Sample records for liver function alanine

  1. Porcine alanine transaminase after liver allo-and xenotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Ekser, Burcin; Gridelli, Bruno; Cooper, David K.C.

    2013-01-01

    Aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) are measured following liver transplantation as indicators of hepatocellular injury. During a series of orthotopic liver allo-and xenotransplants, we observed that there was an increase in AST in all cases. The anticipated concomitant rise in ALT did not occur when a wild-type (WT) pig was the source of the liver graft, but did occur when a baboon or a genetically engineered (?1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout [GTKO]) pig was the source of the graft. We hypothesized that the cience of Gal?1,3 Gal in GTKO pig livers may render pig hepatocytes similar to human and baboon hepatocytes in their response to hepatocellular injury. Reviewing the literature, after WT pig liver allotransplantation or xenotransplantation, in the majority of reports, although changes in AST were reported, no mention was made of changes in ALT, suggesting that there was no change in ALT. However, Ramirez et al. reported two cases of liver xenotransplants from hCD55 pigs, following which there were increases in both AST and ALT, suggesting that it is not simply the cience of expression of Gal?1,3 Gal that is the cause. We acknowledge that our observation is based on a small number of experiments, but we believe it is worth recording. PMID:22360753

  2. Identification of serum N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidase as liver peptidoglycan recognition protein 2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yinong; van der Fits, Leslie; Voerman, Jane S; Melief, Marie-Jose; Laman, Jon D; Wang, Mu; Wang, Haitao; Wang, Minhui; Li, Xinna; Walls, Chad D; Gupta, Dipika; Dziarski, Roman

    2005-08-31

    N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidase (NAMLAA) hydrolyzes bacterial peptidoglycan and is present in human serum. A peptidoglycan-recognition protein 2 (PGLYRP2) is expressed in human liver and has N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidase activity. Here, we determined the amino acid sequences of human serum NAMLAA and liver PGLYRP2 and tested the hypothesis that serum NAMLAA and PGLYRP2 are the same protein. Liver PGLYRP2 and serum NAMLAA had the same mass determined by mass spectrometry and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and both proteins and recombinant PGLYRP2 reacted with polyclonal anti-NAMLAA and anti-PGLYRP2 antibodies, and with monoclonal anti-NAMLAA antibodies. Digestion of serum NAMLAA with trypsin, chymotrypsin, or trypsin plus V8 protease, or with CNBr yielded, respectively, 37, 40, and 3 overlapping peptides that matched 100% and covered 81% of the deduced amino acid sequence of mature PGLYRP2. These peptides overlapped all exon-intron junctions indicating no alternative splice forms. Digestion of liver PGLYRP2 with trypsin yielded 23 peptides that matched 100% and covered 44% of the deduced amino acid sequence of mature PGLYRP2. Serum NAMLAA had a C398-C404 disulfide, partial phosphorylation of S218, and deamidation of N253 and N301. These results indicate that serum NAMLAA and liver PGLYRP2 are the same protein encoded by the pglyrp2 gene. PMID:16054449

  3. Liver function tests

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Tierno P, Fenelus M, Bowne WB, Bluth MH. Evaluation of liver function. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap ...

  4. Drug-induced liver injury in hospitalized patients with notably elevated alanine aminotransferase

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hui-Min; Chen, Yan; Xu, Jie; Zhou, Quan

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To identify the proportion, causes and the nature of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in patients with notably elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT). METHODS: All the inpatients with ALT levels above 10 times upper limit of normal range (ULN) were retrospectively identified from a computerized clinical laboratory database at our hospital covering a 12-mo period. Relevant clinical information was obtained from medical records. Alternative causes of ALT elevations were examined for each patient, including biliary abnormality, viral hepatitis, hemodynamic injury, malignancy, DILI or undetermined and other causes. All suspected DILI cases were causality assessed using the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale, and only the cases classified as highly probable, probable, or possible were diagnosed as DILI. Comments related to the diagnosis of DILI in the medical record and in the discharge letter for each case were also examined to evaluate DILI detection by the treating doctors. RESULTS: A total of 129 cases with ALT > 10 ULN were identified. Hemodynamic injury (n = 46, 35.7%), DILI (n = 25, 19.4%) and malignancy (n = 21, 16.3%) were the top three causes of liver injury. Peak ALT values were lower in DILI patients than in patients with hemodynamic injury (14.5 ± 5.6 ULN vs 32.5 ± 30.7 ULN, P = 0.001). Among DILI patients, one (4%) case was classified as definite, 19 (76%) cases were classified as probable and 5 (20%) as possible according to the CIOMS scale. A hepatocellular pattern was observed in 23 (92%) cases and mixed in 2 (8%). The extent of severity of liver injury was mild in 21 (84%) patients and moderate in 4 (16%). Before discharge, 10 (40%) patients were recovered and the other 15 (60%) were improved. The improved patients tended to have a higher peak ALT (808 ± 348 U/L vs 623 ± 118 U/L, P = 0.016) and shorter treatment duration before discharge (8 ± 6 d vs 28 ± 12 d, P = 0.008) compared with the recovered patients. Twenty-two drugs and 6 herbs were found associated with DILI. Antibacterials were the most common agents causing DILI in 8 (32%) cases, followed by glucocorticoids in 6 (24%) cases. Twenty-four (96%) cases received treatment of DILI with at least one adjunctive drug. Agents for treatment of DILI included anti-inflammatory drugs (e.g., glycyrrhizinate), antioxidants (e.g., glutathione, ademetionine 1,4-butanedisulfonate and tiopronin), polyene phosphatidyl choline and herbal extracts (e.g., protoporphyrin disodium and silymarin). Diagnosis of DILI was not mentioned in the discharge letter in 60% of the cases. Relative to prevalent cases and cases from wards of internal medicine, incident cases and cases from surgical wards had a higher risk of missed diagnosis in discharge letter [odds ratio (OR) 32.7, 95%CI (2.8-374.1), and OR 58.5, 95%CI (4.6-746.6), respectively]. CONCLUSION: DILI is mostly caused by use of antibacterials and glucocorticoids, and constitutes about one fifth of hospitalized patients with ALT > 10 ULN. DILI is underdiagnosed frequently. PMID:23139615

  5. Studies on a unique organelle localization of a liver enzyme, serine:pyruvate (or alanine:glyoxylate) aminotransferase

    PubMed Central

    ICHIYAMA, Arata

    2011-01-01

    Serine:pyruvate (or alanine:glyoxylate) aminotransferase (SPT or AGT) in the liver is unique in that its subcellular distribution is entirely peroxisomal in man and herbivores, and largely mitochondrial in carnivores. In rats, this enzyme is located in both mitochondria and peroxisomes and only the mitochondrial activity is markedly induced by glucagon. The mechanism of the species-specific dual organelle localization is either transcription of the gene from two different start sites or loss of upstream translation initiation ATG codon by mutations. In herbivores, peroxisomal localization of SPT appears to be indispensable to prevent excessive oxalate production by removing glyoxylate, an immediate precursor of oxalate, formed from glycolate in this organelle. In carnivores, its mitochondrial localization appears to be needed to metabolize glyoxylate formed from L-hydroxyproline in mitochondria. In addition, SPT contributes substantially to gluconeogenesis from serine in rabbit, human and dog livers, irrespective of its mitochondrial or peroxisomal localization. PMID:21558762

  6. Histologic Abnormalities in Children with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Normal or Mildly Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase Levels

    PubMed Central

    Molleston, Jean P; Schwimmer, Jeffrey B; Yates, Katherine P; Murray, Karen F; Cummings, Oscar W; Lavine, Joel E.; Brunt, Elizabeth M; Scheimann, Ann O; Unalp-Arida, Aynur

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the histological spectrum of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children with normal, mildly elevated (26–50 U/L boys, 23–44 U/L girls), or elevated (> 50 boys, > 44 girls) serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. Study design The Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network (NASH CRN) enrolls children 5–18 years with NAFLD. We analyzed baseline clinical and histological data from 91 children with suspected NAFLD and normal or mildly elevated ALT and liver biopsy within 180 days of ALT, and compared them with 392 children with elevated ALT. Results Of 91 children, 17 (19%) had normal and 74 (81%) had mildly elevated ALT levels. Overall, 45% of biopsies had ? 33% steatosis, lobular inflammation grade was ? 2 in 22%, 81% had portal inflammation, 29% had ballooned hepatocytes, 35% had “suspicious/borderline” steatohepatitis, and 8% had definite NASH, 34% had NAFLD activity score (NAS) ? 4. Overall, 46% had fibrosis (38% mild/moderate and 8% bridging/cirrhosis). Marked steatosis (50% vs 24%) and fibrosis (54% vs 12%) were significantly more common in mildly elevated vs normal, with no difference in ballooning, inflammation, or NAS ? 4. Fibrosis stage 3/4 was seen in none of the children with normal ALT, and in 9% of the mildly elevated and 15% of the elevated. Conclusions Liver biopsies of children with NAFLD with normal or mildly elevated ALT levels show significant histologic abnormalities, including advanced fibrosis in children with mildly elevated ALT. ALT thus may underestimate liver injury in NAFLD. Appropriate ALT cut-off levels can help identify children at risk for more severe disease. PMID:24360992

  7. Studies on a unique organelle localization of a liver enzyme, serine:pyruvate (or alanine:glyoxylate) aminotransferase.

    PubMed

    Ichiyama, Arata

    2011-01-01

    Serine:pyruvate (or alanine:glyoxylate) aminotransferase (SPT or AGT) in the liver is unique in that its subcellular distribution is entirely peroxisomal in man and herbivores, and largely mitochondrial in carnivores. In rats, this enzyme is located in both mitochondria and peroxisomes and only the mitochondrial activity is markedly induced by glucagon. The mechanism of the species-specific dual organelle localization is either transcription of the gene from two different start sites or loss of upstream translation initiation ATG codon by mutations. In herbivores, peroxisomal localization of SPT appears to be indispensable to prevent excessive oxalate production by removing glyoxylate, an immediate precursor of oxalate, formed from glycolate in this organelle. In carnivores, its mitochondrial localization appears to be needed to metabolize glyoxylate formed from L-hydroxyproline in mitochondria. In addition, SPT contributes substantially to gluconeogenesis from serine in rabbit, human and dog livers, irrespective of its mitochondrial or peroxisomal localization. (Communicated by Shigetada Nakanishi, M.J.A.). PMID:21558762

  8. Functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes with uracil, guanine, thymine and L-alanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silambarasan, D.; Iyakutti, K.; Vasu, V.

    2014-06-01

    Experimental investigation of functionalization of oxidized single-walled carbon nanotubes (OSWCNTs) with three nucleic acid bases such as uracil, guanine, thymine and one amino acid, L-alanine is carried out. Initially, the SWCNTs are oxidized by acid treatment. Further, the oxidized SWCNTs are effectively functionalized with aforementioned biological compounds by ultrasonication. The diameter of OSWCNTs has increased after the adsorption of biological compounds. The cumulative ?-? stacking, hydrogen bond and polar interaction are the key factors to realize the adsorption. The amount of adsorption of each biological compound is estimated. The adsorption of guanine is more among all the four biological compounds.

  9. ?-alanine supplementation improves tactical performance but not cognitive function in combat soldiers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are no known studies that have examined ?-alanine supplementation in military personnel. Considering the physiological and potential neurological effects that have been reported during sustained military operations, it appears that ?-alanine supplementation may have a potential benefit in maintaining physical and cognitive performance during high-intensity military activity under stressful conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 28 days of ?-alanine ingestion in military personnel while fatigued on physical and cognitive performance. Methods Twenty soldiers (20.1?±?0.9 years) from an elite combat unit were randomly assigned to either a ?-alanine (BA) or placebo (PL) group. Soldiers were involved in advanced military training, including combat skill development, navigational training, self-defense/hand-to-hand combat and conditioning. All participants performed a 4-km run, 5-countermovement jumps using a linear position transducer, 120-m sprint, a 10-shot shooting protocol with assault rifle, including overcoming a misfire, and a 2-min serial subtraction test to assess cognitive function before (Pre) and after (Post) 28 days of supplementation. Results The training routine resulted in significant increases in 4-km run time for both groups, but no between group differences were seen (p?=?0.597). Peak jump power at Post was greater for BA than PL (p?=?0.034), while mean jump power for BA at Post was 10.2% greater (p?=?0.139) than PL. BA had a significantly greater (p?=?0.012) number of shots on target at Post (8.2?±?1.0) than PL (6.5?±?2.1), and their target engagement speed at Post was also significantly faster (p?=?0.039). No difference in serial subtraction performance was seen between the groups (p?=?0.844). Conclusion Results of this study indicate that 4-weeks of ?-alanine ingestion in young, healthy soldiers did not impact cognitive performance, but did enhance power performance, marksmanship and target engagement speed from pre-ingestion levels. PMID:24716994

  10. Liver function impairment in liver transplantation and after extended hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Serenari, Matteo; Cescon, Matteo; Cucchetti, Alessandro; Pinna, Antonio Daniele

    2013-01-01

    Extended hepatectomy, or liver transplantation of reduced-size graft, can lead to a pattern of clinical manifestations, namely “post-hepatectomy liver failure” and “small-for-size syndrome” respectively, that can range from mild cholestasis to irreversible organ non-function and death of the patient. Many mechanisms are involved in their occurrence but in the recent past, high portal blood flow through a relatively small liver vascular bed has taken a central role. Therefore, several techniques of inflow modulation have been attempted in cases of portal hyperperfusion first in liver transplantation, such as portocaval shunt, mesocaval shunt, splenorenal shunt, splenectomy or ligation of the splenic artery. However, high portal flow is not the only factor responsible, and before major liver resections, preoperative assessment of the residual liver function is necessary. Techniques such as portal vein embolization or portal vein ligation can be adopted to increase the future liver volume, preventing post-hepatectomy liver failure. More recently, a new surgical procedure, that combines in situ splitting of the liver and portal vein ligation, has gradually come to light, inducing remarkable hypertrophy of the healthy liver in just a few days. Further studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis and overcome one of the biggest issues in the field of liver surgery. PMID:24307786

  11. Molecular Structure of Alanine

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-08-20

    Alanine is a non-essential amino acid whose main function seems to be the metabolism of tryptophan and pyridoxine. Alanine is located in prostate fluid, and may play an important role in prostate health. Good sources of alanine are meat, poultry, eggs, dairy products, and fish. High levels of alanine along with low levels of tyrosine and phenylalanine have been associated with the Epstein-Barr virus and chronic fatigue syndrome. Low levels have been found in patients with hypoglycemia, diabetes, and alcohol induced hepatitis.

  12. An Archaeal Glutamate Decarboxylase Homolog Functions as an Aspartate Decarboxylase and Is Involved in ?-Alanine and Coenzyme A Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Hiroya; Yokooji, Yuusuke; Ishibashi, Takuya; Imanaka, Tadayuki

    2014-01-01

    ?-Alanine is a precursor for coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis and is a substrate for the bacterial/eukaryotic pantothenate synthetase and archaeal phosphopantothenate synthetase. ?-Alanine is synthesized through various enzymes/pathways in bacteria and eukaryotes, including the direct decarboxylation of Asp by aspartate 1-decarboxylase (ADC), the degradation of pyrimidine, or the oxidation of polyamines. However, in most archaea, homologs of these enzymes are not present; thus, the mechanisms of ?-alanine biosynthesis remain unclear. Here, we performed a biochemical and genetic study on a glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) homolog encoded by TK1814 from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis. GADs are distributed in all three domains of life, generally catalyzing the decarboxylation of Glu to ?-aminobutyrate (GABA). The recombinant TK1814 protein displayed not only GAD activity but also ADC activity using pyridoxal 5?-phosphate as a cofactor. Kinetic studies revealed that the TK1814 protein prefers Asp as its substrate rather than Glu, with nearly a 20-fold difference in catalytic efficiency. Gene disruption of TK1814 resulted in a strain that could not grow in standard medium. Addition of ?-alanine, 4?-phosphopantothenate, or CoA complemented the growth defect, whereas GABA could not. Our results provide genetic evidence that TK1814 functions as an ADC in T. kodakarensis, providing the ?-alanine necessary for CoA biosynthesis. The results also suggest that the GAD activity of TK1814 is not necessary for growth, at least under the conditions applied in this study. TK1814 homologs are distributed in a wide range of archaea and may be responsible for ?-alanine biosynthesis in these organisms. PMID:24415726

  13. Effects of Beta-Alanine Supplementation on Brain Homocarnosine/Carnosine Signal and Cognitive Function: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Hobson, Ruth M; Artioli, Guilherme G.; Otaduy, Maria C.; Roschel, Hamilton; Robertson, Jacques; Martin, Daniel; S. Painelli, Vitor; Harris, Roger C.; Gualano, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Two independent studies were conducted to examine the effects of 28 d of beta-alanine supplementation at 6.4 g d-1 on brain homocarnosine/carnosine signal in omnivores and vegetarians (Study 1) and on cognitive function before and after exercise in trained cyclists (Study 2). Methods In Study 1, seven healthy vegetarians (3 women and 4 men) and seven age- and sex-matched omnivores undertook a brain 1H-MRS exam at baseline and after beta-alanine supplementation. In study 2, nineteen trained male cyclists completed four 20-Km cycling time trials (two pre supplementation and two post supplementation), with a battery of cognitive function tests (Stroop test, Sternberg paradigm, Rapid Visual Information Processing task) being performed before and after exercise on each occasion. Results In Study 1, there were no within-group effects of beta-alanine supplementation on brain homocarnosine/carnosine signal in either vegetarians (p = 0.99) or omnivores (p = 0.27); nor was there any effect when data from both groups were pooled (p = 0.19). Similarly, there was no group by time interaction for brain homocarnosine/carnosine signal (p = 0.27). In study 2, exercise improved cognitive function across all tests (P<0.05), although there was no effect (P>0.05) of beta-alanine supplementation on response times or accuracy for the Stroop test, Sternberg paradigm or RVIP task at rest or after exercise. Conclusion 28 d of beta-alanine supplementation at 6.4g d-1 appeared not to influence brain homocarnosine/carnosine signal in either omnivores or vegetarians; nor did it influence cognitive function before or after exercise in trained cyclists. PMID:25875297

  14. [Nuclear medicine for evaluation of liver functions].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K

    1994-05-01

    The clinical usefulness of colloid liver scintigraphy to detect space occupying lesions in the liver has been reduced by X-ray CT and ultrasonography. However, scintigraphic examinations have potentials for characteristic diagnosis of liver tumors, such as 99mTc RBC SPECT for hepatic hemangioma, 99mTc PMT for positive imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma and its extrahepatic metastasis, and radioimmunoscintigraphy for metastatic tumors. Moreover, prediction of the prognosis and monitoring therapeutic effect to liver cancer can be made by the use of nuclear medicine techniques. Recently, 99mTc galactosyl serum albumin (GSA), a newly developed radiotracer to evaluate hepatocyte function, has become commercially available. Quantitative parameters of liver functions can be obtained by analysis of time-activity curve in blood and liver after 99mTc-GSA administration. In several cases, 99mTc-GSA study showed intrahepatic unevenness of function, which could not be depicted by other imaging examinations. Positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy glucose (FDG) is useful to detect malignant tumors in the liver. Since PET can provide absolutely quantitative data in better resolution, it is expected that regional true metabolic functions in the liver may be able to be quantitatively evaluated with PET in near future. PMID:8028225

  15. Metabolism of 7-ethyoxycoumarin by Isolated Perfused Rainbow Trout Livers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Isolated trout livers were perfused using methods designed to preserve tissue viability and function. Liver performance was evaluated by measuring O2 consumption, vascular resistance, K+ leakage, glucose flux, lactate flux, alanine aminotransferase leakage, and metabolic clearanc...

  16. Assessment of adrenal function in liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kharb, Sandeep; Garg, M. K.; Puri, Pankaj; Nandi, Bhaskar; Brar, Karninder S.; Gundgurthi, Abhay; Pandit, Aditi

    2013-01-01

    Background: In recent times, there are reports of adrenal dysfunction in whole spectrum of liver disease. Adrenal insufficiency (AI) has been shown to correlate with progression of liver disease. Hence this study was conducted to assess adrenal function in subjects with acute liver disease (ALD), chronic liver disease (CLD) and post liver transplantation (LT). Material and Methods: This study included 25 healthy controls, 25 patients of ALD, 20 subjects of CLD with Child-Pugh stage A (CLD-1) and 30 with Child-Pugh stage B or C (CLD-2), and 10 subjects with LT. All subjects were assessed clinically, biochemically and for adrenal functions. Results: AI was present in 9 (34.6%) patients with ALD, 20 (40%) patients with CLD and 4 (40%) in subjects with LT. AI was more common in CLD-2 (18 patients – 60%) than CLD-1 (2 patients – 10%). All patients with chronic liver disease had significantly lower basal cortisol (8.8±4.8, P=0.01), stimulated cortisol (18.2±6.3, P <0.00001) and incremental cortisol (9.4±4.6, P <0.00001) as compared to controls. There was increase in percentage of subjects with adrenal dysfunction with progression of liver disease as assessed by Child-Pugh staging. AI was predicted by lower levels of serum protein, serum albumin, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol and higher levels of serum bilirubin and INR. Adrenal functions showed recovery following liver transplantation. Conclusions: AI forms important part of spectrum of acute and chronic liver disease. Deterioration of synthetic functions of liver disease predicts presence of AI, and these patients should be evaluated for adrenal dysfunction periodically. PMID:23869304

  17. Ste20Related Proline\\/Alanine-Rich Kinase (SPAK) Regulated Transcriptionally by Hyperosmolarity Is Involved in Intestinal Barrier Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yutao Yan; Guillaume Dalmasso; Hang Thi Thu Nguyen; Tracy S. Obertone; Shanthi V. Sitaraman; Didier Merlin; Stefan Bereswill

    2009-01-01

    The Ste20-related protein proline\\/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) plays important roles in cellular functions such as cell differentiation and regulation of chloride transport, but its roles in pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation remain largely unknown. Here we report significantly increased SPAK expression levels in hyperosmotic environments, such as mucosal biopsy samples from patients with Crohn's disease, as well as colon tissues of C57BL\\/6

  18. Multiphoton microscopy in defining liver function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorling, Camilla A.; Crawford, Darrell; Burczynski, Frank J.; Liu, Xin; Liau, Ian; Roberts, Michael S.

    2014-09-01

    Multiphoton microscopy is the preferred method when in vivo deep-tissue imaging is required. This review presents the application of multiphoton microscopy in defining liver function. In particular, multiphoton microscopy is useful in imaging intracellular events, such as mitochondrial depolarization and cellular metabolism in terms of NAD(P)H changes with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. The morphology of hepatocytes can be visualized without exogenously administered fluorescent dyes by utilizing their autofluorescence and second harmonic generation signal of collagen, which is useful in diagnosing liver disease. More specific imaging, such as studying drug transport in normal and diseased livers are achievable, but require exogenously administered fluorescent dyes. If these techniques can be translated into clinical use to assess liver function, it would greatly improve early diagnosis of organ viability, fibrosis, and cancer.

  19. Occupational lead exposure effect on liver functions and biochemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Can, S; Ba?ci, C; Ozaslan, M; Bozkurt, Ai; Cengiz, B; Cakmak, E A; Kocaba?, R; Karada?, E; Tarakçio?lu, M

    2008-12-01

    The effect of occupational lead exposure on the liver function and on the blood biochemical parameters among the battery workers and the muffler repair workers was studied. The study included 22 battery and 38 muffler repair workers. Whole blood lead levels were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometers. Total protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, triglyceride, total bilirubin, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were determined in the serum by spectrophotometry. The blood lead levels of the battery workers, muffler repair workers, and the controls were found to be 36.83 +/- 8.13 microg/dL, 26.99 +/- 9.42 microg/dL, and 14.81 +/- 3.01 microg/dL, respectively. Blood lead levels of the workers were significantly higher than those of controls (p < 0.001). The lead level of the battery workers was also significantly higher than that of muffler repair workers (p < 0.001). Although, statisticly significant, higher blood lead levels are not related to toxicity for battery and muffler repair workers. Total protein, globulin, cholesterol, LDH, and ALP levels were within normal levels, however, they were slightly higher than the control levels. Increased LDH among the workers seems to be related rather to other causes than to the liver injury. PMID:19009914

  20. Increasing risk of diabetes mellitus according to liver function alterations in electronic workers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyoungho; Han, Joohee; Kim, Soo-Geun

    2014-01-01

    Aims/Introduction We sought to determine the association between change in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and levels of liver enzymes, such as aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and gamma-glutamyltransferase, from health examinations. Materials and Methods A total of 9,393 health screen examinees with no evidence of viral hepatitis, liver diseases, abnormal liver function and diabetes in their past disease history were enrolled in the present study. All the participants underwent three health examinations. Group 1 and 4 were stationary groups of those with normal liver enzyme levels in the first and second health examinations (G1), and abnormal liver enzyme levels in the first and second health check-up (G4). Groups 2 and 3 were altered groups of those with abnormal liver enzyme levels in the first health examination, which became normal in the second health examination (G2), and from a normal liver enzymes level to an abnormal liver enzymes level (G3). Results FPG levels were elevated in male participants (P < 0.01), and were related to old age (P < 0.01), drinking (P < 0.01), smoking (P < 0.01) and so on. There was a strong relationship between FPG levels in the last health examination and altered liver function enzyme levels from the first health examination to the second check-up. In other words, group 4 had the highest level of FPG compared with the other groups (G1 < G2 < G3). Conclusions An association was observed between FPG levels and abnormal liver function in manufacturing workers. Abnormal liver function can be closely associated with the development of diabetes. PMID:25422767

  1. Peripheral nerve function in chronic liver disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. N. Seneviratne; O. A. Peiris

    1970-01-01

    Peripheral nerve function has been studied in 50 patients with chronic liver disease. An increase in the latency or a reduction in the response amplitude of the evoked sensory potential of the median nerve was detected in 34 of the 50 subjects. This was in striking contrast to the paucity of neurological signs and symptoms suggestive of peripheral nerve damage

  2. Neurohumoral Control of Liver Functions during Aging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenichi Kitani

    1988-01-01

    A profound influence of steroidal (and possibly growth) hormone change during aging on the P-450 functions has been found in male rats. Direct and rapid autonomic nervous controls on glycogen metabolism in the liver is also greatly affected by aging. However, neither the responses of isolated rat hepatocyte preparations to adrenergic agonists nor the bindings of hepatocyte surface membrane preparations

  3. Functional validation of GWAS gene candidates for abnormal liver function during zebrafish liver development

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Leah Y.; Fox, Caroline S.; North, Trista E.; Goessling, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed numerous associations between many phenotypes and gene candidates. Frequently, however, further elucidation of gene function has not been achieved. A recent GWAS identified 69 candidate genes associated with elevated liver enzyme concentrations, which are clinical markers of liver disease. To investigate the role of these genes in liver homeostasis, we narrowed down this list to 12 genes based on zebrafish orthology, zebrafish liver expression and disease correlation. To assess the function of gene candidates during liver development, we assayed hepatic progenitors at 48 hours post fertilization (hpf) and hepatocytes at 72 hpf using in situ hybridization following morpholino knockdown in zebrafish embryos. Knockdown of three genes (pnpla3, pklr and mapk10) decreased expression of hepatic progenitor cells, whereas knockdown of eight genes (pnpla3, cpn1, trib1, fads2, slc2a2, pklr, mapk10 and samm50) decreased cell-specific hepatocyte expression. We then induced liver injury in zebrafish embryos using acetaminophen exposure and observed changes in liver toxicity incidence in morphants. Prioritization of GWAS candidates and morpholino knockdown expedites the study of newly identified genes impacting liver development and represents a feasible method for initial assessment of candidate genes to instruct further mechanistic analyses. Our analysis can be extended to GWAS for additional disease-associated phenotypes. PMID:23813869

  4. Functional validation of GWAS gene candidates for abnormal liver function during zebrafish liver development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Leah Y; Fox, Caroline S; North, Trista E; Goessling, Wolfram

    2013-09-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed numerous associations between many phenotypes and gene candidates. Frequently, however, further elucidation of gene function has not been achieved. A recent GWAS identified 69 candidate genes associated with elevated liver enzyme concentrations, which are clinical markers of liver disease. To investigate the role of these genes in liver homeostasis, we narrowed down this list to 12 genes based on zebrafish orthology, zebrafish liver expression and disease correlation. To assess the function of gene candidates during liver development, we assayed hepatic progenitors at 48 hours post fertilization (hpf) and hepatocytes at 72 hpf using in situ hybridization following morpholino knockdown in zebrafish embryos. Knockdown of three genes (pnpla3, pklr and mapk10) decreased expression of hepatic progenitor cells, whereas knockdown of eight genes (pnpla3, cpn1, trib1, fads2, slc2a2, pklr, mapk10 and samm50) decreased cell-specific hepatocyte expression. We then induced liver injury in zebrafish embryos using acetaminophen exposure and observed changes in liver toxicity incidence in morphants. Prioritization of GWAS candidates and morpholino knockdown expedites the study of newly identified genes impacting liver development and represents a feasible method for initial assessment of candidate genes to instruct further mechanistic analyses. Our analysis can be extended to GWAS for additional disease-associated phenotypes. PMID:23813869

  5. Combinatorial libraries of alanine-substituted proteins can be used to rapidly identify residues important for protein function,

    E-print Network

    Weiss, Gregory A.

    302 Combinatorial libraries of alanine-substituted proteins can be used to rapidly identify method of shotgun scanning uses phage-displayed libraries of alanine- substituted proteins for highGH-binding protein Introduction Combinatorial protein libraries offer powerful tools to dissect biological phenomena

  6. Liver function alterations after laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy for gastric cancer and its clinical significance

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Gui-Ae; Cho, Gyu-Seok; Shin, Eung-Jin; Lee, Moon-Soo; Kim, Hyung-Chul; Song, Ok-Pyung

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the factors associated with liver function alterations after laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy (LAG) for gastric cancer. METHODS: We collected the data of gastrectomy patients with gastric cancer and divided them into 2 groups: open gastrectomy (OG) and LAG. We also collected the data of patients with colon cancer to evaluate the effect of liver manipulations during surgery on liver function alterations. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin, and alkaline phosphatase were measured on the preoperative day and postoperative day 1 (POD1), POD3, POD5, and POD7. RESULTS: No changes in liver function were observed after the operation in patients with colon cancer (n = 121). However, in gastric cancer patients (n = 215), AST and ALT levels increased until POD5 compared to those in colon cancer patients and these findings were observed both in the LAG and OG without a significant difference except at POD1. The mean hepatic enzyme levels at POD1 in the LAG group were significantly higher than those in the OG group (P = 0.047 for AST and P = 0.039 for ALT). The factors associated with elevated ALT on POD1 in patients with gastric cancer were body mass index (P < 0.001), operation time (P < 0.001), intraoperative hepatic injury (P = 0.048), and ligation of an aberrant left hepatic artery (P = 0.052) but not type of operation (OG vs LAG, P = 0.094). CONCLUSION: We conclude that the liver function alteration after LAG may have been caused by direct liver manipulation or aberrant hepatic artery ligation rather than the CO2 pneumoperitoneum. PMID:21253398

  7. Structural and Functional Characterization of a Multifunctional Alanine-Rich Peptide Analogue from Pleuronectes americanus

    PubMed Central

    Migliolo, Ludovico; Silva, Osmar N.; Silva, Paula A.; Costa, Maysa P.; Costa, Carolina R.; Nolasco, Diego O.; Barbosa, João A. R. G.; Silva, Maria R. R.; Bemquerer, Marcelo P.; Lima, Lidia M. P.; Romanos, Maria T. V.; Freitas, Sonia M.; Magalhães, Beatriz S.; Franco, Octavio L.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, defense peptides that are able to act against several targets have been characterized. The present work focuses on structural and functional evaluation of the peptide analogue Pa-MAP, previously isolated as an antifreeze peptide from Pleuronectes americanus. Pa-MAP showed activities against different targets such as tumoral cells in culture (CACO-2, MCF-7 and HCT-116), bacteria (Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923), viruses (HSV-1 and HSV-2) and fungi (Candida parapsilosis ATCC 22019, Trichophyton mentagrophytes (28d&E) and T. rubrum (327)). This peptide did not show toxicity against mammalian cells such as erythrocytes, Vero and RAW 264.7 cells. Molecular mechanism of action was related to hydrophobic residues, since only the terminal amino group is charged at pH 7 as confirmed by potentiometric titration. In order to shed some light on its structure-function relations, in vitro and in silico assays were carried out using circular dichroism and molecular dynamics. Furthermore, Pa-MAP showed partial unfolding of the peptide changes in a wide pH (3 to 11) and temperature (25 to 95°C) ranges, although it might not reach complete unfolding at 95°C, suggesting a high conformational stability. This peptide also showed a conformational transition with a partial ?-helical fold in water and a full ?-helical core in SDS and TFE environments. These results were corroborated by spectral data measured at 222 nm and by 50 ns dynamic simulation. In conclusion, data reported here show that Pa-MAP is a potential candidate for drug design against pathogenic microorganisms due to its structural stability and wide activity against a range of targets. PMID:23056574

  8. Influence of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) use by postmenopausal women on total hepatic perfusion and liver functions.

    PubMed

    Nasr, Ahmed; Nafeh, Hanan

    2009-11-01

    In this prospective longitudinal clinical trial, 87 postmenopausal women receiving for 12 consecutive months a daily dose of 40 mg of a dry extract preparation of Cimicifuga racemosa (Klimadynon) for relief of vasomotor symptoms were followed up by evaluation of total hepatic blood flow, assessed by color Doppler ultrasound, as well as prothrombin time and concentration, serum albumin, bilirubin, gamma-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase. Because no significant changes in total hepatic blood flow or any of the liver functions tested were reported, we concluded that use of C. racemosa for 1 year by healthy postmenopausal women without evidence of liver disease does not seem to influence the liver. PMID:19539907

  9. Influence of Prescribed Herbal and Western Medicine on Patients with Abnormal Liver Function Tests: A Retrospective Quasi-Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ah-Ram; Yim, Je-Min; Kim, Won-Il

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and the efficacy of Korean herbal, western and combination medicine use in patients with abnormal liver function tests. Methods: We investigated nerve disease patients with abnormal liver function tests who were treated with Korean herbal, western and combination medicine at Dong-Eui University Oriental Hospital from January 2011 to August 2011. We compared aspartic aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin (T-bil) levels before and after taking medicine and excluded patients who had liver-related disease when admitted. Results: AST and ALT were decreased significantly in patients who had taken herbal, western medicine. AST, ALT and ALP were decreased significantly in patients who had taken combination medicine. Compare to herbal medicine, AST, ALT and ALP were decreased significantly in patients who had taken western medicine, and ALT and ALP were decreased significantly in patients who had taken combination medicine. There were no significant differences between western and combination medicine. Conclusions: This study suggests that prescribed Korean herbal medicine, at least, does not injure liver function for patients’, moreover, it was shown to be effective in patients with abnormal liver function tests.

  10. Evaluation of Alanine Transaminase and Hepatitis B Virus DNA to Predict Liver Cirrhosis in Hepatitis B e Antigen-Negative Chronic Hepatitis B Using Transient Elastography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grace Lai-Hung Wong; Vincent Wai-Sun Wong; Paul Cheung-Lung Choi; Anthony Wing-Hung Chan; Angel Mei-Ling Chim; Karen Ka-Lam Yiu; Hoi-Yun Chan; Francis Ka-Leung Chan; Joseph Jao-Yao Sung; Henry Lik-Yuen Chan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS:We aimed to investigate the relationship between serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels and the risk of cirrhosis in a large cohort of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients based on transient elastography.METHODS:We prospectively studied treatment-naive HBeAg-negative patients recruited based on territory-wide referrals. We defined possible cirrhosis and probable

  11. Liver Organogenesis Promoted by Endothelial Cells Prior to Vascular Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kunio Matsumoto; Hideyuki Yoshitomi; Janet Rossant; Kenneth S. Zaret

    2001-01-01

    The embryonic role of endothelial cells and nascent vessels in promoting organogenesis, prior to vascular function, is unclear. We find that early endothelial cells in mouse embryos surround newly specified hepatic endoderm and delimit the mesenchymal domain into which the liver bud grows. In flk-1 mutant embryos, which lack endothelial cells, hepatic specification occurs, but liver morphogenesis fails prior to

  12. Liver Function Test Abnormalities in Users of Aqueous Kava Extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan R. Clough; Ross S. Bailie; Bart Currie

    2003-01-01

    Introduction. Hepatic toxicity from manufactured herbal remedies that contain kava lactones has been reported in Europe, North America, and Australia. There is no evidence for serious liver damage in kava-using populations in Pacific Island societies or in Indigenous Australians who have used aqueous kava extracts. This article presents evidence that liver function changes in users of aqueous kava extracts appear

  13. Evaluation of Pistacia lentiscus fatty oil effects on glycemic index, liver functions and kidney functions of New Zealand rabbits.

    PubMed

    Djerrou, Zouhir; Hamdi-Pacha, Y; Belkhiri, A M; Djaalab, H; Riachi, F; Serakta, M; Boukeloua, A; Maameri, Z

    2011-01-01

    Pistacia lentiscus fatty oil (PLFO) is a well known natural remedy in eastern Algeria folk medicine. It is widely used in the treatment of respiratory disorders and dermal burns. The present study has been carried out to investigate effects of this oil on fasting glucose and some functional parameters of the liver and kidney in white male New Zealand rabbits (Initial mean weight 1.95 Kg). PLFO was applied to tested rabbits (PLFO group) via rectal route, once daily 5-day per week, for six consecutive weeks at the dose of 1 ml/Kg body weight. The same number of animals (n=6) was not treated and served as control (CRL group). The results showed that PLFO was tolerated by rectal route. No significant differences were observed in body weights of the two groups. Biochemical analysis showed that aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were significantly decreased in blood plasma at (P< 0.05) and (P< 0.01) respectively in PLFO group (Mann-Whitney test). On the other hand, the fasting glucose level (GLU) was significantly increased (Mann-Whitney test, P< 0.05), while the rest of the tested parameters (Albumin, total proteins, creatinine, urea) was not significantly affected. However, these variations have not biologic signification toxicity. The study concludes that PLFO is tolerable via rectal route; it is safe with no adverse effect on liver functions and renal functions with possible anti-glycogenesis activity. PMID:22754077

  14. Assessment of canine liver function by metabolism of lidocaine to monoethylglycinexylidide: a preclinical study

    E-print Network

    Fradkin, Jonathan Matthew

    2000-01-01

    all the members of my committee and the other faculty members who supported me during my training programs. l would also like to thank the graduate students and house oAicers of the Departments of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, and Small... the response to therapy. ROUTINE TESTS EVALUATING THE LIVER Most routine clinical laboratories include measuremcnt of serum liver enzymes such as alanine transferase (ALT), aspariate transferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase...

  15. Oral health and liver function in children and adolescents with cirrhosis of the liver

    PubMed Central

    Kowalczyk, Wojciech; Krasuska-S?awi?ska, Ewa; D?dalski, Maciej; Kostewicz, Krzysztof; Paw?owska, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Introduction People with cirrhosis of the liver are predisposed to developing oral lesions. The occurrence and type of lesion depend on the degree of liver function impairment and its type, and on the severity and duration of systemic diseases. In children, the age at which the early symptoms of liver disease are experienced is also of great importance. Aim To assess the prevalence of oral pathological lesions in children and adolescents with cirrhosis of the liver, and their correlation with the degree of liver function impairment. Material and methods Clinical and laboratory results of liver function tests (Model of End-Stage Liver Disease/Score of Paediatric End-Stage Liver Disease, Child-Pugh score) were assessed in 35 patients with cirrhosis of the liver. The average age of the patients was 10.7 ±4.74 years. All patients also had their oral cavities examined (mucosa, gingiva – GI, hygiene – PLI, teeth – dmft/dmfs and DMFt/DMFs, DDE Index and Candida spp. presence) and this was then correlated to the degree of liver function impairment. Results According to the Child-Pugh scale, 16 patients were class A and 19 were class B/C. Jaundice during the first 3 years of life occurred in 9 patients. Mucosal lesions were found in 26 out of 35 patients (74%), including 10 out of 16 (63%) in Child-Pugh group A, and 16 out of 19 (84%) in group B/C (NS – non significant). Oral candidiasis occurred more often in class B/C than in class A (47.4% vs. 12.5%; p < 0.05). The GI index (Gingival Index) and PLI index (Dental Plaque Index) did not differ between the groups (A vs. B/C) but correlated in the whole group (R = 0.58) as well as in subgroups A (R = 0.65) and B/C (R = 0.59). Dmft/dmfs and DMFt/DMFs indexes did not differ between groups A and B/C, and neither did the DMFt/DMFs in patients with/without enamel defects. Conclusions Oral mucosal lesions are commonly found in children with cirrhosis of the liver. Advanced liver disease promotes oral candidiasis. Severity of gingivitis correlates with the presence of dental plaque. PMID:24868295

  16. Longitudinal Study on Liver Functions in Patients with Thalassemia Major before and after Deferasirox (DFX) Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Ashraf; Yassin, Mohamed; Al Yafei, Fawzia; Al-Naimi, Lolwa; Almarri, Noora; Sabt, Aml; De Sanctis, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    By performing regular blood transfusion and iron chelation therapy, most patients with beta thalassemia major (BTM) now survive beyond the third decade of life. Liver disease is becoming an important cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Chronic hepatitis and/or severe iron overload are both important causes of liver pathology. Iron chelation with desferrioxamine (DFO) reduces excessive body iron, but its efficacy is limited by poor compliance and dose related toxicity. The recent use of Deferasirox ( DFX ), an oral single dose therapy, has improved the compliance to chelation. Aims To study the long-term liver functions in BMT patients, seronegative for liver infections before versus after DFX treatment in relation to ferritin level. Methods Only BTM patients with hepatitis negative screening (checked every year) and on treatment with DFO for at least five years and with DFX for four years were enrolled. Liver function tests including serum bilirubin, alanine transferase (ALT), aspartate transferase (AST), albumin, insulin-like growth factor – I (IGF-I) and serum ferritin concentrations were followed every six months in 40 patients with BTM. Results DFX treatment (20 mg/kg/day) significantly decreased serum ferritin level in patients with BTM; this was associated with a significant decrease in serum ALT, AST, ALP and increase in IGF-I concentrations. Albumin concentrations did not change after DFX treatment. ALT and AST levels were correlated significantly with serum ferritin concentrations ( r = 0.45 and 0.33 respectively, p < 0.05). IGF-I concentrations were correlated significantly with serum ALT (r= 0.26, p = 0.05) but not with AST, ALP, bilirubin or albumin levels. The negative correlation between serum ferritin concentrations and ALT suggests that the impairment of hepatic function negatively affect IGF-I synthesis in these patients due to iron toxicity, even in the absence of hepatitis. Conclusions Some impairment of liver function can occur in hepatitis negative thalassemic patients with iron overload. The use of DFX was associated with mild but significant reduction of ALT, AST and ALP and increase in IGF-I levels. The negative correlation between IGF-I and ALT concentrations suggest that preventing hepatic dysfunction may improve the growth potential in these patients. PMID:24803998

  17. Routine Testing of Liver Function Before and After Elective Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: Is It Necessary?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Liver function tests (LFTs) include alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and bilirubin. The role of routine testing before and after laparoscopic cholecystectomy was evaluated in this study. Patients and Methods: A total of 355 patients were retrospectively analyzed by examining the LFTs the day before, the day after, and 3 weeks after the surgery. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Student t test were performed to determine statistical significance. Results: Alterations in the serum AST, ALT, and GGT were seen on the first postoperative day. Minor changes were seen in bilirubin and ALP. An overall disturbance in the LFTs was seen in more than two-thirds of the cases. Repeat LFTs performed after 3 weeks on follow-up were found to be within normal limits. Conclusion: Mild-to-moderate elevation in preoperative LFTs may not be associated with any deleterious effect, and, in the absence of clinical indications, routine preoperative or postoperative liver function testing is unnecessary. PMID:21902946

  18. Insight into structure-function relationship in phenol-soluble modulins using an alanine screen of the phenol-soluble modulin (PSM) ?3 peptide

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Gordon Y. C.; Kretschmer, Dorothee; Queck, Shu Y.; Joo, Hwang-Soo; Wang, Rong; Duong, Anthony C.; Nguyen, Thuan H.; Bach, Thanh-Huy L.; Porter, Adeline R.; DeLeo, Frank R.; Peschel, Andreas; Otto, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) are a family of peptides with multiple functions in staphylococcal pathogenesis. To gain insight into the structural features affecting PSM functions, we analyzed an alanine substitution library of PSM?3, a strongly cytolytic and proinflammatory PSM of Staphylococcus aureus with a significant contribution to S. aureus virulence. Lysine residues were essential for both receptor-dependent proinflammatory and receptor-independent cytolytic activities. Both phenotypes also required additional structural features, with the C terminus being crucial for receptor activation. Biofilm formation was affected mostly by hydrophobic amino acid positions, suggesting that the capacity to disrupt hydrophobic interactions is responsible for the effect of PSMs on biofilm structure. Antimicrobial activity, absent from natural PSM?3, could be created by the exchange of large hydrophobic side chains, indicating that PSM?3 has evolved to exhibit cytolytic rather than antimicrobial activity. In addition to gaining insight into the structure-function relationship in PSMs, our study identifies nontoxic PSM?3 derivatives for active vaccination strategies and lays the foundation for future efforts aimed to understand the biological role of PSM recognition by innate host defense.—Cheung, G. Y., Kretschmer, D., Queck, S. Y., Joo, H.-S., Wang, R., Duong, A. C., Nguyen, T. H., Bach, T.-H., Porter, A. R., DeLeo, F. R., Peschel, A., Otto, M. Insight into structure-function relationship in phenol-soluble modulins using an alanine screen of the phenol-soluble modulin (PSM) ?3 peptide. PMID:24008753

  19. Hepatic Mitochondrial Function Analysis Using Needle Liver Biopsy Samples

    PubMed Central

    Hosking, Alexander W. G.; MacDonald, Julia R.; Bartlett, Adam S. J. R.; Hickey, Anthony J. R.

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds and Aim Current assessment of pre-operative liver function relies upon biochemical blood tests and histology but these only indirectly measure liver function. Mitochondrial function (MF) analysis allows direct measurement of cellular metabolic function and may provide an additional index of hepatic health. Conventional MF analysis requires substantial tissue samples (>100 mg) obtained at open surgery. Here we report a method to assess MF using <3 mg of tissue obtained by a Tru-cut® biopsy needle making it suitable for percutaneous application. Methods An 18G Bard® Max-core® biopsy instrument was used to collect samples. The optimal Tru-cut® sample weight, stability in ice-cold University of Wisconsin solution, reproducibility and protocol utility was initially evaluated in Wistar rat livers then confirmed in human samples. MF was measured in saponin-permeabilized samples using high-resolution respirometry. Results The average mass of a single rat and human liver Tru-cut® biopsy was 5.60±0.30 and 5.16±0.15 mg, respectively (mean; standard error of mean). Two milligram of sample was found the lowest feasible mass for the MF assay. Tissue MF declined after 1 hour of cold storage. Six replicate measurements within rats and humans (n?=?6 each) showed low coefficient of variation (<10%) in measurements of State-III respiration, electron transport chain (ETC) capacity and respiratory control ratio (RCR). Ischemic rat and human liver samples consistently showed lower State-III respiration, ETC capacity and RCR, compared to normal perfused liver samples. Conclusion Consistent measurement of liver MF and detection of derangement in a disease state was successfully demonstrated using less than half the tissue from a single Tru-cut® biopsy. Using this technique outpatient assessment of liver MF is now feasible, providing a new assay for the evaluation of hepatic function. PMID:24205366

  20. Functions of autophagy in normal and diseased liver

    PubMed Central

    Czaja, Mark J.; Ding, Wen-Xing; Donohue, Terrence M.; Friedman, Scott L.; Kim, Jae-Sung; Komatsu, Masaaki; Lemasters, John J.; Lemoine, Antoinette; Lin, Jiandie D.; Ou, Jing-hsiung James; Perlmutter, David H.; Randall, Glenn; Ray, Ratna B.; Tsung, Allan; Yin, Xiao-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy has emerged as a critical lysosomal pathway that maintains cell function and survival through the degradation of cellular components such as organelles and proteins. Investigations specifically employing the liver or hepatocytes as experimental models have contributed significantly to our current knowledge of autophagic regulation and function. The diverse cellular functions of autophagy, along with unique features of the liver and its principal cell type the hepatocyte, suggest that the liver is highly dependent on autophagy for both normal function and to prevent the development of disease states. However, instances have also been identified in which autophagy promotes pathological changes such as the development of hepatic fibrosis. Considerable evidence has accumulated that alterations in autophagy are an underlying mechanism of a number of common hepatic diseases including toxin-, drug- and ischemia/reperfusion-induced liver injury, fatty liver, viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. This review summarizes recent advances in understanding the roles that autophagy plays in normal hepatic physiology and pathophysiology with the intent of furthering the development of autophagy-based therapies for human liver diseases. PMID:23774882

  1. Protonation thermochemistry of ?-alanine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    In-Su Hahn; Chrys Wesdemiotis

    2003-01-01

    The extended kinetic method is employed to determine the proton affinity (PA) of ?-alanine and four other difunctional molecules that can develop intramolecular hydrogen bonds after protonation, including ?-alanine and three ?,?-diaminoalkanes. Proton-bound dimers of each of these molecules (AA) and reference bases of similar protonation entropy (Bi) are formed by fast atom bombardment ionization and the dissociation kinetics of

  2. Abnormal liver function induced by myofibroblastic sarcoma infiltrating the liver: A case report

    PubMed Central

    PAN, YE; WU, XIAOLU; LIU, JIAJUN; MUHEREMU, AIKEREMUJIANG

    2015-01-01

    Myofibroblastic sarcoma (MS) is a rare disease, which most frequently occurs in the head, neck and extremities. To the best of our knowledge, although a small number of studies have reported MS of the oral cavity, maxilla, tonsil, thyroid and tongue, MS of the liver and subsequent disabled liver function has not been previously reported. This study presents the case of a 38 year old female initially diagnosed and treated for a mass in the retroperitoneal region, who was subsequently diagnosed with MS of the liver three months following preliminary surgical treatment. The patient refused further treatment and was lost to follow-up three months after discharge from the hospital. Clinical, biochemical and imaging observations, as well as pathological manifestations of the patient in the present case are discussed with the aim of increasing the knowledge of MS of the liver. PMID:25621053

  3. Psychosocial functioning in patients with alcohol-related liver disease post liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Pegum, Nell; Connor, Jason P; Young, Ross McD; Feeney, Gerald F X

    2015-06-01

    Emotional and role functioning difficulties are associated with chronic alcohol use and liver disease. Little is known about prospective changes in psychological and psychosocial functioning following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) amongst patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD). We aimed to assess the functioning of this patient group post liver transplantation. Comprehensive psychosocial assessment of depression (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]), anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Form X [STAI]) and psychosocial adjustment (Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale-Self-Report version [PAIS-SR]) was conducted with 42 ALD patients available for pre and post OLT testing. Dependence severity was assessed by the Brief Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (bMAST). Significant reductions in average anxiety and depression symptoms were observed 12-months post-OLT. Significant improvements in psychosocial adjustment to illness were also reported. Patients with higher levels of alcohol dependence severity pre transplant assessment improved comparably to those with lower levels of dependence. In summary, the study found that OLT contributed to reducing overall levels of mood and anxiety symptoms in ALD patients, approximating general (non-clinical) population norms. Psychosocial adjustment also improved significantly post liver transplantation. PMID:25644590

  4. Sarcopenia negatively affects preoperative total functional liver volume in patients undergoing liver resection

    PubMed Central

    Dello, Simon A. W. G.; Lodewick, Toine M.; van Dam, Ronald M.; Reisinger, Kostan W.; van den Broek, Maartje A. J.; von Meyenfeldt, Maarten F.; Bemelmans, Marc H. A.; Olde Damink, Steven W. M.; Dejong, Cornelis H. C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Sarcopenia may negatively affect short-term outcomes after liver resection. The present study aimed to explore whether total functional liver volume (TFLV) is related to sarcopenia in patients undergoing partial liver resection. Methods: Analysis of total liver volume and tumour volume and measurements of muscle surface were performed in patients undergoing liver resection using OsiriX® and preoperative computed tomography. The ratio of TFLV to bodyweight was calculated as: [TFLV (ml)/bodyweight (g)]*100%. The L3 muscle index (cm2/m2) was then calculated by normalizing muscle areas (at the third lumbar vertebral level) for height. Results: Of 40 patients, 27 (67.5%) were classified as sarcopenic. There was a significant correlation between the L3 skeletal muscle index and TFLV (r= 0.64, P < 0.001). Median TFLV was significantly lower in the sarcopenia group than in the non-sarcopenia group [1396 ml (range: 1129–2625 ml) and 1840 ml (range: 867–2404 ml), respectively; P < 0.05]. Median TFLV : bodyweight ratio was significantly lower in the sarcopenia group than in the non-sarcopenia group [2.0% (range: 1.4–2.5%) and 2.3% (range: 1.5–2.5%), respectively; P < 0.05]. Conclusions: Sarcopenic patients had a disproportionally small preoperative TFLV compared with non-sarcopenic patients undergoing liver resection. The preoperative hepatic physiologic reserve may therefore be smaller in sarcopenic patients. PMID:23020663

  5. Peroxisomal Alanine: Glyoxylate Aminotransferase AGT1 Is Indispensable for Appressorium Function of the Rice Blast Pathogen, Magnaporthe oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Bhadauria, Vijai; Banniza, Sabine; Vandenberg, Albert; Selvaraj, Gopalan; Wei, Yangdou

    2012-01-01

    The role of ?-oxidation and the glyoxylate cycle in fungal pathogenesis is well documented. However, an ambiguity still remains over their interaction in peroxisomes to facilitate fungal pathogenicity and virulence. In this report, we characterize a gene encoding an alanine, glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 (AGT1) in Magnaporthe oryzae, the causative agent of rice blast disease, and demonstrate that AGT1 is required for pathogenicity of M. oryzae. Targeted deletion of AGT1 resulted in the failure of penetration via appressoria; therefore, mutants lacking the gene were unable to induce blast symptoms on the hosts rice and barley. This penetration failure may be associated with a disruption in lipid mobilization during conidial germination as turgor generation in the appressorium requires mobilization of lipid reserves from the conidium. Analysis of enhanced green fluorescent protein expression using the transcriptional and translational fusion with the AGT1 promoter and open reading frame, respectively, revealed that AGT1 expressed constitutively in all in vitro grown cell types and during in planta colonization, and localized in peroxisomes. Peroxisomal localization was further confirmed by colocalization with red fluorescent protein fused with the peroxisomal targeting signal 1. Surprisingly, conidia produced by the ?agt1 mutant were unable to form appressoria on artificial inductive surfaces, even after prolonged incubation. When supplemented with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)+pyruvate, appressorium formation was restored on an artificial inductive surface. Taken together, our data indicate that AGT1-dependent pyruvate formation by transferring an amino group of alanine to glyoxylate, an intermediate of the glyoxylate cycle is required for lipid mobilization and utilization. This pyruvate can be converted to non-fermentable carbon sources, which may require reoxidation of NADH generated by the ?-oxidation of fatty acids to NAD+ in peroxisomes. Therefore, it may provide a means to maintain redox homeostasis in appressoria. PMID:22558413

  6. Recent advances in estimating hepatic functional reserve in patients with chronic liver damage.

    PubMed

    Imura, Satoru; Shimada, Mitsuo; Utsunomiya, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Preoperative estimation of liver functional reserve is important in liver surgery to prevent postoperative liver failure. Although the hepatic functional reserve of patients with chronic liver disease is generally evaluated by measuring indocyanine green dye retention at 15?min, no standard method of estimating regional liver function has been established to date. Several recently introduced imaging modalities, such as hepatobiliary scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid, may be used to evaluate liver function. Here, we review recent advances in estimating hepatic functional reserve, mainly by radiological modalities, in patients with chronic liver damage. PMID:24606181

  7. Liver Function Parameters in Hip Fracture Patients: Relations to Age, Adipokines, Comorbidities and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Leon; Srikusalanukul, Wichat; Fisher, Alexander; Smith, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To asses liver markers in older patients with hip fracture (HF) in relation to age, comorbidities, metabolic characteristics and short-term outcomes. Methods: In 294 patients with HF (mean age 82.0±7.9 years, 72.1% women) serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gammaglutamyltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin, bilirubin, 25(OH)vitaminD, PTH, calcium, phosphate, magnesium, adiponectin, leptin, resistin, thyroid function and cardiac troponin I were measured. Results: Elevated ALT, GGT, ALP or bilirubin levels on admission were observed in 1.7% - 9.9% of patients. With age GGT, ALT and leptin decrease, while PTH and adiponectin concentrations increase. Higher GGT (>30U/L, median level) was associated with coronary artery disease (CAD), diabetes mellitus (DM), and alcohol overuse; lower ALT (?20U/L, median level) with dementia; total bilirubin >20?mol/L with CAD and alcohol overuse; and albumin >33g/L with CAD. Multivariate adjusted regression analyses revealed ALT, ALP, adiponectin, alcohol overuse and DM as independent and significant determinants of GGT (as continuous or categorical variable); GGT for each other liver marker; and PTH for adiponectin. The risk of prolonged hospital stay (>20 days) was about two times higher in patients with GGT>30U/L or adiponectin >17.14 ng/L (median level) and 4.7 times higher if both conditions coexisted. The risk of in-hospital death was 3 times higher if albumin was <33g/L. Conclusions: In older HF patients liver markers even within the normal range are associated with age-related disorders and outcomes. Adiponectin (but not 25(OH)vitaminD, PTH, leptin or resistin) is an independent contributor to higher GGT. Serum GGT and albumin predict prolonged hospital stay and in-hospital death, respectively. A unifying hypothesis of the findings presented. PMID:25589886

  8. Linking Genetics to Structural Biology: Complex Heterozygosity Screening with Actin Alanine Scan Alleles Identifies Functionally Related Surfaces on Yeast Actin

    PubMed Central

    DiPrima, Stephanie; Haarer, Brian; Viggiano, Susan; Pons, Carles; Myers, Chad L.; Amberg, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Previous genome-level genetic interaction screens with the single essential actin gene of yeast identified 238 nonessential genes that upon deletion result in deleterious, digenic complex haploinsufficiences with an actin null allele. Deletion alleles of these 238 genes were tested for complex heterozygous interactions with 32 actin alanine scan alleles, which target clusters of residues on the surface of actin. A total of 891 deleterious digenic combinations were identified with 203 of the 238 genes. Two-dimensional hierarchical cluster analysis of the interactions identified nine distinct groups, and the alleles within clusters tended to affect localized regions on the surface of actin. The mutants in one cluster all affect electrostatic interactions between stacked subunits in the long pitch helix of the actin filament. A second cluster that contains the most highly interactive alleles may disrupt the tropomyosin/myosin system, as one of the mutants in that cluster cannot support Type V myosin-dependent movement of secretory vesicles in haploids and causes processivity defects in heterozygous diploids. These examples suggest the clusters represent mutations with shared protein?protein interaction defects. These results show that complex heterozygous interaction screens have benefit for detecting actin-related genes and suggest that having actin filaments of mixed composition, containing both mutant and wild-type subunits, presents unique challenges to the cell. PMID:24938290

  9. Correlation of liver parenchymal gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid enhancement and liver function in humans with hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    KUBOTA, KEI; TAMURA, TAIJI; AOYAMA, NOBUTAKA; NOGAMI, MUNENOBU; HAMADA, NORIHIKO; NISHIOKA, AKIHITO; OGAWA, YASUHIRO

    2012-01-01

    Animal studies have demonstrated that liver function parameters affect the degree of liver enhancement by gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA). The present study prospectively investigated whether liver function parameters and liver damage scores similarly correlate with the degree of liver enhancement by Gd-EOB-DTPA in humans with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A total of 41 patients (32 males, 9 females; mean age, 71.9 years; range, 38–86 years) with suspected HCC provided written, informed consent to undergo a Gd-EOB-DTPA (30 ?mol/kg of body weight)-enhanced T1-gradient-echo (GRE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. The signal intensity of the liver parenchyma was quantified at various time points following injection of Gd-EOB-DTPA. We investigated the correlations between maximal relative enhancement (RE) values and liver function parameters, and liver damage scores. Correlations between parameters and maximum RE values were determined using the Student’s t-test and univariate regression analyses. The effect of potential confounding factors was controlled by multiple stepwise regression analysis. Two-tailed values of p<0.05 were considered to indicate a statistically significant difference. The RE values were maximal in 8 and 33 patients at 20 and 30 min, respectively, following Gd-EOB-DTPA injection and did not significantly differ between respective liver damage scores. Univariate analyses revealed that maximal RE values were associated with serum aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, albumin and 15-min indocyanine green retention rates. Multiple stepwise regression analyses revealed that serum albumin and total bilirubin remained independently significant. The degree of liver parenchyma enhancement by Gd-EOB-DTPA depends on liver function parameters in humans, as in animals. The results from this study suggest that Gd-EOB-DTPA has potential for use as a liver function test, and for providing a short examination time for liver MRI results in patients with normal liver function. PMID:22783378

  10. Bioreactor Technologies to Support Liver Function In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimkhani, Mohammad R; Neiman, Jaclyn A Shepard; Raredon, Micah Sam B; Hughes, David J; Griffith, Linda G

    2014-01-01

    Liver is a central nexus integrating metabolic and immunologic homeostasis in the human body, and the direct or indirect target of most molecular therapeutics. A wide spectrum of therapeutic and technological needs drive efforts to capture liver physiology and pathophysiology in vitro, ranging from prediction of metabolism and toxicity of small molecule drugs, to understanding off-target effects of proteins, nucleic acid therapies, and targeted therapeutics, to serving as disease models for drug development. Here we provide perspective on the evolving landscape of bioreactor-based models to meet old and new challenges in drug discovery and development, emphasizing design challenges in maintaining long-term liver-specific function and how emerging technologies in biomaterials and microdevices are providing new experimental models. PMID:24607703

  11. Effect of D-amino acids on some mitochondrial functions in rat liver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. González-Hernández; L. Aguilera-Aguirre; V. Pérez-Vázquez; J. Ramírez; M. Clemente-Guerrero; C. Cortés-Rojo; A. Saavedra-Molina

    2003-01-01

    Summary.  ?We studied the role of the D-amino acids (D-aa) D-serine, D-alanine, D-methionine, D-aspartate, D-tyrosine and D-arginine\\u000a on rat liver mitochondria. The stability of D-amino acids, mitochondrial swelling, transmembrane potential and oxygen consumption\\u000a were studied under oxidative stress conditions in rat liver mitochondria. In the presence of glutamate-malate all D-aas salts\\u000a increased mitochondrial swelling, while in the presence of succinate plus

  12. Liver Function and Anemia Pathogenesis in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Yarjou, Saeedeh; Sadeghpour, Omid; Nazem, Esmail; Emami, Amir Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nutritional deficiency, bleeding, and inflammation are three main causes of anemia. On the other hand, erythropoietin (EPO) production, iron availability, and a healthy bone marrow are essential for erythropoiesis. Recently, recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) has been used to treat the patients already taking iron supplements. In Iranian traditional medicine literature, much has been written about anemia and its treatment. Objectives: This study aimed to review Iranian traditional medicine theories in the treatment of anemia. Materials and Methods: In the present study, authors have attempted to find the etiology and pathogenesis of anemia in Iranian traditional Medicine Literature and the views of ancient physicians in this field. Results: Our findings proved that Iranian traditional medicine defined anemia as blood humor production dysfunction, which is caused by several reasons mainly hepatic dysfunction. Thus, liver is supposed to be the most important organ in this regard. This will make considering hepatoprotective medicines in anemia even in patients with non-hepatic problems. Conclusions: The article presents the relation between anemia and liver dysfunction viewed by Iranian traditional medicine as an important finding in designing a treatment plan. Despite the new findings on the evaluation of liver function (i.e. laboratory tests), it seems that further studies for earlier evaluation of liver function in anemia are highly required.

