats subcutaneously immunized with rCsproSERPIN and rCsSERPIN2 respectively developed a strong IFN-? production and IgG2a levers of sera were higher than IgG1. Besides, immunoblot assays revealed that the rCsproSERPIN and rCsSERPIN2 could be recognized by the sera of rats infected with C. sinensis and the sera of rabbits immunized by excretory/secretory products. Furthermore, immunofluorescence assays illuminated the two were similarly localized in the reproductive organs such as vitelline glands, testis and eggs in adult stage. In short, all the results collectively indicated that CsproSERPIN and CsSERPIN2 might play important role in the parasite development by preventing the parasite from digestion by exogenous serine proteases, as well as CsproSERPIN and CsSERPIN2 probably involved in immunoregulation of host by inducing Th1-biased type cytokines in rats. PMID:23275238

Lei, Huali; Tian, Yanli; Chen, Wenjun; Wang, Xiaoyun; Li, Xuerong; Mao, Qiang; Sun, Jiufeng; Li, Ran; Xu, Yanquan; Liang, Chi; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xinbing

2012-12-30

229

Analysis of the genes expressed in Clonorchis sinensis adults using the expressed sequence tag approach.  

PubMed

Clonorchis sinensis is a biliary tract parasite, which infects over 30 million people in China, Korea and Southeast Asia through the ingestion of undercooked freshwater fish that harbour the infective metacercariae. The genes expressed in C. sinensis adults were identified in order to develop novel drugs, better diagnostics and vaccines for the parasite. The C. sinensis cDNA library was constructed and DNA sequencing was performed with 450 randomly selected clones. Four hundred and fifteen clones contained the amino-acid-encoding sequences. The functions of these genes could be assigned by DNA sequence homology. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool X analysis showed that 277 of the 415 clones were strongly matched ( P<10(-9)) to previously identified proteins, while the remaining 138 fell into the "no database match" category. Among the clones matching previously identified proteins, 220 putatively identified genes were sorted into seven functional categories. These included the genes associated with energy metabolism (38), gene expression/RNA metabolism (21), regulatory/signalling components (14), protein metabolism/sorting (98), the structure/cytoskeleton (29), membrane transporters (ten) and antigenic proteins (ten). The remaining 57 clones were not included in these categories. The dataset included the genes encoding the proteases, a lipid binding protein, the antigen proteins and the other genes of interest from a diagnostics, drug or vaccine development viewpoint. The present expressed sequence tag analysis proved to be an effective tool for examining gene expression and identified several important genes which increase and complement our knowledge of the biology of C. sinensis. PMID:14574557

Lee, Ji-Sook; Lee, Jongweon; Park, Soon-Jung; Yong, Tai-Soon

2003-08-22

230

Prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae in freshwater fish from three latitudinal regions of the Korean Peninsula.  

PubMed

A large-scale survey was conducted to investigate the infection status of fresh water fishes with Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae (CsMc) in 3 wide regions, which were tentatively divided by latitudinal levels of the Korean peninsula. A total of 4,071 freshwater fishes were collected from 3 regions, i.e., northern (Gangwon-do: 1,543 fish), middle (Chungcheongbuk-do and Gyeongsangbuk-do: 1,167 fish), and southern areas (Jeollanam-do, Ulsan-si, and Gyeongsangnam-do: 1,361 fish). Each fish was examined by the artificial digestion method from 2003 to 2010. In northern areas, only 11 (0.7%) fish of 2 species, Pungtungia herzi and Squalidus japonicus coreanus from Hantan-gang, Cheolwon-gun, Gangwon-do were infected with av. 2.6 CsMc. In middle areas, 149 (12.8%) fish were infected with av. 164 CsMc. In southern areas, 538 (39.5%) fish were infected with av. 159 CsMc. In the analysis of endemicity in 3 regions with an index fish, P. herzi, 9 (6.2%) of 146 P. herzi from northern areas were infected with av. 2.8 CsMc. In middle areas, 34 (31.8%) of 107 P. herzi were infected with av. 215 CsMc, and in southern areas, 158 (92.9%) of 170 P. herzi were infected with av. 409 CsMc. From these results, it has been confirmed that the infection status of fish with CsMc is obviously different among the 3 latitudinal regions of the Korean peninsula with higher prevalence and burden in southern regions. PMID:22355206

Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Kim, Tong-Soo; Kong, Yoon; Eom, Keeseon; Seok, Won-Seok; Lee, Taejoon

2011-12-16

231

Adulticidal and larvicidal efficacy of some medicinal plant extracts against tick, fluke and mosquitoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adulticidal and larvicidal effect of indigenous plant extracts were investigated against the adult cattle tick Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann, 1897 (Acarina: Ixodidae), sheep fluke Paramphistomum cervi Zeder, 1790 (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae), fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effect of

A. Bagavan; C. Kamaraj; G. Elango; A. Abduz Zahir; A. Abdul Rahuman

2009-01-01

232

Fluke (Spirorchiidae) infections in sea turtles stranded on Taiwan: prevalence and pathology.  

PubMed

The prevalence of spirorchiid fluke infections of marine turtles is high and may cause the death of the hosts throughout their ranges. Virtually nothing has been reported regarding the infective status of sea turtles stranded on Taiwan. Between 2007 and 2010, 30 green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and 2 loggerhead turtles ( Caretta caretta ), stranded and dead, were examined for spirorchiid flukes and their eggs. Twenty-four of the green turtles were juveniles, and the stranded loggerhead turtles were subadults. Adult spirorchiid flukes were found in 13 green turtles but not in the loggerheads. Four species of flukes were identified, namely, Leardius learedi , Hapalotrema postorchis , H. mehrai , and Carettacola hawaiiensis . The main infection sites were the major arteries and heart. Seventy percent of the green turtles harbored spirorchiid eggs, but no eggs were found in loggerheads. The largest eggs with bipolar spines, type I eggs, were found in every case. Although more than half of the stranded turtles were infected, parasite infections were not the main cause of death in the green turtles. Fishery by-catch is probably responsible for the mortality of these stranded turtles. PMID:22032290

Chen, Hochang; Kuo, R-J; Chang, T-C; Hus, C-K; Bray, R A; Cheng, I-J

2011-10-27

233

Eurytrema pancreaticum: the in vitro effect of praziquantel and triclabendazole on the adult fluke.  

PubMed

The efficacy and tolerance of the 80 microg/ml praziquantel (PZQ) and 40 microg/ml triclabendazole (TCZ) against adult stage Eurytrema pancreaticum in vitro were investigated at 3, 12, and 15 h incubation. Motility of the flukes and histopathological changes were studied. Sudden paralysis and death were observed after exposed to PZQ as early as 3h incubation. In contrast, the TCZ treated flukes showed active mobility at all intervals. By light microscopic examination, severe damages in various organs such as tegument, muscle, and testes were observed early at 12h incubation of these drugs. PZQ caused more severe damage to flukes than TCZ. There were vigorous contraction of musculature, progressive shrinkage of circular and longitudinal muscles, vacuolization and disintegration of the tegument disrupting the worms' outer surface including detachment of spines in the PZQ treatment. The cells in testes were slightly increased in size and followed by degeneration leaving several hollow spaces. The uterus and vitelline glands remained unaffected. The direct observation of the fluke motility and light microscopic study highly suggested that PZQ was more effective than TCZ treatment for the eurytremiasis infection. PMID:16125702

Jiraungkoorskul, Wannee; Sahaphong, Somphong; Tansatit, Tawewan; Kangwanrangsan, Niwat; Pipatshukiat, Siriporn

2005-08-26

234

Effect of eye fluke infection on the growth of whitefish ( Coregonus lavaretus) —An experimental approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of the eye fluke Diplostomum spathaceum on fish growth has remained somewhat unclear because 1) the question has not been subjected to experimental examination with treatment-control setup and 2) growth has not been related to the coverage of parasite-induced cataracts in a quantitative manner. We examined effects of the parasite on growth and competitive ability of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus)

Anssi Karvonen; Otto Seppälä

2008-01-01

235

Tracking the fate of iron in early development of human blood flukes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron (Fe) is an important trace element found in nearly all organisms, and is used as a cofactor in many biological reactions. One role for Fe in some invertebrates is in stabilization of extracellular matrices. The human blood fluke, Schistosoma japonicum, is responsible for significant human disease in developing and tropical nations. Disease in humans arises from host immunological reaction

Malcolm K. Jones; Donald P. McManus; Padma Sivadorai; Amber Glanfield; Luke Moertel; Sabina I. Belli; Geoffrey N. Gobert

2007-01-01

236

First Demonstration of the Lung Fluke, Paragonimus from Man in Peru.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two adult lung flukes, Paragonimus sp. were demonstrated from man for the first time in Peru. They were surgically obtained from the right lung of a 36-yera-old Peruvian male, who was suspected to have been infected in the district of Aguaytia, Department...

I. Miyazaki O. Grados B R. C. Arellano Z

1973-01-01

237

Fasciola hepatica: ultrastructural effects of a combination of triclabendazole and clorsulon against mature fluke.  

PubMed

A study has been carried out to investigate the ultrastructural effects of triclabendazole (TCBZ) at half-normal concentration, clorsulon at half-normal concentration, and a combination of these two drugs against mature Fasciola hepatica. The Cullompton TCBZ-susceptible isolate was used for these experiments. Flukes were incubated for 24 h in vitro in TCBZ sulphoxide (7.5 microg/ml), clorsulon (5 microg/ml), or a combination of the two drugs. For the in vivo experiment, rats were dosed with TCBZ (5 mg/kg body weight), clorsulon (5 mg/kg body weight), or a combination of the two drugs, and flukes recovered after 48 h. Fine structural changes within the tegumental syncytium and tegumental cells were assessed by transmission electron microscopy. Treatment with the combination of drugs produced greater disruption to the flukes than the individual drugs at half-normal concentrations, both in vivo and in vitro; also than TCBZ.SO at normal concentration in vitro. The changes observed aid in the understanding of the gross changes to the tegumental surface described previously (Meaney M, Allister J, McKinstry B, McLaughlin K, Brennan GP, Forbes AB, Fairweather I. Parasitol Res 99:609-621, 2006). The results indicate that there are additive effects between TCBZ and clorsulon and suggest that the use of drug combinations would be of value in the treatment of TCBZ-resistant fluke. PMID:17180691

Meaney, M; Allister, J; McKinstry, B; McLaughlin, K; Brennan, G P; Forbes, A B; Fairweather, I

2006-12-19

238

Identification of the Boudicca and Sinbad retrotransposons in the genome of the human blood fluke Schistosoma haematobium.  

PubMed

Schistosomes have a comparatively large genome, estimated for Schistosoma mansoni to be about 270 megabase pairs (haploid genome). Recent findings have shown that mobile genetic elements constitute significant proportions of the genomes of S. mansoni and S. japonicum. Much less information is available on the genome of the third major human schistosome, S. haematobium. In order to investigate the possible evolutionary origins of the S. mansoni long terminal repeat retrotransposons Boudicca and Sinbad, several genomes were searched by Southern blot for the presence of these retrotransposons. These included three species of schistosomes, S. mansoni, S. japonicum, and S. haematobium, and three related platyhelminth genomes, the liver flukes Fasciola hepatica and Fascioloides magna and the planarian, Dugesia dorotocephala. In addition, Homo sapiens and three snail host genomes, Biomphalaria glabrata, Oncomelania hupensis, and Bulinus truncatus, were examined for possible indications of a horizontal origin for these retrotransposons. Southern hybridization analysis indicated that both Boudicca and Sinbad were present in the genome of S. haematobium. Furthermore, low stringency Southern hybridization analyses suggested that a Boudicca-like retrotransposon was present in the genome of B. truncatus, the snail host of S. haematobium. PMID:17072464

Copeland, Claudia S; Lewis, Fred A; Brindley, Paul J

2006-08-01

239

Bovine fasciolosis: coprological, abattoir survey and its economic impact due to liver condemnation at Soddo municipal abattoir, Southern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out to determine the prevalence and the species of liver flukes in indigenous adult cattle, to compare\\u000a the diagnostic efficiency of fecal and post mortem examination and to assess the economic significance of bovine fasciolosis\\u000a due to liver condemnation in the abattoir. Of the 406 livers and fecal samples examined, 57 (14.0%) and 20 (4.9%) were

Fufa Abunna; Loma Asfaw; Bekele Megersa; Alemayehu Regassa

2010-01-01

240

Food-borne trematode infections of humans in the United States of America  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review examines the literature on imported (allochthonous) and local (autochthonous) cases of food-borne trematode (FBT)\\u000a infections in the United States of America (USA) from 1890 to 2009. Most of the literature is concerned with imported cases\\u000a of the opisthorchiids Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini. These flukes cause serious pathology in the liver and biliary system of humans. Chronic cases

Bernard Fried; Amy Abruzzi

2010-01-01

241

Identification and biochemical characterization of adenylate kinase 1 from Clonorchis sinensis.  

PubMed

Adenylate kinase 1 is responsible for the conversion of AMP into ADP involved in purine metabolism. In the present study, adenylate kinase 1 gene (CsADK1) was isolated from an adult cDNA library of Clonorchis sinensis, and the recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli. Bioinformatics analysis implied that the putative protein contained 197 amino acids, and some residues in conservative binding sites of CsADK1 were substituted. The structure modeling analysis showed that CsADK1 was composed of a core domain, an NMP-binding domain, and a LID domain, which was just a small loop. It demonstrated that CsADK1 was a short isoform of ADKs. Moreover, CsADK1 was identified as an excretory/secretory product by western blot analysis. Real-time quantitative PCR showed that expression level of CsADK1 at the stage of excysted metacercaria was higher than those of adult worm (18.8-folds, P<0.01), metacercariae (1.5-folds, P<0.01), and eggs (5.6-folds, P<0.01). In addition, histochemistry analysis showed that CsADK1 was extensively distributed in metacercariae and in the vitellaria and eggs of adult worms. The Km and Vmax value for substrate ADP were 2.2 mM and 0.9 mM/min, respectively. The optimal temperature and pH value were 37 °C and from 7.5 to 8.0, respectively. The enzyme activity was highly dependent on Mg2+, and the optimal concentration of Mg2+ was 2 mM. However, the enzyme activity was slightly activated by Ca2+, and Mn2+ has no effect on activity. For monovalent ions, activity was highly activated by K+ and NH4+, but slightly by Li+. Taken together, CsADK1 was a metal ion-dependent enzyme involved in purine metabolism, which was important for development and reproduction, and might be a potential candidate for drug target for clonorchiasis. PMID:23455935

Liang, Pei; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Wenjun; Hu, Xuchu; Huang, Yan; Li, Shan; Ren, Mengyu; He, Lei; Li, Ran; Li, Xuerong; Xu, Jin; Wu, Zhongdao; Lu, Gang; Yu, Xinbing

2013-02-28

242

Molecular identification and characterization of leucine aminopeptidase 2, an excretory-secretory product of Clonorchis sinensis.  

PubMed

Aminopeptidases serve vital roles in metabolism of hormones, neurotransmission, turnover of proteins and immunological regulations. Leucine aminopeptidases catalyze the hydrolysis of amino-acid residues from the N-terminus of proteins and peptides. In the present study, leucine aminopeptidase 2 (LAP2) gene of Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) was isolated and identified from an adult cDNA library of C. sinensis. Recombinant CsLAP2 was expressed and purified in Escherichia coli BL21. The open reading frame of LAP2 contains 1,560 bp equivalent to 519 amino acids, a similarity analysis showed a relatively low homology with Homo sapiens (19.0 %), Trypanosoma cruzi (18.0 %), Mus musculus (19.3 %), and relatively high homology with Schistosoma mansoni (65.6 %). The optimum condition of rCsLAP2 enzyme activity was investigated using a fluorescent substrate of Leu-MCA at 37 °C and pH 7.5. The K (m) and V (max) values of rCsLAP2 were 18.2 ?M and 10.7 ?M/min, respectively. CsLAP2 gene expression can be detected at the stages of the adult worm, metacercaria, excysted metacercaria and egg of C. sinensis using real-time PCR, no difference was observed at the stages of the adult worm, metacercaria and egg. However, CsLAP2 showed a higher expression level at the stage of excysted metacercaria than the adult worm (3.90-fold), metacercaria (4.60-fold) and egg (4.59-fold). Histochemistry analysis showed that CsLAP2 was located at the tegument and excretory vesicle of metacercaria, and the tegument and intestine of adult worm. The immune response specific to rCsLAP2 was characterized by a mixed response patterns of Th1 and Th2, indicating a compounded humoral and cellular immune response. The combined results from the present study indicate that CsLAP2 was an important antigen exposed to host immune system, and probably implicated as potential role in interaction with host cells in clonorchiasis. PMID:22729885

Deng, Chuanhuan; Sun, Jiufeng; Li, Xuerong; Wang, Lexun; Hu, Xuchu; Wang, Xiaoyun; Chen, Wenjun; Lv, Xiaoli; Liang, Chi; Li, Wenfang; Huang, Yan; Li, Ran; Wu, Zhongdao; Yu, Xinbing; Xu, Jin

2012-06-23

243

A new agent for the treatment of liver fluke infection (Fascioliasis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung 3,5-Dijod-3'-chlor-4'-(p-chlorphenoxy) salicylanilid wird als ein neues Mittel gegen den Viehleberegel (Fasciola hepatica) beschrieben. In Schafen ergab eine Dosis von 5 mg\\/kg gegen geschlechtsreife Tiere und eine solche von 12,5 mg\\/kg gegen junge Leberegel eine hohe Wirksamkeit. Bei schwerem, akutem Leberegelbefall blieb sogar eine Dosis von 60 mg\\/kg ohne toxische Anzeichen. Ebenso wurde eine relativ hohe Wirksamkeit und eine gute

H. Mrozik; H. Jones; J. Friedman; G. Schwartzkopf; R. A. Schardt; A. A. Patchett; D. R. Hoff; J. J. Yakstis; R. F. Riek; D. A. Ostlind; G. A. Plishker; R. W. Butler; A. C. Cuckler; W. C. Campbell

1969-01-01

244

Comparative Characterization of MicroRNAs from the Liver Flukes Fasciola gigantica and F. hepatica  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of gene expression at the post-transcription level. The present study specifically explored and compared the miRNA expression profiles of F. gigantica and F. hepatica using an integrated sequencing and bioinformatics platform and quantitative real-time PCR. Nineteen and 16 miRNA candidates were identified from F. gigantica and F. hepatica, respectively. The two parasites shared 11 miRNAs, with 8 also showing similarity to miRNAs of Schistosoma japonicum. Another 8 miRNAs were identified as F. gigantica-specific and 5 as F. hepatica-specific, most of which were novel. Predicted target analysis with 11465 mRNA and EST sequences of F. hepatica and F. gigantica revealed that all of the miRNAs had more than one target, ranging from 2 to 398 with an average of 51 targets. Some functions of the predicted targets were only found in F. gigantica, such as “transcription regulator”, while some others were only found in F. hepatica, such as “reproduction” and “response to stimulus”, indicating the different metabolism and gene regulation patterns of the two parasites. The present study represents the first global comparative characterization of miRNA expression profiles of F. gigantica and F. hepatica, which has provided novel valuable resources for a better understanding of the two zoonotic trematodes.