  13. Effect of minor liver function test abnormalities and values within the normal range on survival in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Ambrosy, Andrew P; Dunn, Timothy P; Heidenreich, Paul A

    2015-04-01

    Liver function test (LFT) abnormalities are often observed in patients with heart failure (HF). However, the relation of LFTs with outcomes has not been well described. Patients of the VA Palo Alto Health Care System (3 inpatient facilities and 7 community clinics) with a complete set of LFTs in the 60 days before a first HF diagnosis were included in the analysis from January 2005 to April 2013. A total of 2,096 patients met inclusion criteria. Patients were a mean of 71 ± 12 years old, 97% were men, 57% had a previous diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, and the mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 51 ± 12%. The median (twenty fifth and seventy fifth) values were albumin 3.6 g/dl (3.3, 3.9), alanine transaminase 21 IU/L (16, 30), aspartate transaminase 24 IU/L (20,31), AP 70 IU/L (57, 87), and total bilirubin 0.8 mg/dl (0.6, 1.0). There were 851 deaths (41%) over a mean duration of 41 ± 27 months. Mortality significantly increased with lower values of albumin and alanine transaminase and higher levels of aspartate transaminase and AP. The association with total bilirubin was not significant. In conclusion, many LFT values in the "normal" range are independently associated with decreased survival beyond traditional risk factors for mortality in HF. PMID:25708860

  14. Thyroid Function in Obese Children with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bilgin, Hüseyin; Pirgon, Özgür

    2014-01-01

    Ob­jec­ti­ve: To investigate the relationships between thyroid function and metabolic risk factors in obese adolescents with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods: One hundred sixty obese adolescents and 40 control subjects were enrolled in the study. The obese subjects were divided into two groups based on presence or absence of liver steatosis (NAFLD group and non-NAFLD group). Serum samples were assayed for glucose, insulin, cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). The ratio of fT3 to fT4 was evaluated as an indirect index of deiodinase activity. Insulin resistance was evaluated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) from fasting samples. Results: NAFLD and non-NAFLD groups had slightly higher fasting blood glucose values than the control group. Fasting insulin levels in the NAFLD group were significantly higher than those in the non-NAFLD and control groups. The NAFLD group had significantly greater HOMA-IR values compared with the non-NAFLD group and also with the control group. The NAFLD group had significantly higher fT3/fT4 ratio values compared to both non-NAFLD and control groups. fT3/fT4 was positively correlated with serum insulin levels in the NAFLD group. Conclusion: This study showed that obese adolescents with hepatosteatosis had elevated values for fT3/fT4 ratio. This finding suggested a high conversion of T4 to T3 due to increased deiodinase activity as a compensatory mechanism for fat accumulation. PMID:25241608

  15. Significance of alanine aminotransferase testing in diagnosis of acute and chronic HBV infection.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Pant, Sanjay; Narang, Sushil

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis B is a major public health problem world wide; more than 350 million people have chronic infection. Diagnosis of hepatitis is made by biochemical assessment of liver function. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), a liver enzyme, is markedly elevated in hepatitis and with other causes of acute liver damage associated with hepatic necrosis, blood levels being elevated even before the clinical signs and symptoms of disease such as jaundice appear. HBsAg can be detected in the serum from several weeks before onset of symptoms to several months after onset of acute HBV infection. The presence of HBsAg indicates that the person is potentially infectious. In our study we found that 80% patients who were HBsAg positive had abnormal ALT levels, while the remaining 20% had normal ALT values. This is despite suffering from acute or chronic liver disease, providing a reason why some patients positive for hepatitis B have a normal ALT. PMID:20192606

  16. Allosteric inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus D-alanine:D-alanine ligase revealed by crystallographic studies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shenping; Chang, Jeanne S; Herberg, John T; Horng, Miao-Miao; Tomich, Paul K; Lin, Alice H; Marotti, Keith R

    2006-10-10

    D-alanine:D-alanine ligase (DDl) is an essential enzyme in bacterial cell wall biosynthesis and an important target for developing new antibiotics. It catalyzes the formation of D-alanine:D-alanine dipeptide, sequentially by using one D-alanine and one ATP as substrates for the first-half reaction, and a second D-alanine substrate to complete the reaction. Some gain of function DDl mutants can use an alternate second substrate, causing resistance to vancomycin, one of the last lines of defense against life-threatening Gram-positive infections. Here, we report the crystal structure of Staphylococcus aureus DDl (StaDDl) and its cocrystal structures with 3-chloro-2,2-dimethyl-N-[4(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]propanamide (inhibitor 1) (Ki=4 microM against StaDDl) and with ADP, one of the reaction products, at resolutions of 2.0, 2.2, and 2.6 A, respectively. The overall structure of StaDDl can be divided into three distinct domains. The inhibitor binds to a hydrophobic pocket at the interface of the first and the third domain. This inhibitor-binding pocket is adjacent to the first D-alanine substrate site but does not overlap with any substrate sites. An allosteric inhibition mechanism of StaDDl by this compound was proposed. The mechanism provides the basis for developing new antibiotics targeting D-alanine:D-alanine ligase. Because this compound only interacts with residues from the first D-alanine site, inhibitors with this binding mode potentially could overcome vancomycin resistance. PMID:17015835

  17. Identification of functionally important residues of the rat P2X4 receptor by alanine scanning mutagenesis of the dorsal fin and left flipper domains.

    PubMed

    Tvrdonova, Vendula; Rokic, Milos B; Stojilkovic, Stanko S; Zemkova, Hana

    2014-01-01

    Crystallization of the zebrafish P2X4 receptor in both open and closed states revealed conformational differences in the ectodomain structures, including the dorsal fin and left flipper domains. Here, we focused on the role of these domains in receptor activation, responsiveness to orthosteric ATP analogue agonists, and desensitization. Alanine scanning mutagenesis of the R203-L214 (dorsal fin) and the D280-N293 (left flipper) sequences of the rat P2X4 receptor showed that ATP potency/efficacy was reduced in 15 out of 26 alanine mutants. The R203A, N204A, and N293A mutants were essentially non-functional, but receptor function was restored by ivermectin, an allosteric modulator. The I205A, T210A, L214A, P290A, G291A, and Y292A mutants exhibited significant changes in the responsiveness to orthosteric analog agonists 2-(methylthio)adenosine 5'-triphosphate, adenosine 5'-(?-thio)triphosphate, 2'(3'-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)adenosine 5'-triphosphate, and ?,?-methyleneadenosine 5'-triphosphate. In contrast, the responsiveness of L206A, N208A, D280A, T281A, R282A, and H286A mutants to analog agonists was comparable to that of the wild type receptor. Among these mutants, D280A, T281A, R282A, H286A, G291A, and Y292A also exhibited increased time-constant of the desensitizing current response. These experiments, together with homology modeling, indicate that residues located in the upper part of the dorsal fin and left flipper domains, relative to distance from the channel pore, contribute to the organization of the ATP binding pocket and to the initiation of signal transmission towards residues in the lower part of both domains. The R203 and N204 residues, deeply buried in the protein, may integrate the output signal from these two domains towards the gate. In addition, the left flipper residues predominantly account for the control of transition of channels from an open to a desensitized state. PMID:25398027

  18. Identification of Functionally Important Residues of the Rat P2X4 Receptor by Alanine Scanning Mutagenesis of the Dorsal Fin and Left Flipper Domains

    PubMed Central

    Tvrdonova, Vendula; Rokic, Milos B.; Stojilkovic, Stanko S.; Zemkova, Hana

    2014-01-01

    Crystallization of the zebrafish P2X4 receptor in both open and closed states revealed conformational differences in the ectodomain structures, including the dorsal fin and left flipper domains. Here, we focused on the role of these domains in receptor activation, responsiveness to orthosteric ATP analogue agonists, and desensitization. Alanine scanning mutagenesis of the R203-L214 (dorsal fin) and the D280-N293 (left flipper) sequences of the rat P2X4 receptor showed that ATP potency/efficacy was reduced in 15 out of 26 alanine mutants. The R203A, N204A, and N293A mutants were essentially non-functional, but receptor function was restored by ivermectin, an allosteric modulator. The I205A, T210A, L214A, P290A, G291A, and Y292A mutants exhibited significant changes in the responsiveness to orthosteric analog agonists 2-(methylthio)adenosine 5?-triphosphate, adenosine 5?-(?-thio)triphosphate, 2?(3?-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)adenosine 5?-triphosphate, and ?,?-methyleneadenosine 5?-triphosphate. In contrast, the responsiveness of L206A, N208A, D280A, T281A, R282A, and H286A mutants to analog agonists was comparable to that of the wild type receptor. Among these mutants, D280A, T281A, R282A, H286A, G291A, and Y292A also exhibited increased time-constant of the desensitizing current response. These experiments, together with homology modeling, indicate that residues located in the upper part of the dorsal fin and left flipper domains, relative to distance from the channel pore, contribute to the organization of the ATP binding pocket and to the initiation of signal transmission towards residues in the lower part of both domains. The R203 and N204 residues, deeply buried in the protein, may integrate the output signal from these two domains towards the gate. In addition, the left flipper residues predominantly account for the control of transition of channels from an open to a desensitized state. PMID:25398027

  19. Redox Control of Liver Function in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Marí, Montserrat; Colell, Anna; Morales, Albert; von Montfort, Claudia; Garcia-Ruiz, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Reactive oxygen species (ROS), a heterogeneous population of biologically active intermediates, are generated as by-products of the aerobic metabolism and exhibit a dual role in biology. When produced in controlled conditions and in limited quantities, ROS may function as signaling intermediates, contributing to critical cellular functions such as proliferation, differentiation, and cell survival. However, ROS overgeneration and, particularly, the formation of specific reactive species, inflicts cell death and tissue damage by targeting vital cellular components such as DNA, lipids, and proteins, thus arising as key players in disease pathogenesis. Given the predominant role of hepatocytes in biotransformation and metabolism of xenobiotics, ROS production constitutes an important burden in liver physiology and pathophysiology and hence in the progression of liver diseases. Despite the recognized role of ROS in disease pathogenesis, the efficacy of antioxidants as therapeutics has been limited. A better understanding of the mechanisms, nature, and location of ROS generation, as well as the optimization of cellular defense strategies, may pave the way for a brighter future for antioxidants and ROS scavengers in the therapy of liver diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 12, 1295—1331. PMID:19803748

  20. Cellular Transfection to Deliver Alanine-Glyoxylate Aminotransferase to Hepatocytes: A Rational Gene Therapy for Primary Hyperoxaluria1 (PH1)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sweaty Koul; Thomas Johnson; Saroj Pramanik; Hari Koul

    2005-01-01

    Background: Primary hyperoxaluria-type 1 (PH-1) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of glyoxalate metabolism caused by deficiency in the liver-specific peroxisomal enzyme alanine-glyoxalate transaminase 1 (AGT) resulting in the increased oxidation of glyoxalate to oxalate. Accumulation of oxalate in the kidney and other soft tissues results in loss of renal function and significant morbidity. The present treatment options offer some

  1. Pheochromocytoma with markedly abnormal liver function tests and severe leukocytosis.

    PubMed

    Eun, Chai Ryoung; Ahn, Jae Hee; Seo, Ji A; Kim, Nan Hee

    2014-03-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor arising from the medulla of the adrenal glands, which causes an overproduction of catecholamines. The common symptoms are headache, palpitations, and sweating; however, various other clinical manifestations might also be present. Accurate diagnosis of pheochromocytoma is important because surgical treatment is usually successful, and associated clinical problems are reversible if treated early. A 49-year-old man with a history of uncontrolled hypertension and diabetes mellitus presented with chest pain, fever, and sweating. His liver function tests and white blood cell counts were markedly increased and his echocardiography results suggested stress-induced cardiomyopathy. His abdominal computed tomography showed a 5×5-cm-sized tumor in the left adrenal gland, and laboratory tests confirmed catecholamine overproduction. After surgical resection of the left adrenal gland, his liver function tests and white blood cell counts normalized, and echocardiography showed normal cardiac function. Moreover, his previous antihypertensive regimen was deescalated, and his previously uncontrolled blood glucose levels normalized without medication. PMID:24741459

  2. Pheochromocytoma with Markedly Abnormal Liver Function Tests and Severe Leukocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Eun, Chai Ryoung; Ahn, Jae Hee; Seo, Ji A

    2014-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor arising from the medulla of the adrenal glands, which causes an overproduction of catecholamines. The common symptoms are headache, palpitations, and sweating; however, various other clinical manifestations might also be present. Accurate diagnosis of pheochromocytoma is important because surgical treatment is usually successful, and associated clinical problems are reversible if treated early. A 49-year-old man with a history of uncontrolled hypertension and diabetes mellitus presented with chest pain, fever, and sweating. His liver function tests and white blood cell counts were markedly increased and his echocardiography results suggested stress-induced cardiomyopathy. His abdominal computed tomography showed a 5×5-cm-sized tumor in the left adrenal gland, and laboratory tests confirmed catecholamine overproduction. After surgical resection of the left adrenal gland, his liver function tests and white blood cell counts normalized, and echocardiography showed normal cardiac function. Moreover, his previous antihypertensive regimen was deescalated, and his previously uncontrolled blood glucose levels normalized without medication. PMID:24741459

  3. Correlation between hepatic blood flow and liver function in alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Hideaki; Shigefuku, Ryuta; Yoshida, Yoshihito; Ikeda, Hiroki; Matsunaga, Kotaro; Matsumoto, Nobuyuki; Okuse, Chiaki; Sase, Shigeru; Itoh, Fumio; Suzuki, Michihiro

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the correlation between hepatic blood flow and liver function in alcoholic liver cirrhosis (AL-LC). METHODS: The subjects included 35 patients with AL-LC (34 men, 1 woman; mean age, 58.9 ± 10.7 years; median age, 61 years; range: 37-76 years). All patients were enrolled in this study after obtaining written informed consent. Liver function was measured with tests measuring albumin (Alb), prothrombin time (PT), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), branched amino acid and tyrosine ratio (BTR), branched chain amino acid (BCAA), tyrosine, ammonia (NH3), cholinesterase (ChE), immunoreactive insulin (IRI), total bile acid (TBA), and the retention rate of indocyanine green 15 min after administration (ICG R15). Hepatic blood flow, hepatic arterial tissue blood flow (HATBF), portal venous tissue blood flow (PVTBF), and total hepatic tissue blood flow (THTBF) were simultaneously calculated using xenon computed tomography. RESULTS: PVTBF, HATBF and THTBF were 30.2 ± 10.4, 20.0 ± 10.7, and 50.3 ± 14.9 mL/100 mL/min, respectively. Alb, PT, BNP, BTR, BCAA, tyrosine, NH3, ChE, IRI, TBA, and ICG R15 were 3.50 ± 0.50 g/dL, 72.0% ± 11.5%, 63.2 ± 56.7 pg/mL, 4.06 ± 1.24, 437.5 ± 89.4 ?mol/L, 117.7 ± 32.8 ?mol/L, 59.4 ± 22.7 ?g/dL, 161.0 ± 70.8 IU/L, 12.8 ± 5.0 ?g/dL, 68.0 ± 51.8 ?mol/L, and 28.6% ± 13.5%, respectively. PVTBF showed a significant negative correlation with ICG R15 (r = -0.468, P <0.01). No significant correlation was seen between ICG 15R, HATBF and THTBF. There was a significant correlation between PVTBF and Alb (r = 0.2499, P < 0.05), and NH3 tended to have an inverse correlation with PVTBF (r = -0.2428, P = 0.0894). There were also many significant correlations between ICG R15 and liver function parameters, including Alb, NH3, PT, BNP, TBA, BCAA, and tyrosine (r = -0.2156, P < 0.05; r = 0.4318, P < 0.01; r = 0.4140, P < 0.01; r = 0.3610, P < 0.05; r = 0.5085, P < 0.001; r = 0.4496, P < 0.01; and r = 0.4740, P < 0.05, respectively). CONCLUSION: Our investigation showed that there is a close correlation between liver function and hepatic blood flow. PMID:25493018

  4. Transient liver function abnormality following treatment with rabbit antithymocyte globulin for nonmyeloablative hematopoetic stem cell transplant: Two case reports.

    PubMed

    Chang, Abraham; Lee-Lam, Fu-Ying; Wang, Joanna; Cheng, Ya-Hwei

    2015-02-01

    Rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) is increasingly used in nonmyeloablative hematopoetic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Elevated liver function tests (LFTs) have been reported for antithymocyte globulin in the treatment of aplastic anemia, but not when used in a conditioning regimen for HSCT. We describe two cases of patients receiving a conditioning regimen for HSCT containing rATG who developed a transient, severe transaminase elevation. In the first case, a 66-year-old woman with a history of acute myeloid leukemia received the first dose of rATG and the patient's transaminases were found to be extremely elevated within a few hours. The aspartate transaminase (AST) peaked at 1286?U/L and alanine transaminase (ALT) peaked at 991?U/L and both resolved within a week. In the second case, a 72-year-old woman with a history of non-Hodgkin lymphoma received the first dose of rATG and the AST and ALT were found to be 1212?U/L and 689?U/L, respectively, 1?h after finishing the infusion. Like the previous case, the transaminase elevation resolved within a week. LFT abnormalities induced by rATG during conditioning therapy for HSCT may be transient and have a rapid onset after the first dose, but quickly subside without any complications or sequelae. It is important to follow the LFTs closely, as well as monitor for any signs and symptoms of acute liver failure. PMID:24395543

  5. Evolution of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 peroxisomal and mitochondrial targeting. A survey of its subcellular distribution in the livers of various representatives of the classes Mammalia, Aves and Amphibia.

    PubMed

    Danpure, C J; Fryer, P; Jennings, P R; Allsop, J; Griffiths, S; Cunningham, A

    1994-08-01

    As part of a wider study on the molecular evolution of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 (AGT1) intracellular compartmentalization, we have determined the subcellular distribution of immunoreactive AGT1, using postembedding protein A-gold immunoelectron microscopy, in the livers of various members of the classes Mammalia, Aves, and Amphibia. As far as organellar distribution is concerned, three categories could be distinguished. In members of the first category (type I), all, or nearly all, of the immunoreactive AGT1 was concentrated within the peroxisomes. In the second category (type II), AGT1 was found more evenly distributed in both peroxisomes and mitochondria. In the third category (type III), AGT1 was localized mainly within the mitochondria with much lower, but widely variable, amounts in the peroxisomes. Type I animals include the human, two great apes (gorilla, orangutan), two Old World monkeys (anubis baboon, Japanese macaque), a New World monkey (white-faced Saki monkey), a lago, morph (European rabbit), a bat (Seba's short-tailed fruit bat), two caviomorph rodents (guinea pig, orange-rumped agouti), and two Australian marsupials (koala, Bennett's wallaby). Type II animals include two New World monkeys (common marmoset, cotton-top tamarin), three prosimians (brown lemur, fat-tailed dwarf lemur, pygmy slow loris), five rodents (a hybrid crested porcupine, Colombian ground squirrel, laboratory rat, laboratory mouse, golden hamster), an American marsupial (grey short-tailed opossum), and a bird (raven). Type III animals include the large tree shrew, three insectivores (common Eurasian mole, European hedgehog, house shrew), four carnivores (domestic cat, ocelot, domestic dog, polecat ferret), and an amphibian (common frog). In addition to these categories, some animals (e.g. guinea pig, common frog) possessed significant amounts of cytosolic AGT1. Whereas the subcellular distribution of AGT1 in some orders (e.g. Insectivora and Carnivora) did not appear to vary markedly between the different members, in other orders (e.g. Primates, Rodentia and Marsupialia) it fluctuated widely between the different species. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the subcellular distribution of AGT1 has changed radically on numerous occasions during the evolution of mammals. The new observations presented in this paper are compatible with our previous demonstration of a relationship between AGT1 subcellular distribution and either present or putative ancestral dietary habit, and our previous suggestion that the molecular evolution of the AGT gene has been markedly influenced by dietary selection pressure. PMID:7813517

  6. STE20/SPS1-Related Proline/Alanine-Rich Kinase Is Involved in Plasticity of GABA Signaling Function in a Mouse Model of Acquired Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jueqian; Chen, Shuda; Chen, Yishu; Chen, Ziyi; Wang, Qian; Fang, Ziyan; Zhou, Liemin

    2013-01-01

    The intracellular concentration of chloride ([Cl-]i) determines the strength and polarity of GABA neurotransmission. STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) is known as an indirect regulator of [Cl-]i for its activation of Na-K-2 Cl-co-transporters (NKCC) and inhibition of K-Cl-co-transporters (KCC) in many organs. NKCC1 or KCC2 expression changes have been demonstrated previously in the hippocampal neurons of mice with pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (PISE). However, it remains unclear whether SPAK modulates [Cl-]i via NKCC1 or KCC2 in the brain. Also, there are no data clearly characterizing SPAK expression in cortical or hippocampal neurons or confirming an association between SPAK and epilepsy. In the present study, we examined SPAK expression and co-expression with NKCC1 and KCC2 in the hippocampal neurons of mice with PISE, and we investigated alterations in SPAK expression in the hippocampus of such mice. Significant increases in SPAK mRNA and protein levels were detected during various stages of PISE in the PISE mice in comparison to levels in age-matched sham (control) and blank treatment (control) mice. SPAK and NKCC1 expression increased in vitro, while KCC2 was down-regulated in hippocampal neurons following hypoxic conditioning. However, SPAK overexpression did not influence the expression levels of NKCC1 or KCC2. Using co-immunoprecipitation, we determined that the intensity of interaction between SPAK and NKCC1 and between SPAK and KCC2 increased markedly after oxygen-deprivation, whereas SPAK overexpression strengthened the relationships. The [Cl-]i of hippocampal neurons changed in a corresponding manner under the different conditions. Our data suggests that SPAK is involved in the plasticity of GABA signaling function in acquired epilepsy via adjustment of [Cl-]i in hippocampal neurons. PMID:24058604

  7. ?-Alanine N-Methyltransferase of Limonium latifolium. cDNA Cloning and Functional Expression of a Novel N-Methyltransferase Implicated in the Synthesis of the Osmoprotectant ?-Alanine Betaine1

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Suresh Babu; Rathinasabapathi, Bala

    2003-01-01

    ?-alanine (Ala) betaine, an osmoprotectant suitable under saline and hypoxic environments, is found in most members of the halophytic plant family Plumbaginaceae. In Limonium latifolium (Plumbaginaceae), it is synthesized via methylation of ?-Ala by the action of a trifunctional S-adenosyl l-methionine (Ado-Met): ?-Ala N-methyltransferase (NMTase). Peptide sequences from purified ?-Ala NMTase were used to design primers for reverse transcriptase-PCR, and several cDNA clones were isolated. The 5? end of the cDNA was cloned using a 5?-rapid amplification of cDNA ends protocol. A 500-bp cDNA was used as a probe to screen a ?-gt10 L. latifolium leaf cDNA library. Partial cDNA clones represented two groups, NMTase A and NMTase B, differing only in their 3?-untranslated regions. The full-length NMTase A cDNA was 1,414 bp and included a 1128-bp open reading frame and a 119-bp 5?-untranslated region. The deduced amino acid sequence of 375 residues had motifs known to be involved in the binding of Ado-Met. The NMTase mRNA was expressed in L. latifolium leaves but was absent in Limonium sinuatum, a member of the genus that lacks the synthetic pathway for ?-Ala betaine. NMTase mRNA expression was high in young and mature leaves and was enhanced by light. NMTase cDNA was expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) under the control of a galactose-inducible promoter. Protein extracts of galactose-induced recombinant yeast had Ado-Met-specific NMTase activities that were highly specific to ?-Ala, N-methyl ?-Ala, and N,N-dimethyl ?-Ala as methyl acceptors. NMTase activities were not detectable in comparable protein extracts of yeast, transformed with vector control. The NMTase protein sequence shared homology with plant caffeic acid O-methyltransferases and related enzymes. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that ?-Ala NMTase represents a novel family of N-methyltransferases that are evolutionarily related to O-methyltransferases. PMID:12857843

  8. beta-alanine N-methyltransferase of Limonium latifolium. cDNA cloning and functional expression of a novel N-methyltransferase implicated in the synthesis of the osmoprotectant beta-alanine betaine.

    PubMed

    Raman, Suresh Babu; Rathinasabapathi, Bala

    2003-07-01

    Beta-alanine (Ala) betaine, an osmoprotectant suitable under saline and hypoxic environments, is found in most members of the halophytic plant family Plumbaginaceae. In Limonium latifolium (Plumbaginaceae), it is synthesized via methylation of beta-Ala by the action of a trifunctional S-adenosyl L-methionine (Ado-Met): beta-Ala N-methyltransferase (NMTase). Peptide sequences from purified beta-Ala NMTase were used to design primers for reverse transcriptase-PCR, and several cDNA clones were isolated. The 5' end of the cDNA was cloned using a 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends protocol. A 500-bp cDNA was used as a probe to screen a lambda-gt10 L. latifolium leaf cDNA library. Partial cDNA clones represented two groups, NMTase A and NMTase B, differing only in their 3'-untranslated regions. The full-length NMTase A cDNA was 1,414 bp and included a 1128-bp open reading frame and a 119-bp 5'-untranslated region. The deduced amino acid sequence of 375 residues had motifs known to be involved in the binding of Ado-Met. The NMTase mRNA was expressed in L. latifolium leaves but was absent in Limonium sinuatum, a member of the genus that lacks the synthetic pathway for beta-Ala betaine. NMTase mRNA expression was high in young and mature leaves and was enhanced by light. NMTase cDNA was expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) under the control of a galactose-inducible promoter. Protein extracts of galactose-induced recombinant yeast had Ado-Met-specific NMTase activities that were highly specific to beta-Ala, N-methyl beta-Ala, and N,N-dimethyl beta-Ala as methyl acceptors. NMTase activities were not detectable in comparable protein extracts of yeast, transformed with vector control. The NMTase protein sequence shared homology with plant caffeic acid O-methyltransferases and related enzymes. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that beta-Ala NMTase represents a novel family of N-methyltransferases that are evolutionarily related to O-methyltransferases. PMID:12857843

  9. A portable centrifugal analyser for liver function screening.

    PubMed

    Nwankire, Charles E; Czugala, Monika; Burger, Robert; Fraser, Kevin J; O'Connell, Tríona M; Glennon, Thomas; Onwuliri, Blessing E; Nduaguibe, Isikaku E; Diamond, Dermot; Ducrée, Jens

    2014-06-15

    Mortality rates of up to 50% have been reported after liver failure due to drug-induced hepatotoxicity and certain viral infections (Gao et al., 2008). These adverse conditions frequently affect HIV and tuberculosis patients on regular medication in resource-poor settings. Here, we report full integration of sample preparation with the read-out of a 5-parameter liver assay panel (LAP) on a portable, easy-to-use, fast and cost-efficient centrifugal microfluidic analysis system (CMAS). Our unique, dissolvable-film based centrifugo-pneumatic valving was employed to provide sample-to-answer fashion automation for plasma extraction (from finger-prick of blood), metering and aliquoting into separate reaction chambers for parallelized colorimetric quantification during rotation. The entire LAP completes in less than 20 min while using only a tenth the reagent volumes when compared with standard hospital laboratory tests. Accuracy of in-situ liver function screening was validated by 96 separate tests with an average coefficient of variance (CV) of 7.9% compared to benchtop and hospital lab tests. Unpaired two sample statistical t-tests were used to compare the means of CMAS and benchtop reader, on one hand; and CMAS and hospital tests on the other. The results demonstrate no statistical difference between the respective means with 94% and 92% certainty of equivalence, respectively. The portable platform thus saves significant time, labour and costs compared to established technologies, and therefore complies with typical restrictions on lab infrastructure, maintenance, operator skill and costs prevalent in many field clinics of the developing world. It has been successfully deployed to a centralised lab in Nigeria. PMID:24534553

  10. Structures, vibrational absorption and vibrational circular dichroism spectra of L-alanine in aqueous solution: a density functional theory and RHF study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Frimand; H. Bohr; K. J. Jalkanen; S. Suhai

    2000-01-01

    A detailed comparative study of structures, vibrational absorption (VA) and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra has been carried out for the zwitterionic structure of the amino acid L-alanine. Theoretically determined structures necessary for deriving VA and VCD spectra were calculated with three different solvation approaches: the zwitterion surrounded by explicit water molecules only, the zwitterion embedded in a self-consistent reaction

  11. Ezetimibe markedly attenuates hepatic cholesterol accumulation and improves liver function in the lysosomal acid lipase-deficient mouse, a model for cholesteryl ester storage disease.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Jen-Chieh; Lopez, Adam M; Posey, Kenneth S; Turley, Stephen D

    2014-01-17

    Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) plays a critical role in the intracellular handling of lipids by hydrolyzing cholesteryl esters (CE) and triacylglycerols (TAG) contained in newly internalized lipoproteins. In humans, mutations in the LAL gene result in cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD), or in Wolman disease (WD) when the mutations cause complete loss of LAL activity. A rat model for WD and a mouse model for CESD have been described. In these studies we used LAL-deficient mice to investigate how modulating the amount of intestinally-derived cholesterol reaching the liver might impact its mass, cholesterol content, and function in this model. The main experiment tested if ezetimibe, a potent cholesterol absorption inhibitor, had any effect on CE accumulation in mice lacking LAL. In male Lal(-/-) mice given ezetimibe in their diet (20 mg/day/kg bw) for 4 weeks starting at 21 days of age, both liver mass and hepatic cholesterol concentration (mg/g) were reduced to the extent that whole-liver cholesterol content (mg/organ) in the treated mice (74.3±3.4) was only 56% of that in those not given ezetimibe (133.5±6.7). There was also a marked improvement in plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity. Thus, minimizing cholesterol absorption has a favorable impact on the liver in CESD. PMID:24370824

  12. Effects of Synthetic Androgens on Liver Function Using the Rabbit as a Model*†

    PubMed Central

    Hild, Sheri Ann; Attardi, Barbara J.; Koduri, Sailaja; Till, Bruce A.; Reel, Jerry R.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the rabbit was a suitable model to test new synthetic androgens for potential liver toxicity within a short dosing interval. Adult male rabbits were dosed orally daily on days 0–13 with 17?-methyltestosterone (MT), as a positive control, and testosterone (T), as a negative control, to validate this model. Synthetic androgens tested were: 7?-methyl-19-nortestosterone (MENT), dimethandrolone-undecanoate (DMAU), and 11?-methyl-19-nortestosterone-17?-dodecylcarbonate (11?-MNTDC). Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), as well as clearance of intravenous injected bromsulfonphthalein (BSP) from serum on days 0, 7 and 14, were determined. As expected, T (10 mg/kg/day) did not adversely affect BSP retention or serum liver enzymes. MT (10 mg/kg/day) increased BSP retention, and AST, ALT, GGT, and SDH levels indicating that this model could detect androgens known to be hepatotoxic. DMAU and MENT (10 mg/kg/day), increased BSP retention, and all 4 serum liver enzymes as well, but the effects were less than those observed with MT at the same dose. All parameters returned to baseline 2 weeks after cessation of dosing. 11?-MNTDC at 10 mg/kg/day did not have an effect on BSP retention or liver enzymes, but a slight increase in serum GGT levels was observed in rabbits treated with 25 mg/kg/day. For the androgens that exhibited liver toxicity at 10 mg/kg/day (MT, DMAU, and MENT), a no observed effect level (NOEL) of 1 mg/kg/day was established. Overall ranking of the synthetic androgens from most to least hepatotoxic based on %BSP retention was: MT ? DMAU > MENT > 11?-MNTDC. Hence, the rabbit appears to be a promising model for detection of potential liver toxicity by synthetic androgens using BSP clearance and serum liver enzyme levels as early indicators of injury. PMID:20378929

  13. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Alanine amino transferase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of certain liver diseases (e.g., viral hepatitis and cirrhosis) and heart diseases. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Alanine amino transferase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of certain liver diseases (e.g., viral hepatitis and cirrhosis) and heart diseases. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Alanine amino transferase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of certain liver diseases (e.g., viral hepatitis and cirrhosis) and heart diseases. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt...

  16. Effects of exercise and ethanol on liver mitochondrial function

    SciTech Connect

    Ardies, C.M.; Morris, G.S.; Erickson, C.K.; Farrar, R.P.

    1987-03-16

    Rates of ADP stimulated respiration for various substrates were determined in mitochondria isolated from the livers of female Sprague-Dawley rats following 8 weeks of treatment with daily swimming, ethanol consumption, or both. All rats were fed an American Institute of Nutrition (AIN) type liquid diet with the ethanol treated rats receiving 35% of the calories as ethanol. Chronic exposure to ethanol depressed both state 3 respiration with glutamate as a substrate and cytochrome oxidase activity. Respiratory control ratios and P:O ratios, however, were unaffected by the ethanol exposure. Exercise alone had no effect on hepatic mitochondrial function. There were also no significant alterations in oxidative function of hepatic mitochondria from rats which were endurance-trained by swimming while receiving the ethanol diet. This lack of alteration in mitochondrial function was in spite of the fact that these rats consumed an identical amount of ethanol as those which incurred mitochondrial dysfunction. These results indicate that regular exercise has the potential to attenuate the ethanol induced decline in hepatic mitochondria. 32 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  17. Abnormal liver function in common variable immunodeficiency disorders due to nodular regenerative hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Ward, C; Lucas, M; Piris, J; Collier, J; Chapel, H

    2008-01-01

    Patients with common variable immunodeficiency disorders are monitored for liver function test abnormalities. A proportion of patients develop deranged liver function and some also develop hepatomegaly. We investigated the prevalence of abnormalities and types of liver disease, aiming to identify those at risk and determine outcomes. The local primary immunodeficiency database was searched for patients with a common variable immunodeficiency disorder and abnormal liver function and/or a liver biopsy. Patterns of liver dysfunction were determined and biopsies reviewed. A total of 47 of 108 patients had deranged liver function, most commonly raised alkaline phosphatase levels. Twenty-three patients had liver biopsies. Nodular regenerative hyperplasia was found in 13 of 16 with unexplained pathology. These patients were more likely to have other disease-related complications of common variable immunodeficiency disorders, in particular non-coeliac (gluten insensitive) lymphocytic enteropathy. However, five had no symptoms of liver disease and only one died of liver complications. Nodular regenerative hyperplasia is a common complication of common variable immunodeficiency disorders but was rarely complicated by portal hypertension. PMID:18647320

  18. N-Acetyl-L-alanine N?-methylamide: a density functional analysis of the vibrational absorption and vibrational circular dichroism spectra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Jalkanen; S. Suhai

    1996-01-01

    Ab initio 6-31G? Becke 3LYP DFT optimized geometries, vibrational frequencies, vibrational absorption (VA) intensities and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) intensities have been calculated for the eight low energy conformers of N-acetyl-L-alanine N?-methylamide (L-AANMA) in the gas phase and one conformer stabilized by the addition of four water molecules. The VA and VCD spectra are calculated with the 6-31G? Becke 3LYP

  19. Alanine repeats influence protein localization in splicing speckles and paraspeckles

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shuo-Hsiu; Chang, Wei-Lun; Lu, Chia-Chen; Tarn, Woan-Yuh

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian splicing regulatory protein RNA-binding motif protein 4 (RBM4) has an alanine repeat-containing C-terminal domain (CAD) that confers both nuclear- and splicing speckle-targeting activities. Alanine-repeat expansion has pathological potential. Here we show that the alanine-repeat tracts influence the subnuclear targeting properties of the RBM4 CAD in cultured human cells. Notably, truncation of the alanine tracts redistributed a portion of RBM4 to paraspeckles. The alanine-deficient CAD was sufficient for paraspeckle targeting. On the other hand, alanine-repeat expansion reduced the mobility of RBM4 and impaired its splicing activity. We further took advantage of the putative coactivator activator (CoAA)-RBM4 conjoined splicing factor, CoAZ, to investigate the function of the CAD in subnuclear targeting. Transiently expressed CoAZ formed discrete nuclear foci that emerged and subsequently separated—fully or partially—from paraspeckles. Alanine-repeat expansion appeared to prevent CoAZ separation from paraspeckles, resulting in their complete colocalization. CoAZ foci were dynamic but, unlike paraspeckles, were resistant to RNase treatment. Our results indicate that the alanine-rich CAD, in conjunction with its conjoined RNA-binding domain(s), differentially influences the subnuclear localization and biogenesis of RBM4 and CoAZ. PMID:25414336

  20. Increased Arterial Stiffness and Impaired Endothelial Function in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Pilot Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charalambos Vlachopoulos; Emanuel Manesis; Katerina Baou; George Papatheodoridis; John Koskinas; Dina Tiniakos; Konstantinos Aznaouridis; Athanasios Archimandritis; Christodoulos Stefanadis

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundNonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease both in the general and pediatric population and has been associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Arterial function and early atherosclerotic changes are markers of cardiovascular disease and independent predictors of the corresponding risk. Through a global approach, we investigated the relationships between NAFLD and functional arterial changes and early

  1. Alterations in Enzymatic Functions in Hepatocytes and Hepatocellular Carcinomas From Ras-Transduced Livers

    E-print Network

    Ponder, Katherine P.

    . The deregulation of p21-ras may inhibit these gressive cancers after subcutaneous implantation, they dif- liverAlterations in Enzymatic Functions in Hepatocytes and Hepatocellular Carcinomas From Ras-ated liver functions might lead to improved treatments sor genes.1-4 A feature of both normal and malignant

  2. Function of interleukin-17 and ?35 in the blood of patients with hepatitis B-related liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    SHI, MIN; WEI, JUE; DONG, JINBIN; MENG, WENYING; MA, JIALI; WANG, TING; WANG, NA; WANG, YUGANG

    2015-01-01

    Intrahepatic T helper (Th)17 cytokine and serum interleukin (IL)-17 levels in patients with hepatitis B are positively correlated with the progression of liver cirrhosis (LC). IL-35 can significantly inhibit the differentiation of Th17 cells and the synthesis of IL-17. The present study aimed to investigate the function and expression of IL-17 and IL-35 in the blood of patients with hepatitis B-related LC. The levels of IL-17 and IL-35 in the peripheral blood of 30 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), 79 with LC, 14 with chronic severe hepatitis B (CSHB), and 20 normal controls were detected by ELISA. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3), forkhead box (FOX)P3 and IL-17 mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Western blotting was used to determine protein expression. The liver function of patients and normal controls was measured. EBI3, IL-17 and FOXP3 mRNA expression levels in PBMCs from patients with LC, CHB and CSHB were higher than those in cells from the controls. IL-17 mRNA levels differed significantly according to the Child-Pugh classification and exhibited an upward trend over time in contrast to a downward trend for EBI3 and FOXP3 mRNA. The changes in protein expression in the peripheral blood were consistent with the changes in mRNA expression. Serum IL-17 levels were positively correlated with total bilirubin (TBIL), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Child-Pugh grade, and were negatively correlated with albumin. These observed differences were significant. Serum IL-35 levels were negatively correlated with albumin, but not with Child-Pugh grade, ALT and TBIL. IL-17 and IL-35 may be critically involved in the pathogenesis of hepatitis B-related LC. PMID:25323532

  3. Effects of simulated heliox diving at high altitudes on blood cells, liver functions and renal functions.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hui-Jun; Fan, Dan-Feng; Lv, Yan; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Chen; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, Ru-Gang; Pan, Xiao-Wen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of simulated heliox diving at high altitudes on divers' blood cells, liver functions and renal functions. In this experiment, four divers lived for nine consecutive days in a dual-function high-low pressure chamber, which simulated air pressure at an altitude of 3,000 meters and at a 30-meter depth; an altitude of 4,000 meters and 30-meter depth; and at an altitude of 5,200 meters and 30 meters and 50 meters in depth. Total time underwater was 60 minutes. The subjects breathed heliox (with oxygen at 40% and helium at 60%) during the simulated 30-meter dive from zero altitude to 30 meters and while remaining underwater; they breathed air while ascending from 30 meters to 18. They breathed heliox (with oxygen at 26.7% and helium at 73.3%) in the simulated dive from zero altitude to 50 meters underwater, in remaining underwater and in ascending from 50 meters to 29; air while ascending from 29 meters to 18. Pure oxygen was breathed while ascending from 18 meters to the surface; then air. Results indicated: (1) the correlating indices of routine blood, liver and renal functions, and urine routine were all within normal reference ranges; and (2) the indices tested at other periods of time were not significantly different (p > 0.05) from the results at zero-meter level and 3,000-meter level. The study suggests that the heliox diving processes at different high altitudes simulated in this experiment have no significant impact upon divers' blood routine, liver functions and renal functions. PMID:23957203

  4. Angelica keiskei Koidzumi extracts improve some markers of liver function in habitual alcohol drinkers: a randomized double-blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Noh, Hye-Mi; Ahn, Eun-Mi; Yun, Jae-Moon; Cho, Be-Long; Paek, Yu-Jin

    2015-02-01

    Alcohol induces oxidative stress and inflammatory response, which can lead to hepatitis and cirrhosis. Previous studies reported that the extracts of Angelica keiskei Koidzumi (AKE) have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, suggesting that AKE could improve abnormalities associated with alcoholic liver disease. In this study, the effectiveness of AKE supplementation was assessed in 82 habitual alcohol drinkers (male: more than 14 units per week, female: more than 7 units per week) with abnormal liver biochemistry in a placebo-controlled, randomized double-blind trial over 12 weeks. Among the subjects, 65% (n=43) were heavy drinkers consuming more than 35 units per week. Among heavy drinkers, gamma-glutamyl transferase levels of 19 subjects per AKE-treated group were significantly decreased (21.16±37.63, P=.016) with significant differences observed compared to the 24 subjects per placebo group (P=.046). However, no significant differences were observed in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels between the AKE- and placebo-treated groups. These results suggest that AKE supplementation might improve liver function in heavy drinkers. PMID:25531033

  5. Putative Prethymic T Cell Precursors within the Early Human Embryonic Liver: A Molecular and Functional Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Guti; Edgar Fern; Esther Leonardo; Juanjo Lozano; Marfa L. Toribio

    Summary Hematopoietic cells present in the liver in early human fetal life were characterized by phenotypic analysis using a broad panel of monoclonal antibodies. Expression of very late antigen 4 and leukocyte function-associated antigen 3 cell adhesion receptors and 4F2 cell activation molecules was found in all fetal liver hematopoietic cells before acquisition of T cell-, B cell-, or myeloid-

  6. ROOM TEMPERATURE STORAGE EFFECTS ON PICM-19H CELL FUNCTION: ARTIFICIAL LIVER DEVICE IMPLICATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extracorporeal artificial liver device (ALD) support systems may offer a feasible approach for patients suffering from liver disease. The overall objective of this work is to develop an ALD using the pig epiblast-derived PICM-19H cell line. PICM-19H cells exhibit hepatocyte functions including ammon...

  7. Systemic administration of 2-hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin to symptomatic Npc1-deficient mice slows cholesterol sequestration in the major organs and improves liver function.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Adam M; Terpack, Sandi J; Posey, Kenneth S; Liu, Benny; Ramirez, Charina M; Turley, Stephen D

    2014-10-01

    In Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease, loss-of-function mutations in either NPC1 or NPC2 result in progressive accumulation of unesterified cholesterol (UC) and glycosphingolipids in all organs, leading to neurodegeneration, pulmonary dysfunction and sometimes liver failure. There is no cure for this disorder. Studies using primarily NPC mouse models have shown that systemic administration of 2-hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (2HP?CD), starting in early neonatal life, diminishes UC accumulation in most organs, slows disease progression and extends lifespan. The key question now is whether delaying the start of 2HP?CD treatment until early adulthood, when the amount of entrapped UC throughout the body is markedly elevated, has any of the benefits found when treatment begins at 7 days of age. In the present study, Npc1(-/-) and Npc1(+/+) mice were given saline or 2HP?CD subcutaneously at 49, 56, 63 and 70 days of age, with measurements of organ weights, liver function tests and tissue cholesterol levels performed at 77 days. In Npc1(-/-) mice, treatment with 2HP?CD from 49 days reduced whole-liver cholesterol content at 77 days from 33.0 ± 1.0 to 9.1 ± 0.5 mg/organ. Comparable improvements were seen in other organs, such as the spleen, and in the animal as a whole. There was a transient increase in biliary cholesterol concentration in Npc1(-/-) mice after 2HP?CD. Plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities in 77-day-old 2HP?CD-treated Npc1(-/-) mice were reduced compared with saline-treated controls. The lifespan of Npc1(-/-) mice given 2HP?CD marginally exceeded that of the saline-treated controls (99 ± 1.1 vs 94 ± 1.4 days, respectively; P < 0.05). Thus, 2HP?CD is effective in mobilizing entrapped cholesterol in late-stage NPC disease leading to improved liver function. PMID:25115571

  8. Structural and functional importance of transmembrane domain 3 (TM3) in the aspartate:alanine antiporter AspT: topology and function of the residues of TM3 and oligomerization of AspT.

    PubMed

    Nanatani, Kei; Maloney, Peter C; Abe, Keietsu

    2009-04-01

    AspT, the aspartate:alanine antiporter of Tetragenococcus halophilus, a membrane protein of 543 amino acids with 10 putative transmembrane (TM) helices, is the prototype of the aspartate:alanine exchanger (AAE) family of transporters. Because TM3 (isoleucine 64 to methionine 85) has many amino acid residues that are conserved among members of the AAE family and because TM3 contains two charged residues and four polar residues, it is thought to be located near (or to form part of) the substrate translocation pathway that includes the binding site for the substrates. To elucidate the role of TM3 in the transport process, we carried out cysteine-scanning mutagenesis. The substitutions of tyrosine 75 and serine 84 had the strongest inhibitory effects on transport (initial rates of l-aspartate transport were below 15% of the rate for cysteine-less AspT). Considerable but less-marked effects were observed upon the replacement of methionine 70, phenylalanine 71, glycine 74, arginine 76, serine 83, and methionine 85 (initial rates between 15% and 30% of the rate for cysteine-less AspT). Introduced cysteine residues at the cytoplasmic half of TM3 could be labeled with Oregon green maleimide (OGM), whereas cysteines close to the periplasmic half (residues 64 to 75) were not labeled. These results suggest that TM3 has a hydrophobic core on the periplasmic half and that hydrophilic residues on the cytoplasmic half of TM3 participate in the formation of an aqueous cavity in membranes. Furthermore, the presence of l-aspartate protected the cysteine introduced at glycine 62 against a reaction with OGM. In contrast, l-aspartate stimulated the reactivity of the cysteine introduced at proline 79 with OGM. These results demonstrate that TM3 undergoes l-aspartate-induced conformational alterations. In addition, nonreducing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses and a glutaraldehyde cross-linking assay suggest that functional AspT forms homo-oligomers as a functional unit. PMID:19181816

  9. Structural and Functional Importance of Transmembrane Domain 3 (TM3) in the Aspartate:Alanine Antiporter AspT: Topology and Function of the Residues of TM3 and Oligomerization of AspT?

    PubMed Central

    Nanatani, Kei; Maloney, Peter C.; Abe, Keietsu

    2009-01-01

    AspT, the aspartate:alanine antiporter of Tetragenococcus halophilus, a membrane protein of 543 amino acids with 10 putative transmembrane (TM) helices, is the prototype of the aspartate:alanine exchanger (AAE) family of transporters. Because TM3 (isoleucine 64 to methionine 85) has many amino acid residues that are conserved among members of the AAE family and because TM3 contains two charged residues and four polar residues, it is thought to be located near (or to form part of) the substrate translocation pathway that includes the binding site for the substrates. To elucidate the role of TM3 in the transport process, we carried out cysteine-scanning mutagenesis. The substitutions of tyrosine 75 and serine 84 had the strongest inhibitory effects on transport (initial rates of l-aspartate transport were below 15% of the rate for cysteine-less AspT). Considerable but less-marked effects were observed upon the replacement of methionine 70, phenylalanine 71, glycine 74, arginine 76, serine 83, and methionine 85 (initial rates between 15% and 30% of the rate for cysteine-less AspT). Introduced cysteine residues at the cytoplasmic half of TM3 could be labeled with Oregon green maleimide (OGM), whereas cysteines close to the periplasmic half (residues 64 to 75) were not labeled. These results suggest that TM3 has a hydrophobic core on the periplasmic half and that hydrophilic residues on the cytoplasmic half of TM3 participate in the formation of an aqueous cavity in membranes. Furthermore, the presence of l-aspartate protected the cysteine introduced at glycine 62 against a reaction with OGM. In contrast, l-aspartate stimulated the reactivity of the cysteine introduced at proline 79 with OGM. These results demonstrate that TM3 undergoes l-aspartate-induced conformational alterations. In addition, nonreducing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses and a glutaraldehyde cross-linking assay suggest that functional AspT forms homo-oligomers as a functional unit. PMID:19181816

  10. Renal and liver functions and muscle injuries during training and after competition in Thai boxers

    PubMed Central

    Saengsirisuwan, V.; Phadungkij, S.; Pholpramool, C.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To observe whether there are any injuries to muscle and deleterious effects on the liver and kidneys during training and after competition in Thai boxers. METHODS: Serum levels of intracellular enzymes and specific markers in the urine were measured during training and after fighting in Thai boxers. RESULTS: During the training period, the activities of muscle enzymes were significantly increased whereas those of the liver enzymes and creatinine clearance were not changed. After a match, on the other hand, both liver and muscle enzyme activities were elevated but renal function was decreased. CONCLUSIONS: The training protocol for Thai boxers has virtually no deleterious effect on liver and renal function, but damage to skeletal muscle cells may occur. However, competition may cause muscle injury without any obvious damage to the liver and kidneys. ??? PMID:9865402

  11. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3-? improves liver microcirculation and hepatocellular function after hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Jellestad, Lena; Fink, Tobias; Pradarutti, Sascha; Kubulus, Darius; Wolf, Beate; Bauer, Inge; Thiemermann, Chris; Rensing, Hauke

    2014-02-01

    Ischemia and reperfusion may cause liver injury and are characterized by hepatic microperfusion failure and a decreased hepatocellular function. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3?, a serine-threonine kinase that has recently emerged as a key regulator in the modulation of the inflammatory response after stress events, may be protective in conditions like sepsis, inflammation and shock. Therefore, aim of the study was to assess the role of GSK-3? in liver microcirculation and hepatocellular function after hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation (H/R). Anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent pretreatment with Ringer´s solution, vehicle (DMSO) or TDZD-8 (1 mg/kg), a selective GSK-3? inhibitor, 30 min before induction of hemorrhagic shock (mean arterial pressure 35±5 mmHg for 90 min) and were resuscitated with shed blood and Ringer´s solution (2h). 5h after resuscitation hepatic microcirculation was assessed by intravital microscopy. Propidium iodide (PI) positive cells, liver enzymes and alpha-GST were measured as indicators of hepatic injury. Liver function was estimated by assessment of indocyanine green plasma disappearance rate. H/R led to a significant decrease in sinusoidal diameters and impairment of liver function compared to sham operation. Furthermore, the number of PI positive cells in the liver as well as serum activities of liver enzymes and alpha-GST increased significantly after H/R. Pretreatment with TDZD-8 prevented the changes in liver microcirculation, hepatocellular injury and liver function after H/R. A significant rise in the plasma level of IL-10 was observed. Thus, inhibition of GSK-3? before hemorrhagic shock modulates the inflammatory response and improves hepatic microcirculation and hepatocellular function. PMID:24389157

  12. Significant correlations between the flow volume of patent ductus venosus and early neonatal liver function: possible involvement of patent ductus venosus in postnatal liver function

    PubMed Central

    Murayama, K; Nagasaka, H; Tate, K; Ohsone, Y; Kanazawa, M; Kobayashi, K; Kohno, Y; Takayanagi, M

    2006-01-01

    Background The biochemical features of portosystemic venous shunt with high flow volume are hypergalactosaemia, hyperammonaemia, prolonged blood coagulation time, and raised serum bile acid concentration. The ductus venosus remains open with shunt flow in most neonates for a certain period after birth. However, the effects of blood flow through the ductus venosus on neonatal liver function remain unclear. Objective To elucidate the effect of patency of the ductus venosus on liver function in early neonates. Methods Subjects were divided into three groups by gestational age (group I, 29–32?weeks; group II, 33–36?weeks; group III, 37–41?weeks). The shunt flow volume through the ductus venosus was examined serially using ultrasonography, and correlations between flow volume and liver function in the respective groups were calculated during the first week after birth. Results Group I had a higher flow volume and later functional closure than the other two groups. Plasma ammonia and serum total bile acid concentrations correlated with flow volume in groups I and II, and blood galactose and galactose 1?phosphate concentrations correlated significantly with flow volume in group III. Percentage hepaplastin also correlated significantly with flow volume in all groups, but plasma vitamin K concentration did not in any group. Conclusions Patent ductus venosus has a considerable effect on crucial liver functions such as ammonia detoxification, blood coagulation, and regulation of serum total bile acid concentration in early neonates. PMID:16449256

  13. HEPATIC FUNCTION AFTER GENETICALLY-ENGINEERED PIG LIVER TRANSPLANTATION IN BABOONS

    PubMed Central

    Ekser, Burcin; Echeverri, Gabriel J.; Hassett, Andrea Cortese; Yazer, Mark H.; Long, Cassandra; Meyer, Michael; Ezzelarab, Mohamed; Lin, Chih Che; Hara, Hidetaka; van der Windt, Dirk J.; Dons, Eefje M.; Phelps, Carol; Ayares, David; Cooper, David K.C.; Gridelli, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Background If ‘bridging’ to allotransplantation is to be achieved by a pig liver xenograft, adequate hepatic function needs to be assured. Methods We have studied hepatic function in baboons after transplantation of livers from ?1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout (GTKO,n=1) or GTKO pigs transgenic for CD46 (GTKO/CD46,n=5). Monitoring was by liver function tests and coagulation parameters. Pig-specific proteins in the baboon serum/plasma were identified by Western blot. In 4 baboons, coagulation factors were measured. The results were compared with values from healthy humans, baboons, and pigs. Results Recipient baboons died or were euthanized after 4-7 days following internal bleeding associated with profound thrombocytopenia. However, parameters of liver function, including coagulation, remained in the near-normal range, except for some cholestasis. Western blot demonstrated that pig proteins (albumin, fibrinogen, haptoglobin, plasminogen) were produced by the liver from day 1. Production of several pig coagulation factors was confirmed. Conclusions After the transplantation of genetically-engineered pig livers into baboons (1) many parameters of hepatic function, including coagulation, were normal or near-normal; (2) there was evidence for production of pig proteins, including coagulation factors, and (3) these appeared to function adequately in baboons, though inter-species compatibility of such proteins remains to be confirmed. PMID:20606605

  14. Morphologic and functional characterization of caveolae in rat liver hepatocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Calvo; Francesc Tebar; Carmen Lopez-Iglesias; Carlos Enrich

    2001-01-01

    Caveolae are small pits on the plasma membrane found in several, if not all, differentiated cells. They are involved in potocytosis, endocytosis, transcytosis, membrane trafficking, and signal transduction. Although caveolin has recently been identified in subcellular fractions from rat liver there is no clear-cut morphologic evidence for the presence of prototypical caveolae on the surface of hepatocytes. In this study

  15. [The effect of chronic internal irradiation from incorporated radionuclides on liver function].

    PubMed

    Dedenko, I K; Zakharash, M P; Ganich, O N; Siksa?, L T; Shnitser, R I; Sofienko, G I; Bytsa?, N N; Zemskov, V S; Trunov, V I; Bukanov, V N

    1990-01-01

    On chronic supply to the body of a mixture of nuclear division products lanthanum-140, barium-140, tellurium-132, neodymium-147, neptunium-239, zirconium-95, niobium-95, iodine-131, cerium-141, -144, cesium-134, -137, and ruthenium-103 are detectable in liver tissue within the first months. In the 2 to 4 years following the disaster, liver tissue primarily accumulates cerium-144, radium-226, thorium-228, -232, ruthenium-106, antimony-125, and europium-154. Within the first periods the liver radionuclide content was 19 to 31% higher than that in the blood, and in the following years it was 24 to 38% higher. The radionuclides indicated were actively excreted with the bile into the gastrointestinal lumen. Within the first months after the chronic internal radiation the functional liver disorders were detectable in 30 to 40% of the patients. Later on diverse acute and chronic diseases of the liver, gallbladder and pancreas were detectable in 20 to 30% of the patients. The radionuclide content in the body was found to be in parallel with functional liver disorders. Acceleration of radionuclide excretion from the body results in liver function improvement. PMID:2084889

  16. Serum Alanine Transaminase Total Bilirubin Concentrations Predict CYP3A Activity as Measured by Midazolam and 1?-Hydroxylation

    PubMed Central

    He, Rui; Li, Yuhong; Ruan, Jinguang

    2015-01-01

    Background Microsomal enzyme P450 (CYP450) plays an important role in metabolism of most xenobiotics. The activity of CYP3A decreases in patients with liver dysfunction. However, whether serum concentrations of liver enzymes reflect the activity of CYP3A is unclear. We aimed to search for a new clue to predict the activity of CYP3A and guide clinical medication. Material/Methods Forty-five patients undergoing surgery under general anesthesia were enrolled in the study, including 15 cases with normal liver function (Group N), 15 cases with moderate fatty liver according to both the results of ultrasonic diagnosis of moderate fatty liver and the laboratory results of elevated alanine transaminase less than 3 times the normal (Group M), and 15 cases with end-stage liver disease (Group S). Each patient received a single dose of 5 mg midazolam intravenously. CYP3A activity was measured by plasma 1?hydroxymidsazolam/midazolam (1?-OH-MDZ/MDZ) ratio at 2 h after administration of midazolam. Results They was no significant difference in CYP3A activity between the patients with normal liver function and moderate fatty liver (P=0.332). The activity of CYP3A in Group S was lower than in Group N and Group M (P=0.000). Multiple linear regression analysis showed a statistically significant linear relationship between the activity of CYP3A and alanine transaminase (ALT, R2=0.682, P=0.000), and total bilirubin (TB, R2=0.519, P=0.002). There were no other factors, including albumin (ALB, P=0.881) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, P=0.497), correlated with the activity of CYP3A. Conclusions We conclude that the activity of CYP3A in patients with end-stage liver disease decreased. The decrease in the activity of CYP3A was determined by the increase in the serum concentration of ALT and TB and not by patient’s age or body weight. ALT and TB therefore might have predictive value for the activity of CYP3A. An abnormal liver function test likely gives the clinician a hint about dosage adjustment. PMID:25648948

  17. Prediction of Liver Function by Using Magnetic Resonance-based Portal Venous Perfusion Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Cao Yue, E-mail: yuecao@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Wang Hesheng [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Johnson, Timothy D. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Pan, Charlie [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Hussain, Hero [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Balter, James M.; Normolle, Daniel; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Feng, Mary [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether liver function can be assessed globally and spatially by using volumetric dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging MRI (DCE-MRI) to potentially aid in adaptive treatment planning. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients with intrahepatic cancer undergoing focal radiation therapy (RT) were enrolled in institution review board-approved prospective studies to obtain DCE-MRI (to measure regional perfusion) and indocyanine green (ICG) clearance rates (to measure overall liver function) prior to, during, and at 1 and 2 months after treatment. The volumetric distribution of portal venous perfusion in the whole liver was estimated for each scan. We assessed the correlation between mean portal venous perfusion in the nontumor volume of the liver and overall liver function measured by ICG before, during, and after RT. The dose response for regional portal venous perfusion to RT was determined using a linear mixed effects model. Results: There was a significant correlation between the ICG clearance rate and mean portal venous perfusion in the functioning liver parenchyma, suggesting that portal venous perfusion could be used as a surrogate for function. Reduction in regional venous perfusion 1 month after RT was predicted by the locally accumulated biologically corrected dose at the end of RT (P<.0007). Regional portal venous perfusion measured during RT was a significant predictor for regional venous perfusion assessed 1 month after RT (P<.00001). Global hypovenous perfusion pre-RT was observed in 4 patients (3 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis), 3 of whom had recovered from hypoperfusion, except in the highest dose regions, post-RT. In addition, 3 patients who had normal perfusion pre-RT had marked hypervenous perfusion or reperfusion in low-dose regions post-RT. Conclusions: This study suggests that MR-based volumetric hepatic perfusion imaging may be a biomarker for spatial distribution of liver function, which could aid in individualizing therapy, particularly for patients at risk for liver injury after RT.

  18. Effects of Kupffer cell inhibition on liver function and hepatocellular activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hong; Peng, Renxiu; Reed, Eddie; Li, Qingdi Q

    2003-10-01

    Kupffer cells are the tissue macrophages in the liver and play an important role in the defense mechanisms of the body. However, their role in liver function and hepatocellular activity remains unclear. This study was therefore undertaken to investigate the effect of gadolinium chloride-induced Kupffer cell dysfunction on liver function and hepatocellular signaling activity in mice and to establish an animal model for studying the role of Kupffer cells in vivo. Kunming mice were intraperitoneally injected with different doses of gadolinium chloride (GdCl3), a selective inhibitor of Kupffer cells, and the mice were sacrificed at different time periods following the drug administration. Hepatotoxicity and Kupffer cell function, as well as the levels of signaling molecules and inflammatory mediators in liver tissue, were measured. We demonstrated that the administration of 10-20 mg/kg GdCl3 caused apoptosis of Kupffer cells and blocked the Kupffer cell effector function, as shown by a decrease in CD68 expression and phagocytic activity. In addition, the NO, PGE2 and cAMP levels in the liver were also reduced significantly. Furthermore, 20 mg/kg GdCl3 decreased the levels of cNOS, PKC and NF-kappaB p65 expression by 26.6, 68 and 64%, respectively. In contrast, hepatotoxicity was not observed when the same doses of GdCl3 were used. Moreover, we found that Kupffer cell function and the NO, PGE2 and cAMP contents, as well as PKC and NF-kappaB p65 levels in the liver were only partially, but not fully recovered in up to six days following 20 mg/kg GdCl3 injection. However, the administration of higher doses of GdCl3 (40 mg/kg) caused both hepatotoxicity and Kupffer cell necrosis, as well as an increased release of TNF, NO, and PGE2 in the liver. These results indicate that administration of suitable doses of GdCl3 blocked the effector function of Kupffer cells selectively, but did not cause liver parenchymal cell toxicity, and provide a frame-work for the establishment of an animal model for studying the role of Kupffer cells in signaling in the liver. Lastly, the present study also provides evidence that shows there is a positive association between the expression of cAMP, PKC, or NF-kappaB and the levels of NO, PGE2 and TNF in the liver of Kupffer-cell-blocked mice, and suggests that Kupffer cells may play a part in mediating liver function and hepatocellular activity. PMID:12964033

  19. Choline’s role in maintaining liver function: new evidence for epigenetic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Mehedint, Mihai G.; Zeisel, Steven H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Humans eating diets low in choline develop fatty liver and liver damage. Rodents fed choline–methionine-deficient diets not only develop fatty liver, but also progress to develop fibrosis and hepatocarcinoma. This review focuses on the role of choline in liver function, with special emphasis on the epigenetic mechanisms of action. Recent findings Dietary intake of methyl donors like choline influences the methylation of DNA and histones, thereby altering the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. The liver is the major organ within which methylation reactions occur, and many of the hepatic genes involved in pathways for the development of fatty liver, hepatic fibrosis, and hepatocarcinomas are epigenetically regulated. Summary Dietary intake of choline varies over a three-fold range and many humans have genetic polymorphisms that increase their demand for choline. Choline is an important methyl donor needed for the generation of S-adenosylmethionine. Dietary choline intake is an important modifier of epigenetic marks on DNA and histones, and thereby modulates the gene expression in many of the pathways involved in liver function and dysfunction. PMID:23493015

  20. Methamphetamine causes acute hyperthermia-dependent liver damage.

    PubMed

    Halpin, Laura E; Gunning, William T; Yamamoto, Bryan K

    2013-10-01

    Methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity has been correlated with damage to the liver but this damage has not been extensively characterized. Moreover, the mechanism by which the drug contributes to liver damage is unknown. This study characterizes the hepatocellular toxicity of methamphetamine and examines if hyperthermia contributes to this liver damage. Livers from methamphetamine-treated rats were examined using electron microscopy and hematoxylin and eosin staining. Methamphetamine increased glycogen stores, mitochondrial aggregation, microvesicular lipid, and hydropic change. These changes were diffuse throughout the hepatic lobule, as evidenced by a lack of hematoxylin and eosin staining. To confirm if these changes were indicative of damage, serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase were measured. The functional significance of methamphetamine-induced liver damage was also examined by measuring plasma ammonia. To examine the contribution of hyperthermia to this damage, methamphetamine-treated rats were cooled during and after drug treatment by cooling their external environment. Serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase, as well as plasma ammonia were increased concurrently with these morphologic changes and were prevented when methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia was blocked. These findings support that methamphetamine produces changes in hepatocellular morphology and damage persisting for at least 24 h after drug exposure. At this same time point, methamphetamine treatment significantly increases plasma ammonia concentrations, consistent with impaired ammonia metabolism and functional liver damage. Methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia contributes significantly to the persistent liver damage and increases in peripheral ammonia produced by the drug. PMID:25505562

  1. Attenuation of Kupffer Cell Function in Acute on Chronic Liver Injury Enhanced Engraftment of Transplanted Hepatocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ray-Hwang Yuan; Hui-Ling Chen; Huey-Ling Chen; Ming-Kung Hsu; Po-Huang Lee; Mei-Hwei Chang

    2007-01-01

    Background  The present study was designed to elucidate the relationship of engraftment efficiency of transplanted cells and Kupffer cell\\u000a function in mice with acute on chronic liver injury and acute liver injury.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The recipient dipeptidyl peptidase IV knockout (DPPIV–\\/–) mice were divided into two groups: (1) the acute on chronic liver injury group (CCl4\\/APAP group) that received CCl4 (1 ml\\/kg) twice

  2. A comparative study of amino acid consumption by rat islet cells and the clonal beta-cell line BRIN-BD11 - the functional significance of L-alanine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Dixon; J Nolan; N McClenaghan; P R Flatt; P Newsholme

    2003-01-01

    Evidence has been published that ?-alanine may, under appropriate conditions, promote insulin secretion in nor- mal rodent islets and various beta cell lines. Previous results utilising the clonal beta-cell line BRIN-BD11, demon- strated that alanine dramatically elevated insulin release by a mechanism requiring oxidative metabolism. We demonstrate in this paper that addition of ?-alanine had an insulinotropic effect in dispersed

  3. Identification and functional characterization of lipid binding proteins in liver and adipose tissues of Gallus domesticus

    E-print Network

    Sams, Gretchen Hubler

    1990-01-01

    OF GALLUS DOMESTICUS Introduction To date several tissue-specific, structurally distinct fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) have been identified in mammalian tissues. Rat liver FABP (L- FABP) is the best characterized of these proteins. Binding...IDENTIFICATION AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF LIPID BINDING PROTEINS IN LIVER AND ADIPOSE TISSUES OF GALLUS DOMESTICUS A Thesis by GRETCHEN HUBLER SAMS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial...

  4. Influence of Visceral Obesity and Liver Fat on Vascular Structure and Function in Obese Subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Sturm; Anton Sandhofer; Julia Engl; Markus Laimer; Clemens Molnar; Susanne Kaser; Helmut Weiss; Herbert Tilg; Christoph F. Ebenbichler; Josef R. Patsch

    2009-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and increased intima–media thickness (IMT) have been found in obese patients. Both regional fat distribution and liver steatosis may influence these markers of subclinical atherosclerosis. We sought to determine the interrelationships of endothelial function, carotid IMT, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue accumulation, and liver steatosis in severely obese subjects. In 64 severely obese patients (BMI 42.3 ± 4.3

  5. Hepatic function testing can assist in treatment planning for liver cancer patients

    Cancer.gov

    Monitoring the hepatic function of unresectable liver cancer patients, measured by 99mTc-labeled iminodiacetic acid (HIDA) via single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) prior to and during radiation therapy, provides vital information that could guide more customized treatment plans and reduce risks of liver injury, according to University of Michigan research being presented at the 2013 Cancer Imaging and Radiation Therapy Symposium. The University of Michigan is home to the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center.

  6. Glycyrrhetinic acid-functionalized degradable micelles as liver-targeted drug carrier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Huang; Wei Wang; Ping Wang; Chuang-Nian Zhang; Qin Tian; Yue Zhang; Xiu-Hua Wang; Rui-Tao Cha; Chun-Hong Wang; Zhi Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Recently, many efforts have been devoted to investigating the application of functionalized micelles as targeted drug delivery\\u000a carriers. In this study, glycyrrhetinic acid (GA, a liver targeting ligand) modified poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(?-benzyl l-glutamate) micelles were prepared and evaluated as a potential liver-targeted drug carrier. The aggregation behavior, stability,\\u000a size and morphology of the micelles were investigated. Anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) was

  7. Alanine, Aspartate, and Asparagine Metabolism in Microorganisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tadao Oikawa

    \\u000a l-Alanine, l-aspartate,\\u000a and l-asparagine are non-essential amino acids that can be produced\\u000a in microorganisms with various enzymes. l-Alanine is produced by\\u000a alanine transaminase (EC 2.6.1.2), alanine:oxo-acid aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.12), ?-alanine -pyruvate\\u000a aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.18), alanine-glyoxylate transaminase (EC 2.6.1.44), aspartate 1-decarboxylase\\u000a (EC 4.1.1.11), aspartate 4-decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.12), alanine racemase (EC 5.1.1.1), and alanine-tRNA\\u000a ligase (EC 6.1.1.7). l-Aspartate is produced by aspartate transaminase

  8. Self-assembling functionalized nanopeptides for immediate hemostasis and accelerative liver tissue regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Tzu-Yun; Wu, Hsi-Chin; Huang, Ming-Yuan; Chang, Wen-Han; Lee, Chao-Hsiung; Wang, Tzu-Wei

    2013-03-01

    Traumatic injury or surgery may trigger extensive bleeding. However, conventional hemostatic methods have limited efficacy and may cause surrounding tissue damage. In this study, we use self-assembling peptides (SAPs) and specifically extend fragments of functional motifs derived from fibronectin and laminin to evaluate the capability of these functionalized SAPs in the effect of hemostasis and liver tissue regeneration. From the results, these peptides can self-assemble into nanofibrous network structure and gelate into hydrogel with pH adjustment. In animal studies, the efficacy of hemostasis is achieved immediately within seconds in a rat liver model. The histological analyses by hematoxylin-eosin stain and immunohistochemistry reveal that SAPs with these functionalized motifs significantly enhance liver tissue regeneration. In brief, these SAPs may have potential as pharmacological tools to extensively advance clinical therapeutic applications in hemostasis and tissue regeneration in the field of regenerative medicine.Traumatic injury or surgery may trigger extensive bleeding. However, conventional hemostatic methods have limited efficacy and may cause surrounding tissue damage. In this study, we use self-assembling peptides (SAPs) and specifically extend fragments of functional motifs derived from fibronectin and laminin to evaluate the capability of these functionalized SAPs in the effect of hemostasis and liver tissue regeneration. From the results, these peptides can self-assemble into nanofibrous network structure and gelate into hydrogel with pH adjustment. In animal studies, the efficacy of hemostasis is achieved immediately within seconds in a rat liver model. The histological analyses by hematoxylin-eosin stain and immunohistochemistry reveal that SAPs with these functionalized motifs significantly enhance liver tissue regeneration. In brief, these SAPs may have potential as pharmacological tools to extensively advance clinical therapeutic applications in hemostasis and tissue regeneration in the field of regenerative medicine. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1. Experimental models of rat liver injury. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr33710c

  9. Manipulation of nitric oxide in an animal model of acute liver injury. The impact on liver and intestinal function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diya Adawi; F Behzad Kasravi; Göran Molin

    Background: Nitric oxide may have a protective effect on the liver during endotoxemia and chronic inflammation. There is evidence that it maintains liver and intestinal tissue integrity during inflammatory processes. We evaluated the impact of altering nitric oxide release on acute liver injury, the associated gut injury and bacterial translocation, at different time intervals. Methods: An acute rat liver injury

  10. [Effects of ß-alanine supplementation on athletic performance].

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Raúl; Hernández Lougedo, Juan; Maté-Muñoz, José Luis; Garnacho-Castaño, Manuel Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Carnosine, dipeptide formed by amino acids ß-alanine and L-histidine, has important physiological functions among which its antioxidant and related memory and learning. However, in connection with the exercise, the most important functions would be associated with muscle contractility, improving calcium sensitivity in muscle fibers, and the regulatory function of pH. Thus, it is proposed that carnosine is the major intracellular buffer, but could contribute to 7-10% in buffer or buffer capacity. Since carnosine synthesis seems to be limited by the availability of ß-alanine supplementation with this compound has been gaining increasing popularity among the athlete population. Therefore, the objective of this study literature review was to examine all those research works have shown the effect of ß-alanine supplementation on athletic performance. Moreover, it also has attempted to establish a specific dosage that maximizing the potential benefits, minimize paresthesia, the main side effect presented in response to supplementation. PMID:25561107

  11. Nuclear imaging for functional evaluation and theragnosis in liver malignancy and transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Eo, Jae Seon; Paeng, Jin Chul; Lee, Dong Soo

    2014-01-01

    Currently, nuclear imaging such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is increasingly used in the management of liver malignancy. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET is the most widely used nuclear imaging in liver malignancy as in other cancers, and has been reported to be effective in diagnosis, response monitoring, recurrence evaluation, and prognosis prediction. Other PET imaging such as 11C-acetate PET is also used complementarily to FDG-PET in diagnosis of liver malignancy. Additionally, image-based evaluation of regional hepatic function can be performed using nuclear imaging. Those imaging modalities are also effective for candidate selection, treatment planning, and perioperative evaluation in liver surgery and transplantation. Recently, nuclear imaging has been actively adopted in the transarterial radioembolization therapy of liver malignancy, according to the concept of theragnosis. With the development of new hybrid imaging technologies such as PET/magnetic resonance imaging and SPECT/CT, nuclear imaging is expected to be more useful in the management of liver malignancy, particularly regarding liver surgery and transplantation. In this review, the efficacy and roles of nuclear imaging methods in diagnosis, transplantation and theragnosis are discussed. PMID:24833867

  12. Continuous prazosin administration in cirrhotic patients: Effects on portal hemodynamics and on liver and renal function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agustín Albillos; Jose Luis Lledó; Irma Rossi; María Pérez-Páramo; Maria Jose Tabuenca; Rafael Bañares; Jerónimo Iborra; Aurelio Garrido; Pedro Escartín; Jaime Bosch

    1995-01-01

    Background & Aims: Hepatic vascular resistance is influenced by ?-adrenergic tone. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous blockade of ?-adrenoceptors with prazosin on hemodynamics, liver function, and renal function and whether the association of propranolol or furosemide enhances the portal pressure lowering effect of prazosin. Methods: Cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension were studied at

  13. Implications of the immunoregulatory functions of mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of human liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hu; Xu, Ruonan; Zhang, Zheng; Chen, Liming; Shi, Ming; Wang, Fu-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been recently studied in animal models, and in clinical trials of patients with fulminant hepatic failure, end-stage liver diseases and inherited metabolic disorders. Modulatory cytokines produced by MSCs can inhibit immunocyte proliferation and migration to the liver, thereby attenuating inflammatory injury and reducing hepatocyte apoptosis. In addition, MSCs play an important role in regressing liver fibrosis and in supporting the function, proliferation and differentiation of endogenous hepatocytes under appropriate conditions. Although remarkable progress has been achieved in basic and clinical MSC studies, optimal therapeutic regimens for the clinical application of MSCs, such as optimal doses, transplantation routine and interval period for transplantation, need to be elucidated in detail. Furthermore, the long-term safety and therapeutic efficacy of MSC transplantation should be evaluated in future clinical trials. This review summarizes our current understanding of the immunomodulatory effects of MSC therapies on human liver diseases. PMID:21200380

  14. Expression of Functional Cell-Cell Channels from Cloned Rat Liver Gap Junction Complementary DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, G.; Miller, T.; Paul, D.; Voellmy, R.; Werner, R.

    1987-06-01

    An oocyte expression system was used to test the relation between a complementary DNA (cDNA) clone encoding the liver gap junction protein and cell-cell channels. Total liver polyadenylated messenger RNA injected into oocytes induced cell-cell channels between paired oocytes. This induction was blocked by simultaneous injection of antisense RNA transcribed from the gap junction cDNA. Messenger RNA selected by hybridization to the cDNA clone and translated in oocyte pairs yielded a higher junctional conductance than unselected liver messenger RNA. Cell-cell channels between oocytes were also formed when the cloned cDNA was expressed under the control of a heat-shock promoter. A concentration-dependent induction of channels was observed in response to injection with in vitro transcribed gap junction messenger RNA. Thus, the liver gap junction cDNA encodes a protein that is essential for the formation of functional cell-cell channels.

  15. Diet, liver function and dimethylhydrazine-induced gastrointestinal tumours in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Castleden, W. M.; Shilkin, K. B.

    1979-01-01

    Male Wistar rats fed a normal laboratory pelleted diet, when treated s.c. with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) 10 mg/kg/wk survived the 24-week experiment, showed no signs of chemical toxicity or macroscopic liver damage, and developed mainly large-bowel tumours. Conversely, male Wistar rats treated with 20 mg/kg/wk DMH did not survive the full term of the experiment and developed ascites, pleural effusions and nodular livers. They also developed more small-bowel tumours than large-bowel tumours. The relationship between the predominant site of tumour development and dosage of DMH was highly significant. Male Wistar rats fed with an all-liquid diet (Vivonex) and treated with 20 mg/kg/wk DMH behaved quite differently both in terms of survival and site of tumour development. These rats survived the full term of the experiment, showed no signs of chemical toxicity, experienced minimal liver damage and developed predominantly large-bowel tumours. The protection afforded by the all-liquid diet against DMH toxicity and small-bowel tumour induction was statistically highly significant. A series of blood tests with special reference to liver function confirmed the highly significant degree of protection against liver damage afforded by the all-liquid diet. Sections of liver from treated rats were examined, and a simple pathological scoring system was devised which showed a highly significant difference in liver histology between standard diet and liquid-diet rats treated with 20 mg/kg/wk DMH. The results strongly suggest an association between severity of liver damage from DMH and the subsequent development of small-bowel tumours. The all-liquid diet protected rats from liver damage and these rats developed significantly fewer small-bowel tumours. ImagesFig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:444411

  16. Elevated TCA cycle function in the pathology of diet-induced hepatic insulin resistance and fatty liver[S

    PubMed Central

    Satapati, Santhosh; Sunny, Nishanth E.; Kucejova, Blanka; Fu, Xiaorong; He, Tian Teng; Méndez-Lucas, Andrés; Shelton, John M.; Perales, Jose C.; Browning, Jeffrey D.; Burgess, Shawn C.

    2012-01-01

    The manner in which insulin resistance impinges on hepatic mitochondrial function is complex. Although liver insulin resistance is associated with respiratory dysfunction, the effect on fat oxidation remains controversial, and biosynthetic pathways that traverse mitochondria are actually increased. The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is the site of terminal fat oxidation, chief source of electrons for respiration, and a metabolic progenitor of gluconeogenesis. Therefore, we tested whether insulin resistance promotes hepatic TCA cycle flux in mice progressing to insulin resistance and fatty liver on a high-fat diet (HFD) for 32 weeks using standard biomolecular and in vivo 2H/13C tracer methods. Relative mitochondrial content increased, but respiratory efficiency declined by 32 weeks of HFD. Fasting ketogenesis became unresponsive to feeding or insulin clamp, indicating blunted but constitutively active mitochondrial ?-oxidation. Impaired insulin signaling was marked by elevated in vivo gluconeogenesis and anaplerotic and oxidative TCA cycle flux. The induction of TCA cycle function corresponded to the development of mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction, hepatic oxidative stress, and inflammation. Thus, the hepatic TCA cycle appears to enable mitochondrial dysfunction during insulin resistance by increasing electron deposition into an inefficient respiratory chain prone to reactive oxygen species production and by providing mitochondria-derived substrate for elevated gluconeogenesis. PMID:22493093

  17. Analysis of the relationship between liver regeneration rate and blood levels

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myeong-Seong; Lee, Hae-Kag; Kim, Seon-Yeong; Cho, Jae-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the difference of liver function changes according to the liver regeneration rate after liver transplantation through blood tests. Methods: Fifty donors, who underwent computed tomography (CT) 3D volumetry, were analyzed before and after liver transplantation. CT 3D volumetry was used as a study method to measure the mean liver regeneration volume and regeneration rate. Then, blood levels were measured including alanine transaminase (ALT), aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and total bilirubin. Results: The liver regeneration rate rapidly increased from 39.13±4.91% befoone1 month and 90.31±13.09% 16 months after surgery furthermore. Blood levels rapidly increased 7 days after surgery and then decreased 16 months after surgery compared to the state before surgery. Conclusion: This study results could be used as a basis for the prognosis of future liver transplantations.

  18. Effects of inducer pretreatment on liver function and morphology in the mountain vole Microtus montanus.

    PubMed

    Hincks, J R; Brindley, W A

    1987-01-01

    Liver function and morphology of the mountain vole, Microtus montanus, were examined after i.p. injections of phenobarbital, beta-naphthoflavone, or Aroclor 1254 at three dose levels. The results of the liver function tests showed serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase and serum malathion carboxylesterase activities were normal in all the treatment groups. The histological results showed no necrotic tissue but did reveal two different morphological stages related to the level of monooxygenase activity; a low induction state was represented by foamy vacuolated hepatocytes while high induction states were related to enlarged, swollen, hypertrophied cells. PMID:2882929

  19. The multiple functional roles of mesenchymal stem cells in participating in treating liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei-hui; Song, Fu-qiang; Ren, Li-na; Guo, Wen-qiong; Wang, Tao; Feng, Ya-xing; Tang, Li-jun; Li, Kun

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a group of stem cells derived from the mesodermal mesenchyme. MSCs can be obtained from a variety of tissues, including bone marrow, umbilical cord tissue, umbilical cord blood, peripheral blood and adipose tissue. Under certain conditions, MSCs can differentiate into many cell types both in vitro and in vivo, including hepatocytes. To date, four main strategies have been developed to induce the transdifferentiation of MSCs into hepatocytes: addition of chemical compounds and cytokines, genetic modification, adjustment of the micro-environment and alteration of the physical parameters used for culturing MSCs. Although the phenomenon of transdifferentiation of MSCs into hepatocytes has been described, the detailed mechanism is far from clear. Generally, the mechanism is a cascade reaction whereby stimulating factors activate cellular signalling pathways, which in turn promote the production of transcription factors, leading to hepatic gene expression. Because MSCs can give rise to hepatocytes, they are promising to be used as a new treatment for liver dysfunction or as a bridge to liver transplantation. Numerous studies have confirmed the therapeutic effects of MSCs on hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis and other liver diseases, which may be related to the differentiation of MSCs into functional hepatocytes. In addition to transdifferentiation into hepatocytes, when MSCs are used to treat liver disease, they may also inhibit hepatocellular apoptosis and secrete various bioactive molecules to promote liver regeneration. In this review, the capacity and molecular mechanism of MSC transdifferentiation, and the therapeutic effects of MSCs on liver diseases are thoroughly discussed. PMID:25534251

  20. Platelet function during haemoperfusion in acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Hughes, R D; Lane, D A; Cella, G; Kakkar, V V; Langley, P G; Williams, R

    1980-01-01

    The changes in platelet-related haemostatic parameters have been studied during haemoperfusion of eleven patients with acute liver failure. Five patients were treated by haemoperfusion with an albumin-coated resin column and six with a polymer-coated charcoal column. The platelet and white cell losses over four hours' haemoperfusion were small in both groups. Significant increases in beta-thromboglobulin (mean 341 +/- SE 145 ng/ml) were seen after one hour in the patients treated by charcoal haemoperfusion. One patient in the charcoal group with the greatest rises in beta-thromboglobulin (860 ng/ml) and screen filtration pressure (205 mmHg) developed severe hypotension and haemoperfusion was terminated after 1 hour. One patient in the resin group showed rapid consumption of heparin after 2 hours. Measurement of beta-thromboglobulin is a sensitive assay of platelet activation during haemoperfusion. Albumin-coated resin haemoperfusion appears to be a more blood-compatible procedure with respect to platelets than charcoal haemoperfusion. PMID:6444397

  1. Functional Role of Monocytes and Macrophages for the Inflammatory Response in Acute Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Henning W.; Trautwein, Christian; Tacke, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Different etiologies such as drug toxicity, acute viral hepatitis B, or acetaminophen poisoning can cause acute liver injury or even acute liver failure (ALF). Excessive cell death of hepatocytes in the liver is known to result in a strong hepatic inflammation. Experimental murine models of liver injury highlighted the importance of hepatic macrophages, so-called Kupffer cells, for initiating and driving this inflammatory response by releasing proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1beta, or monocyte-chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, CCL2) as well as activating other non-parenchymal liver cells, e.g., endothelial or hepatic stellate cells. Many of these proinflammatory mediators can trigger hepatocytic cell death pathways, e.g., via caspase activation, but also activate protective signaling pathways, e.g., via nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B). Recent studies in mice demonstrated that these macrophage actions largely depend on the recruitment of monocytes into the liver, namely of the inflammatory Ly6c+ (Gr1+) monocyte subset as precursors of tissue macrophages. The chemokine receptor CCR2 and its ligand MCP-1/CCL2 promote monocyte subset infiltration upon liver injury. In contrast, the chemokine receptor CX3CR1 and its ligand fractalkine (CX3CL1) are important negative regulators of monocyte infiltration by controlling their survival and differentiation into functionally diverse macrophage subsets upon injury. The recently identified cellular and molecular pathways for monocyte subset recruitment, macrophage differentiation, and interactions with other hepatic cell types in the injured liver may therefore represent interesting novel targets for future therapeutic approaches in ALF. PMID:23091461

  2. Expression and function of the atypical cadherin FAT1 in chronic liver disease

    SciTech Connect

    Valletta, Daniela; Czech, Barbara [Department of Internal Medicine I, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany)] [Department of Internal Medicine I, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Thasler, Wolfgang E. [Grosshadern Tissue Bank and Center for Liver Cell Research, Department of Surgery, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich (Germany)] [Grosshadern Tissue Bank and Center for Liver Cell Research, Department of Surgery, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich (Germany); Mueller, Martina [Department of Internal Medicine I, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany)] [Department of Internal Medicine I, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Bosserhoff, Anja-Katrin [Institute of Pathology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany)] [Institute of Pathology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Hellerbrand, Claus, E-mail: claus.hellerbrand@ukr.de [Department of Internal Medicine I, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany)] [Department of Internal Medicine I, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany)

    2012-09-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The expression of the atypical cadherin FAT1 is increased in chronic liver disease. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FAT1 expression goes up during the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activated HSCs are the cellular source of enhanced FAT1 expression in diseased livers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FAT1 enhanced NFkB activity and resistance to apoptosis in activated HSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FAT1 is a new therapeutic target for prevention and treatment of hepatic fibrosis. -- Abstract: Hepatic fibrosis can be considered as wound healing process in response to hepatocellular injury. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is a key event of hepatic fibrosis since activated HSCs are the cellular source of enhanced extracellular matrix deposition, and reversion of liver fibrosis is accompanied by clearance of activated HSCs by apoptosis. The atypical cadherin FAT1 has been shown to regulate diverse biological functions as cell proliferation and planar cell polarity, and also to affect wound healing. Here, we found increased FAT1 expression in different murine models of chronic liver injury and in cirrhotic livers of patients with different liver disease. Also in hepatic tissue of patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis FAT1 expression was significantly enhanced and correlated with collagen alpha I(1) expression. Immunohistochemistry revealed no significant differences in staining intensity between hepatocytes in normal and cirrhotic liver tissue but myofibroblast like cells in fibrotic septa of cirrhotic livers showed a prominent immunosignal. Furthermore, FAT1 mRNA and protein expression markedly increased during in vitro activation of primary human and murine HSCs. Together, these data indicated activated HSCs as cellular source of enhanced FAT1 expression in diseased livers. To gain insight into the functional role of FAT1 in activated HSCs we suppressed FAT1 in these cells by siRNA. We newly found that FAT1 suppression in activated HSCs caused a downregulation of NF{kappa}B activity. This transcription factor is critical for apoptosis resistance of HSCs, and consequently, we detected a higher apoptosis rate in FAT1 suppressed HSCs compared to control cells. Our findings suggest FAT1 as new therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of hepatic fibrosis in chronic liver disease.

  3. Hepatocytes buried in the cirrhotic livers of patients with biliary atresia proliferate and function in the livers of urokinase-type plasminogen activator–NOG mice

    PubMed Central

    Suemizu, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Kazuaki; Kawai, Kenji; Higuchi, Yuichiro; Kasahara, Mureo; Fujimoto, Junichiro; Tanoue, Akito; Nakamura, Masato

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of biliary atresia (BA), which leads to end-stage cirrhosis in most patients, has been thought to inflame and obstruct the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts. BA is not believed to be caused by abnormalities in parenchymal hepatocytes. However, there has been no report of a detailed analysis of hepatocytes buried in the cirrhotic livers of patients with BA. Therefore, we evaluated the proliferative potential of these hepatocytes in immunodeficient, liver-injured mice [the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) transgenic NOD/Shi-scid IL2r?null (NOG); uPA-NOG strain]. We succeeded in isolating viable hepatocytes from the livers of patients with BA who had various degrees of fibrosis. The isolated hepatocytes were intrasplenically transplanted into the livers of uPA-NOG mice. The hepatocytes of only 3 of the 9 BA patients secreted detectable amounts of human albumin in sera when they were transplanted into mice. However, human leukocyte antigen–positive hepatocyte colonies were detected in 7 of the 9 mice with hepatocyte transplants from patients with BA. We demonstrated that hepatocytes buried in the cirrhotic livers of patients with BA retained their proliferative potential. A liver that was reconstituted with hepatocytes from patients with BA was shown to be a functioning human liver with a drug-metabolizing enzyme gene expression pattern that was representative of mature human liver and biliary function, as ascertained by fluorescent dye excretion into the bile canaliculi. These results imply that removing the primary etiology via an earlier portoenterostomy may increase the quantity of functionally intact hepatocytes remaining in a cirrhotic liver and may contribute to improved outcomes. PMID:24838399

  4. Development of Hodgkin's disease in the course of liver cirrhosis and impaired monocyte function.

    PubMed Central

    Dan, M.; Hassner, A.; Jedwab, M.; Shibolet, S.

    1984-01-01

    The monocyte function, as measured by phagocytosis and killing of Candida albicans and Candida pseudotropicalis by peripheral blood monocytes, was found impaired in a patient with cirrhosis of the liver on two separate determinations before the occurrence of bleeding from oesophageal varices. Unexpectedly, Hodgkin's disease was diagnosed in enlarged abdominal lymph nodes found on the occasion of an emergency portocaval shunt operation. PMID:6463000

  5. Comparison of five incubation systems for rat liver slices using functional and viability parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Olinga; Kees Groen; Ingrid H. Hof; Ruben De Kanter; Henk J. Koster; Winfried R. Leeman; Alphons A. J. J. L. Rutten; Klaas Van Twillert; Geny M. M. Groothuis

    1997-01-01

    Precision-cut liver slices are presently used for various research objects, e.g. to study metabolism, transport, and toxicity of xenobiotics. Various incubation systems are presently employed, but a systematic comparison between these incubation systems with respect to preservation of slice function has not been performed yet. Therefore, we started a comparative study to evaluate five of these systems: the shaken flask

  6. Effects of dietary lipids on body composition and liver function in juvenile red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Craig; B. S. Washburn; D. M. Gatlin

    1999-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of dietary lipids on body composition and liver function in juvenile red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus. Diets were formulated to contain 40% crude protein from solvent-extracted menhaden fish meal and 0, 7, 14 or 21% lipid from menhaden fish oil. The basal diet, without supplemental fish oil, contained lipid at

  7. Liver transplant - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The liver is in the right upper abdomen. The liver serves many functions, including the detoxification of substances delivered ... A liver transplant may be recommended for: liver damage due to alcoholism (Alcoholic cirrhosis) primary biliary cirrhosis long-term ( ...

  8. Effects of ticrynafen on hepatic excretory function in the isolated perfused rat liver.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, H J; Abernathy, C O; Lukacs, L; Ezekiel, M

    1982-01-01

    Ticrynafen, a uricosuric diuretic agent which causes hepatocellular injury in man as an apparent idiosyncratic reaction, was found to impair the function of the isolated perfused rat liver. At concentrations in the perfusate equivalent to those produced in the blood of man by therapeutic doses, the drug led to a striking reduction in bile flow and sulfobromophthalein excretion and release of aspartate aminotransferase into the perfusate. These adverse effects were enhanced by treatment of rats with phenobarbital prior to removal of the liver, indicating that the adverse effect of ticrynafen is probably caused by a metabolite produced in the cytochrome P-450 system. PMID:7068119

  9. Cellular and molecular functions of hepatic stellate cells in inflammatory responses and liver immunology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The liver is a central immunological organ. Liver resident macrophages, Kupffer cells (KC), but also sinusoidal endothelial cells, dendritic cells (DC) and other immune cells are involved in balancing immunity and tolerance against pathogens, commensals or food antigens. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) have been primarily characterized as the main effector cells in liver fibrosis, due to their capacity to transdifferentiate into collagen-producing myofibroblasts (MFB). More recent studies elucidated the fundamental role of HSC in liver immunology. HSC are not only the major storage site for dietary vitamin A (Vit A) (retinol, retinoic acid), which is essential for proper function of the immune system. This pericyte further represents a versatile source of many soluble immunological active factors including cytokines [e.g., interleukin 17 (IL-17)] and chemokines [C-C motif chemokine (ligand) 2 (CCL2)], may act as an antigen presenting cell (APC), and has autophagy activity. Additionally, it responds to many immunological triggers via toll-like receptors (TLR) (e.g., TLR4, TLR9) and transduces signals through pathways and mediators traditionally found in immune cells, including the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway or inflammasome activation. Overall, HSC promote rather immune-suppressive responses in homeostasis, like induction of regulatory T cells (Treg), T cell apoptosis (via B7-H1, PDL-1) or inhibition of cytotoxic CD8 T cells. In conditions of liver injury, HSC are important sensors of altered tissue integrity and initiators of innate immune cell activation. Vice versa, several immune cell subtypes interact directly or via soluble mediators with HSC. Such interactions include the mutual activation of HSC (towards MFB) and macrophages or pro-apoptotic signals from natural killer (NK), natural killer T (NKT) and gamma-delta T cells (?? T-cells) on activated HSC. Current directions of research investigate the immune-modulating functions of HSC in the environment of liver tumors, cellular heterogeneity or interactions promoting HSC deactivation during resolution of liver fibrosis. Understanding the role of HSC as central regulators of liver immunology may lead to novel therapeutic strategies for chronic liver diseases. PMID:25568859

  10. In vitro photothermal study of gold nanoshells functionalized with small targeting peptides to liver cancer cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shun-Ying LiuZhong-Shi; Zhong-Shi Liang; Feng Gao; Shu-Fang Luo; Guo-Quan Lu

    2010-01-01

    Gold nanoshells functionalized with a small peptide as a targeting agent were designed and synthesized for photothermal therapy\\u000a of hepatocarcinoma. The nanoshells exhibited high absorption in the near-infrared (NIR) range, 800–1,100 nm, and were functionalized\\u000a with 12-amino acid sequence peptides for targeting liver cancer cells. The nanoshells were characterized by Dynamic Light\\u000a Scattering (DLS), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and IR spectra.

  11. Functional Roles of Protein Nitration in Acute and Chronic Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A.; Song, Byoung-Joon

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide, when combined with superoxide, produces peroxynitrite, which is known to be an important mediator for a number of diseases including various liver diseases. Peroxynitrite can modify tyrosine residue(s) of many proteins resulting in protein nitration, which may alter structure and function of each target protein. Various proteomics and immunological methods including mass spectrometry combined with both high pressure liquid chromatography and 2D PAGE have been employed to identify and characterize nitrated proteins from pathological tissue samples to determine their roles. However, these methods contain a few technical problems such as low efficiencies with the detection of a limited number of nitrated proteins and labor intensiveness. Therefore, a systematic approach to efficiently identify nitrated proteins and characterize their functional roles is likely to shed new insights into understanding of the mechanisms of hepatic disease pathophysiology and subsequent development of new therapeutics. The aims of this review are to briefly describe the mechanisms of hepatic diseases. In addition, we specifically describe a systematic approach to efficiently identify nitrated proteins to study their causal roles or functional consequences in promoting acute and chronic liver diseases including alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases. We finally discuss translational research applications by analyzing nitrated proteins in evaluating the efficacies of potentially beneficial agents to prevent or treat various diseases in the liver and other tissues. PMID:24876909

  12. ADH1B and ADH1C Genotype, Alcohol Consumption and Biomarkers of Liver Function: Findings from a Mendelian Randomization Study in 58,313 European Origin Danes

    PubMed Central

    Lawlor, Debbie A.; Benn, Marianne; Zuccolo, Luisa; De Silva, N. Maneka G.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Smith, George Davey; Nordestgaard, Børge G.

    2014-01-01

    Background The effect of alcohol consumption on liver function is difficult to determine because of reporting bias and potential residual confounding. Our aim was to determine this effect using genetic variants to proxy for the unbiased effect of alcohol. Methods We used variants in ADH1B and ADH1C genes as instrumental variables (IV) to estimate the causal effect of long-term alcohol consumption on alanine aminotransferase (ALT), ?-glutamyl-transferase (?-GT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin and prothrombin action. Analyses were undertaken on 58,313 Danes (mean age 56). Results In both confounder adjusted multivariable and genetic-IV analyses greater alcohol consumption, amongst those who drank any alcohol, was associated with higher ALT [mean difference per doubling of alcohol consumption: 3.4% (95% CI: 3.1, 3.7) from multivariable analyses and 3.7% (?4.5, 11.9) from genetic-IV analyses] and ?-GT [8.2% (7.8, 8.5) and 6.8% (?2.8, 16.5)]. The point estimates from the two methods were very similar and statistically the results from the two methods were consistent with each other for effects with ALT and ?-GT (both pdiff>0.3). Results from the multivariable analyses suggested a weak inverse association of alcohol with ALP [?1.5% (?1.7, ?1.3)], which differed from the strong positive effect found in genetic-IV analyses [11.6% (6.8, 16.4)] (pdiff<0.0001). In both multivariable and genetic-IV analyses associations with bilirubin and protrombin action were weak and close to the null. Conclusions Our results suggest that greater consumption of alcohol is related to poorer liver function as indicated by higher ALT, ?-GT and ALP, but not to clotting or bilirubin. PMID:25503943

  13. The functional role of microRNAs in alcoholic liver injury

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Kelly; Herrera, Leonardo; Zhou, Tianhao; Francis, Heather; Han, Yuyan; Levine, Phillip; Lin, Emily; Glaser, Shannon; Alpini, Gianfranco; Meng, Fanyin

    2014-01-01

    The function of microRNAs (miRNAs) during alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has recently become of great interest in biological research. Studies have shown that ALD associated miRNAs play a crucial role in the regulation of liver-inflammatory agents such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), one of the key inflammatory agents responsible for liver fibrosis (liver scarring) and the critical contributor of alcoholic liver disease. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria, is responsible for TNF-? release by Kupffer cells. miRNAs are the critical mediators of LPS signalling in Kupffer cells, hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells. Certain miRNAs, in particular miR-155 and miR-21, show a positive correlation in up-regulation of LPS signalling when they are exposed to ethanol. ALD is related to enhanced gut permeability that allows the levels of LPS to increase, leads to increased secretion of TNF-? by the Kupffer cells and subsequently promotes alcoholic liver injury through specific miRNAs. Meanwhile, two of the most frequently dysregulated miRNAs in steatohepatitis, miR-122 and miR-34a are the critical mediators in ethanol/LPS activated survival signalling during ALD. In this review, we summarize recent findings regarding the experimental and clinical aspects of functions of specific microRNAs, focusing mainly on inflammation and cell survival after ethanol/LPS treatment, and advances on the role of circulating miRNAs in human alcoholic disorders. PMID:24400890

  14. Association of Heme Oxygenase 1 with the Restoration of Liver Function after Damage in Murine Malaria by Plasmodium yoelii

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Sumanta; Mazumder, Somnath; Siddiqui, Asim Azhar; Iqbal, M. Shameel; Banerjee, Chinmoy; Sarkar, Souvik; De, Rudranil; Goyal, Manish; Bindu, Samik

    2014-01-01

    The liver efficiently restores function after damage induced during malarial infection once the parasites are cleared from the blood. However, the molecular events leading to the restoration of liver function after malaria are still obscure. To study this, we developed a suitable model wherein mice infected with Plasmodium yoelii (45% parasitemia) were treated with the antimalarial ?/?-arteether to clear parasites from the blood and, subsequently, restoration of liver function was monitored. Liver function tests clearly indicated that complete recovery of liver function occurred after 25 days of parasite clearance. Analyses of proinflammatory gene expression and neutrophil infiltration further indicated that hepatic inflammation, which was induced immediately after parasite clearance from the blood, was gradually reduced. Moreover, the inflammation in the liver after parasite clearance was found to be correlated positively with oxidative stress and hepatocyte apoptosis. We investigated the role of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) in the restoration of liver function after malaria because HO-1 normally renders protection against inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis under various pathological conditions. The expression and activity of HO-1 were found to be increased significantly after parasite clearance. We even found that chemical silencing of HO-1 by use of zinc protoporphyrin enhanced inflammation, oxidative stress, hepatocyte apoptosis, and liver injury. In contrast, stimulation of HO-1 by cobalt protoporphyrin alleviated liver inflammation and reduced oxidative stress, hepatocyte apoptosis, and associated tissue injury. Therefore, we propose that selective induction of HO-1 in the liver would be beneficial for the restoration of liver function after parasite clearance. PMID:24818663

  15. Chronic kidney disease-epidemiology formula and model for end-stage liver disease score in the assessment of renal function in candidates for liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tinti, F; Lai, S; Umbro, I; Mordenti, M; Barile, M; Ginanni Corradini, S; Rossi, M; Poli, L; Nofroni, I; Berloco, P B; Mitterhofer, A P

    2010-05-01

    Assessment of renal function in patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) awaiting liver transplantation (OLT) is critical. Various conditions may cause renal damage in ESLD. Renal and liver functions are intertwined due to splanchnic hemodynamic relationships; renal failure rarely occurs in patients without advanced decompensated cirrhosis. The recent literature suggests that evaluation of renal function should include an assessment of liver function. The aim of this study was to evaluate different methods to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in patient among ESLD candidates for OLT over 1 year. We also correlated renal and hepatic functions. Fifty-two cirrhotic patients Model for End-Stage Liver Disease [MELD] > 10) were enrolled in the study. All patients were evaluated at baseline and every 4 months (T1-T4) thereafter for 1 year. The GFR was calculated by creatinine clearance, and estimated by Cockroft and Gault, Modified Diet Renal Disease (MDRD) 4 and 6 variable and Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology (CKD-EPI) formulae. Hepatic functions were evaluated by MELD score, albumin, bilirubin, and International Normalized Ratio (INR). We observed not statistically significant increase mean value of MELD score, bilirubin, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen and a reduced serum sodium. There were no significant differences among various methods to evaluate GFR at each time over 1 year. We did not observe any association between renal and hepatic function, except at T4 for MELD and GFR estimated with MDRD 4 (P = .009) and 6 (P = .008) parameters or CKD-EPI (P = .036), and MELD and sodium (P = .001). Our results showed that evaluation of renal function in cirrhosis should include an evaluation of hepatic function. In our case, MDRD and CKD-EPI seemed to be the more accurate formulae to evaluate renal function in relation to hepatic function. PMID:20534268

  16. HepatoProteomics: Applying Proteomic Technologies to the Study of Liver Function and Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, Deborah L.; Proll, Sean; Jacobs, Jon M.; Chan, Eric Y.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Katze, Michael G.

    2006-08-01

    The wealth of human genome sequence information now available, coupled with technological advances in robotics, nanotechnology, mass spectrometry, and information systems, has given rise to a method of scientific inquiry known as functional genomics. By using these technologies to survey gene expression and protein production on a near global scale, the goal of functional genomics is to assign biological function to genes with currently unknown roles in physiology. This approach carries particular appeal in disease research, where it can uncover the function of previously unknown genes and molecular pathways that are directly involved in disease progression. With this knowledge may come improved diagnostic techniques, prognostic capabilities, and novel therapeutic approaches. In this regard, the continuing evolution of proteomic technologies has resulted in an increasingly greater impact of proteome studies in many areas of research and hepatology is no exception. Our laboratory has been extremely active in this area, applying both genomic and proteomic technologies to the analysis of virus-host interactions in several systems, including the study of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and HCV-associated liver disease. Since proteomic technologies are foreign to many hepatologists (and to almost everyone else), this article will provide an overview of proteomic methods and technologies and describe how they're being used to study liver function and disease. We use our studies of HCV infection and HCV-associated liver disease to present an operational framework for performing high throughput proteome analysis and extracting biologically meaningful information.

  17. Probing alanine transaminase catalysis with hyperpolarized 13CD3-pyruvate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barb, A. W.; Hekmatyar, S. K.; Glushka, J. N.; Prestegard, J. H.

    2013-03-01

    Hyperpolarized metabolites offer a tremendous sensitivity advantage (>104 fold) when measuring flux and enzyme activity in living tissues by magnetic resonance methods. These sensitivity gains can also be applied to mechanistic studies that impose time and metabolite concentration limitations. Here we explore the use of hyperpolarization by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) in mechanistic studies of alanine transaminase (ALT), a well-established biomarker of liver disease and cancer that converts pyruvate to alanine using glutamate as a nitrogen donor. A specific deuterated, 13C-enriched analog of pyruvic acid, 13C3D3-pyruvic acid, is demonstrated to have advantages in terms of detection by both direct 13C observation and indirect observation through methyl protons introduced by ALT-catalyzed H-D exchange. Exchange on injecting hyperpolarized 13C3D3-pyruvate into ALT dissolved in buffered 1H2O, combined with an experimental approach to measure proton incorporation, provided information on mechanistic details of transaminase action on a 1.5 s timescale. ALT introduced, on average, 0.8 new protons into the methyl group of the alanine produced, indicating the presence of an off-pathway enamine intermediate. The opportunities for exploiting mechanism-dependent molecular signatures as well as indirect detection of hyperpolarized 13C3-pyruvate and products in imaging applications are discussed.

  18. Importance of intrahepatic mechanisms to gluconeogenesis from alanine during exercise and recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Wasserman, D.H.; Williams, P.E.; Lacy, D.B.; Green, D.R.; Cherrington, A.D.

    1988-04-01

    These studies were performed to assess the importance of intrahepatic mechanisms to gluconeogenesis in the dog during 150 min of treadmill exercise and 90 min of recovery. Sampling catheters were implanted in an artery and portal and hepatic veins 16 days before experimentation. Infusions of (U-/sup 14/C)alanine, (3-/sup 3/H)glucose, and indocyanine green were used to assess gluconeogenesis. During exercise, a decline in arterial and portal vein plasma alanine and in hepatic blood flow led to a decrease in hepatic alanine delivery. During recovery, hepatic blood flow was restored to basal, causing an increase in hepatic alanine delivery beyond exercise rates but still below resting rates. Hepatic fractional alanine extraction increased from 0.26 +/- 0.02 at rest to 0.64 +/- 0.03 during exercise and remained elevated during recovery. Net hepatic alanine uptake was 2.5 +/- 0.2 mumol.kg-1.min-1 at rest and remained unchanged during exercise but was increased during recovery. The conversion rate of (/sup 14/C)alanine to glucose had increased by 248 +/- 38% by 150 min of exercise and had increased further during recovery. The efficiency with which alanine was channeled into glucose in the liver was accelerated to a rate of 338 +/- 55% above basal by 150 min of exercise but declined slightly during recovery. In conclusion, 1) gluconeogenesis from alanine is accelerated during exercise, due to an increase in the hepatic fractional extraction of the amino acid and through intrahepatic mechanisms that more efficiently channel it into glucose.

  19. Impact of metabolic syndrome on elevated serum alanine aminotransferase levels in the Japanese population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takafumi Saito; Yuko Nishise; Naohiko Makino; Hiroaki Haga; Rika Ishii; Kazuo Okumoto; Jun-itsu Ito; Hisayoshi Watanabe; Koji Saito; Hiroaki Takeda; Hitoshi Togashi; Isao Kubota; Makoto Daimon; Takeo Kato; Sumio Kawata

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level is used as an initial test for detection of liver diseases, and recent studies have also highlighted its potential value as a measure of overall health and survival as a marker of an increased risk of metabolic disorder. This study was designed to clarify the prevalence of elevated ALT levels in the

  20. Examination of the liver in personnel working with liquid rocket propellant

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Palle; Bredahl, Erik; Lauritsen, Ove; Laursen, Thomas

    1970-01-01

    Petersen, P., Bredahl, E., Lauritsen, O., and Laursen, T. (1970).Brit. J. industr. Med.,27, 141-146. Examination of the liver in personnel working with liquid rocket propellants. Personnel working with liquid rocket propellants were subjected to routine health examinations, including liver function tests, as the propellant, unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) is potentially toxic to the liver. In 46 persons the concentrations of serum alanine aminotransferase (SGPT) were raised. Liver biopsy was performed in 26 of these men; 6 specimens were pathological (fatty degeneration), 5 were uncertain, and 15 were normal. All 6 pathological biopsies were from patients with a raised SGPT at the time of biopsy. Of the 15 persons with a normal liver biopsy, 14 had a normal SGPT, while one (who was an alcoholic) had a raised SGPT. The connection between SGPT and histology of the liver, as well as the possible causal relation between the pathological findings and exposure to UDMH, is discussed. Images PMID:5428632

  1. Evaluation of Liver Function After Proton Beam Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Mizumoto, Masashi; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Hashimoto, Takayuki [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Fukuda, Kuniaki [Department of Gastroenterology, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Oshiro, Yoshiko; Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Abei, Masato [Department of Gastroenterology, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Kawaguchi, Atsushi [Biostatistics Center, Kurume University, Kurume-shi, Fukuoka (Japan); Hayashi, Yasutaka; Ohkawa, Ayako; Hashii, Haruko; Kanemoto, Ayae [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Moritake, Takashi [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Tohno, Eriko [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Tsuboi, Koji [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Sakae, Takeji [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Sakurai, Hideyuki, E-mail: hsakurai@pmrc.tsukuba.ac.jp [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Our previous results for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma with proton beam therapy (PBT) revealed excellent local control. In this study, we focused on the impact of PBT on normal liver function. Methods and Materials: The subjects were 259 patients treated with PBT at University of Tsukuba between January 2001 and December 2007. We evaluated the Child-Pugh score pretreatment, on the final day of PBT, and 6, 12, and 24 months after treatment with PBT. Patients who had disease progression or who died with tumor progression at each evaluation point were excluded from the analysis to rule out an effect of tumor progression. An increase in the Child-Pugh score of 1 or more was defined as an adverse event. Results: Of the 259 patients, 241 had no disease progression on the final day of PBT, and 91 had no progression within 12 months after PBT. In univariate analysis, the percentage volumes of normal liver receiving at least 0, 10, 20, and 30 GyE in PBT (V0, 10, 20, and 30) were significantly associated with an increase of Child-Pugh score at 12 months after PBT. Of the 91 patients evaluated at 12 months, 66 had no increase of Child-Pugh score, 15 had a 1-point increase, and 10 had an increase of {>=}2 points. For the Youden index, the optimal cut-offs for V0, V10, V20, and V30 were 30%, 20%, 26%, and 18%, respectively. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that liver function after PBT is significantly related to the percentage volume of normal liver that is not irradiated. This suggests that further study of the relationship between liver function and PBT is required.

  2. Assessment of the value of serum cholinesterase as a liver function test for cirrhotic patients

    PubMed Central

    MENG, FANPING; YIN, XIAOJUAN; MA, XUEMEI; GUO, XIAO-DONG; JIN, BO; LI, HANWEI

    2013-01-01

    A variety of laboratory tests are used in the evaluation of hepatic patients. Serum cholinesterase is reduced in liver dysfunction in contrast to other enzymes. The aim of this study was to assess the value of serum cholinesterase in evaluating liver reserve function in cirrhotic patients. A total of 866 cirrhotic patients were divided into three groups according to their Child-Pugh score. Serum cholinesterase of the patients was detected using the enzyme rate method. Simultaneously, serum albumin was detected using the bromocresol green test, while serum plasma prothrombin time was detected using the clotting assay. Using analysis of variance, the value of serum cholinesterase was analyzed in evaluating the liver reserve function of cirrhotic patients in different Child grades. Using correlation analysis, the correction between cholinesterase and albumin and serum plasma prothrombin time was analyzed. Cirrhotic patients were grouped strictly into A, B and C grades, as per the Child-Pugh score. The results showed that cholinesterase tended to significantly decrease in the three grades Child A (5368.04±1657.32 U/l), Child B (2943.06±1212.84 U/l) and Child C (1832.51±710.68 U/l) (F=264.135, P=0.000). In patients with cirrhosis, cholinesterase was positively correlated with albumin and negatively correlated with serum plasma prothrombin time. In the Child A grade, serum cholinesterase was positively correlated with albumin, but negatively correlated with serum plasma prothrombin time. In the Child B grade, serum cholinesterase remained negatively correlated with serum plasma prothrombin time although there was no significant correlation between cholinesterase and albumin. In the Child C grade, serum cholinesterase positively correlated with albumin, but there was no significant correlation between cholinesterase and serum plasma prothrombin time. In conclusion, correlated with the damage severity of liver cells, cholinesterase may respond to liver reserve function. PMID:24648933

  3. Coffee and liver diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo Muriel; Jonathan Arauz

    2010-01-01

    Coffee consumption is worldwide spread with few side effects. Interestingly, coffee intake has been inversely related to the serum enzyme activities gamma-glutamyltransferase, and alanine aminotransferase in studies performed in various countries. In addition, epidemiological results, taken together, indicate that coffee consumption is inversely related with hepatic cirrhosis; however, they cannot demonstrate a causative role of coffee with prevention of liver

  4. Liver injury in hypervitaminosis A: Evidence for activation of Kupffer cell function

    SciTech Connect

    Sim, W.L.W.

    1988-01-01

    The most important and novel finding of this work was enhanced liver Kupffer cell phagocytic and metabolic function by hypervitaminosis A. An animal model of hypervitaminosis A was developed in male Sprague-Dawley rats gavaged with 250,000 I.U. retinol/kg body weight/day for 3 weeks. Presence of hypervitaminosis A was indicated by characteristic changes in the fur coat, presence of brittle bones and spontaneous fractures and a significant increase in plasma and liver concentrations of retinyl palmitate while retinol levels remained the same as in controls. Hypervitaminosis A did not cause severe liver abnormalities as reflected by normal plasma glutamate pyruvate transaminase activity and bilirubin. The main change was a marked increase in size of the fat or Vitamin A storing cells. Measurement of clearance from blood of indocyanine green and {sup 99m}Tc-disofenin indicated this hepatocyte function was normal. Kupffer cell phagocytic function was enhanced in hypervitaminosis A as determined by clearance from blood of {sup 99m}Tc-sulfur colloid. In vitro, there was also evidence that treatment with high doses of Vitamin A activated or enhanced Kupffer cell function. Kupffer cells from control and Vitamin A treated rats were isolated by enzymatic dispersion, purified by centrifugal elutriation, and placed in culture. Activation was indicated by (1) increased phagocytosis of {sup 51}Cr-labeled opsonized sheep red blood cells (2) enhanced release of superoxide anion and (3) enhanced production of tumor cytolytic factor by Kupffer cells from Vitamin A treated rats.

  5. Preoperative estimation of asialoglycoprotein receptor expression in the remnant liver from CT\\/ 99m Tc-GSA SPECT fusion images correlates well with postoperative liver function parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuji IimuroToru; Toru Kashiwagi; Junichi Yamanaka; Tadamichi Hirano; Shinichi Saito; Takaaki Sugimoto; Shinichiro Watanabe; Nobukazu Kuroda; Toshihiro Okada; Yasukane Asano; Naoki Uyama; Jiro Fujimoto

    2010-01-01

    Background  Accurate preoperative estimation of remnant liver function is critically important for hepatic surgery, and the expression\\u000a of asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGPR) is associated with hepatic function.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Thirty-two patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent surgical resection were studied. To estimate the expression\\u000a of ASGPR in the remnant liver, simulated surgery was performed on fusion images that combined data from 99mtechnetium-galactosyl human serum

  6. Detection of serum AFB1-lysine adduct in Malaysia and its association with liver and kidney functions.

    PubMed

    Mohd Redzwan, S; Rosita, Jamaluddin; Mohd Sokhini, A M; Nurul 'Aqilah, A R; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Kang, Min-Su; Zuraini, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin is ubiquitously found in many foodstuffs and produced by Aspergillus species of fungi. Of many aflatoxin metabolites, AFB1 is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as group one carcinogen and linked to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The study on molecular biomarker of aflatoxin provides a better assessment on the extent of human exposure to aflatoxin. In Malaysia, the occurrences of aflatoxin-contaminated foods have been documented, but there is a lack of data on human exposure to aflatoxin. Hence, this study investigated the occurrence of AFB1-lysine adduct in serum samples and its association with liver and kidney functions. 5ml fasting blood samples were collected from seventy-one subjects (n=71) for the measurement of AFB1-lysine adduct, albumin, total bilirubin, AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALT (alanine transaminase), ALP (alkaline phosphatase), GGT (gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase), creatinine and BUN (blood urea nitrogen). The AFB1-lysine adduct was detected in all serum samples (100% detection rate) with a mean of 6.85±3.20pg/mg albumin (range: 1.13-18.85pg/mg albumin). Male subjects (mean: 8.03±3.41pg/mg albumin) had significantly higher adduct levels than female subjects (mean: 5.64±2.46pg/mg albumin) (p<0.01). It was noteworthy that subjects with adduct levels greater than average (>6.85pg/mg albumin) had significantly elevated level of total bilirubin (p<0.01), GGT (p<0.05) and creatinine (p<0.01). Nevertheless, only the level of total bilirubin, (r=0.347, p-value=0.003) and creatinine (r=0.318, p-value=0.007) showed significant and positive correlation with the level of AFB1-lysine adduct. This study provides a valuable insight on human exposure to aflatoxin in Malaysia. Given that aflatoxin can pose serious problem to the health, intervention strategies should be implemented to limit/reduce human exposure to aflatoxin. Besides, a study with a big sample size should be warranted in order to assess aflatoxin exposure in the general population of Malaysia. PMID:24095591

  7. Restoration of Liver Function and Portosystemic Pressure Gradient after TIPSS and Late TIPSS Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Maedler, U.; Hansmann, J.; Duex, M.; Noeldge, G. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, D-69120Heidelberg (Germany); Sauer, P. [Department of Gastroenterology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Richter, G.M. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, D-69120Heidelberg (Germany)

    2002-03-15

    TIPSS (transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt) may be indicated to control bleeding from esophageal and gastric varicose veins, to reduce ascites, and to treat patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome and veno-occlusive disease. Numerous measures to improve the safety and methodology of the procedure have helped to increase the technical and clinical success. Follow-up of TIPSS patients has revealed shunt stenosis to occur more often in patients with preserved liver function (Child A, Child B). In addition, the extent of liver cirrhosis is the main factor that determines prognosis in the long term. Little is known about the effects of TIPSS with respect to portosystemic hemodynamics. This report deals with a cirrhotic patient who stopped drinking 7 months prior to admission. He received TIPSS to control ascites and recurrent esophageal bleeding. Two years later remarkable hypertrophy of the left liver lobe and shunt occlusion was observed. The portosystemic pressure gradient dropped from 24 mmHg before TIPSS to 11 mmHg and remained stable after shunt occlusion. The Child's B cirrhosis prior to TIPSS turned into Child's A cirrhosis and remained stable during the follow-up period of 32 months. This indicates that liver function of TIPSS patients may recover due to hypertrophy of the remaining non-cirrhotic liver tissue. In addition the hepatic hemodynamics may return to normal. In conclusion, TIPSS cannot cure cirrhosis but its progress may be halted if the cause can be removed. This may result in a normal portosystemic gradient, leading consequently to shunt occlusion.

  8. [Investigation of renal function in liver transplant patients: MDRD or Cockroft-Gault?].

    PubMed

    Pájer, Petra; Fehérvári, Imre

    2009-01-25

    Both acute and chronic liver disease have an effect on renal function. After liver transplantation we have to pay attention to the further loss of function because of applied calcineurin inhibitor treatment. It has nephrotoxic side-effect, so the investigation of renal function is converted into an important mission in liver transplant patients. In our study we compared the results between formulas which use serum creatinine: MDRD, which use albumin, too, has effectively other values than the Cockroft-Gault. We compared the two formulas in a retrospective analysis, in 187 patients at a stated time (before operation, after operation, within 1 week, 1 month). We got higher GFR at each date with Cockroft-Gault; mean differences: 19.56%, 17.33%, 37.18% and 28.8%. In the range of 15-60 ml/min GFR, we found nearly twice as many patients by use of MDRD than by use of Cockroft-Gault. Median with MDRD: 79 ml/min, 65.1 ml/min, 52 ml/min, 49.5 ml/min; median with Cockroft-Gault: 93.8 ml/min, 78 ml/min, 70.1 ml/min, 69.4 ml/min, all are significant ( p < 0.001). Many previous studies have already compared the two formulas in end stage kidney disease. On the basis of these studies, MDRD is suitable also under 30 ml/min GFR, but Cockroft-Gault formula approached real GFR measured with isotope methods only above this value. We got the similar conclusion in the examined patient group. It can be stated that MDRD is more suitable to determine renal function in liver transplant patients. PMID:19144599

  9. Spirulina maxima Protects Liver From Isoniazid and Rifampicin Drug Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Jatav, Santosh Kumar; Kulshrestha, Archana; Zacharia, Anish; Singh, Nita; Tejovathi, G; Bisen, P S; Prasad, G B K S

    2014-04-17

    Hepatotoxicity associated with isoniazid and rifampicin is one of the major impediments in antituberculosis therapy. The present study explored the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacies of Spirulina maxima in isoniazid and rifampicin induced hepatic damage in a rat model. Hepatic damage induced in Wistar rats by isoniazid and rifampicin resulted in significant alterations in biomarkers of liver function, namely, bilirubin, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and oxidative stress markers such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Co-administration of Spirulina maxima along with antituberculosis drugs protected liver from hepatotoxicity due to isoniazid and rifampicin. Administration of Spirulina maxima consecutively for 2 weeks to hepatodamaged animals resulted in restoration of hepatic function as evident from normalization of serum markers of liver function. Thus, the present study revealed remarkable prophylactic and therapeutic potential of Spirulina maxima. Co-administration of Spirulina maxima and antituberculosis drugs is advantageous as it provides extra nutritional benefit. PMID:24742608

  10. The Benefits of vitamin E on liver function and the hemopoietic System in thalassemia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hashemian, Z; Hashemi, A; Fateminasab, M

    2012-01-01

    Background ??Thalassemic children have oxidative stress and antioxidant deficiency even without iron overload status. In these patients, tissue damage due to oxidative stress may be occurred. Also, it seems that thalassemic patients have higher levels of ALT, AST therefore, the main aim of the present study was to determine the benefits of vitamin E as an antioxidant supplements in ?-Thalassemia children. Materials and Methods This clinical trial was carried out on 45 beta-thalassemic patients undergoing occasional transfusions (24 males, 21 females), mean age 16± 8 years, admitted to Yazd and Shahid Sadoughi hospital in 2011. Fallowing three months treatment of vitaminE (vitamin E 400-600 unit/day),liver function test and hemopoitic system parameters were measured. Results Fourty five patients with laboratory confirmation of ?-Thalassemia were recruited following three months vitamin E supplementation, liver function test had higher improvement compared to hemopoitic system parameters , and also serum SGOT was significantly reduced (P-value<0.004 ). Conclusion It seems clear that treatments of ?-thalassemic patients with vitamins E have benefits in promoting antioxidant status and may improve liver function test, as AST and ALT to decrease but this supplement is not effective for hemopoietic system variables. PMID:24575256

  11. Frostbite of the liver: an unrecognized cause of primary non-function?

    PubMed

    Potanos, Kristina; Kim, Heung Bae

    2014-02-01

    Appropriate hypothermic packaging techniques are an essential part of organ procurement. We present a case in which deviation from standard packaging practice may have caused sub-zero storage temperatures during transport, resulting in a clinical picture resembling PNF. An 18-month-old male with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency underwent liver transplant from a size-matched pediatric donor. Upon arrival at the recipient hospital, ice crystals were noted in the UW solution. The transplant proceeded uneventfully with short ischemia times. Surprisingly, transaminases, INR, and total bilirubin were markedly elevated in the postoperative period but returned to near normal by discharge. Follow-up of over five yr has demonstrated normal liver function. Upon review, it was discovered that organ packaging during recovery included storage in the first bag with only 400 mL of UW solution, and pure ice in the second bag instead of slush. This suggests that the postoperative delayed graft function was related to sub-zero storage of the graft during transport. This is the first report of sub-zero cold injury, or frostbite, following inappropriate packaging of an otherwise healthy donor liver. The clinical picture closely resembled PNF, perhaps implicating this mechanism in other unexpected cases of graft non-function. PMID:24384052

  12. RIFLE criteria and hepatic function in the assessment of acute renal failure in liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tinti, F; Umbro, I; Meçule, A; Rossi, M; Merli, M; Nofroni, I; Corradini, S Ginanni; Poli, L; Pugliese, F; Ruberto, F; Berloco, P B; Mitterhofer, A P

    2010-05-01

    Renal dysfunction in cirrhotic patients is primary related to disturbances of circulatory function, triggered by portal hypertension with chronic intrarenal vasoconstriction and hypoperfusion. Pretransplant renal function is an important factor implicated in the development of acute renal failure (ARF) after liver transplantation (OLT), but other factors mostly related to liver function seem to influence the development of ARF. The Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative workgroup developed the RIFLE classification to define ARF. We sought to evaluate the incidence of ARF among patients undergoing OLT, to evaluate the association of ARF with pre-OLT renal and hepatic functions, and to evaluate the influence of ARF on chronic kidney disease (CKD) at 1 month post-OLT. Clinical, renal, hepatic function, and donor risk index data of 24 patients who underwent deceased donor OLT were collected before transplantation, in the perioperative period and in the first month post-OLT. ARF occurred in 37.5% of patients with 56% developing the R grade and 44% the I grade; no patient showed the F grade. An association was observed between ARF and a higher Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score and between ARF and a reduced pre-OLT serum albumin. No association was noted between ARF and other pre-OLT parameters. In cirrhotic patients serum creatinine is a bias for renal function assessment and the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula overestimates GFR. Post-OLT CKD was present in 6.7% of patients without ARF and in 44.4% of patients with ARF. The R grade developed more frequently among patients with viral cirrhosis. The association of ARF with MELD and hypoalbuminemia may be the result of a close relationship between renal and hepatic functions among cirrhotic patients. Post-OLT CKD may be the result of unrecognized, preexisting CKD and/or the effects of not fully resolved acute damage to an injured kidney. PMID:20534269

  13. Liver Immunology

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanos, Dimitrios P.; Gao, Bin; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2014-01-01

    The liver is the largest organ in the body and is generally regarded by non-immunologists as not having lymphoid function. However, such is far from accurate. This review highlights the importance of the liver as a lymphoid organ. Firstly, we discuss experimental data surrounding the role of liver as a lymphoid organ. The liver facilitates a tolerance rather than immunoreactivity, which protects the host from antigenic overload of dietary components and drugs derived from the gut and is also instrumental to fetal immune tolerance. Loss of liver tolerance leads to autoaggressive phenomena which if are not controlled by regulatory lymphoid populations may lead to the induction of autoimmune liver diseases. Liver-related lymphoid subpopulations also act as critical antigen-presenting cells. The study of the immunological properties of liver and delineation of the microenvironment of the intrahepatic milieu in normal and diseased livers provides a platform to understand the hierarchy of a series of detrimental events which lead to immune-mediated destruction of the liver and the rejection of liver allografts. The majority of emphasis within this review will be on the normal mononuclear cell composition of the liver. However, within this context, we will discus select, but not all, immune mediated liver disease and attempt to place these data in the context of human autoimmunity. PMID:23720323

  14. Vitamin D status, liver enzymes, and incident liver disease and mortality: a general population study.

    PubMed

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Borglykke, Anders; Jørgensen, Torben; Thuesen, Betina Heinsbæk; Pisinger, Charlotta; Schmidt, Lars Ebbe; Linneberg, Allan

    2014-09-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common among patients with liver diseases. Both cholestatic and non-cholestatic liver diseases can cause vitamin D deficiency. Whether vitamin D status can also affect liver function is poorly understood. To investigate the association between vitamin D status, liver enzymes, and incident liver disease, we included a total of 2,649 individuals from the Monica10 study conducted in 1993-1994. Vitamin D status as assessed by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin, serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) were measured at baseline. Information on fatal and non-fatal liver disease was obtained from the Danish National Patient Register and The Danish Registry of Causes of Death, respectively. Median follow-up time was 16.5 years, and there were 62 incident cases of fatal and non-fatal liver disease. Multivariable Cox regression analyses with age as underlying time axis and delayed entry showed a statistically significant inverse association between vitamin D status and incident liver disease with a hazard ratio = 0.88 (95 % confidence interval 0.79-0.99) per 10 nmol/l higher vitamin D status at baseline (adjusted for gender, season, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, dietary habits, education, body mass index, and ALT). The risk of having a high level of ALT, AST, or GGT tended to be higher for lower vitamin D levels, although not statistically significant. In this general population study, vitamin D status was inversely associated with incident liver disease. Further studies are needed to determine whether patients in risk of developing impaired liver function should be screened for vitamin D deficiency for preventive purposes. PMID:24272594

  15. ?-Alanine supplementation for athletic performance: an update.