Fu, Jing-Hua; Nisbet, Alasdair J.; Liu, Qing-You; Chen, Mu-Xin; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Quan

2012-01-01

245

Fasciola hepatica: Localization of Glutathione S-Transferase Isoenzymes in Adult and Juvenile Liver Fluke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four cDNA clones (GST-1, -7, -47, and -51) encoding isoenzymes of the detoxification enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) have previously been identified and characterised from Fasciola hepatica. In the present study, antisera were generated to synthetic peptides of regions unique to each of the four GST proteins predicted by the cDNAs. The antisera were characterised, and two were found to distinguish

J. Creaney; G. L. Wijffels; J. L. Sexton; R. M. Sandeman; T. W. Spithill; J. C. Parsons

1995-01-01

246

Biochemical characterisation of the recombinant peroxiredoxin (FhePrx) of the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parasitic helminth Fasciola hepatica secretes a 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Prx) that may play important functions in host–parasite interaction. Recombinant peroxiredoxin (FhePrx) prevented metal-catalyzed oxidative nicking of plasmid DNA and detoxified hydrogen peroxide when coupled with Escherichia coli thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase (kcat\\/Km=5.2×105M?1s?1). Enzyme kinetic analysis revealed that the catalytic efficiency of FhePrx is similar to other 2-Cys peroxiredoxins; the enzyme

Mary Sekiya; Grace Mulcahy; Jane A. Irwin; Colin M. Stack; Sheila M. Donnelly; Weibo Xu; Peter Collins; John P. Dalton

2006-01-01

247

Characterization of cysteine proteases from the carcinogenic liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protease activities in extracts of Opisthorchis viverrini were investigated using gelatin zymography and fluorogenic peptide substrates. Using gelatin-impregnated X-ray film, 2 ?g\\u000a of O. viverrini excretory–secretory products (Ov-ES) and adult somatic extract (Ov-SE) showed proteolytic activity. Zymography of both O. viverrini extracts revealed bands at ~30 kDa. Using fluorogenic peptide substrates, the majority of O. viverrini activity was determined to be cathepsin

Natthawut Kaewpitoon; Thewarach Laha; Sasithorn Kaewkes; Puangrat Yongvanit; Paul J. Brindley; Alex Loukas; Banchob Sripa

2008-01-01

248

Comparative proteomic analysis of juvenile and adult liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used comparative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to highlight proteins that are differentially expressed in the maturation stage of the parasite Opisthorchis viverrini (OV). The proteins differentially expressed in the juvenile\\/adult forms of the parasite are thought to be important for survival and pathogenesis. We used a nonlinear gradient pH ranged 3–10 strips for isoelectric focusing to resolve soluble proteins from

Supatra Boonmee; Kanokwan Imtawil; Chaisiri Wongkham; Sopit Wongkham

2003-01-01

249

The effect of triclabendazole (“Fasinex”) on protein synthesis by the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the active sulphoxide metabolite of the anthelmintic triclabendazole (TCBZ-SX, 15–50 ?g ml?1) on the incorporation of radioactively labelled [14C] leucine by adult Fasciola hepatica tissue slices was measured by liquid scintillation counting. In addition, the ability of the microfilament-disrupting drug, cytochalasin B, and the microtubule-disrupting drug, tubulozole-C, to inhibit protein synthesis, was assessed by similar methods and

A. W. Stitt; I. Fairweather; R. O. Mackender

1995-01-01

250

Liver fluke vaccines: Vaccination Against Fasciolosis by a Multivalent Vaccine of Recombinant Stage-Specific Antigens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fasciola's excretory-secretory material comprises chiefly cathepsin B and cathepsin L. These cysteine proteases are proposed as major mediators of parasitism, and are considered targets for vaccination. In order to assess the vaccine efficacy of these enzymes, single and multivalent recombinant protein vaccinations of adult-stage F. hepatica cathepsin L5, metacercarial-stage F. gigantica cathepsin L1g and juvenile-stage F. hepatica cathepsin B were

R. Jayaraj; D. Piedrafita; K. Dynon; R. Grams; T. W. Spithill; P. M. Smooker

2010-01-01

251

The energy metabolism of the adult common liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica  

Microsoft Academic Search

In adultFasciola hepatica glucose is broken down to volatile fatty acids, carbon dioxide and lactate. In the cytosol glucose is converted into malate and lactate and malate is metabolized further in the mitochondrial compartment via a dismutation. The dismutation of malate can proceed under anaerobic conditions. To a limited extent oxygen can function as terminal electron acceptor.It is shown that

F. van Vugt

1979-01-01

252

Activity of luxabendazole against liver flukes, gastrointestinal roundworms, and lungworms in naturally infected sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anthelmintic potential of luxabendazolc was investigated in sheep harboring mixed naturally acquired helminth infections. Results were assessed by comparing worm counts of the treated groups (seven animals each) on days 7–8 posttreatment with those of the nontreated control group, except for protostrongylid lungworms, for which the changes in pre-and posttreatment group mean larval counts\\/g feces were assessed for intensity

T. Kassai; Csilla Takfits; Éva Fok; P. Redl

1988-01-01

253

Proteomic analysis of glutathione transferases from the liver fluke parasite,Fasciola hepatica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parasite Fasciola hepatica causes major global disease of livestock, with increasing reports of human infection. Vaccine candidates with varying protection rates have been identified by pre- genomic approaches. As many candidates are part of protein superfamilies, sub-proteomics offers new possibilities to systematically reveal the relative importance of individual family pro- teins to vaccine formulations within populations. The superfamily glutathione

Gustavo Chemale; Russell Morphew; Joseph V. Moxon; Alessandra L. Morassuti; E. James LaCourse; John Barrett; David A. Johnston; Peter M. Brophy

2006-01-01

254

A native 13-kDa fatty acid binding protein from the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 13-kDa fatty acid binding protein (FABP) (Fh13) has been isolated from the cytosol of adult Fasciola hepatica and its physicochemical and binding characteristics determined. Fh13 appears to exist as a dimer in native solution. Binding of the fluorescent fatty acid analogue 11-((5-dimethyl aminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl) amino) undecanoic acid (DAUDA) to Fh13 results in changes in the emission spectrum, which are reversed

Anna Timanova-Atanasova; Rosita Jordanova; Georgi Radoslavov; Gergana Deevska; Ilia Bankov; John Barrett

2004-01-01

255

Common-source outbreak of acute infection due to the North American liver fluke Metorchis conjunctus  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryBackground We investigated an outbreak of acute clinical illness among 19 people who ate raw fish (sashimi) prepared from the white sucker, Catostomus commersoni, caught in a river north of Montreal, Canada.Methods We collected epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and serological data on 19 individuals who ate the sashimi and six who did not. Because of the suggestive clinical picture, we set

J. D MacLean; B. J Ward; E Kokoskin; J. R Arthur; T. W Gyorkos; M. A Curtis

1996-01-01

256

Immunocytochemical localization of a cysteine protease in adult worms of the liver fluke Fasciola sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intracellular localization of a cysteine protease fromFasciola sp. that hydrolyzes host hemoglobin as a nutritional source was examined by light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry using a monoclonal antibody specific to the enzyme. Immunoperoxidase staining was predominantly restricted to large numbers of granules in the parasite intestinal epithelial cells and to host erythrocytes present in the intestinal lumens. In immunogold

H. Yamasaki; E. Kominami; T. Aoki

1992-01-01

257

The effect of triclabendazole ("Fasinex") on protein synthesis by the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica.  

PubMed

The effect of the active sulphoxide metabolite of the anthelmintic triclabendazole (TCBZ-SX, 15-50 micrograms ml-1) on the incorporation of radioactively labelled [14C] leucine by adult Fasciola hepatica tissue slices was measured by liquid scintillation counting. In addition, the ability of the microfilament-disrupting drug, cytochalasin B, and the microtubule-disrupting drug, tubulozole-C, to inhibit protein synthesis, was assessed by similar methods and compared with TCBZ-SX. The established protein synthesis inhibitors, cycloheximide and actinomycin D were used as positive controls. All the drugs showed a significant inhibition of protein synthesis, albeit to different extents; however, TCBZ-SX was the most potent, with no significant difference between its effect and that of cycloheximide or actinomycin D. Moreover, the concentration of TCBZ-SX, above 15 micrograms ml-1, had little further influence on incorporation of [14C] leucine. This investigation demonstrates the inhibitory effect of TCBZ-SX, cytochalasin B and tubulozole-C on protein synthesis in F. hepatica and confirms the qualitative observations made in several previous ultrastructural studies. PMID:7635617

Stitt, A W; Fairweather, I; Mackender, R O

1995-04-01

258

Mouflon ( Ovis musimon) dicrocoeliosis: Effects of parasitosis on the activities of biotransformation enzymes and albendazole metabolism in liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasitic infections can modify the host's ability to metabolize drugs and other xenobiotics by altering the biotransformation enzymes; these changes may have various pharmacological, toxicological or physiological consequences. In our study, several activities of liver biotransformation enzymes and in vitro metabolism of albendazole (ABZ) were tested and compared in non-infected mouflons (Ovis musimon) and in mouflons infected by lancet fluke

L. Skálová; V. K?ížová; V. Cvilink; B. Szotáková; L. Štorkánová; J. Velík; J. Lamka

2007-01-01

259

Clonorchis sinensis: expression, characterization, immunolocalization and serological reactivity of one excretory/secretory antigen-LPAP homologue.  

PubMed

From a Clonorchis sinensis adult cDNA plasmid library, a cDNA clone encoding a novel lysophosphatidic acid phosphatase (LPAP) homologue was isolated. The predicted molecular weight of putative protein was 48.8 kDa and the deduced amino acid sequence had 45%, 32%, and 29% identity with LPAP of Schistosoma japonicum, Danio rerio, and Homo sapiens, respectively. Prediction of signal peptide and Western blot analysis indicated that the CsLPAP homologue was an excretory-secretory antigen (ES antigen) of C. sinensis. Immunostaining revealed that the CsLPAP was markedly localized in the intestinal cecum, seminal receptacle and eggs of the adult worm. The recombinant CsLPAP showed slightly higher sensitivity (82.14%) and specificity (85.86%) than the crude worm antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), a result which suggested that the recombinant antigen might be valuable in the serodiagnosis of human clonorchiasis. PMID:17507009

Hu, Fengyu; Yu, Xinbing; Ma, Changling; Zhou, Hongjuan; Zhou, Zhenwen; Li, Yanwen; Lu, Fangli; Xu, Jin; Wu, Zhongdao; Hu, Xuchu

2007-04-14

260

Fasciola hepatica: morphological effects of a combination of triclabendazole and clorsulon against mature fluke  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study has been carried out to investigate the morphological effects of half-strength triclabendazole (TCBZ), half-strength clorsulon, and a combination of these two drugs against mature Fasciola hepatica. The Cullompton TCBZ-susceptible isolate was used for these experiments. Flukes were incubated for 24 h in vitro in TCBZ sulphoxide (7.5 ?g\\/ml), clorsulon (5 ?g\\/ml), or a combination of the two drugs. For the in

M. Meaney; J. Allister; B. McKinstry; K. McLaughlin; G. P. Brennan; A. B. Forbes; I. Fairweather

2006-01-01

261

Fasciola hepatica: ultrastructural effects of a combination of triclabendazole and clorsulon against mature fluke  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study has been carried out to investigate the ultrastructural effects of triclabendazole (TCBZ) at half-normal concentration,\\u000a clorsulon at half-normal concentration, and a combination of these two drugs against mature Fasciola hepatica. The Cullompton TCBZ-susceptible isolate was used for these experiments. Flukes were incubated for 24 h in vitro in TCBZ sulphoxide\\u000a (7.5 ?g\\/ml), clorsulon (5 ?g\\/ml), or a combination of the two

M. Meaney; J. Allister; B. McKinstry; K. McLaughlin; G. P. Brennan; A. B. Forbes; I. Fairweather

2007-01-01

262

Molecular characterization and expression of a cysteine protease from Clonorchis sinensis and its application for serodiagnosis of clonorchiasis.  

PubMed

Cysteine proteases play essential roles in parasite physiology as well as in host-parasite interactions through their modulation of various biological and pathobiological events. In the present study, a full-length sequence encoding cysteine protease of Clonorchis sinensis (CsCP) was isolated from our adult cDNA library. The open reading frame contains 984 bp encoding 327 amino acids. The present amino acid sequence shared 68% identity with two known CsCP genes and 29-49% identity with that of other species. Bioinformatics analysis showed that conserved domains and characteristic amino acid residues of cysteine proteases were observed in this sequence. Real-time PCR experiments revealed that CsCP was consecutively transcribed in various developmental stages of the parasite, including adult worm, excysted juvenile, metacercaria and egg. Recombinant CsCP (rCsCP) could be probed by rat anti-CsCP serum, rabbit anti-excretory-secretory products (ESP) serum and serum from human infected with Clonorchis sinensis in Western blot. The result of immunolocalization showed that CsCP was mainly located in the oral sucker, excretory bladder and tegument of cercariae and metacercariae, as well as the intestine of adult worm. The rCsCP-based IgG and its isotypes were all detected in sera from human infected with C. sinensis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the level of IgG1 is the highest. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to determine the most appropriate cut-off value that yielded the high sensitivity (86.96%) and specificity (70.42%). These results revealed that CsCP may play an important role in the biology of C. sinensis and could be a diagnostic candidate for clonorchiasis. PMID:22170263

Lv, Xiaoli; Chen, Wenjun; Wang, Xiaoyun; Li, Xuerong; Sun, Jiufeng; Deng, Chuanhuan; Men, Jingtao; Tian, Yanli; Zhou, Chenhui; Lei, Huali; Liang, Chi; Yu, Xinbing

2011-12-15

263

A family of cathepsin F cysteine proteases of Clonorchis sinensis is the major secreted proteins that are expressed in the intestine of the parasite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cysteine proteases of helminth parasites play essential roles in parasite physiology as well as in a variety of important pathobiological processes. In this study, we identified a multigene family of cathepsin F cysteine proteases in Clonorchis sinensis (CsCFs). We identified a total of 12 CsCF genes through cDNA cloning using degenerate PCR primers followed by RACE. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis

Jung-Mi Kang; Young-Yil Bahk; Pyo-Yun Cho; Sung-Jong Hong; Tong-Soo Kim; Woon-Mok Sohn; Byoung-Kuk Na

2010-01-01

264

Effectiveness of mefloquine against Clonorchis sinensis in rats and Paragonimus westermani in dogs.  

PubMed

The aim of the study is to explore the effect of mefloquine against Clonorchis sinensis and Paragonimus westermani. For anti-C. sinensis study, a total of 71 rats were divided into four batches for oral infection of each rat with 50 C. sinensis metacercariae. Five to 7 weeks post-infection, groups of rats were treated orally with mefloquine at single doses or multiple daily doses while infected, but untreated rats served as control. All treated rats were euthanized 2 weeks post-treatment for assessment of efficacy. For anti-P. westermani study, two batches of eight and ten dogs were each infected intraperitoneally with 100 P. westermani metacercariae. Eighty-five to 96 days post-infection, groups of two or three dogs were treated orally with mefloquine and groups of two dogs were treated with praziquantel at a single dose or multiple doses. In each batch of test, three untreated but infected dogs served as control. All treated dogs were euthanized 26-30 days post-treatment for evaluation of efficacy. In rats infected with C. sinensis and treated orally with mefloquine at a single dose of 75 and 150 mg/kg, no effect against C. sinensis was observed. When the dose of mefloquine was increased to 250 mg/kg, one third (five out of 15) rats died 3-5 days post-treatment. Although the mean worm burden was lower than that of the control, the difference between the treated and control groups was not statistically significant (P>0.05) with worm burden reduction of 22.4%. Whereas, the group of infected rats received mefloquine at a daily dose of 100 mg/kg for 3 days, one out of five rats died after the last administration. The mean worm burden was significantly lower than that of the control with worm burden reduction of 67.6% (P<0.01). In the first test of mefloquine against P. westermani, three infected dogs received two oral doses of the drug, 50 mg/kg, given at a 4-h interval, the mean worm burden were similar to that of the control. While other two dogs were treated with praziquantel at the same dose schedule, the worm burden reduction of 78% was observed. In the second test, three and two dogs were treated with mefloquine 50 mg/kg daily for 5 days or 100 mg/kg daily for 2 days; the mean worm burdens of the two groups were lower than that of the control with worm burden reduction of 65.6% and 51.9%, respectively. However, only the difference of mean worm burdens between mefloquine 50 mg/kg given daily for 5 days and the control was statistically significant (P<0.05). Other two dogs treated with praziquantel at a single dose of 100 mg/kg were cured. The results indicate that under the appropriate dose schedule mefloquine exhibits less effect against C. sinensis in rats and P. westermani in dogs. PMID:20680332

Xiao, Shu-hua; Xue, Jian; Li-li, Xu; Zhang, Yong-nian; Qiang, Hui-qing

2010-08-03

265

Hypereosinophilia and liver mass in an immigrant.  

PubMed

Human infection with the sheep liver fluke Fasciola hepatica is a global zoonosis that usually parallels the prevalence of infection in sheep and other ruminants. The disease is endemic in South and Central America, Puerto Rico, the Caribbean region, many parts of Africa, Asia, the Middle East, Australia, and China. There have been a number of focal outbreaks reported from Europe, including southern France and the Mediterranean region. Since acute fascioliasis has rarely been reported in the United States, physicians in this country frequently overlook the diagnosis. Therefore, we report a case of acute human fascioliasis and review the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of this disease in a recently arrived immigrant. PMID:12224590

Noyer, Charles M; Coyle, Christina M; Werner, Craig; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Tanowitz, Herbert B; Wiitner, Murray

2002-06-01

266

Liver Wellness  

MedlinePLUS

... Liver Foundation www.liverfoundation.org 1-800-GO-LIVER © 2009 American Liver Foundation. All rights reserved. Increasing Public Awareness of Liver Health Liver Wellness • The liver is the second ...

267

Liver Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... Handouts Education Resources Support Services Helpful Links For Liver Health Information Call 1-800-GO-LIVER Email ... Home > Your Liver > Liver Disease Information > Liver Transplant Liver Transplant Explore this section to learn more about ...

268

Liver Cancer  

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269

Fasciola hepatica: Histology of the testis in egg-producing adults of several laboratory-maintained isolates of flukes grown to maturity in cattle and sheep and in flukes from naturally infected hosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 8 calves approximately 6 months old and 22 lambs of similar age were infected with metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica of various laboratory-maintained isolates including: Cullompton (sensitive to triclabendazole) and Sligo, Oberon and Leon (reported as resistant to triclabendazole). Ten to 16 weeks after infection, flukes were harvested from these experimental animals and the histology of the testis

R. E. B. Hanna; H. Edgar; D. Moffett; S. McConnell; I. Fairweather; G. P. Brennan; A. Trudgett; E. M. Hoey; L. Cromie; S. M. Taylor; R. Daniel

2008-01-01

270

Fluke egg characteristics for the diagnosis of human and animal fascioliasis by Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica  

Microsoft Academic Search

In trematodiases, shape and size of the fluke eggs shed with faeces are crucial diagnostic features because of their typically reduced intraspecific variability. In fascioliasis, the usual diagnosis during the biliary stage of infection is based on the classification of eggs found in stools, duodenal contents or bile. The aim of the present study is to validate the identification of

M. Adela Valero; Ignacio Perez-Crespo; M. Victoria Periago; Messaoud Khoubbane; Santiago Mas-Coma

2009-01-01

271

Pharmacological and autoradiographical characterization of serotonin transporter-like activity in sporocysts of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study focuses on the role of the biogenic monoamine serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) in the biology of sporocyst stages of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni, and its importance during obligate development within its snail host Biomphalaria glabrata. Based on previous work demonstrating that snails infected with S. mansoni have reduced levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine, we hypothesized that sporocysts actively transport

J. P. Boyle; J. F. Hillyer; T. P. Yoshino

2003-01-01

272

Molecular characterization of a novel Clonorchis sinensis secretory phospholipase A(2) and investigation of its potential contribution to hepatic fibrosis.  

PubMed

A gene encoding a homologue of phospholipase A(2) was identified from the Clonorchis sinensis adult cDNA plasmid library. The deduced amino acid sequence including a signal peptide that has 28-46% identity with secretory phospholipase A(2), group III (group III sPLA(2)) of other species. It also has typical features of group III sPLA(2)s including 10 cysteines, the key residues of the Ca(2+) loop and catalytic site. The recombinant protein encoded by this gene expressed in Escherichia coli showed a product of about 34kDa in SDS-PAGE. Prediction of signal peptide and Western blot analysis indicated the group III secretory phospholipase A(2) of C. sinensis (CsGIIIsPLA(2)) was an excretory-secretory product (ES product). The enzyme activity of the recombinant protein was determined using phosphatidylcholine as substrates. The result revealed that the protein was a Ca(2+)-dependent PLA(2). Both MTT test and cell cycle analysis of LX-2 showed a higher percentage of cells are in proliferation phase. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR experiments demonstrated an up-regulated expression of collagen III in these cells after incubation with the recombinant protein. We also identified that the recombinant CsGIIIsPLA(2) could bind to some membrane proteins on LX-2 cells specifically by immunofluorescence, thus there might be receptors of CsGIIIsPLA(2) on the LX-2 cell membrane. Our results suggest that CsGIIIsPLA(2) might play an important role in the initiation and development of hepatic fibrosis caused by C. sinensis. PMID:19463858

Hu, Fengyu; Hu, Xuchu; Ma, Changling; Zhao, Junhong; Xu, Jin; Yu, Xinbing

2009-05-20

273

Food-Borne Trematodiases  

PubMed Central

Summary: An estimated 750 million people are at risk of infections with food-borne trematodes, which comprise liver flukes (Clonorchis sinensis, Fasciola gigantica, Fasciola hepatica, Opisthorchis felineus, and Opisthorchis viverrini), lung flukes (Paragonimus spp.), and intestinal flukes (e.g., Echinostoma spp., Fasciolopsis buski, and the heterophyids). Food-borne trematodiases pose a significant public health and economic problem, yet these diseases are often neglected. In this review, we summarize the taxonomy, morphology, and life cycle of food-borne trematodes. Estimates of the at-risk population and number of infections, geographic distribution, history, and ecological features of the major food-borne trematodes are reviewed. We summarize clinical manifestations, patterns of infection, and current means of diagnosis, treatment, and other control options. The changing epidemiological pattern and the rapid growth of aquaculture and food distribution networks are highlighted, as these developments might be associated with an elevated risk of transmission of food-borne trematodiases. Current research needs are emphasized.

Keiser, Jennifer; Utzinger, Jurg

2009-01-01

274

Fasciola hepatica: histological demonstration of apoptosis in the reproductive organs of flukes of triclabendazole-sensitive and triclabendazole-resistant isolates, and in field-derived flukes from triclabendazole-treated hosts, using in situ hybridisation to visualise endonuclease-generated DNA strand breaks.  