    PubMed

    Bellinger, Phillip M

    2014-06-01

    ?-alanine supplementation has become a common practice among competitive athletes participating in a range of different sports. Although the mechanism by which chronic ?-alanine supplementation could have an ergogenic effect is widely debated, the popular view is that ?-alanine supplementation augments intramuscular carnosine content, leading to an increase in muscle buffer capacity, a delay in the onset of muscular fatigue, and a facilitated recovery during repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise. ?-alanine supplementation appears to be most effective for exercise tasks that rely heavily on ATP synthesis from anaerobic glycolysis. However, research investigating its efficacy as an ergogenic aid remains equivocal, making it difficult to draw conclusions as to its effectiveness for training and competition. The aim of this review was to update, summarize, and critically evaluate the findings associated with ?-alanine supplementation and exercise performance with the most recent research available to allow the development of practical recommendations for coaches and athletes. A critical review of the literature reveals that when significant ergogenic effects have been found, they have been generally shown in untrained individuals performing exercise bouts under laboratory conditions. The body of scientific data available concerning highly trained athletes performing single competition-like exercise tasks indicates that this type of population receives modest but potentially worthwhile performance benefits from ?-alanine supplementation. Recent data indicate that athletes may not only be using ?-alanine supplementation to enhance sports performance but also as a training aid to augment bouts of high-intensity training. ?-alanine supplementation has also been shown to increase resistance training performance and training volume in team-sport athletes, which may allow for greater overload and superior adaptations compared with training alone. The ergogenic potential of ?-alanine supplementation for elite athletes performing repeated high-intensity exercise bouts, either during training or during competition in sports which require repeated maximal efforts (e.g., rugby and soccer), needs scientific confirmation. PMID:24276304

  16. Lipid Profiling and Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals a Functional Interplay between Estradiol and Growth Hormone in Liver

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Pérez, Leandro; Santana-Farré, Ruymán; de Mirecki-Garrido, Mercedes; García, Irma; Guerra, Borja; Mateo-Díaz, Carlos; Iglesias-Gato, Diego; Díaz-Chico, Juan Carlos; Flores-Morales, Amilcar; Díaz, Mario

    2014-01-01

    17?-estradiol (E2) may interfere with endocrine, metabolic, and gender-differentiated functions in liver in both females and males. Indirect mechanisms play a crucial role because of the E2 influence on the pituitary GH secretion and the GHR-JAK2-STAT5 signaling pathway in the target tissues. E2, through its interaction with the estrogen receptor, exerts direct effects on liver. Hypothyroidism also affects endocrine and metabolic functions of the liver, rendering a metabolic phenotype with features that mimic deficiencies in E2 or GH. In this work, we combined the lipid and transcriptomic analysis to obtain comprehensive information on the molecular mechanisms of E2 effects, alone and in combination with GH, to regulate liver functions in males. We used the adult hypothyroid-orchidectomized rat model to minimize the influence of internal hormones on E2 treatment and to explore its role in male-differentiated functions. E2 influenced genes involved in metabolism of lipids and endo-xenobiotics, and the GH-regulated endocrine, metabolic, immune, and male-specific responses. E2 induced a female-pattern of gene expression and inhibited GH-regulated STAT5b targeted genes. E2 did not prevent the inhibitory effects of GH on urea and amino acid metabolism-related genes. The combination of E2 and GH decreased transcriptional immune responses. E2 decreased the hepatic content of saturated fatty acids and induced a transcriptional program that seems to be mediated by the activation of PPAR?. In contrast, GH inhibited fatty acid oxidation. Both E2 and GH replacements reduced hepatic CHO levels and increased the formation of cholesterol esters and triacylglycerols. Notably, the hepatic lipid profiles were endowed with singular fingerprints that may be used to segregate the effects of different hormonal replacements. In summary, we provide in vivo evidence that E2 has a significant impact on lipid content and transcriptome in male liver and that E2 exerts a marked influence on GH physiology, with implications in human therapy. PMID:24816529

  17. A case of Hodgkin's lymphoma with severely impaired liver function treated successfully with gemcitabine followed by ABVD.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Rajshekhar; Mukkamalla, Shiva Kumar Reddy; Gutzmore, Garfield; Chan, Hon Cheung

    2015-01-01

    Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) originates from clonal B cells and is the most common malignancy in the second decade of life. Liver involvement is uncommon at presentation in patients with HL and there is a paucity of data for treatment of patients with severely impaired liver function. We present an unusual case of HL with severe hepatic impairment, splenomegaly and multiple chromosomal abnormalities that was treated initially with gemcitabine and steroids. Once liver function tests improved, six cycles of Adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine were administered. The patient remains in remission at 3.5 years of follow-up. PMID:25848330

  18. A case of Hodgkin’s lymphoma with severely impaired liver function treated successfully with gemcitabine followed by ABVD

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Rajshekhar; Mukkamalla, Shiva Kumar Reddy; Gutzmore, Garfield; Chan, Hon Cheung

    2015-01-01

    Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) originates from clonal B cells and is the most common malignancy in the second decade of life. Liver involvement is uncommon at presentation in patients with HL and there is a paucity of data for treatment of patients with severely impaired liver function. We present an unusual case of HL with severe hepatic impairment, splenomegaly and multiple chromosomal abnormalities that was treated initially with gemcitabine and steroids. Once liver function tests improved, six cycles of Adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine were administered. The patient remains in remission at 3.5 years of follow-up. PMID:25848330

  19. The metabolism of histamine in the Drosophila optic lobe involves an ommatidial pathway: ?-alanine recycles through the retina

    PubMed Central

    Borycz, Janusz; Borycz, Jolanta A.; Edwards, Tara N.; Boulianne, Gabrielle L.; Meinertzhagen, Ian A.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Flies recycle the photoreceptor neurotransmitter histamine by conjugating it to ?-alanine to form ?-alanyl-histamine (carcinine). The conjugation is regulated by Ebony, while Tan hydrolyses carcinine, releasing histamine and ?-alanine. In Drosophila, ?-alanine synthesis occurs either from uracil or from the decarboxylation of aspartate but detailed roles for the enzymes responsible remain unclear. Immunohistochemically detected ?-alanine is present throughout the fly’s entire brain, and is enhanced in the retina especially in the pseudocone, pigment and photoreceptor cells of the ommatidia. HPLC determinations reveal 10.7 ng of ?-alanine in the wild-type head, roughly five times more than histamine. When wild-type flies drink uracil their head ?-alanine increases more than after drinking l-aspartic acid, indicating the effectiveness of the uracil pathway. Mutants of black, which lack aspartate decarboxylase, cannot synthesize ?-alanine from l-aspartate but can still synthesize it efficiently from uracil. Our findings demonstrate a novel function for pigment cells, which not only screen ommatidia from stray light but also store and transport ?-alanine and carcinine. This role is consistent with a ?-alanine-dependent histamine recycling pathway occurring not only in the photoreceptor terminals in the lamina neuropile, where carcinine occurs in marginal glia, but vertically via a long pathway that involves the retina. The lamina’s marginal glia are also a hub involved in the storage and/or disposal of carcinine and ?-alanine. PMID:22442379

  20. Do kidney histology lesions predict long-term kidney function after liver transplantation?

    PubMed

    Kamar, Nassim; Maaroufi, Chakib; Guilbeau-Frugier, Céline; Servais, Aude; Meas-Yedid, Vannary; Tack, Ivan; Thervet, Eric; Cointault, Olivier; Esposito, Laure; Guitard, Joelle; Lavayssière, Laurence; Panterne, Clarisse; Muscari, Fabrice; Bureau, Christophe; Rostaing, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    Histological renal lesions observed after liver transplantation are complex, multifactorial, and interrelated. The aims of this study were to determine whether kidney lesions observed at five yr after liver transplantation can predict long-term kidney function. Ninety-nine liver transplant patients receiving calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-based immunosuppression, who had undergone a kidney biopsy at 60±48 months post-transplant, were included in this follow-up study. Kidney biopsies were scored according to the Banff classification. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was assessed at last follow-up, that is, 109±48 months after liver transplantation. eGFR decreased from 92±33 mL/min at transplantation to 63±19 mL/min after six months, to 57±17 mL/min at the kidney biopsy, to 54±24 mL/min at last follow-up (p<0.0001). At last follow-up, only three patients required renal replacement therapy. After the kidney biopsy, 13 patients were converted from CNIs to mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, but no significant improvement in eGFR was observed after conversion. Elevated eGFR at six months post-transplant and a lower fibrous intimal thickening score (cv) observed at five yr post-transplant were the two independent predictive factors for eGFR?60 mL/min at nine yr post-transplant. Long-term kidney function seems to be predicted by the kidney vascular lesions. PMID:22774805

  1. D-alanine oxidase from Escherichia coli: participation in the oxidation of L-alanine.

    PubMed

    Raunio, R P; Straus, L D; Jenkins, W T

    1973-08-01

    Cell wall-membrane preparations of Escherichia coli, prepared by the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-lysozyme method, contain enzymes which catalyze the oxidation of d-alanine and, to a lesser extent, l-alanine into pyruvate and ammonia without the formation of hydrogen peroxide. The kinetic parameters were (i) pH optima of 8.3 to 8.4 for l- and d-alanine and (ii) a K(m) value of 6.6 +/- 0.2 mM for d-alanine. Several coenzymes were without effect when added to the reaction mixture. The participation of d-alanine oxidase in the oxidation of l-alanine was demonstrated. The evidence is based on (i) results of cellular fractionation; (ii) labeling experiments; (iii) inhibition studies with aminooxyacetate and cycloserine; (iv) denaturation experiments; and (v) demonstration of the presence of an active racemase. PMID:4146873

  2. Academic potential and cognitive functioning of long-term survivors after childhood liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ee, L C; Lloyd, O; Beale, K; Fawcett, J; Cleghorn, G J

    2014-05-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed intellect, cognition, academic function, behaviour, and emotional health of long-term survivors after childhood liver transplantation. Eligible children were >5 yr post-transplant, still attending school, and resident in Queensland. Hearing and neurocognitive testing were performed on 13 transplanted children and six siblings including two twin pairs where one was transplanted and the other not. Median age at testing was 13.08 (range 6.52-16.99) yr; time elapsed after transplant 10.89 (range 5.16-16.37) yr; and age at transplant 1.15 (range 0.38-10.00) yr. Mean full-scale IQ was 97 (81-117) for transplanted children and 105 (87-130) for siblings. No difficulties were identified in intellect, cognition, academic function, and memory and learning in transplanted children or their siblings, although both groups had reduced mathematical ability compared with normal. Transplanted patients had difficulties in executive functioning, particularly in self-regulation, planning and organization, problem-solving, and visual scanning. Thirty-one percent (4/13) of transplanted patients, and no siblings, scored in the clinical range for ADHD. Emotional difficulties were noted in transplanted patients but were not different from their siblings. Long-term liver transplant survivors exhibit difficulties in executive function and are more likely to have ADHD despite relatively intact intellect and cognition. PMID:24646364

  3. Adult-Derived Liver Stem Cells Acquire a Cardiomyocyte Structural and Functional Phenotype ex Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Muller-Borer, Barbara J.; Cascio, Wayne E.; Anderson, Page A.W.; Snowwaert, John N.; Frye, James R.; Desai, Niyati; Esch, Gwyn L.; Brackham, Joe A.; Bagnell, C. Robert; Coleman, William B.; Grisham, Joe W.; Malouf, Nadia N.

    2004-01-01

    We examined the differentiation potential of an adult liver stem cell line (WB F344) in a cardiac microenvironment, ex vivo. WB F344 cells were established from a single cloned nonparenchymal epithelial cell isolated from a normal male adult rat liver. Genetically modified, WB F344 cells that express ?-galactosidase and green fluorescent protein or only ?-galactosidase were co-cultured with dissociated rat or mouse neonatal cardiac cells. After 4 to 14 days, WB F344-derived cardiomyocytes expressed cardiac-specific proteins and exhibited myofibrils, sarcomeres, and a nascent sarcoplasmic reticulum. Further, rhythmically beating WB F344-derived cardiomyocytes displayed calcium transients. Fluorescent recovery after photobleaching demonstrated that WB F344-derived cardiomyocytes were coupled with adjacent neonatal cardiomyocytes and other WB F344-derived cardiomyocytes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments suggested that fusion between WB F344 cells and neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes did not take place. Collectively, these results support the conclusion that these adult-derived liver stem cells respond to signals generated in a cardiac microenvironment ex vivo acquiring a cardiomyocyte phenotype and function. The identification ex vivo of microenvironmental signals that appear to cross germ layer and species specificities should prove valuable in understanding the molecular basis of adult stem cell differentiation and phenotypic plasticity. PMID:15215169

  4. Dynamic carbon 13 breath tests for the study of liver function and gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Bonfrate, Leonilde; Grattagliano, Ignazio; Palasciano, Giuseppe; Portincasa, Piero

    2015-02-01

    In gastroenterological practice, breath tests (BTs) are diagnostic tools used for indirect, non-invasive assessment of several pathophysiological metabolic processes, by monitoring the appearance in breath of a metabolite of a specific substrate. Labelled substrates originally employed radioactive carbon 14 ((14)C) and, more recently, the stable carbon 13 isotope ((13)C) has been introduced to label specific substrates. The ingested (13)C-substrate is metabolized, and exhaled (13)CO2 is measured by mass spectrometry or infrared spectroscopy. Some (13)C-BTs evaluate specific (microsomal, cytosolic, and mitochondrial) hepatic metabolic pathways and can be employed in liver diseases (i.e. simple liver steatosis, non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis, liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, drug and alcohol effects). Another field of clinical application for (13)C-BTs is the assessment of gastric emptying kinetics in response to liquids ((13)C-acetate) or solids ((13)C-octanoic acid in egg yolk or in a pre-packed muffin or the (13)C-Spirulina platensis given with a meal or a biscuit). Studies have shown that (13)C-BTs, used for gastric emptying studies, yield results that are comparable to scintigraphy and can be useful in detecting either delayed- (gastroparesis) or accelerated gastric emptying or changes of gastric kinetics due to pharmacological effects. Thus, (13)C-BTs represent an indirect, cost-effective and easy method of evaluating dynamic liver function and gastric kinetics in health and disease, and several other potential applications are being studied. PMID:25339354

  5. Dynamic carbon 13 breath tests for the study of liver function and gastric emptying

    PubMed Central

    Bonfrate, Leonilde; Grattagliano, Ignazio; Palasciano, Giuseppe; Portincasa, Piero

    2015-01-01

    In gastroenterological practice, breath tests (BTs) are diagnostic tools used for indirect, non-invasive assessment of several pathophysiological metabolic processes, by monitoring the appearance in breath of a metabolite of a specific substrate. Labelled substrates originally employed radioactive carbon 14 (14C) and, more recently, the stable carbon 13 isotope (13C) has been introduced to label specific substrates. The ingested 13C-substrate is metabolized, and exhaled 13CO2 is measured by mass spectrometry or infrared spectroscopy. Some 13C-BTs evaluate specific (microsomal, cytosolic, and mitochondrial) hepatic metabolic pathways and can be employed in liver diseases (i.e. simple liver steatosis, non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis, liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, drug and alcohol effects). Another field of clinical application for 13C-BTs is the assessment of gastric emptying kinetics in response to liquids (13C-acetate) or solids (13C-octanoic acid in egg yolk or in a pre-packed muffin or the 13C-Spirulina platensis given with a meal or a biscuit). Studies have shown that 13C-BTs, used for gastric emptying studies, yield results that are comparable to scintigraphy and can be useful in detecting either delayed- (gastroparesis) or accelerated gastric emptying or changes of gastric kinetics due to pharmacological effects. Thus, 13C-BTs represent an indirect, cost-effective and easy method of evaluating dynamic liver function and gastric kinetics in health and disease, and several other potential applications are being studied. PMID:25339354

  6. Abnormal hemostatic function one year after orthotopic liver transplantation can be fully attributed to endothelial cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Arshad, Freeha; Adelmeijer, Jelle; Blokzijl, Hans; van den Berg, Aad; Porte, Robert; Lisman, Ton

    2014-01-01

    Background: The long-term risk of thrombotic and vascular complications is elevated in liver transplant recipients compared to the general population. Patients with cirrhosis are in a hypercoagulable status during and directly after orthotopic liver transplantation, but it is unclear whether this hypercoagulability persists over time. Aim: We aimed to investigate the hemostatic status of liver transplant recipients one year after transplantation. Methods: We prospectively collected blood samples of 15 patients with a functioning graft one year after orthotopic liver transplantation and compared the hemostatic status of these patients with that of 30 healthy individuals. Results: Patients one year after liver transplantation had significantly elevated plasma levels of von Willebrand factor (VWF). Thrombin generation, as assessed by the endogenous thrombin potential, was decreased in patients, which was associated with increased plasma levels of the natural anticoagulants antithrombin and tissue factor pathway inhibitor.  Plasma fibrinolytic potential was significantly decreased in patients and correlated inversely with levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Conclusion: One year after liver transplantation, liver graft recipients have a dysregulated hemostatic system characterised by elevation of plasma levels of endothelial-derived proteins. Increased levels of von Willebrand factor and decreased fibrinolytic potential may (in part) be responsible for the increased risk for vascular disease seen in liver transplant recipients. PMID:25285204

  7. The effect of anterograde persufflation on energy charge and hepatocyte function in donation after cardiac death livers unsuitable for transplant.

    PubMed

    Khorsandi, Shirin Elizabeth; Jitraruch, Suttiruk; Fairbanks, Lynette; Cotoi, Corina; Jassem, Wayel; Vilca-Melendez, Hector; Prachalias, Andreas; Dhawan, Anil; Heaton, Nigel; Srinivasan, Parthi

    2014-06-01

    Donation after cardiac death (DCD) livers are considered to be marginal organs for solid organ and cell transplantation. Low energy charge (EC) and low purine quantity within the liver parenchyma has been associated with poor outcome after liver transplantation. The aim of this work was to assess the effect of anterograde persufflation (A-PSF) using an electrochemical concentrator on DCD liver energy status and hepatocyte function. Organs utilized for research were DCD livers considered not suitable for transplant. Each liver was formally split, and the control non-persufflated (non-PSF) section was stored in University of Wisconsin (UW) solution at 4°C. The A-PSF liver section was immersed in UW solution on ice, and A-PSF was performed via the portal vein with 40% oxygen. Tissue samples were taken 2 hours after A-PSF from the A-PSF and control non-PSF liver sections for snap freezing. Purine analysis was performed with photodiode array detection. Hepatocytes were isolated from A-PSF and control non-PSF liver sections using a standard organs utilized for research were DCD livers considered not suitable for transplant collagenase perfusion technique. Hepatocyte function was assessed using mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity {3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-y1]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT)} and the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay for cell attachment. In DCD livers with <30% steatosis (n?=?6), A-PSF increased EC from 0.197?±?0.025 to 0.23?±?0.035 (P?=?0.04). In DCD livers with >30% steatosis (n?=?4), A-PSF had no beneficial effect. After isolation (n=4, <30% steatosis), A-PSF was found to increase MTT from 0.92?±?0.045 to 1.19?±?0.55 (P?function of isolated hepatocytes from DCD livers with <30% steatosis. PMID:24604782

  8. When Your Child Needs a Liver Transplant

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hereditary Hemochromatosis Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel Digestive System Hepatitis Your Liver Hepatitis Your Digestive System Blood Test: Liver Function Tests Hepatitis Digestive System ...

  9. Suppression of intralysosomal proteolysis aggravates structural damage and functional impairment of liver lysosomes in rats with toxic hepatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Korolenko, T.A.; Gavrilova, N.I.; Kurysheva, N.G.; Malygin, A.E.; Pupyshev, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    This paper estimates the effect of lowering protein catabolism in the lysosomes on structural and functional properties of the latter during liver damage. For comparison, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), which is inert relative to intralysosomal proteolysis, and which also accumulates largely in lysosomes of the kupffer cells of the liver, was used. The uptake of labeled bovine serum albuman (C 14-BSA) by the liver is shown and the rate of intralysosomal proteolysis is given 24 hours after administration of suramin an CCl/sub 4/ to rats. It is suggested that it is risky to use drugs which inhibit intralysosomal proteolysis in the treatment of patients with acute hepatitis.

  10. Zebrafish fgf10b has a Complementary Function to fgf10a in Liver and Pancreas Development.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chuan; Zheng, Weiling; Gong, Zhiyuan

    2015-04-01

    Fgf10 is a critical growth factor in mammals for development of endodermal organs such as the liver, pancreas, lung, and gut. Due to whole genome duplication, the zebrafish has two fgf10 orthologs, fgf10a and fgf10b. While fgf10a has a role in development of the esophagus and swimbladder, we found in the present study that fgf10b had a complementary expression pattern in the liver, pancreas, and gut. Morpholino knockdown of Fgf10b further confirmed its essential role in the normal development of liver and pancreas. Thus, our data provide another example of functional partition of two duplicated othologous genes during evolution. PMID:25326376

  11. Formation of simple biomolecules from alanine in ocean by impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeda, Y.; Sekine, T.; Furukawa, Y.; Kakegawa, T.; Kobayashi, T.

    2013-12-01

    The biomolecules on the Earth are thought either to have originated from the extraterrestrial parts carried with flying meteorites or to have been formed from the inorganic materials on the Earth through given energy. From the standpoint to address the importance of impact energy, it is required to simulate experimentally the chemical reactions during impacts, because violent impacts may have occurred 3.8-4.0 Gyr ago to create biomolecules initially. It has been demonstrated that shock reactions among ocean (H2O), atmospheric nitrogen, and meteoritic constitution (Fe) can induce locally reduction environment to form simple bioorganic molecules such as ammonia and amino acid (Nakazawa et al., 2005; Furukawa et al., 2009). We need to know possible processes for alanine how chemical reactions proceed during repeated impacts and how complicated biomolecules are formed. Alanine can be formed from glycine (Umeda et al., in preparation). In this study, we carried out shock recovery experiments at pressures of 4.4-5.7 GPa to investigate the chemical reactions of alanine. Experiments were carried out with a propellant gun. Stainless steel containers (30 mm in diameter, 30 mm long) with 13C-labeled alanine aqueous solution immersed in olivine or hematite powders were used as targets. Air gap was present in the sample room (18 mm in diameter, 2 mm thick) behind the sample. The powder, solution, and air represent meteorite, ocean, and atmosphere on early Earth, respectively. Two powders of olivine and hematite help to keep the oxygen fugacity low and high during experiments, respectively in order to investigate the effect of oxygen fugacity on chemical processes of alanine. The recovered containers, after cleaned completely, were immersed into liquid nitrogen to freeze sample solution and then we drilled on the impact surface to extract water-soluble run products using pure water. Thus obtained products were analyzed by LC/MS for four amino acids (glycine, alanine, valine, and phenylalanine) and four amines (methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, and butylamine). The results in the presence of olivine have indicated the formation glycine, methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, and butylamine. However, the results in the presence of Fe2O3 detect little glycine, methylamine, and ethylamine but no formation of propylamine and butylamine. Valine, and phenylalanine were not detected. The survival alanine as a function of pressure has been affected significantly by the oxygen fugacity, and there seems to be a threshold pressure of around 5.2 GPa. On the other hand, the glycine in alanine solution was below 5% being little variation. We have checked the solid run products by XRD. Peaks for olivine did not change, but past of Fe2O3 changed to Fe3O4. Thermodynamic calculation gives oxygen fugacities for these assemblies. These experimental results on alanine suggest that simple amino acid may be affected by pressure, oxygen fugacity, and chemical environments during impact.

  12. Multicentre controlled trial of tienilic acid in hyperuricaemic, hypertensive subjects, with intensive monitoring of liver function.

    PubMed

    1983-05-01

    1 Tienilic acid, a diuretic with potent uricosuric properties, has been compared with conventional diuretic therapy, mainly thiazide, in a parallel group (random allocation) multicentre study in hyperuricaemic hypertensives (n = 96). 2 The study was designed to last 1 year but tienilic acid was withdrawn for suspected hepatotoxicity before the study was complete. Mean follow-up was 8.5 (range 1-12) months and the mean daily dose of tienilic acid was 278 (range 125-500 mg). 3 Blood pressure levels on tienilic acid and on conventional diuretics were similar. 4 Serum potassium and sodium levels were also similar in the two groups, but serum urea and creatinine rose somewhat more in the tienilic acid group. 5 Serum uric acid fell dramatically in the patients on tienilic acid from 0.56 to 0.32 mmol/l, but did not alter significantly in the control group. 6 There were no problems with renal failure or urate deposition probably because patients were instructed to drink plenty of fluid when tienilic acid was started, because initial dose was low and because all previous diuretics were stopped for 3 days before tienilic acid was started. 7 Mean liver function indices did not rise in either group. Mild elevation in liver enzymes occurred in one control patient and one patient on tienilic acid; the latter drug was stopped and the values returned to normal. 8 The general incidence of side-effects was low. 9 Our impression was that tienilic acid was a useful drug. Whether it could have been used safely with monitoring of liver function will not now be known. PMID:6344896

  13. Multicentre controlled trial of tienilic acid in hyperuricaemic, hypertensive subjects, with intensive monitoring of liver function.

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    1 Tienilic acid, a diuretic with potent uricosuric properties, has been compared with conventional diuretic therapy, mainly thiazide, in a parallel group (random allocation) multicentre study in hyperuricaemic hypertensives (n = 96). 2 The study was designed to last 1 year but tienilic acid was withdrawn for suspected hepatotoxicity before the study was complete. Mean follow-up was 8.5 (range 1-12) months and the mean daily dose of tienilic acid was 278 (range 125-500 mg). 3 Blood pressure levels on tienilic acid and on conventional diuretics were similar. 4 Serum potassium and sodium levels were also similar in the two groups, but serum urea and creatinine rose somewhat more in the tienilic acid group. 5 Serum uric acid fell dramatically in the patients on tienilic acid from 0.56 to 0.32 mmol/l, but did not alter significantly in the control group. 6 There were no problems with renal failure or urate deposition probably because patients were instructed to drink plenty of fluid when tienilic acid was started, because initial dose was low and because all previous diuretics were stopped for 3 days before tienilic acid was started. 7 Mean liver function indices did not rise in either group. Mild elevation in liver enzymes occurred in one control patient and one patient on tienilic acid; the latter drug was stopped and the values returned to normal. 8 The general incidence of side-effects was low. 9 Our impression was that tienilic acid was a useful drug. Whether it could have been used safely with monitoring of liver function will not now be known. PMID:6344896

  14. Pancreatic fat and ?-cell function in overweight/obese children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Pacifico, Lucia; Di Martino, Michele; Anania, Caterina; Andreoli, Gian Marco; Bezzi, Mario; Catalano, Carlo; Chiesa, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the associations of pancreatic fat with other fat depots and ?-cell function in pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: We examined 158 overweight/obese children and adolescents, 80 with NAFLD [hepatic fat fraction (HFF) ? 5%] and 78 without fatty liver. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT), pancreatic fat fraction (PFF) and HFF were determined by magnetic resonance imaging. Estimates of insulin sensitivity were calculated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), defined by fasting insulin and fasting glucose and whole-body insulin sensitivity index (WBISI), based on mean values of insulin and glucose obtained from oral glucose tolerance test and the corresponding fasting values. Patients were considered to have prediabetes if they had either: (1) impaired fasting glucose, defined as a fasting glucose level ? 100 mg/dL to < 126 mg/dL; (2) impaired glucose tolerance, defined as a 2 h glucose concentration between ? 140 mg/dL and < 200 mg/dL; or (3) hemoglobin A1c value of ? 5.7% to < 6.5%. RESULTS: PFF was significantly higher in NAFLD patients compared with subjects without liver involvement. PFF was significantly associated with HFF and VAT, as well as fasting insulin, C peptide, HOMA-IR, and WBISI. The association between PFF and HFF was no longer significant after adjusting for age, gender, Tanner stage, body mass index (BMI)-SD score, and VAT. In multiple regression analysis with WBISI or HOMA-IR as the dependent variables, against the covariates age, gender, Tanner stage, BMI-SD score, VAT, PFF, and HFF, the only variable significantly associated with WBISI (standardized coefficient B, -0.398; P = 0.001) as well as HOMA-IR (0.353; P = 0.003) was HFF. Children with prediabetes had higher PFF and HFF than those without. PFF and HFF were significantly associated with prediabetes after adjustment for clinical variables. When all fat depots where included in the same model, only HFF remained significantly associated with prediabetes (OR = 3.38; 95%CI: 1.10-10.4; P = 0.034). CONCLUSION: In overweight/obese children with NAFLD, pancreatic fat is increased compared with those without liver involvement. However, only liver fat is independently related to prediabetes.

  15. Metabolism of benzene and phenol by a reconstituted purified phenobarbital induced rat liver mixed function oxidase system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1986-01-01

    Cytochrome P-450 and the electron-donor, NADPH-cytochrome c reductase were isolated from phenobarbital induced rat liver microsomes. Both benzene and its primary metabolite phenol, were substrates for the reconstituted purified phenobarbital induced rat liver mixed function oxidase system. Benzene was metabolized to phenol and the polyhydroxylated metabolites; catechol, hydroquinone and 1,2,4 benzenetriol. Benzene elicited a Type I spectral change upon its

  16. CEPP regimen (cyclophosphamide, etoposide, procarbazine and prednisone) as initial treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma patients presenting with severe abnormal liver function

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    ABVD regimen (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine) remains the most commonly used front-line therapy for Hodgkin lymphoma. However, atypical and extranodal presentations present challenges to initial therapy, especially in the presence of renal and liver failure. We hereby present two cases of young male patients with atypical presentation of Hodgkin lymphoma with severe abnormal liver function. Patients showed excellent response to cyclophosphamide, etoposide, procarbazine and prednisone (CEPP regimen). PMID:24991411

  17. A Functional dlt Operon, Encoding Proteins Required for Incorporation of D-Alanine in Teichoic Acids in Gram-Positive Bacteria, Confers Resistance to Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marta Kovacs; Alexander Halfmann; Iris Fedtke; Manuel Heintz; Andreas Peschel; Waldemar Vollmer; Regine Hakenbeck; Reinhold Bruckner

    2006-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the few species within the group of low-G C gram-positive bacteria reported to contain no D-alanine in teichoic acids, although the dltABCD operon encoding proteins responsible for D-alanylation is present in the genomes of two S. pneumoniae strains, the laboratory strain R6 and the clinical isolate TIGR4. The annotation of dltA in R6 predicts a

  18. Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha gene transcription by pentoxifylline reduces normothermic liver ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    El-Ghoneimi, A; Cursio, R; Schmid-Alliana, A; Tovey, M; Lasfar, A; Michiels, J-F; Rossi, B; Gugenheim, J

    2007-01-01

    Pentoxifylline (PTX) has been shown to protect the liver against normothermic ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury. The aims of this study were to investigate the action of PTX on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) gene transcription following normothermic liver I-R as well as to evaluate the resulting effects on liver function and survival. A segmental normothermic liver ischemia was induced for 90 minutes. Rats were divided into three groups: group 1, control, Ringer lactate administration; group 2, PTX treatment; group 3, sham-operated control rats. PTX (50 mg/kg) was injected intravenously 30 minutes before induction of ischemia and 30 minutes before reperfusion. The nonischemic liver lobes were resected at the end of ischemia. Survival rates were compared and serum activities of TNFalpha, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase were measured. Liver histology was assessed 6 hours after reperfusion. Liver TNFalpha mRNA was assessed by polymerase chain reaction amplification at different times after reperfusion. PTX treatment significantly decreased serum activities of TNFalpha and inhibited liver expression of TNFalpha mRNA. The extent of liver necrosis and serum levels of liver enzymes were significantly decreased by PTX treatment, resulting in a significant increase in 7-day survival compared with nontreated control rats. In conclusion, PTX inhibits liver TNFalpha gene transcription, decreases serum TNFalpha levels, and reduces liver injury following normothermic I-R. PMID:17692605

  19. The Correlation between NK Cell and Liver Function in Patients with Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xiao-Hui; Min, Lu

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims This study aimed to detect the expression of natural killer (NK) cell receptor natural killer group 2D (NKG2D) in the peripheral blood of patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma and to discuss the correlation between NK cell cytotoxicity and liver function. Methods The number of NK cells and the expression of NK cell receptor NKG2D in peripheral blood were determined by flow cytometry in patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatitis B cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis B, and healthy controls. Results When compared with patients in the healthy and the chronic hepatitis B groups, the primary hepatocellular carcinoma group showed significant decreases in all parameters, including the cytotoxicity of NK cells on K562 cells, expression rate of NKG2D in NK cells, number of NKG2D+ NK cells, expression level of NKG2D, and number of NK cells (p<0.05). The activity of NK cells showed a positive correlation, whereas the Child-Pugh scores in the primary hepatocellular carcinoma and the hepatitis B cirrhosis groups showed a negative correlation with all parameters detected above. Conclusions The decrease of NK cell activity in patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma is closely related to their lower expression of NKG2D. Liver function affects the expression of NKG2D and the activity of NK cells. PMID:24827627

  20. Alanine Aminotransferase-Old Biomarker and New Concept: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhengtao; Que, Shuping; Xu, Jing; Peng, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is a common, readily available, and inexpensive laboratory assay in clinical practice. ALT activity is not only measured to detect liver disease, but also to monitor overall health. ALT activity is influenced by various factors, including viral hepatitis, alcohol consumption, and medication. Recently, the impact of metabolic abnormalities on ALT variation has raised concern due to the worldwide obesity epidemic. The normal ranges for ALT have been updated and validated considering the metabolic covariates in the various ethnic districts. The interaction between metabolic and demographic factors on ALT variation has also been discussed in previous studies. In addition, an extremely low ALT value might reflect the process of aging, and frailty in older adults has been raised as another clinically significant feature of this enzyme, to be followed with additional epidemiologic investigation. Timely updated, comprehensive, and systematic introduction of ALT activity is necessary to aid clinicians make better use of this enzyme. PMID:25013373

  1. TRIB2 acts downstream of Wnt/TCF in liver cancer cells to regulate YAP and C/EBP? function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiayi; Park, Joo-Seop; Wei, Yingying; Rajurkar, Mihir; Cotton, Jennifer L; Fan, Qishi; Lewis, Brian C; Ji, Hongkai; Mao, Junhao

    2013-07-25

    Dysregulation of Wnt signaling is closely associated with human liver tumorigenesis. However, liver cancer-specific Wnt transcriptional programs and downstream effectors remain poorly understood. Here, we identify tribbles homolog 2 (TRIB2) as a direct target of Wnt/TCF in liver cancer and demonstrate that transcription of Wnt target genes, including TRIB2, is coordinated by the TCF and FoxA transcription factors in liver cancer cells. We show that Wnt-TRIB2 activation is critical for cancer cell survival and transformation. Mechanistically, TRIB2 promotes protein stabilization of the YAP transcription coactivator through interaction with the ?TrCP ubiquitin ligase. Furthermore, we find that TRIB2 relieves the liver tumor suppressor protein C/EBP?-mediated inhibition of YAP/TEAD transcriptional activation in liver cancer cells. Altogether, our study uncovers a regulatory mechanism underlying liver cancer-specific Wnt transcriptional output, and suggests that TRIB2 functions as a signaling nexus to integrate the Wnt/?-catenin, Hippo/YAP, and C/EBP? pathways in cancer cells. PMID:23769673

  2. Decreased Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cell Levels and Function in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Chia-Hung; Huang, Po-Hsun; Chung, Fa-Po; Chen, Zu-Yin; Leu, Hsin-Bang; Huang, Chin-Chou; Wu, Tao-Cheng; Chen, Jaw-Wen; Lin, Shing-Jong

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with advanced atherosclerosis and a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Increasing evidence suggests that injured endothelial monolayer is regenerated by circulating bone marrow derived-endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), and levels of circulating EPCs reflect vascular repair capacity. However, the relation between NAFLD and EPC remains unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) might have decreased endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) levels and attenuated EPC function. Methods and Results A total of 312 consecutive patients undergoing elective coronary angiography because of suspected coronary artery disease were screened and received examinations of abdominal ultrasonography between July 2009 and November 2010. Finally, 34 patients with an ultrasonographic diagnosis of NAFLD, and 68 age- and sex-matched controls without NAFLD were enrolled. Flow cytometry with quantification of EPC markers (defined as CD34+, CD34+KDR+, and CD34+KDR+CD133+) in peripheral blood samples was used to assess circulating EPC numbers. The adhesive function, and migration, and tube formation capacities of EPCs were also determined in NAFLD patients and controls. Patients with NAFLD had a significantly higher incidence of metabolic syndrome, previous myocardial infarction, hyperuricemia, and higher waist circumference, body mass index, fasting glucose and triglyceride levels. In addition, patients with NAFLD had significantly decreased circulating EPC levels (all P<0.05), attenuated EPC functions, and enhanced systemic inflammation compared to controls. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that circulating EPC level (CD34+KDR+ [cells/105 events]) was an independent reverse predictor of NAFLD (Odds ratio: 0.78; 95% confidence interval: 0.69–0.89, P<0.001). Conclusions NAFLD patients have decreased circulating EPC numbers and functions than those without NAFLD, which may be one of the mechanisms to explain atherosclerotic disease progression and enhanced cardiovascular risk in patients with NAFLD. PMID:22359630

  3. Can a Cutoff Value for Cystatin C in the Operative Setting Be Determined to Predict Kidney Function After Liver Transplantation?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Nemes; G. Zádori; F. Gelley; G. Gámán; D. Görög; A. Doros; E. Sárváry

    2010-01-01

    Correct assessment and follow-up of kidney function is essential in liver transplant recipients. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) represents the functional capacity of the kidney. The GFR is generally determined on the basis of creatinine clearance using several methods. It has been suggested that cystatin C be used rather than GFR. Production of cystatin C is not dependent on the same

  4. Quantitative proteomic and functional analysis of liver mitochondria from high fat diet (HFD) diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yurong; Darshi, Manjula; Ma, Yuliang; Perkins, Guy A; Shen, Zhouxin; Haushalter, Kristofer J; Saito, Rintaro; Chen, Ai; Lee, Yun Sok; Patel, Hemal H; Briggs, Steven P; Ellisman, Mark H; Olefsky, Jerrold M; Taylor, Susan S

    2013-12-01

    Insulin resistance plays a major role in the development of type 2 diabetes and obesity and affects a number of biological processes such as mitochondrial biogenesis. Though mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to the development of insulin resistance and pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, the precise mechanism linking the two is not well understood. We used high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity dependent diabetes mouse models to gain insight into the potential pathways altered with metabolic disease, and carried out quantitative proteomic analysis of liver mitochondria. As previously reported, proteins involved in fatty acid oxidation, branched chain amino acid degradation, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation were uniformly up-regulated in the liver of HFD fed mice compared with that of normal diet. Further, our studies revealed that retinol metabolism is distinctly down-regulated and the mitochondrial structural proteins-components of mitochondrial inter-membrane space bridging (MIB) complex (Mitofilin, Sam50, and ChChd3), and Tim proteins-essential for protein import, are significantly up-regulated in HFD fed mice. Structural and functional studies on HFD and normal diet liver mitochondria revealed remodeling of HFD mitochondria to a more condensed form with increased respiratory capacity and higher ATP levels compared with normal diet mitochondria. Thus, it is likely that the structural remodeling is essential to accommodate the increased protein content in presence of HFD: the mechanism could be through the MIB complex promoting contact site and crista junction formation and in turn facilitating the lipid and protein uptake. PMID:24030101

  5. Senescent Liver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikolai A. Timchenko

    \\u000a The decline of cellular functions is a main characteristic of aging. Although the senescent liver preserves its functions\\u000a relatively well, there are a number of alterations which create conditions for the development of age-associated diseases\\u000a and which cause problems with drug therapy in the elderly. Aging liver is characterized by morphological alterations of hepatocytes\\u000a and sinusoids, by alterations in functions

  6. Effect of perches on liver health of hens.

    PubMed

    Jiang, S; Hester, P Y; Hu, J Y; Yan, F F; Dennis, R L; Cheng, H W

    2014-07-01

    Fatty liver is a common energy metabolic disorder in caged laying hens. Considering that the egg industry is shifting from conventional cages to alternative housing systems such as enriched cages, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of perches on fat deposition and liver health in laying hens. Three hundred twenty-four 17-wk-old White Leghorn hens were housed in 1 of 4 treatments with 9 hens per cage. Treatment 1 hens never had access to perches during their life cycle. Treatment 2 hens had access to perches during the pullet phase only. Treatment 3 hens had access to perches during the laying phase only. Treatment 4 hens always had access to perches. Liver weight, abdominal fat pad weight, BW, liver fat, and circulating alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and adiponectin were determined. Provision of perches during either the rearing or laying phase did not affect liver health in 71-wk-old hens. However, perch access compared with no perch access during the egg laying phase reduced relative fat pad weight. These results suggest that providing perches as a means of stimulating activity reduced abdominal fat deposition in caged hens during the laying period. However, perch access in caged hens was ineffective in reducing fat deposition in the liver and altering enzyme activities related to improved liver function. PMID:24812236

  7. From the Cover: Cell-replacement therapy for diabetes: Generating functional insulin-producing tissue from adult human liver cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapir, Tamar; Shternhall, Keren; Meivar-Levy, Irit; Blumenfeld, Tamar; Cohen, Hamutal; Skutelsky, Ehud; Eventov-Friedman, Smadar; Barshack, Iris; Goldberg, Iris; Pri-Chen, Sarah; Ben-Dor, Lya; Polak-Charcon, Sylvie; Karasik, Avraham; Shimon, Ilan; Mor, Eytan; Ferber, Sarah

    2005-05-01

    Shortage in tissue availability from cadaver donors and the need for life-long immunosuppression severely restrict the large-scale application of cell-replacement therapy for diabetic patients. This study suggests the potential use of adult human liver as alternate tissue for autologous beta-cell-replacement therapy. By using pancreatic and duodenal homeobox gene 1 (PDX-1) and soluble factors, we induced a comprehensive developmental shift of adult human liver cells into functional insulin-producing cells. PDX-1-treated human liver cells express insulin, store it in defined granules, and secrete the hormone in a glucose-regulated manner. When transplanted under the renal capsule of diabetic, immunodeficient mice, the cells ameliorated hyperglycemia for prolonged periods of time. Inducing developmental redirection of adult liver offers the potential of a cell-replacement therapy for diabetics by allowing the patient to be the donor of his own insulin-producing tissue. pancreas | transdifferentiation

  8. Succinate and alanine as anaerobic end-products in the diving turtle ( Chrysemys picta bellii)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. T Buck

    2000-01-01

    The western painted turtle is an extremely anoxia-tolerant vertebrate capable of tolerating blood lactate levels of 150–200 mM. Since lactate increases to such high levels, other fermentation end-products such as succinate and alanine, which have not been previously measured in this species, might also be expected to increase. Therefore, I measured turtle heart, liver, and blood concentrations of lactate, succinate,

  9. Tributyltin chloride leads to adiposity and impairs metabolic functions in the rat liver and pancreas.

    PubMed

    Bertuloso, Bruno D; Podratz, Priscila L; Merlo, Eduardo; de Araújo, Julia F P; Lima, Leandro C F; de Miguel, Emilio C; de Souza, Leticia N; Gava, Agata L; de Oliveira, Miriane; Miranda-Alves, Leandro; Carneiro, Maria T W D; Nogueira, Celia R; Graceli, Jones B

    2015-05-19

    Tributyltin chloride (TBT) is an environmental contaminant used in antifouling paints of boats. Endocrine disruptor effects of TBT are well established in animal models. However, the adverse effects on metabolism are less well understood. The toxicity of TBT in the white adipose tissue (WAT), liver and pancreas of female rats were assessed. Animals were divided into control and TBT (0.1?g/kg/day) groups. TBT induced an increase in the body weight of the rats by the 15th day of oral exposure. The weight gain was associated with high parametrial (PR) and retroperitoneal (RP) WAT weights. TBT-treatment increased the adiposity, inflammation and expression of ER? and PPAR? proteins in both RP and PR WAT. In 3T3-L1 cells, estrogen treatment reduced lipid droplets accumulation, however increased the ER? protein expression. In contrast, TBT-treatment increased the lipid accumulation and reduced the ER? expression. WAT metabolic changes led to hepatic inflammation, lipid accumulation, increase of PPAR? and reduction of ER? protein expression. Accordingly, there were increases in the glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity tests with increases in the number of pancreatic islets and insulin levels. These findings suggest that TBT leads to adiposity in WAT specifically, impairing the metabolic functions of the liver and pancreas. PMID:25819109

  10. Comprehensive treatment of a functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor with multifocal liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Seeruttun, Sharvesh Raj; Fang, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    A 64-year-old man was admitted to the Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center with chief complaints of recurrent abdominal pain and diarrhea for about 3 years and with a history of surgical repair for intestinal perforation owing to stress ulcer. Positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a primary tumor on the pancreatic tail with multifocal liver metastases. Pathological and immunohistochemistry staining revealed the lesion to be a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (pNET). According to the latest World Health Organization (WHO, 2013) classification, the tumor was classified as stage IV functional G1 pNET. After referral to the multidisciplinary treatment board (MDT), the patient was started on periodic dose of omeprazole, somatostatin analogues and Interferon ? (IFN?) and had scanning follow-ups. Based upon the imaging results, CT-guided radioactive iodine-125 (125I) seeds implantation therapy, radiofrequency ablation therapy (RFA) or microwave ablation technique were chosen for the treatment of the primary tumor. Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), RFA and microwave ablation techniques were decided upon for liver metastases. The patient showed beneficial response to the treatment with clinically manageable low-grade side effects and attained partial remission (RECIST criteria) with a good quality of life. PMID:25232226

  11. Comparative Effects of Oyster Mushrooms on Lipid Profile, Liver and Kidney Function in Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Nuhu; Amin, Ruhul; Khan, Asaduzzaman; Ara, Ismot; Shim, Mi Ja; Lee, Min Woong; Lee, U Youn

    2009-01-01

    Comparative effects of oyster mushrooms on plasma and fecal lipid profiles and on liver and kidney function were evaluated in hyper and normocholesterolemic rats. Feeding of hypercholesterolemic rats a 5% powder of oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus, P. sajor-caju and P. florida) reduced the plasma total cholesterol level by 37%, 21% and 16%, respectively and reduced the triglyceride level by 45%, 24% and 14%, respectively. LDL/HDL ratio decreased by 64%, 45% and 41% for P. sajor-caju, P. ostreatus and P. florida fed rats, respectively. Mushroom feeding also reduced body weight in hypercholesterolemic rats. However, it had no adverse effect on plasma bilirubin, creatinin and urea nitrogen level. Mushroom feeding also increased the total lipid and cholesterol excretion in the feces. The present study reveals that feeding of 5% oyster mushroom powder does not have detrimental effects on the liver and kidneys rather may provide health benefits for the cardiovascular-related complication by decreasing the atherogenic lipid profiles. PMID:23983505

  12. Adenosine kinase deficiency disrupts the methionine cycle and causes hypermethioninemia, encephalopathy, and abnormal liver function.

    PubMed

    Bjursell, Magnus K; Blom, Henk J; Cayuela, Jordi Asin; Engvall, Martin L; Lesko, Nicole; Balasubramaniam, Shanti; Brandberg, Göran; Halldin, Maria; Falkenberg, Maria; Jakobs, Cornelis; Smith, Desiree; Struys, Eduard; von Döbeln, Ulrika; Gustafsson, Claes M; Lundeberg, Joakim; Wedell, Anna

    2011-10-01

    Four inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) are known to cause hypermethioninemia by directly interfering with the methionine cycle. Hypermethioninemia is occasionally discovered incidentally, but it is often disregarded as an unspecific finding, particularly if liver disease is involved. In many individuals the hypermethioninemia resolves without further deterioration, but it can also represent an early sign of a severe, progressive neurodevelopmental disorder. Further investigation of unclear hypermethioninemia is therefore important. We studied two siblings affected by severe developmental delay and liver dysfunction. Biochemical analysis revealed increased plasma levels of methionine, S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), and S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy) but normal or mildly elevated homocysteine (Hcy) levels, indicating a block in the methionine cycle. We excluded S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH) deficiency, which causes a similar biochemical phenotype, by using genetic and biochemical techniques and hypothesized that there was a functional block in the SAHH enzyme as a result of a recessive mutation in a different gene. Using exome sequencing, we identified a homozygous c.902C>A (p.Ala301Glu) missense mutation in the adenosine kinase gene (ADK), the function of which fits perfectly with this hypothesis. Increased urinary adenosine excretion confirmed ADK deficiency in the siblings. Four additional individuals from two unrelated families with a similar presentation were identified and shown to have a homozygous c.653A>C (p.Asp218Ala) and c.38G>A (p.Gly13Glu) mutation, respectively, in the same gene. All three missense mutations were deleterious, as shown by activity measurements on recombinant enzymes. ADK deficiency is a previously undescribed, severe IEM shedding light on a functional link between the methionine cycle and adenosine metabolism. PMID:21963049

  13. Methotrexate and liver function: a study of 13 psoriasis cases treated with different cumulative dosages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SC Carneiro; FF Cássia; F Lamy; VLA Chagas; M Ramos-e-Silva

    2007-01-01

    Background The need and frequency of hepatic biopsies during methotrexate (MTX) therapy are still controversial. Objectives The purpose of this investigation is to assess MTX liver toxicity in patients with psoriasis through percutaneous liver biopsy, and compare liver morphology changes with increasing cumulative dosages (1, 2, 3 and 4 g) of MTX. Results Cumulative dosages of 1 to 2 g

  14. Gut-liver axis improves with meloxicam treatment after cirrhotic liver resection

    PubMed Central

    Hamza, Astrit R; Krasniqi, Avdyl S; Srinivasan, Pramod Kadaba; Afify, Mamdouh; Bleilevens, Christian; Klinge, Uwe; Tolba, René H

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of meloxicam on the gut-liver axis after cirrhotic liver resection. METHODS: Forty-four male Wistar rats were assigned to three groups: (1) control group (CG); (2) bile duct ligation with meloxicam treatment (BDL + M); and (3) bile duct ligation without meloxicam treatment (BDL). Secondary biliary liver cirrhosis was induced via ligature of the bile duct in the BDL + M and BDL groups. After 2 wk, the animals underwent a 50% hepatectomy. In the BDL + M group 15 min prior to the hepatectomy, one single dose of meloxicam was administered. Parameters measured included: microcirculation of the liver and small bowel; portal venous flow (PVF); gastrointestinal (GI) transit; alanine aminotransferase (ALT); malondialdehyde; interleukin 6 (IL-6), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-?1) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1?) levels; mRNA expression of cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2), IL-6 and TGF-?1; liver and small bowel histology; immunohistochemical evaluation of hepatocyte and enterocyte proliferation with Ki-67 and COX-2 liver expression. RESULTS: Proliferative activity of hepatocytes after liver resection, liver flow and PVF were significantly higher in CG vs BDL + M and CG vs BDL group (P < 0.05), whereas one single dose of meloxicam ameliorated liver flow and proliferative activity of hepatocytes in BDL + M vs BDL group. COX-2 liver expression at 24 h observation time (OT), IL-6 concentration and mRNA IL-6 expression in the liver especially at 3 h OT, were significantly higher in BDL group when compared with the BDL + M and CG groups (P < 0.01, P < 0.001, P < 0.01, respectively). Liver and small bowel histology, according to a semi quantitative scoring system, showed better integrity in BDL + M and CG as compared to BDL group. ALT release and HIF-1? levels at 1 h OT were significantly higher in BDL + M compared to CG and BDL group (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively). Moreover, ALT release levels at 3 and 24 h OT were significantly higher in BDL group compared to CG, P < 0.01. GI transit, enterocyte proliferative activity and number of goblet cells were in favor of meloxicam treatment vs BDL group (P < 0.05, P < 0.001, P < 0.01, respectively). Additionally, villus length were higher in BDL + M as compared to BDL group. CONCLUSION: One single dose of meloxicam administered after cirrhotic liver resection was able to cause better function and integrity of the remaining liver and small bowel. PMID:25356044

  15. Elevated ATF4 Function in Fibroblasts and Liver of Slow-Aging Mutant Mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiquan; Miller, Richard A

    2015-03-01

    Work in yeast has shown that longevity extension induced by nutrient deprivation, altered ribosomal function, or diminished target of rapamycin action requires the activity of GCN4. We hypothesized that increased activity of ATF4, the mammalian equivalent of yeast GCN4, might be characteristic of mutations that extend mouse life span. Fibroblasts from the skin of two such mutants (Snell dwarf and PAPP-A knockout) were found to have higher levels of ATF4 protein and expression of several ATF4 target genes in responses to amino acid withdrawal, cadmium, hydrogen peroxide, and tunicamycin. ATF4 pathways were also elevated in liver of both kinds of long-lived mutant mice. Thus, a connection between ATF4 pathways and longevity may have deep evolutionary roots, and further studies of ATF4 mechanisms may provide insights into the links between cellular stress resistance, protein translation control, and aging. PMID:24691093

  16. Association between the catechol-O-methyltransferase (rs4680: Val158Met) polymorphism and serum alanine aminotransferase activity.

    PubMed

    Hiyoshi, Mineyoshi; Uemura, Hirokazu; Arisawa, Kokichi; Nakamoto, Mariko; Hishida, Asahi; Okada, Rieko; Matsuo, Keitaro; Kita, Yoshikuni; Niimura, Hideshi; Kuriyama, Nagato; Nanri, Hinako; Ohnaka, Keizo; Suzuki, Sadao; Mikami, Haruo; Kubo, Michiaki; Tanaka, Hideo; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2012-04-01

    In our previous proteomic study in rat liver damaged by carbon tetrachloride, soluble catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) increased as a phosphorylated form and decreased as a dephosphorylated form. This finding raised the possibility that the COMT protein is associated with liver function. Thus, we hypothesized that (1) the COMT gene contributes to liver homeostasis and (2) a COMT polymorphism (rs4680: Val158Met) causing thermolability of enzymatic activity affects liver enzymes (e.g., aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (?-GT)) in serum. To investigate (2), we statistically analyzed the association between COMT genotypes and serum ALT activity in a cross-sectional study using data from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study. We conducted a multiple logistic regression analysis for males (n=838) and females (n=970). Those participants having missing values or a past history of liver cirrhosis or liver cancer were excluded. ALT values were divided into two; elevated (30IU/L ?; males n=239, females n=90) and normal (<30IU/L; males n=599, females n=880). In females, non-adjusted and adjusted odds ratios for ALT values in the rs4680 A/A homozygote (n=126) compared with the wild-type G/G homozygote (n=397) were 0.37 (95% CI 0.14-0.96) and 0.34 (95% CI 0.13-0.93), respectively. In males, an analysis of the population aged 35-69 did not reveal any significant difference, but the population aged 45-54 had a significant difference in the non-adjusted and adjusted odds ratio in the G/A heterozygote (n=89) (0.50 (95% CI 0.27-0.92) and 0.35 (95% CI 0.18-0.71)) and in the A/A homozygote (n=22) (0.34 (95% CI 0.11-0.99) and 0.22 (95% CI 0.07-0.72)), compared with the G/G homozygote (n=88). These data suggest that the COMT polymorphism affects serum ALT activity to maintain liver function. PMID:22293393

  17. The standard amino acids alanine ala A

    E-print Network

    Guevara-Vasquez, Fernando

    The standard amino acids alanine ala A cysteine cys C aspartic acid asp D glutamic acid glu E's the mapping from nucleotide triplets in DNA sequences (via messenger RNA) to individual amino acids, and T) but only 20 amino acids, and that the code is redundant or "degenerate" in the sense that several

  18. Role of cystatin C and renal resistive index in assessment of renal function in patients with liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    ?ulafi?, ?or?e; Štuli?, Miloš; Obrenovi?, Radmila; Mileti?, Danijela; Mija?, Dragana; Stojkovi?, Milica; Jovanovi?, Marija; ?ulafi?, Milica

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the clinical significance of cystatin C and renal resistive index for the determination of renal function in patients with liver cirrhosis. METHODS: We conducted a study of 63 patients with liver cirrhosis. A control group comprised of 30 age and gender-matched healthy persons. Serum cystatin C was determined in all study subjects and renal Doppler ultrasonography was made. Estimated glomerular filtration rate from serum creatinine (GFRCr) and cystatin C (GFRCys) was calculated. RESULTS: We confirmed significant differences in values of cystatin C between patients with different stages of liver cirrhosis according to Child-Pugh (P = 0.01), and a significant correlation with model of end stage liver disease (MELD) score (rs = 0.527, P < 0.001). More patients with decreased glomerular filtration rate were identified based on GFRCys than on GFRCr (P < 0.001). Significantly higher renal resistive index was noted in Child-Pugh C than in A (P < 0.001) and B stage (P = 0.001). Also, a significant correlation between renal resistive index and MELD score was observed (rs = 0.607, P < 0.001). Renal resistive index correlated significantly with cystatin C (rs = 0.283, P = 0.028) and showed a negative correlation with GFRCys (rs = -0.31, P = 0.016). CONCLUSION: Cystatin C may be a more reliable marker for assessment of liver insufficiency. Additionally, cystatin C and renal resistive index represent sensitive indicators of renal dysfunction in patients with liver cirrhosis. PMID:24914379

  19. Liver function and the diagnostic significance of biochemical changes in the blood of African children with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed Central

    Isichei, U P

    1980-01-01

    The blood biochemistry of 84 young homozygous sickle cell patients aged 1 to 11 years was analysed for evidence of liver disease. A comparison of the values found in their blood with those seen in normal children from an identical age group, assessed at the same time, shows no convincing evidence of liver cell damage except in 12% of cases. The normal transaminase observed in many of the patients assessed, together with the high alkaline phosphatase activity which seemed to be out of proportion to plasma bilirubin, is a picture compatible with localised obstructive lesions of the liver or bone lesions, both of which are common in sickle cell disease. This biochemical pattern suggests that the conjugated bilirubin, which dominates the picture in 40% of patients who have 'haemolytic jaundice', is due largely, not to liver cell damage, but to a combination of two factors, namely, intrahepatic cholestasis and the presence of actively functioning liver cells. Adequate albumin synthesis found in these patients, together with normal thymol reactions, provides further evidence of the absence of severe liver cell damage. PMID:7430368

  20. Effects of dual arterial blood supply on liver regeneration in the graft and the host following heterotopic auxiliary liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, JUNJING; XI, JUNQING; DONG, CHAOXUAN; MENG, XINGKAI

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of the dual arterial blood supply method used in auxiliary liver transplantation on the regeneration of grafted and host liver. A total of 72 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three experimental groups, namely the 68% hepatectomy group (group A), the 68% hepatectomy with dual arterial blood supply group (group B) and the auxiliary liver transplantation with dual arterial blood supply group (group C). Group C was further divided into the host liver subgroup (group Ca) and the transplanted liver subgroup (group Cb). Six animals from each group were sacrificed at 1, 2 and 7 days after surgery. The calculation of the liver regeneration rate (LRR) was based on measuring liver weight. Liver function was assessed by measuring serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. Immunohistochemistry was employed to detect the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Apoptotic changes in the grafts and host livers were evaluated using TUNEL staining. The LRR in each group exhibited a tendency to increase over time. At each time point, the LRR of transplanted livers in group C exhibited no significant difference from that of host livers in group C (P>0.05). The ALT levels for each group exhibited a time-dependent decreasing tendency. The ALT level in group C was significantly higher compared to that in groups A and B at each time point (P<0.05). The expression of PCNA in transplanted and host livers in group C was significantly lower compared to that in groups A and B at the same time point (P<0.001). Although the number of apoptotic cells in each group varied at different time points, there was no statistically significant difference (P>0.05). In auxiliary liver transplantation with the dual arterial blood supply method, the capacity of the liver regeneration in the grafts was similar to that of the host livers. Therefore, this technique may reduce the potential risk of graft liver atrophy caused by functional competition. PMID:25289034

  1. MRI-based estimation of liver function: Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced T1 relaxometry of 3T vs. the MELD score

    PubMed Central

    Haimerl, Michael; Verloh, Niklas; Fellner, Claudia; Zeman, Florian; Teufel, Andreas; Feigl, Stefan Fichtner-; Schreyer, Andreas G.; Stroszczynski, Christian; Wiggermann, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    Gd-EOB-DTPA is a hepatocyte-specific MRI contrast agent. Due to its hepatocyte-specific uptake and paramagnetic properties, functioning areas of the liver exhibit shortening of the T1 relaxation time. We report the potential use of T1 relaxometry of the liver with Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for estimating the liver function as expressed by the MELD score. 3 T MRI relaxometry was performed before and 20?min after Gd-EOB-DTPA administration. A strong correlation between changes in the T1 relaxometry and the extent of liver disease, expressed by the MELD score, was documented. Reduced liver function correlates with decreased Gd-EOB-DTPA accumulation in the hepatocytes during the hepatobiliary phase. MRI-based T1 relaxometry with Gd-EOB-DTPA may be a useful method for assessing overall and segmental liver function. PMID:25001391

  2. Alanine aminotransferase is an inadequate surrogate marker for detecting lamivudine resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Lee Guan; Aung, Myat Oo; Seet, Bee Leng; Tan, Cindy; Dan, Yock Young; Lee, Yin Mei; Sutedja, Dede Selamat; Fernandes, Mark; Lee, Guan Huei; Koay, Evelyn; Lim, Seng Gee

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the accuracy of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in diagnosing lamivudine resistance and factors that contributed to abnormal serum ALT. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of chronic hepatitis B patients on lamivudine therapy who were followed for 3-mo with liver function tests and hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA measurement. Lamivudine resistance was defined as HBV DNA ? 1 log from nadir on at least 2 occasions, confirmed by genotyping. Serum ALT levels in patients with lamivudine resistance were compared to serum ALT levels in those without lamivudine resistance. RESULTS: There were 111 patients with and 117 without lamivudine resistance. The area under the receiver operating characteristic of serum ALT to diagnose lamivudine resistance was 0.645 ± 0.037. Serum ALT > 42.5 U/L gave the best diagnostic accuracy with sensitivity = 61%, specificity = 60%, positive predictive value = 60%, negative predictive value = 61%, positive likelihood ratio = 1.53 and negative likelihood ratio = 0.65 for predicting lamivudine resistance, missing 39% of resistant patients. Using other serum ALT cutoffs, diagnostic accuracy was lower. By multivariate analysis, baseline abnormal serum ALT was associated with abnormal ALT during resistance (OR = 5.98, P = 0.003), and males were associated with serum ALT flares during resistance (OR = 8.9, P = 0.016). CONCLUSION: Serum ALT is inadequate for diagnosing lamivudine resistance and has implications where viral resistance testing is suboptimal and for reimbursement of rescue therapy. PMID:20872970

  3. Liver function tests and glucose and lipid metabolism in growth-restricted fetuses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alistair Roberts; Simona Nava; Luisa Bocconi; Sarah Salmona; Umberto Nicolini

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To assess hematologic and biochemical blood variables in growth-restricted fetuses and relate them to biophysical measurements.Methods: Blood was sampled from 22 growth-restricted fetuses. All had normal karyotypes and no congenital infections. Venous pH, partial pressure of oxygen, hematocrit, glucose, uric acid, urea, creatinine, total protein, total and direct bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, ?-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactic dehydrogenase, amylase,

  4. Transplantation vs resection for hepatocellular carcinoma with compensated liver function after downstaging therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Jian-Yong; Yan, Lu-Nan; Wang, Wen-Tao

    2013-01-01

    AIM: Our study aimed to compare the results of liver transplantation (LT) and liver resection (LR) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that met the Milan criteria after successful downstaging therapy. METHODS: From February 2004 to August 2010, a consecutive series of 102 patients were diagnosed with advanced-stage HCC that met the modified UCSF down-staging protocol inclusion criteria. All of the patients accepted various down-staging therapies. The types and numbers of treatments were tailored to each patient according to the tumor characteristics, location, liver function and response. After various downstaging therapies, 66 patients had tumor characteristics that met the Milan criteria; 31 patients accepted LT in our center, and 35 patients accepted LR. The baseline characteristics, down-staging protocols, postoperative complications, overall survival and tumor free survival rate, and tumor recurrence rate were compared between the two groups. Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to estimate the long-term overall survival and tumor-free survival rate. Meanwhile, a Cox proportional hazards model was used for the multivariate analyses of overall survival and disease-free survival rate. RESULTS: No significant difference was observed between the LT and LR groups with respect to the down-staging protocol, target tumor characteristics, and baseline patient characteristics. Fifteen patients suffered various complications after LT, and 8 patients had complications after LR. The overall complication rate for the LT group was 48.4%, which was significantly higher than the LR group (22.9%) (P = 0.031). The overall in-hospital mortality in hospital for the LT group was 12.9% vs 2.9% for the LR group (P = 0.172). The overall patient survival rates at 1-, 3- and 5-years were 87.1%, 80.6% and 77.4%, respectively, after LT and 91.4%, 77.1% and 68.6%, respectively, after LR (P = 0.498). The overall 1-, 3- and 5-year tumor recurrence-free rates were also comparable (P = 0.656). Poorer tumor differentiation (P = 0.041) and a higher post-downstage alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level (> 400 ng/mL) (P = 0.015) were the two independent risk factors for tumor recurrence in the LT and LR patients who accepted successful down-staging therapy. CONCLUSION: Due to the higher postoperative morbidity and similar survival and tumor recurrence-free rates, LR might offer better or similar outcome over LT, but a larger number and further randomized studies may be needed in the future for drawing any positive conclusions. PMID:23885153

  5. CORRELATION OF MIXED-FUNCTION OXIDASE ACTIVITY WITH ULTRASTRUCTURAL CHANGES IN THE LIVER OF A MARINE FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Specimens of mullet (Mugil cephalus), a marine fish, were given single doses of 3-methylcholanthrene intraperitoneally and the activity of the microsomal mixed-function oxygenase system in the liver was measured by the metabolism of benzo(a)-pyrene. The enzyme system was found to...

  6. Graves' disease, Celiac disease and liver function abnormalities in a patient--clinical manifestation and diagnostic difficulties.

    PubMed

    Góra-G?bka, Magdalena; Wo?niak, Ma?gorzata; Cielecka-Kuszyk, Joanna; Korpal-Szczyrska, Maria; Sznurkowska, Katarzyna; Zagierski, Maciej; Jankowska, Irena; Plata-Nazar, Katarzyna; Kami?ska, Barbara; Liberek, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases due to probable common pathogenesis tend to coexist in some patients. Complex clinical presentation with diverse timing of particular symptoms and sophisticated treatment with numerous side effects, may cause diagnostic difficulties, especially in children. The paper presents diagnostic difficulties and pitfalls in a child with Graves' disease, celiac disease and liver function abnormalities. PMID:24904927

  7. Liver fibrosis in overweight patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vlad Ratziu; Philippe Giral; Frederic Charlotte; Eric Bruckert; Vincent Thibault; Ioannis Theodorou; Lina Khalil; Gérard Turpin; Pierre Opolon; Thierry Poynard

    2000-01-01

    Background & Aims: A common clinical issue is whether overweight patients with abnormal liver function test results should undergo liver biopsy. Although serious liver injury can occur, its prevalence and risk factors are not well known. Methods: Ninety-three consecutive patients with abnormal liver function tests (but without overt liver disease), body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg\\/m2, and no alcoholic,

  8. Living with Your Liver

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students learn the function of the liver and how biomedical engineers can use liver regeneration to help people. Students test the effects of toxic chemicals on a beef liver by adding hydrogen peroxide to various liver and salt solutions. They observe, record and graph their results.

  9. Generation of a functional liver tissue mimic using adipose stromal vascular fraction cell-derived vasculatures

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, S. S.; Maijub, J. G.; Krishnan, L.; Ramakrishnan, V. M.; Clayton, L. R.; Williams, S. K.; Hoying, J. B.; Boyd, N. L.

    2013-01-01

    One of the major challenges in cell implantation therapies is to promote integration of the microcirculation between the implanted cells and the host. We used adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells to vascularize a human liver cell (HepG2) implant. We hypothesized that the SVF cells would form a functional microcirculation via vascular assembly and inosculation with the host vasculature. Initially, we assessed the extent and character of neovasculatures formed by freshly isolated and cultured SVF cells and found that freshly isolated cells have a higher vascularization potential. Generation of a 3D implant containing fresh SVF and HepG2 cells formed a tissue in which HepG2 cells were entwined with a network of microvessels. Implanted HepG2 cells sequestered labeled LDL delivered by systemic intravascular injection only in SVF-vascularized implants demonstrating that SVF cell-derived vasculatures can effectively integrate with host vessels and interface with parenchymal cells to form a functional tissue mimic. PMID:23828203

  10. Functional imaging biomarkers for assessing response to treatment in liver and lung metastases

    PubMed Central

    O’Flynn, Elizabeth A.M.; deSouza, Nandita M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Management of patients with metastatic cancer and development of new treatments rely on imaging to provide non-invasive biomarkers of tumour response and progression. The widely used size-based criteria have increasingly become inadequate where early measures of response are required to avoid toxicity of ineffective treatments, as biological, physiologic, and molecular modifications in tumours occur before changes in gross tumour size. A multiparametric approach with the current range of imaging techniques allows functional aspects of tumours to be simultaneously interrogated. Appropriate use of these imaging techniques and their timing in relation to the treatment schedule, particularly in the context of clinical trials, is fundamental. There is a lack of consensus regarding which imaging parameters are most informative for a particular disease site and the best time to image so that, despite an increasing body of literature, open questions on these aspects remain. In addition, standardization of these new parameters is required. This review summarizes the published literature over the last decade on functional and molecular imaging techniques in assessing treatment response in liver and lung metastases. PMID:24334562

  11. Estradiol affects liver mitochondrial function in ovariectomized and tamoxifen-treated ovariectomized female rats

    SciTech Connect

    Moreira, Paula I. [Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Institute of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Custodio, Jose B.A. [Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Nunes, Elsa [Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Institute of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Moreno, Antonio [Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Department of Zoology, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Institute of Marine Research, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Seica, Raquel [Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Institute of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Oliveira, Catarina R. [Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Santos, Maria S. [Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal) and Department of Zoology, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal)]. E-mail: mssantos@ci.uc.pt

    2007-05-15

    Given the tremendous importance of mitochondria to basic cellular functions as well as the critical role of mitochondrial impairment in a vast number of disorders, a compelling question is whether 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) modulates mitochondrial function. To answer this question we exposed isolated liver mitochondria to E2. Three groups of rat females were used: control, ovariectomized and ovariectomized treated with tamoxifen. Tamoxifen has antiestrogenic effects in the breast tissue and is the standard endocrine treatment for women with breast cancer. However, under certain circumstances and in certain tissues, tamoxifen can also exert estrogenic agonist properties. We observed that at basal conditions, ovariectomy and tamoxifen treatment do not induce any statistical alteration in oxidative phosphorylation system and respiratory chain parameters. Furthermore, tamoxifen treatment increases the capacity of mitochondria to accumulate Ca{sup 2+} delaying the opening of the permeability transition pore. The presence of 25 {mu}M E2 impairs respiration and oxidative phosphorylation system these effects being similar in all groups of animals studied. Curiously, E2 protects against lipid peroxidation and increases the production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in energized mitochondria of control females. Our results indicate that E2 has in general deleterious effects that lead to mitochondrial impairment. Since mitochondrial dysfunction is a triggering event of cell degeneration and death, the use of exogenous E2 must be carefully considered.

  12. Patients with hepatitis C infection and normal liver function: an evaluation of cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    Abrantes, Jefferson; Torres, Daniel Simplício; de Mello, Carlos Eduardo Brandão

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the study Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with neuropsychiatric complaints. Previous studies have associated cognitive alterations with HCV infection but have often included confounding factors in their samples. This study compares the cognitive performance between patients with HCV infection (HCV patients) and a control group while excluding other factors that may cause cognitive impairment. Study design This cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2010 through June 2011. HCV infected patients and healthy individuals between the ages of 18 and 80?years were considered eligible. The exclusion criteria included well established causes of cognitive impairment such as depression and cirrhosis. Study participants underwent neuropsychological testing involving measures of attention, memory, abstraction, visuoconstructive abilities, and executive function. Results Of 138 initial patients, 47 were excluded because of their medical records, three refused to participate, 23 did not attend the consultation, and 32 were excluded because of having Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores >11. In all, 33 patients underwent neuropsychological testing; however, three were excluded because of having hypothyroidism, and one was excluded because of having a cobalamin deficiency. For the control group, of the 33 healthy individuals that were selected, four were excluded because of having BDI scores >11. Thus, the final analysis included 29 HCV patients and 29 control participants. The groups did not differ in education, age, or gender. No statistically significant differences were found between the groups regarding cognitive performance. Conclusions In this study using strict selection criteria, there was no evidence of an association between HCV infection and cognitive impairment. PMID:23625064

  13. Effect of anti-tuberculosis therapy on liver function of pulmonary tuberculosis patients infected with hepatitis B virus

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Lei; Jia, Zhan-Sheng; Chen, Lin; Fu, En-Qing; Li, Guang-Yu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To observe the effect of anti-tuberculosis therapy on liver function of pulmonary tuberculosis patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, and to compare the differences of liver function by two treatments of anti-tuberculosis. METHODS: Forty-seven TB patients with HBV infection and 170 TB patients without HBV infection were divided into HPBE(S) and HLAMKO treatment groups. Liver function tests before and after the treatments were performed once in 2 wk or monthly, and their clinical manifestations were recorded. RESULTS: The rate of hepatotoxicity occurred in 26 (59%) TB patients with HBV during anti-TB treatment, higher than that in 40 (24%) TB patients without HBV. Hepatotoxicity occurred in 66 out of 217 patients, and the incidence of liver dysfunction was 46.1% in HPBE(S) group, significantly higher than that in HLAMKO group (12.7%) (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: TB patients with HBV should choose HLAMKO treatment because of fewer hepatotoxicity. PMID:15832429

  14. Application of a proteomic approach to identify proteins associated with primary graft non-function after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kornasiewicz, Oskar; Bojarczuk, Kamil; Bugajski, Marek; Golab, Jakub; Krawczyk, Marek

    2012-10-01

    Primary graft non-function (PNF) is a rare, life-threatening complication of liver transplantation. Increasing use of extended criteria donor pools and high-risk recipients seem to influence the incidence of PNF. Primary failure is associated with high patient morbidity and inferior graft survival. The only available treatment for PNF is emergency hepatic retransplantation, which is also correlated with significant morbidity and mortality. Therefore, researchers are working to identify risk factors of diagnostic value to prevent PNF. The current study attempted to explore liver proteomic patterns in patients with PNF. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), we compared liver protein homogenates from 3 patients with PNF to those obtained from 6 healthy liver samples to identify potential new biomarkers of PNF. Our comparisons revealed 21 proteins with differential expression (13 upregulated and 8 downregulated). Most of these proteins are involved in energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, peptide cleavage, cell differentiation, and apoptosis. Although none of these proteins appeared more than once in separate analyses, this preliminary study shows that two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and LC-MS may allow identification of characteristic proteins to be used as biomarkers of a life-threatening complication of liver transplantation. Larger-scale analyses could improve patient care by finding suitable prognostic and therapeutic options. These data represent the first global proteomic approach to study PNF. PMID:22825711

  15. Plasma proteolytic activity in liver transplant rejection.

    PubMed

    Scholz, T; Gallimore, M J; Bäckman, L; Mathisen, O; Bergan, A; Klintmalm, G B; Aasen, A O

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the role of proteolytic enzymes belonging to the coagulation, fibrinolytic, and plasma contact systems in the early postoperative phase after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Twenty-nine patients were studied at the time of OLT and during the first 2 postoperative weeks. Blood samples were collected daily after OLT and analyzed for kallikrein-like activity (KK), functional kallikrein inhibition (KKI), plasmin-like activity (PL), and alpha2-antiplasmin (AP). In addition, prekallikrein (PKK), prothrombin (PTH), antithrombin III (AT III), plasminogen (PLG), prothrombin/antithrombin III complexes (TAT), prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (F1 + 2), and plasmin/alpha2-antiplasmin complexes (PAP) were measured. Nineteen patients experienced biopsy-verified acute rejections (AR) and ten patients had uneventful courses and served as controls. Plasma analyses showed that the contact, coagulation, and fibrinolytic systems were activated during OLT. Following OLT, continuous thrombin and plasmin generation was observed, and these effects were more pronounced in the group having an uneventful course than in patients with AR. Factors that could possibly affect plasma proteolytic activity, such as blood product usage during and after OLT and cold ischemia time of the liver graft, did not differ between the groups, nor did the routine liver function tests, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). PMID:10363591

  16. Liver Transplant

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Handouts Education Resources Support Services Helpful Links For Liver Health Information Call 1-800-GO-LIVER (1- ... Home > Your Liver > Liver Disease Information > Liver Transplant Liver Transplant Explore this section to learn more about ...

  17. Liver Wellness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Liver Foundation www.liverfoundation.org 1-800-GO-LIVER © 2009 American Liver Foundation. All rights reserved. Increasing Public Awareness of Liver Health Liver Wellness • The liver is the second ...

  18. Rhinacanthus nasutus Improves the Levels of Liver Carbohydrate, Protein, Glycogen, and Liver Markers in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Visweswara Rao, Pasupuleti; Madhavi, K.; Dhananjaya Naidu, M.; Gan, Siew Hua

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the total carbohydrate, total protein, and glycogen levels in the liver and to measure functional liver markers such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in streptozotocin-(STZ-) induced diabetic rats after treatment with methanolic extract of Rhinacanthus nasutus (R. nasutus). The methanolic extract of R. nasutus was orally administered at 200?mg/kg/day while glibenclamide was administered at 50?mg/kg/day. All animals were treated for 30 days before being sacrificed. The amounts of carbohydrate, glycogen, proteins, and liver markers (AST and ALT) were measured in the liver tissue of the experimental animals. The levels of carbohydrate, glycogen, and proteins were significantly reduced in the diabetic rats but were augmented considerably after 30 days of R. nasutus treatment. The elevated AST and ALT levels in diabetic rats showed a significant decline after treatment with R. nasutus for 30 days. These results show that the administration of R. nasutus ameliorates the altered levels of carbohydrate, glycogen, proteins, and AST and ALT observed in diabetic rats and indicate that R. nasutus restores overall metabolism and liver function in experimental diabetic rats. In conclusion, the outcomes of the present study support the traditional belief that R. nasutus could ameliorate the diabetic state. PMID:24204387

  19. Maintenance of liver functions in rat hepatocytes cultured as spheroids in a rotating wall vessel.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lanika A; Arterburn, Linda M; Miller, Ana P; Cowger, Nancy L; Hartley, Sonya M; Andrews, Annette; Silber, Paul M; Li, Albert P

    2003-01-01

    Rat hepatocytes were cultured initially as spheroids on culture plates and then transferred into a rotating wall vessel (high-aspect ratio vessel [HARV]) for further culturing. Morphological evaluation based on electron microscopy showed that hepatocyte spheroids cultured for 30 d in the HARV had a compact structure with tight cell-cell junctions, numerous smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, intact mitochondria, and bile canaliculi lined with microvilli. The viability and differentiated properties of the hepatocytes cultured in the HARV were further substantiated by the presence of both phase I oxidation and phase II conjugation drug-metabolizing enzyme activities, as well as albumin synthesis. Homogenates prepared from freshly isolated hepatocytes and hepatocytes cultured in the HARV showed similar cytochrome P450 2B activities measured as pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase and testosterone 16beta-hydroxylase. Further, intact hepatocytes cultured in the HARV were found to metabolize chlorzoxazone to 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone; dextromethorphan to dextrorphan, 3-methoxymorphinan, and 3-hydroxymorphinan; midazolam to 1-hydroxymidazolam and 4-hydroxymidazolam; and 7-hydroxycoumarin to its glucuronide and sulfate conjugates. In conclusion, we found that hepatocyte spheroids could be cultured in a HARV to retain cellular and physiological properties of the intact liver, including drug-metabolizing enzyme activities, plasma protein production, and long-term (1 mo) maintenance of viability and cellular function. PMID:12892522

  20. Heat Shock Protein 70 Expression is Increased in the Liver of Neonatal Intrauterine Growth Retardation Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Zhong, Xiang; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Yuanxiao; Wang, Tian

    2012-01-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) leads to the dysfunction in digestive system, as well as the alteration in the expression of some functional proteins. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) could be induced by various stress factors, but whether Hsp70 expression is changed in neonatal IUGR infants has not been demonstrated. This study was conducted to explore the expression of Hsp70 in the liver by using the IUGR piglet model. Liver and plasma samples were obtained from IUGR and normal birth weight (NBW) piglets at birth. The neonatal IUGR piglets had significantly lower liver weight than their counterparts. The activities of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in serum were enhanced significantly in IUGR indicating liver dysfunction. The activities of superoxide dismutase (p<0.01), glutathione peroxidase (p<0.01) and catalase (p>0.05) were lower and the level of malondialdehybe was higher (p<0.05) in IUGR liver compared with in NBW. According to the results of histological tests, fatty hepatic infiltrates and cytoplasmic vacuolization were present in the liver of IUGR piglets, but not in NBW liver. The expression of Hsp70 protein was significantly higher (p<0.05) in IUGR piglet liver than in NBW. Similar to where the hepatic injuries were observed, location of Hsp70 was mostly in the midzonal hepatic lobule indicating that oxidative stress might be responsible for the increased expression of Hsp70. PMID:25049668

  1. Liver bioengineering

    PubMed Central

    Caralt, Mireia; Velasco, Enrique; Lanas, Angel; Baptista, Pedro M

    2014-01-01

    Liver bioengineering has been a field of intense research and popular excitement in the past decades. It experiences great interest since the introduction of whole liver acellular scaffolds generated by perfusion decellularization1–3. Nevertheless, the different strategies developed so far have failed to generate hepatic tissue in vitro bioequivalent to native liver tissue. Even notable novel strategies that rely on iPSC-derived liver progenitor cells potential to self-organize in association with endothelial cells in hepatic organoids are lacking critical components of the native tissue (e.g., bile ducts, functional vascular network, hepatic microarchitecture, etc)4. Hence, it is vital to understand the strengths and short comes of our current strategies in this quest to re-create liver organogenesis in vitro. To shed some light into these issues, this review describes the different actors that play crucial roles in liver organogenesis and highlights the steps still missing to successfully generate whole livers and hepatic organoids in vitro for multiple applications. PMID:25102189

  2. New perspectives in biomonitoring liver function by means of serum bile acids: experimental and hypothetical biochemical basis.

    PubMed Central

    Franco, G

    1991-01-01

    The functional activity of the liver and the variety of its responses to injury makes the choice of appropriate tests of function a difficult task. Because of the highly efficient uptake of bile acids by the normal hepatocyte, the determination of serum bile acid (SBA) concentration has been proposed as a test to detect early changes of liver function not associated with cytotoxicity. Several biomonitoring studies have been carried out on subjects occupationally exposed to hepatotoxic substances, by evaluating SBAs as indicators of early liver dysfunction. Even though these studies are not exactly comparable because of the different protocols adopted, most of them show a significant increase in SBA concentrations among the exposed subjects compared with unexposed controls. Furthermore, higher prevalences of subjects with abnormal SBA concentrations occur in those exposed to mixtures of organic solvents. Increased SBA concentrations among the subjects exposed to various xenobiotics have been explained by assuming a change in function of hepatocytes. As regards the nature of the mechanisms involved in the increase in SBA concentrations, recent experimental observations pointed out that some chlorinated aliphatics were able to inhibit cell membrane ATPases and alter cytosolic calcium homeostasis. The lack of any relation, however, between exposure and SBA concentrations remains an important point to clarify and at present prevents the use of measurement of SBA concentrations as an index of effect. PMID:1878313

  3. Functional Coupling of Cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 to Discrete Prostanoid Synthases in Liver Macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Dieter; Roland Scheibe; Per-Johan Jakobsson; Kikuko Watanabe; Angelika Kolada; Sabine Kamionka

    2000-01-01

    The profile of released prostanoids after addition of exogenous arachidonic acid to resident liver macrophages is different from the profile obtained in lipopolysaccharide-pretreated cells. In resident and lipopolysaccharide-pretreated cells, AA leads to a release of thromboxane B2, prostaglandin F2?, E2, and D2. A specifically enhanced formation of prostaglandin E2 is obtained in lipopolysaccharide-pretreated cells. Resident liver macrophages express cyclooxygenase 1,

  4. Diverse functional coupling of cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 with final prostanoid synthases in liver macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabine Schade; Yevgeniya Bezugla; Angelika Kolada; Sabine Kamionka; Roland Scheibe; Peter Dieter

    2002-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment of resident liver macrophages resulted in a coordinated enhanced expression of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and prostaglandin E2-synthase. LPS-pretreated liver macrophages showed a higher release of PGE2 after zymosan, phorbol ester and A23187, of PGF2? after zymosan and A23187, whereas the release of thromboxane B2 and PGD2 was unchanged. Inhibition of COX-1 and -2 by

  5. Protection of Liver as a Remote Organ after Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Renal Ischemic Postconditioning

    PubMed Central

    Seifi, Behjat; Kadkhodaee, Mehri; Najafi, Atefeh; Mahmoudi, Atefeh

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of local renal ischemic postconditioning (POC) on liver damage after renal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Male rats were divided into three groups??(n = 8). They underwent a right nephrectomy before induction of 45 minutes of left kidney ischemia or sham operation. POC was performed by four cycles of 10 seconds of ischemia and 10 seconds of reperfusion just at the beginning of 24 hours of reperfusion. Then blood and liver samples were collected to measure serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and liver oxidative stress parameters including superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level. Renal IR caused a significant increase in liver functional indices as demonstrated by increased serum AST and ALT compared to sham group. These parameters reduced significantly in POC group compared to IR group. Liver MDA levels increased and SOD activity decreased in IR group compared to sham group. Induction of POC reduced the elevated liver MDA levels and increased the reduced liver SOD activity. These results revealed that renal IR injury causes liver damage as a remote organ and POC protects liver from renal IR injury by a modification in the hepatic oxidative stress status. PMID:24744919

  6. Protection of liver as a remote organ after renal ischemia-reperfusion injury by renal ischemic postconditioning.

    PubMed

    Seifi, Behjat; Kadkhodaee, Mehri; Najafi, Atefeh; Mahmoudi, Atefeh

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of local renal ischemic postconditioning (POC) on liver damage after renal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Male rats were divided into three groups??(n = 8). They underwent a right nephrectomy before induction of 45 minutes of left kidney ischemia or sham operation. POC was performed by four cycles of 10 seconds of ischemia and 10 seconds of reperfusion just at the beginning of 24 hours of reperfusion. Then blood and liver samples were collected to measure serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and liver oxidative stress parameters including superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level. Renal IR caused a significant increase in liver functional indices as demonstrated by increased serum AST and ALT compared to sham group. These parameters reduced significantly in POC group compared to IR group. Liver MDA levels increased and SOD activity decreased in IR group compared to sham group. Induction of POC reduced the elevated liver MDA levels and increased the reduced liver SOD activity. These results revealed that renal IR injury causes liver damage as a remote organ and POC protects liver from renal IR injury by a modification in the hepatic oxidative stress status. PMID:24744919

  7. Effect of venovenous bypass on perioperative renal function in liver transplantation: results of a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Grande, L; Rimola, A; Cugat, E; Alvarez, L; García-Valdecasas, J C; Taurá, P; Beltrán, J; Fuster, J; Lacy, A M; González, F J; Tabet, J; Cifuentes, A; Rull, R; Ramos, C; Visa, J; Rodés, J

    1996-06-01

    Although venovenous bypass (VVBP) has been suggested to protect the kidneys during liver transplantation and its systematic use has therefore been recommended, this beneficial effect of VVBP has not been clearly demonstrated. In a prospective, randomized, controlled trial, 77 patients receiving liver transplants for chronic liver disease were allocated to be supported with VVBP (group 1, 38 patients) or not (group 2, 39 patients). Both groups were similar in relation to preoperative clinical and laboratory data and operative transfusion requirements. Inulin clearance and urinary beta(2)-microglobulin and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) excretion (to determine glomerular filtration rate and tubular damage, respectively) were measured at different perioperative periods (anesthesia induction, hepatectomy, anhepatic phase, biliary anastomosis, and 24 hours after surgery). A significant decrease in inulin clearance and increase in tubular damage markers were observed in the anhepatic phase, which only partly improved in the subsequent phases. No significant differences were observed between groups 1 and 2 at any perioperative phase, except during the anhepatic phase, in which a more marked renal function impairment occurred in group 2 patients. However, renal function on the 7th postoperative day and the need for hemodialysis/ hemofiltration during the 1st week were similar in both groups. Among 40 variables analyzed, only low mean arterial pressure at anesthesia induction was identified as an independent predictor for early postoperative severe renal failure (inulin clearance < 10 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at the 24th postoperative hour), with no significant relationship between this complication and the use of venovenous bypass. Renal function markedly deteriorates during liver transplantation, and renal impairment persists during the early postoperative period. Because VVBP support is not associated with any clear benefit in renal function, its systematic use does not seem to be justified. PMID:8675159

  8. A prospective evaluation of changes in neuropsychological and liver function tests following transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajiv Jalan; Rebecca Gooday; Ronan E. O'Carroll; Doris N. Redhead; Robert A. Elton; Peter C. Hayes

    1995-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: This study was designed to assess changes in: (a) neuropsychological tests, measures of memory, quality of life and scores for anxiety and depression; (b) liver function tests; and (c) the relationship between these following transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt.Methods: Twenty-nine patients undergoing transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt for recurrent variceal haemorrhage, 12 matched patients with cirrhosis and variceal haemorrhage manage with

  9. Crystal Structure of DL-Alanine Sulfate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu. I. Smolin; A. E. Lapshin; G. A. Pankova; Yu. N. Osipova

    2004-01-01

    Crystals of [(C3NO2H7)2·H2SO4] composition were analyzed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (triclinic, P\\u000a$${\\\\bar 1}$$\\u000a, a = 7.431(3), b = 9.826(3), c = 10.081(3) Å, a = 120.07(5), ß = 104.73(5), ? = 94.24(5)°). The independent part of the unit cell contains two alanine molecules and one sulfate ion. The amino group is additionally protonated in both molecules. One of

  10. The LKB1-salt-inducible kinase pathway functions as a key gluconeogenic suppressor in the liver

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kashyap; Foretz, Marc; Marion, Allison; Campbell, David G.; Gourlay, Robert; Boudaba, Nadia; Tournier, Emilie; Titchenell, Paul; Peggie, Mark; Deak, Maria; Wan, Min; Kaestner, Klaus H.; Göransson, Olga; Viollet, Benoit; Gray, Nathanael S.; Birnbaum, Morris J.; Sutherland, Calum; Sakamoto, Kei

    2014-01-01

    LKB1 is a master kinase that regulates metabolism and growth through adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and 12 other closely related kinases. Liver-specific ablation of LKB1 causes increased glucose production in hepatocytes in vitro and hyperglycaemia in fasting mice in vivo. Here we report that the salt-inducible kinases (SIK1, 2 and 3), members of the AMPK-related kinase family, play a key role as gluconeogenic suppressors downstream of LKB1 in the liver. The selective SIK inhibitor HG-9-91-01 promotes dephosphorylation of transcriptional co-activators CRTC2/3 resulting in enhanced gluconeogenic gene expression and glucose production in hepatocytes, an effect that is abolished when an HG-9-91-01-insensitive mutant SIK is introduced or LKB1 is ablated. Although SIK2 was proposed as a key regulator of insulin-mediated suppression of gluconeogenesis, we provide genetic evidence that liver-specific ablation of SIK2 alone has no effect on gluconeogenesis and insulin does not modulate SIK2 phosphorylation or activity. Collectively, we demonstrate that the LKB1–SIK pathway functions as a key gluconeogenic gatekeeper in the liver. PMID:25088745

  11. The LKB1-salt-inducible kinase pathway functions as a key gluconeogenic suppressor in the liver.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kashyap; Foretz, Marc; Marion, Allison; Campbell, David G; Gourlay, Robert; Boudaba, Nadia; Tournier, Emilie; Titchenell, Paul; Peggie, Mark; Deak, Maria; Wan, Min; Kaestner, Klaus H; Göransson, Olga; Viollet, Benoit; Gray, Nathanael S; Birnbaum, Morris J; Sutherland, Calum; Sakamoto, Kei

    2014-01-01

    LKB1 is a master kinase that regulates metabolism and growth through adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and 12 other closely related kinases. Liver-specific ablation of LKB1 causes increased glucose production in hepatocytes in vitro and hyperglycaemia in fasting mice in vivo. Here we report that the salt-inducible kinases (SIK1, 2 and 3), members of the AMPK-related kinase family, play a key role as gluconeogenic suppressors downstream of LKB1 in the liver. The selective SIK inhibitor HG-9-91-01 promotes dephosphorylation of transcriptional co-activators CRTC2/3 resulting in enhanced gluconeogenic gene expression and glucose production in hepatocytes, an effect that is abolished when an HG-9-91-01-insensitive mutant SIK is introduced or LKB1 is ablated. Although SIK2 was proposed as a key regulator of insulin-mediated suppression of gluconeogenesis, we provide genetic evidence that liver-specific ablation of SIK2 alone has no effect on gluconeogenesis and insulin does not modulate SIK2 phosphorylation or activity. Collectively, we demonstrate that the LKB1-SIK pathway functions as a key gluconeogenic gatekeeper in the liver. PMID:25088745

  12. Zingiber officinale acts as a nutraceutical agent against liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background/objective Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger) (Zingiberaceae) has been cultivated for thousands of years both as a spice and for medicinal purposes. Ginger rhizomes successive extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol) were examined against liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. Results The evaluation was done through measuring antioxidant parameters; glutathione (GSH), total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Liver marker enzymes; succinate and lactate dehydrogenases (SDH and LDH), glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase), acid phosphatase (AP), 5'- nucleotidase (5'NT) and liver function enzymes; aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT) as well as cholestatic markers; alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), total bilirubin were estimated. Liver histopathological analysis and collagen content were also evaluated. Treatments with the selected extracts significantly increased GSH, SOD, SDH, LDH, G-6-Pase, AP and 5'NT. However, MDA, AST, ALT ALP, GGT and total bilirubin were significantly decreased. Conclusions Extracts of ginger, particularly the ethanol one resulted in an attractive candidate for the treatment of liver fibrosis induced by CCl4. Further studies are required in order to identify the molecules responsible of the pharmacological activity. PMID:21689445

  13. Regulation of liver metabolism by enzyme phosphorylation during mammalian hibernation.

    PubMed

    Storey, K B

    1987-02-01

    Kinetic properties of regulatory enzymes of glycolysis in liver of the mouse, Zapus hudsonius, were modified during hibernation, the probable mechanism being covalent modification. Liver glycogen phosphorylase activity was strongly depressed during both short (less than 24 h) and long (5-8 days) term hibernation, the mechanism involving a decrease in both the percentage of enzyme in the active a form and the total amount (a + b) of enzyme expressed. Phosphofructokinase showed kinetic changes (a 2.5-fold increase in Ka for fructose-2,6-P2, 4- and 3.7-fold decreases in I50 values for ATP and citrate, compared to euthermic controls) in liver of hibernators indicative of phosphorylation inactivation of the enzyme. Measured levels of fructose-2,6-P2 in liver did not change during hibernation. Changes in pyruvate kinase kinetics in liver from long term hibernators similarly indicated enzyme phosphorylation in the depressed state (Ka for fructose-1,6-P2 increased 4.4-fold, I50 for L-alanine decreased 6.3-fold). Apparent covalent modification of glycolytic enzymes during hibernation may serve two functions: depression of glycolytic activity as part of the general metabolic rate depression of hibernation, or reorganization of fuel use in the hibernating state to limit carbohydrate catabolism and promote gluconeogenesis. PMID:2948958

  14. Adherence to risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) requirements for monthly testing of liver function

    PubMed Central

    Blanchette, Christopher M; Nunes, Anthony P; Lin, Nancy D; Mortimer, Kathleen M; Noone, Joshua; Tangirala, Krishna; Johnston, Stephen; Gutierrez, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS), as mandated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for medications with the potential for harm, are increasingly incorporating rigid protocols for patient evaluation, but little is known about compliance with these programs. Despite the inherent limitations, data on administrative claims may provide an opportunity to investigate adherence to these programs. Methods: We assessed adherence to liver function test (LFT) requirements included in the REMS program for bosentan through use of administrative claims. Patients observed in the Optum Research Database who were initiators of bosentan from November 20, 2001 to March 31, 2013 were included. Adherence to LFTs was calculated using pharmacy claims for bosentan dispensation and medical claims for laboratory services, and was assessed at the time of drug initiation and within specified time intervals throughout follow-up. Results: Of 742 patients, 523 (70.5%) had ?1 qualifying LFT. Among patients with ?12 dispensations, claims for LFTs at individual dispensations were 53.2–64.0%. Median proportion of dispensations with ?1 LFT was 0.8 among patients with ?6 (interquartile range, 0.7–1.0) or ?12 (0.7–0.9) dispensations. Adherence was 90–100% for 33.3% of all initiators, whereas 29.3% of initiators were non-adherent (defined as <50% of on-therapy LFTs). Conclusions: Analyses of administrative claims suggest that the REMS program for bosentan may not have adequately guaranteed adherence to the program’s monthly monitoring of LFTs. Such investigations of existing REMS programs may provide insight on how to accomplish more successful evaluation of REMS. PMID:25709706

  15. Loss of Survivin influences liver regeneration and is associated with impaired Aurora B function

    PubMed Central

    Hagemann, S; Wohlschlaeger, J; Bertram, S; Levkau, B; Musacchio, A; Conway, E M; Moellmann, D; Kneiseler, G; Pless-Petig, G; Lorenz, K; Sitek, B; Baba, H A

    2013-01-01

    The chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) acts as a key regulator of mitosis, preventing asymmetric segregation of chromosomal material into daughter cells. The CPC is composed of three non-enzymatic components termed Survivin, the inner centromere protein (INCENP) and Borealin, and an enzymatic component, Aurora B kinase. Survivin is necessary for the appropriate separation of sister chromatids during mitosis and is involved in liver regeneration, but its role in regenerative processes is incompletely elucidated. Whether Survivin, which is classified as an inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) based on domain composition, also has a role in apoptosis is controversial. The present study examined the in vivo effects of Survivin ablation in the liver and during liver regeneration after 70% hepatectomy in a hepatocyte-specific knockout mouse model. The absence of Survivin caused a reduction in the number of hepatocytes in the liver, together with an increase in cell volume, macronucleation and polyploidy, but no changes in apoptosis. During liver regeneration, mitosis of hepatocytes was associated with mislocalization of the members of the CPC, which were no longer detectable at the centromere despite an unchanged protein amount. Furthermore, the loss of survivin in regenerating hepatocytes was associated with reduced levels of phosphorylated Histone H3 at serine 28 and abolished phosphorylation of CENP-A and Hec1 at serine 55, which is a consequence of decreased Aurora B kinase activity. These data indicate that Survivin expression determines hepatocyte number during liver development and liver regeneration. Lack of Survivin causes mislocalization of the CPC members in combination with reduced Aurora B activity, leading to impaired phosphorylation of its centromeric target proteins and inappropriate cytokinesis. PMID:23519077

  16. Racemization of alanine by the alanine racemases from Salmonella typhimurium and Bacillus stearothermophilus: energetic reaction profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Faraci, W.S.; Walsh, C.T.

    1988-05-03

    Alanine racemases are bacterial pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) dependent enzymes providing D-alanine as an essential building block for biosynthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of the cell wall. Two isozymic alanine racemases, encoded by the dadB gene and the alr gene, from the Gram-negative mesophilic Salmonella typhimurium and one from the Gram-positive thermophilic Bacillus stearothermophilus have been examined for the racemization mechanism. Substrate deuterium isotope effects and solvent deuterium isotope effects have been measured in both L ..-->.. D and D..-->.. L directions for all three enzymes to assess the degree to which abstraction of the ..cap alpha..-proton or protonation of substrate PLP carbanion is limiting in catalysis. Additionally, experiments measuring internal return of ..cap alpha..-/sup 3/H from substrate to product and solvent exchange/substrate conversion experiments in /sup 3/H/sub 2/O have been used with each enzyme to examine the partitioning of substrate PLP carbanion intermediates and to obtain the relative heights of kinetically significant energy barriers in alanine racemase catalysis.

  17. Liver enzymes, metabolomics and genome-wide association studies: From systems biology to the personalized medicine

    PubMed Central

    Sookoian, Silvia; Pirola, Carlos J

    2015-01-01

    For several decades, serum levels of alanine (ALT) and aspartate (AST) aminotransferases have been regarded as markers of liver injury, including a wide range of etiologies from viral hepatitis to fatty liver. The increasing worldwide prevalence of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease revealed that transaminases are strong predictors of type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, atherothrombotic risk profile, and overall risk of metabolic disease. Therefore, it is plausible to suggest that aminotransferases are surrogate biomarkers of “liver metabolic functioning” beyond the classical concept of liver cellular damage, as their enzymatic activity might actually reflect key aspects of the physiology and pathophysiology of the liver function. In this study, we summarize the background information and recent findings on the biological role of ALT and AST, and review the knowledge gained from the application of genome-wide approaches and “omics” technologies that uncovered new concepts on the role of aminotransferases in human diseases and systemic regulation of metabolic functions. Prediction of biomolecular interactions between the candidate genes recently discovered to be associated with plasma concentrations of liver enzymes showed interesting interconnectivity nodes, which suggest that regulation of aminotransferase activity is a complex and highly regulated trait. Finally, links between aminotransferase genes and metabolites are explored to understand the genetic contributions to the metabolic diversity. PMID:25624707

  18. Liver enzymes, metabolomics and genome-wide association studies: from systems biology to the personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Sookoian, Silvia; Pirola, Carlos J

    2015-01-21

    For several decades, serum levels of alanine (ALT) and aspartate (AST) aminotransferases have been regarded as markers of liver injury, including a wide range of etiologies from viral hepatitis to fatty liver. The increasing worldwide prevalence of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease revealed that transaminases are strong predictors of type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, atherothrombotic risk profile, and overall risk of metabolic disease. Therefore, it is plausible to suggest that aminotransferases are surrogate biomarkers of "liver metabolic functioning" beyond the classical concept of liver cellular damage, as their enzymatic activity might actually reflect key aspects of the physiology and pathophysiology of the liver function. In this study, we summarize the background information and recent findings on the biological role of ALT and AST, and review the knowledge gained from the application of genome-wide approaches and "omics" technologies that uncovered new concepts on the role of aminotransferases in human diseases and systemic regulation of metabolic functions. Prediction of biomolecular interactions between the candidate genes recently discovered to be associated with plasma concentrations of liver enzymes showed interesting interconnectivity nodes, which suggest that regulation of aminotransferase activity is a complex and highly regulated trait. Finally, links between aminotransferase genes and metabolites are explored to understand the genetic contributions to the metabolic diversity. PMID:25624707

  19. Experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease results in decreased hepatic uptake transporter expression and function in rats

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Craig D.; Lickteig, Andrew J.; Augustine, Lisa M.; Oude Elferink, Ronald P.J.; Besselsen, David G.; Erickson, Robert P.; Cherrington, Nathan J.

    2009-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of diagnoses ranging from simple fatty liver (SFL), to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). This study aimed to determine the effect of moderate and severe NAFLD on hepatic transporter expression and function in vivo. Rats were fed a high-fat diet (SFL model) or a methionine-choline-deficient diet (NASH model) for eight weeks. Hepatic uptake transporter function was determined by bromosulfophthalein (BSP) disposition. Transporter expression was determined by branched DNA signal amplification assay and western blotting; inflammation was identified by immunostaining of liver slices for interleukin 1 beta (IL-1?). MC- rats showed significant retention of BSP in the plasma when compared to control rats. Hepatic NTCP, OATP1a1, 1a4, 1b2 and 2b1; and OAT 2 and 3 mRNA levels were significantly decreased in high-fat and MC- diet rats when compared to control. Protein expression of OATP1a1 was significantly decreased in high-fat animals, while OATP1a1 and OATP1b2 expression was significantly lower in MC- rats when compared to control. Liver tissue from high-fat and MC- rats stained positive for IL-1?, a pro-inflammatory cytokine known to decrease expression of NTCP, OATP and OAT transporters, suggesting a plausible mechanism for the observed transporter alterations. These data suggest that different stages of NAFLD result in altered hepatic uptake transporter expression that can lead to a functional impairment of xenobiotic uptake from the blood. Furthermore, NAFLD may alter the plasma retention time of clinically relevant drugs that are reliant on these transporters and may increase the potential drug toxicity. PMID:19358839

  20. CXCR3+CD4+ T cells mediate innate immune function in the pathophysiology of liver ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yuan; Shen, Xiu-da; Hancock, Wayne W; Gao, Feng; Qiao, Bo; Lassman, Charles; Belperio, John A; Strieter, Robert M; Busuttil, Ronald W; Kupiec-Weglinski, Jerzy W

    2006-05-15

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), an innate immune-dominated inflammatory response, develops in the absence of exogenous Ags. The recently highlighted role of T cells in IRI raises a question as to how T lymphocytes interact with the innate immune system and function with no Ag stimulation. This study dissected the mechanism of innate immune-induced T cell recruitment and activation in rat syngeneic orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) model. Liver IRI was induced after cold storage (24-36 h) at 4 degrees C in University of Wisconsin solution. Gene products contributing to IRI were identified by cDNA microarray at 4-h posttransplant. IRI triggered increased intrahepatic expression of CXCL10, along with CXCL9 and 11. The significance of CXCR3 ligand induction was documented by the ability of neutralizing anti-CXCR3 Ab treatment to ameliorate hepatocellular damage and improve 14-day survival of 30-h cold-stored OLTs (95 vs 40% in controls; p < 0.01). Immunohistology analysis confirmed reduced CXCR3+ and CD4+ T cell infiltration in OLTs after treatment. Interestingly, anti-CXCR3 Ab did not suppress innate immune activation in the liver, as evidenced by increased levels of IL-1beta, IL-6, inducible NO synthase, and multiple neutrophil/monokine-targeted chemokine programs. In conclusion, this study demonstrates a novel mechanism of T cell recruitment and function in the absence of exogenous Ag stimulation. By documenting that the execution of innate immune function requires CXCR3+CD4+ T cells, it highlights the critical role of CXCR3 chemokine biology for the continuum of innate to adaptive immunity in the pathophysiology of liver IRI. PMID:16670343

  1. A controlled trial on the effect of feeding dietary chestnut extract and glycerol monolaurate on liver function in newborn calves.

    PubMed

    Wieland, M; Weber, B K; Hafner-Marx, A; Sauter-Louis, C; Bauer, J; Knubben-Schweizer, G; Metzner, M

    2015-02-01

    Beginning in the fall of 2010, an increasing and alarming number of cases of calves suffering from liver dystrophy were reported in the south of Germany. An epidemiological investigation was carried out by the authors between November 2010 and July 2011, leading to the implication of a commercial dietary supplement as the potential cause for this outbreak. The components of this product were first tested in a cell culture model and two of them (dietary chestnut extract and glycerol monolaurate) showed a cytotoxic effect. The objective of this study was therefore to evaluate the effect of supplemental feeding of both components alone or in combination on liver function in newborn calves on a commercial dairy farm. Ten calves were enrolled in each of the three treatment groups and the control group (group O) following a blocked design. Treatment consisted of supplementation with chestnut extract at 0.02% of birth body mass (BM) (group C), supplementation with glycerol monolaurate at 0.006% of BM (group G) or a combined treatment (group CG) for five consecutive days. The effect of treatments on liver function was evaluated clinically and by measurement of glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities as well as the determination of the concentrations of glucose, L-lactate and total bilirubin in serum. There was a significant increase in GLDH and AST activities and a significant decrease in glucose concentration in treatment groups C and CG compared with the control group (p ? 0.035), whereas no difference was shown for group G. Survival was significantly decreased in groups C (p = 0.029) and CG (p = 0.001) compared with both group G and the control group. These results suggest that dietary chestnut extract in an amount of 0.02% of BM alone or in combination has a toxic effect on liver function in newborn calves. PMID:24605953

  2. Liver metastases

    MedlinePLUS

    Metastases to the liver; Metastatic liver cancer; Liver cancer - metastatic ... Almost any cancer can spread to the liver. Cancers that can spread to the liver include: Breast cancer Colorectal cancer Esophageal ...

  3. Liver Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. Primary liver cancer starts in the liver. Metastatic liver ... and spreads to your liver. Risk factors for primary liver cancer include Having hepatitis B or C ...

  4. Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST/GOT) and Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT/GPT) Detection Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xing-Jiu; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Im, Hyung-Soon; Yarimaga, Oktay; Yoon, Euisik; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2006-01-01

    The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST/GOT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT/GPT) in serum can help people diagnose body tissues especially the heart and the liver are injured or not. This article provides a comprehensive review of research activities that concentrate on AST/GOT and ALT/GPT detection techniques due to their clinical importance. The detection techniques include colorimetric, spectrophotometric, chemiluminescence, chromatography, fluorescence and UV absorbance, radiochemical, and electrochemical techniques. We devote the most attention on experimental principle. In some methods a few representative devices and important conclusions are presented.

  5. CXC Chemokines Function as a Rheostat for Hepatocyte Proliferation and Liver Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Gregory C.; Kuboki, Satoshi; Freeman, Christopher M.; Nojima, Hiroyuki; Schuster, Rebecca M.; Edwards, Michael J.; Lentsch, Alex B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Our previous in vitro studies have demonstrated dose-dependent effects of CXCR2 ligands on hepatocyte cell death and proliferation. In the current study, we sought to determine if CXCR2 ligand concentration is responsible for the divergent effects of these mediators on liver regeneration after ischemia/reperfusion injury and partial hepatectomy. Methods Murine models of partial ischemia/reperfusion injury and hepatectomy were used to study the effect of CXCR2 ligands on liver regeneration. Results We found that hepatic expression of the CXCR2 ligands, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), was significantly increased after both I/R injury and partial hepatectomy. However, expression of these ligands after I/R injury was 30-100-fold greater than after hepatectomy. Interestingly, the same pattern of expression was found in ischemic versus non-ischemic liver lobes following I/R injury with expression significantly greater in the ischemic liver lobes. In both systems, lower ligand expression was associated with increased hepatocyte proliferation and liver regeneration in a CXCR2-dependent fashion. To confirm that these effects were related to ligand concentration, we administered exogenous MIP-2 and KC to mice undergoing partial hepatectomy. Mice received a “high” dose that replicated serum levels found after I/R injury and a “low” dose that was similar to that found after hepatectomy. Mice receiving the “high” dose had reduced levels of hepatocyte proliferation and regeneration whereas the “low” dose promoted hepatocyte proliferation and regeneration. Conclusions Together, these data demonstrate that concentrations of CXC chemokines regulate the hepatic proliferative response and subsequent liver regeneration. PMID:25756662

  6. Supplementation with branched-chain amino acids attenuates hepatic apoptosis in rats with chronic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Kuwahata, Masashi; Kubota, Hiroyo; Kanouchi, Hiroaki; Ito, Shunsuke; Ogawa, Aki; Kobayashi, Yukiko; Kido, Yasuhiro

    2012-07-01

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) can function as pharmacologic nutrients for patients with decompensated cirrhosis. However, the effects of BCAA at the early stage of chronic liver disease are not clear. We hypothesized that early BCAA supplementation would attenuate the progression of chronic liver disease. The present study examined the effects of BCAA supplementation on the progression of chronic liver disease in rats caused by injected carbon tetrachloride (CCl?). Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with a casein diet (control group) or the same diet supplemented with BCAA (BCAA group) for 11 weeks, and all rats were repeatedly injected with CCl?. Food intake did not significantly differ between control and BCAA groups during the experimental period. Plasma alanine aminotransferase activities gradually increased during the experimental period in both groups but peaked later in the BCAA group. Liver fibrosis was more evident in the control group. Levels of connective tissue growth factor messenger RNA were significantly lower in the livers of rats in the BCAA group than in the control group. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine 5-triphosphate nick end labeling assays found considerably more hepatic apoptosis in the control group. Liver cytosolic cytochrome c levels and expression of the proapoptotic Bax protein in the mitochondrial fraction were significantly lower in the BCAA group than in the control group. These results suggest that supplementation with BCAA delays the progression of chronic liver disease caused by CCl? in rats by attenuating hepatic apoptosis. PMID:22901560

  7. Interactive Effects Between CYP1A1 Genotypes and Environmental Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans Exposures on Liver Function Profile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsiu-Ling Chen; Huey-Jen Su; Ying-Jan Wang; Yue-Liang Guo; Pao-Chi Liao; Ching-Chang Lee

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies reported that polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD\\/Fs) induced hepatic cytochrome P-4501A1 (CYP1A1). The aim of this study was to examine the interactive influence of CYP1A1 genotypes and PCDD\\/Fs exposure on liver function profile. PCDD\\/Fs levels and liver function parameters were determined in serum and correlated with genetic polymorphism of CYP1A1\\/Msp 1 in 225 human volunteers who had no

  8. Postoperative Immunosuppression After Open and Laparoscopic Liver Resection: Assessment of Cellular Immune Function and Monocytic HLA-DR Expression

    PubMed Central

    Haacke, Nadine; Meisel, Christian; Unterwalder, Nadine; Fikatas, Panagiotis; Schmidt, Sven C.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Major abdominal procedures are strongly associated with postoperative immunosuppression and subsequent increased patient morbidity. It is believed that laparoscopic surgery causes less depletion of the systemic immune function because of the reduced tissue trauma. Various cytokines and monocytic HLA-DR expression have been successfully implemented to assess postoperative immune function. The aim of our study was to show the difference in immunologic profiles after minimally invasive versus conventional liver resection. Methods: Ten animals underwent either laparoscopic or conventional open left lateral liver resection. Flow cytometric characteristics of HLA-DR expression on monocytes and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cellular secretion of tumor necrosis factor ?, interferon ?, interleukin 6, and interleukin 8 were measured and analyzed in ex vivo whole blood samples. Intraoperative and postoperative clinical outcome parameters were also documented and evaluated. Results: All animals survived the procedures. Postoperative complications were fever (n = 3), wound infections (n = 2), and biloma (n = 1). Open surgery showed a morbidity rate of 80% compared with 40% after laparoscopic surgery. Laparoscopic liver resection showed no postoperative immunoparalysis. Major histocompatibility complex class II expression in this group was elevated, whereas the open surgery group showed decreased major histocompatibility complex class II expression on postoperative day 1. Postoperative secretion of tumor necrosis factor ?, interleukin 6, and interferon ? was lower in the open surgery group. Elevated transaminase levels after laparoscopy might have resulted from an ischemia/reperfusion injury caused by the capnoperitoneum. Conclusion: Major immunoparalysis depression was not observed in either group. Laparoscopic surgery shows a tendency to improve immunologic recovery after liver resection. PMID:24398205

  9. Alanine aminotransferase predicts coronary heart disease events: A 10-year follow-up of the Hoorn Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger K. Schindhelm; Jacqueline M. Dekker; Giel Nijpels; Lex M. Bouter; Coen D. A. Stehouwer; Robert J. Heine; Michaela Diamant

    2007-01-01

    Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is a marker of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and predicts incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). Recently, ALT was shown to be also associated with endothelial dysfunction and carotid atherosclerosis. We studied the predictive value of ALT for all-cause mortality, incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) events in a population-based cohort of Caucasian

  10. Effect of low-dose tacrolimus with mycophenolate mofetil on renal function following liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Jing-Cheng; Wang, Wen-Tao; Yan, Lu-Nan; Li, Bo; Wen, Tian-Fu; Yang, Jia-Yin; Xu, Ming-Qing; Zhao, Ji-Chun; Wei, Yong-Gang

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether low-dose tacrolimus (TAC) combined with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is a safe approach to decrease the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in liver transplantation (LT) recipients. METHODS: We analyzed the medical records of 689 patients who underwent LT between March 1999 and December 2012 in a single Chinese center. Immunosuppression was initiated with a calcineurin inhibitor (TAC or CSA) and prednisone with or without MMF. CKD is defined by the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), estimated by an abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula, < 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 for at least 3 consecutive months after LT. Individuals with TAC trough concentrations ? 8 ng/mL at 3 mo after LT were defined as the low-dose group. The incidence of CKD within 5 years was compared between the TAC group and the CSA group, as well as between four subgroups (low-dose and high-dose TAC groups with or without MMF). RESULTS: No difference regarding the occurrence of pre-LT renal dysfunction or that of post-LT rejection was found between the TAC and CSA groups or between the four subgroups. With a definition of GFR < 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2, the overall incidence of CKD was significantly higher in the CSA group than in the TAC group. The incidence of CKD in the low-dose TAC + MMF group (7.7%) was significantly lower than that observed in the low-dose TAC group (15.9%), high-dose TAC group (24.6%) and high-dose TAC + MMF group (18.5%). The cumulative 1-, 3- and 5-year incidence rates of CKD were 12.7%, 14.5% and 16.7%, respectively. The cumulative 5-year survival rates were 61.7% and 82.2% in patients with or without CKD, respectively. CONCLUSION: In LT patients, the choice of immunosuppressive therapy appears to affect renal function and patient survival. PMID:25170222

  11. Effect of syrepar and oxaphenamide on liver function in experimental hypokinesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skakun, L. N.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments on albino rats showed that 30 day hypokinesia changes the reaction of the liver to cholagogues. The choleretic action of oxaphenamide as well as its inhibitory effect on synthesis of bile acids diminishes, while the influence of bilirubin secretion increases.

  12. [Functional activity of the liver in immersion and effects of the countermeasures].

    PubMed

    Solov'eva, A A; Sedova, E A; Tomilovskaia, E S; Shigueva, T A; Afonin, B V

    2014-01-01

    Two groups of male volunteers for 4-day dry immersion with and w/o countermeasures (support load imitator (SLI) or high-frequency electrostimulator) underwent ultrasonic investigation (USI) of the liver, gastroduodenal organs and vessels, and blood biochemical analysis. Two other groups of volunteers performed the 13C-methacetin breath test (13C-MBT) to study the effects of immersion and SLI on the liver detox activity and metabolic capacity. In immersion, USI diagnosed slowdown of blood flow along the hepatic vein and signs of plethora in the abdominal venous system. In addition, immersion was accompanied by increases in blood pepsinogen, pancreatic amylase, total bilirubin, the "indirect" fraction specifically, insulin and C-peptide. 13C-MBT detected deceleration of 13C-methacetin inactivation and diminution of the liver metabolic capacity. Administration of the countermeasures did not improve the ultrasonic image of hemodynamic alterations in the liver and abdomen significantly. High-frequency electrostimulation cancelled out changes in all biochemical parameters except C-peptide; SLI was favorable to recovery of pepsinogen and amylase baseline values only. Besides, the SLI wearing prevented loss of the 13C-methacetin inactivation rate but was not effective enough against diminution of the hepatic metabolic capacity. PMID:25087407

  13. Liver Protective Effects of Morinda citrifolia (Noni)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mian-Ying Wang; Diane Nowicki; Gary Anderson; Jarakae Jensen; Brett West

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the protective effects of Noni fruit juice on acute liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Liver damage (micro-centrilobular necrosis) was observed in animals pretreated with\\u000a 20% placebo (drinking water) + CCl4. However, pretreatment with 20% Noni juice in drinking water + CCl4 resulted in markedly decreased hepatotoxic lesions. Furthermore, serum alanine

  14. The effectiveness of fermented turmeric powder in subjects with elevated alanine transaminase levels: a randomised controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous animal studies have shown that Curcuma longa (turmeric) improves liver function. Turmeric may thus be a promising ingredient in functional foods aimed at improving liver function. The purpose of the study is to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of fermented turmeric powder (FTP) on liver function in subjects with elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) levels. Methods A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted between November 2010 and April 2012 at the clinical trial center for functional foods of the Chonbuk National University Hospital. The trial included 60 subjects, 20 years old and above, who were diagnosed mild to moderate elevated ALT levels between 40 IU/L and 200 IU/L. Sixty subjects were randomised to receive FTP 3.0 g per day or placebo 3.0 g per day for 12 weeks. The treatment group received two capsules of FTP three times a day after meals, for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was change in the ALT levels in the two groups. The secondary efficacy endpoints included its effect on aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), total bilirubin (TB), and lipid profiles. Safety was assessed throughout the study using ongoing laboratory tests. Adverse events (AEs) were also recorded. Results Sixty subjects were randomised in the study (30 into the FTP group, 30 into the placebo group), and among them, twelve subjects were excluded from the analysis for protocol violation, adverse events or consent withdrawal. The two groups did not differ in baseline characteristics. After 12 weeks of treatment, 48 subjects were evaluated. Of the 48 subjects, 26 randomly received FTP capsules and 22 received placebo. The FTP group showed a significant reduction in ALT levels after 12 weeks of treatment compared with the placebo group (p?=?0.019). There was also observed that the serum AST levels were significantly reduce in the FTP group than placebo group (p?=?0.02). The GGT levels showed a tendency to decrease, while the serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), TB, and lipids levels were not modified. There were no reported severe AEs during this study, or abnormalities observed on blood glucose, total protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine levels. Conclusion The data of this trial indicate that FTP is effective and safe, generally well-tolerated without severe AEs, in the treatment of subjects with elevated ALT levels over a 12 weeks period. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: http://NCT01634256 PMID:23497020

  15. Long-term day-and-night rotating shift work poses a barrier to the normalization of alanine transaminase.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Cheng; Hsieh, I-Chun; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the impact of day-and-night rotating shift work (RSW) on liver health, we performed a retrospective analysis of the association between long-term RSW exposure and the normalization of plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) levels over a five-year period. The data from physical examinations, blood tests, abdominal sonographic examinations, personal histories, and occupational records were collected from a cohort of workers in a semiconductor manufacturing company. The sample population was divided into three subgroups for analysis, according to self-reported shift work status over the five-year interval: persistent daytime workers, workers exposed intermittently to RSW (i-RSW), and workers exposed persistently to RSW (p-RSW). Records were analyzed for 1196 male workers with an initial mean age of 32.5 years (SD 6.0 years), of whom 821 (68.7%) were identified as rotating shift workers, including 374 i-RSW (31.3%) and 447 p-RSW workers (37.4%). At the beginning of the follow-up, 275 were found to have elevated ALT (e-ALT): 25.1% daytime workers, 23.0% i-RSW workers, and 21.3% p-RSW workers (p?=?0.098). Of those with e-ALT at the beginning, 101 workers showed normalized serum ALT levels at the end of five-year follow-up: 40 (10.7%) of 375 daytime workers, 32 (8.6%) of 374 i-RSW workers, and 29 (6.5%) of 447 p-RSW workers (p?=?0.016). Compared with the workers having persistent e-ALT at the end of follow-up, the workers normalized serum ALT levels had significantly lesser exposures to RSW during follow-up. By performing multivariate logistic regression analyses, and comparing with the persistent daytime co-workers, after controlling for confounding variables (age, occupational factors, educational levels, lifestyle factors, metabolic syndrome, hepatovirus infection, and fatty liver), analysis indicated that the workers exposed to p-RSW were 46% less likely (OR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.30-0.95; p?=?0.03) to attain normal ALT levels within a five-year interval. These observations demonstrate that persistent day-and-night RSW pose a vigorous obstacle to the normalization of e-ALT among workers with preexisting abnormal liver function. We suggest that workers and managers approach with caution the consideration of assigning or accepting long-term day-and-night RSW when an employee health screening shows evidence of abnormal liver function. PMID:24354767

  16. Differentiation of liver progenitor cell line to functional organotypic cultures in 3D nanofibrillar cellulose and hyaluronan-gelatin hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Malinen, Melina M; Kanninen, Liisa K; Corlu, Anne; Isoniemi, Helena M; Lou, Yan-Ru; Yliperttula, Marjo L; Urtti, Arto O

    2014-06-01

    Physiologically relevant hepatic cell culture models must be based on three-dimensional (3D) culture of human cells. However, liver cells are generally cultured in two-dimensional (2D) format that deviates from the normal in vivo morphology. We generated 3D culture environment for HepaRG liver progenitor cells using wood-derived nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC) and hyaluronan-gelatin (HG) hydrogels. Culture of undifferentiated HepaRG cells in NFC and HG hydrogels induced formation of 3D multicellular spheroids with apicobasal polarity and functional bile canaliculi-like structures, structural hallmarks of the liver tissue. Furthermore, hepatobiliary drug transporters, MRP2 and MDR1, were localized on the canalicular membranes of the spheroids and vectorial transport of fluorescent probes towards the biliary compartment was demonstrated. Cell culture in 3D hydrogel supported the mRNA expression of hepatocyte markers (albumin and CYP3A4), and metabolic activity of CYP3A4 in the HepaRG cell cultures. On the contrary, the 3D hydrogel cultures with pre-differentiated HepaRG cells showed decreasing expression of albumin and CYP3A4 transcripts as well as CYP3A4 activity. It is concluded that NFC and HG hydrogels expedite the hepatic differentiation of HepaRG liver progenitor cells better than the standard 2D culture environment. This was shown as improved cell morphology, expression and localization of hepatic markers, metabolic activity and vectorial transport. The NFC and HG hydrogels are promising materials for hepatic cell culture and tissue engineering. PMID:24698520

  17. The structure of alanine racemase from Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Emily; Scaletti-Hutchinson, Emma; Opel-Reading, Helen; Nakatani, Yoshio; Krause, Kurt L.

    2014-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic Gram-negative bacterium which is a common cause of hospital-acquired infections. Numerous antibiotic-resistant strains exist, emphasizing the need for the development of new antimicrobials. Alanine racemase (Alr) is a pyridoxal 5?-phosphate dependent enzyme that is responsible for racemization between enantiomers of alanine. As d-alanine is an essential component of the bacterial cell wall, its inhibition is lethal to prokaryotes, making it an excellent antibiotic drug target. The crystal structure of A. baumannii alanine racemase (AlrAba) from the highly antibiotic-resistant NCTC13302 strain has been solved to 1.9?Å resolution. Comparison of AlrAba with alanine racemases from closely related bacteria demonstrates a conserved overall fold. The substrate entryway and active site of the enzymes were shown to be highly conserved. The structure of AlrAba will provide the template required for future structure-based drug-design studies. PMID:25195891

  18. CYP3As catalyze nifedipine oxidation in pig liver microsomes: Enzyme kinetics, inhibition and functional expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Jiang; Junping Wang; Hua Cai; Kangbai Li; Yiqun Deng

    2011-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3As have received much attention because of their importance in drug metabolism. However, information on CYP3As in pigs is still largely incomplete. Herein, we focused on the involvement of CYP3As in nifedipine oxidation in pig liver microsomes. Enzyme kinetics, inhibition and immunochemical studies indicated that CYP3As might catalyze nifedipine oxidation and that ketoconazole could strongly inhibit this

  19. Kava for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder RCT: analysis of adverse reactions, liver function, addiction, and sexual effects.