PubMed

Investigation of the triclabendazole (TCBZ) resistance status of populations of Fasciola hepatica in field cases of fasciolosis, where treatment failure has been reported, can be supported by histological examination of flukes collected from recently treated hosts. In TCBZ-sensitive flukes (TCBZ-S) exposed to TCBZ metabolites for 1-4days in vivo, but not in TCBZ-resistant flukes (TCBZ-R), morphological changes suggestive of apoptosis occur in cells undergoing meiosis or mitosis in the testis, ovary and vitelline follicles. In order to verify or refute the contention that efficacy of TCBZ treatment is associated with apoptosis in the reproductive organs of flukes, histological sections of TCBZ-S (Cullompton isolate) flukes and TCBZ-R (Sligo isolate) flukes were subjected to the TdT-mediated dUDP nick end labelling (TUNEL) in situ hybridisation method, a commercially available test specifically designed to label endonuclease-induced DNA strand breaks associated with apoptosis. Additionally, sections of in vivo-treated and untreated flukes originating from field outbreaks of suspected TCBZ-S and TCBZ-R fasciolosis were labelled by the TUNEL method. It was found that in treated TCBZ-S flukes, strong positive labelling indicating apoptosis was associated with morphologically abnormal cells undergoing mitosis or meiosis in the testis, ovary and vitelline follicles. Background labelling in the positive testis sections was attributed to heterophagy of cell debris by the sustentacular tissue. The triggering of apoptosis was probably related to failure of spindle formation at cell division, supporting the contention that TCBZ inhibits microtubule formation. In treated TCBZ-R (Sligo Type 1) flukes, and in treated flukes from field outbreaks of suspected TCBZ-R fasciolosis, no significant labelling was observed, while sections of fluke derived from a field case of fasciolosis where TCBZ resistance was not suspected were heavily labelled. Light labelling was associated with the testis of untreated Cullompton (TCBZ-S) and Sligo Type 2 (TCBZ-R) flukes, which exhibit abnormal spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis, respectively. This was attributed to apoptosis and to heterophagy of effete germ line cells by the sustentacular tissue. It is concluded that demonstration of apoptosis by in situ hybridisation using the TUNEL method on sections of 1-4days in vivo TCBZ-treated F. hepatica can contribute to the diagnosis of TCBZ resistance in field outbreaks of fasciolosis. PMID:23062689

Hanna, R E B; Forster, F I; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

2012-09-18

275

Fasciola hepatica : the effect of the microfilament inhibitor cytochalasin B on the ultrastructure of the adult fluke  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the microfilament inhibitor cytochalasin B (10 and 100 µg\\/ml) on the ultrastructure of adultFasciola hepatica was determined in vitro by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) using both intact flukes and tissue-slice material. SEM revealed that initial swelling of the tegument led to surface blebbing and limited areas of sloughing after 24 h treatment at 100

A. W. Stitt; I. Fairweather

1991-01-01

276

Identification and Characterization of Paramyosin from Cyst Wall of Metacercariae Implicated Protective Efficacy against Clonorchis sinensis Infection  

PubMed Central

Human clonorchiasis has been increasingly prevalent in recent years and results in a threat to the public health in epidemic regions, motivating current strategies of vaccines to combat Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis). In this study, we identified C. sinensis paramyosin (CsPmy) from the cyst wall proteins of metacercariae by proteomic approaches and characterized the expressed recombinant pET-26b-CsPmy protein (101 kDa). Bioinformatics analysis indicated that full-length sequences of paramyosin are conserved in helminthes and numerous B-cell/T-cell epitopes were predicted in amino acid sequence of CsPmy. Western blot analysis showed that CsPmy was expressed at four life stages of C. sinensis, both cyst wall proteins and soluble tegumental components could be probed by anti-CsPmy serum. Moreover, immunolocalization results revealed that CsPmy was specifically localized at cyst wall and excretory bladder of metacercaria, as well as the tegument, oral sucker and vitellarium of adult worm. Both immunoblot and immunolocalization results demonstrated that CsPmy was highly expressed at the stage of adult worm, metacercariae and cercaria, which could be supported by real-time PCR analysis. Both recombinant protein and nucleic acid of CsPmy showed strong immunogenicity in rats and induced combined Th1/Th2 immune responses, which were reflected by continuous high level of antibody titers and increased level of IgG1/IgG2a subtypes in serum. In vaccine trials, comparing with control groups, both CsPmy protein and DNA vaccine exhibited protective effect with significant worm reduction rate of 54.3% (p<0.05) and 36.1% (p<0.05), respectively. In consistence with immune responses in sera, elevated level of cytokines IFN-? and IL-4 in splenocytes suggested that CsPmy could induce combined cellular immunity and humoral immunity in host. Taken together, CsPmy could be a promising vaccine candidate in the prevention of C. sinensis regarding its high immunogenicity and surface localization.

Lv, Xiaoli; Tian, Yanli; Men, Jingtao; Zhang, Xifeng; Lei, Huali; Zhou, Chenhui; Lu, Fangli; Liang, Chi; Hu, Xuchu; Xu, Jin; Wu, Zhongdao; Li, Xuerong; Yu, Xinbing

2012-01-01

277

Identification and characterization of paramyosin from cyst wall of metacercariae implicated protective efficacy against Clonorchis sinensis infection.  

PubMed

Human clonorchiasis has been increasingly prevalent in recent years and results in a threat to the public health in epidemic regions, motivating current strategies of vaccines to combat Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis). In this study, we identified C. sinensis paramyosin (CsPmy) from the cyst wall proteins of metacercariae by proteomic approaches and characterized the expressed recombinant pET-26b-CsPmy protein (101 kDa). Bioinformatics analysis indicated that full-length sequences of paramyosin are conserved in helminthes and numerous B-cell/T-cell epitopes were predicted in amino acid sequence of CsPmy. Western blot analysis showed that CsPmy was expressed at four life stages of C. sinensis, both cyst wall proteins and soluble tegumental components could be probed by anti-CsPmy serum. Moreover, immunolocalization results revealed that CsPmy was specifically localized at cyst wall and excretory bladder of metacercaria, as well as the tegument, oral sucker and vitellarium of adult worm. Both immunoblot and immunolocalization results demonstrated that CsPmy was highly expressed at the stage of adult worm, metacercariae and cercaria, which could be supported by real-time PCR analysis. Both recombinant protein and nucleic acid of CsPmy showed strong immunogenicity in rats and induced combined Th1/Th2 immune responses, which were reflected by continuous high level of antibody titers and increased level of IgG1/IgG2a subtypes in serum. In vaccine trials, comparing with control groups, both CsPmy protein and DNA vaccine exhibited protective effect with significant worm reduction rate of 54.3% (p<0.05) and 36.1% (p<0.05), respectively. In consistence with immune responses in sera, elevated level of cytokines IFN-? and IL-4 in splenocytes suggested that CsPmy could induce combined cellular immunity and humoral immunity in host. Taken together, CsPmy could be a promising vaccine candidate in the prevention of C. sinensis regarding its high immunogenicity and surface localization. PMID:22470461

Wang, Xiaoyun; Chen, Wenjun; Lv, Xiaoli; Tian, Yanli; Men, Jingtao; Zhang, Xifeng; Lei, Huali; Zhou, Chenhui; Lu, Fangli; Liang, Chi; Hu, Xuchu; Xu, Jin; Wu, Zhongdao; Li, Xuerong; Yu, Xinbing

2012-03-21

278

Conservation of CD4+ T cell-dependent developmental mechanisms in the blood fluke pathogens of humans  

PubMed Central

Schistosoma blood flukes are trematode parasites with a cosmopolitan distribution that infect over 200 million people globally. We previously showed that Schistosoma mansoni growth and development in the mammalian host is dependent on signals from host CD4+ T cells. To gain insight into the mechanisms that underlie this dependence, we sought to determine the evolutionary origins and limits of this aspect of the host-pathogen relationship. By infecting RAG-1?/? mice with a range of different schistosome species and strains, we tested several hypotheses concerning the time during Schistosoma evolution at which this dependence arose, and whether this dependence is specific to Schistosoma or is also found in other blood flukes. Our data indicate that the developmental dependence on CD4+ T cells previously described for S. mansoni is conserved in the evolutionarily basal species Schistosoma japonicum, suggesting this developmental adaptation arose early in Schistosoma evolution. We also demonstrate that the development of the more evolutionarily-derived species Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma intercalatum are dependent on adaptive immune signals. Together, these data suggest that the blood fluke parasites of humans utilize common mechanisms to infect their hosts and to co-opt immune signals in the coordination of parasite development. Thus, exploitation of host-schistosome interactions to impair or prevent parasite development may represent a novel approach to combating of all the schistosome pathogens of humans.

Lamb, Erika W.; Crow, Emily T.; Lim, K.C.; Liang, Yung-san; Lewis, Fred A.; Davies, Stephen J.

2007-01-01

279

Current status of lung fluke metacercarial infection in freshwater crabs in the Kawane area of Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan.  

PubMed

Feline cases of lung fluke infection were recently reported in the upper basin of the Oi River in Shizuoka Prefecture. The causative species of these cases were not identified, although a field survey conducted about 40 years ago in this area demonstrated the prevalence of Paragonimus miyazakii metacercariae in intermediate host crabs. To clarify the current status of lung fluke metacercarial infection in host crabs, we collected the Japanese freshwater crab or Sawagani, Geothelphusa dehaani, at 14 sampling sites in the Kawane area, which is located in the upper basin of the Oi River. Sawagani harboring Paragonimus metacercariae were collected at all sampling sites in this study with a total prevalence of 42% (281 of 677 crabs examined) and a range of 16% to 92%. The number of metacercariae per infected crab ranged from 1 to 19 with a mean of 2.2. Based on the morphological features of the metacercariae and adult worms recovered from rats that were experimentally infected with the metacercariae, the lung flukes examined were identified as P. miyazakii Kamo, Nishida, Hatsushika and Tomimura, 1961; ITS2 sequence data corroborate this conclusion. P. miyazakii is still widely prevalent in this area, implying that the recently reported feline paragonimiasis cases were likely caused by P. miyazakii infection. PMID:23076034

Sugiyama, Hiromu; Shibata, Katsumasa; Morishima, Yasuyuki; Muto, Maki; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Kawakami, Yasushi

2012-10-18

280

Liver Transplantation  

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... you on a waiting list for a liver transplant. Doctors do liver transplants when other treatment cannot keep a damaged liver ... and replaces it with a healthy one. Most transplant livers come from a donor who has died. ...

281

The current status of opisthorchiasis and clonorchiasis in the Mekong Basin.  

PubMed

This review highlights the current status and control of liver fluke infections in the Mekong Basin countries where Opisthorchis and Clonorchis are highly endemic. Updated data on prevalence and distribution have been summarized from presentations in the "96 Years of Opisthorchiasis. International Congress of Liver Flukes". It is disturbing that despite treatment and control programs have been in place for decades, all countries of the Lower Mekong Basin are still highly endemic with O. viverrini and/or C. sinensis as well as alarmingly high levels of CCA incidence. A common pattern that is emerging in each country is the difference in transmission of O. viverrini between lowlands which have high prevalence versus highlands which have low prevalence. This seems to be associated with wetlands, flooding patterns and human movement and settlement. A more concerted effort from all community, educational, public health and government sectors is necessary to successfully combat this fatal liver disease of the poor. PMID:21893213

Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Andrews, Ross H; Nguyen, Van De; Wongsaroj, Thitima; Sinuon, Muth; Odermatt, Peter; Nawa, Yukifumi; Liang, Song; Brindley, Paul J; Sripa, Banchob

2011-08-25

282

Cubic crystal protein inclusions in the neodermis of the pancreatic fluke, Eurytrema pancreaticum, and Eurytrema coelomaticum.  

PubMed

Light microscopy of Eurytrema pancreaticum and Eurytrema coelomaticum collected from cattle in Japan, China, Thailand, and Brazil showed many cubic crystal inclusions in the neodermis (tegument) of all flukes. The crystal inclusions were histochemically positive for protein. Scanning electron microscopy showed many cubic protrusions containing cubic crystal protein inclusions on the surface of the neodermis. Transmission electron microscopy showed that cubic crystal protein inclusions appeared in the perikarya of subtegumental parts, passed through the cytoplasmic bridge, moved into the syncytial neodermal cytoplasm, and then protruded from, and finally separated from, the neodermal cytoplasm. Cubic crystal protein inclusions were hexahedral with each side 2-18 microm long. High-resolution microscopy of ultrathin sections of crystal inclusions showed a lattice fringe at spacings of about 0.52 nm by using a filtering processing. Diffractograms were obtained by Fourier transform of the images. The lattice structure of the crystal protein inclusions was shown by inverse Fourier transform, indicating that the cubic crystal protein inclusions were single crystals. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis estimated the molecular weight of protein in the cubic crystal inclusion as 36.6 kDa. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy proved that the cubic crystal protein inclusions were composed of protein and sulfur. PMID:17657508

Sakamoto, Tsukasa; Oikawa, Tetsuo

2007-07-27

283

Heterophysiasis, an intestinal fluke infection of man and vertebrates transmitted by euryhaline gastropods and fish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heterophyes heterophyes, agent of human heterophyiasis in the Near East, is transmitted in marine lagoons and saline inland waters, where the euryhaline intermediate hosts are abundant. In Egypt, mullets, the predominant second intermediate hosts, are customarily consumed raw; thus man becomes infected easily. Symptoms of human infections are usually considered mild. Mullets do not seem to be affected by the metacercariae encysted in the muscles, whereas the growth of the snail host Pirenella conica was found to be enhanced due to the infestation by the trematodes. In laboratory experiments, the flukes were found to be well developed in dogs, foxes and cats, but failed to reach sexual maturity in several other potentially piscivorous mammals and birds. In nature, dogs probably serve as the major reservoir hosts. Heterophyiasis is most prevalent in the Nile Delta, a huge brackish water area which is densely populated by humans and, consequently, also by dogs and cats. In the Far East, besides Heterophyes nocens, several other heterophysids with marine or fresh-water life-cycles are known to infect humans.

Taraschewski, H.

1984-03-01

284

Carcinogenic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini oxysterols detected by LC-MS/MS survey of soluble fraction parasite extract.  

PubMed

Liquid chromatography in tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has emerged as an informative tool to investigate oxysterols (oxidized derivatives of cholesterol) in helminth parasite associated cancers. Here, we used LC-MS/MS to investigate in soluble extracts of the adult developmental stage of Opisthorchis viverrini from experimentally infected hamsters. Using comparisons with known bile acids and the metabolites of estrogens, the LC-MS data indicated the existence of novel oxysterol derivatives in O. viverrini. Most of these derivatives were ramified at C-17, in similar fashion to bile acids and their conjugated salts. Several were compatible with the presence of an estrogen core, and/or hydroxylation of the steroid aromatic ring A, hydroxylation of both C-2 and C-3 of the steroid ring and further oxidation into an estradiol-2,3-quinone. PMID:23973383

Vale, Nuno; Gouveia, Maria João; Botelho, Mónica; Sripa, Banchob; Suttiprapa, Sutas; Rinaldi, Gabriel; Gomes, Paula; Brindley, Paul J; Correia da Costa, José Manuel

2013-08-20

285

EXAMINATIONS ON THE PROTECTIVE IMMUNITY TO THE COMMON LIVER FLUKE, FASCIOLA IN RATS, USING IMMUNOSUPPRESSANTS OR DIFFUSION CHAMBER TECHNIQUES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study was designed to obtain an information on the immune factors which could be underlying the induction of protective immunity to the genus Fasciola in rats, using immunosuppressive drugs and diffusion chamber technique. The rats became resistant to challenge with the Japanese species of Fasciola following an oral infection with metacercariae, indicating a significant degree of reduced worm

YOSHIHISA HASHIGUCHI

286

Fasciola hepatica cathepsin L-like proteases: biology, function, and potential in the development of first generation liver fluke vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fasciola hepatica secretes cathepsin L proteases that facilitate the penetration of the parasite through the tissues of its host, and also participate in functions such as feeding and immune evasion. The major proteases, cathepsin L1 (FheCL1) and cathepsin L2 (FheCL2) are members of a lineage that gave rise to the human cathepsin Ls, Ks and Ss, but while they exhibit

John P Dalton; Sandra O Neill; Colin Stack; Peter Collins; Alan Walshe; Mary Sekiya; Sean Doyle; Grace Mulcahy; Deborah Hoyle; Eric Khaznadji; Nathalie Moiré; Gerard Brennan; Angela Mousley; Natalia Kreshchenko; Aaron G Maule; Sheila M Donnelly

2003-01-01

287

Studies on the oviposition and longevity of Ilione albiseta [Dipt.: Sciomyzidae] — Potential biological control agent of liver fluke  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of 5 constant temperatures (10, 14, 17, 20 and 23°C) on the oviposition and longevity ofIlione albiseta was investigated. Most eggs were laid at 14–17°C and mean oviposition period declined progressively above and below 14°C.\\u000a There was no significant difference between oviposition rates or preoviposition periods at each constant temperature, but\\u000a the mean number of days between egg

M. J. Gormally

1988-01-01

288

CLONING, CHARACTERIZATION, AND EXPRESSION OF VITELLINE PROTEIN BI AND ITS ENCODING GENE IN THE LIVER FLUKE, FASCIOLA GIGANTICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cDNA containing a 813 bp open reading frame encoding vitelline protein BI (FgVPBI) of Fasciola gigantica was cloned. FgVPBI has 96% sequence identity with VPBI of Fasciola hepatica and 84% identity with VPBII F. hepatica. It is far less similar to eggshell precursor proteins of other trematode species, for example, 29% identity with C. sinensis. Northern blot hybridization of

Kritsana Homwutthiwong; Ardool Meepool; Rudi Grams; Chaitip Wanichanon; Vithoon Viyanant; Prasert Sobhon

289

THE LIVER FLUKE METORCHIS BILIS - A NEW THREAT FOR THE WHITE-TAILED SEA EAGLE (HALIAEETUS ALBICILLA) IN MIDDLE EUROPE?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extendet abstract: The white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) an endangered species in Germany suffers a lot of threats in the highly civilised landscape. Amongst the main causes of death such as traumata due to interference with human structures, i.e. collisions with trains, wire, electrocution, and poisoning, parasites do also play an important role in the health status of these birds

O. KRONE; R. SCHUSTER

290

A sero-epidemiological survey on the occurrence of opisthorchiid liver flukes in red foxes ( Vulpes vulpes ) in Berlin, Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum samples collected from red foxes in the city of Berlin between 1996 and 1999 were analysed for the presence of antibodies against Opisthorchis felineus and Metorchis bilis using an indirect ELISA. Out of 1,000 specimens, 30.6% and 46.5% reacted positively with specific O. felineus and M. bilis antigens, respectively. Seroprevalence in adult foxes was always higher than in juveniles.

Rolf Schuster; Bettina Gregor; Jana Heidrich; Karsten Nöckler; Moses Kyule; Ulrich Wittstatt

2003-01-01

291

Identification of Fasciola flukes in Thailand based on their spermatogenesis and nuclear ribosomal DNA, and their intraspecific relationships based on mitochondrial DNA.  

PubMed

We analyzed 147 Fasciola flukes obtained from cattle in Thailand based on their spermatogenetic ability, and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and mitochondrial nicotiamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) genes as molecular markers. One hundred twenty-eight flukes, which had abundant sperm in their seminal vesicles (spermic) and showed the PCR-RFLP pattern of F. gigantica in the ITS1, were accurately identified as F. gigantica. The other 19 flukes that had no sperm in their seminal vesicles were aspermic Fasciola sp. with the RFLP patterns identical to that of F. gigantica. Twenty-nine ND1 haplotypes (Fg-ND1-Thai 2-30) were distinguished in the 128 F. gigantica flukes and were divided into haplotypes unique to Thailand and those common to other countries, suggesting the possibility that ancestral haplotypes were introduced into Thailand. Three haplotypes (Fg-ND1-Thai 7, 9 and 27) appeared to be the major haplotypes found in F. gigantica from Thailand. Only one haplotype (Fg-ND1-Thai 1) was found in the 19 aspermic Fasciola sp. flukes obtained from geographical regions, and the nucleotide sequence of Fg-ND1-Thai 1 was identical to that of the aspermic Fasciola sp. from Japan, Korea, China, Vietnam and Myanmar, suggesting that they were descendants with a common provenance and expanded to these countries in the relatively recent past. PMID:22575172

Chaichanasak, Pannigan; Ichikawa, Madoka; Sobhon, Prasert; Itagaki, Tadashi

2012-05-07

292

Liver Facts  

MedlinePLUS

Liver Facts | LIVER FACTS The liver is critical to a person's well-being. The liver: Processes all food and (most) drugs we eat Stores iron reserves, as ... breathe Top Ten Facts You Should Know About Liver Disease In The United States! 1. 4 - 5 ...

293

Liver Facts  

MedlinePLUS

... Heart/Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Liver Facts How the Liver Works The liver is one of the largest and most complex ... a spongy mass of wedge-shaped lobes. The liver has numerous functions that are necessary for life. ...

294

Liver biopsy  

MedlinePLUS

Biopsy - liver; Percutaneous biopsy ... the biopsy needle to be inserted into the liver. The skin will be cleansed, and a small ... chance of puncturing the lung or tearing the liver. The needle is removed quickly. Pressure will be ...

295

Liver Panel  

MedlinePLUS

... Hepatitis , Hemochromatosis , Wilson Disease , Cirrhosis Elsewhere On The Web American Liver Foundation MayoClinic.com: Liver function tests KidsHealth from Nemours: Hepatic [Liver] Function Panel National ...

296

Fasciola hepatica: effects of the fasciolicide clorsulon in vitro and in vivo on the tegumental surface, and a comparison of the effects on young- and old-mature flukes.  

PubMed

The ultrastructural changes in Fasciola hepatica induced by the fasciolicide clorsulon were assessed using scanning electron microscopy. At 8 and 44 weeks post-infection, male Sprague-Dawley rats infected with F. hepaticawere dosed orally with clorsulon at a concentration of 12.5 mg/kg and mature flukes recovered from the bile duct after 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h in both experiments. An in vitro incubation was also set up using mature fluke (8 weeks old) incubated with clorsulon for 24 h at a concentration of 10 microg/ml. After 24 h in vivo, the young-mature flukes (8 weeks old) showed significant disruption to the tegumental surface, particularly in the anterior mid-body region, where a distinct band of swelling and blebbing was evident. The band began just behind the ventral sucker and ran posteriorly along both margins. The apical cone region of the fluke was characterised by swelling and blebbing of the surface between the spines. Similar changes were evident after 48 h in vivo, but the disruption was more severe and the mid-body band had spread posteriorly. In approximately half of the specimens recovered after 72 h in vivo, widespread disruption had occurred, with sloughing of the apical membrane or the entire syncytium, over almost all of the oral cone and anterior mid-body. For all time periods, the anterior half of the fluke was more severely affected than the posterior half. No differences were seen between the dorsal and ventral surfaces. Old-mature flukes (44 weeks old) showed regionally similar, but more severe and widespread disruption than that seen in the young-mature flukes. The onset of surface changes occurred more quickly in old-mature flukes as well. Eight-week-old flukes which had been incubated for 24 h in vitro showed surprisingly little disruption, but this may be due to the method by which the drug is taken up by the fluke. PMID:12937959

Meaney, M; Fairweather, I; Brennan, G P; McDowell, L S L; Forbes, A B

2003-08-22

297

Phylogenetic and biogeographical relationships among some holarctic frog lung flukes (Digenea: Haematoloechidae).  

PubMed

A phylogenetic study of 8 North American and European species of frog lung flukes belonging to Haematoloechus was conducted using approximately 850 to 1,000 bases of the intemal transcribed spacer region (ITS 1 + 5.8S + ITS 2) and 1,250 bases of the large subunit (LSU) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. Adequate phylogenetic resolution could not be obtained from 5.8S or ITS 2 data. Analysis of ITS 1 data produced 2 equally parsimonious trees that differed only in the position of Haematoloechus breviplexus relative to H. medioplexus and H. varioplexus. Single, identical trees were produced by analysis of both LSU sequence data and a data set comprised of all ITS and LSU data. All trees demonstrated 3 distinct evolutionary lineages within the Holarctic Haematoloechus examined. The results confirmed the taxonomic validity of H. abbreviatus and demonstrated that the presence or absence of extracecal uterine loops is not a character meaningful to the recognition of evolutionary lineages or differentiation of genera. Examination of ITS sequence data revealed almost no intraspecific variation within 5 species of Haematoloechus and demonstrated an approximately 150-base indel common to the North American H. longiplexus and the European H. asper. Two of 3 clades revealed by the phylogenetic analyses are comprised of both European and North American species, indicating that lineages of Haematoloechus arose before the breakup of Laurasia and radiated after Eurasia and North America split. Within each of 3 evolutionary lineages, members share similar patterns of arthropod host specificity distinct from patterns found in the other lineages. This suggests that second intermediate host specificity may be a trait that has been conserved through evolutionary time. PMID:11780834

Snyder, S D; Tkach, V V

2001-12-01

298

Identification and characterization of microRNAs in the pancreatic fluke Eurytrema pancreaticum  

PubMed Central

Background Eurytrema pancreaticum is one of the most common flukes, which mainly infects ruminants globally and infects human beings accidentally; causing eurytremiasis that has high veterinary and economic importance. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs and are now considered as a key mechanism of gene regulation at the post-transcription level. Methods We investigated the global miRNA expression profile of E. pancreaticum adults using next-generation sequencing technology combined with real-time quantitative PCR. Results By using the genome of the closely-related species Schistosoma japonicum as reference, we obtained 27 miRNA candidates out of 16.45 million raw sequencing reads, with 13 of them found as known miRNAs in S. japonicum and/or S. mansoni, and the remaining 14 miRNAs were considered as novel. Five out of the 13 known miRNAs coming from one family named as sja-miR-2, including family members from miR-2a to miR-2e. Targets of 19 miRNAs were successfully predicated out of the 17401 mRNA and EST non-redundant sequences of S. japonicum. It was found that a significant high number of targets were related to “chch domain-containing protein mitochondrial precursor” (n?=?29), “small subunit ribosomal protein s30e” (n?=?21), and “insulin-induced gene 1 protein” (n?=?9). Besides, “egg protein cp3842” (n?=?2), “fumarate hydratase” (n?=?2), “ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme” (n?=?2), and “sperm-associated antigen 6” (n?=?1) were also found as targets of the miRNAs of E. pancreaticum. Conclusions The present study represents the first global characterization of E. pancreaticum miRNAs, which provides novel resources for a better understanding of the parasite, which, in turn, has implications for the effective control of the disease it causes.

2013-01-01

299

[New occurrences of metacercariae of Austrodiplostomum compactum (Lutz, 1928) (Platyhelminthes: Digenea) eye flukes of fish from the Paraná Basin].  

PubMed

Austrodiplostomum compactum (Platyhelminthes, Digenea) eye flukes of several species of fishes. The presence of this parasite, in extreme cases, can cause swelling of the eyelids, displacement of the retina, opacity of the crystalline lens and blindness or even death. The present study it registers new occurrences of this metacercariae infecting the eyes of four new hosts of fish, Serrasalmus maculatus collected in the Rosana reservoir in the Paranapanema river and Hypostomus regani, Schizodon borellii and Auchenipterus osteomystax collected in the the Upper Paraná River floodplain. PMID:19245765

Yamada, Fábio Hideki; Moreira, Luis Henrique De A; Ceschini, Tiago L; Takemoto, Ricardo Massato; Pavanelli, Gilberto Cezar

300

The Digenea parasite Opisthorchis felineus: a target for the discovery and development of novel drugs.  

PubMed

Opisthorchosis is a helminthiasis affecting mainly the hepatobiliary system and pancreas; its most dramatic complication is malignization of the organs infected by the parasites. The causative agents of opisthorchosis are two species of liver flukes, the trematodes belonging to the family Opisthorchiidae--Opisthorchis felineus and O. viverrini. The Chinese liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis, also member of the family Opisthorchiidae, causes clonorchosis, a disease very close in symptomatology. According to different estimations, up to 40 million people are currently infected with these liver flukes and up to 600-750 million people in Eurasian countries constitute the risk group. These parasites colonize ever-increasing new areas in Eurasia where this disease has never been previously reported. Opisthorchiases are gradually transforming from a local problem of individual geographic regions to a widespead problem; in particular, O. viverrini is now referred to as "an underestimated parasite." As we see it, O. felineus has all the reasons to share this status. First and foremost, the observed expansion is likely to be connected with the ever-increasing intensity of traffic flows and migration of the infection carriers between cities, regions, and countries. This review briefs the characteristics of O. felineus and the other liver flukes persisting in various countries of Eurasia, clinical manifestations of opisthorchosis, the drugs for chemotherapy of trematodiasis, and the strategy for discovery of new antihelminthic drugs. PMID:20701571

Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A; Furman, Dagmara P

2010-10-01

301

Liver scan  

MedlinePLUS

... syndrome High pressure in the liver blood vessels (portal hypertension) Infection Injury Liver disease (such as cirrhosis or hepatitis ) Superior vena cava obstruction Splenic infarction (tissue death) Tumors

302

Liver enzymes and blood metabolites in a population of free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus) naturally infected with Fascioloides magna.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of Fascioloides magna infection on the serum biochemistry values of the naturally infected red deer population in eastern Croatia. The investigation was performed on 47 red deer with F. magna infection confirmed patho-anatomically in 27 animals (57.4%). Fibrous capsules and migratory lesions were found in 14 deer while only fibrous capsules without migratory lesions were found in 13 deer. In 13 deer both immature and mature flukes were found, in 5 deer only immature flukes were found and in 9 deer only mature flukes were found. Fascioloides magna infected deer with fibrous capsules and migratory lesions had significantly higher values for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and globulin, and lower values for albumin/globulin ratio and glucose compared to uninfected deer. Fascioloides magna infected deer with fibrous capsules without the presence of migratory lesions had higher values for alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and globulin, and lower values for albumin/globulin ratio and glucose, than the uninfected deer. The number of immature flukes was positively correlated with values of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT), LDH, GLDH, urea and triglycerides. The number of migratory lesions was positively correlated with GGT, GLDH, globulin and urea values. The creatinine value was positively correlated with the number of mature flukes. The trial showed that F. magna infection causes significant changes in serum biochemistry. Moreover, these changes do not completely resemble changes following F. hepatica infection. Further investigation of changes in liver enzymes and other serum metabolites in controlled, experimentally induced fascioloidosis in red deer is needed to better understand the pathogenesis of F. magna. PMID:21729388

Severin, K; Mašek, T; Janicki, Z; Konjevi?, D; Slavica, A; Marinculi?, A; Martinkovi?, F; Vengušt, G; Džaja, P

2011-05-31

303

Infection Status of Estuarine Fish and Oysters with Intestinal Fluke Metacercariae in Muan-gun, Jeollanam-do, Korea  

PubMed Central

The source of human infection with intestinal flukes was surveyed in estuarine fishes, including the dotted gizzard shad, common sea bass, common blackish goby, redlip mullet, black sea bream, and oyster collected from Muan-gun, Jeollanam-do, Korea during August and September 2007. Collected fishes and oysters were artificially digested in pepsin-HCl solution and examined under a stereomicroscope. In 36 shads (Konosirus punctatus) and 20 basses (Lateolabrax japonicus) examined, Heterophyopsis continua metacercariae were found in 58.3% and 100%, and their average numbers were 12.0 and 6.3 per infected fish, respectively. In 34 gobies (Acanthogobius flavimanus) examined, metacercariae of H. continua were detected in 79.4%, Stictodora lari in 97.1%, and Acanthotrema felis in 92.1%, and their average numbers were 45.8, 189.3, and 235.3 per infected fish, respectively. In 37 redlip mullets (Chelon haematocheilus), Heterophyes nocens metacercariae were found in 56.8%, Pygidiopsis summa in 94.6%, and Stictodora fuscata in 45.9%, and the average metacercarial densities were 17.4, 31.3, and 35.1 per infected fish, respectively. In 30 black sea breams (Acanthopagrus schlegeli) and 45 oysters (Crassostrea gigas) examined, no metacercariae were detected. From the above results, it has been confirmed that the dotted gizzard shad, common sea bass, common blackish goby, and redlip mullet from Muan-gun, Jeollanam-do, Korea are infected with the metacercariae of heterophyid flukes.

Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Kim, In-Sang; Hwang, Eun-Jung; Kim, Tong-Soo; Na, Byoung-Kuk

2012-01-01

304

Liver Biopsy  

MedlinePLUS

A liver biopsy is a medical procedure performed in order to obtain a small sample of the liver. This is accomplished with a special needle, and ... small scar. The most common reasons for a liver biopsy include the evaluation of: ? Jaundice ? Liver inflammation ( ...

305

THE SINBAD RETROTRANSPOSON FROM THE GENOME OF THE HUMAN BLOOD FLUKE, SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI, AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF RELATED PAO-LIKE ELEMENTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Of the major families of long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, the Pao/BEL family is probably the least well studied. It is becoming apparent that numerous LTR retrotransposons and other mobile genetic elements have colonized the genome of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni. A provira...

306

Development and evaluation of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for rapid detection of Clonorchis sinensis from its first intermediate hosts, freshwater snails.  

PubMed

Clonorchiasis, caused by Clonorchis sinensis, is a key foodborne zoonosis, which is mainly found in China, Korea and Vietnam. Detection of this parasite from the second intermediate host, the freshwater fish is the common method for epidemiological surveys of this parasite, but is time consuming, labour intensive and easily leads to misdiagnosis. In this study, we have developed a rapid, sensitive and reliable molecular method for the diagnosis of C. sinensis from its first intermediate hosts, freshwater snails, based on a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method. The specific amplified fragment from genomic DNA of C. sinensis did not cross-react with those from other relevant trematodes and a range of hosts (freshwater fish, shrimps and snails) of C. sinensis living in similar environments. The detection limit of the LAMP method was as low as 10 fg which was 1000 times more sensitive than conventional PCR, which was also demonstrated by successful application to field samples. These results show that the LAMP method is a more sensitive tool than conventional PCR for the detection of C. sinensis infection in the first intermediate hosts and, due to a simpler protocol, is an ideal molecular method for field-based epidemiological surveys of this parasite. PMID:23870065

Chen, Y; Wen, T; Lai, D-H; Wen, Y-Z; Wu, Z-D; Yang, T-B; Yu, X-B; Hide, G; Lun, Z-R

2013-07-22

307

Development of a real-time PCR assay for the detection of Clonorchis sinensis DNA in gallbladder bile and stone samples from patients with cholecystolithiasis.  

PubMed

High prevalence of cholecystolithiasis in parts of East Asia has been postulated to be associated with Clonorchis sinensis infection. This study describes the development of a TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay for the detection of C. sinensis DNA in gallbladder bile and stone samples from patients with cholecystolithiasis. Primers and probe targeting the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene of mitochondrial DNA proved to be highly specific for C. sinensis and did not amplify other related heterogeneous DNA samples. The detection limit of this assay was 0.1 pg of adult C. sinensis genomic DNA. All of the egg-positive samples determined by microscopy yielded positive results by real-time PCR assay and that genetic testing of gallbladder stones using real-time PCR was considered as the most effective means for assessing C. sinensis infection status. This assay not only contributes to a greater understanding of stone pathogenesis but also benefits patients with cholecystolithiasis by facilitating effective diagnosis, treatment, and relapse prevention. PMID:22669695

Qiao, Tie; Zheng, Pei-Ming; Ma, Rui-Hong; Luo, Xiao-Bing; Luo, Zhen-Liang

2012-06-06

308

Defining the regulatory and inhibitory elements within the prodomain of CsCF-6, a cathepsin F cysteine protease of Clonorchis sinensis.  

PubMed

CsCF-6 is a member of the multigene family of cathepsin F cysteine proteases of Clonorchis sinensis. Similar to other papain family proteases, CsCF-6 is synthesized as a proenzyme and is converted to the mature form by autocatalytic removal of the prodomain. Here, we analyzed the regulatory and inhibitory elements within the CsCF-6 prodomain to understand the regulatory mechanism of CsCF-6 by its prodomain. The CsCF-6 prodomain played an essential role in the folding of CsCF-6. Particularly, the ERFNAQ motif within the prodomain was essential, and the minimum segment required for this event was the C-terminal part of the prodomain, including Asn(58) and downstream residues. The CsCF-6 prodomain effectively inhibited CsCF-6, in which the ERFNAQ motif played a critical role in the inhibition, but the GTFD motif was also required for complete inhibition of CsCF-6. The CsCF-6 prodomain showed broad inhibitory activity against several cysteine proteases. These results suggest that the CsCF-6 prodomain plays bi-functional roles in correct folding and inhibition of its cognate enzyme. PMID:23891948

Kang, Jung-Mi; Ju, Hye-Lim; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk

2013-07-23

309

Cystatin Capture Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Serodiagnosis of Human Clonorchiasis and Profile of Captured Antigenic Protein of Clonorchis sinensis  

PubMed Central

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with crude extracts of adult Clonorchis sinensis has been reported to have a high degree of sensitivity with a moderate degree of specificity for the serodiagnosis of clonorchiasis. The cystatin capture ELISA was investigated for its usefulness for the serodiagnosis of human clonorchiasis. Cystatin bound specifically to cysteine proteinases in crude extracts of adult C. sinensis worms, and its binding capacity was not hindered competitively by the other proteinase inhibitors tested. The cystatin capture ELISA for clonorchiasis showed a higher degree of specificity than the conventional ELISA, which produced some cross-reactivities to sera from patients with cysticercosis, sparganosis, and opisthorchiasis. Immunoglobulin G antibodies to C. sinensis cysteine proteinases were produced in experimental rabbits at week 3, and their levels increased rapidly and remained at a plateau after 8 weeks of infection. Of the proteins from the C. sinensis crude extract captured with cystatin, seven proteins were reactive with the serum from patients with clonorchiasis. The cystatin capture ELISA is indicated to be a sensitive and highly specific immunodiagnostic assay for serodiagnosis of human clonorchiasis.

Kim, Tae Yun; Kang, Shin-Yong; Park, Sun Hyo; Sukontason, Kom; Sukontason, Kabkaew; Hong, Sung-Jong

2001-01-01

310

Molecular characterization of cathepsin B from Clonorchis sinensis excretory/secretory products and assessment of its potential for serodiagnosis of clonorchiasis  

PubMed Central

Background Cathepsin cysteine proteases play multiple roles in the life cycle of parasites such as food uptake, immune invasion and pathogenesis, making them valuable targets for diagnostic assays, vaccines and drugs. The purpose of this study was to identify a cathepsin B of Clonorchis sinensis (CsCB) and to investigate its diagnostic value for human helminthiases. Results The predicted amino acid sequence of the cathepsin B of C. sinensis shared 63%, 52%, 50% identity with that of Schistosoma japonicum, Homo sapiens and Fasciola hepatica, respectively. Sequence encoding proenzyme of CsCB was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Reverse transcription PCR experiments revealed that CsCB transcribed in both adult worm and metacercaria of C. sinensis. CsCB was identified as a C. sinensis excretory/secretory product by immunoblot assay, which was consistent with immunohistochemical localization showing that CsCB was especially expressed in the intestine of C. sinensis adults. Both ELISA and western blotting analysis showed recombinant CsCB could react with human sera from clonorchiasis and other helminthiases. Conclusions Our findings revealed that secreted CsCB may play an important role in the biology of C. sinensis and could be a diagnostic candidate for helminthiases.

2011-01-01

311

Morphology and distribution of blood fluke eggs and associated pathology in the gills of cultured Pacific bluefin tuna, Thunnus orientalis.  

PubMed

Infestations of blood flukes of the genus Cardicola have been observed in juvenile Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT) cultured in Japan. Infected fish harbor large numbers of parasite eggs in their gills. Although the link between blood fluke infection and juvenile mortality is not clear, accumulation of parasite eggs appears to be pathogenic to the fish. We investigated the origins, general morphology/distribution, and histopathology of these eggs in artificially produced 0 yr old PBT. Dead and live fish were sampled on several occasions from two culture facilities in Wakayama prefecture, Japan. The number of eggs in each gill filament was enumerated under a microscope. In addition, we estimated the total number of eggs by dissolving the gills in a weak NaOH solution. We observed two morphologically distinct egg types in the gill filaments, smaller, oval shaped eggs in the gill lamellae and larger, crescent shaped eggs that occurred primarily in the filamentary arteries. Based on the ITS2 sequence, the ovoid and crescent shaped eggs were identified as C. orientalis and C. opisthorchis, respectively. Eggs of the former species were more abundant (maximum: 6400 per filament) than the latter (maximum: 1400), but the number was highly variable among filaments. The eggs of the latter species were relatively evenly distributed among the filaments. In a heavily infected individual, we estimated a total of >4.5 million eggs were present in the gills on one side of the fish. The number of eggs from the two species was positively correlated to each other and the dead fish tended to harbor more eggs than the live fish. Histological observation revealed host responses around the eggs, including encapsulation by fibroblasts and nodule formation, as seen in response to other aporocotylid eggs. In addition, we observed widespread fusion of gill lamellae and blockage of the filamentary arteries in some instances. Our results provide information that can be used for routine diagnosis of Cardicola blood flukes in cultured tuna and suggest they represent a risk to juvenile PBT. PMID:22041101

Shirakashi, Sho; Kishimoto, Yoshiki; Kinami, Ryuhei; Katano, Hiromitsu; Ishimaru, Katsuya; Murata, Osamu; Itoh, Naoki; Ogawa, Kazuo

2011-10-22

312

Liver Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

Your liver is the largest organ inside your body. It helps your body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. There are many kinds of liver diseases. Viruses cause some of them, like hepatitis ...

313

Liver Hemangioma  

MedlinePLUS

Liver hemangioma Basics In-Depth Multimedia Expert Answers Resources Reprints A single copy of this article may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Liver hemangioma By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http:// ...

314

Molecular characterization of the North American lung fluke Paragonimus kellicotti in Missouri and its development in Mongolian gerbils.  

PubMed

Human paragonimiasis is an emerging disease in Missouri. To characterize local parasites, we examined crayfish from three rivers. Metacercaeriae consistent with Paragonimus kellicotti were detected in 69%, 67%, and 37% of crayfish from the Big Piney, Huzzah, and Black Rivers, respectively. Sequencing of the second internal transcribed spacer and other DNA markers confirmed the species identification and the presence of identical parasite sequences in clinical specimens from two human cases. Mongolian gerbils were infected by intraperitoneal injection with 3-8 metacercariae. Most gerbils died 15-49 days post-infection. Necropsies showed pulmonary hemorrhage with necrosis, and flukes as long as 8 mm were recovered from intrathoracic tissues. Western blot analysis using P. kellicotti antigen showed a strong antibody response in gerbils 39 days post-infection. These results demonstrate that P. kellicotti is common in Missouri crayfish. The gerbil model may be useful for research on the pathogenesis, immunology, and treatment of paragonimiasis. PMID:21633042

Fischer, Peter U; Curtis, Kurt C; Marcos, Luis A; Weil, Gary J

2011-06-01

315

Molecular Characterization of the North American Lung Fluke Paragonimus kellicotti in Missouri and its Development in Mongolian Gerbils  

PubMed Central

Human paragonimiasis is an emerging disease in Missouri. To characterize local parasites, we examined crayfish from three rivers. Metacercaeriae consistent with Paragonimus kellicotti were detected in 69%, 67%, and 37% of crayfish from the Big Piney, Huzzah, and Black Rivers, respectively. Sequencing of the second internal transcribed spacer and other DNA markers confirmed the species identification and the presence of identical parasite sequences in clinical specimens from two human cases. Mongolian gerbils were infected by intraperitoneal injection with 3–8 metacercariae. Most gerbils died 15–49 days post-infection. Necropsies showed pulmonary hemorrhage with necrosis, and flukes as long as 8 mm were recovered from intrathoracic tissues. Western blot analysis using P. kellicotti antigen showed a strong antibody response in gerbils 39 days post-infection. These results demonstrate that P. kellicotti is common in Missouri crayfish. The gerbil model may be useful for research on the pathogenesis, immunology, and treatment of paragonimiasis.

Fischer, Peter U.; Curtis, Kurt C.; Marcos, Luis A.; Weil, Gary J.

2011-01-01

316

Comparison of the time required to administer three different fluke and worm combination products to commercial beef cattle at housing.  

PubMed

Larger livestock units, a decline in the farm labor force, animal welfare concerns, and a trend toward more selective use of drugs have increased the focus on animal handling, time management, convenience, and compliance in administering veterinary therapeutics. This study was undertaken to quantify and compare the time needed to treat commercial beef cattle with three fluke and worm combination products with different administration profiles. Young beef cattle (n = 270) weighing approximately 400 kg were allocated to batches of five, which were randomly assigned to receive ivermectin + clorsulon injection, ivermectin + closantel injection, or levamisole + triclabendazole oral drench. The mean time needed to administer ivermectin + clorsulon (single injection) to five cattle was 31 seconds, which was significantly less than the 100 seconds needed for ivermectin + closantel (two injections) and the 126 seconds needed for levamisole + triclabendazole (P less than .001). Such quantitative data can allow for better planning and selection of parasiticide treatment approaches at the farm level. PMID:18415946

Webster, R; Knox, K; Berger, F; Delaveau, J; Forbes, Ab

2008-01-01

317

Liver regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The liver can precisely regulate its growth and mass. Surgical resection of hepatic lobes or hepatocyte loss caused by viral or chemical injury triggers hepatocyte replication while enlarged liver mass is corrected by apoptosis. Hepatocytes have a great replicative capacity and are capable of repopulating the liver. However, “stem-like” cells proliferate when hepatocyte replication is blocked or delayed. Detailed studies

Nelson Fausto

2000-01-01

318

Liver resections for liver transplantations  

PubMed Central

Split-Liver and living-related donor liver transplantation are the newest and both technically and ethically most challenging developments in liver transplantation and have contributed to a reduction in donor shortage. We report the technical aspects of surgical procedures performed to achieve a partial graft from a cadaveric and a live donor.

Gruttadauria, Salvatore; Francesco, Fabrizio di; Pagano, Duilio; Petri, Sergio Li; Cintorino, Davide; Spada, Marco; Gridelli, Bruno

2010-01-01

319

Liver transplantation?  