    PubMed

    Sarris, J; Stough, C; Teschke, R; Wahid, Z T; Bousman, C A; Murray, G; Savage, K M; Mouatt, P; Ng, C; Schweitzer, I

    2013-11-01

    Presently, little is known about a number issues concerning kava (Piper methysticum), including (i) whether kava has any withdrawal or addictive effects; (ii) if genetic polymorphisms of the cytochrome (CYP) P450 2D6 liver enzyme moderates any potential adverse effects; and (iii) if medicinal application of kava has any negative or beneficial effect on sexual function and experience. The study design was a 6-week, double-blind, randomized controlled trial (n?=?75) involving chronic administration of kava (one tablet of kava twice per day; 120?mg of kavalactones per day, titrated in non-response to two tablets of kava twice per day; 240?mg of kavalactones) or placebo for participants with generalized anxiety disorder. Results showed no significant differences across groups for liver function tests, nor were there any significant adverse reactions that could be attributed to kava. No differences in withdrawal or addiction were found between groups. Interesting, kava significantly increased female's sexual drive compared to placebo (p?=?0.040) on a sub-domain of the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX), with no negative effects seen in males. Further, it was found that there was a highly significant correlation between ASEX reduction (improved sexual function and performance) and anxiety reduction in the whole sample. PMID:23348842

  20. Living donor liver transplantation for acute liver failure in pediatric patients caused by the ingestion of fireworks containing yellow phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Ates, Mustafa; Dirican, Abuzer; Ozgor, Dincer; Aydin, Cemalettin; Isik, Burak; Ara, Cengiz; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Ayse Selimoglu, M; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Yilmaz, Sezai

    2011-11-01

    Yellow phosphorus is a protoplasmic toxicant that targets the liver. The ingestion of fireworks containing yellow phosphorus, either by children who accidentally consume them or by adults who are attempting suicide, often results in death due to acute liver failure (ALF). We present the outcomes of 10 children who ingested fireworks containing yellow phosphorus. There were 6 boys and 4 girls, and their ages ranged from 21 to 60 months. One patient remained stable without liver complications and was discharged. Three patients died of hepatorenal failure and cardiovascular collapse, and living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) was performed for 6 patients. The patients had grade II or III encephalopathy, a mean alanine aminotransferase level of 1148.2 IU/L, a mean aspartate aminotransferase level of 1437.5 IU/L, a mean total bilirubin level of 6.9 mg/dL, a mean international normalized ratio of 6.6, a mean Pediatric End-Stage Liver Disease score of 33.7, and a mean Child-Pugh score of 11.3. Postoperatively, 2 patients had persistent encephalopathy and died on the second or third postoperative day, and 1 patient died of cardiac arrest on the first postoperative day despite a well-functioning graft. The other 3 patients were still alive at a mean of 204 days. In conclusion, the ingestion of fireworks containing yellow phosphorus causes ALF with a high mortality rate. When signs of irreversible ALF are detected, emergency LDLT should be considered as a lifesaving procedure; however, if yellow phosphorus toxicity affects both the brain and the heart in addition to the liver, the mortality rate remains very high despite liver transplantation. PMID:21761550

  1. Enterocyte fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs): Different functions of liver and intestinal FABPs in the intestine.

    PubMed

    Gajda, Angela M; Storch, Judith

    2015-02-01

    Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABP) are highly abundant cytosolic proteins that are expressed in most mammalian tissues. In the intestinal enterocyte, both liver- (LFABP; FABP1) and intestinal FABPs (IFABP; FABP2) are expressed. These proteins display high-affinity binding for long-chain fatty acids (FA) and other hydrophobic ligands; thus, they are believed to be involved with uptake and trafficking of lipids in the intestine. In vitro studies have identified differences in ligand-binding stoichiometry and specificity, and in mechanisms of FA transfer to membranes, and it has been hypothesized that LFABP and IFABP have different functions in the enterocyte. Studies directly comparing LFABP- and IFABP-null mice have revealed markedly different phenotypes, indicating that these proteins indeed have different functions in intestinal lipid metabolism and whole body energy homeostasis. In this review, we discuss the evolving knowledge of the functions of LFABP and IFABP in the intestinal enterocyte. PMID:25458898

  2. Metronidazole Induced Liver Injury: A Rare Immune Mediated Drug Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Kancherla, Dayakar; Vallabhaneni, Priyanka; Vipperla, Kishore

    2013-01-01

    Drug induced liver injury (DILI) can result either from dose-dependent direct hepatotoxicity or from an unpredictable dose-independent idiosyncratic reaction. Incidence of idiosyncratic DILI is estimated to be approximately 10–15 per 100,000 patient years. Here we report an extremely rare case of metronidazole induced delayed immune-allergic hepatocellular liver injury masquerading as autoimmune hepatitis. A previously healthy 54-year-old Caucasian male, who was treated with metronidazole for Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea, presented 3 months later with right upper quadrant abdominal pain. Laboratory tests revealed total bilirubin level of 12.7?mg/dL, direct bilirubin of 7.2?mg/dL, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of 973?IU/L, aspartate transaminase (AST) of 867?IU/L, alkaline phosphatase (AP) of 96?IU/L, and an INR of 1.9, suggestive of hepatocellular pattern of injury. A detailed workup for hepatitis revealed no other etiology. A clinical diagnosis of metronidazole induced liver injury was made. With a persistent rise in his bilirubin and transaminase levels, the patient was started on oral prednisone. At the 2-week posthospitalization follow-up visit, the patient reported a significant improvement in his overall sense of being well and liver functions tests trended down substantially (total bilirubin 7.2?mg/dL, ALT 420?IU/L, AST 276?IU/L, AP 183?IU/L, and INR 1.5). PMID:24455335

  3. Transplantation of Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells for End-Stage Liver Cirrhosis: A Meta-Analysis Based on Seven Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiang-Rui; Tang, Ya-Ling; Xuan, Ming; Chang, Zheng; Wang, Xiao-Yi; Liang, Xin-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Background. The bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) have demonstrated great potential as regenerative medicine in different therapeutic applications. This study aims to pool previous controlled clinical trials to make an update assessment of the effectiveness of BM-MSC transplantation on end-stage liver cirrhosis. Methods. Relevant studies published between January 1990 and June 2014 were searched among Pubmed, Embase, and ClinicalTrial.gov. A meta-analysis was performed to assess the effect of BM-MSCs on liver function indicators, including Models of End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score, serum albumin (g/L), total bilirubin (mg/dl), Prothrombin concentration (%), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (U/L). Results. BM-MSCs therapy could significantly improve liver function in patients with end-stage liver cirrhosis, in terms of MELD score, serum albumin, total bilirubin, and prothrombin concentration, at least during the half year after transplantation. Conclusions. Due to BM-MSCs' immunomodulatory functions and the potential to differentiate into hepatocytes, they are a promising therapeutic agent to liver cirrhosis. Considering currently available evidence, this therapy is relatively safe and effective in improving liver function. However, how different variables should be controlled to optimize the therapeutic effect is still not clear. Thus, future mechanism studies and clinical trials are required for this optimization.

  4. Increased differentiation properties in two- and three-dimensional coculture of hepatocytes and liver epithelial cells by a novel quantitative functional liver assay

    E-print Network

    Moritz, Joseph M. (Joseph Michael)

    2007-01-01

    Hepatic stem cells in adult rats are activated by chemical injury to the liver, causing hepatic progenitor cells to proliferate, integrate into the hepatic plates, and differentiate into hepatocytes. In an attempt to model ...

  5. Human C1 inhibitor attenuates liver ischemia-reperfusion injury and promotes liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Saidi, Reza F; Rajeshkumar, Barur; Shariftabrizi, Ahmad; Dresser, Karen; Walter, Otto

    2014-04-01

    Liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a well-known cause of morbidity and mortality after liver transplantation (LT). Activation of the complement system contributes to the pathogenesis of IRI. Effective treatment strategies aimed at reducing hepatic IRI and accelerating liver regeneration could offer major benefits in LT. Herein, we investigated the effect of C1-esterase inhibitor (human) [C1-INH] on IRI and liver regeneration. Mice were subjected to 60-min partial IRI, with or without 70% partial hepatectomy, or CCl4-induced acute liver failure. Before liver injury, the animals were pretreated with intravenous C1-INH or normal saline. Liver IRI was evaluated using serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, serum interleukin-6, and histopathology. Liver samples were stained for specific markers of regeneration (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine [BrdU] staining and proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA]). Histology, serum interleukin-6, and alanine aminotransferase release revealed that C1-INH treatment attenuated liver injury compared with controls. Improved animal survival and increased number of BrdU- and PCNA-positive cells were observed in C1-INH-treated animals which underwent IRI + partial hepatectomy or CCl4 injection compared with control group. These data indicate that complement plays a key role in IRI and liver regeneration. C1-INH represents a potential therapeutic strategy to reduce IRI and promote regeneration in LT. PMID:24433870

  6. Human Liver Methionine Cycle: MAT1A and GNMT Gene Resequencing, Functional Genomics, and Hepatic Genotype-Phenotype Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yuan; Nordgren, Kendra K. S.; Chai, Yubo; Hebbring, Scott J.; Jenkins, Gregory D.; Abo, Ryan P.; Peng, Yi; Pelleymounter, Linda L.; Moon, Irene; Eckloff, Bruce W.; Chai, Xiaoshan; Zhang, Jianping; Fridley, Brooke L.; Yee, Vivien C.; Wieben, Eric D.

    2012-01-01

    The “methionine cycle” plays a critical role in the regulation of concentrations of (S)-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), the major biological methyl donor. We set out to study sequence variation in genes encoding the enzyme that synthesizes AdoMet in liver, methionine adenosyltransferase 1A (MAT1A) and the major hepatic AdoMet using enzyme, glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT), as well as functional implications of that variation. We resequenced MAT1A and GNMT using DNA from 288 subjects of three ethnicities, followed by functional genomic and genotype-phenotype correlation studies performed with 268 hepatic biopsy samples. We identified 44 and 42 polymorphisms in MAT1A and GNMT, respectively. Quantitative Western blot analyses for the human liver samples showed large individual variation in MAT1A and GNMT protein expression. Genotype-phenotype correlation identified two genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), reference SNP (rs) 9471976 (corrected p = 3.9 × 10?10) and rs11752813 (corrected p = 1.8 × 10?5), and 42 imputed SNPs surrounding GNMT that were significantly associated with hepatic GNMT protein levels (corrected p values < 0.01). Reporter gene studies showed that variant alleles for both genotyped SNPs resulted in decreased transcriptional activity. Correlation analyses among hepatic protein levels for methionine cycle enzymes showed significant correlations between GNMT and MAT1A (p = 1.5 × 10?3) and between GNMT and betaine homocysteine methyltransferase (p = 1.6 × 10?7). Our discovery of SNPs that are highly associated with hepatic GNMT protein expression as well as the “coordinate regulation” of methionine cycle enzyme protein levels provide novel insight into the regulation of this important human liver biochemical pathway. PMID:22807109

  7. Dose-response relationship between arsenic exposure and the serum enzymes for liver function tests in the individuals exposed to arsenic: a cross sectional study in Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khairul Islam; Abedul Haque; Rezaul Karim; Abul Fajol; Ekhtear Hossain; Kazi Abdus Salam; Nurshad Ali; Zahangir Alam Saud; Matiar Rahman; Mashiur Rahman; Papia Sultana; Mostaque Hossain; Anwarul Azim Akhand; Abul Mandal; Hideki Miyataka; Seiichiro Himeno; Khaled Hossain

    2011-01-01

    Background  Chronic arsenic exposure has been shown to cause liver damage. However, serum hepatic enzyme activity as recognized on liver\\u000a function tests (LFTs) showing a dose-response relationship with arsenic exposure has not yet been clearly documented. The\\u000a aim of our study was to investigate the dose-response relationship between arsenic exposure and major serum enzyme marker\\u000a activity associated with LFTs in the

  8. Functional characterisation of UCP1 in the common carp: uncoupling activity in liver mitochondria and cold-induced expression in the brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Jastroch; Julie A. Buckingham; Michael Helwig; Martin Klingenspor; Martin D. Brand

    2007-01-01

    Mammalian uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) mediates nonshivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue. We previously reported\\u000a on the presence of a UCP1 orthologue in ectothermic fish and observed downregulation of UCP1 gene expression in the liver\\u000a of the common carp. Neither the function of UCP1, nor the mode of UCP1 activation is known in carp liver mitochondria. Here,\\u000a we compared the

  9. Liver functional genomics in beef cows on grazing systems: novel genes and pathways revealed.

    PubMed

    Laporta, Jimena; Rosa, Guilherme J M; Naya, Hugo; Carriquiry, Mariana

    2014-02-15

    The adaptation of the liver to periods of negative energy balance is largely unknown in beef cattle on grazing systems. We evaluated liver transcriptome throughout gestation and early lactation of purebred and crossbred beef cows [Angus, Hereford, and their F1 crossbreeds (CR)], grazing high or low herbage allowances (HA) of native grasslands (4 and 2.5 kg dry matter/kg body wt annual mean; n = 16) using an Agilent 4 × 44k bovine array. A total of 4,661 transcripts were affected by days [272 ? 2.5-fold difference, false discovery rate (FDR) ? 0.10] and 47 pathways were altered during winter gestation (-165 to -15 days relative to calving), when cows experienced decreased body condition score, decreased insulin, and increased nonesterified fatty acid concentrations. Gluconeogenesis and fatty acid oxidation pathways were upregulated, while cell growth, DNA replication, and transcription pathways were downregulated (FDR ? 0.25). We observed only small changes in the liver transcriptome during early lactation (+15 to +60 days). A total of 225 genes were differentially expressed (47 ? 2-fold difference, FDR ? 0.10) between HA. The majority of those were related to glucose and pyruvate metabolism and were upregulated in high HA, reflecting their better metabolic status. Two genes were upregulated in CR cows, but 148 transcripts (74 ? 2-fold change difference, FDR ? 0.10) were affected by the HA and cow genotype interaction. The transcriptional changes observed indicated a complex and previously unrecognized, hepatic adaptive program of grazing beef cows in different nutritional environments. Novel target candidate genes, metabolic pathways, and regulatory mechanisms were reported. PMID:24326346

  10. Bees' Honey Protects the Liver of Male Rats against Melamine Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    El Rabey, Haddad A.; Al-Seeni, Madeha N.; Al-Solamy, Suad M.

    2013-01-01

    The protective effect of natural bees' honey to the liver of male albino rats against melamine toxicity was studied. Melamine supplementation at a dose of 20000?ppm in the diet for 28 days induced adverse effects on the liver, decreased serum total protein and increased liver enzyme: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase. Histological changes of the melamine supplemented group showed necrosis in the hepatic tissues around the central veins of the liver and precipitation of melamine crystals. Treating the male albino rats (that were presupplemented regularly with 20000?ppm melamine) with natural bees' honey at a dose of 2.5?g/kg body weight for 28 days improved both liver functions and increased serum protein. In addition, a positive impact on the shape of the cells after treatment with honey compared to the positive melamine supplemented group was observed. In conclusion, the results of this study revealed that the use of natural bees' honey has the ability to protect the liver of rats against the toxic effects of melamine. PMID:23971045

  11. Bees' honey protects the liver of male rats against melamine toxicity.

    PubMed

    El Rabey, Haddad A; Al-Seeni, Madeha N; Al-Solamy, Suad M

    2013-01-01

    The protective effect of natural bees' honey to the liver of male albino rats against melamine toxicity was studied. Melamine supplementation at a dose of 20000 ppm in the diet for 28 days induced adverse effects on the liver, decreased serum total protein and increased liver enzyme: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase. Histological changes of the melamine supplemented group showed necrosis in the hepatic tissues around the central veins of the liver and precipitation of melamine crystals. Treating the male albino rats (that were presupplemented regularly with 20000 ppm melamine) with natural bees' honey at a dose of 2.5 g/kg body weight for 28 days improved both liver functions and increased serum protein. In addition, a positive impact on the shape of the cells after treatment with honey compared to the positive melamine supplemented group was observed. In conclusion, the results of this study revealed that the use of natural bees' honey has the ability to protect the liver of rats against the toxic effects of melamine. PMID:23971045

  12. 5'-Methylthioadenosine attenuates ischemia reperfusion injury after liver transplantation in rats.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yong; Zhang, Weikang; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Wenjing; Yao, Feng; Yan, Jiaqi; Wan, Chidan

    2014-10-01

    5'-Methylthioadenosine (MTA) is a nucleoside generated from S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) during polyamine synthesis. Previous study has indicated that MTA regulated the production of inflammatory mediators by modulating the activation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathway. The objective of this study was to determine whether MTA possessed anti-inflammatory properties during rat liver transplantation. Sprague Dawley (SD) to SD rat orthotropic liver transplantation was performed according to the Kamada's technique. Donors in MTA group were given a single dose of MTA (96 ?mol/kg, intraperitoneal) 30 min before surgery (n?=?36), and the control group were given the same volume of normal saline (n?=?36) intraperitoneally. The histopathologic change in the liver was analyzed. The levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), inhibitors of kappa B alpha (I?B?) degradation, NF-?B transcriptional activity, and MAPK activation were determined at 3, 6, and 24 h after reperfusion. Pretreatment with MTA significantly improved liver function, attenuated hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) by downregulating TNF-? level and suppressing inflammatory reaction after liver transplantation. Moreover, MTA also inhibited the I?B? degradation, NF-?B transcriptional activity, and the activation of MAPK signal. MTA protected against hepatic IRI by suppressing inflammatory reaction following liver transplantation. The mechanism for this effect of MTA is mediated, at least in part, by inhibiting the activation of NF-?B and MAPK signal pathway. PMID:24609837

  13. Relation of inflammation and liver function with the plasma cortisol response to adrenocorticotropin in early lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Trevisi, E; Bertoni, G; Lombardelli, R; Minuti, A

    2013-09-01

    In this study we examined the relationship between cortisol and inflammatory status in early lactating dairy cows after a stimulation test of the adrenal cortex. Twenty-four cows were grouped into quartiles (6 cows per each quartile) in accordance with the liver activity index (based on plasma concentration of negative acute phase proteins in early lactation); the quartiles were lower (LO; cows with the lowest liver functionality), intermediate lower, intermediate upper, and upper (UP; cows with the highest liver functionality). Each cow was injected i.v. with 20 µg of a synthetic analog of ACTH at 35 d in milk (DIM). Blood samples were taken to assess inflammatory status, and at 0, 30, and 60 min after ACTH challenge to measure total cortisol. The free cortisol fraction was analyzed in the LO and UP quartiles and the bound cortisol fraction was estimated as the difference between total and free cortisol. The LO, in comparison with the other quartiles, suffered a more severe inflammatory status, with the highest values of haptoglobin, reactive oxygen metabolites, and total nitric oxide metabolites and the lowest concentration of direct or indirect markers of negative acute phase proteins. The cows in the LO quartile had the highest values of plasma nonesterified fatty acids and ?-hydroxybutyrate at 7 DIM, suggesting a more severe body lipid mobilization. The LO quartile cows showed the highest frequency of health problems and the lowest milk yield in the first 35 DIM. Thirty minutes after the ACTH treatment, the concentration of total cortisol was lower in LO in comparison to other groups. Similarly, the bound cortisol fraction was lower in LO versus UP. The adrenal response appeared inversely related with health status after calving (e.g., lower in LO cows, experiencing the most severe inflammatory status). The lower increase in cortisol after the ACTH challenge in cows with greater inflammation (LO quartile) seems a consequence of the lower availability of cortisol-binding globulin synthetized by the liver, but other mechanisms can be involved (e.g., rate of cortisol production, secretion, and metabolic clearance). Our data provide evidence that inflammation and metabolic changes reduce the concentration of circulating plasma cortisol during an acute stress. Hence, the acute phase response in dairy cows should be taken into account to interpret the results obtained from stimulation tests of the adrenal cortex. PMID:23831090

  14. Effects of acute ethanol administration of female rat liver as a function of aging

    SciTech Connect

    Rikans, L.E.; Snowden, C.D. (Univ. of Oklahoma College of Medicine, Oklahoma City (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Female Fischer 344 rats, aged 4, 14, and 25 months, received 4.0 g/kg of ethanol by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. Blood alcohol concentrations 2.5, 6 and 16 hr after ethanol injection were similar in the three age groups. Hepatic glutathione (GSH) levels were diminished 6 hr after ethanol injection, and there were no age-dependent differences in the depleted levels (3.2 {plus minus} 0.1, 3.5 {plus minus} 0.2, and 3.0 {plus minus} 0.5 {mu}g GSH/g liver). However, GSH contents in livers of young-adult rats approached control levels after 16 hr, whereas they remained depressed in older rats. Serum levels of hepatic enzymes were significantly elevated 6 hr after ethanol administration. The increases were greater in middle-aged and old rats than in young-adult rats. The results suggest that middle-aged and old rats are more susceptible than young rats to the acute toxicity of ethanol.

  15. Long-term impact of liver transplantation on respiratory function and nutritional status in children and adults with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Dowman, J K; Watson, D; Loganathan, S; Gunson, B K; Hodson, J; Mirza, D F; Clarke, J; Lloyd, C; Honeybourne, D; Whitehouse, J L; Nash, E F; Kelly, D; van Mourik, I; Newsome, P N

    2012-04-01

    Early liver transplant (LT) has been advocated for patients with cystic fibrosis liver disease (CFLD) and evidence of deterioration in nutritional state and respiratory function to prevent further decline. However, the impact of single LT on long-term respiratory function and nutritional status has not been adequately addressed. We performed a retrospective analysis of the outcomes of 40 (21 adult/19 pediatric) patients with CFLD transplanted between 1987 and 2009 with median follow-up of 47.8 months (range 4-180). One and five-year actuarial survival rates were 85%/64% for adult and 90%/85% for pediatric LT cohorts, respectively. Lung function remained stable until 4 years (FEV(1) % predicted; pretransplant 48.4% vs. 45.9%, 4 years posttransplant) but declined by 5 years (42.4%). Up to 4 years posttransplant mean annual decline in FEV(1) % was lower (0.74%; p = 0.04) compared with the predicted 3% annual decline in CF patients with comorbidity including diabetes. Number of courses of intravenous antibiotics was reduced following LT, from 3.9/year pretransplant to 1.1/year, 5 years posttransplant. Body mass index was preserved posttransplant; 18.0 kg/m(2) (range 15-24.3) pretransplant versus 19.6 kg/m(2) (range 16.4-22.7) 5 years posttransplant. In conclusion, LT is an effective treatment for selected patients with cirrhosis due to CFLD, stabilizing aspects of long-term lung function and preserving nutritional status. PMID:22225648

  16. Metabolomics Analysis Identifies D-Alanine-D-alanine Ligase as the Primary Lethal Target of D-cycloserine in Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Halouska, Steven; Fenton, Robert J.; Zinniel, Denise K.; Marshall, Darrell D.; Barletta, Raúl G.; Powers, Robert

    2014-01-01

    D-cycloserine is an effective second line antibiotic used as a last resort to treat multi (MDR)- and extensively (XDR)- drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. D-cycloserine interferes with the formation of peptidoglycan biosynthesis by competitive inhibition of Alanine racemase (Alr) and D-Alanine-D-alanine ligase (Ddl). Although, the two enzymes are known to be inhibited, the in vivo lethal target is still unknown. Our NMR metabolomics work has revealed that Ddl is the primary target of DCS, as cell growth is inhibited when the production of D-alanyl-D-alanine is halted. It is shown that inhibition of Alr may contribute indirectly by lowering the levels of D-alanine thus allowing DCS to outcompete D-alanine for Ddl binding. The NMR data also supports the possibility of a transamination reaction to produce D-alanine from pyruvate and glutamate, thereby bypassing Alr inhibition. Furthermore, the inhibition of peptidoglycan synthesis results in a cascading effect on cellular metabolism as there is a shift toward the catabolic routes to compensate for accumulation of peptidoglycan precursors. PMID:24303782

  17. Intravenous and intrapulmonary administration of honey solution to healthy sheep: effects on blood sugar, renal and liver function tests, bone marrow function, lipid profile, and carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Al-Waili, Noori S

    2003-01-01

    Safety of intravenous (i.v.) or intrapulmonary administration of different concentrations of honey and their effects on blood sugar, renal and liver function tests, bone marrow function, lipid profile, and carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver damage were studied. Healthy sheep of either sex, 6-8 months old, were assigned randomly into the following groups: sheep received i.v. infusion of 5% honey in normal saline at 10-day intervals for 50 days and were compared with sheep that received 5% dextrose; sheep received higher doses of honey (50 g of honey) by i.v. infusion daily for 10 days; sheep received four higher doses of honey (80 g each dose) for 2 weeks; sheep received subcutaneous injection of CCl(4) after four doses of i.v. infusion of 80 g of honey, and estimations of serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (SGGT), serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) were performed daily for 10 days postinjection; sheep received i.v. infusion of 40 g of honey, and blood sugar estimation was performed for 3 h at 30-min intervals after infusion and compared with sheep that received 5% dextrose; sheep received rapid i.v. injection of 40% honey or 40% dextrose, and blood sugar was estimated before and after injection; sheep received various concentrations of honey in distilled water (0.5 mL/1.5 mL, 0.75 mL/1.75 mL and 1.2 mL/2.2 mL), and blood sugar estimation was performed before and after inhalation. Results showed that i.v. or intrapulmonary administration of honey did not cause any adverse effect. Intravenous delivery of honey by slow infusion caused improvement of renal and hepatic function, bone marrow function, and lipid profile. It reduced SGOT, SGPT, triglyceride, cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen, and blood sugar and elevated serum protein, serum albumin, hemoglobin, white blood cell, and neutrophil percentage. Similar results were obtained with the use of higher doses of honey. CCl(4) caused mild elevation of SGPT and SGGT and lowering of SGOT in sheep that received repeated i.v. administration of honey before administration of CCl(4), whereas in control sheep CCl(4) caused significant elevation of all the liver enzymes. Intravenous infusion of 40 g of honey caused elevation of blood sugar for 90 min postinfusion, whereas it decreased blood sugar at 2 and 3 h postinfusion as compared with fasting blood sugar. Dextrose caused significant elevation of blood sugar at all time intervals. Similar results were obtained with the use of 10% dextrose or 80 g of honey. Addition of honey to dextrose caused less hyperglycemia as compared with dextrose alone. Acute injection of 20 mL of 40% dextrose significantly elevated blood sugar for 3 h postinjection, whereas little elevation in blood sugar was obtained after injection of 40% honey; the difference between honey and dextrose was significant. Inhalation of honey caused significant lowering of blood sugar during and after inhalation as compared with fasting blood sugar and water inhalation. The effect was greater with a higher concentration of inhaled honey. It might be concluded that slow i.v. infusion or rapid i.v. injection of honey in different concentrations was safe and could lower blood sugar and improve renal, hepatic, and bone marrow functions and lipid profile. Intravenous honey had a hepatoprotective effect against CCl(4)-induced liver injury. Inhaled honey was safe and reduced blood sugar significantly. PMID:14585190

  18. Biochemical and functional differences in rat liver mitochondrial subpopulations obtained at different gravitational forces.

    PubMed

    Lanni, A; Moreno, M; Lombardi, A; Goglia, F

    1996-03-01

    Previous studies have reported that liver mitochondria may be fractionated into different subpopulations. However, no careful studies have been performed to exclude mitochondrial damage and to investigate more thoroughly the possible biochemical differences existing between the subpopulations. In this study, we analysed the integrity and the biochemical properties of rat liver mitochondria. Mitochondrial fractions were obtained by differential centrifugation at different gravitational forces: 1000 g (M1 fraction), 3000 g (M3 fraction) and 10,000 g (M10 fraction). The integrity of these organelles was checked by measuring citrate synthase activity both in the presence and absence of Triton X-100 detergent. Biochemical analyses included polarographic determination of cytochrome oxidase activity and respiratory parameters and spectrophotometric determination of cytochrome content. (1) The integrity of mitochondria was almost homogeneous between fractions (88.5, 80 and 78.3% in M1, M3 and M10 fractions, respectively). (2) The heaviest M1 fraction contains mitochondria which are on average twice as large as M3 and about three times as large as M10. (3) The M1 fraction exhibited the highest specific cytochrome oxidase activity (1040 +/- 20 n Atoms O/min x mg protein) and the highest respiratory rates (72 +/- 3 n Atoms O/min x mg protein and 526 +/- 45 n Atoms O/min x mg protein for States 4 and 3, respectively). Oxidative capacity and respiratory rates decreased as the size of the organelles decreased, reaching values of 1/5 and 1/14 in the M3 and M10 fractions as compared to the M1. (4) These changes are accompanied by a change in the respiratory control ratio (RCR), which varies from 7.3 in M1 to about 2.0 in M10. A similar trend was observed in cytochrome contents but the differences were not as great as cytochrome oxidase activity and State 3 respiration. These results, as a whole, show that a mitochondrial heterogeneity exists in rat liver cell. We suggest that the above-mentioned differences might represent steps of mitochondrial maturation. The maturation would be fundamentally based on the increase of efficiency of the mechanism for ATP synthesis. PMID:8920643

  19. Galactosylated poly(?-caprolactone) membrane promoted liver-specific functions of HepG2 cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Min; Zhou, Yan; Lang, Meidong

    2014-08-01

    The lack of pendant functional groups on the PCL backbone has been a great challenge for surface bioactivation of poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL). In the present study, covalently galactosylated PCL (GPCL) was developed through coupling between the amino-functionalized PCL (NPCL) and the lactobionic acid (LA) and its potential application in maintenance of physiological functions of HepG2 cells was further evaluated. The structure and properties of GPCL were explored by (1)H NMR, FT-IR, GPC and DSC. Moreover, the incorporation of galactose ligands onto GPCL membranes not only promoted higher wettability, but also radically changed surface morphology in comparison with PCL and NPCL according to the contact angle measurement and atomic force microscopy. When HepG2 cells were seeded onto these membranes, the cells on GPCL membranes showed more pronounced cell adhesion and tended to form aggregates during the initial adhesion stage and then progressively grew into multi-layer structures compared to those without galactose ligands by the observation with fluorescence microscope and scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, live-dead assay and functional tests demonstrated that HepG2 cells on GPCL membranes had superior viability and maintained better liver-specific functions. Collectively, GPCL has great potential for hepatic tissue engineering scaffolds. PMID:24907736

  20. Thyroid Hormone-Induced Cytosol-to-Nuclear Translocation of Rat Liver Nrf2 Is Dependent on Kupffer Cell Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Videla, Luis A.; Cornejo, Pamela; Romanque, Pamela; Santibáñez, Catherine; Castillo, Iván; Vargas, Romina

    2012-01-01

    L-3,3?,5-triiodothyronine (T3) administration upregulates nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in rat liver, which is redox-sensitive transcription factor mediating cytoprotection. In this work, we studied the role of Kupffer cell respiratory burst activity, a process related to reactive oxygen species generation and liver homeostasis, in Nrf2 activation using the macrophage inactivator gadolinium chloride (GdCl3; 10?mg/kg i.v. 72?h before T3 [0.1?mg/kg i.p.]) or NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin (1.5?mmol/L added to the drinking water for 7 days before T3), and determinations were performed 2 h after T3. T3 increased nuclear/cytosolic Nrf2 content ratio and levels of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), catalytic subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase, and thioredoxin (Western blot) over control values, proteins whose gene transcription is induced by Nrf2. These changes were suppressed by GdCl3 treatment prior to T3, an agent-eliciting Kupffer-cell depletion, inhibition of colloidal carbon phagocytosis, and the associated respiratory burst activity, with enhancement in nuclear inhibitor of Nrf2 kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)/Nrf2 content ratios suggesting Nrf2 degradation. Under these conditions, T3-induced tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) response was eliminated by previous GdCl3 administration. Similar to GdCl3, apocynin given before T3 significantly reduced liver Nrf2 activation and HO-1 expression, a NADPH oxidase inhibitor eliciting abolishment of colloidal carbon-induced respiratory burst activity without altering carbon phagocytosis. It is concluded that Kupffer cell functioning is essential for upregulation of liver Nrf2-signaling pathway by T3. This contention is supported by suppression of the respiratory burst activity of Kupffer cells and the associated reactive oxygen species production by GdCl3 or apocynin given prior to T3, thus hindering Nrf2 activation. PMID:22649286

  1. [Anesthesia-relevant changes in metabolic parameters with different circulatory and liver functions].

    PubMed

    Steltzer, H; Hiesmayr, M; Tüchy, G; Zimpfer, M

    1992-08-01

    The relationship between oxygen consumption (VO2) and oxygen delivery (DO2) is of interest in critically ill patients. Various studies of these parameters have resulted in different concepts for optimizing DO2 and VO2. During liver transplantation without anhepatic veno-venous bypass, caval cross-clamping initiates a series of haemodynamic and metabolic alterations including the rapid change from hyperdynamic to hypodynamic conditions. In addition, simultaneous changes in DO2 and VO2 occur in these patients. The goal of our present study was to test the clinical relevance of therapeutic interventions based on metabolic monitoring in patients with terminal liver disease undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation. PATIENTS AND METHODS. One hundred sixty-two consecutive patients were evaluated. According to outcome, patients were divided into survivors (n = 115, group A), nonsurvivors (n = 30, group B), and patients with primary nonfunction of the liver graft (n = 17, group C). One hundred twenty patients were cirrhotics due to either alcohol (n = 36), aggressive hepatitis (n = 30), or biliary cirrhosis (n = 54); 42 had a neoplastic disease. Haemodynamic measurements, data for calculations of DO2 and VO2, and blood samples for arterial and mixed-venous blood gases and subsequent laboratory analysis were taken during the surgical procedure at six timepoints: after induction of anaesthesia (I); during preparation of the recipient liver, before cross-clamping (II); 10 min after clamping of the inferior vena cava (III); 10 min before unclamping (IV); with all vessels open, 10 min after declamping during reperfusion (V); and 60 min after declamping (VI). Anaesthesia was induced with thiopentone (3-5 mg/kg i.v.) and fentanyl (15 micrograms/kg min i.v.). Muscle relaxation was achieved with pancuronium (0.1 mg/kg i.v.). Anaesthesia was maintained with i.v. supplements of fentanyl (5-10 micrograms/kg) and pancuronium (4 mg) as required. Volume-cycled ventilation was established with a mixture of O2 in air with a positive end-expiratory pressure of 5 mm H2O to keep the PaO2 above 100 mm Hg and the PaCO2 around 35 mm Hg (Servo 900 C-Ventilator, Siemens). To maintain body temperature, all patients were positioned on a heating blanket set at 38 degrees C. The inspired gases were warmed and humidified using a dual servo-heated humidifier. Mannitol (20-40 g i.v.) or sorbitol (16-24 g i.v.) was given to prevent renal dysfunction during the cross-clamping procedure. Lactated Ringer's solution and fresh frozen plasma administration was guided by cardiovascular performance and requirements for clotting factors, respectively. Cardiac output was measured by the thermodilution method using a pulmonary artery catheter. Blood lactate, haemoglobin concentration, arterial and mixed-venous oxygen content, and oxygen saturation were measured (Hemoxymeter OSM3). VO2 and DO2 were calculated according to standard formulas. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS. The data from groups A, B, and C were compared using a multivariate analysis of variance with Tukey's method for multiple comparisons. A least-square regression was used to correlate metabolic data. RESULTS. The perioperative course of the determinants of oxygen transport is shown in Table 1. After cross-clamping, the cardiac index (CI) decreased in groups A (47%), B (53%), and C (51%) and increased to pre-anhepatic levels after reperfusion of the new liver. This was associated with distinct decreases in DO2 (A: 42%, B: 47%, and C: 45%) and VO2 (A: 8%, B: 19%, C: 25%). After reperfusion of the new allograft (V), VO2 increased in groups A (24%) and B (18%) as compared to controls (I). By contrast, in group C, a distinct further decrease in VO2 (13%) was detected. In these patients, there was a significantly greater increase in mixed-venous saturation accompanied by a further decrease in body temperature. As shown in Figures 1 and 2, no significant relationship was found between O2 transport, VO2, and blood lactate. DISC PMID:1524156

  2. Nutrition Aspects of Liver Failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanette M. Hasse

    Because the liver performs hundreds of metabolic functions, nutritional status and nutrient metabolism are altered in individuals\\u000a with liver disease. This chapter reviews relationships between nutritional status and liver disease, describes effects of\\u000a malnutrition and nutrition support on outcomes, and defines nutrition therapies for patients with liver disease.\\u000a \\u000a Objective nutrition assessment parameters are often confounded by symptoms of liver disease;

  3. Effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells transplanted via the portal vein or tail vein on liver injury in rats with liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    SONG, YING-MING; LIAN, CHANG-HONG; WU, CHENG-SONG; JI, AI-FANG; XIANG, JUAN-JUAN; WANG, XIAO-YAN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transplanted via the portal vein or tail vein on liver injury in rats with liver cirrhosis. BMSCs were isolated from rat bone marrow and labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP). Then, the labeled BMSCs were injected into rats with liver injury via the portal vein or tail vein. Two weeks after transplantation, three rats in each group were sacrificed to test the distribution of GFP in the liver and the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and albumin. Six weeks later, the remaining rats were sacrificed, and serum ALT, AST, albumin, hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN) and procollagen type III (PC-III) levels were measured. The expression of albumin in the liver was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Two weeks after BMSC transplantation, GFP-positive cells were detected in the livers of rats with BMSCs transplanted via the portal vein and tail vein. Compared with pre-transplantation levels, the ALT levels of the groups with BMSC transplantation via the portal vein and tail vein were significantly decreased after two and six weeks of BMSC transplantation (P<0.05), whereas the AST and albumin levels were not significantly different at two weeks after BMSC transplantation in the two groups (all P>0.05). However, the AST and albumin levels were significantly reduced at six weeks after BMSC transplantation (all P<0.05). At six weeks after BMSC transplantation, the serum HA, LN and PC-III levels in rats transplanted with BMSCs via the portal vein or tail vein had decreased significantly (all P<0.05), as compared with the levels prior to BMSC transplantation. BMSCs transplanted via the portal vein and tail vein achieved similar improvements in liver function in rats with liver cirrhosis, which suggests that peripheral venous administration is a convenient and effective route for BMSC transplantation. PMID:25780424

  4. Liver functional volumetry for portal vein embolization using a newly developed 99m Tc-galactosyl human serum albumin scintigraphy SPECT–computed tomography fusion system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toru Beppu; Hiromitsu Hayashi; Hirohisa Okabe; Toshiro Masuda; Kosuke Mima; Ryu Otao; Akira Chikamoto; Koichi Doi; Takatoshi Ishiko; Hiroshi Takamori; Morikatsu Yoshida; Shinya Shiraishi; Yasuyuki Yamashita; Hideo Baba

    Background  We developed a new combined 99mTc-galactosyl human serum albumin (GSA) scintigraphy single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)\\/CT system to evaluate\\u000a the changes in functional liver volume with portal vein embolization (PVE).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We performed a prospective analysis of 25 patients treated with right PVE, and evaluated their functional liver volume perioperatively\\u000a with a 99mTc-GSA scintigraphy SPECT–CT fusion system. The percentage of the

  5. Associations between liver enzymes, psychopathological and clinical features in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Lelli, Lorenzo; Castellini, Giovanni; Gabbani, Tommaso; Godini, Lucia; Rotella, Francesco; Ricca, Valdo

    2014-11-01

    Elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels are frequently reported in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and in subjects who are overweight or with hyperlipidemia, which can be found to be associated with binge eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Liver functioning and psychopathological features have been evaluated in 43 patients with AN, 33 with BN, and 32 with BED. Body mass index was found to be inversely associated with AST and ALT in AN, and directly associated with AST and ALT in BED. A positive association between ALT and AST and body shape concern in AN was observed. Liver enzymes could be considered as an index of severity in AN and BED patients. PMID:25139759

  6. Functional Contribution of Elevated Circulating and Hepatic Non-Classical CD14+CD16+ Monocytes to Inflammation and Human Liver Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Henning W.; Seidler, Sebastian; Nattermann, Jacob; Gassler, Nikolaus; Hellerbrand, Claus; Zernecke, Alma; Tischendorf, Jens J. W.; Luedde, Tom; Weiskirchen, Ralf; Trautwein, Christian; Tacke, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Background Monocyte-derived macrophages critically perpetuate inflammatory responses after liver injury as a prerequisite for organ fibrosis. Experimental murine models identified an essential role for the CCR2-dependent infiltration of classical Gr1/Ly6C+ monocytes in hepatic fibrosis. Moreover, the monocyte-related chemokine receptors CCR1 and CCR5 were recently recognized as important fibrosis modulators in mice. In humans, monocytes consist of classical CD14+CD16? and non-classical CD14+CD16+ cells. We aimed at investigating the relevance of monocyte subpopulations for human liver fibrosis, and hypothesized that ‘non-classical’ monocytes critically exert inflammatory as well as profibrogenic functions in patients during liver disease progression. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed circulating monocyte subsets from freshly drawn blood samples of 226 patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and 184 healthy controls by FACS analysis. Circulating monocytes were significantly expanded in CLD-patients compared to controls with a marked increase of the non-classical CD14+CD16+ subset that showed an activated phenotype in patients and correlated with proinflammatory cytokines and clinical progression. Correspondingly, CD14+CD16+ macrophages massively accumulated in fibrotic/cirrhotic livers, as evidenced by immunofluorescence and FACS. Ligands of monocyte-related chemokine receptors CCR2, CCR1 and CCR5 were expressed at higher levels in fibrotic and cirrhotic livers, while CCL3 and CCL4 were also systemically elevated in CLD-patients. Isolated monocyte/macrophage subpopulations were functionally characterized regarding cytokine/chemokine expression and interactions with primary human hepatic stellate cells (HSC) in vitro. CD14+CD16+ monocytes released abundant proinflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, CD14+CD16+, but not CD14+CD16? monocytes could directly activate collagen-producing HSC. Conclusions/Significance Our data demonstrate the expansion of CD14+CD16+ monocytes in the circulation and liver of CLD-patients upon disease progression and suggest their functional contribution to the perpetuation of intrahepatic inflammation and profibrogenic HSC activation in liver cirrhosis. The modulation of monocyte-subset recruitment into the liver via chemokines/chemokine receptors and their subsequent differentiation may represent promising approaches for therapeutic interventions in human liver fibrosis. PMID:20548789

  7. Expression profiles of carnosine synthesis–related genes in mice after ingestion of carnosine or ß-alanine

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Carnosine is a dipeptide that improves exercise performance. The carnosine synthesis mechanism through carnosine and ß-alanine ingestion remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the tissue distribution of carnosine synthase, ATP-grasp domain-containing protein-1 (ATPGD1) mRNA, and ATPGD1 and carnosine specific dipeptidase (CN1) gene expression profiles in mice that were given carnosine or ß-alanine orally. Methods ddY mice (7-week-old) were randomly divided into three groups (n?=?6 to 8 animals per group) and were orally given 2 g/kg body weight of carnosine, ß-alanine, or water. After 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, or 360 min of treatment, the tissues (brain, blood, liver, kidneys, olfactory bulbs, hindleg muscles) were collected. The obtained tissues measured the expression of ATPGD1 and CN1 genes using quantitative PCR methods. Results The ATPGD1 gene was expressed in muscle and to a lesser extent in brain. The expression of ATPGD1 in the vastus lateralis muscle increased significantly at 180 min (P?=?0.023) after carnosine ingestion and 60 (P?=?0.023) and 180 min (P?=?0.025) after ß-alanine ingestion. Moreover, the carnosine group showed a significantly increased renal expression of the CN1 gene 60 min after ingestion (P?=?0.0015). Conclusions The ATPGD1 gene showed high expression levels in brain and muscle. The ß-alanine or carnosine administration significantly increased ATPGD1 and CN1 expression in mice. PMID:22510233

  8. Rapid Crystallization of L-Alanine on Engineered Surfaces using Metal-Assisted and Microwave-Accelerated Evaporative Crystallization.

    PubMed

    Alabanza, Anginelle M; Pozharski, Edwin; Aslan, Kadir

    2012-01-01

    This study demonstrates the application of metal-assisted and microwave-accelerated evaporative crystallization (MA-MAEC) technique to rapid crystallization of L-alanine on surface engineered silver nanostructures. In this regard, silver island films (SIFs) were modified with hexamethylenediamine (HMA), 1-undecanethiol (UDET), and 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUDA), which introduced -NH(2), -CH(3) and -COOH functional groups to SIFs, respectively. L-Alanine was crystallized on these engineered surfaces and blank SIFs at room temperature and using MA-MAEC technique. Significant improvements in crystal size, shape, and quality were observed on HMA-, MUDA- and UDET-modified SIFs at room temperature (crystallization time = 144, 40 and 147 min, respectively) as compared to those crystals grown on blank SIFs. Using the MA-MAEC technique, the crystallization time of L-alanine on engineered surfaces were reduced to 17 sec for microwave power level 10 (i.e., duty cycle 100%) and 7 min for microwave power level 1 (duty cycle 10%). Raman spectroscopy and powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements showed that L-Alanine crystals grown on engineered surfaces using MA-MAEC technique had identical characteristic peaks of L-alanine crystals grown using traditional evaporative crystallization. PMID:22267957

  9. How useful are clinical liver function tests in in vitro human hepatotoxicity assays?

    PubMed

    Borlak, Jürgen; Chougule, Anil; Singh, Prafull Kumar

    2014-08-01

    In preclinical hepatotoxicity testing cell based assays are frequently employed. However, prediction of clinical drug induced liver injury (DILI) remains a major challenge. Here we examined the usefulness of frequently employed markers of hepatocellular injury in cultures of primary human hepatocytes (PHH) in response to treatment with either paracetamol, rifampicin, petadolex and/or amiodarone. The changes in the metabolic competency (urea and albumin) and cellular injury (AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, ?GT and succinate dehydrogenase) were determined at therapeutic and above drug concentrations as to evaluate the utility of these markers in in vitro systems. Initially, treatment of PHH with any of the drugs caused a statistically significant reduction in enzyme activities to suggest a switch from basic amino acid metabolism towards induced detoxification. However, treatment for prolonged periods of time caused cytolysis, as evidenced by the significant rise in extracellular LDH and the concomitant increase in ALT and AST activity. Notably, amongst the various endpoints studied, urea was best to demonstrate dose dependent metabolic stress, while other markers of hepatocellular injury were highly variable. Taken collectively, urea measurement proofed to be robust in predicting hepatocellular stress; therefore it should be included in preclinical testing strategies for an improved prediction of DILI. PMID:24685772

  10. Serum Ferritin is Associated with Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Decreased B-cell Function in Non-diabetic Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Utzschneider, Kristina M; Largajolli, Anna; Bertoldo, Alessandra; Marcovina, Santica; Nelson, James E; Yeh, Matthew M; Kowdley, Kris V; Kahn, Steven E

    2014-01-01

    Aims We sought to determine whether NAFLD is associated with poorer ?-cell function and if any ?-cell dysfunction is associated with abnormal markers of iron or inflammation. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 15 non-diabetic adults with NAFLD and 15 non-diabetic age and BMI-matched controls. Insulin sensitivity was measured by isotope-labeled hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps and ?-cell function by both oral (OGTT) and intravenous glucose tolerance tests. Liver and abdominal fat composition was evaluated by CT scan. Fasting serum levels of ferritin, transferrin-iron saturation, IL-6, TNF? and hsCRP were measured. Results Compared to controls, subjects with NAFLD had lower hepatic and systemic insulin sensitivity and ?-cell function was decreased as measured by the oral disposition index. Fasting serum ferritin and transferrin-iron saturation were higher in NAFLD and were positively associated with liver fat. Serum ferritin was negatively associated with ?-cell function measured by both oral and intravenous tests, but was not associated with insulin sensitivity. IL-6, TNF? and hsCRP did not differ between groups and did not correlate with serum ferritin, liver fat or measures of ?-cell function. Conclusions These findings support a potential pathophysiological link between iron metabolism, liver fat and diabetes risk. PMID:24360972

  11. An ex vivo perfusion system emulating in vivo conditions in noncirrhotic and cirrhotic human liver.

    PubMed

    Schreiter, Thomas; Marquitan, Guido; Darnell, Malin; Sowa, Jan-Peter; Bröcker-Preuss, Martina; Andersson, Tommy B; Baba, Hideo A; Furch, Marcus; Arteel, Gavin E; Mathé, Zoltan; Treckmann, Jürgen; Gerken, Guido; Gieseler, Robert K; Canbay, Ali

    2012-09-01

    Various models are used for investigating human liver diseases and testing new drugs. However, data generated in such models have only limited relevance for in vivo conditions in humans. We present here an ex vivo perfusion system using human liver samples that enables the characterization of parameters in a functionally intact tissue context. Resected samples of noncirrhotic liver (NC; n = 10) and cirrhotic liver (CL; n = 12) were perfused for 6-h periods. General and liver-specific parameters (glucose, lactate, oxygen, albumin, urea, and bile acids), liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, and ?-glutamyl transferase), overall (M65) and apoptotic (M30) cell-death markers, and indicators of phase-I/phase-II biotransformations were analyzed. The measurement readings closely resembled (patho)physiological characteristics in patients with NC and CL. Mean courses of glucose levels reflected the CLs' reduced glycogen storage capability. Furthermore, CL samples exhibited significantly stronger increases in lactate, bile acids, and the M30/M65 ratio than NC specimens. Likewise, NC samples exhibited more rapid phase-I transformations of phenacetin, midazolam, and diclofenac and phase-I to phase-II turnover rates of the respective intermediates than CL tissue. Collectively, these findings reveal the better hepatic functionality in NC. Perfusion of human liver tissue with this system emulates in vivo conditions and clearly discriminates between noncirrhotic and cirrhotic tissue. This highly reliable device for investigating basic hepatic functionality and testing safety/toxicity, pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics and efficacies of novel therapeutic modalities promises to generate superior data compared with those obtained via existing economic perfusion systems. PMID:22674469

  12. Liver involvement in systemic infection

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    The liver is often involved in systemic infections, resulting in various types of abnormal liver function test results. In particular, hyperbilirubinemia in the range of 2-10 mg/dL is often seen in patients with sepsis, and several mechanisms for this phenomenon have been proposed. In this review, we summarize how the liver is involved in various systemic infections that are not considered to be primarily hepatotropic. In most patients with systemic infections, treatment for the invading microbes is enough to normalize the liver function tests. However, some patients may show severe liver injury or fulminant hepatic failure, requiring intensive treatment of the liver. PMID:25276279

  13. Liver biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    Biopsy - liver; Percutaneous biopsy ... the biopsy needle to be inserted into the liver. This is often done by using ultrasound. The ... the chance of damage to the lung or liver. The needle is removed quickly. Pressure will be ...

  14. Crystal growth, structure and characterizations of a new semiorganic nonlinear optical material-{beta}-Alanine zinc chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Anbuchezhiyan, M. [Department of Physics, Valliammai Engineering College, S.R.M. Nagar, Kattankulathur, Chennai 603203 (India)] [Department of Physics, Valliammai Engineering College, S.R.M. Nagar, Kattankulathur, Chennai 603203 (India); Ponnusamy, S., E-mail: suruponnus@gmail.com [Centre for Material Science and Nano Devices, Department of Physics, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Kanchipuram, Chennai 603203 (India); Muthamizhchelvan, C. [Centre for Material Science and Nano Devices, Department of Physics, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Kanchipuram, Chennai 603203 (India)] [Centre for Material Science and Nano Devices, Department of Physics, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Kanchipuram, Chennai 603203 (India); Sivakumar, K. [Department of Physics, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)] [Department of Physics, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2010-08-15

    The title compound, {beta}-alanine zinc chloride-a new semiorganic nonlinear optical crystal was grown by slow evaporation technique. Single crystals of {beta}-alanine zinc chloride have been subjected to X-ray diffraction analysis to determine the crystal structure. The powder X-ray diffractogram of the crystal has also been recorded. The amount of carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen in the crystals was also estimated. Fourier Transform Infrared and Raman spectral measurements have been carried out on the grown crystals in order to identify the functional groups. The presence of hydrogen and carbon in the {beta}-alanine zinc chloride was confirmed by using proton and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance spectral analyses. The percentage of zinc in the crystal was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Optical behavior such as ultraviolet-vis-near infrared transmittance spectrum and second harmonic generation has been investigated. The mechanical strength and thermal behavior of the grown crystal have been analyzed.

  15. Efficient in vitro refolding and functional characterization of recombinant human liver carboxylesterase (CES1) expressed in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Boonyuen, Usa; Promnares, Kamoltip; Junkree, Suwapat; Day, Nichloas P J; Imwong, Mallika

    2015-03-01

    Human liver carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) plays a critical role in the hydrolysis of various ester- and amide-containing molecules, including active metabolites, drugs and prodrugs. However, it has been problematic to express recombinant CES1 in bacterial expression systems due to low solubility, with the CES1 protein being mainly expressed in inclusion bodies, accompanied by insufficient purity issues. In this study, we report an efficient in vitro method for refolding recombinant CES1 from inclusion bodies. A one-step purification with an immobilized-metal affinity column was utilized to purify His-tagged recombinant CES1. Conveniently, both denaturant and imidazole can be removed while the enzyme is refolded via buffer exchange, a dilution method. We show that the refolding of recombinant CES1 was successful in Tris-HCl at pH 7.5 containing a combination of 1% glycerol and 2 mM ?-mercaptoethanol, whereas a mixture of other additives (trehalose, sorbitol and sucrose) and ?-mercaptoethanol failed to recover a functional protein. His-tagged recombinant CES1 retains its biological activity after refolding and can be used directly without removing the fusion tag. Altogether, our results provide an alternative method for obtaining a substantial amount of functionally active protein, which is advantageous for further investigations such as structural and functional studies. PMID:25462813

  16. Efficient in vitro refolding and functional characterization of recombinant human liver carboxylesterase (CES1) expressed in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Boonyuen, Usa; Promnares, Kamoltip; Junkree, Suwapat; Day, Nichloas P.J.; Imwong, Mallika

    2015-01-01

    Human liver carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) plays a critical role in the hydrolysis of various ester- and amide-containing molecules, including active metabolites, drugs and prodrugs. However, it has been problematic to express recombinant CES1 in bacterial expression systems due to low solubility, with the CES1 protein being mainly expressed in inclusion bodies, accompanied by insufficient purity issues. In this study, we report an efficient in vitro method for refolding recombinant CES1 from inclusion bodies. A one-step purification with an immobilized-metal affinity column was utilized to purify His-tagged recombinant CES1. Conveniently, both denaturant and imidazole can be removed while the enzyme is refolded via buffer exchange, a dilution method. We show that the refolding of recombinant CES1 was successful in Tris–HCl at pH 7.5 containing a combination of 1% glycerol and 2 mM ?-mercaptoethanol, whereas a mixture of other additives (trehalose, sorbitol and sucrose) and ?-mercaptoethanol failed to recover a functional protein. His-tagged recombinant CES1 retains its biological activity after refolding and can be used directly without removing the fusion tag. Altogether, our results provide an alternative method for obtaining a substantial amount of functionally active protein, which is advantageous for further investigations such as structural and functional studies. PMID:25462813

  17. A Functional Cross-Talk between Liver X Receptor-? and Constitutive Androstane Receptor Links Lipogenesis and Xenobiotic ResponsesS?

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Yonggong; Wada, Tara; Zhang, Bin; Khadem, Shaheen; Ren, Songrong; Kuruba, Ramalinga; Li, Song

    2010-01-01

    The liver X receptor (LXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) are two nuclear receptors postulated to have distinct functions. LXR is a sterol sensor that promotes lipogenesis, whereas CAR is a xenosensor that controls xenobiotic responses. Here, we show that LXR? and CAR are functionally related in vivo. Loss of CAR increased the expression of lipogenic LXR target genes, leading to increased hepatic triglyceride accumulation, whereas activation of CAR inhibited the expression of LXR target genes and LXR ligand-induced lipogenesis. On the other hand, a combined loss of LXR ? and ? increased the basal expression of xenobiotic CAR target genes, whereas activation of LXR inhibited the expression of CAR target genes and sensitized mice to xenobiotic toxicants. The mutual suppression between LXR? and CAR was also observed in cell culture and reporter gene assays. LXR?, like CAR, exhibited constitutive activity in the absence of an exogenously added ligand by recruiting nuclear receptor coactivators. Interestingly, although CAR competed with LXR? for coactivators, the constitutive activity and recruitment of coactivators was not required for CAR to suppress the activity of LXR?. In vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that cotreatment of a CAR agonist compromised the LXR agonist responsive recruitment of LXR? to Srebp-1c, whereas an LXR agonist inhibited the CAR agonist-responsive recruitment of CAR to Cyp2b10. In conclusion, our results have revealed dual functions of LXR? and CAR in lipogenesis and xenobiotic responses, establishing a unique role of these two receptors in integrating xenobiotic and endobiotic homeostasis. PMID:20592274

  18. Improved Hepatic Function in the 24-Hour Preserved Rat Liver With UW-Lactobionate Solution and SRI 63–441

    PubMed Central

    Ontell, Sheryl J.; Makowka, Leonard; Ove, Peter; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study compares rat liver preservation for 9, 12, and 24 h in the standard Eurocollins solution with preservation for the same time periods in the new UW-lactobionate solution. Pharmacologic manipulation with a potent platelet-activating factor antagonist, SRI 63–441, was also evaluated. After cold storage in each of the test solutions, the livers underwent 90 min of warm, oxygenated, sanguinous perfusion. A significant increase in liver weight was noted in Eurocollins-stored versus UW-lactobionate-stored livers. After 90 min of perfusion, livers preserved in UW-lactobionate produced significantly more bile and liberated significantly less glucose and transaminases when compared with Eurocollins-stored livers. Significant augmentation of bile production was observed when donor animals were pretreated with SRI 63–441 and the livers were then stored in UW-lactctbionate for 24 h. Eurocollins-stored livers demonstrated increased hepatocyte vacuolization and endothelial disruption when compared with UW-lactobionate-stored livers after 12 and 24 h of preservation. This study demonstrates the superiority of UW-lactobionate solution in liver preservation and suggests that SRI 63–441 may be beneficial in the further reduction of cold ischemic injury. PMID:3263295

  19. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a rainbow trout liver Oatp.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Konstanze; Hagenbuch, Bruno; Dietrich, Daniel R

    2014-11-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms have an impact on the aquatic ecosystem due to the production of toxins (e.g. microcystins, MCs), which constrain fish health or even cause fish death. However the toxicokinetics of the most abundant toxin, microcystin-LR (MC-LR), are not yet fully understood. To investigate the uptake mechanism, the novel Oatp1d1 in rainbow trout (rtOatp1d1) was cloned, identified and characterized. The cDNA isolated from a clone library consisted of 2772bp containing a 2115bp open reading frame coding for a 705 aa protein with an approximate molecular mass of 80kDa. This fish specific transporter belongs to the OATP1 family and has most likely evolved from a common ancestor of OATP1C1. Real time PCR analysis showed that rtOatp1d1 is predominantly expressed in the liver, followed by the brain while expression in other organs was not detectable. Transient transfection in HEK293 cells was used for further characterization. Like its human homologues OATP1A1, OATP1B1 and OATP1B3, rtOatp1d1 displayed multi-specific transport including endogenous and xenobiotic substrates. Kinetic analyses revealed a Km value of 13.9?M and 13.4?M for estrone-3-sulfate and methotrexate, respectively and a rather low affinity for taurocholate with a Km value of 103?M. Furthermore, it was confirmed that rtOatp1d1 is a MC-LR transporter and therefore most likely plays a key role in the susceptibility of rainbow trout to MC intoxications. PMID:25218291

  20. Upper Limits of Normal for Serum Alanine Aminotransferase Levels in Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ming-Hua; Shi, Ke-Qing; Fan, Yu-Chen; Liu, Wen-Yue; Lin, Xian-Feng; Li, Ling-Fei; Chen, Yong-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity is the most common tool for the assessment of liver diseases. However, it is not clear whether the current normal ALT range really discriminate patients with or without liver diseases. The present study was to establish a new normal range of ALT and examine its ability to identify patients with hepatitis B or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Chinese Han population. Methods 53037 adults were included in this study from January 1st 2008 to August 31st 2010. The 95th percentile of ALT in population with relative low risk factors for liver diseases was set as the new upper limits of normal ALT in gender-specific manner. Results The 95th percentile levels at low risk factors for liver diseases were achieved at 35 U/L for men and 23 U/L for women. The concordance statistics for detection were 0.873 (95%CI: 0.865–0.881) for HBV and 0.932 (95%CI: 0.927–0.937) for NAFLD in men while 0.857 (95%CI: 0.850–0.864) for HBV and 0.909 (95%CI: 0.903–0.915) for NAFLD in women. The median sensitivity of the current used ALT upper limit (40 U/L) was 6.6% for HBV and 29.7% for NAFLD and median specificity was 98.7% for men and 99.4% for women. Using our new-derived thresholds, the sensitivities ranged from 35.3% to 61.1% and the specificities were 94.8% for men and 94.6% for women. Conclusions Our results suggest that upper limits of ALT 35 U/L for men and 23 U/L for women in Chinese Han population. Re-consideration of normal limits of ALT should be recommended. Trial Registration ChiCTR.org ChiCTR-OCS-11001173 PMID:22962588

  1. Everolimus with reduced tacrolimus improves renal function in de novo liver transplant recipients: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    De Simone, P; Nevens, F; De Carlis, L; Metselaar, H J; Beckebaum, S; Saliba, F; Jonas, S; Sudan, D; Fung, J; Fischer, L; Duvoux, C; Chavin, K D; Koneru, B; Huang, M A; Chapman, W C; Foltys, D; Witte, S; Jiang, H; Hexham, J M; Junge, G

    2012-11-01

    In a prospective, multicenter, open-label study, de novo liver transplant patients were randomized at day 30±5 to (i) everolimus initiation with tacrolimus elimination (TAC Elimination) (ii) everolimus initiation with reduced-exposure tacrolimus (EVR+Reduced TAC) or (iii) standard-exposure tacrolimus (TAC Control). Randomization to TAC Elimination was terminated prematurely due to a higher rate of treated biopsy-proven acute rejection (tBPAR). EVR+Reduced TAC was noninferior to TAC Control for the primary efficacy endpoint (tBPAR, graft loss or death at 12 months posttransplantation): 6.7% versus 9.7% (-3.0%; 95% CI -8.7, 2.6%; p<0.001 for noninferiority [12% margin]). tBPAR occurred in 2.9% of EVR+Reduced TAC patients versus 7.0% of TAC Controls (p = 0.035). The change in adjusted estimated GFR from randomization to month 12 was superior with EVR+Reduced TAC versus TAC Control (difference 8.50 mL/min/1.73 m(2) , 97.5% CI 3.74, 13.27 mL/min/1.73 m(2) , p<0.001 for superiority). Drug discontinuation for adverse events occurred in 25.7% of EVR+Reduced TAC and 14.1% of TAC Controls (relative risk 1.82, 95% CI 1.25, 2.66). Relative risk of serious infections between the EVR+Reduced TAC group versus TAC Controls was 1.76 (95% CI 1.03, 3.00). Everolimus facilitates early tacrolimus minimization with comparable efficacy and superior renal function, compared to a standard tacrolimus exposure regimen 12 months after liver transplantation. PMID:22882750

  2. Renal function at two years in liver transplant patients receiving everolimus: results of a randomized, multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Saliba, F; De Simone, P; Nevens, F; De Carlis, L; Metselaar, H J; Beckebaum, S; Jonas, S; Sudan, D; Fischer, L; Duvoux, C; Chavin, K D; Koneru, B; Huang, M A; Chapman, W C; Foltys, D; Dong, G; Lopez, P M; Fung, J; Junge, G

    2013-07-01

    In a 24-month prospective, randomized, multicenter, open-label study, de novo liver transplant patients were randomized at 30 days to everolimus (EVR) + Reduced tacrolimus (TAC; n = 245), TAC Control (n = 243) or TAC Elimination (n = 231). Randomization to TAC Elimination was stopped prematurely due to a significantly higher rate of treated biopsy-proven acute rejection (tBPAR). The incidence of the primary efficacy endpoint, composite efficacy failure rate of tBPAR, graft loss or death postrandomization was similar with EVR + Reduced TAC (10.3%) or TAC Control (12.5%) at month 24 (difference -2.2%, 97.5% confidence interval [CI] -8.8%, 4.4%). BPAR was less frequent in the EVR + Reduced TAC group (6.1% vs. 13.3% in TAC Control, p = 0.010). Adjusted change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from randomization to month 24 was superior with EVR + Reduced TAC versus TAC Control: difference 6.7 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (97.5% CI 1.9, 11.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2), p = 0.002). Among patients who remained on treatment, mean (SD) eGFR at month 24 was 77.6 (26.5) mL/min/1.73 m(2) in the EVR + Reduced TAC group and 66.1 (19.3) mL/min/1.73 m(2) in the TAC Control group (p < 0.001). Study medication was discontinued due to adverse events in 28.6% of EVR + Reduced TAC and 18.2% of TAC Control patients. Early introduction of everolimus with reduced-exposure tacrolimus at 1 month after liver transplantation provided a significant and clinically relevant benefit for renal function at 2 years posttransplant. PMID:23714399

  3. Everolimus With Reduced Tacrolimus Improves Renal Function in De Novo Liver Transplant Recipients: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    De Simone, P; Nevens, F; De Carlis, L; Metselaar, H J; Beckebaum, S; Saliba, F; Jonas, S; Sudan, D; Fung, J; Fischer, L; Duvoux, C; Chavin, K D; Koneru, B; Huang, M A; Chapman, W C; Foltys, D; Witte, S; Jiang, H; Hexham, J M; Junge, G

    2012-01-01

    In a prospective, multicenter, open-label study, de novo liver transplant patients were randomized at day 30±5 to (i) everolimus initiation with tacrolimus elimination (TAC Elimination) (ii) everolimus initiation with reduced-exposure tacrolimus (EVR+Reduced TAC) or (iii) standard-exposure tacrolimus (TAC Control). Randomization to TAC Elimination was terminated prematurely due to a higher rate of treated biopsy-proven acute rejection (tBPAR). EVR+Reduced TAC was noninferior to TAC Control for the primary efficacy endpoint (tBPAR, graft loss or death at 12 months posttransplantation): 6.7% versus 9.7% (?3.0%; 95% CI ?8.7, 2.6%; p<0.001 for noninferiority [12% margin]). tBPAR occurred in 2.9% of EVR+Reduced TAC patients versus 7.0% of TAC Controls (p = 0.035). The change in adjusted estimated GFR from randomization to month 12 was superior with EVR+Reduced TAC versus TAC Control (difference 8.50 mL/min/1.73 m2, 97.5% CI 3.74, 13.27 mL/min/1.73 m2, p<0.001 for superiority). Drug discontinuation for adverse events occurred in 25.7% of EVR+Reduced TAC and 14.1% of TAC Controls (relative risk 1.82, 95% CI 1.25, 2.66). Relative risk of serious infections between the EVR+Reduced TAC group versus TAC Controls was 1.76 (95% CI 1.03, 3.00). Everolimus facilitates early tacrolimus minimization with comparable efficacy and superior renal function, compared to a standard tacrolimus exposure regimen 12 months after liver transplantation. PMID:22882750

  4. Functional and genetic analysis in type 2 diabetes of Liver X receptor alleles – a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Dahlman, Ingrid; Nilsson, Maria; Gu, Harvest F; Lecoeur, Cecile; Efendic, Suad; Östenson, Claes G; Brismar, Kerstin; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Froguel, Philippe; Vaxillaire, Martine; Dahlman-Wright, Karin; Steffensen, Knut R

    2009-01-01

    Background Liver X receptor alpha (LXRA) and beta (LXRB) regulate glucose and lipid homeostasis in model systems but their importance in human physiology is poorly understood. This project aimed to determine whether common genetic variations in LXRA and LXRB associate with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and quantitative measures of glucose homeostasis, and, if so, reveal the underlying mechanisms. Methods Eight common single nucleotide polymorphisms in LXRA and LXRB were analyzed for association with T2D in one French cohort (N = 988 cases and 941 controls), and for association with quantitative measures reflecting glucose homeostasis in two non-diabetic population-based samples comprising N = 697 and N = 1344 adults. Investigated quantitative phenotypes included fasting plasma glucose, serum insulin, and HOMAIR as measure of overall insulin resistance. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed in N = 1344 of adults. The two alleles of the proximal LXRB promoter, differing only at the SNP rs17373080, were cloned into reporter vectors and transiently transfected, whereupon allele-specific luciferase activity was measured. rs17373080 overlapped, according to in silico analysis, with a binding site for Nuclear factor 1 (NF1). Promoter alleles were tested for interaction with NF1 using direct DNA binding and transactivation assays. Results Genotypes at two LXRB promoter SNPs, rs35463555 and rs17373080, associated nominally with T2D (P values 0.047 and 0.026). No LXRA or LXRB SNP associated with quantitative measures reflecting glucose homeostasis. The rs17373080 C allele displayed higher basal transcription activity (P value < 0.05). The DNA-mobility shift assay indicated that oligonucleotides corresponding to either rs17373080 allele bound NF1 transcription factors in whole cell extracts to the same extent. Different NF1 family members showed different capacity to transactivate the LXRB gene promoter, but there was no difference between promoter alleles in NF1 induced transactivation activity. Conclusion Variations in the LXRB gene promoter may be part of the aetiology of T2D. However, the association between LXRB rs35463555 and rs17373080, and T2D are preliminary and needs to be investigated in additional larger cohorts. Common genetic variation in LXRA is unlikely to affect the risk of developing T2D or quantitative phenotypes related to glucose homeostasis. PMID:19292929

  5. Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? ligand, prevents abnormal liver function induced by a fasting–refeeding process

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Joon No; Dutta, Raghbendra Kumar; Kim, Seul-Gi; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Se-Jin; Choe, Seong-Kyu [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)] [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Kyeong-Won [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of) [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Immune-network Pioneer Research Center, Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Song, Seung Ryel [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)] [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Do-Sim [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of) [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Department of Laboratory of Medicine, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); So, Hong-Seob [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)] [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Raekil, E-mail: rkpark@wku.ac.kr [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)] [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-06

    Highlights: •A fasting–refeeding high fat diet (HDF) model mimics irregular eating habit. •A fasting–refeeding HFD induces liver ballooning injury. •A fasting–refeeding HDF process elicits hepatic triglyceride accumulation. •Fenofibrate, PPAR? ligand, prevents liver damage induced by refeeding HFD. -- Abstract: Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) agonist, is an anti-hyperlipidemic agent that has been widely used in the treatment of dyslipidemia. In this study, we examined the effect of fenofibrate on liver damage caused by refeeding a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice after 24 h fasting. Here, we showed that refeeding HFD after fasting causes liver damage in mice determined by liver morphology and liver cell death. A detailed analysis revealed that hepatic lipid droplet formation is enhanced and triglyceride levels in liver are increased by refeeding HFD after starvation for 24 h. Also, NF-?B is activated and consequently induces the expression of TNF-?, IL1-?, COX-2, and NOS2. However, treating with fenofibrate attenuates the liver damage and triglyceride accumulation caused by the fasting–refeeding HFD process. Fenofibrate reduces the expression of NF-?B target genes but induces genes for peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, peroxisome biogenesis and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. These results strongly suggest that the treatment of fenofibrate ameliorates the liver damage induced by fasting–refeeding HFD, possibly through the activation of fatty acid oxidation.