PubMed Central

Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) involves the substitution of a diseased native liver with a normal liver (or part of one) taken from a deceased or living donor. Considered an experimental procedure through the 1980s, OLT is now regarded as the treatment of choice for a number of otherwise irreversible forms of acute and chronic liver disease. The first human liver transplantation was performed in the United States in 1963 by Prof. T.E. Starzl of the University of Colorado. The first OLT to be performed in Italy was done in 1982 by Prof. R. Cortesini. The procedure was successfully performed at the Policlinico Umberto I of the University of Rome (La Sapienza). The paper reports the indications for liver transplantation, donor selection and organ allocation in our experience, surgical technique, immunosuppression, complications and results of liver transplantation in our center.

Rossi, M.; Mennini, G.; Lai, Q.; Ginanni Corradini, S.; Drudi, F.M.; Pugliese, F.; Berloco, P.B.

2007-01-01

320

Liver biopsy.  

PubMed

Fibrosis, the excess deposition of extracellular matrix in the liver is a form of anatomical damage to the liver parenchyma, so that liver biopsy is the only approach for its direct assessment. Although liver biopsy has its limitations, appropriate precautions can reduce the flaws inherent in this method. The level of accuracy obtained with biopsy is particularly important for obtaining a starting point in patients with chronic liver disease who are to be followed-up over a number of years. Therefore, liver biopsy has been used as the gold standard to establish algorithm combinations of biological tests. As well as an accurate assessment of the extent of liver fibrosis, the biopsy can reveal other informations and associated features relevant to evaluation of the fibrotic process. PMID:18973842

Bedossa, P

2008-09-01

321

Genetic variation among Clonorchis sinensis isolates from different hosts and geographical locations revealed by sequence analysis of mitochondrial and ribosomal DNA regions.  

PubMed

The present study examined genetic variability among Clonorchis sinensis isolates from four different geographical localities (Guangzhou, Nanning, Jiamusi and Daqing) and host species (cats, dogs, human and rabbits) in Mainland China by sequence analyses of two mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes, namely NADH dehydrogenase subunits 2, 5 (nad2 and nad5) and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1). A portion of the ITS1, nad2 (pnad2) and nad5 (pnad5) was amplified by polymerase chain reaction separately from adult C. sinensis individuals and the amplicons were subjected to sequencing from both directions. The length of the sequences of ITS1, pnad2 and pnad5 was 643, 666 and 771 bp, respectively. The intraspecific sequence variations within C. sinensis were 0-1.7% for ITS1, 0-1.4% for pnad2 and 0-0.9% for pnad5. The interspecific sequence variations within other zoonotic trematodes, which were published previously, were 4.5-84.9% for ITS1, 21.9-43.6% for pnad2 and 19.2-48.9% for pnad5. The A+T contents of the sequences were 45.26-45.88% (ITS1), 62.91-63.51% (pnad2) and 58.24-58.63% (pnad5). Phylogenetic analyses using ribosomal and mitochondrial sequence data set, with three different computational algorithms (Bayesian inference, maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood), all revealed distinct groups with high statistical support. These findings demonstrated the existence of low-level intraspecific variations in ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and mtDNA sequences among C. sinensis isolates from four different regions and hosts in China and elucidated that mtDNA sequences and rDNA sequences provided reliable genetic markers for phylogenetic studies of zoonotic trematodes. PMID:23463938

Xiao, Jing-Ying; Gao, Jun-Feng; Cai, Lian-Shun; Dai, Yue; Yang, Chun-Jia; Luo, Lan; Agatsuma, Takeshi; Wang, Chun-Ren

2013-03-06

322

41.5-kDa Cathepsin L protease from Clonorchis sinensis: expression, characterization, and serological reactivity of one excretory-secretory antigen.  

PubMed

Cysteine proteases (CPs) were associated with the pathogenicity and excystment of Clonorchis sinensis. Most of them were potential antigens for the immunodiagnosis of clonorchiasis. More researches on CPs will let us know more about their functions, and further employ them for the development of more efficient diagnostic reagent and prevention strategies. In the current study, a full-length sequence encoding cathepsin L from C. sinensis (CsCL41.5) was identified from our adult cDNA library. Bioinformatic analysis showed that CsCL41.5 included typical motifs of cathepsin L (ERFNIN and GNFD motifs) and conserved amino acid positions which constituted the active center of the enzyme. The identity of its amino acid sequence with the cathepsin L of Schistosoma japonicum was 49.6 %. Recombinant CsCL41.5 (rCsCL41.5) was highly expressed in the form of inclusion body in Escherichia coli, and soluble rCsCL41.5 was obtained after purification and renaturation. Western blotting analysis indicated that CsCL41.5 is an excretory-secretory antigen of C. sinensis adult. Immunolocalization demonstrated that CsCL41.5 is distributed in the intestine and eggs in the uterus of adult worm, tegument of metacercaria, oral suck, and tail of cercaria. ELISA assays showed that IgG4 was the predominant IgG isotype responding to rCsCL41.5 in sera from clonorchiasis patients. The sensitivity and specificity of specific IgG4 detection with rCsCL41.5 was 62.5 % (15/24) and 81.7 % (49/60), respectively. It was concluded that there were differences in biological function, efficiency of serodiagnosis, and characterization of immune reactivity between CsCL41.5 and other CPs of C. sinensis, combining with previous studies. PMID:22406988

Li, Yanwen; Huang, Yan; Hu, Xuchu; Liu, Xiaoquan; Ma, Changling; Zhao, Junhong; Wu, Zhongdao; Xu, Jin; Yu, Xinbing

2012-03-10

323

Identification and molecular characterization of a novel signaling molecule 14-3-3 epsilon in Clonorchis sinensis excretory/secretory products.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence shows that 14-3-3 proteins are involved in many biology events in addition to signal transduction. Extensive investigations on structural and biochemical features of these signaling molecules have implied their importance in the biological process. In the present study, we have identified and characterized the 14-3-3 epsilon (Cs14-3-3) in Clonorchis sinensis that causes human clonorchiasis. Recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) and identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Immunoblot results revealed that Cs14-3-3 was a component of excretory/secretory products. Ligand blot assay indicated that 14-3-3 epsilon could bind C. sinensis MAPKAPK 2 in a nonphosphorylation-dependent manner. This protein could be detected at four stages of the life cycle by RT-PCR experiments and immunolocalization showed that Cs14-3-3 was extensively distributed in C. sinensis, especially at the outer surface and the sucker of adult worm and cyst wall of metacercaria. Taken together, 14-3-3 epsilon might play some roles in the development of the parasites. In addition, Cs14-3-3 epsilon should be addressed for the diagnostic value in C. sinensis infection in consideration of high sensitivity and specificity. As an immune stimulus, C. sinensis 14-3-3 epsilon was found to provoke a Th1/Th2 balanced immune response by inducing high levels of both IgG1 and IgG2a. Recombinant Cs14-3-3 conferred effective protection both in worm reduction rate and egg reduction rate, suggesting that the signaling molecule Cs14-3-3 was a promising vaccine candidate against C. sinensis infection. PMID:21922237

Wang, Xiaoyun; Chen, Wenjun; Li, Xuerong; Zhou, Chenhui; Deng, Chuanhuan; Lv, Xiaoli; Fan, Yongxiu; Men, Jingtao; Liang, Chi; Yu, Xinbing

2011-09-16

324

[Liver resection in liver cirrhosis].  

PubMed

The benefits of liver resection for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and concomitant liver cirrhosis have been questionable due to high rates of postoperative complications. As a result of advance in surgical techniques, along with improved perioperative management and increased knowledge of the pathophysiology of liver cirrhosis, liver resection in cirrhotic patients has become a safer surgical procedure during the 1990s. This article introduces our techniques of parenchymal resection in patients with liver cirrhosis, avoiding inflow occlusion of the hepatic circulation by using a Cavitron Ultrasonic Surgical Aspirator (CUSA) and bipolar cautery that is equipped with a mechanism for channeling water at the point of cauterization. Analysis of survival rates showed that surgical resection was more advantageous than treatment such as percutaneous ethanol injection, although the discovery of multicentric carcinogenesis in livers with hepatitis C viral infection required us to reconsider surgical indications for HCC and concomitant liver cirrhosis. PMID:11490756

Yamamoto, Y

2001-07-01

325

Diet and Your Liver  

MedlinePLUS

... Liver How can alcohol and medicine affect the liver? Alcohol Alcohol can damage or destroy liver cells. ... Liver Foundation www.liverfoundation.org 1-800-GO-LIVER © 2009 American Liver Foundation. All rights reserved. Increasing ...

326

First report of a field outbreak of the oriental eye-fluke, Philophthalmus gralli (Mathis & Leger 1910), in commercially reared ostriches (Struthio camelus) in Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

A total of 17 commercially reared ostriches (Struthio camelus) from Msengi farm, Chinhoyi, Zimbabwe, observed with swollen eyes, severe conjunctivitis and constant lacrimation accompanied by a purulent exudate, were restrained for further clinical examination. Some of the birds were semi-blind with severe loss of body condition. When examined, tiny organisms were observed attached to the nictitating membranes and the conjuctival sacs of both eyes. The organisms were identified as Philophthalmus gralli, the "oriental eye-fluke" and Melanoides tuberculata, a prosobranch snail, was confirmed as the intermediate host through natural and experimental infection. To the best of our knowledge this is the first record of the oriental eye-fluke infection in birds in Zimbabwe and Africa and extends its known geographical range. PMID:16300188

Mukaratirwa, S; Hove, Thokozani; Cindzi, Z M; Maononga, D B; Taruvinga, M; Matenga, Elizabeth

2005-09-01

327

Characterization of SR3 reveals abundance of non-LTR retrotransposons of the RTE clade in the genome of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: It is becoming apparent that perhaps as much as half of the genome of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni is constituted of mobile genetic element-related sequences. Non-long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, related to the LINE elements of mammals, comprise much of this repetitive component of the schistosome genome. Of more than 12 recognized clades of non-LTR retrotransposons, only

Thewarach Laha; Nonglack Kewgrai; Alex Loukas; Paul J Brindley

2005-01-01

328

Vaccine potential of inclusion bodies containing cysteine proteinase of Fasciola hepatica in calves and lambs experimentally challenged with metacercariae of the fluke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite intensive research efforts, progress in the development of effective anti-Fasciola hepatica vaccine has not been satisfactory. However, it has been found that cysteine proteinases of F. hepatica are very important candidates for a vaccine antigen because of their role in fluke biology and in the host–parasite relationship.In our previous experiments we found that recombinant cysteine proteinase which we have

H. Wedrychowicz; M. Kesik; M. Kaliniak; M. Kozak-Cieszczyk; L. Jedlina-Panasiuk; S. Jaros; A. Plucienniczak

2007-01-01

329

Liver Transplantation  

PubMed Central

This presentation assesses the role of liver transplantation in treating end-stage liver disease today. Most of the unresolved issues in human liver transplantation have been developed in two major series, the one from Denver and the other from the combined Cambridge/Kings College Hospital effort in England. The findings of these groups are highlighted, as are the changes in technique that have led to considerably improved survival in the past 2 years.

Terblanche, John; Koep, Lawrence J.; Stand, Thomas E.

2011-01-01

330

Liver biopsy.  

PubMed Central

An account is given of the findings obtained with open liver biopsy in 111 patients with various diseases, including 78 with cholecystitis and colelithiasis where unsuspected liver pathology, including biliary cirrhosis, was found in 37 patients. An exact diagnosis of hepatic metastasis by biopsy has therapeutic importance in malignant diseases, and in some patients, particularly those with argent-affinoma, liver involvement is compatible with normal life for many years.

Raven, R. W.

1975-01-01

331

Liver spots  

MedlinePLUS

Sun-induced skin changes - liver spots; Senile or solar lentigines; Skin spots - aging; Age spots ... Liver spots are changes in skin color that occur in older skin. The increased color may be due to aging, exposure to the sun or other sources ...

332

Correlation of Humoral Immune Response in Southern Bluefin Tuna, T. maccoyii, with Infection Stage of the Blood Fluke, Cardicola forsteri  

PubMed Central

The blood fluke, Cardicola forsteri, is a prevalent infection in ranched southern bluefin tuna. This project aimed to define the timing and intensity of the various developmental stages of C. forsteri within southern bluefin tuna as well as to relate infection to host pathology and immune response. Archival samples from several cohorts of T. maccoyii sampled from 2008 to 2010 were used in this study. The prevalence and intensity of C. forsteri infection was described using heart flushes and histological examination. Humoral immune response, i.e. C. forsteri specific antibody, lysozyme activity, and alternative complement activity, was also described. Based on the validated and detailed C. forsteri infection timeline, relationships between infection events, physiological response, and diagnosis were proposed. Immune response developed concurrently with C. forsteri infection, with the majority of physiological response coinciding with commencing egg production. Further research is needed to confirm the origin of C. forsteri antigen which is responsible for immune response development and how T. maccoyii immune response works against infection. To aide this research, further diagnostic methods for confirmation of infection need to be developed.

Kirchhoff, Nicole T.; Leef, Melanie J.; Valdenegro, Victoria; Hayward, Craig J.; Nowak, Barbara F.

2012-01-01

333

Proteomic Analysis of Human Skin Treated with Larval Schistosome Peptidases Reveals Distinct Invasion Strategies among Species of Blood Flukes  

PubMed Central

Background Skin invasion is the initial step in infection of the human host by schistosome blood flukes. Schistosome larvae have the remarkable ability to overcome the physical and biochemical barriers present in skin in the absence of any mechanical trauma. While a serine peptidase with activity against insoluble elastin appears to be essential for this process in one species of schistosomes, Schistosoma mansoni, it is unknown whether other schistosome species use the same peptidase to facilitate entry into their hosts. Methods Recent genome sequencing projects, together with a number of biochemical studies, identified alternative peptidases that Schistosoma japonicum or Trichobilharzia regenti could use to facilitate migration through skin. In this study, we used comparative proteomic analysis of human skin treated with purified cercarial elastase, the known invasive peptidase of S. mansoni, or S. mansoni cathespin B2, a close homolog of the putative invasive peptidase of S. japonicum, to identify substrates of either peptidase. Select skin proteins were then confirmed as substrates by in vitro digestion assays. Conclusions This study demonstrates that an S. mansoni ortholog of the candidate invasive peptidase of S. japonicum and T. regenti, cathepsin B2, is capable of efficiently cleaving many of the same host skin substrates as the invasive serine peptidase of S. mansoni, cercarial elastase. At the same time, identification of unique substrates and the broader species specificity of cathepsin B2 suggest that the cercarial elastase gene family amplified as an adaptation of schistosomes to human hosts.

Ingram, Jessica; Knudsen, Giselle; Lim, K. C.; Hansell, Elizabeth; Sakanari, Judy; McKerrow, James

2011-01-01

334

Liver Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy is a very complex and well-orchestrated phenomenon. It is carried out by the participation of all mature liver cell types. The process is associated with signaling cascades involving growth factors, cytokines, matrix remodeling, and several feedbacks of stimulation and inhibition of growth related signals. Liver manages to restore any lost mass and adjust its size to that of the organism, while at the same time providing full support for body homeostasis during the entire regenerative process. In situations when hepatocytes or biliary cells are blocked from regeneration, these cell types can function as facultative stem cells for each other.

Michalopoulos, George K.

2009-01-01

335

Liver Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... digest food and absorb nutrients, get rid of toxic substances from your body or stay alive. Liver ... Parasitic infection Portal vein thrombosis Primary biliary cirrhosis Toxic hepatitis Wilson's disease Risk factors Factors that may ...

336

Liver cirrhosis.  

PubMed Central

Liver fibrosis and its related complications continue to represent a significant worldwide healthcare burden. Over the past decade there has been considerable improvement in our understanding of the cellular mechanisms and pathophysiology underlying hepatic fibrosis. This greater insight into the relevant basic sciences may lead to the development of novel treatment strategies designed to block the fibrogenic cascade or even enhance matrix degradation. In addition, there have been significant advances in the management of the complications of cirrhosis, with specific treatments now available for some conditions. Perhaps most notably, liver transplantation is now a highly successful treatment for end-stage liver disease and should be considered in all patients with chronic liver disease.

Williams, E. J.; Iredale, J. P.

1998-01-01

337

Apoptosis in Liver Injury and Liver Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The liver is a multifunctional organ that has important roles such as metabolism, synthesis, and detoxification. Enhanced\\u000a hepatocyte apoptosis and impaired liver regeneration are the most common liver disorders in acute liver failure. Hepatocyte\\u000a apoptosis also emerges as a fundamental component of chronic liver diseases. Liver tissue fibrosis is triggered by hepatocyte\\u000a apoptosis, and the excess fibrosis causes liver disease

Yosuke Osawa; Ekihiro Seki; David A. Brenner

338

Characterization of MicroRNAs from Orientobilharzia turkestanicum, a Neglected Blood Fluke of Human and Animal Health Significance  

PubMed Central

The neglected blood flukes Orientobilharzia spp. belonging to the Platyhelminthes, infect animals in a number of countries of the world, and cause cercarial dermatitis in humans, as well as significant diseases and even death in economically-important animals. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are now considered to be a key mechanism of gene regulation. Herein, we investigated the global miRNA expression profile of adult O. turkestanicum using next-generation sequencing technology and real-time quantitative PCR, to gain further information on the role of these molecules in host invasion and the parasitic lifestyle of this species. A total of 13.48 million high quality reads were obtained out of 13.78 million raw sequencing reads, with 828 expressed miRNAs identified. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the miRNAs of O. turkestanicum were still rapidly evolving and there was a “directed mutation” pattern compared with that of other species. Target mRNAs were successfully predicted to 518 miRNAs. These targets included energy metabolism, transcription initiation factors, signal transduction, growth factor receptors. miRNAs targeting egg proteins, including major egg antigen p40, and heat shock proteins were also found. Enrichment analysis indicated enrichment for mRNAs involved in catalytic, binding, transcription regulators and translation regulators. The present study represented the first large-scale characterization of O. turkestanicum miRNAs, which provides novel resources for better understanding the complex biology of this zoonotic parasite, which, in turn, has implications for the effective control of the disease it causes.

Fu, Jing-Hua; Nisbet, Alasdair J.; Chang, Qiao-Cheng; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Huang, Si-Yang; Zou, Feng-Cai; Zhu, Xing-Quan

2012-01-01

339

Diet - liver disease  

MedlinePLUS

A person with liver disease must eat a special diet. This diet protects the liver from working too hard and helps it to ... also prevent fatty buildup and damage to the liver cells. In people with severely damaged livers, proteins ...

340

Expression of ATP-binding cassette multidrug transporters in the giant liver fluke Fasciola gigantica and their possible involvement in the transport of bile salts and anthelmintics  

Microsoft Academic Search

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters belong to one of the largest protein families that either import or export a wide\\u000a spectrum of different substrates. Certain members of this superfamily have been implicated in multidrug resistance in various\\u000a types of cancer as well as in pathogenic microorganisms. The role of ABC proteins in parasitic multidrug resistance becomes\\u000a increasingly evident. However, studies on

Supeecha Kumkate; Supatra Chunchob; Tavan Janvilisri

2008-01-01

341

The efficacy of an ivermectin\\/closantel injection against experimentally induced infections and field infections with gastrointestinal nematodes and liver fluke in cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three studies were performed to test the efficacy of an ivermectin\\/closantel injection (200?g\\/kg?1 ivermectin and 5mg\\/kg?1 closantel) in cattle. Two were experimentally induced infections of Ostertagia ostertagi, Cooperia oncophora and Fasciola hepatica in calves, and the third had natural field infections in cattle with several species of gastrointestinal nematodes and F. hepatica.In the two studies with artificial infections, four groups

Fred H. M. Borgsteede; Stuart M. Taylor; Cor P. H. Gaasenbeek; Alistair Couper; Lillian Cromie

2008-01-01

342

Liver transplantation and autoimmune liver diseases.  

PubMed

Liver transplantation (LT) is an effective treatment for patients with end-stage autoimmune liver diseases such as primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and autoimmune hepatitis. Indications for LT for these diseases do not differ substantially from those used for other acute or chronic liver diseases. Despite the good outcomes reported, the recurrence of autoimmune liver disease is relatively common in the allograft. In addition, it has become apparent that autoimmunity and autoimmune liver disease can arise de novo after transplantation for nonautoimmune liver disorders. An awareness of the existence of recurrent autoimmune liver diseases and de novo autoimmune hepatitis after LT has important clinical implications because their management differs from the standard antirejection treatment and is similar to the management of classic autoimmune liver diseases in the native liver. Liver Transpl 19:1065-1077, 2013. © 2013 AASLD. PMID:23873751

Liberal, Rodrigo; Zen, Yoh; Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Vergani, Diego

2013-08-13

343

Melatonin inhibits cholangiocarcinoma and reduces liver injury in Opisthorchis viverrini-infected and N-nitrosodimethylamine-treated hamsters.  

PubMed

The human liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini infection and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) administration induce cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and liver injury in hamsters. Melatonin protects against liver injury and reduces the alteration of mitochondrial structure, mitochondrial membrane potential, and mitochondrial pro- and anti-apoptotic pathways in various cancer types. To investigate the chemopreventive effect of melatonin on CCA genesis and liver injury, hamsters were treated with a combination of O. viverrini infection and NDMA concurrently administered with melatonin (10 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg) for 120 days. Melatonin treatment at 50 mg/kg caused a significant reduction in liver/body weight ratios and decreased tumor volumes leading to an increase in the survival of animals. In the tumorous tissues, the high-dose melatonin reduced DNA fragmentation and mitochondrial apoptosis by inducing anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2) in the mitochondrial fraction and down-regulating cytochrome c, pro-apoptotic protein (Bax), and caspase-3 in tumor cytosol. Moreover, a high-dose melatonin treatment significantly increased mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes and prevented mitochondrial ultrastructure changes in the tumor. Overall, melatonin has potent chemopreventive effects in inhibiting CCA genesis and also reduces liver injury in hamster CCA, which, in part, might involve in the suppression of CCA by reducing tumor mitochondria alteration. PMID:23772655

Laothong, Umawadee; Pinlaor, Porntip; Boonsiri, Patcharee; Pairojkul, Chawalit; Priprem, Aroonsri; Johns, Nutjaree Pratheepawanit; Charoensuk, Lakhanawan; Intuyod, Kitti; Pinlaor, Somchai

2013-06-15

344

Liver in systemic disease  

PubMed Central

Potential causes of abnormal liver function tests include viral hepatitis, alcohol intake, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, autoimmune liver diseases, hereditary diseases, hepatobiliary malignancies or infection, gallstones and drug-induced liver injury. Moreover, the liver may be involved in systemic diseases that mainly affect other organs. Therefore, in patients without etiology of liver injury by screening serology and diagnostic imaging, but who have systemic diseases, the abnormal liver function test results might be caused by the systemic disease. In most of these patients, the systemic disease should be treated primarily. However, some patients with systemic disease and severe liver injury or fulminant hepatic failure require intensive treatments of the liver.

Shimizu, Yukihiro

2008-01-01

345

Alcoholic liver disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol is a major cause of liver cirrhosis in the Western world and accounts for the majority of cases of liver cirrhosis seen in district general hospitals in the UK. The three most widely recognised forms of alcoholic liver disease are alcoholic fatty liver (steatosis), acute alcoholic hepatitis, and alcoholic cirrhosis. The exact pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury is still

Kevin Walsh; Graeme Alexander

2000-01-01

346

Characterization of Constituents and Anthelmintic Properties of Hagenia abyssinica.  

PubMed

The dried female flowers of Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce) J. F. Gmel. (Rosaceae) are traditionally used as an anthelmintic remedy in Ethiopia and formerly were incorporated into the European Pharmacopoeia. One-, two- and tricyclic phloroglucinol derivatives (kosins) were suggested to be the active principles. However, polar constituents may also contribute to the activity. Therefore, we investigated for the first time the polar constituents. We isolated typical Rosaceae constituents such as quercetin 3-O-?-glucuronide, quercetin 3-O-?-glucoside and rutin. Polar kosin glycosides or derivatives could not be detected.The anthelmintic activity of fractions of different polarity were tested against the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni, the liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis and Fasciola hepatica and the intestinal fluke Echinostoma caproni. The anthelmintic activity decreased with increasing polarity of the tested fractions. ESI-MS investigations indicated the predominant occurrence of kosins in the active fractions.Using the anthelmintic active extracts of Hagenia abyssinica we developed a simple, inexpensive bioassay against the non-parasitic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which can be used as an initial screening procedure for anthelmintic properties of crude extracts of plants or fungi. The anthelmintic activity of test extracts against the model organism was determined in a microtiter plate assay by enumeration of living and dead nematodes under a microscope. PMID:22896828

Thomsen, Henrieke; Reider, Katrin; Franke, Katrin; Wessjohann, Ludger A; Keiser, Jennifer; Dagne, Ermias; Arnold, Norbert

2012-03-02

347

AN APPROACH TO REVEALING BLOOD FLUKE LIFE CYCLES, TAXONOMY, AND DIVERSITY: PROVISION OF KEY REFERENCE DATA INCLUDING DNA SEQUENCE FROM SINGLE LIFE CYCLE STAGES  

PubMed Central

Revealing diversity among extant blood flukes, and the patterns of relationships among them, has been hindered by the difficulty of determining if specimens described from different life cycle stages, hosts, geographic localities, and times represent the same or different species. Persistent collection of all available life cycle stages and provision of exact collection localities, host identification, reference DNA sequences for the parasite, and voucher specimens eventually will provide the framework needed to piece together individual life cycles and facilitate reconciliation with classical taxonomic descriptions, including those based on single life cycle stages. It also provides a means to document unique or rare species that might only ever be recovered from a single life cycle stage. With an emphasis on the value of new information from field collections of any available life cycle stages, here we provide data for several blood fluke cercariae from freshwater snails from Kenya, Uganda, and Australia. Similar data are provided for adult worms of Macrobilharzia macrobilharzia and miracidia of Bivitellobilharzia nairi. Some schistosome and sanguinicolid cercariae that we recovered have peculiar morphological features, and our phylogenetic analyses (18S and 28S rDNA and mtDNA CO1) suggest that 2 of the new schistosome specimens likely represent previously unknown lineages. Our results also provide new insights into 2 of the 4 remaining schistosome genera yet to be extensively characterized with respect to their position in molecular phylogenies, Macrobilharzia and Bivitellobilharzia. The accessibility of each life cycle stage is likely to vary dramatically from one parasite species to the next, and our examples validate the potential usefulness of information gleaned from even one such stage, whatever it might be.

Brant, Sara V.; Morgan, Jess A. T.; Mkoji, Gerald M.; Snyder, Scott D.; Rajapakse, R. P. V. Jayanthe; Loker, Eric S.

2008-01-01

348

LIVER INJURY, LIVER PROTECTION, AND SULFUR METABOLISM  

PubMed Central

Protein-depleted dogs are very susceptible to injurious agents—in particular, chloroform. Methionine given shortly before chloroform anesthesia will give complete protection against chloroform. Methionine (or cysteine plus choline) given 3 or 4 hours after chloroform anesthesia will give significant protection against the liver injury of chloroform anesthesia. Methionine given more than 4 hours after chloroform anesthesia gives no protection against liver injury. Choline alone given before chloroform gives no protection against liver injury. The protein-depleted dogs have livers which are deficient in both nitrogen and sulfur, but sulfur is depleted more than is the nitrogen. The N/S ratio therefore rises. Methionine or cystine feeding promptly makes up this liver sulfur deficit. Viable liver cells are necessary for this uptake of sulfur. Livers of fetuses in utero or of newborn pups tolerate a chloroform anesthesia which will cause fatal liver injury in adults. The nitrogen and sulfur values of these fetus or pup livers are within the high normal values for adults. Blood-forming cells are present in the fetus or pup livers during this period. When these blood islands are eliminated during the 3rd or 4th week of life, the liver then becomes normally susceptible to chloroform liver injury. Methionine or methionine-rich protein digests (e.g. casein) or various proteins by mouth or by vein should prove useful to protect the liver against certain types of injury and to aid in organ repair.

Miller, L. L.; Whipple, G. H.

1942-01-01

349

Pyogenic liver abscess  

MedlinePLUS

Liver abscess; Bacterial liver abscess ... There are many potential causes of liver abscesses, including: Abdominal infection such as appendicitis , diverticulitis , or a perforated bowel Infection in the blood Infection of the bile draining tubes ...

350

Alcoholic liver disease  

MedlinePLUS

Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver diseaes occurs after years of heavy drinking. Alcohol can cause i inflammation in the liver . Over time, ...

351

What Is Liver Cancer?  

MedlinePLUS

... begins in the hepatocytes, the main type of liver cell. About 4 out of 5 cancers that start ... has lung cancer that has spread to the liver, the cancer cells in the liver are still lung cancer cells, ...

352

Liver Manganese in Hemochromatosis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comparative study was performed in which the manganese concentration in liver samples from cases of hemochromatosis was compared with the manganese concentration of normal liver. A higher mean concentration of liver manganese was found in the former gro...

L. B. Altstatt S. Pollack M. H. Feldman R. C. Reba W. H. Crosby

1966-01-01

353

Liver Cell Death  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Hepatocyte cell death is an indispensible and cardinal element that precipitates and perpetuates liver injury [1]. Accordingly,\\u000a liver injury can result in acute or chronic liver disease. This distinction between acute and chronic liver disease is arbitrary;\\u000a a reflection of the etiology and time course of liver injury. Hepatocytes are the predominant parenchymal cell type in the\\u000a liver. Commonly encountered

Harmeet Malhi; Gregory J. Gores

354

Amebic liver abscess  

MedlinePLUS

Hepatic amebiasis; Extraintestinal amebiasis; Abscess - amebic liver ... Amebic liver abscess is caused by Entamoeba histolytica , the same parasite that causes amebiasis , an intestinal infection that is ...

355

[Anatomy of the liver].  

PubMed

Over the past decades, great progress has been made in surgery on the liver. Technical achievements and the strict application of anatomical knowledge to surgical practice have added a new dimension to the field of liver surgery. In some cases, new facts about the anatomy of the liver needed considerable time before being implemented. Surgery of liver metastases, primary tumours of the liver and not least liver transplantation have focussed the interest of visceral surgeons more and more on this organ. Segment-orientated liver anatomy, a knowledge and consideration of vascular structures, and the observance of anatomical landmarks are the prerequisites for successful surgery on the liver. PMID:10960965

Scheuerlein, H; Köckerling, F

2000-01-01

356

Laparoscopic liver resection of benign liver tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility, safety, and outcome of laparoscopic liver resection\\u000a for benign liver tumors in a multicenter setting. Background: Despite restrictive, tailored indications for resection in benign\\u000a liver tumors, an increasing number of articles have been published concerning laparoscopic liver resection of these tumors.\\u000a Methods: A retrospective study was performed in 18

B. Descottes; D. Glineur; F. Lachachi; D. Valleix; J. Paineau; A. Hamy; M. Morino; H. Bismuth; D. Castaing; E. Savier; P. Honore; O. Detry; M. Legrand; J. S. Azagra; M. Goergen; M. Ceuterick; J. Marescaux; D. Mutter; B. Hemptinne; R. Troisi; J. Weerts; B. Dallemagne; C. Jehaes; M. Gelin; V. Donckier; R. Aerts; B. Topal; C. Bertrand; B. Mansvelt; L. Krunckelsven; D. Herman; M. Kint; E. Totte; R. Schockmel; J. F. Gigot

2003-01-01

357

Pediatric Liver Transplantation for Acute Liver Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The only proven therapy for patients unlikely to recover from acute liver failure (ALF) is liver transplantation. Correct diagnosis of these individuals and rapid referral to a transplant center are crucial. We evaluated 12 pediatric patients with ALF who underwent liver transplantation (LT) at our institution during a 3-year period. The reasons for transplantation were hepatitis A (3 patients); non-A,

H. Karakayali; Y. Ekici; F. Ozcay; B. Bilezikci; G. Arslan; M. Haberal

2007-01-01

358

Liver cell adenoma and liver cell adenomatosis  

PubMed Central

During the last three decades liver cell adenoma and liver cell adenomatosis have emerged as new clinical entities in hepato-logical practice due to the widespread use of oral contraceptives and increased imaging of the liver. On review of published series there is evidence that 10% of liver cell adenomas progress to hepatocellular carcinoma, diagnosis is best made by open or laparoscopic excision biopsy, and the preferred treatment modality is resection of the liver cell adenoma to prevent bleeding and malignant transformation. In liver cell adenomatosis, the association with oral contraceptive use is not as high as in solitary liver cell adenomas. The risk of malignant transformation is not increased compared with solitary liver cell adenomas. Treatment consists of close monitoring and imaging, resection of superficially located, large (>4 cm) or growing liver cell adenomas. Liver transplantation is the last resort in case of substantive concern about malignant transformation or for large, painful adenomas in liver cell adenomatosis after treatment attempts by liver resection.

Barthelmes, Ludger

2005-01-01

359

How Is Liver Cancer Found?  

MedlinePLUS

... Next Topic Staging of liver cancer How is liver cancer found? Liver cancer often does not cause ... tests to look for liver cancer. Screening for liver cancer Screening tests are not advised for people ...

360

Living with Your Liver  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn the function of the liver and how biomedical engineers can use liver regeneration to help people. Students test the effects of toxic chemicals on a beef liver by adding hydrogen peroxide to various liver and salt solutions. They observe, record and graph their results.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

361

Liver Disease in Pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver dysfunction during pregnancy can be caused by conditions that are specific to pregnancy or by liver diseases that are not related to pregnancy itself. This review attempts to summarize the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management of the different pregnancy-related liver diseases, and to review different liver diseases not related to pregnancy and how they may affect or be effected by

Fabiana S. Benjaminov; Jenny Heathcote

2004-01-01

362

Fasciola hepatica : effects of the fasciolicide clorsulon in vitro and in vivo on the tegumental surface, and a comparison of the effects on young- and old-mature flukes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrastructural changes in Fasciola hepatica induced by the fasciolicide clorsulon were assessed using scanning electron microscopy. At 8 and 44 weeks post-infection, male Sprague-Dawley rats infected with F. hepaticawere dosed orally with clorsulon at a concentration of 12.5 mg\\/kg and mature flukes recovered from the bile duct after 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h in both experiments. An in vitro incubation was also

M. Meaney; I. Fairweather; G. P. Brennan; L. S. L. McDowell; A. B. Forbes

2003-01-01

363

Proteomic analysis of different period excretory secretory products from Clonorchis sinensis adult worms: molecular characterization, immunolocalization, and serological reactivity of two excretory secretory antigens-methionine aminopeptidase 2 and acid phosphatase.  

PubMed

The excretory secretory products (ESP) of Clonorchis sinensis are the causative agents of clonorchiasis and biliary diseases. The parasites' ESP play important roles in host-parasite interactions. The protein compositions of ESP at different secretory times are different and have not been systemically investigated so far. In this study, we collected ESP from six different periods (0-3 h, 3-6 h, 6-12 h, 12-24 h, 24-36 h, and 36-48 h) from C. sinensis adults. Using a shotgun LC-MS/MS analysis, we found 187, 80, 103, 58, 248, and 383 proteins, respectively. Among these proteins, we selected methionine aminopeptidase 2 (MAP-2, presented in 24-36 h and 36-48 h ESP) and acid phosphatase (AP, presented in 3-6 h, 12-24 h, 24-36 h, and 36-48 h ESP) for further study. Bioinformatics analysis showed that CsMAP-2 has metallopeptidase family M24, unique lysine residue-rich and acidic residue-rich domain, SGTS motif, and auto-cleavage point; and that CsAP has possible signal sequence cleavage site, acid phosphate domain, and two histidine acid phosphatases active regions. CsMAP-2 and CsAP's cDNA have 1,425 bp and1,410 bp ORF, encoding 475 and 470 amino acid proteins and weighing 55.3840 kDa and 55.2875 kDa, respectively. MAP-2 and AP were identified as antigens present in the ESP and circulating antigens by immunoblot analysis, which were also found expressing in the eggs, metacercaria, and adult stages of C. sinensis. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that they were located in tegument and intestinal cecum of adult. MTT assay showed that they could inhibit hepatic stellate cell line (LX-2) proliferation. These findings presented the compositions of different period excretory secretary products from C. sinensis adults. PMID:23274491

Zheng, Minghui; Hu, Kunhua; Liu, Wei; Li, Hongyu; Chen, Jingfang; Yu, Xinbing

2012-12-30

364

Alcoholic liver disease.  

PubMed

In the United States, approximately 100,000 deaths are attributed to alcohol abuse each year. In 2009, the World Health Organization listed alcohol use as one of the leading causes of the global burden of disease and injury. Alcoholic liver disease, a direct result of chronic alcohol abuse, insidiously destroys the normal functions of the liver. The end result of the disease, cirrhosis, culminates in a dysfunctional and diffusely scarred liver. This article discusses the clinical manifestations, imaging considerations, and treatment of alcoholic liver disease and cirrhosis. Normal liver function, liver hemodynamics, the disease of alcoholism, and the deleterious effects of alcohol also are reviewed. PMID:23861518

Penny, Steven M

365

Molecular and functional characterization of a tandem-repeat galectin from the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata, intermediate host of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

In the present study, a tandem-repeat type galectin was characterized from an embryonic cell line (Bge) and circulating hemocytes of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata, intermediate host of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. The predicted B. glabrata galectin (BgGal) protein of 32 kDa possessed 2 carbohydrate recognition domains, each displaying 6 of 8 conserved amino acids involved in galactoside-binding activity. A recombinant BgGal (rBgGal) demonstrated hemagglutinating activity against rabbit erythrocytes, which was specifically inhibited by galactose-containing sugars (lacNAc/lac > galNAc/gal). Although native galectin was immunolocalized in the cytoplasm of Bge cells and the plasma membrane of a subset of snail hemocytes (60%), it was not detected in cell-free plasma by Western blot analysis. The findings that rBgGal selectively recognizes the schistosome-related sugar, lacNAc, and strongly binds to hemocytes and the tegument of S. mansoni sporocysts in a sugar-inhibitable fashion suggest that hemocyte-bound galectin may be serving as pattern recognition receptor for this, or other pathogens possessing appropriate sugar ligands. Based on molecular and functional features, BgGal represents an authentic galectin, the first to be fully characterized in the medically-important molluscan Class Gastropoda.

Yoshino, Timothy P.; Dinguirard, Nathalie; Kunert, John; Hokke, Cornelius H.

2008-01-01

366

Chronic Liver Diseases as Liver Tumor Precursors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver cancer is a major global health problem and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for 75% of all liver carcinoma. HCC occurs more often in men than in women and mostly in people 50 to 60 years old. The disease is more common in parts of sub-Saharan Africa and Asia than in North and South America and Europe. Nevertheless its incidence

Jan Lata

2010-01-01

367

Pregnancy and Liver Function  

MedlinePLUS

... affect of alcohol on a pregnant woman's liver? Moderate alcohol consumption (one or two drinks daily) probably does not affect the liver of an otherwise normal pregnant woman, but even moderate doses may cause damage to the fetus. (updated ...

368

[The liver and methotrexate].  

PubMed

Methotrexate is proposed for the treatment of inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and Crohn's disease. The liver toxicity of methotrexate has been investigated and prolonged treatment can induce liver fibrosis. Moreover, alcohol consumption, diabetes and obesity are associated with liver fibrosis in patients treated with this drug. Therefore, liver fibrosis associated with methotrexate could be due to associated factors instead of methotrexate itself. Recommendations to monitor and diagnose methotrexate induced liver damage vary depending on the disease. Frequent evaluation of liver fibrosis with liver biopsy is recommended during therapy, especially in patients treated for psoriasis. Noninvasive methods, such as the FibroScan, could be useful for the assessment of liver fibrosis associated with methotrexate and hence, need further evaluation. PMID:18494155

Laharie, D; Terrebonne, E; Vergniol, J; Chanteloup, E; Chabrun, E; Couzigou, P; de Lédinghen, V

2008-02-01

369

Liver Disease on Taiwan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Review of 762 liver biopsies from 2 Chinese military hospitals on Taiwan over a 5 year period revealed the major distribution of clinically manifested liver diseases to be as follows: hepatitis (presumable viral) 42%; cirrhosis 19%; and primary carcinoma ...

P. C. Chu S. C. Sun W. H. Liang J. W. Fresh

1965-01-01

370

Can Liver Cancer Be Prevented?  

MedlinePLUS

... Topic Can liver cancer be found early? Can liver cancer be prevented? Many liver cancers could be ... gets into drinking water. Treating diseases that increase liver cancer risk Certain inherited diseases can cause cirrhosis ...

371

Cell Therapies for Liver Diseases  

PubMed Central

Cell therapies, which include bioartificial liver support and hepatocyte transplantation, have emerged as potential treatments for a variety of liver diseases. Acute liver failure (ALF), acute-on-chronic liver failure, and inherited metabolic liver diseases are examples of liver diseases that have been successfully treated with cell therapies at centers around the world. Cell therapies also have the potential for wide application in other liver diseases, including non-inherited liver diseases and liver cancer, and in improving the success of liver transplantation. Here we briefly summarize current concepts of cell therapy for liver diseases.

Yu, Yue; Fisher, James E.; Lillegard, Joseph B.; Rodysill, Brian; Amiot, Bruce; Nyberg, Scott L.

2011-01-01

372

Cognition in liver disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cognitive dysfunction has been observed in a range of liver diseases including chronic hepatitis C virus , alcoholic liver disease, primary biliary cirrhosis and Wilson's disease. Such dysfunction may range from mild cognitive changes to overt hepatic encephalopathy, and represents a significant complication of liver disease that may negatively impact the patient's quality of life, and normal activities of

Alexander Collie

2005-01-01

373

Alcohol and the Liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol is the most common cause of liver injury in the developed world. In 1999, alcoholic liver disease was the most common indication for transplantation in UK and Europe. A regional centre in the UK sees, on average, more than 400 patients with alcoholic liver disease each year. As highlighted in the recent Chief Medical Officer's report (2002), deaths from

Chris P Day

2002-01-01

374

Update of pediatric liver transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver transplantation is an effective and widely accepted therapy for children with end-stage liver disease. Major indications include primary liver disease, resulting in hepatic insufficiency, or severe morbidity secondary to chronic non-progressive liver disease and metabolic diseases of the liver. Liver replacement should not be considered if there is an acceptable alternative therapy. Relative contraindications to transplantation include irreversible impairment

E. M. Alonso; R. Gonzalez-Vallina; P. F. Whitington

1992-01-01

375

Liver biopsy techniques.  

PubMed

A liver biopsy is required to make the diagnosis of most non-vascular liver diseases. Liver biopsy samples can be obtained with several techniques. With proper training and adequate operator experience, the liver biopsy is a safe technique. It is important to evaluate blood coagulation and to use the biopsy in the context of evaluation of the liver and associated structures with ultrasonography, laparoscopy, or other imaging methods. The histological evaluation should be done using international standards as summarized by John Cullen elsewhere in this issue. PMID:19524789

Rothuizen, Jan; Twedt, David C

2009-05-01

376

Liver abnormalities in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Abnormalities of liver function (notably rise in alkaline phosphatase and fall in serum albumin) are common in normal pregnancy, whereas rise in serum bilirubin and aminotransferase suggest either exacerbation of underlying pre-existing liver disease, liver disease related to pregnancy or liver disease unrelated to pregnancy. Pregnant women appear to have a worse outcome when infected with Hepatitis E virus. Liver diseases associated with pregnancy include abnormalities associated hyperemesis gravidarum, acute fatty liver disease, pre-eclampsia, cholestasis of pregnancy and HELLP syndrome. Prompt investigation and diagnosis is important in ensuring a successful maternal and foetal outcome. In general, prompt delivery is the treatment of choice for acute fatty liver, pre-eclampsia and HELLP syndrome and ursodeoxycholic acid is used for cholestasis of pregnancy although it is not licenced for this indication. PMID:24090943

Than, Nwe Ni; Neuberger, James

2013-08-01

377

Engineered liver for transplantation.  

PubMed

Orthotopic liver transplantation is the only definitive treatment for end stage liver failure and the shortage of donor organs severely limits the number of patients receiving transplants. Liver tissue engineering aims to address the donor liver shortage by creating functional tissue constructs to replace a damaged or failing liver. Despite decades of work, various bottoms-up, synthetic biomaterials approaches have failed to produce a functional construct suitable for transplantation. Recently, a new strategy has emerged using whole organ scaffolds as a vehicle for tissue engineering. This technique involves preparation of these organ scaffolds via perfusion decellularization with the resulting scaffold retaining the circulatory network of the native organ. This important phenomenon allows for the construct to be repopulated with cells and to be connected to the blood torrent upon transplantation. This opinion paper presents the current advances and discusses the challenges of creating fully functional transplantable liver grafts with this whole liver engineering approach. PMID:23791465

Uygun, Basak E; Yarmush, Martin L

2013-06-20

378

[Multiple liver lesions accompanied by eosinophilia - a case report of fascioliosis].  