  6. Proteomic analysis of liver mitochondria from rats with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Lu, De-Zhao; Li, You-Ming; Zhang, Xue-Qun; Zhou, Xin-Xin; Jin, Xi

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To explore mitochondrial dysfunction in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) by analyzing the proteome of liver mitochondria from a NASH model. METHODS: The NASH rat model was established by feeding rats a fat-rich diet for 24 wk and was confirmed using hematoxylin and eosin staining of liver tissue and by changes in the levels of serum alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, triglyceride, total cholesterol and other markers. Liver mitochondria from each group were isolated using differential centrifugation. The mitochondrial samples were lyzed, purified and further analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Bioinformatic analyses of assigned gene ontology and biological pathway was used to study functional enrichments in the abundant proteomic data. RESULTS: Eight up-regulated and sixteen down-regulated proteins were identified that showed greater than 1.5-fold differences between the controls and the NASH group. These dysregulated proteins were predicted to be involved in different metabolic processes including fatty acid ?-oxidation processes, lipid metabolic processes, cell-cycle arrest, cell polarity maintenance, and adenosine triphosphate/sex hormone metabolic processes. Novel proteins that may be involved in NASH pathogenesis including the trifunctional enzyme Hadha, thyroxine, prohibitin, aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH1L2, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B31, and carbamoyl-phosphate synthase were identified using bioinformatics tools. The decreased expression of Hadha in NASH liver was verified by Western blotting, which was used as a complementary technique to confirm the proteomic results. CONCLUSION: This novel report on the liver mitochondrial proteome of a NASH model may provide a reservoir of information on the pathogenesis and treatment of NASH. PMID:24782632

  7. Long-Term and Short-Term Effects of Hemodialysis on Liver Function Evaluated Using the Galactose Single-Point Test

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen-Chih; Liao, Min-Tser; Lu, Kuo-Cheng; Lo, Lan; Hu, Oliver Yoa-Pu; Tang, Hung-Shang

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The galactose single-point (GSP) test assesses functioning liver mass by measuring the galactose concentration in the blood 1 hour after its administration. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of hemodialysis (HD) on short-term and long-term liver function by use of GSP test. Methods. Seventy-four patients on maintenance HD (46 males and 28 females, 60.38 ± 11.86 years) with a mean time on HD of 60.77 ± 48.31 months were studied. The GSP values were compared in two groups: (1) before and after single session HD, and (2) after one year of maintenance HD. Results. Among the 74 HD patient, only the post-HD Cr levels and years on dialysis were significantly correlated with GSP values (r = 0.280, P < 0.05 and r = ?0.240, P < 0.05, resp.). 14 of 74 patients were selected for GSP evaluation before and after a single HD session, and the hepatic clearance of galactose was similar (pre-HD 410 ± 254?g/mL, post-HD 439 ± 298?g/mL, P = 0.49). GSP values decreased from 420.20 ± 175.26?g/mL to 383.40 ± 153.97?g/mL after 1 year maintenance HD in other 15 patients (mean difference: 19.00 ± 37.66?g/mL, P < 0.05). Conclusions. Patients on maintenance HD for several years may experience improvement of their liver function. However, a single HD session does not affect liver function significantly as assessed by the GSP test. Since the metabolism of galactose is dependent on liver blood flow and hepatic functional mass, further studies are needed. PMID:25121113

  8. Quantitative analysis of liver function in percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage patients

    SciTech Connect

    Velchik, M.G.; Schwartz, W.; London, J.W.; Makler, P.T. Jr.; Alavi, A.

    1985-02-01

    The diagnostic usefulness of Tc-99m DISIDA cholescintigraphy as a predictor of eventual catheter and hepatic function in patients who have undergone percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) for extrahepatic biliary obstruction was evaluated. Twenty-nine cholescintigrams were performed in 14 patients. The examinations were divided into two groups: Group A (N = 17), in which the patient's clinical status deteriorated within two to three days post-PTBD, and Group B (N = 12), in which the patients did well clinically post-PTBD. No significant difference between the two groups was demonstrated by visual analysis of the analog images or by analysis of serum bilirubin levels. A computer program, developed by the authors, quantitates several parameters of DISIDA kinetics, reflecting hepatic function based upon compartmental analysis. A significant difference (P less than .001) was demonstrated between the mean transport constants (blood clearance constant = k1; hepatic clearance constant = k2) for the two groups. It is concluded that serum bilirubin levels and visual inspection of analog images are inadequate independent predictors of hepatic function in patients post PTBD. The transport constants k1 and k2 are quantitative parameters of hepatic function that may be of prognostic value in patients post PTBD.

  9. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Protects against Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ritze, Yvonne; Bárdos, Gyöngyi; Claus, Anke; Ehrmann, Veronika; Bergheim, Ina; Schwiertz, Andreas; Bischoff, Stephan C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Experimental evidence revealed that obesity-associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is linked to changes in intestinal permeability and translocation of bacterial products to the liver. Hitherto, no reliable therapy is available except for weight reduction. Within this study, we examined the possible effect of the probiotic bacterial strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) as protective agent against experimental NAFLD in a mouse model. Methods Experimental NAFLD was induced by a high-fructose diet over eight weeks in C57BL/J6 mice. Fructose was administered via the drinking water containing 30% fructose with or without LGG at a concentration resulting in approximately 5×107 colony forming units/g body weight. Mice were examined for changes in small intestinal microbiota, gut barrier function, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentrations in the portal vein, liver inflammation and fat accumulation in the liver. Results LGG increased beneficial bacteria in the distal small intestine. Moreover, LGG reduced duodenal I?B protein levels and restored the duodenal tight junction protein concentration. Portal LPS (P?0.05) was reduced and tended to attenuate TNF-?, IL-8R and IL-1? mRNA expression in the liver feeding a high-fructose diet supplemented with LGG. Furthermore liver fat accumulation and portal alanine-aminotransferase concentrations (P?0.05) were attenuated in mice fed the high-fructose diet and LGG. Conclusions We show for the first time that LGG protects mice from NAFLD induced by a high-fructose diet. The underlying mechanisms of protection likely involve an increase of beneficial bacteria, restoration of gut barrier function and subsequent attenuation of liver inflammation and steatosis. PMID:24475018

  10. Conformational study of N-methylated alanine peptides and design of Abeta inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Nandel, Fateh S; Jaswal, Radhika R

    2014-02-01

    N-Methylation increases the proteolytic stability of peptides and leads to improved pharmacological and increased nematicidal property against plant pathogens. In this study, the quantum mechanical and molecular dynamic simulation approaches were used to investigate conformational behavior of peptides containing only N-methylated alanine (NMeAla) residues and N-methylated alanine and alanine residues at alternate positions. The amide bond geometry was found to be trans and the poly NMeAla peptides were shown to populate in the helical structure without hydrogen bond with phi, psi values of - 0, 90 degrees stabilized by carbonyl-carbonyl interactions. Molecular dynamic simulations in water/methanol revealed the formation of beta-strand structure, irrespective of the starting geometry due to the interaction of solvent molecules with the carbonyl groups of peptide backbone. Analysis of simulation results as a function of time suggested that the opening of helical structure without hydrogen bond started from C-terminal. Conformational behavior of peptides containing N-MeAla and Ala was used to design Abeta peptide inhibitor and the model tetrapeptide Ac-Ala-NMeAla-Ala-NHMe in the beta-strand structure was shown to interact with the hydrophobic stretch of Abeta15-42 peptide. PMID:24791412

  11. Paradox of mistranslation of serine for alanine caused by AlaRS recognition dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Min; Chong, Yeeting E.; Shapiro, Ryan; Beebe, Kirk; Yang, Xiang-Lei; Schimmel, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Mistranslation from confusion of serine for alanine by alanyl-tRNA synthetases (AlaRSs) has profound functional consequences1-3. Throughout evolution, two editing-checkpoints prevent disease-causing mistranslation from confusing glycine or serine for alanine at the active site of AlaRS. In both bacteria and mice, Ser poses a bigger challenge than Gly1,2. One checkpoint is the AlaRS editing center, while the other is from widely distributed AlaXps—free-standing, genome-encoded editing proteins that clear Ser-tRNAAla. The paradox of misincorporating both a smaller (glycine) and a larger amino acid (serine) suggests a deep conflict for nature-designed AlaRS. To understand the chemical basis for this conflict, kinetic and mutational analysis, together with nine crystal structures, provided snapshots of adenylate formation for each amino acid. An inherent dilemma is posed by constraints of a structural design that pins down the ?–amino group of the bound amino acid using an acidic residue. This design, of more than 3 billion years, creates a serendipitous interaction with the serine OH that is difficult to avoid. Apparently not able to find better architecture for recognition of alanine, the serine misactivation problem was solved through free-standing AlaXps, which appeared contemporaneously with early AlaRSs. The results reveal unconventional problems and solutions arising from the historical design of the protein synthesis machinery. PMID:20010690

  12. A case of moderate liver enzyme elevation after acute acetaminophen overdose despite undetectable acetaminophen level and normal initial liver enzymes.

    PubMed

    Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Shiner, Drew C; Varney, Shawn M

    2014-01-01

    Liver function test (LFT) increase is an early sign of acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity. Typically, when an acute overdose patient is evaluated and has an initial undetectable APAP level and normal liver enzymes, the patient is not treated with N-acetylcysteine, and liver enzymes are not expected to increase later. We report a case of moderate LFT increase despite normal LFTs and an undetectable APAP level after delayed presentation of an APAP ingestion. A 22-year-old male with no medical history ingested 15-25 hydrocodone/APAP tablets (5 mg/500 mg). His suicide note and his bunkmate corroborated the overdose time. He arrived at the emergency department 16 hours after ingestion. At that time, his APAP level was <10 ?g/mL, and his liver enzymes were normal [aspartate transaminase (AST) 31 U/L and alanine transaminase (ALT) 34 U/L]. Twenty-nine hours after ingestion, the psychiatry team obtained LFTs (AST 45, ALT 61). He had persistent nausea and diffuse abdominal pain. On repeat analysis, the APAP level at 36 hours was found to be <10 ?g/mL, AST 150, and ALT 204. After 2 more days of increasing LFTs and persistent abdominal pain and nausea, the toxicology department was consulted, the patient was transferred to the medicine department, and intravenous N-acetylcysteine was started 66 hours after ingestion. He was treated for 16 hours and had a significant decline in LFTs and symptom resolution. His prothrombin time, bilirubin, lactate, creatinine, and mental status were normal throughout the admission. Other cases of LFT increase were excluded. Our case report illustrates that a moderate increase in liver transaminase may occur despite an initial undetectable APAP level and normal transaminases after a delayed presentation. In our case, no serious clinical effects were reported. PMID:23011168

  13. Liver Biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    A liver biopsy is a medical procedure performed in order to obtain a small sample of the liver. This is accomplished with a special needle, and ... small scar. The most common reasons for a liver biopsy include the evaluation of: ? Jaundice ? Liver inflammation ( ...

  14. Serum and urinary nitrate levels in liver cirrhosis: endotoxemia, renal function and hyperdynamic circulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard Campillo; Phuong Nhi Bories; Christophe Benvenuti; Catherine Dupeyron

    1996-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: The relationship between nitric oxide production, endotoxemia, renal function and hyperdynamic circulatory syndrome has not been yet investigated in patients with cirrhosis.Methods: Serum and urine nitrate, endotoxemia and cardiac index were measured in 59 patients with cirrhosis.Results: Patients with a tense ascites had higher serum nitrate levels than health control subjects (39±7 vs 19±4 ?mol\\/l, p<0.01). Patients with mild

  15. The in utero programming effect of increased maternal androgens and a direct fetal intervention on liver and metabolic function in adult sheep.

    PubMed

    Hogg, Kirsten; Wood, Charlotte; McNeilly, Alan S; Duncan, W Colin

    2011-01-01

    Epigenetic changes in response to external stimuli are fast emerging as common underlying causes for the pre-disposition to adult disease. Prenatal androgenization is one such model that results in reproductive and metabolic features that are present in conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We examined the effect of prenatal androgens on liver function and metabolism of adult sheep. As non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is increased in PCOS we hypothesized that this, and other important liver pathways including metabolic function, insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and steroid receptivity, would be affected. Pregnant ewes received vehicle control (C; n?=?5) or testosterone propionate (TP; n?=?9) twice weekly (100 mg; i.m) from d62-102 (gestation 147 days). In a novel treatment paradigm, a second cohort received a direct C (n?=?4) or TP (20 mg; n?=?7) fetal injection at d62 and d82. In adults, maternal TP exposure resulted in increased insulin secretion to glucose load (P<0.05) and the histological presence of fatty liver (P<0.05) independent of central obesity. Additionally, hepatic androgen receptor (AR; P<0.05), glucocorticoid receptor (GR; P<0.05), UDP- glucose ceramide glucosyltransferase (UGCG; P<0.05) and IGF1 (P<0.01) expression were upregulated. The direct fetal intervention (C and TP) led to early fatty liver changes in all animals without differential changes in insulin secretion. Furthermore, hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) was up-regulated in the fetal controls (P<0.05) and this was opposed by fetal TP (P<0.05). Hepatic estrogen receptor (ER?; P<0.05) and mitogen activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MAP2K4; P<0.05) were increased following fetal TP exposure. Adult liver metabolism and signaling can be altered by early exposure to sex steroids implicating epigenetic regulation of metabolic disturbances that are common in PCOS. PMID:21935484

  16. The In Utero Programming Effect of Increased Maternal Androgens and a Direct Fetal Intervention on Liver and Metabolic Function in Adult Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, Kirsten; Wood, Charlotte; McNeilly, Alan S.; Duncan, W. Colin

    2011-01-01

    Epigenetic changes in response to external stimuli are fast emerging as common underlying causes for the pre-disposition to adult disease. Prenatal androgenization is one such model that results in reproductive and metabolic features that are present in conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We examined the effect of prenatal androgens on liver function and metabolism of adult sheep. As non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is increased in PCOS we hypothesized that this, and other important liver pathways including metabolic function, insulin–like growth factor (IGF) and steroid receptivity, would be affected. Pregnant ewes received vehicle control (C; n?=?5) or testosterone propionate (TP; n?=?9) twice weekly (100 mg; i.m) from d62–102 (gestation 147 days). In a novel treatment paradigm, a second cohort received a direct C (n?=?4) or TP (20 mg; n?=?7) fetal injection at d62 and d82. In adults, maternal TP exposure resulted in increased insulin secretion to glucose load (P<0.05) and the histological presence of fatty liver (P<0.05) independent of central obesity. Additionally, hepatic androgen receptor (AR; P<0.05), glucocorticoid receptor (GR; P<0.05), UDP- glucose ceramide glucosyltransferase (UGCG; P<0.05) and IGF1 (P<0.01) expression were upregulated. The direct fetal intervention (C and TP) led to early fatty liver changes in all animals without differential changes in insulin secretion. Furthermore, hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) was up-regulated in the fetal controls (P<0.05) and this was opposed by fetal TP (P<0.05). Hepatic estrogen receptor (ER?; P<0.05) and mitogen activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MAP2K4; P<0.05) were increased following fetal TP exposure. Adult liver metabolism and signaling can be altered by early exposure to sex steroids implicating epigenetic regulation of metabolic disturbances that are common in PCOS. PMID:21935484

  17. Liver physiology and liver diseases in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2013-01-01

    The liver experiences various changes with aging that could affect clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients with liver diseases. Both liver volume and blood flow decrease significantly with age. These changes and decreased cytochrome P450 activity can affect drug metabolism, increasing susceptibility to drug-induced liver injury. Immune responses against pathogens or neoplastic cells are lower in the elderly, although these individuals may be predisposed to autoimmunity through impairment of dendritic cell maturation and reduction of regulatory T cells. These changes in immune functions could alter the pathogenesis of viral hepatitis and autoimmune liver diseases, as well as the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Moreover, elderly patients have significantly decreased reserve functions of various organs, reducing their tolerability to treatments for liver diseases. Collectively, aged patients show various changes of the liver and other organs that could affect the clinical characteristics and management of liver diseases in these patients. PMID:24379563

  18. Stereoselective aminoacylation of a dinucleoside monophosphate by the imidazolides of DL-alanine and N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-DL-alanine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Profy, A. T.; Usher, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The aminoacylation of diinosine monophosphate was studied experimentally. When the acylating agent was the imidazolide of N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-DL-alanine, a 40 percent enantiomeric excess of the isomer was incorporated at the 2' site and the positions of equilibrium for the reversible 2'-3' migration reaction differed for the D and L enantiomers. The reactivity of the nucleoside hydroxyl groups was found to decrease on the order 2'(3') less than internal 2' and less than 5', and the extent of the reaction was affected by the concentration of the imidazole buffer. Reaction of IpI with imidazolide of unprotected DL-alanine, by contrast, led to an excess of the D isomer at the internal 2' site. Finally, reaction with the N-carboxy anhydride of DL-alanine occurred without stereoselection. These results are found to be relevant to the study of the evolution of optical chemical activity and the origin of genetically directed protein synthesis.

  19. Use of IGL-1 preservation solution in liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wiederkehr, J C; Igreja, M R; Nogara, M S; Goncalves, N; Montemezzo, G P; Wiederkehr, H A; Wassen, M P; Nobrega, H A; Zenatti, K B; Mori, L Y; Tudisco, M S

    2014-01-01

    University of Wisconsin (UW) solution has been known as the standard solution for liver graft preservation. Alternative preservation solutions have been used in liver transplantation, such as histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK) and Celsior solution. Institut Georges Lopez-1 (IGL-1) is a new preservation solution with lower potassium and lower viscosity than UW solution that has recently been used in liver transplant. Data from 178 patients who received transplants from August 2008 to June 2013 at Hospital Santa Isabel, Blumenau, Brazil, were analyzed. All patients received grafts from brain death donors. In November 2011 we started to use IGL-1 as an alternate preservation solution. Therefore, 53 patients using IGL-1 preserved grafts were compared to 125 using HTK solution. The donor age in the HTK group ranged from 11-77 years, with a mean of 43.4 ± 4.8. In the IGL-1 group donor age ranged from 9-62 years, with a mean of 35.8 ± 4.5. Cold ischemia time in the HTK group ranged from 85-1145 minutes, mean 443.5 ± 183.5 minutes. In the IGL-1 group, cold ischemia time ranged from 85-670 minutes, mean 329.3 ± 134.8 minutes. The overall operative mortality rate was 14% (25 patients); in the HTK group, 14.4% (18 patients); and in the IGL-1 group, 13.4% (7 patients). One graft in the HTK group presented with primary non-function (PNF), 0.7%; there were none in the IGL-1 group. In our study, IGL-1 has been shown to be safe to use as a preservation solution for liver transplantation. Early post-transplant graft function was comparable to that observed with HTK solution, although a tendency for lower alanine aminotransferase levels was noticed. IGL-1 has been shown to be safe, cost efficient, and an effective preservation solution. PMID:25131043

  20. Management of acute liver failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Kramer; R. Todd Stravitz

    2009-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a syndrome of diverse etiology, in which patients without previously recognized liver disease sustain a liver injury that results in rapid loss of hepatic function. Depending on the etiology and severity of the insult, some patients undergo rapid hepatic regeneration and spontaneously recover. However, nearly 60% of patients with ALF in the US require and

  1. Alanine flux in obese and healthy humans as evaluated by /sup 15/N- and /sup 2/H/sub 3/-labeled alanines

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffer, L.J.; Yang, R.D.; Matthews, D.E.; Bistrian, B.R.; Bier, D.M.; Young, V.R.

    1988-10-01

    Estimates of plasma alanine flux as measured in humans using L-(/sup 15/N)-alanine or L-(3,3,3-/sup 2/H/sub 3/)alanine were compared by simultaneous intravenous infusion of both tracers. Plasma isotope enrichments were measured by chemical ionization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In 16 obese women before and during a hypocaloric diet and in 4 normal men in the postabsorptive and fed states, the fluxes were highly correlated (r2 = 0.93) although plasma alanine flux with the /sup 2/H tracer was two to three times greater than that obtained with (/sup 15/N)alanine. The fluxes decreased with the hypocaloric diet in obese subjects and increased during the fed state in healthy adults. Thus, although the estimates of alanine flux differed according to the tracer used, both appear to give equivalent information about changes in alanine kinetics induced by the nutritional conditions examined.

  2. Monolayer and spheroid culture of human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line cells demonstrate distinct global gene expression patterns and functional phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tammy T; Hughes-Fulford, Millie

    2009-03-01

    Understanding cell biology of three-dimensional (3D) biological structures is important for more complete appreciation of in vivo tissue function and advancing ex vivo organ engineering efforts. To elucidate how 3D structure may affect hepatocyte cellular responses, we compared global gene expression of human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) cells cultured as monolayers on tissue culture dishes (TCDs) or as spheroids within rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactors. HepG2 cells grown in RWVs form spheroids up to 100 mum in diameter within 72 h and up to 1 mm with long-term culture. The actin cytoskeleton in monolayer cells show stress fiber formation while spheroids have cortical actin organization. Global gene expression analysis demonstrates upregulation of structural genes such as extracellular matrix, cytoskeletal, and adhesion molecules in monolayers, whereas RWV spheroids show upregulation of metabolic and synthetic genes, suggesting functional differences. Indeed, liver-specific functions of cytochrome P450 activity and albumin production are higher in the spheroids. Enhanced liver functions require maintenance of 3D structure and environment, because transfer of spheroids to a TCD results in spheroid disintegration and subsequent loss of function. These findings illustrate the importance of physical environment on cellular organization and its effects on hepatocyte processes. PMID:18724832

  3. Analysis of Pyrimidine Catabolism in Drosophila melanogaster Using Epistatic Interactions With Mutations of Pyrimidine Biosynthesis and ?-Alanine Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Rawls, John M.

    2006-01-01

    The biochemical pathway for pyrimidine catabolism links the pathways for pyrimidine biosynthesis and salvage with ?-alanine metabolism, providing an array of epistatic interactions with which to analyze mutations of these pathways. Loss-of-function mutations have been identified and characterized for each of the enzymes for pyrimidine catabolism: dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), su(r) mutants; dihydropyrimidinase (DHP), CRMP mutants; ?-alanine synthase (?AS), pyd3 mutants. For all three genes, mutants are viable and fertile and manifest no obvious phenotypes, aside from a variety of epistatic interactions. Mutations of all three genes disrupt suppression by the rudimentary gain-of-function mutation (rSu(b)) of the dark cuticle phenotype of black mutants in which ?-alanine pools are diminished; these results confirm that pyrimidines are the major source of ?-alanine in cuticle pigmentation. The truncated wing phenotype of rudimentary mutants is suppressed completely by su(r) mutations and partially by CRMP mutations; however, no suppression is exhibited by pyd3 mutations. Similarly, su(r) mutants are hypersensitive to dietary 5-fluorouracil, CRMP mutants are less sensitive, and pyd3 mutants exhibit wild-type sensitivity. These results are discussed in the context of similar consequences of 5-fluoropyrimidine toxicity and pyrimidine catabolism mutations in humans. PMID:16361227

  4. Transferrin-targeted magnetic/fluorescence micelles as a specific bi-functional nanoprobe for imaging liver tumor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In order to delineate the location of the tumor both before and during operation, we developed targeted bi-functional polymeric micelles for magnetic resonance (MR) and fluorescence imaging in liver tumors. Hydrophobic superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) were loaded into the polymeric micelles through self-assembly of an amphiphilic block copolymer poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(?-caprolactone). After, transferrin (Tf) and near-infrared fluorescence molecule Cy5.5 were conjugated onto the surface of the polymeric micelles to obtain the nanosized probe SPIO@PEG-b-PCL-Tf/Cy5.5 (SPPTC). Imaging capabilities of this nanoprobe were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. The accumulation of SPPTC in HepG2 cells increased over SPIO@PEG-b-PCL-Cy5.5 (SPPC) by confocal microscopy. The targeted nanoprobe SPPTC possessed favorable properties on the MR and fluorescence imaging both in vitro and in vivo. The MTT results showed that the nanoprobes were well tolerated. SPPTC had the potential for pre-operation evaluation and intra-operation navigation of tumors in clinic. PMID:25400528

  5. Transferrin-targeted magnetic/fluorescence micelles as a specific bi-functional nanoprobe for imaging liver tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Hui; Li, Zhengzheng; Du, Kai; Mu, Ketao; Zhou, Qing; Liang, Shuyan; Zhu, Wenzhen; Yang, Xiangliang; Zhu, Yanhong

    2014-10-01

    In order to delineate the location of the tumor both before and during operation, we developed targeted bi-functional polymeric micelles for magnetic resonance (MR) and fluorescence imaging in liver tumors. Hydrophobic superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) were loaded into the polymeric micelles through self-assembly of an amphiphilic block copolymer poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(?-caprolactone). After, transferrin (Tf) and near-infrared fluorescence molecule Cy5.5 were conjugated onto the surface of the polymeric micelles to obtain the nanosized probe SPIO@PEG- b-PCL-Tf/Cy5.5 (SPPTC). Imaging capabilities of this nanoprobe were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. The accumulation of SPPTC in HepG2 cells increased over SPIO@PEG- b-PCL-Cy5.5 (SPPC) by confocal microscopy. The targeted nanoprobe SPPTC possessed favorable properties on the MR and fluorescence imaging both in vitro and in vivo. The MTT results showed that the nanoprobes were well tolerated. SPPTC had the potential for pre-operation evaluation and intra-operation navigation of tumors in clinic.

  6. Liver X Receptor Agonists Augment Human Islet Function through Activation of Anaplerotic Pathways and Glycerolipid/Free Fatty Acid Cycling*

    PubMed Central

    Ogihara, Takeshi; Chuang, Jen-Chieh; Vestermark, George L.; Garmey, James C.; Ketchum, Robert J.; Huang, Xiaolun; Brayman, Kenneth L.; Thorner, Michael O.; Repa, Joyce J.; Mirmira, Raghavendra G.; Evans-Molina, Carmella

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies in rodent models suggest that liver X receptors (LXRs) may play an important role in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis and islet function. To date, however, no studies have comprehensively examined the role of LXRs in human islet biology. Human islets were isolated from non-diabetic donors and incubated in the presence or absence of two synthetic LXR agonists, TO-901317 and GW3965, under conditions of low and high glucose. LXR agonist treatment enhanced both basal and stimulated insulin secretion, which corresponded to an increase in the expression of genes involved in anaplerosis and reverse cholesterol transport. Furthermore, enzyme activity of pyruvate carboxylase, a key regulator of pyruvate cycling and anaplerotic flux, was also increased. Whereas LXR agonist treatment up-regulated known downstream targets involved in lipogenesis, we observed no increase in the accumulation of intra-islet triglyceride at the dose of agonist used in our study. Moreover, LXR activation increased expression of the genes encoding hormone-sensitive lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase, two enzymes involved in lipolysis and glycerolipid/free fatty acid cycling. Chronically, insulin gene expression was increased after treatment with TO-901317, and this was accompanied by increased Pdx-1 nuclear protein levels and enhanced Pdx-1 binding to the insulin promoter. In conclusion, our data suggest that LXR agonists have a direct effect on the islet to augment insulin secretion and expression, actions that should be considered either as therapeutic or unintended side effects, as these agents are developed for clinical use. PMID:20007976

  7. Functional and molecular modelling studies of two hereditary fructose intolerance-causing mutations at arginine 303 in human liver aldolase.

    PubMed Central

    Santamaria, R; Esposito, G; Vitagliano, L; Race, V; Paglionico, I; Zancan, L; Zagari, A; Salvatore, F

    2000-01-01

    We have identified a novel hereditary fructose intolerance mutation in the aldolase B gene (i.e. liver aldolase) that causes an arginine-to-glutamine substitution at residue 303 (Arg(303)-->Gln). We previously described another mutation (Arg(303)-->Trp) at the same residue. We have expressed the wild-type protein and the two mutated proteins and characterized their kinetic properties. The catalytic efficiency of protein Gln(303) is approx. 1/100 that of the wild-type for substrates fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and fructose 1-phosphate. The Trp(303) enzyme has a catalytic efficiency approx. 1/4800 that of the wild-type for fructose 1,6-bisphosphate; no activity was detected with fructose 1-phosphate. The mutation Arg(303)-->Trp thus substitution impairs enzyme activity more than Arg(303)-->Gln. Three-dimensional models of wild-type, Trp(303) and Gln(303) aldolase B generated by homology-modelling techniques suggest that, because of its larger size, tryptophan exerts a greater deranging effect than glutamine on the enzyme's three-dimensional structure. Our results show that the Arg(303)-->Gln substitution is a novel mutation causing hereditary fructose intolerance and provide a functional demonstration that Arg(303), a conserved residue in all vertebrate aldolases, has a dominant role in substrate binding during enzyme catalysis. PMID:10970798

  8. Circadian clock-dependent and -independent rhythmic proteomes implement distinct diurnal functions in mouse liver

    PubMed Central

    Mauvoisin, Daniel; Wang, Jingkui; Jouffe, Céline; Martin, Eva; Atger, Florian; Waridel, Patrice; Quadroni, Manfredo; Gachon, Frédéric; Naef, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Diurnal oscillations of gene expression controlled by the circadian clock underlie rhythmic physiology across most living organisms. Although such rhythms have been extensively studied at the level of transcription and mRNA accumulation, little is known about the accumulation patterns of proteins. Here, we quantified temporal profiles in the murine hepatic proteome under physiological light–dark conditions using stable isotope labeling by amino acids quantitative MS. Our analysis identified over 5,000 proteins, of which several hundred showed robust diurnal oscillations with peak phases enriched in the morning and during the night and related to core hepatic physiological functions. Combined mathematical modeling of temporal protein and mRNA profiles indicated that proteins accumulate with reduced amplitudes and significant delays, consistent with protein half-life data. Moreover, a group comprising about one-half of the rhythmic proteins showed no corresponding rhythmic mRNAs, indicating significant translational or posttranslational diurnal control. Such rhythms were highly enriched in secreted proteins accumulating tightly during the night. Also, these rhythms persisted in clock-deficient animals subjected to rhythmic feeding, suggesting that food-related entrainment signals influence rhythms in circulating plasma factors. PMID:24344304

  9. Gamma aminobutyric acid B and 5-hydroxy tryptamine 2A receptors functional regulation during enhanced liver cell proliferation by GABA and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticles treatment.

    PubMed

    Shilpa, Joy; Pretty, Mary Abraham; Anitha, Malat; Paulose, Cheramadathikudyil Skaria

    2013-09-01

    Liver is one of the major organs in vertebrates and hepatocytes are damaged by many factors. The liver cell maintenance and multiplication after injury and treatment gained immense interest. The present study investigated the role of Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) coupled with chitosan nanoparticles in the functional regulation of Gamma aminobutyric acid B and 5-hydroxy tryptamine 2A receptors mediated cell signaling mechanisms, extend of DNA methylation and superoxide dismutase activity during enhanced liver cell proliferation. Liver injury was achieved by partial hepatectomy of male Wistar rats and the GABA and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticles treatments were given intraperitoneally. The experimental groups were sham operated control (C), partially hepatectomised rats with no treatment (PHNT), partially hepatectomised rats with GABA chitosan nanoparticle (GCNP), 5-HT chitosan nanoparticle (SCNP) and a combination of GABA and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticle (GSCNP) treatments. In GABA and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticle treated group there was a significant decrease (P<0.001) in the receptor expression of Gamma aminobutyric acid B and a significant increase (P<0.001) in the receptor expression of 5-hydroxy tryptamine 2A when compared to PHNT. The cyclic adenosine monophosphate content and its regulatory protein, presence of methylated DNA and superoxide dismutase activity were decreased in GCNP, SCNP and GSCNP when compared to PHNT. The Gamma aminobutyric acid B and 5-hydroxy tryptamine 2A receptors coupled signaling elements played an important role in GABA and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticles induced liver cell proliferation which has therapeutic significance in liver disease management. PMID:23748019

  10. Coenzyme Q10 supplementation improves metabolic parameters, liver function and mitochondrial respiration in rats with high doses of atorvastatin and a cholesterol-rich diet

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the actions of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) on rats with a cholesterol-rich diet (HD) and high doses of atorvastatin (ATV, 0.2, 0.56 or 1.42 mg/day). Methods Two experiments were done, the first one without coenzyme Q10 supplementation. On the second experiment all groups received coenzyme Q10 0.57 mg/day as supplement. After a 6-week treatment animals were sacrificed, blood and liver were analyzed and liver mitochondria were isolated and its oxygen consumption was evaluated in state 3 (phosphorylating state) and state 4 (resting state) in order to calculate the respiratory control (RC). Results HD increased serum and hepatic cholesterol levels in rats with or without CoQ10. ATV reduced these values but CoQ10 improved even more serum and liver cholesterol. Triacylglycerols (TAG) were also lower in blood and liver of rats with ATV?+?CoQ10. HDL-C decreased in HD rats. Treatment with ATV maintained HDL-C levels. However, these values were lower in HD?+?CoQ10 compared to control diet (CD)?+?CoQ10. RC was lessened in liver mitochondria of HD. The administration of ATV increased RC. All groups supplemented with CoQ10 showed an increment in RC. In conclusion, the combined administration of ATV and CoQ10 improved biochemical parameters, liver function and mitochondrial respiration in hypercholesterolemic rats. Conclusions Our results suggest a potential beneficial effect of CoQ10 supplementation in hypercholesterolemic rats that also receive atorvastatin. This beneficial effect of CoQ10 must be combined with statin treatment in patient with high levels of cholesterol. PMID:24460631

  11. Conformational entropy of alanine versus glycine in protein denatured states

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Kathryn A.; Alonso, Darwin O. V.; Sato, Satoshi; Fersht, Alan R.; Daggett, Valerie

    2007-01-01

    The presence of a solvent-exposed alanine residue stabilizes a helix by 0.4–2 kcal·mol?1 relative to glycine. Various factors have been suggested to account for the differences in helical propensity, from the higher conformational freedom of glycine sequences in the unfolded state to hydrophobic and van der Waals' stabilization of the alanine side chain in the helical state. We have performed all-atom molecular dynamics simulations with explicit solvent and exhaustive sampling of model peptides to address the backbone conformational entropy difference between Ala and Gly in the denatured state. The mutation of Ala to Gly leads to an increase in conformational entropy equivalent to ?0.4 kcal·mol?1 in a fully flexible denatured, that is, unfolded, state. But, this energy is closely counterbalanced by the (measured) difference in free energy of transfer of the glycine and alanine side chains from the vapor phase to water so that the unfolded alanine- and glycine-containing peptides are approximately isoenergetic. The helix-stabilizing propensity of Ala relative to Gly thus mainly results from more favorable interactions of Ala in the folded helical structure. The small difference in energetics in the denatured states means that the ?-values derived from Ala ? Gly scanning of helices are a very good measure of the extent of formation of structure in proteins with little residual structure in the denatured state. PMID:17307875

  12. Cirrhosis-related changes in left ventricular function and correlation with the model for end-stage liver disease score

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaopeng; Yu, Shanshan; Li, Lu; Han, Donggang; Dai, Shejiao; Gao, Ya

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of our study is to investigate cirrhosis-related left ventricular remodeling and functional changes, further to analyze the correlations with model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score. Methods: A total of 89 cirrhotic patients were enrolled for study and subgrouped according to MELD score: ? 9, 10-19, and ? 20. Thirty healthy individuals were enrolled as controls. All study participants underwent cardiac assessment of the left ventricle with Doppler echocardiography; the parameters assessed included left ventricular-end systolic diameter (LVESD), left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD), interventricular septal thickness (IVST), left ventricular posterior wall thickness (LVPWT), left atrial diameter (LAD), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), cardiac output (CO), mitral flow velocity (VE/VA ratio), and E-wave deceleration time (DT). Results: The cirrhotic patients had significantly higher LVESD, LVEDD, IVST, LAD, CO and DT than the control group, but significantly lower VE/VA ratio (all P < 0.05). Subgroup analysis showed that the higher the MELD score, the greater the increase in LVESD, LVEDD, IVST, LAD and DT (all P < 0.05). Nearly one-half of the cirrhotic patients showed left atrial enlargement and a VE/VA ratio ? 1, and these features were more common in patients with MELD score ? 20. LAD, LVEDD and DT were positively correlated with MELD score (r = 0.208, 0.319 and 0.197, respectively; all P < 0.05). Conclusions: Patients with cirrhosis had impaired cardiac function, mainly present as left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, and the extent of dysfunction was correlated with the MELD score. Left atrial enlargement and VE/VA ratio ? 1 may serve as useful diagnostic indexes for cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. PMID:25664102

  13. Effects of Yerba Mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) on vascular endothelial function and liver lipoprotein receptor gene expression in hyperlipidemic rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hongli; Liu, Zhaochun; Qu, Xiaolan; Zhao, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Yerba Mate tea (Mate), an infusion made from the leaves of the tree Ilex paraguariensis, is a widely consumed beverage in South America. This study was performed to investigate the effect of Mate tea on vascular endothelial dysfunction and liver lipoprotein receptor gene expression in hyperlipidemic rats, with the aim of gaining insight into its known lipid-lowering protective mechanisms. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: a normal control group (NC), a high-fat diet group (HC), and three Mate tea-treated groups. In the NC group, rats were fed with standard diet while in the other groups the rats were fed a high-fat diet for 8weeks. In the Mate tea-treated groups, the rats were fed a high-fat diet supplemented with low, moderate or high concentrations of aqueous Mate tea extract for the final 4weeks. Compared to the HC group, aqueous Mate tea extract significantly reduced endothelin (ET) and thromboxane B(2) (TXB(2)) levels and increased nitric oxide (NO) and 6-keto prostaglandin F(1?) (6-keto-PGF(1?)) levels in the blood, reduced the pathological damage of vascular endothelial cells, decreased intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) protein expression in the thoracic aorta, and upregulated mRNA expression of hepatic low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and scavenger receptor B1 (SR-B1). These findings indicate that Mate tea administration might have a regulatory effect on blood fat and endothelial function in hyperlipidemia rats. The mechanism may involve protecting vascular endothelial cell function and upregulating the expression of LDLR and SR-B1 genes, thereby inhibiting the occurrence of atherosclerosis. PMID:23266732

  14. Improvement of normothermic rat liver ischemia/reperfusion by muramyl dipeptide.

    PubMed

    Cursio, R; Gugenheim, J; Panaia-Ferrari, P; Lasfar, A; Tovey, M; Chastanet, S; Saint-Paul, M C; Ferré, C; Mouiel, J

    1998-12-01

    Normothermic ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) of the liver remains a major problem after liver surgery and transplantation. Activation of Kupffer cells (KCs) after normothermic I/R is responsible for a massive release of various monokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and a decrease in phagocytic activity. Muramyl dipeptide (MDP) is an immunostimulant that increases phagocytic activity of KCs. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that MDP pretreatment might protect the liver against I/R injury by a modification of KC functions. Rats were divided into three groups: group 1, control, Ringer's lactate administration; group 2, MDP (N-acetyl-muramyl-d-alanyl-d-isoglutamine) treatment; group 3, sham-operated control animals. MDP (500 microg/250 g) was injected intravenously 5 min before the induction of 90 min ischemia. Survival rates were compared and serum activities of TNF-alpha, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were assessed in the blood collected from the suprahepatic vena cava. Histology of the liver and KC activity were assessed 6 and 9 h after the end of ischemia, respectively. MDP treatment significantly increased 7-day survival (86.6%) compared with nontreated rats (40%, P < 0.001). Serum activities of TNF-alpha and aminotransferases were significantly decreased after MDP treatment, whereas phagocytic capacity of KCs was partially restored. The extent of liver necrosis was decreased after MDP administration. A significant difference was observed for other histological parameters studied, except for steatosis. Our findings have demonstrated that MDP is able to protect the liver from ischemic insult by modulation of KC activity (TNF-alpha release and phagocytic capacity). Control of macrophage activity may offer a new strategy to reduce ischemic injury of the liver. PMID:9878335

  15. Down-Regulation of microRNA-26a Promotes Mouse Hepatocyte Proliferation during Liver Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Linwei; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Guo, Zhiyong; He, Xiaoshun

    2012-01-01

    Background Inadequate liver regeneration (LR) is still an unsolved problem in major liver resection and small-for-size syndrome post-living donor liver transplantation. A number of microRNAs have been shown to play important roles in cell proliferation. Herein, we investigated the role of miR-26a as a pivotal regulator of hepatocyte proliferation in LR. Methodology/Principal Findings Adult male C57BL/6J mice, undergoing 70% partial hepatectomy (PH), were treated with Ad5-anti-miR-26a-LUC or Ad5-miR-26a-LUC or Ad5-LUC vector via portal vein. The animals were subjected to in vivo bioluminescence imaging. Serum and liver samples were collected to test liver function, calculate liver-to-body weight ratio (LBWR), document hepatocyte proliferation (Ki-67 staining), and investigate potential targeted gene expression of miR-26a by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. The miR-26a level declined during LR after 70% PH. Down-regulation of miR-26a by anti-miR-26a expression led to enhanced proliferation of hepatocytes, and both LBWR and hepatocyte proliferation (Ki-67+ cells %) showed an increased tendency, while liver damage, indicated by aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and total bilirubin (T-Bil), was reduced. Furthermore, CCND2 and CCNE2, as possible targeted genes of miR-26a, were up-regulated. In addition, miR-26a over-expression showed converse results. Conclusions/Significance MiR-26a plays crucial role in regulating the proliferative phase of LR, probably by repressing expressions of cell cycle proteins CCND2 and CCNE2. The current study reveals a novel miRNA-mediated regulation pattern during the proliferative phase of LR. PMID:22496754

  16. Anti-tumour necrosis factor agent and liver injury: Literature review, recommendations for management

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Roberta Elisa; Parisi, Ioanna; Despott, Edward John; Burroughs, Andrew Kenneth; O'Beirne, James; Conte, Dario; Hamilton, Mark Ian; Murray, Charles Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Abnormalities in liver function tests, including transient and self-limiting hypertransaminasemia, cholestatic disease and hepatitis, can develop during treatment with anti-tumour-necrosis-factor (TNF) therapy. The optimal management of liver injury related to anti-TNF therapy is still a matter of debate. Although some authors recommend discontinuing treatment in case of both a rise of alanine aminotransferase more than 5 times the upper limit of normal, or the occurrence of jaundice, there are no standard guidelines for the management of anti-TNF-related liver injury. Bibliographical searches were performed in PubMed, using the following key words: inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); TNF inhibitors; hypertransaminasemia; drug-related liver injury; infliximab. According to published data, elevation of transaminases in patients with IBD treated with anti-TNF is a common finding, but resolution appears to be the usual outcome. Anti-TNF agents seem to be safe with a low risk of causing severe drug-related liver injury. According to our centre experience, we found that hypertransaminasemia was a common, mainly self-limiting finding in our IBD cohort and was not correlated to infliximab treatment on both univariate and multivariate analyses. An algorithm for the management of liver impairment occurring during anti-TNF treatment is also proposed and this highlights the need of a multidisciplinary approach and suggests liver biopsy as a key-point in the management decision in case of severe rise of transaminases. However, hepatic injury is generally self-limiting and drug withdrawal seems to be an exception. PMID:25516646

  17. Effects of combined dietary supplementation with fenofibrate and Schisandrae Fructus pulp on lipid and glucose levels and liver function in normal and hypercholesterolemic mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Pei-Li; Pan, Si-Yuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Nan; Chu, Zhu-Sheng; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background Currently, combined therapy using herbs and synthetic drugs has become a feasible therapeutic intervention against some diseases. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of supplementation with fenofibrate (FF), a chemical drug used for the treatment of hyperlipidemia, and the aqueous extract of Schisandrae Fructus (SF, a Chinese herb) pulp (AqSF-P) or an SF-related synthetic analog, bicyclol (BY), on serum/hepatic lipid levels and liver status in normal and hypercholesterolemic (HCL) mice. Methods Male mice obtained from the Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) were fed on a normal diet (ND) or high cholesterol/bile salt (0.5%/0.15%, w/w) diet (HCBD) containing FF (0.03% or 0.1%, w/w) with or without AqSF-P (0.3%?9.0%, based on crude herbal material, w/w) or BY (0.025%, w/w) for 10 days. Then serum lipid levels and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, as well as hepatic triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and glucose levels, were measured. Results Oral supplementation with FF significantly reduced serum and hepatic TG, TC, and hepatic glucose levels (approximately 79%) in mice fed with ND or HCBD. FF supplementation combined with AqSF-P or BY increased FF-induced reduction in hepatic TC and TG contents in ND-fed mice (up to 67%) and in HCBD-fed mice (up to 54%), when compared with FF supplementation alone. Hepatic glucose-lowering effect of FF was enhanced (up to 19%) by AqSF-P cosupplementation in both normal and HCL mice. FF supplementation enhanced the excretion of fecal TC (by 75%) in mice fed with HCBD. Fecal TC contents were increased by 14%/9% in the combination therapy with FF and AqSF-P in ND-/HCBD-fed mice. Serum ALT activity was elevated by 45% in HCBD-fed mice. FF caused a significant increase in ALT activity by 198% and 120% in normal and HCL mice, respectively. BY markedly attenuated the ALT activity by 54% in mice fed with ND supplemented with 0.1% FF and by 42% in mice fed with HCBD supplemented with 0.03% FF. Conclusion AqSF-P cosupplementation augmented the hepatic lipid-/glucose-lowering effects of FF. BY ameliorated FF-induced liver injury in normal and HCL mice. PMID:25733812

  18. Pitfalls in assessing renal function in patients with cirrhosis--potential inequity for access to treatment of hepatorenal failure and liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Andrew; Cholongitas, Evangelos; Xirouchakis, Elias; Burroughs, Andrew Kenneth

    2011-09-01

    Serum creatinine is universally used to assess renal function in clinical practice. Creatinine and changes in serum creatinine are used to define acute kidney injury and hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) in patients with progressive liver disease. In addition, creatinine is a key variable in the calculation used to determine priority for liver transplantation in many countries. As there is no universal standardized creatinine assay, there is variation in creatinine determinations between laboratory assays, compounded by assay interference due to chromogens, including bilirubin. This leads to patients with the same actual renal function potentially being offered different treatment options, in terms of access to therapy for HRS and priority waiting time for liver transplantation. Alternative methods for assessing renal function either also tend to overestimate renal function or are too time consuming and expensive to provide practical alternatives for standard clinical practice. Standardization of creatinine assays with readily available reference standards would help minimize interlaboratory variation; of the current creatinine assays, enzymatic creatinine appears more accurate, but even this is inaccurate at high bilirubin concentrations. Further work is required to determine whether interpatient variation can be reduced by correcting creatinine and cystatin measurements for muscle mass. PMID:21690201

  19. Analysis of serine proteinase-inhibitor interaction by alanine shaving.

    PubMed

    Buczek, Olga; Koscielska-Kasprzak, Katarzyna; Krowarsch, Daniel; Dadlez, Micha?; Otlewski, Jacek

    2002-04-01

    We analyzed the energetic importance of residues surrounding the hot spot (the P(1) position) of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) in interaction with two proteinases, trypsin and chymotrypsin, by a procedure called molecular shaving. One to eight residues of the structural epitope, composed of two extended and exposed loops, were mutated to alanine(s). Although truncation of the side chains of residues surrounding the P(1) position to methyl groups caused a decrease in Delta G(den) values up to 6.4 kcal mole(-1), it did not influence the overall conformation of the inhibitor. We found that the replacement of up to six residues with alanines was fully additive at the level of protein stability. To analyze the influence of the structural epitope on the association energy, we determined association constants for BPTI variants and both enzymes and applied the additivity analysis. Shaving of two binding loops led to a progressive drop in the association energy, more pronounced for trypsin (decrease up to 9.6 kcal mole(-1)) than chymotrypsin (decrease up to 3.5 kcal mole(-1)). In the case of extensively mutated variants interacting with chymotrypsin, the association energies agreed very well with the values calculated from single mutational effects. However, when P(1)-neighboring residues were shaved to alanine(s), their contribution to the association energy was not fully removed because of the presence of methyl groups and main chain-main chain intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Moreover, the hot spot had a different contribution to the complex stability in the fully shaved BPTI variant compared with the wild type, which was caused by perturbations of the P(1)-S(1) electrostatic interaction. PMID:11910024

  20. Analysis of serine proteinase–inhibitor interaction by alanine shaving

    PubMed Central

    Buczek, Olga; Koscielska-Kasprzak, Katarzyna; Krowarsch, Daniel; Dadlez, Micha?; Otlewski, Jacek

    2002-01-01

    We analyzed the energetic importance of residues surrounding the hot spot (the P1 position) of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) in interaction with two proteinases, trypsin and chymotrypsin, by a procedure called molecular shaving. One to eight residues of the structural epitope, composed of two extended and exposed loops, were mutated to alanine(s). Although truncation of the side chains of residues surrounding the P1 position to methyl groups caused a decrease in ?Gden values up to 6.4 kcal mole?1, it did not influence the overall conformation of the inhibitor. We found that the replacement of up to six residues with alanines was fully additive at the level of protein stability. To analyze the influence of the structural epitope on the association energy, we determined association constants for BPTI variants and both enzymes and applied the additivity analysis. Shaving of two binding loops led to a progressive drop in the association energy, more pronounced for trypsin (decrease up to 9.6 kcal mole?1) than chymotrypsin (decrease up to 3.5 kcal mole?1). In the case of extensively mutated variants interacting with chymotrypsin, the association energies agreed very well with the values calculated from single mutational effects. However, when P1-neighboring residues were shaved to alanine(s), their contribution to the association energy was not fully removed because of the presence of methyl groups and main chain–main chain intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Moreover, the hot spot had a different contribution to the complex stability in the fully shaved BPTI variant compared with the wild type, which was caused by perturbations of the P1–S1 electrostatic interaction. PMID:11910024

  1. Gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: A potential utility for the evaluation of regional liver function impairment following transcatheter arterial chemoembolization

    PubMed Central

    XIAO, YU-DONG; PAUDEL, RAMCHANDRA; LIU, HUAN; ZHANG, BIN; MA, CONG; ZHOU, SHUN-KE

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate regional liver function impairment following transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE), assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enhanced by gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA). Additionally, this study evaluated the associations between signal intensity and various clinical factors. A prospective study was conducted between March 2012 and May 2013 with a total of 35 patients. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI was performed 3–5 days after TACE therapy. The signal to noise ratio (SNR) was subsequently calculated for healthy liver tissue regions and peritumoral regions, prior to and 20 min after Gd-EOB-DTPA administration. The correlation between clinical factors and relative SNR was assessed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient or Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. Prior to Gd-EOB-DTPA administration, the SNR values showed no significant difference (t=1.341, P=0.191) in healthy liver tissue regions (50.53±15.99; range, 11.25–83.46) compared with peritumoral regions (49.81±15.85; range, 12.34–81.53). On measuring at 20 min following Gd-EOB-DTPA administration, the SNR in healthy liver tissue regions (82.55±33.33; range, 31.45–153.02) was significantly higher (t=3.732, P<0.001) compared with that in peritumoral regions (75.77±27.41; range, 31.42–144.49). The relative SNR in peritumoral regions correlated only with the quantity of iodized oil used during TACE therapy (r=0.528, P=0.003); the age, gender, diameter and blood supply of the tumor, or Child-Pugh class of the patient did not correlate with relative SNR. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI may be an effective way to evaluate regional liver function impairment following TACE therapy. PMID:25663880

  2. Administration of Lactobacillus salivarius LI01 or Pediococcus pentosaceus LI05 improves acute liver injury induced by D-galactosamine in rats.

    PubMed

    Lv, Long-Xian; Hu, Xin-Jun; Qian, Gui-Rong; Zhang, Hua; Lu, Hai-Feng; Zheng, Bei-Wen; Jiang, Li; Li, Lan-Juan

    2014-06-01

    This work investigated the effect of the intragastric administration of five lactic acid bacteria from healthy people on acute liver failure in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were given intragastric supplements of Lactobacillus salivarius LI01, Lactobacillus salivarius LI02, Lactobacillus paracasei LI03, Lactobacillus plantarum LI04, or Pediococcus pentosaceus LI05 for 8 days. Acute liver injury was induced on the eighth day by intraperitoneal injection of 1.1 g/kg body weight D-galactosamine (D-GalN). After 24 h, samples were collected to determine the level of liver enzymes, liver function, histology of the terminal ileum and liver, serum levels of inflammatory cytokines, bacterial translocation, and composition of the gut microbiome. The results indicated that pretreatment with L. salivarius LI01 or P. pentosaceus LI05 significantly reduced elevated alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels, prevented the increase in total bilirubin, reduced the histological abnormalities of both the liver and the terminal ileum, decreased bacterial translocation, increased the serum level of interleukin 10 and/or interferon-?, and resulted in a cecal microbiome that differed from that of the liver injury control. Pretreatment with L. plantarum LI04 or L. salivarius LI02 demonstrated no significant effects during this process, and pretreatment with L. paracasei LI03 aggravated liver injury. To the best of our knowledge, the effects of the three species-L. paracasei, L. salivarius, and P. pentosaceus-on D-GalN-induced liver injury have not been previously studied. The excellent characteristics of L. salivarius LI01 and P. pentosaceus LI05 enable them to serve as potential probiotics in the prevention or treatment of acute liver failure. PMID:24639205

  3. Liver Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    Your liver is the largest organ inside your body. It helps your body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. There are many kinds of liver diseases. Viruses cause some of them, like hepatitis ...

  4. Lack of association of liver fat with model parameters of  -cell function in men with impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maarten E Tushuizen; Mathijs C Bunck; Petra J W Pouwels; Saskia Bontemps; Andrea Mari; Michaela Diamant

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Hepatic steatosis and obesity are components of the metabolic syndrome and risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We studied how liver fat and body fat distribution relate to various aspects of b-cell function. Methods: In 12 men with T2DM, 10 men with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and 14 age- and body mass index-matched controls, we measured body

  5. Supplementation of Eurycoma longifolia Jack Extract for 6 Weeks Does Not Affect Urinary Testosterone: Epitestosterone Ratio, Liver and Renal Functions in Male Recreational Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chee Keong; Mohamad, Wan Mohd Zahiruddin Wan; Ooi, Foong Kiew; Ismail, Shaiful Bahari; Abdullah, Mohamad Rusli; George, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Eurycoma longifolia Jack (ElJ) has been shown to elevate serum testosterone and increased muscle strength in humans. This study investigated the effects of Physta® a standardized water extract of ElJ (400 mg/day for 6 weeks) on testosterone: epitestosterone (T:E) ratio, liver and renal functions in male recreational athletes. Methods: A total of 13 healthy male recreational athletes were recruited in this double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. The participants were required to consume either 400 mg of ElJ or placebo daily for 6 weeks in the first supplementation regimen. Following a 3 week wash-out period, the participants were requested to consume the other supplement for another 6 weeks. Mid-stream urine samples and blood samples were collected prior to and after 6 weeks of supplementation with either ElJ or placebo. The urine samples were subsequently analyzed for T:E ratio while the blood samples were analyzed for liver and renal functions. Results: T:E ratio was not significantly different following 6 weeks supplementation of either ElJ or placebo compared with their respective baseline values. Similarly, there were no significant changes in both the liver and renal functions tests following the supplementation of ElJ. Conclusions: Supplementation of ElJ i.e. Physta® at a dosage of 400 mg/day for 6 weeks did not affect the urinary T:E ratio and hence will not breach any doping policies of the International Olympic Committee for administration of exogenous testosterone or its precursor. In addition, the supplementation of ElJ at this dosage and duration was safe as it did adversely affect the liver and renal functions. PMID:25013692

  6. Arsenic exposure through drinking water increases the risk of liver and cardiovascular diseases in the population of West Bengal, India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Arsenic is a natural drinking water contaminant affecting 26 million people in West Bengal, India. Chronic arsenic exposure causes cancer, cardiovascular disease, liver disease, neuropathies and ocular diseases. The aims of the present study were to assess bioindicators of hepatocellular injury as indicated by the levels of liver enzymes, to determine the auto immune status, as indicated by the amounts of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) and anti-dsDNA antibodies in their serum, and to predict cardiovascular risk in the arsenic exposed population. Methods Effect of chronic arsenic exposure on liver was determined by liver function tests. Autoimmune status was measured by measuring ANA and anti-dsDNA in serum. Inflammatory cytokines associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, IL6, IL8 and MCP-1 were determined. Results Our results indicated that serum levels of bilirubin, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and ANA were increased in the arsenic exposed population. Serum levels of IL6 and IL8 also increased in the arsenic exposed group. Conclusions Chronic arsenic exposure causes liver injury, increases the serum levels of autoimmune markers and imparts increased cardiovascular risk. PMID:22883023

  7. Threshold Doses for Focal Liver Reaction After Stereotactic Ablative Body Radiation Therapy for Small Hepatocellular Carcinoma Depend on Liver Function: Evaluation on Magnetic Resonance Imaging With Gd-EOB-DTPA

    SciTech Connect

    Sanuki, Naoko; Takeda, Atsuya; Oku, Yohei [Radiation Oncology Center, Ofuna Chuo Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokai University, Kanagawa (Japan); Eriguchi, Takahisa; Nishimura, Shuichi; Aoki, Yosuke [Radiation Oncology Center, Ofuna Chuo Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan); Mizuno, Tomikazu [Department of Radiology, Ofuna Chuo Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan); Iwabuchi, Shogo [Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Ofuna Chuo Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan); Kunieda, Etsuo, E-mail: kunieda-mi@umin.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokai University, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: Focal liver reaction (FLR) appears on radiographic images after stereotactic ablative body radiation therapy (SABR) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and chronic liver disease. We investigated the threshold dose (TD) of FLR and possible factors affecting the TD on gadoxetate acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods and Materials: In 50 patients who were treated with SABR for small HCC and followed up by MRI for >6 months, FLR, seen as a hypointense area, was evaluated on the hepatobiliary phase of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI. The follow-up MRI with the largest extent of FLR was fused to the planning computed tomography (CT) image, and patients with good image fusion concordance were eligible. After delineating the border of the FLR manually, a dose–volume histogram was used to identify the TD for the FLR. Clinical and volumetric factors were analyzed for correlation with the TD. Results: A total of 45 patients were eligible for analysis with a median image fusion concordance of 84.9% (range, 71.6-95.4%). The median duration between SABR and subsequent hepatobiliary phase MRI with the largest extent of FLR was 3 months (range, 1-6 months). The median TD for FLR was 28.0 Gy (range, 22.3-36.4 Gy). On univariate analysis, pre-treatment Child-Pugh (CP) score and platelet count were significantly correlated with the TD. On multiple linear regression analysis, CP score was the only parameter that predicted TD. Median TDs were 30.5 Gy (range, 26.2.3-36.4 Gy) and 25.2 Gy (range, 22.3-27.5 Gy) for patients with CP-A and CP-B disease, respectively. Conclusion: The TD was significantly correlated with baseline liver function. We propose 30 Gy for CP-A disease and 25 Gy for CP-B disease in 5 fractions as TDs for FLR after SABR for patients with HCC and chronic liver disease. Use of these TDs will help to predict potential loss of liver tissue after SABR.