PubMed

Fascioliosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Fasciola hepatica (common liver fluke). Initial clinical symptoms are frequently non-specific. Even after the development of liver tumors, a range of different underlying disorders will have to be considered. The rare cause of a parasitosis is not always included in the differential diagnostic work up. We report on a 41-year-old truck driver from Middle East who was admitted at our hospital due to ongoing upper abdominal pain, fatigue, night sweat and nausea lasting for weeks. Diagnostic investigation showed leucocytosis, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, elevated liver values and IgE as well as blood eosinophilia. Radiological findings of the computed tomography were bilateral pulmonary lesions 3 mm in size and multiple hepatic lesions up to 4.5 cm in diameter. Due to the suspicion of a malignant disease, a liver biopsy was planned but cancelled after parasitological serology (Western blot and ELISA) revealed IgG-antibodies against F. hepatica. Detailed history gave evidence of a recent parasitological infection during a stay in Turkey with consumption of vegetable which were grown and washed with water from the local river. Eggs of the parasite could neither be found in analysis of duodenal secretion nor in examination of fecal culture. However, confirmation for the infection with F. hepatica was proved with another positive serology. The treatment with Triclabendazole (Egaten(®)) for two days with a total dosage of 2000 mg was followed by a remarkable recovery of the patient's symptoms and decrease of eosinophilia in the blood count just one month after treatment and normalization after four months. PMID:22016067

Trifina, Eva; Spenger, Johannes; Zandieh, Shahin; Haller, Jörg; Auer, Herbert; Osterreicher, Christian; Klaushofer, Klaus; Mikosch, Peter

2011-09-01

379

Structural Basis for the Inhibition of Histone Deacetylase 8 (HDAC8), a Key Epigenetic Player in the Blood Fluke Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

The treatment of schistosomiasis, a disease caused by blood flukes parasites of the Schistosoma genus, depends on the intensive use of a single drug, praziquantel, which increases the likelihood of the development of drug-resistant parasite strains and renders the search for new drugs a strategic priority. Currently, inhibitors of human epigenetic enzymes are actively investigated as novel anti-cancer drugs and have the potential to be used as new anti-parasitic agents. Here, we report that Schistosoma mansoni histone deacetylase 8 (smHDAC8), the most expressed class I HDAC isotype in this organism, is a functional acetyl-L-lysine deacetylase that plays an important role in parasite infectivity. The crystal structure of smHDAC8 shows that this enzyme adopts a canonical ?/? HDAC fold, with specific solvent exposed loops corresponding to insertions in the schistosome HDAC8 sequence. Importantly, structures of smHDAC8 in complex with generic HDAC inhibitors revealed specific structural changes in the smHDAC8 active site that cannot be accommodated by human HDACs. Using a structure-based approach, we identified several small-molecule inhibitors that build on these specificities. These molecules exhibit an inhibitory effect on smHDAC8 but show reduced affinity for human HDACs. Crucially, we show that a newly identified smHDAC8 inhibitor has the capacity to induce apoptosis and mortality in schistosomes. Taken together, our biological and structural findings define the framework for the rational design of small-molecule inhibitors specifically interfering with schistosome epigenetic mechanisms, and further support an anti-parasitic epigenome targeting strategy to treat neglected diseases caused by eukaryotic pathogens.

Marek, Martin; Kannan, Srinivasaraghavan; Hauser, Alexander-Thomas; Moraes Mourao, Marina; Caby, Stephanie; Cura, Vincent; Stolfa, Diana A.; Schmidtkunz, Karin; Lancelot, Julien; Andrade, Luiza; Renaud, Jean-Paul; Oliveira, Guilherme; Sippl, Wolfgang; Jung, Manfred; Cavarelli, Jean; Pierce, Raymond J.; Romier, Christophe

2013-01-01

380

Ductopenia related liver sarcoidosis  

PubMed Central

Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease which may involve many organs. In approximately 95% of patients there is liver involvement, with noncaseating hepatic granulomas occurring in 21 to 99% of patients with sarcoidosis. Liver involvement is usually asymptomatic and limited to mild to moderate abnormalities in liver biochemistry. The occurrence of jaundice in sarcoidosis is rare; extensive imaging procedures and the examination of liver biopsies permit a precise diagnostic. Ductopenia associated with sarcoidosis has been reported in less than 20 cases and can lead to biliary cirrhosis and liver- related death. We report here on a case of ductopenia-related sarcoidosis in which primary biliary cirrhosis and extrahepatic cholestasis have been carefully excluded. The patient follow up was 8 years. Although ursodesoxycholic acid appears to improve liver biochemistry it does not preclude the rapid occurrence of extensive fibrosis. A review of the literature of reported cases of ductopenia related to sarcoidosis is provided.

Farouj, Nourr-Eddine; Cadranel, Jean-Francois D; Mofredj, Ali; Jouannaud, Vincent; Lahmiri, Maria; Lann, Pierre Le; Cazier, Alain

2011-01-01

381

Liver and Gallbladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biliary structures of all calibers, and hepatocytes, are derived from endoderm. A hollow midline outgrowth from the ventral\\u000a aspect of the future duodenum, known as the liver bud or hepatic diverticulum, develops around the third week of embryonic\\u000a life. The liver bud grows into the septum transversum and the cardiac mesoderm. These structures contribute connective tissues\\u000a to the developing liver,

Rachel M. Brown

382

Laser repair of liver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser repair of liver using albumin is a promising method for treating liver trauma. Concentrated human serum albumin is applied to a liver laceration and then denatured using a laser. These repairs were pulled with a material tester to measure the ultimate strength of the laser repair. We show that the ultimate strength of the liver repairs tends to increase with delivered laser energy, that the mode of delivery (pulsed versus continuous) does not matter, that the repair strength correlates with the area of denatured albumin, and that strong welds cause about 1.5 mm of thermal damage.

Prahl, Scott A.; Denison, Tim; LaJoie, Elaine

2001-05-01

383

[Liver resection and liver transplantation in liver cell adenoma, hepatocellular carcinoma and fibrolamellar liver carcinoma].  

PubMed

Hepatocellular adenomas are rare benign conditions but represent an indication for resection due to their risk of rupture and malignant mutation. Surgical resection should include a safety margin according to oncologic principles. Surgical resection does represent the optimal treatment modality for hepatocellular carcinoma without accompanied cirrhosis of the liver. The rare fibrolamellar carcinoma has the best prognosis. Liver transplantation is usually not performed in HCC without cirrhosis. In case of HCC with cirrhosis in stage I and II the relapse free 5-year-survival rate is more than 50% after liver transplantation. In the UICC-stages III and IV the results of liver transplantation are worse, which points to the impact of exact preoperative staging. Liver resection in HCC and cirrhosis is indicated in stage I and II in case of good liver function. In case of liver resection the survival rates are worse with significantly higher relapses compared to liver transplantation. For small, functionally irresectable hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis liver transplantation is the treatment of choice today. PMID:11206098

Lang, H; Dömland, M; Broelsch, C E

2001-01-11

384

Closed liver injury.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to familiarize sports medicine physicians with evaluation, initial management, and treatment of athletes with closed liver trauma. Ten percent of abdominal injuries are caused during sports-related activities. The liver is the most commonly injured organ in blunt abdominal trauma. Physical examination findings may be subtle or absent in patients with underlying liver injury. A paradigm shift toward nonoperative management in hemodynamically stable patients has led to a decrease in mortality. Return-to-play guidelines do not exist for closed liver injuries. These decisions are usually made on a case-by-case basis using basic return to play principles. PMID:23522504

Casiero, Deena C

2013-02-01

385

Split liver transplantation.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: This study reviews the indications, technical aspects, and experience with ex vivo and in situ split liver transplantation. BACKGROUND: The shortage of cadaveric donor livers is the most significant factor inhibiting further application of liver transplantation for patients with end-stage liver disease. Pediatric recipients, although they represent only 15% to 20% of the liver transplant registrants, suffer the greatest from the scarcity of size-matched cadaveric organs. Split liver transplantation provides an ideal means to expand the donor pool for both children and adults. METHODS: This review describes the evolution of split liver transplantation from reduced liver transplantation and living-related liver transplantation. The two types of split liver transplantation, ex vivo and in situ, are compared and contrasted, including the technique, selection of patients for each procedure, and the most current results. RESULTS: Ex vivo splitting of the liver is performed on the bench after removal from the cadaver. It is usually divided into two grafts: segments 2 and 3 for children, and segments 4 to 8 for adults. Since 1990, 349 ex vivo grafts have been reported. Until recently, graft and patient survival rates have been lower and postoperative complication rates higher in ex vivo split grafts than in whole organ cadaveric transplantation. Further, the use of ex vivo split grafts has been relegated to the elective adult patient because of the high incidence of graft dysfunction (right graft) when placed in an emergent patient. Reasons for the poor function of ex vivo splits except in elective patients have focused on graft damage due to prolonged cold ischemia times and rewarming during the long benching procedure. In situ liver splitting is accomplished in a manner identical to the living donor procurement. This technique for liver splitting results in the same graft types as in the ex vivo technique. However, graft and patient survival rates reported for in situ split livers have exceeded 85% and 90%, respectively, with a lower incidence of postoperative complications, including biliary and reoperation for bleeding. These improved results have also been observed in the urgent patient. CONCLUSION: Splitting of the cadaveric liver expands the donor pool of organs and may eliminate the need for living-related donation for children. Recent experience with the ex vivo technique, if applied to elective patients, results in patient and graft survival rates comparable to whole-organ transplantation, although postoperative complication rates are higher. In situ splitting provides two grafts of optimal quality that can be applied to the entire spectrum of transplant recipients: it is the method of choice for expanding the cadaver liver donor pool.

Busuttil, R W; Goss, J A

1999-01-01

386

Liver fibrosis in overweight patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: A common clinical issue is whether overweight patients with abnormal liver function test results should undergo liver biopsy. Although serious liver injury can occur, its prevalence and risk factors are not well known. Methods: Ninety-three consecutive patients with abnormal liver function tests (but without overt liver disease), body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg\\/m2, and no alcoholic,

Vlad Ratziu; Philippe Giral; Frederic Charlotte; Eric Bruckert; Vincent Thibault; Ioannis Theodorou; Lina Khalil; Gérard Turpin; Pierre Opolon; Thierry Poynard

2000-01-01

387

Spectrum of Liver Histology in Presumed Decompensated Alcoholic Liver Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND:In presumed decompensated alcoholic liver disease (ALD; liver decompensation, heavy alcohol intake, and negative results of noninvasive screening for other causes), liver biopsy is often performed to assess severity of liver injury and to rule out other liver diseases.AIM:The aim of the study is to describe the spectrum of liver histology in such patients.METHODS:We reviewed all patients with presumed decompensated

David A. Elphick; Asha K. Dube; Elaine McFarlane; Jayne Jones; Dermot Gleeson

2007-01-01

388

About the Operation: Liver Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... Heart/Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Liver Transplant There are two very different surgical approaches to liver transplantation: the orthotopic and the heterotopic approach, both ...

389

Multiple listerial liver abscesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatic involvement in listeriosis is uncommon in adults. Cases previously reported include three presenting as acute hepatitis and three of listerial liver abscesses found at necropsy. We report a case of multiple listerial liver abscesses. We believe this to be the first time this diagnosis has been made in a living patient.

D Jenkins; J E Richards; Y Rees; A C Wicks

1987-01-01

390

Liver Transplantation for Malignancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver transplantation for hepatic malignancies has emerged from an exotic and desperate approach to a well- documented and proven treatment modality for these unfortunate patients. However, early unsatisfactory results emphasized that only a highly selected patient population would benefit from transplantation. Currently, <10% of all liver transplants performed are for hepatocellular cancer (HCC). There is no controversy that hepatoblastoma is

MARTIN HERTL; A. BENEDICT COSIMI

391

Artificial liver support.  

PubMed

Without adequate liver function, the body is unable to sustain several vital metabolic functions, such as energy supply, acid-base balance and thermoregulation. Whereas the clinical picture of chronic liver failure is often dominated by portal hypertension, fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) is typically characterized by an acute metabolic deficit. Another important distinction between these two conditions is that the liver can recover from an acute injury such as FHF. Hepatocytes retain the ability to divide in vivo; therefore, recovery from FHF is possible, although rare, if the liver can regenerate before the patient succumbs to the disease. This review examines the theoretical and practical aspects of metabolic liver support, with FHF as the paradigm. PMID:8889280

Sussman, N L; Kelly, J H

1996-10-01

392

The Sinbad retrotransposon from the genome of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni, and the distribution of related Pao-like elements  

PubMed Central

Background Of the major families of long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, the Pao/BEL family is probably the least well studied. It is becoming apparent that numerous LTR retrotransposons and other mobile genetic elements have colonized the genome of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni. Results A proviral form of Sinbad, a new LTR retrotransposon, was identified in the genome of S. mansoni. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Sinbad belongs to one of five discreet subfamilies of Pao/BEL like elements. BLAST searches of whole genomes and EST databases indicated that members of this clade occurred in species of the Insecta, Nematoda, Echinodermata and Chordata, as well as Platyhelminthes, but were absent from all plants, fungi and lower eukaryotes examined. Among the deuterostomes examined, only aquatic species harbored these types of elements. All four species of nematode examined were positive for Sinbad sequences, although among insect and vertebrate genomes, some were positive and some negative. The full length, consensus Sinbad retrotransposon was 6,287 bp long and was flanked at its 5'- and 3'-ends by identical LTRs of 386 bp. Sinbad displayed a triple Cys-His RNA binding motif characteristic of Gag of Pao/BEL-like elements, followed by the enzymatic domains of protease, reverse transcriptase (RT), RNAseH, and integrase, in that order. A phylogenetic tree of deduced RT sequences from 26 elements revealed that Sinbad was most closely related to an unnamed element from the zebrafish Danio rerio and to Saci-1, also from S. mansoni. It was also closely related to Pao from Bombyx mori and to Ninja of Drosophila simulans. Sinbad was only distantly related to the other schistosome LTR retrotransposons Boudicca, Gulliver, Saci-2, Saci-3, and Fugitive, which are gypsy-like. Southern hybridization and bioinformatics analyses indicated that there were about 50 copies of Sinbad in the S. mansoni genome. The presence of ESTs representing transcripts of Sinbad in numerous developmental stages of S. mansoni along with the identical 5'- and 3'-LTR sequences suggests that Sinbad is an active retrotransposon. Conclusion Sinbad is a Pao/BEL type retrotransposon from the genome of S. mansoni. The Pao/BEL group appears to be comprised of at least five discrete subfamilies, which tend to cluster with host species phylogeny. Pao/BEL type elements appear to have colonized only the genomes of the Animalia. The distribution of these elements in the Ecdysozoa, Deuterostomia, and Lophotrochozoa is discontinuous, suggesting horizontal transmission and/or efficient elimination of Pao-like mobile genetic elements from some genomes.

Copeland, Claudia S; Mann, Victoria H; Morales, Maria E; Kalinna, Bernd H; Brindley, Paul J

2005-01-01

393

Liver protocollagen proline hydroxylase in human liver diseases and experimental liver fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Liver protocallagen proline hydroxylase activity (PPH activity) was determined in patients with various liver diseases, CCl4-induced liver fibrosis rats and cholin deficiency (CD) fatty liver rats. The following results were obtained: Liver PPH activity\\u000a in patients with chronic hepatitis was higher than that in patients with acute hepatitis, while the activity in patients with\\u000a liver cirrhosis was much higher than

Tadasu Tsujii; Kazuhide Kimura; Masao Fukuhara; Tomofumi Morita; Tsutomu Matsui; Masahiro Tamura; Yoichi Matsuoka

1977-01-01

394

Liver biopsy in evaluation of complications following liver transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To analyze the role of liver biopsies in differential diagnosis after liver transplantation. METHODS: A total of 50 biopsies from 27 patients with liver dysfunction out of 52 liver transplantation cases were included. Biopsies were obtained 0-330 d after operation, in which, 44 were fine needle biopsies, another 6 were wedge biopsies during surgery. All tissues were stained with

Ying-Yan Yu; Jun Ji; Guang-Wen Zhou; Bai-Yong Shen; Hao Chen; Ji-Qi Yan; Cheng-Hong Peng; Hong-Wei Li

395

Liver support systems.  

PubMed

Liver insufficiency is a dramatic syndrome with multiple organ involvement. A multiplicity of toxic substances (hydrophilic like ammonia and lipophilic like bilirubin or bile acids or mercaptans) are released into the systemic circulation, thus altering many enzymatic cellular processes. Patients frequently die while on the transplantation waiting list because of organ scarcity. Systems supporting liver function may be useful to avoid further complications due to the typical toxic state, 'bridging' the patients to the transplantation, or, in the event of an acute decompensation of a chronic liver disease, sustain liver function long enough to permit the organ's regeneration and functional recovery. An ideal liver support system should substitute the main functions of the liver (detoxification, synthesis and regulation). Extracorporeal systems now available may be totally artificial or bioartificial. While the first are only able to perform detoxification, the second may add the functions of synthesis (plasma proteins, coagulation factors) and regulation (neurotransmitters). Bioartificial liver working with isolated hepatocytes and a synthetic membrane in an extracorporeal system are however still far from being ready for clinical use. At present, liver insufficiency may be treated with an extracorporeal support technology aimed either at detoxification alone or at a real purification. Charcoal hemoperfusion or exchange/absorption resins may be used for blood detoxification. Blood or plasma exchange, from a theoretical point of view, could be suitable for a polyvalent intoxication, such as liver failure; however, the multicompartmental distribution of some solutes largely endangers the efficacy of these procedures. Selective plasmapheresis techniques are now available for some solutes (e.g. styrene for bilirubin) and may progressively reduce the plasma levels and presumably the deposits of the solute. Novel treatments introduced to improve detoxification, mainly of the protein-bound substances, are the molecular adsorbent recirculation system (MARS) and Prometheus systems. MARS performs an albumin dialysis, where albumin is the exogenous carrier for the toxic substances, and different experiences have proved its efficacy mainly in the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy, while data on survival are still limited to small case series. With Prometheus, the most recent system developed for a wide Liver Support Systems 397 detoxification, albumin-bound toxins are directly removed in two separate cartridges with different solute affinity, without the need for exogenous albumin; plasmadsorption is then coupled with a real dialysis process. After promising initial results, the efficacy of Prometheus in the patients' hard endpoints will be evaluated in a large international trial. On the whole, liver support systems may offer, in many cases, a survival benefit. Stem cells are however, even in this filed, the real great hope for the future of patients with end-stage liver disease. PMID:17464150

Santoro, Antonio; Mancini, Elena; Ferramosca, Emiliana; Faenza, Stefano

2007-01-01

396

25 Ways to Love Your Liver  

MedlinePLUS

... Handouts Education Resources Support Services Helpful Links For Liver Health Information Call 1-800-GO-LIVER Email ... Love Your Liver 25 Ways to Love Your Liver October is Liver Awareness month and the American ...

397

What Happens After Treatment for Liver Cancer?  

MedlinePLUS

... after liver cancer What happens after treatment for liver cancer? For some people with liver cancer, treatment ... 1-800-227-2345. Follow-up after a liver transplant A liver transplant can be very effective ...

398

Detection of antibodies in wild ruminants to evaluate exposure to liver trematodes.  

PubMed

Wild ruminants sharing pastures with domestic livestock are at risk of infection by liver trematodes. Detection of antibodies provides a very useful tool to gain more knowledge about the distribution of these parasites. Non-lethal methods are strongly encouraged for the analysis of the risk of infection among wild ruminants. A seroepidemiological survey was conducted to analyze exposure to hepatic trematodes ( Fasciola hepatica and Dicrocoelium dendriticum ) in wild ruminants from southern Spain. Blood samples were collected from 69 bovids (Mouflon + Spanish ibex) and 143 cervids (red deer + fallow deer) from Sierra de Cazorla, Segura and Las Villas Natural Park. The samples were analyzed using the excretory/secretory antigens of each trematode to determine the IgG response. All the animals were examined at necropsy for the presence of flukes, and the species, age, and gender of the animals were recorded. Fasciola hepatica were only observed in cervids (3%; 95% confidence interval [CI] ?=? 2-8), while D. dendriticum specimens were recorded in 1% (0-8) of bovids and 4% (CI ?=? 2-9) of the cervids. The IgG-seroprevalence against F. hepatica was significantly higher in the cervids. Statistical differences according to gender were observed. The bovids exhibited the greatest percentages of positive cases to D. dendriticum antigens, and the DdES-seroprevalence was related to age of the animals. When considering all the factors, the FhES-seroprevalence was initially distributed according to the type of ruminant (cervids), gender (male), and age (>2 yr). PMID:22414166

Arias, María Sol; Martínez-Carrasco, Carlos; León-Vizcaíno, Luis; Paz-Silva, Adolfo; Díez-Baños, Pablo; Morrondo, Patrocinio; Alonso, Francisco

2012-03-13

399

Emerging Therapies for Liver Fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver fibrosis occurs as a result of a wide range of injurious processes and in its end-stage results in cirrhosis. This gross disruption of liver architecture is associated with impaired hepatic function, portal hypertension and significant resultant morbidity and mortality. Indeed, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis represent a major worldwide healthcare burden. Recent progress in liver transplantation, the management of portal

Andrew J. Fowell; John P. Iredale

2006-01-01

400

Pathology of fatty liver disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty liver disease is currently recognized as a common cause of liver test elevation, paralleling the worldwide ‘epidemic’ of obesity in adults and children. In many clinical practices, there is recognition that liver biopsy evaluation is the only means of diagnosis (or exclusion) of fatty liver disease, as neither laboratory tests nor imaging studies to date can provide complete data

Elizabeth M Brunt

2007-01-01

401

Fatty Liver Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The relationship between liver disease and prior exposure to hepatotoxic agents was investigated in four separate studies. The first was a cross sectional study of hazardous waste workers who were well protected. The study examined the relationship betwee...

M. J. Hodgson D. H. Van Thiel

1991-01-01

402

Liver in haematological disorders.  

PubMed

Prothrombotic haematological disorders, in particular myeloproliferative disorders, are identified in a significant proportion of patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome and portal vein thrombosis (PVT). Multiple prothrombotic disorders may coexist. PVT is diagnosed in one fourth of patients with cirrhosis and is more common with advanced liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. PVT in cirrhosis can precipitate decompensation. Intrahepatic microthrombosis may play a role in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis. Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome is usually a complication of myeloablative treatment before haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders can complicate liver transplantation and are related to Epstein-Barr virus infection. Hepatitis B reactivation in patients receiving chemotherapy for haematological malignancies is very common without pre-emptive treatment, and can lead to liver failure. Liver involvement is common in primary haematological diseases, such as haemolytic anaemias, lymphomas and leukaemia. PMID:24090939

Pieri, Giulia; Theocharidou, Eleni; Burroughs, Andrew K

2013-08-01

403

Precision in liver surgery.  

PubMed

Continuous theoretical and technological progress in the face of increasing expectations for quality health care has transformed the surgical paradigm. The authors systematically review these historical trends and propose the novel paradigm of "precision surgery," featuring certainty-based practice to ensure the best result for each patient with multiobjective optimization of therapeutic effectiveness, surgical safety, and minimal invasiveness. The main characteristics of precision surgery may be summarized as determinacy, predictability, controllability, integration, standardization, and individualization. The strategy of precision in liver surgery is to seek a balance of maximizing the removal of the target lesion, while maximizing the functional liver remnant and minimizing surgical invasiveness. In this article, the authors demonstrate the application of precision approaches in specific settings in complex liver surgery. They propose that the concept of precision surgery should be considered for wider application in liver surgery and other fields as a step toward the ultimate goal of perfect surgery. PMID:23943100

Dong, Jiahong; Yang, Shizhong; Zeng, Jianping; Cai, Shouwang; Ji, Wenbin; Duan, Weidong; Zhang, Aiqun; Ren, Weizheng; Xu, Yinzhe; Tan, Jingwang; Bu, Xiangyang; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Xuedong; Wang, Xianqiang; Meng, Xiangfei; Jiang, Kai; Gu, Wanqing; Huang, Zhiqiang

2013-08-13

404

Liver Disease and IBD  

MedlinePLUS

... the intestine. The liver acts as a “processing plant” in the body, taking what we ingest and breaking it down. It then sends some of that material to blood cells throughout the body. The rest is filtered out ...

405

Mouse liver tumors  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses the conference of the European Society of Toxicology's question of why the mouse liver is more prone to ''spontaneous'' tumors than many other organs or the liver of other species. The significance of an increase in this tumor incidence by chemical compounds with respect to man, where, at least in most countries, a high incidence of liver tumors does not exist, is thoroughly discussed. The problems are comprehensively dealt with, from the biological and pathological manifestations to the molecular basis, with respect to carcinogen metabolizing enzymes, DNA damage and its repair, as well as to the role of oncogenes in spontaneous liver tumorigenesis in mice. Modifying factors such as diet, ageing, and hormones are considered. The collected information is evaluated and the scientific findings placed in context to human cancer risk.

Chambers, P.L.; Henschler, D.; Oesch, F.

1986-01-01

406

[Diabetes in liver cirrhosis].  

PubMed

The prevalence of overt diabetes mellitus (DM) in liver cirrhosis is about 30%. However, DM or impaired glucose tolerance can be observed in 90% after an oral glucose tolerance test in patients with normal fasting plasma glucose. Type 2 DM may produce cirrhosis, whereas DM may be a complication of cirrhosis. The latter is known as «hepatogenous diabetes». Overt and subclinical DM is associated with liver complications and death in cirrhotic patients. Treating diabetes is difficult in cirrhotic patients because of the metabolic impairments due to liver disease and because the most appropriate pharmacologic treatment has not been defined. It is also unknown if glycemic control with hypoglycemic agents has any impact on the course of the liver disease. PMID:23628170

García-Compeán, Diego; Jáquez-Quintana, Joel O; González-González, José A; Lavalle-González, Fernando J; Villarreal-Pérez, Jesús Z; Maldonado-Garza, Hector J

2013-04-28

407

Alcohol and the liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hospital admission with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has become increasingly common. Although a clear dose-relationship exists between the risk of ALD and alcohol consumed, additional risk factors include genetic predisposition, gender, nutritional status, obesity, and co-existing liver diseases such as hepatitis C.ALD ranges from steatosis to alcoholic steatohepatitis and established cirrhosis. Several mechanisms are involved in the pathophysiology of ALD,

Ewan Forrest; Elizabeth Reed

2011-01-01

408

Liver biopsy in sheep.  

PubMed

Liver biopsies were performed in the same group of 16 sheep on 8 consecutive wk using an apparatus with a fibre optic continuous light source and a telescope. The sheep were placed in a sternal position on a special table constructed of metal pipes (3.8 cm diameter) and 4.5 cm spacing. Approximately 300 mg of fresh liver sample was removed from each sheep to be analyzed for copper or vitamin E. PMID:8343810

Hidiroglou, M; Ivan, M

1993-01-01

409

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in North America, affecting approximately\\u000a 30% of the population [1]. It is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, and is directly linked to the escalating\\u000a prevalence of obesity and the associated insulin resistance. Histologically, NAFLD is characterized by a spectrum that ranges\\u000a from nonalcoholic fatty

Onpan Cheung; Arun J. Sanyal

410

Fortuitously discovered liver lesions  

PubMed Central

The fortuitously discovered liver lesion is a common problem. Consensus might be expected in terms of its work-up, and yet there is none. This stems in part from the fact that there is no preventive campaign involving the early detection of liver tumors other than for patients with known liver cirrhosis and oncological patients. The work-up (detection and differential diagnosis) of liver tumors comprises theoretical considerations, history, physical examination, laboratory tests, standard ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound techniques, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, as well as image-guided biopsy. CEUS techniques have proved to be the most pertinent method; these techniques became part of the clinical routine about 10 years ago in Europe and Asia and are used for a variety of indications in daily clinical practice. CEUS is in many cases the first and also decisive technical intervention for detecting and characterizing liver tumors. This development is reflected in many CEUS guidelines, e.g., in the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) guidelines 2004, 2008 and 2012 as well as the recently published World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology-EFSUMB guidelines 2012. This article sets out considerations for making a structured work-up of incidental liver tumors feasible.

Dietrich, Christoph F; Sharma, Malay; Gibson, Robert N; Schreiber-Dietrich, Dagmar; Jenssen, Christian

2013-01-01

411

Reversibility of liver fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Liver fibrosis, and its end stage cirrhosis are a major cause of morbidity and mortality and therapeutic options are limited. However, the traditional view of liver disease as an irreversible process is obsolete and it is now evident that the development of liver fibrosis is a dynamic and potentially bidirectional process. Spontaneous resolution of scarring is seen in animal models of liver fibrosis and in human trials in which the stimuli responsible for chronic or repeated hepatic inflammation is successfully removed. Key players in the process are hepatic stellate cells, macrophages, MMPs and their inhibitors Timps. It is also evident that in advanced fibrotic liver disease, specific histological features define what is currently described as "irreversible" fibrosis. This includes the development of paucicellular scars enriched in extensively cross-linked matrix components, such as fibrillar collagen and elastin. Our recent work has focused on the role of macrophage metalloelastase (MMP-12) in the turnover of elastin in reversible and irreversible models of fibrosis. We have shown that elastin turnover in liver injury and fibrosis is regulated by macrophages via Mmp-12 expression, activity and ratio to its inhibitor Timp-1. Failure of elastin degradation, together with increased deposition leads to accumulation of elastin in the fibrotic scars.

2012-01-01

412

Optical diagnostics of liver pathology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The applicability of reflectance spectroscopy to detect pathological changes in human liver tissue was investigated. Post mortem reflectance spectra were collected from liver tissue originating from 13 individuals. A point counting method was applied to determine relative areas of connective tissue, liver cells with or without fat vacuoles, and vascular spaces in the liver. Preliminary results show that the amount of fat and connective tissue in liver can be estimated from reflectance spectra.

Randeberg, Lise L.; Haugen, Olav A.; Svaasand, Lars O.

2003-10-01

413

[Alcoholic liver disease].  

PubMed

Ethanol toxicity on liver is a function of duration of alcoholism, amount of daily intake of alcohol and patient's nutrition. The threshold of alcohol toxicity on the liver is about 40 g of ethanol daily in men and 20-30 g in women, however liver cirrhosis develops in no more than 8-20% of patients exceeding this values. Ethanol is oxidized in the liver to acetaldehyde--a compound considerably more toxic than ethanol itself. Despite small amount of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) found in gastric mucosa, the metabolism of ethanol in this site may have an important hepatoprotective effect. The oxidation of ethanol is associated with a change of hepatocyte redox homeostasis, which leads to a number of metabolic disorders such as lactic acidosis, hyperlipidaemia and hyperuricaemia. Chronic ethanol consumption does not influence ADH activity, but has a profound stimulatory effect on microsomal enzymes, in particular cytochrome CYP2E1. This fact is responsible for development in alcoholic liver associated with rise of oxygen consumption, excessive production of free radicals and increased metabolism of ethanol, vitamin A and testosterone. Ethanol and acetaldehyde have a deleterious effect, both the direct and indirect, on hepatocytes e.g., generating radical oxygen species and damaging intestinal mucosal barrier. Cellular oxidative stress that is caused by both an excess of free radicals and the antioxidatives' deficiency (glutathion, vitamin E, phosphatidylcholine), may be the principal factor responsible for progression of alcoholic liver disease. Among other factors accelerating alcohol-related liver lesion there are certain drugs, high fat diet, infection with HCV and genetic factors (female sex, enzymatic polymorphic forms of ADH and ALDH, hemochromatosis). Great importance in pathogenesis of necrotic and inflammatory hepatic events is being attributed to portal endotoxaemia and cytokines induced within the liver, in particular TNF-alpha and interleukin 8. These cytokines play a key role in development of alcoholic hepatitis, which clinical severity ranges from subclinical to fatal forms. Apart from abstinence, the treatment of alcohol liver disease is based on hyperalimentation, since alcoholism is generally associated with protein malnutrition. In severe forms of alcohol hepatitis corticosteroids are recommended. PMID:12901271

Waluga, Marek; Hartleb, Marek

2003-01-01

414

Fatty liver and drugs.  

PubMed

Drug-induced liver diseases (DILD) are clinico-pathologic patterns of liver injury caused by drugs or other foreign compounds. Steatohepatitis is a rare form of DILD, and drugs account for fewer than 2% of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Drugs known to be capable of inducing steatosis and steatohepatitis can be divided into three broad groups: those that cause steatosis and steatohepatitis independently (e.g., amiodarone, perhexiline maleate); drugs which can precipitate latent NASH (e.g., tamoxifen); drugs whic duce sporadic events of steatosis/steatohepatitis (e.g., carbamazepine). Clinical DILD syndromes include acute viral hepatitis-like injury, acute liver failure, cholestatic hepatitis,liver disease with signs of hypersensitivity, autoimmune hepatitis-like injury, acute venous-Outflow obstruction, chronic cholestasis, ciirrhosis, steatosis and steatohepatitis. The clinical picture is by no means dependent on the mechanism of injury (direct hepatotoxicity, idiosyncratic reactions, hypersensitivity reactions). Reliable diagnosis of drug-induced liver disease requires demonstration of close correlation between the patient history and clinical, laboratory, and histological data. PMID:16237810

Grieco, A; Forgione, A; Miele, L; Vero, V; Greco, A V; Gasbarrini, A; Gasbarrini, G

415

Stereoscopic liver surface reconstruction.  

PubMed

The paper presents a practical approach to measuring liver motion, both respiratory and laparoscopic, with a tool guided in the operating room. The presented method is based on standard operating room equipment, i.e. rigid laparoscopic cameras and a single incision laparoscopic surgery trocar. The triangulation algorithm is used and stereo correspondence points are marked manually by two independent experts. To calibrate the cameras two perpendicular chessboards, a pinhole camera model and a Tsai algorithm are used. The data set consists of twelve real liver surgery video sequences: ten open surgery and two laparoscopic, gathered from different patients. The setup equipment and methodology are presented. The proposed evaluation method based on both calibration points of the chessboard reconstruction and measurements made by the Polaris Vicra tracking system are used as a reference system. In the analysis stage we focused on two specific goals, measuring respiration and laparoscopic tool guided liver motions. We have presented separate examples for left and right liver lobes. It is possible to reconstruct liver motion using the SILS trocar. Our approach was made without additional position or movement sensors. Diffusion of cameras and laser for distance measurement seems to be less practical for in vivo laparoscopic data, but we do not exclude exploring such sensors in further research. PMID:23256023

Spinczyk, Dominik; Karwan, Adam; Rudnicki, Jerzy; Wróblewski, Tadeusz

2012-06-25

416

Encephalopathy and liver transplantation.  

PubMed

Liver transplantation (LT) candidates experience frequently episodic or persistent hepatic encephalopathy. In addition, these patients can exhibit neurological comorbidities that contribute to cognitive impairment in the pre-transplant period. Assessment of the respective contribution of hepatic encephalopathy or comorbidities in the cognitive manifestations is critical to estimate the neurological benefits of restoring liver function. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy are useful to assess the impact of liver failure or comorbidities. This assessment is critical to decide liver transplant in difficult cases. In the early postoperative period, LT is commonly complicated by a confusional syndrome. The possible role of persisting hepatic encephalopathy in its development has not been clearly established. The origin is usually considered multifactorial and relates to complications following LT, such as infections, rejection, primary liver dysfunction, immunosuppressors, etc.… The diagnosis and treatment is based in the recognition of comorbidities and optimal care of metabolic disturbances. Several studies have demonstrated recovery of cognitive function after LT in patients that have exhibited hepatic encephalopathy. However, some deficits may persist specifically among patients with persistent HE. Other factors present before LT that contribute to a worse neuropsychological outcome after LT are diabetes mellitus and alcohol consumption. Long-term after LT, cognitive function may worsen in relation to vascular risk factors. PMID:23154925

Chavarria, Laia; Cordoba, Juan

2012-11-16

417

[Osteoporosis in liver cirrhosis].  

PubMed

Osteoporosis is a common complication of chronic liver disease, especially in the final stages. This entity is more critical in liver transplant recipients, when bone loss accelerates during the immediate postoperative period. The main mechanism involved in the development of osteoporosis in liver disease is deficient bone formation due to the harmful effects of substances such as bilirubin and bile acids or the toxic effect of alcohol or iron on osteoblasts. To prevent and treat osteoporosis, good nutrition and calcium and vitamin D supplementation are required. There are no specific recommendations on drug treatment but bisphosphonates are effective in increasing bone mass in patients with chronic cholestasis and have a good safety profile. PMID:22483016

Guañabens, Núria; Parés, Albert

2012-04-05

418

Living donor liver transplantation  

PubMed Central

The introduction of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been one of the most remarkable steps in the field of liver transplantation (LT). First introduced for children in 1989, its adoption for adults has followed only 10?years later. As the demand for LT continues to increase, LDLT provides life-saving therapy for many patients who would otherwise die awaiting a cadaveric organ. In recent years, LDLT has been shown to be a clinically safe addition to deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) and has been able to significantly extend the scarce donor pool. As long as the donor shortage continues to increase, LDLT will play an important role in the future of LT.

Nadalin, S.; Bockhorn, M.; Malago, M.; Valentin-Gamazo, C.; Frilling, A.

2006-01-01

419

Immunobiology of liver xenotransplantation  

PubMed Central

Pigs are currently the preferred species for future organ xenotransplantation. With advances in the development of genetically modified pigs, clinical xenotransplantation is becoming closer to reality. In preclinical studies (pig-to-nonhuman primate), the xenotransplantation of livers from pigs transgenic for human CD55 or from ?1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout pigs+/? transgenic for human CD46, is associated with survival of approximately 7–9 days. Although hepatic function, including coagulation, has proved to be satisfactory, the immediate development of thrombocytopenia is very limiting for pig liver xenotransplantation even as a ‘bridge’ to allotransplantation. Current studies are directed to understand the immunobiology of platelet activation, aggregation and phagocytosis, in particular the interaction between platelets and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, hepatocytes and Kupffer cells, toward identifying interventions that may enable clinical application.

Ekser, Burcin; Burlak, Christopher; Waldman, Joshua P; Lutz, Andrew J; Paris, Leela L; Veroux, Massimiliano; Robson, Simon C; Rees, Michael A; Ayares, David; Gridelli, Bruno; Tector, A Joseph; Cooper, David KC

2013-01-01

420

Transplantation of the liver.  

PubMed Central

Liver transplantation has had a long gestation period in being accepted as standard therapy. The main reason for this is the formidable operation to which the patient is subjected and because of this, referral of cases tends to be too late. Increasing confidence in the operation should result in earlier surgery. The low incidence of uncontrollable rejection is an encouraging finding which should, in the future, make the results of grafting for nonmalignant parenchymatous liver disease better than those currently obtained with kidney grafts from cadaver donors. The surgery requires a large team of strongly motivated doctors, nurses and technicians, who must have continuing experience with technically successful orthotopic liver grafts in experimental animals. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 7.

Calne, R Y

1978-01-01

421

Rapid communication Resistance of Fasciola hepaticaagainst triclabendazole in cattle and sheep in The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the winter of 1998\\/1999, sheep on a farm in the province of North Holland, The Netherlands, died from subacute and chronic liver fluke disease despite four previous treatments with triclaben- dazole (TCBZ). Faecal examinations of sheep and cattle on the farm showed high number of liver fluke eggs. In a randomised clinical trial, the fluke egg output was monitored

Lammert Molla; Cor P. H. Gaasenbeek; Piet Vellema; Fred H. M. Borgsteede

422

Resistance of Fasciola hepatica against triclabendazole in cattle and sheep in The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the winter of 1998\\/1999, sheep on a farm in the province of North Holland, The Netherlands, died from subacute and chronic liver fluke disease despite four previous treatments with triclabendazole (TCBZ). Faecal examinations of sheep and cattle on the farm showed high number of liver fluke eggs. In a randomised clinical trial, the fluke egg output was monitored weekly

Lammert Moll; Cor P. H Gaasenbeek; Piet Vellema; Fred H. M Borgsteede

2000-01-01

423

Neoplasms of the liver  

SciTech Connect

Primary Liver Cancer is perhaps the most prevalent malignancy in the world, particularly in South East Asia and Africa. After the discovery of hepatitis B virus as a cause of chronic liver disease often terminating cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and, more recently, the integration of viral DNA into host chromosomal DNA, the progress made in this field has been remarkable. This book contains 35 chapters and covers all topical aspects, such as oncogenes, epidemiology, carcinogenic role of hepatitis viruses, histopathology, new imaging techniques and new treatment modalities that include ultrasound-guided intratumor injections of ethanol and targeting chemotherapy.

Okuda, K.; Ishak, K.G.

1987-01-01

424

Liver cancer and alcohol.  

PubMed

Annually, hepatocellular carcinoma is diagnosed in approximately a half-million people worldwide. Based on the association of alcohol with cancer, a International Agency for Research on Cancer working group recently deemed alcoholic beverages "carcinogenic to humans," causally related to occurrence of malignant tumors of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, liver, colorectum, and female breast. Alcohol metabolism in the liver leads to reactive oxygen species production, induction of activity of cytochrome P450s, and reduction of antioxidants. This review analyzes the epidemiology and pathogenesis of alcohol in hepatocellular cancer. PMID:23101985

Grewal, Priya; Viswanathen, Vijay Anand

2012-11-01

425

Stem Cells and Liver Regeneration  

PubMed Central

One of the defining features of the liver is the capacity to maintain a constant size despite injury. Although the precise molecular signals involved in the maintenance of liver size are not completely known, it is clear that the liver delicately balances regeneration with overgrowth. Mammals, for example, can survive surgical removal of up to 75% of the total liver mass. Within 1 week after liver resection, the total number of liver cells is restored. Moreover, liver overgrowth can be induced by a variety of signals, including hepatocyte growth factor or peroxisome proliferators; the liver quickly returns to its normal size when the proliferative signal is removed. The extent to which liver stem cells mediate liver regeneration has been hotly debated. One of the primary reasons for this controversy is the use of multiple definitions for the hepatic stem cell. Definitions for the liver stem cell include the following: (1) cells responsible for normal tissue turnover, (2) cells that give rise to regeneration after partial hepatectomy, (3) cells responsible for progenitor-dependent regeneration, (4) cells that produce hepatocyte and bile duct epithelial phenotypes in vitro, and (5) transplantable liver-repopulating cells. This review will consider liver stem cells in the context of each definition.

DUNCAN, ANDREW W.; DORRELL, CRAIG; GROMPE, MARKUS

2011-01-01

426

4-Cyano-2-iodo-6-nitrophenol: a New Fasciolicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALTHOUGH some drugs are effective against the adult liver fluke Fasciola hepatica in sheep and cattle, none is yet available that provides adequate control of the immature fluke at a tolerated dose rate.

M. Davis; J. M. S. Lucas; J. Rosenbaum; D. E. Wright

1966-01-01

427

Kava Linked to Liver Damage  

MedlinePLUS

Kava Linked to Liver Damage September 10, 2010 In March 2002, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an advisory to consumers of the potential risk of severe liver injury from the use of dietary supplements containing ...

428

[Drug-induced liver injury].  

PubMed

Drug-induced liver injury represents the principal cause of acute liver failure and orthotopic liver transplantation in western country. A very large number of different drugs and medicinal herbs has been associated with liver injury but just for few of them we know the process that causes liver disease. All the people which ingest a large number of drugs present a risk of developing liver injury. Diagnosis is very difficult because a specific biomarker of damage is absent and the clinical picture is common to other liver diseases. A therapeutic approach is efficacy only in few cases. When a drug-induced liver injury is suspected, cessation of the drug is the first step in their management. PMID:22430754

Abenavoli, Ludovico; Libri, Emanuela; Bosco, Domenico; Gallo, Dionisio; Luzza, Francesco

2012-02-01