  8. Structure of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis D-Alanine:D-Alanine Ligase, a Target of the Antituberculosis Drug D-Cycloserine

    SciTech Connect

    Bruning, John B.; Murillo, Ana C.; Chacon, Ofelia; Barletta, Raúl G.; Sacchettini, James C. (TAM); (UNL)

    2011-09-28

    D-Alanine:D-alanine ligase (EC 6.3.2.4; Ddl) catalyzes the ATP-driven ligation of two D-alanine (D-Ala) molecules to form the D-alanyl:D-alanine dipeptide. This molecule is a key building block in peptidoglycan biosynthesis, making Ddl an attractive target for drug development. D-Cycloserine (DCS), an analog of D-Ala and a prototype Ddl inhibitor, has shown promise for the treatment of tuberculosis. Here, we report the crystal structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ddl at a resolution of 2.1 {angstrom}. This structure indicates that Ddl is a dimer and consists of three discrete domains; the ligand binding cavity is at the intersection of all three domains and conjoined by several loop regions. The M. tuberculosis apo Ddl structure shows a novel conformation that has not yet been observed in Ddl enzymes from other species. The nucleotide and D-alanine binding pockets are flexible, requiring significant structural rearrangement of the bordering regions for entry and binding of both ATP and D-Ala molecules. Solution affinity and kinetic studies showed that DCS interacts with Ddl in a manner similar to that observed for D-Ala. Each ligand binds to two binding sites that have significant differences in affinity, with the first binding site exhibiting high affinity. DCS inhibits the enzyme, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC{sub 50}) of 0.37 mM under standard assay conditions, implicating a preferential and weak inhibition at the second, lower-affinity binding site. Moreover, DCS binding is tighter at higher ATP concentrations. The crystal structure illustrates potential drugable sites that may result in the development of more-effective Ddl inhibitors.

  9. Liver regeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nelson Fausto

    2000-01-01

    The liver can precisely regulate its growth and mass. Surgical resection of hepatic lobes or hepatocyte loss caused by viral or chemical injury triggers hepatocyte replication while enlarged liver mass is corrected by apoptosis. Hepatocytes have a great replicative capacity and are capable of repopulating the liver. However, “stem-like” cells proliferate when hepatocyte replication is blocked or delayed. Detailed studies

  10. Acyl ghrelin acts in the brain to control liver function and peripheral glucose homeostasis in male mice.

    PubMed

    Stark, Romana; Reichenbach, Alex; Lockie, Sarah H; Pracht, Corinna; Wu, Qunli; Tups, Alexander; Andrews, Zane B

    2015-03-01

    Recent evidence suggests that peripheral ghrelin regulates glucose metabolism. Here, we designed experiments to examine how central acyl ghrelin infusion affects peripheral glucose metabolism under pair-fed or ad libitum feeding conditions. Mice received intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF), ghrelin, and allowed to eat ad libitum (icv ghrelin ad lib) or ghrelin and pair-fed to the aCSF group (icv ghrelin pf). Minipumps delivered acyl ghrelin at a dose of 0.25 ?g/h at 0.5 ?L/h for 7 days. There was no difference in daily blood glucose, insulin, glucagon, triglycerides, or nonesterified fatty acids. Body weight gain and food intake was significantly higher in icv ghrelin ad lib mice. However, both icv ghrelin ad lib and icv ghrelin pf groups exhibited heavier white adipose mass. Icv ghrelin pf mice exhibited better glucose tolerance than aCSF or icv ghrelin ad lib mice during a glucose tolerance test, although both icv ghrelin ad lib and icv ghrelin pf increased insulin release during the glucose tolerance test. Central acyl ghrelin infusion and pair feeding also increased breakdown of liver glycogen and triglyceride, and regulated genes involved in hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism. Icv ghrelin pf mice had an increase in plasma blood glucose during a pyruvate tolerance test relative to icv ghrelin ad lib or aCSF mice. Our results suggest that under conditions of negative energy (icv ghrelin pf), central acyl ghrelin engages a neural circuit that influences hepatic glucose function. Metabolic status affects the ability of central acyl ghrelin to regulate peripheral glucose homeostasis. PMID:25535832

  11. Coupling ratio of electrogenic Na+-alanine cotransport in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, L O; Folke, M

    1983-01-01

    Na+-alanine cotransport across the cell membrane in isolated rat hepatocytes was studied. Changes in the cell membrane potential associated with the transport of alanine interfere with determination of the Na+-alanine coupling ratio of the cotransport. With valinomycin present to 'clamp' the cell membrane potential, a coupling ratio of 1:1 for the Na+-alanine influx was obtained. PMID:6860315

  12. Cholesterol biosynthesis from lanosterol: molecular cloning, chromosomal localization, functional expression and liver-specific gene regulation of rat sterol delta8-isomerase, a cholesterogenic enzyme with multiple functions.

    PubMed Central

    Bae, S; Seong, J; Paik, Y

    2001-01-01

    Sterol Delta(8)-isomerase (SI) (EC 5.3.3.5), also known as emopamil binding protein or sigma receptor, catalyses the conversion of the 8-ene isomer into the 7-ene isomer in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway in mammals. Recently, mutations of SI have been found to be associated with Conradi-Hünermann syndrome in humans. To investigate the in vitro and in vivo modes of molecular regulation of SI and its role in cholesterol biosynthesis in mammals, we isolated a full-length cDNA encoding rat SI. The deduced amino-acid sequence of rat SI predicts a 230-residue protein (26737 Da) with 87% and 80% amino-acid identity to mouse and human counterparts. The rat SI gene was mapped to chromosome 12q1.2 using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The biological function of the cloned rat SI cDNA was verified by overexpressing recombinant Myc-SI in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It showed a characteristic pattern of inhibition on exposure to trans-2-[4-(1,2-diphenylbuten-1-yl)phenoxy]-N,N-dimethylethylamine (tamoxifen; IC(50)=11.2 microM) and 3beta-[2-(diethylamino)ethoxy]androst-5-en-17-one (U18666A; IC(50)=4.2 microM), two well known potent inhibitors of SI. Northern-blot analysis of 3-week-old rats compared with 2-year-old rats showed that SI mRNA expression in both age groups was restricted to liver, where a 70% reduction in mRNA levels was observed in 2-year-old rats. The FISH studies revealed ubiquitous expression of SI mRNA in rat hepatocytes. The in vitro studies showed that the SI mRNA was highly suppressed by 25-hydroxycholesterol in H4IIE cells. Treatment of H4IIE cells grown in medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum with tamoxifen for 24 h resulted in a dose-dependent induction of SI mRNA, with a concomitant suppression of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 mRNA. Interestingly, this effect was not seen in emopamil-treated cells. The in vivo experiments also indicate that both mRNA expression and enzymic activity of SI in liver were induced approx. 3-fold in rats fed 5% (w/w) cholestyramine plus 0.1% (w/w) lovastatin in normal chow for 2 weeks. With this newly cloned rat SI cDNA, it becomes possible to gain molecular understanding of previously unknown and tamoxifen-mediated gene regulation of SI that is involved in cholesterol metabolism, ischaemia and genetic diseases. PMID:11171067

  13. Application of IL-36 receptor antagonist weakens CCL20 expression and impairs recovery in the late phase of murine acetaminophen-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Scheiermann, Patrick; Bachmann, Malte; Härdle, Lorena; Pleli, Thomas; Piiper, Albrecht; Zwissler, Bernhard; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Mühl, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    Overdosing of the analgesic acetaminophen (APAP, paracetamol) is a major cause of acute liver injury. Whereas toxicity is initiated by hepatocyte necrosis, course of disease is regulated by mechanisms of innate immunity having the potential to serve in complex manner pathogenic or pro-regenerative functions. Interleukin (IL)-36? has been identified as novel IL-1-like cytokine produced by and targeting epithelial (-like) tissues. Herein, we investigated IL-36? in acute liver disease focusing on murine APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. Enhanced expression of hepatic IL-36? and its prime downstream chemokine target CCL20 was detected upon liver injury. CCL20 expression coincided with the later regeneration phase of intoxication. Primary murine hepatocytes and human Huh7 hepatocellular carcinoma cells indeed displayed enhanced IL-36? expression when exposed to inflammatory cytokines. Administration of IL-36 receptor antagonist (IL-36Ra) decreased hepatic CCL20 in APAP-treated mice. Unexpectedly, IL-36Ra likewise increased late phase hepatic injury as detected by augmented serum alanine aminotransferase activity and histological necrosis which suggests disturbed tissue recovery upon IL-36 blockage. Finally, we demonstrate induction of IL-36? in inflamed livers of endotoxemic mice. Observations presented introduce IL-36? as novel parameter in acute liver injury which may contribute to the decision between unleashed tissue damage and initiation of liver regeneration during late APAP toxicity. PMID:25687687

  14. Changes in rat liver gene expression induced by thioacetamide: protective role of S-adenosyl-L-methionine by a glutathione-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Mesa, M L; Carrizosa, R; Martínez-Honduvilla, C; Benito, M; Fabregat, I

    1996-03-01

    Chronic liver damage induced by thioacetamide (TAM) was accompanied by changes in the expression of genes related to growth (beta-actin) and function (albumin and haptoglobin) of the liver. Their messenger RNA (mRNA) levels increased during the first days after TAM administration, but 4 to 7 days after prolonged treatment with this drug, liver gene expression was considerable decreased. TAM-induced changes in albumin and beta-actin mRNA levels were prevented by cotreatment with S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM). We have investigated the possible involvement of glutathione in the protective mechanism of SAM. Firstly, we found that TAM treatment in the rat induced changes in liver glutathione disulfide (GSSG) levels, with a concomitant increase in the glutathione reductase enzymatic activity, these changes being abolished when animals were cotreated with TAM and SAM. Secondly, when rats were pretreated with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), a glutathione synthesis inhibitor, before thioacetamide administration, the beneficial effect of SAM on liver gene expression was completely abolished. These results were confirmed by assaying the alanine transaminase serum activity, a parameter of liver injury. TAM-treated animals had increases in this serum enzyme, this effect being partially blocked by SAM. However, in BSO-pretreated rats, the protective effect of SAM was impaired. Taking together all these results, we propose a glutathione-dependent mechanism in the SAM protection against TAM hepatotoxicity in the rat. PMID:8617442

  15. Effects of exposure to low concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons on the kidney and liver of industrial workers.

    PubMed Central

    Boogaard, P J; Rocchi, P S; van Sittert, N J

    1993-01-01

    An assessment has been made of biochemical alterations in renal and hepatic functions of 73 male operators employed for an average of 8.2 years (range 0.5-23 years) in a chemical plant producing chlorinated hydrocarbons. Exposure to allyl chloride (AC), 1,3-dichloropropene (DCP), epichlorohydrin (ECH), and hexachlorocyclopentadiene (HEX) has regularly been determined by personal air monitoring since 1980. Although exposures to DCP and ECH were well below currently accepted maximum allowable concentrations (MACs), relatively high exposures to AC and HEX, occasionally exceeding the MAC, have been measured. The results of the kidney and liver function tests were compared with those of a control group comprising 35 men employed at the materials division and not occupationally exposed to chemicals. Biochemical alterations of liver function were assessed by determination in serum of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALAT, ASAT), alkaline phosphatase (AP), total bilirubin (BIL), gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and total bile acids (SBA). No differences between the exposed group and the control group were found. Nor were differences found in biochemical tests for renal tubular damage (urinary alanine aminopeptidase (AAP) and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and renal tubular function (urinary retinol binding protein (RBP). Total urinary protein and albumin excretion were measured to assess the integrity of the glomerulus. Urinary total protein did not differ between the groups, but urinary albumin, although within normal limits in both groups, was significantly higher (p < 0.02) in the exposed group. This difference in urinary albumin could not simply be explained by exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbons because albumin concentrations did not correlate with the duration of employment. It is concluded that long term exposure to concentrations of AC, DCP, ECH, or HEX below or near the current limit threshold value does not lead to clinically significant effects on kidney and liver. PMID:8494773

  16. l-Alanine Auxotrophy of Lactobacillus johnsonii as Demonstrated by Physiological, Genomic, and Gene Complementation Approaches

    PubMed Central

    van der Kaaij, Hengameh; Desiere, Frank; Mollet, Beat; Germond, Jacques-Edouard

    2004-01-01

    Using a chemically defined medium without l-alanine, Lactobacillus johnsonii was demonstrated to be strictly auxotrophic for that amino acid. A comparative genetic analysis showed that all known genes involved in l-alanine biosynthesis are absent from the genome of L. johnsonii. This auxotrophy was complemented by heterologous expression of the Bacillus subtilis l-alanine dehydrogenase. PMID:15006820

  17. Drug-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Leise, Michael D; Poterucha, John J; Talwalkar, Jayant A

    2014-01-01

    Drug hepatoxicity can be nonidiosyncratic (predictable), as in the case of acetaminophen, or idiosyncratic (unpredictable). This review article focuses primarily on idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI). New epidemiologic data suggest that approximately 20 new cases of DILI per 100,000 persons occur each year. Idiosyncratic DILI accounts for 11% of the cases of acute liver failure in the United States. Risk factors for DILI include medication dose, drug lipophilicity, and extent of hepatic metabolism. There is mixed evidence to support the role of host factors such as age, sex, and chronic liver disease in the development of DILI. For specific drugs, a genetic predisposition appears to be a risk factor for DILI. Suspected cases of idiosyncratic DILI should be categorized as hepatitic, cholestatic, or mixed on the basis of the degree/ratio of abnormalities in the alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase. A careful evaluation for other causes of liver disease should be performed, though a liver biopsy is rarely needed. There is evidence that some patients with DILI may actually have hepatitis E and this diagnosis should be considered. Amoxicillin/clavulanate isoniazid, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are among the most common causes of DILI. Drug discontinuation or dechallenge should lead to an improvement in liver biochemistries in most patients, though a bilirubin value of more than 3 g/dL is associated with mortality of at least 10%. New biomarkers for DILI using proteomics and micro RNA appear promising but require further study. New studies on drugs with potential for causing DILI are reviewed herein, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonists, fluoroquinolones, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, statins, and supplements. PubMed was used with search terms of drug induced liver injury OR DILI with filter settings of "English language" and "humans" and custom date range of "January 1, 2000." The authors also manually searched bibliographies from key references and included seminal references before the year 2000. PMID:24388027

  18. Neuroendocrine liver Metastasis Treated by Using intraarterial Therapy: Volumetric Functional Imaging Biomarkers of Early Tumor Response and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Halappa, Vivek Gowdra; Corona-Villalobos, Celia Pamela; Bonekamp, Susanne; Li, Zhen; Reyes, Diane; Cosgrove, David; Pawlik, Timothy M.; Diaz, Luis Alberto; Bhagat, Nikhil; Eng, John; Geschwind, Jean-François; Kamel, Ihab R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine if volumetric changes of diffusion-weighted and contrast material–enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can help assess early tumor response to intraarterial therapy (IAT) in neuroendocrine liver metastasis (NELM). Materials and Methods This retrospective single-center comprehensive imaging analysis was performed in compliance with HIPAA and was institutional review board approved. Informed patient consent was waived. Seventy-one patients (39 men; mean age, 62.3 years) with NELM treated with IAT were analyzed retrospectively. MR studies were performed before and 3–4 weeks after therapy. The index lesion was segmented to provide volumetric functional analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and contrast-enhanced MR imaging in the hepatic arterial phase (HAP) and portal venous phase (PVP). Tumor response was defined as increase in volumetric ADC of 15% or greater and decrease in volumetric enhancement of 25% or greater during the HAP or of 50% or greater during the PVP. Patient overall survival was the primary end point after therapy initiation. Univariate analysis included Kaplan-Meier survival curves. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to detect interactions between volumetric ADC and contrast-enhanced MR imaging and to calculate the hazard ratio. Results There was significant increase in mean volumetric ADC (27%, P < .0001) and significant decrease in mean volumetric enhancement during the HAP (?25.3%, P < .0001) and the PVP (?22.4%, P < .0001) in all patients. Patients who had 15% or greater volumetric ADC increase (n = 49) after therapy had better prognosis than those who had less than 15% increase in volumetric ADC (n = 22) (log-rank test, P < .002). Patients who had 25% or greater decrease in volumetric arterial enhancement (n = 40) or 50% or greater decrease in venous enhancement (n = 18) had better prognosis than those who had less than 25% decrease in volumetric arterial enhancement (n = 31) or less than 50% decrease in venous enhancement (n = 53) (log-rank test, P < .02). Conclusion Volumetric functional MR imaging criteria may act as biomarkers of early response, indicating that these criteria may be important to incorporate in future NELM clinical trials. PMID:23192780

  19. S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine for the Treatment of Chronic Liver Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yusha; Liu, Quanyan

    2015-01-01

    It has been well established that S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) is the principal methyl donor in methyltransferase reactions and that SAMe supplementation restores hepatic glutathione (GSH) deposits and attenuates liver injury. However, the effectiveness of SAMe therapy in chronic liver disease has not been adequately addressed. We searched globally recognized electronic databases, including PubMed, the Cochrane Database and EMBASE, to retrieve relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of chronic liver disease published in the past 20 years. We then performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the enrolled trials that met the inclusion criteria.The results showed that twelve RCTs from 11 studies, which examined 705 patients, were included in this research. For liver function, certain results obtained from data synthesis and independent comparisons demonstrated significant differences between the levels of total bilirubin (TBIL) and aspartate transaminase (AST). However, no studies identified significant differences regarding alanine transaminase (ALT) levels. An analysis of the adverse events and long-term prognosis also indicated no significant differences between the SAMe and the placebo groups. In a subgroup analysis of gravidas and children, several of the included data indicated that there was a significant difference in the pruritus score. Furthermore, the results regarding ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and stronger neo-minophagen C (SNMC) indicated that both treatments were more effective than SAMe was in certain chronic liver diseases. These findings suggest that SAMe could be used as the basis of a medication regimen for liver function improvement because of its safety. However, SAMe also demonstrated limited clinical value in the treatment of certain chronic liver diseases. PMID:25774783

  20. Degradation of Glycine and Alanine on Irradiated Quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlikowski, Maciej; Benko, Aleksandra; Wróbel, Tomasz P.

    2013-04-01

    Recent researches suggest participation of minerals in the formation of life under primordial conditions. Among all of the minerals, quartz seems to be one of the most probable to take part in such processes. However, an external source of energy is needed, e.g. electric discharge. A device simulating the proposed conditions was designed and was used to simulate prebiotic conditions. Investigation of processes occurring during the stimulation of quartz with electric discharge was studied by means of Ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) spectroscopy, in order to monitor the generation kinetics of free radicals. Additionally, infrared spectroscopy was applied to identify chemical reaction products created in a solution of alanine or glycine, in the presence of quartz treated with electric discharge. Formation of increased amounts of free radicals, compared to experiments performed without quartz and/or amino acid, is reported, along with identification of possible degradation products of alanine. No synthetic reactions were observed.

  1. Effects of dose fractionation on the response of alanine dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundahl, Brad; Logar, John; Desrosiers, Marc; Puhl, James

    2014-12-01

    Alanine dosimetry is well established as a transfer standard and is becoming more prevalently used in routine dosimetry systems for radiation processing. Many routine measurement applications in radiation processing involve absorbed dose measurements resulting from fractioned exposures to ionizing radiation. Fractioning of absorbed dose is identified as an influence quantity (ISO/ASTM, 2013). This paper reports on study results of absorbed dose fractioning characteristics of alanine for gamma and high energy electron beam radiation sources. The results of this study indicate a radiation response difference due to absorbed dose fractioning in response can be observed after four fractionations for high-energy electron beams and no difference up to seven fractions for gamma rays using an ANOVA evaluation method.

  2. Liver regeneration following repeat SBRT

    PubMed Central

    Farach, Andrew; Quesada, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is an emerging treatment option for oligometastases and may confer a survival benefit in select patients. Herein, we document the first case of liver regeneration (LR) following repeat right hepatic lobe SBRT in a woman with breast cancer metastases. Retraction of the treated lobe was significant with a near 50% volume reduction. Compensatory contralateral lobe hypertrophy was noted with a 320% volume increase. The overall liver volume remained stable, within ±5% of baseline. This case indicates that repeat liver SBRT can be delivered safely to individual patients and that compensatory contralateral lobe hypertrophy is observed to maintain a functional liver volume.

  3. Crystal Structures of Aedes Aegypt Alanine Glyoxylate Aminotransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Han,Q.; Robinson, H.; Gao, Y.; Vogelaar, N.; Wilson, S.; Rizzi, M.; Li, J.

    2006-01-01

    Mosquitoes are unique in having evolved two alanine glyoxylate aminotransferases (AGTs). One is 3-hydroxykynurenine transaminase (HKT), which is primarily responsible for catalyzing the transamination of 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) to xanthurenic acid (XA). Interestingly, XA is used by malaria parasites as a chemical trigger for their development within the mosquito. This 3-HK to XA conversion is considered the major mechanism mosquitoes use to detoxify the chemically reactive and potentially toxic 3-HK. The other AGT is a typical dipteran insect AGT and is specific for converting glyoxylic acid to glycine. Here we report the 1.75{angstrom} high-resolution three-dimensional crystal structure of AGT from the mosquito Aedes aegypti (AeAGT) and structures of its complexes with reactants glyoxylic acid and alanine at 1.75 and 2.1{angstrom} resolution, respectively. This is the first time that the three-dimensional crystal structures of an AGT with its amino acceptor, glyoxylic acid, and amino donor, alanine, have been determined. The protein is dimeric and adopts the type I-fold of pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-dependent aminotransferases. The PLP co-factor is covalently bound to the active site in the crystal structure, and its binding site is similar to those of other AGTs. The comparison of the AeAGT-glyoxylic acid structure with other AGT structures revealed that these glyoxylic acid binding residues are conserved in most AGTs. Comparison of the AeAGT-alanine structure with that of the Anopheles HKT-inhibitor complex suggests that a Ser-Asn-Phe motif in the latter may be responsible for the substrate specificity of HKT enzymes for 3-HK.

  4. ?-alanine supplementation improves isometric endurance of the knee extensor muscles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We examined the effect of four weeks of ?-alanine supplementation on isometric endurance of the knee extensors at 45% maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Methods Thirteen males (age 23?±?6 y; height 1.80?±?0.05?m; body mass 81.0?±?10.5?kg), matched for pre-supplementation isometric endurance, were allocated to either a placebo (n?=?6) or ?-alanine (n?=?7; 6.4?g·d-1 over 4?weeks) supplementation group. Participants completed an isometric knee extension test (IKET) to fatigue, at an intensity of 45% MVIC, before and after supplementation. In addition, two habituation tests were completed in the week prior to the pre-supplementation test and a further practice test was completed in the week prior to the post-supplementation test. MVIC force, IKET hold-time, and impulse generated were recorded. Results IKET hold-time increased by 9.7?±?9.4?s (13.2%) and impulse by 3.7?±?1.3 kN·s-1 (13.9%) following ?-alanine supplementation. These changes were significantly greater than those in the placebo group (IKET: t(11)?=?2.9, p ?0.05; impulse: t(11)?=?3.1, p???0.05). There were no significant changes in MVIC force in either group. Conclusion Four weeks of ?-alanine supplementation at 6.4?g·d-1 improved endurance capacity of the knee extensors at 45% MVIC, which most likely results from improved pH regulation within the muscle cell as a result of elevated muscle carnosine levels. PMID:22697405

  5. Beta-methylamino-alanine (BMAA) injures hippocampal neurons in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric J. Buenz; Charles L. Howe

    2007-01-01

    The unusually high incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis\\/Parkinson–dementia complex (ALS\\/PDC) among the Chamorro people of Guam has fueled an intense search for the etiologic agent responsible for this neurodegenerative disease. Recently, a biomagnification hypothesis was proposed to account for the role of dietary consumption of ?-methylamino-alanine (BMAA) in patients with ALS\\/PDC. However, this hypothesis is hotly debated and a direct

  6. Enzyme activities in plasma, liver and kidney of black ducks and mallards.

    PubMed

    Franson, J C

    1982-10-01

    Activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured in plasma, liver, and kidney, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) was measured in liver and kidney of black ducks (Anas rubripes). Activities of ALT, AST, GGT, and ornithine carbamyl transferase (OCT) were assayed in plasma, liver, and kidney of game-farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Appreciable OCT and AST activity occurred in both liver and kidney. Activities of ALT, CPK, ALP and GGT were higher in kidney, while LDH was higher in liver, GGT was detected in plasma from one of four mallards. PMID:6130168

  7. Enzyme activities in plasma, liver, and kidney of black ducks and mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    Activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured in plasma, liver, and kidney, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) was measured in liver and kidney of black ducks (Anas rubripes). Activities of ALT, AST, GGT, and ornithine carbamyl transferase (OCT) were assayed in plasma, liver, and kidney of game-farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Appreciable OCT and AST activity occurred in both liver and kidney. Activities of ALT, CPK, ALP and GGT were higher in kidney, while LDH was higher in liver, GGT was detected in plasma from one of four mallards.

  8. Pearson disease in an infant presenting with severe hypoplastic anemia, normal pancreatic function, and progressive liver failure.

    PubMed

    Shapira, Adi; Konopnicki, Muriel; Hammad-Saied, Mohammed; Shabad, Evelyn

    2014-07-01

    Pearson disease is a rare, usually fatal, mitochondrial disorder affecting primarily the bone marrow and the exocrine pancreas. We report a previously healthy 10-week-old girl who presented with profound macrocytic anemia followed by pancytopenia, synthetic liver dysfunction with liver steatosis, and metabolic acidosis with high lactate levels. She had no pancreatic involvement. Multiple cytoplasmic vacuoles in myelocytes and monocytes were seen upon microscopic evaluation of the bone marrow. Genetic analysis of the mitochondrial genome revealed a 5 kbp deletion, thus establishing the diagnosis of Pearson disease. PMID:23588341

  9. Changes in liver gluconeogenesis during the development of Walker-256 tumour in rats

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Carolina Campos Lima; Cassolla, Priscila; Dornellas, Ana Paula Segantini; Morais, Hely; Souza, Camila Oliveira; Borba-Murad, Glaucia Regina; Bazotte, Roberto Barbosa; Souza, Helenir Medri

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have investigated liver gluconeogenesis in cancer and there is no agreement as to whether the activity of this pathway is increased or decreased in this disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate gluconeogenesis from alanine, pyruvate and glycerol, and related metabolic parameters in perfused liver from Walker-256 tumour-bearing rats on days 5 (WK5 group), 8 (WK8 group) and 12 (WK12 group) of tumour development. There was reduction (P < 0.05) of liver glucose production from alanine and pyruvate in WK5, WK8 and WK12 groups, which was accompanied by a decrease (P < 0.05) in oxygen consumption. Moreover, there was higher (P < 0.05) pyruvate and lactate production from alanine in the WK5 group and a marked reduction (P < 0.05) of pyruvate and urea production from alanine in the WK12 group. In addition, liver glucose production and oxygen consumption from glycerol were not reduced in WK5, WK8 and WK12 groups. Thus the, the results show inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis from alanine and pyruvate, but not from glycerol, on days 5, 8 and 12 of Walker-256 tumour development, which can be attributed to the metabolic step in which the substrate enters the gluconeogenic pathway. PMID:23317353

  10. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell therapy for decompensated liver cirrhosis: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xing-Nan; Zheng, Lian-Qiu; Lai, Xiao-Huan

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (BM-MSC) in the treatment of decompensated liver cirrhosis. METHODS: The search terms “bone marrow stem cell” “chronic liver disease” “transfusion” and “injection” were used in the Cochrane Library, Med-Line (Pub-Med) and Embase without any limitations with respect to publication date or language. Journals were also hand-searched and experts in the field were contacted. The studies which used BM-MSC in the treatment of any chronic liver disease were included. Comprehensive Review Manager and Meta-Analyst software were used for statistical analysis. Publication bias was evaluated using Begg’s test. RESULTS: Out of 78 studies identified, five studies were included in the final analysis. The studies were conducted in China, Iran, Egypt and Brazil. Analysis of pooled data of two controlled studies by Review Manager showed that the mean decline in scores for the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) was -1.23 [95%CI: -2.45-(-0.01)], -1.87 [95%CI: -3.16-(-0.58)], -2.01 [95%CI: -3.35-(-0.68)] at 2, 4 and 24 wk, respectively after transfusion. Meta-analysis of the 5 studies showed that the mean improvement in albumin levels was -0.28, 2.60, 5.28, 4.39 g/L at the end of 8, 16, 24, and 48 wk, respectively, after transfusion. MELD scores, alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin levels and prothrombin times improved to some extent. BM-MSC injections resulted in no serious adverse events or complications. CONCLUSION: BM-MSC infusion in the treatment of decompensated liver cirrhosis improved liver function. At the end of year 1, there were no serious side effects or complications. PMID:25320545

  11. Diet and Your Liver

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Liver How can alcohol and medicine affect the liver? Alcohol Alcohol can damage or destroy liver cells. ... Liver Foundation www.liverfoundation.org 1-800-GO-LIVER © 2009 American Liver Foundation. All rights reserved. Increasing ...

  12. Peripheral vein infusion of autologous mesenchymal stem cells in Egyptian HCV-positive patients with end-stage liver disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We have assessed the utility of autologous mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) peripheral vein infusion as a possible therapeutic modality for patients with end-stage liver diseases. Methods Forty patients with post-hepatitis C virus (HCV) end-stage liver disease were randomized into two groups: Group 1 (GI): 20 patients who received granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) for 5 days followed by autologous MSCs peripheral-vein infusion and group 2 (GII): 20 patients who received regular liver-supportive treatment only (control group). Results In MSC-infused patients (GI), 54% showed near normalization of liver enzymes and improvement in liver synthetic function. Significant changes were reported in albumin (P?=?0.000), bilirubin (P?=?0.002), increased international normalized ratio (INR) (P?=?0.017), prothrombin concentration (P?=?0.029) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels (P?=?0.029), with stabilization of clinical and biochemical status in 13% of cases. None of the patients in GII showed any significant improvement. Hepatic fibrosis was assessed in GI by detection of procollagen IIIC peptide level (PIIICP) and procollagen III N peptide level (PIIINP). The pretreatment values of s-PIIICP and s-PIIINP were 9.4?±?4.2 and 440?±?189, respectively, with a decrease to 8.1?±?2.6 and 388?±?102, respectively, 3 months after MSC therapy. However, the difference was statistically nonsignificant (P?=?0.7). A significant correlation coefficient was reported after 3 months between the s-PIIINP and prothrombin concentration (P?=?-0.5) and between s-PIIICP and ascites (P?=?0.550). Conclusions First, autologous MSC infusion into a peripheral vein is as effective as the previously reported intrahepatic infusion. Second, MSCs have a supportive role in the treatment of end-stage liver disease, with satisfactory tolerability and beneficial effects on liver synthetic functions and hepatic fibrosis. Third, IV infusion of MSCs after G-CSF mobilization improves s-albumin within the first 2 weeks and prothrombin concentration and alanine Taransaminase after 1 month. According to the data from this current study and those previously reported by our group, we recommend further studies on patients’ infusion with pure CD133 and CD34 followed by IV infusion of in vitro-differentiated MSCs within 1 week and another infusion after 3 months. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01729221. Registered 17 November 2012. PMID:24886681

  13. Infiltrating monocyte-derived macrophages and resident kupffer cells display different ontogeny and functions in acute liver injury.

    PubMed

    Zigmond, Ehud; Samia-Grinberg, Shany; Pasmanik-Chor, Metsada; Brazowski, Eli; Shibolet, Oren; Halpern, Zamir; Varol, Chen

    2014-07-01

    The liver has a remarkable capacity to regenerate after injury; yet, the role of macrophages (MF) in this process remains controversial mainly due to difficulties in distinguishing between different MF subsets. In this study, we used a murine model of acute liver injury induced by overdose of N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (APAP) and defined three distinct MF subsets that populate the liver following injury. Accordingly, resident Kupffer cells (KC) were significantly reduced upon APAP challenge and started recovering by self-renewal at resolution phase without contribution of circulating Ly6C(hi) monocytes. The latter were recruited in a CCR2- and M-CSF-mediated pathway at the necroinflammatory phase and differentiated into ephemeral Ly6C(lo) MF subset at resolution phase. Moreover, their inducible ablation resulted in impaired recovery. Microarray-based molecular profiling uncovered high similarity between steady-state KC and those recovered at the resolution phase. In contrast, KC and monocyte-derived MF displayed distinct prorestorative genetic signature at the resolution phase. Finally, we show that infiltrating monocytes acquire a prorestorative polarization manifested by unique expression of proangiogenesis mediators and genes involved with inhibition of neutrophil activity and recruitment and promotion of their clearance. Collectively, our results present a novel phenotypic, ontogenic, and molecular definition of liver-MF compartment following acute injury. PMID:24890723

  14. Diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Torruellas, Cara; French, Samuel W; Medici, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a hepatotoxin that is commonly consumed worldwide and is associated with a spectrum of liver injury including simple steatosis or fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a general term used to refer to this spectrum of alcohol-related liver injuries. Excessive or harmful alcohol use is ranked as one of the top five risk factors for death and disability globally and results in 2.5 million deaths and 69.4 million annual disability adjusted life years. All patients who present with clinical features of hepatitis or chronic liver disease or who have elevated serum elevated transaminase levels should be screened for an alcohol use disorder. The diagnosis of ALD can generally be made based on history, clinical and laboratory findings. However, the diagnosis of ALD can be clinically challenging as there is no single diagnostic test that confirms the diagnosis and patients may not be forthcoming about their degree of alcohol consumption. In addition, clinical findings may be absent or minimal in early ALD characterized by hepatic steatosis. Typical laboratory findings in ALD include transaminase levels with aspartate aminotransferase greater than alanine aminotransferase as well as increased mean corpuscular volume, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, and IgA to IgG ratio. In unclear cases, the diagnosis can be supported by imaging and liver biopsy. The histological features of ALD can ultimately define the diagnosis according to the typical presence and distribution of hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and Mallory-Denk bodies. Because of the potential reversible nature of ALD with sobriety, regular screening of the general population and early diagnosis are essential. PMID:25206273

  15. Liver Facts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Player. Common Diseases That May Lead to Transplantation Primary sclerosing cholangitis Acute hepatic necrosis Cirrhosis Metabolic diseases Portal hypertension Hepatitis (viral, autoimmune and idiopapathic) Liver tumors Biliary ...

  16. Pomegranate peel extract prevents liver fibrosis in biliary-obstructed rats.

    PubMed

    Toklu, Hale Z; Dumlu, Melek U; Sehirli, Ozer; Ercan, Feriha; Gedik, Nursal; Gökmen, Vural; Sener, Goksel

    2007-09-01

    Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) is a widely used plant that has high nutritional value. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chronic administration of pomegranate peel extract (PPE) on liver fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation (BDL) in rats. PPE (50 mg kg(-1)) or saline was administered orally for 28 days. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were determined to assess liver function and tissue damage. Proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin 1 beta) in the serum and antioxidant capacity (AOC) were measured in plasma samples. Samples of liver tissue were taken for measurement of hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and collagen content. Production of reactive oxidants was monitored by chemiluminescence assay. Serum AST, ALT, LDH and cytokines were elevated in the BDL group compared with the control group; this increase was significantly decreased by PPE treatment. Plasma AOC and hepatic GSH levels were significantly depressed by BDL but were increased back to control levels in the PPE-treated BDL group. Increases in tissue MDA levels and MPO activity due to BDL were reduced back to control levels by PPE treatment. Similarly, increased hepatic collagen content in the BDL rats was reduced to the level of the control group with PPE treatment. Thus, chronic PPE administration alleviated the BDL-induced oxidative injury of the liver and improved the hepatic structure and function. It therefore seems likely that PPE, with its antioxidant and antifibrotic properties, may be of potential therapeutic value in protecting the liver from fibrosis and oxidative injury due to biliary obstruction. PMID:17939210

  17. Simultaneous determination of glucose turnover, alanine turnover, and gluconeogenesis in human using a double stable-isotope-labeled tracer infusion and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Martineau, A.; Lecavalier, L.; Falardeau, P.; Chiasson, J.L.

    1985-12-01

    We have developed and validated a new method to measure simultaneously glucose turnover, alanine turnover, and gluconeogenesis in human, in steady and non-steady states, using a double stable-isotope-labeled tracer infusion and GC-MS analysis. The method is based on the concomitant infusion and dilution of D-(2,3,4,6,6-2H5)glucose and L-(1,2,3-13C3)alanine. The choice of the tracers was done on the basis of a minimal overlap between the ions of interest and those arising from natural isotopic abundances. Alanine was chosen as the gluconeogenic substrate because it is the major gluconeogenic amino acid extracted by the liver and, with lactate, constitutes the bulk of the gluconeogenic precursors. The method was validated by comparing the results obtained during simultaneous infusion of trace amounts of both stable isotope labeled compounds with the radioactive tracers (D-(3-3H)glucose and L-(1,2,3-14C3)alanine) in a normal and a diabetic subject; the radiolabeled tracers were used as the accepted reference procedure. A slight overestimation of glucose turnover (7.3 versus 6.8 in normal and 10.8 versus 9.2 mumol/kg min in diabetic subject) was noticed when the stable isotope-labeled tracers were used. For the basal turnover rate of alanine, similar values were obtained with both methods (6.2 mumol/kg min). For gluconeogenesis, higher values were observed in the basal state with the stable isotopes (0.42 versus 0.21 mumol/kg min); however, these differences disappeared in the postprandial period after the ingestion of a mixed meal. Despite those minor differences, the overall correlation with the reference method was excellent for glucose turnover (r = 0.87) and gluconeogenesis (r = 0.86).

  18. Predictors and effects of alcohol use on liver function among young HCV-infected injection drug users in a behavioral intervention

    PubMed Central

    Drumright, Lydia N.; Hagan, Holly; Thomas, David L.; Latka, Mary H.; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Garfein, Richard S.; Clapp, John D.; Campbell, Jennifer V.; Bonner, Sebastian; Kapadia, Farzana; Thiel, Thelma King; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims Hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening can provide opportunities to reduce disease progression through counseling against alcohol use, but empirical data on this issue are sparse. We determined the efficacy of a behavioral intervention in reducing alcohol use among young, HCV-infected injection drug users (IDUs) (n=355) and assessed whether changes in liver enzymes were associated with changes in alcohol consumption. Methods Both the intervention and attention-control groups were counseled to avoid alcohol use, but the intervention group received enhanced counseling. Logistic regression, ANOVA, and continuous time Markov models were used to identify factors associated with alcohol use, changes in mean ALT and AST levels and change in alcohol use post-intervention. Results Six months post-intervention, alcohol abstinence increased 22.7% in both groups, with no difference by intervention arm. Transition from alcohol use to abstinence was associated with a decrease in liver enzymes, with a marginally greater decrease in the intervention group (p=0.05 for ALT; p=0.06 for AST). In multivariate Markov models, those who used marijuana transitioned from alcohol abstinence to consumption more rapidly than non-users (RR=3.11); those who were homeless transitioned more slowly to alcohol abstinence (RR=0.47); and those who had ever received a clinical diagnosis of liver disease transitioned more rapidly to abstinence (RR=1.88). Conclusions Although, behavioral counseling to reduce alcohol consumption among HCV-infected IDUs had a modest effect, reductions in alcohol consumption were associated with marked improvements in liver function. Interventions to reduce alcohol use among HCV-infected IDUs may benefit from being integrated into clinical care and monitoring of HCV infection. PMID:21145862

  19. The prognostic value of functional and anatomical parameters for the selection of patients receiving yttrium-90 microspheres for the treatment of liver cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesoloras, Geraldine

    Yttrium-90 (90Y) microsphere therapy is being utilized as a treatment option for patients with primary and metastatic liver cancer due to its ability to target tumors within the liver. The success of this treatment is dependent on many factors, including the extent and type of disease and the nature of prior treatments received. Metabolic activity, as determined by PET imaging, may correlate with the number of viable cancer cells and reflect changes in viable cancer cell volume. However, contouring of PET images by hand is labor intensive and introduces an element of irreproducibility into the determination of functional target/tumor volume (FTV). A computer-assisted method to aid in the automatic contouring of FTV has the potential to substantially improve treatment individualization and outcome assessment. Commercial software to determine FTV in FDG-avid primary and metastatic liver tumors has been evaluated and optimized. Volumes determined using the automated technique were compared to those from manually drawn contours identified using the same cutoff in the standard uptake value (SUV). The reproducibility of FTV is improved through the introduction of an optimal threshold value determined from phantom experiments. Application of the optimal threshold value from the phantom experiments to patient scans was in good agreement with hand-drawn determinations of the FTV. It is concluded that computer-assisted contouring of the FTV for primary and metastatic liver tumors improves reproducibility and increases accuracy, especially when combined with the selection of an optimal SUV threshold determined from phantom experiments. A method to link the pre-treatment assessment of functional (PET based) and anatomical (CT based) parameters to post-treatment survival and time to progression was evaluated in 22 patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases treated using 90Y microspheres and chemotherapy. The values for pre-treatment parameters that were the best predictors of response were determined for FTV, anatomical tumor volume, total lesion glycolysis, and the tumor marker, CEA. Of the parameters considered, the best predictors of response were found to be pre-treatment FTV ?153 cm3, ATV ?163 cm3, TLG ?144 g in the chemo-SIRT treated field, and CEA ?11.6 ng/mL.

  20. Artificial liver support devices for fulminant liver failure.

    PubMed

    Sechser, A; Osorio, J; Freise, C; Osorio, R W

    2001-05-01

    Artificial liver-support devices attempt to bridge patients with fulminant hepatic failure until either a suitable liver allograft is obtained for transplantation or the patient's own liver regenerates sufficiently to resume normal function. It is thought that toxins contribute to the clinical picture of fulminant hepatic failure. The earliest reports of successful toxin removal were blood- and plasma-exchange transfusions. Given these successful case reports, mechanical liver-support devices were designed to filter toxins. These mechanical devices used hemodialysis, charcoal hemoperfusion, hemoperfusion through cation-exchange resins, hemodiabsorption, and combinations of all of these techniques as in the MARS liver-support device. Despite promising case reports and small series, no controlled studies of mechanical devices have ever showed a long-term survival benefit. Thus, the removal of presumed toxins seems to be insufficient to support patients with fulminant hepatic failure, and the biologic function of the liver must also be replaced. Attempts at replacing the biologic function have included extracorporeal liver perfusion, cross-circulation, and hepatocyte transplantation. Current technologies have combined mechanical and biologic support systems in hybrid liver-support devices. The mechanical component of these hybrid devices serves both to remove toxins and to create a barrier between the patient's serum and the biologic component of the liver-support device. The biologic component of these hybrid liver support devices may consist of liver slices, granulated liver, or hepatocytes from low-grade tumor cells or porcine hepatocytes. These biologic components are housed within bioreactors. Currently the most clinically studied bioreactors are those that use capillary hollow-fiber systems. Both the bioartificial liver by Demetrious and the extracorporeal liver-assist device by Sussman and Kelly are in clinical trials. Although the trials seemed to have yielded good survival data when the devices are used as a bridge to transplantation, the type and degree of liver support provided by these devices remains uncertain. Thus, despite decades of great progress in the field of artificial liver support, no one technique alone yet provides sufficient liver support. A hybrid system seems to be the best option at present. Still to be determined is the best tissue to use, how much liver tissue should be used, and the optimal design of the bioreactor. PMID:11385970

  1. Tandem analysis of transcriptome and proteome changes after a single dose of corticosteroid: a systems approach to liver function in pharmacogenomics.

    PubMed

    Kamisoglu, Kubra; Sukumaran, Siddharth; Nouri-Nigjeh, Eslam; Tu, Chengjian; Li, Jun; Shen, Xiaomeng; Duan, Xiaotao; Qu, Jun; Almon, Richard R; DuBois, Debra C; Jusko, William J; Androulakis, Ioannis P

    2015-02-01

    Corticosteroids (CS) such as methylprednisolone (MPL) affect almost all liver functions through multiple mechanisms of action, and long-term use results in dysregulation causing diverse side effects. The complexity of involved molecular mechanisms necessitates a systems approach. Integration of information from the transcriptomic and proteomic responses has potential to provide deeper insights into CS actions. The present report describes the tandem analysis of rich time-series transcriptomic and proteomic data in rat liver after a single dose of MPL. Hierarchical clustering of the common genes represented in both mRNA and protein datasets displayed two dominant patterns. One of these patterns exhibited complementary mRNA and protein expression profiles indicating that MPL affected the regulation of these genes at the transcriptional level. Some of the classic pharmacodynamic markers for CS actions, including tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT), were among this group, together with genes encoding urea cycle enzymes and ribosomal proteins. The other pattern was rather unexpected. For this group of genes, MPL had distinctly observable effects at the protein expression level, although a change in the reverse direction occurred at the transcriptional level. These genes were functionally associated with metabolic processes that might be essential to elucidate side effects of MPL on liver, most importantly including modulation of oxidative stress, fatty acid oxidation, and bile acid biosynthesis. Furthermore, profiling of gene and protein expression data was also done independently of one another by a two-way sequential approach. Prominent temporal shifts in expression and relevant cellular functions were described together with the assessment of changes in the complementary side. PMID:25611119

  2. Application of liver stem cells for cell therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malcolm R. Alison; Cleo Choong; Susan Lim

    2007-01-01

    The worldwide shortage of donor livers to transplant end stage liver disease patients has prompted the search for alternative cell therapies for intractable liver disease. Embryonic stem cells can be readily differentiated into hepatocytes, and their transplantation into animals has improved liver function in the absence of teratoma formation: their use in bioartificial liver support is an obvious application. In

  3. A comparative integrated transcript analysis and functional characterization of differential mechanisms for induction of liver hypertrophy in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Boitier, Eric, E-mail: eric.boitier@sanofi-aventis.com [sanofi aventis R and D, Disposition, Safety and Animal Research, Vitry sur Seine (France); Amberg, Alexander [sanofi aventis R and D, Disposition, Safety and Animal Research, Frankfurt (Germany); Barbie, Valerie [Merck Serono S.A., Stratified Medicine, Geneva (Switzerland); Blichenberg, Arne [Nycomed GmbH, Institute for Pharmacology and Preclinical Drug Safety, Barsbuettel (Germany); Brandenburg, Arnd; Gmuender, Hans [Genedata AG, Basel (Switzerland); Gruhler, Albrecht [Novo Nordisk A/S, Protein Science, Malov (Denmark); McCarthy, Diane [Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA (United States); Meyer, Kirstin; Riefke, Bjoern; Raschke, Marian [Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Investigational Toxicology, Berlin (Germany); Schoonen, Willem [MSD, Toxicology and Drug Disposition, Oss (Netherlands); Sieber, Maximilian [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Institut fuer Toxikologie, Wuerzburg (Germany); Suter, Laura [Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., Investigative Toxicology, Basel (Switzerland); Thomas, Craig E. [Eli Lilly and Company, Investigative Toxicology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Sajot, Nicolas [Servier, Drug Safety Assessment, Orleans-Gidy (France)

    2011-04-15

    The main goal of the present work was to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying liver hypertrophy (LH), a recurrent finding observed following acute or repeated drug administration to animals, using transcriptomic technologies together with the results from conventional toxicology methods. Administration of 5 terminated proprietary drug candidates from participating companies involved in the EU Innomed PredTox Project or the reference hepatotoxicant troglitazone to rats for up to a 14-day duration induced LH as the main liver phenotypic toxicity outcome. The integrated analysis of transcriptomic liver expression data across studies turned out to be the most informative approach for the generation of mechanistic models of LH. In response to a xenobiotic stimulus, a marked increase in the expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XME) was observed in a subset of 4 studies. Accumulation of these newly-synthesized proteins within the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) would suggest proliferation of this organelle, which most likely is the main molecular process underlying the LH observed in XME studies. In another subset of 2 studies (including troglitazone), a marked up-regulation of genes involved in peroxisomal fatty acid {beta}-oxidation was noted, associated with induction of genes involved in peroxisome proliferation. Therefore, an increase in peroxisome abundance would be the main mechanism underlying LH noted in this second study subset. Together, the use of transcript profiling provides a means to generate putative mechanistic models underlying the pathogenesis of liver hypertrophy, to distinguish between subtle variations in subcellular organelle proliferation and creates opportunities for improved mechanism-based risk assessment.

  4. Misregulation of PPAR Functioning and Its Pathogenic Consequences Associated with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Human Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Videla, Luis A.; Pettinelli, Paulina

    2012-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in human obesity is characterized by the multifactorial nature of the underlying pathogenic mechanisms, which include misregulation of PPARs signaling. Liver PPAR-? downregulation with parallel PPAR-? and SREBP-1c up-regulation may trigger major metabolic disturbances between de novo lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation favouring the former, in association with the onset of steatosis in obesity-induced oxidative stress and related long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid n-3 (LCPUFA n-3) depletion, insulin resistance, hypoadiponectinemia, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Considering that antisteatotic strategies targeting PPAR-? revealed that fibrates have poor effectiveness, thiazolidinediones have weight gain limitations, and dual PPAR-?/? agonists have safety concerns, supplementation with LCPUFA n-3 appears as a promising alternative, which achieves both significant reduction in liver steatosis scores and a positive anti-inflammatory outcome. This latter aspect is of importance as PPAR-? downregulation associated with LCPUFA n-3 depletion may play a role in increasing the DNA binding capacity of proinflammatory factors, NF-?B and AP-1, thus constituting one of the major mechanisms for the progression of steatosis to steatohepatitis. PMID:23304111

  5. Ergogenic Effects of ?-Alanine and Carnosine: Proposed Future Research to Quantify Their Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, John; Charles, Jessica; Unruh, Kayla; Giebel, Rachel; Learmonth, Lexis; Potter, William

    2012-01-01

    ?-alanine is an amino acid that, when combined with histidine, forms the dipeptide carnosine within skeletal muscle. Carnosine and ?-alanine each have multiple purposes within the human body; this review focuses on their roles as ergogenic aids to exercise performance and suggests how to best quantify the former’s merits as a buffer. Carnosine normally makes a small contribution to a cell’s total buffer capacity; yet ?-alanine supplementation raises intracellular carnosine concentrations that in turn improve a muscle’s ability to buffer protons. Numerous studies assessed the impact of oral ?-alanine intake on muscle carnosine levels and exercise performance. ?-alanine may best act as an ergogenic aid when metabolic acidosis is the primary factor for compromised exercise performance. Blood lactate kinetics, whereby the concentration of the metabolite is measured as it enters and leaves the vasculature over time, affords the best opportunity to assess the merits of ?-alanine supplementation’s ergogenic effect. Optimal ?-alanine dosages have not been determined for persons of different ages, genders and nutritional/health conditions. Doses as high as 6.4 g day?1, for ten weeks have been administered to healthy subjects. Paraesthesia is to date the only side effect from oral ?-alanine ingestion. The severity and duration of paraesthesia episodes are dose-dependent. It may be unwise for persons with a history of paraesthesia to ingest ?-alanine. As for any supplement, caution should be exercised with ?-alanine supplementation. PMID:22852051

  6. Liver spots

    MedlinePLUS

    Sun-induced skin changes - liver spots; Senile or solar lentigines; Skin spots - aging; Age spots ... Liver spots are changes in skin color that occur in older skin. The increased color may be due to aging, exposure to the sun or other sources ...

  7. Precision and sensitivity of the measurement of 15N enrichment in D-alanine from bacterial cell walls using positive/negative ion mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tunlid, A.; Odham, G.; Findlay, R. H.; White, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Sensitive detection of cellular components from specific groups of microbes can be utilized as 'signatures' in the examination of microbial consortia from soils, sediments or biofilms. Utilizing capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and stereospecific derivatizing agents, D-alanine, a component localized in the prokaryotic (bacterial) cell wall, can be detected reproducibly. Enrichments of D-[15N]alanine determined in E. coli grown with [15N]ammonia can be determined with precision at 1.0 atom%. Chemical ionization with methane gas and the detection of negative ions (M - HF)- and (M - F or M + H - HF)- formed from the heptafluorobutyryl D-2 butanol ester of D-alanine allowed as little as 8 pg (90 fmol) to be detected reproducibly. This method can be utilized to define the metabolic activity in terms of 15N incorporation at the level of 10(3)-10(4) cells, as a function of the 15N-14N ratio.

  8. Radiation-Associated Liver Injury

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Charlie C., E-mail: cpan@umich.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kavanagh, Brian D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO (United States); Dawson, Laura A. [Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Li, X. Allen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Das, Shiva K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Miften, Moyed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO (United States); Ten Haken, Randall K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2010-03-01

    The liver is a critically important organ that has numerous functions including the production of bile, metabolism of ingested nutrients, elimination of many waste products, glycogen storage, and plasma protein synthesis. The liver is often incidentally irradiated during radiation therapy (RT) for tumors in the upper- abdomen, right lower lung, distal esophagus, or during whole abdomen or whole body RT. This article describes the endpoints, time-course, and dose-volume effect of radiation on the liver.

  9. Radiation-Associated Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Charlie C; Kavanagh, Brian D; Dawson, Laura A.; Li, X. Allen; Das, Shiva K; Miften, Moyed; Haken, Randall K Ten

    2015-01-01

    The liver is a critically important organ that has numerous functions including the production of bile, metabolism of ingested nutrients, elimination of many waste products, glycogen storage, and plasma protein synthesis. The liver is often incidentally irradiated during radiation therapy (RT) for tumors in the upper- abdomen, right lower lung, distal esophagus, or during whole abdomen or whole body RT. This article describes the endpoints, time-course, and dose-volume effect of radiation on the liver. PMID:20171524

  10. Liver status in congenital, untreated, isolated GH deficiency.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Rachel D C A; Souza, Renata M; Salvatori, Roberto; Franca, Alex; Gomes-Santos, Elenilde; Ferrão, Thiago O; Oliveira, Carla R P; Santana, João A M; Pereira, Francisco A; Barbosa, Rita A A; Souza, Anita H O; Pereira, Rossana M C; Oliveira-Santos, Alécia A; Silva, Allysson M P; Santana-Júnior, Francisco J; Valença, Eugênia H O; Campos, Viviane C; Aguiar-Oliveira, Manuel H

    2014-09-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is known to be associated with insulin resistance, atherosclerosis, and low serum IGF1 levels. We have described a large cohort of patients with isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) due to the c.57+1G?A mutation in the GHRH receptor gene. These subjects have increased insulin sensitivity (IS), delayed atherosclerosis, and normal longevity. We hypothesized that, despite visceral obesity, NAFLD would be absent or mild due to the increased IS. To assess the prevalence and severity of NAFLD in adult subjects with lifetime, congenital, untreated IGHD, we studied 22 IGHD adults and 25 controls (COs) matched for age and sex. NAFLD was assessed by a comprehensive liver function panel, and ultrasonographic pattern (hyperechogenic pattern, HP) coded as follows: 0, absent; 1, mild; 2, moderate; and 3, severe. Compared with COs, IGHD individual had lower serum IGF1 (P<0.0001), higher total cholesterol (P=0.027), lower prothrombin time (P=0.017), and similar activated partial thromboplastin time and fibrinogen values. Alanine transaminase (ALT) values were similar in the two groups, but aspartate transaminase was higher in IGHD (P=0.013). However, more IGHD subjects (7/22) than COs (3/23) had ALT above the upper limit of normal (P=0.044). The prevalence of NAFLD was higher in IGHD than COs (61 vs 29%, P=0.032), and the HP score was higher in IGHD than COs (P=0.041), but severe NAFLD was not observed in any IGHD (or CO) individual. Liver HP score is increased in lifetime, untreated, congenital IGHD, but the increase in transaminases is mild, suggesting a lack of advanced forms of NAFLD. PMID:25117570

  11. Liver status in congenital, untreated, isolated GH deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Diniz, Rachel D C A; Souza, Renata M; Salvatori, Roberto; Franca, Alex; Gomes-Santos, Elenilde; Ferrão, Thiago O; Oliveira, Carla R P; Santana, João A M; Pereira, Francisco A; Barbosa, Rita A A; Souza, Anita H O; Pereira, Rossana M C; Oliveira-Santos, Alécia A; Silva, Allysson M P; Santana-Júnior, Francisco J; Valença, Eugênia H O; Campos, Viviane C; Aguiar-Oliveira, Manuel H

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is known to be associated with insulin resistance, atherosclerosis, and low serum IGF1 levels. We have described a large cohort of patients with isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) due to the c.57+1G?A mutation in the GHRH receptor gene. These subjects have increased insulin sensitivity (IS), delayed atherosclerosis, and normal longevity. We hypothesized that, despite visceral obesity, NAFLD would be absent or mild due to the increased IS. To assess the prevalence and severity of NAFLD in adult subjects with lifetime, congenital, untreated IGHD, we studied 22 IGHD adults and 25 controls (COs) matched for age and sex. NAFLD was assessed by a comprehensive liver function panel, and ultrasonographic pattern (hyperechogenic pattern, HP) coded as follows: 0, absent; 1, mild; 2, moderate; and 3, severe. Compared with COs, IGHD individual had lower serum IGF1 (P<0.0001), higher total cholesterol (P=0.027), lower prothrombin time (P=0.017), and similar activated partial thromboplastin time and fibrinogen values. Alanine transaminase (ALT) values were similar in the two groups, but aspartate transaminase was higher in IGHD (P=0.013). However, more IGHD subjects (7/22) than COs (3/23) had ALT above the upper limit of normal (P=0.044). The prevalence of NAFLD was higher in IGHD than COs (61 vs 29%, P=0.032), and the HP score was higher in IGHD than COs (P=0.041), but severe NAFLD was not observed in any IGHD (or CO) individual. Liver HP score is increased in lifetime, untreated, congenital IGHD, but the increase in transaminases is mild, suggesting a lack of advanced forms of NAFLD. PMID:25117570

  12. Liver tumours.

    PubMed

    Anthony, P P

    1988-04-01

    Humans are remarkably resistant to many carcinogens that readily produce liver tumours in rodents, particularly the rat. The neoplastic process has been extensively studied in animal experiments, but little is known so far of how it evolves in humans. Few drugs have been shown to cause liver tumours in humans, and the risk appears to be low. The best-known examples are C17-alkylated or ethinylated gonadal sex steroids. Oral contraceptives have now been in use by millions for thirty years, but only a few hundred cases at most of liver cell adenoma have been observed. The role of these substances in liver cell carcinoma remains controversial, and the evidence is weaker still in relation to focal nodular hyperplasia and other tumour-like conditions. Anabolic-androgenic steroids stand out as the major cause of peliosis, but liver cell tumours induced by them seem to be adenomas and not carcinomas as originally suggested. The effect that both oral contraceptives and anabolic-androgenic steroids have on liver vasculature is of great clinical importance as the most important complication of liver tumours is rupture, leading to life-threatening haemorrhage. For this reason, liver tumours arising in users of these drugs should be removed whenever feasible. Thorium dioxide will remain a risk factor for the development of angiosarcoma, liver cell carcinoma and bile duct carcinoma for some time yet, and the number of patients who have been exposed is high--tens of thousands at least. The evidence of a carcinogenic role for many other drugs is anecdotal or weak. Neoplasia in the liver seems to be the least important side-effect of drugs in clinical use. PMID:2841989

  13. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells inhibits hepatocyte apoptosis after acute liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yijing; Zou, Zhuolin; Liu, Liyuan; Chen, Si; Chen, Yi; Lin, Zhuo; Shi, Keqing; Xu, Lanman; Chen, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the protective effect of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transplantation on acute liver injury (ALI) rats. Material and Methods: BMSCs were extracted from rat bone marrow, cultured and expansion in vitro, and identified by flow cytometer. Rat model with acute liver injury was established by employing D-galactosamine and Lipopolysaccharide. Male rats were randomly divided into ALI model group and BMSCs transplantation group. Rats were sacrificed 24 h, 72 h and 120 h after BMSCs injection to determine alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in serum. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry staining and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of ?-fetoprotein (AFP) and glypican-3 (GPC3) were performed to analysis proliferation. Terminal deoxynucleontidyl Transferase Biotin-dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) assays were used to analyze apoptosis and mitochondria-dependent-pathway related factors Bax and Bcl-2 were examined by Western blot. Results: Compared with the ALI model group, the BMSCs transplantation group presented the lower levels of ALT, AST, decreased Bax proteins expression, and increased Bcl-2 expression. The mRNA levels of AFP and GPC3 and expression of PCNA were significantly higher in BMSCs transplantation group. Conclusions: BMSCs transplantation could significantly restore liver function. These effects were supposed to be mediated by suppressing hepatocyte apoptosis as well as promoting proliferation. Reduction of apoptosis seemed to correlate with mitochondria-dependent-pathway. PMID:25755697

  14. Direct and indirect effects of kisspeptin on liver oxidant and antioxidant systems in young male rats.

    PubMed

    Aydin, M; Oktar, S; Yonden, Z; Ozturk, O H; Yilmaz, B

    2010-06-01

    Kisspeptin is a recently discovered hypothalamic peptide which plays an important role in the central control of reproductive functions. We have investigated direct and indirect effects of kisspeptin on the liver oxidative stress in young male rats. Twenty-four rats were divided into four groups (n = 6/group). First group served as control and received saline. Kisspeptin-10 was administered to the animals in the second group (20 nmol/rat/day), for a period of 7 days. Rats were given only one dose gosereline (0.9 mg/rat), a GnRH agonist in the third group. The last group received kisspeptin-10 with gosereline. The activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), xanthine oxidase (XO), adenosine deaminase (AD) and level of malondialdehyde were studied in liver tissue. Serum samples were separated for total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), colesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglyceride. Kisspeptin increased the activities of SOD and catalase (p < 0.05). When compared to the control group, the levels of malondialdehyde, TOS and AST were lower, but levels of BUN, cholesterole, HDL and AD were higher in the other three groups (p < 0.05). In conclusion, our findings suggest that kisspeptin may have antioxidant and thus protective effects on the liver tissue. PMID:20517893

  15. Occult Hepatitis B Virus Among the Patients With Abnormal Alanine Transaminase

    PubMed Central

    Makvandi, Manoochehr; Neisi, Niloofar; Khalafkhany, Davod; Makvandi, Kamyar; Hajiani, Eskandar; Shayesteh, Ali Akbar; Masjedi Zadeh, Abdolrahim; Sina, Amir Hosein; Hamidifard, Mojtaba; Rasti, Mojtaba; Aryan, Ehsan; Ahmadi, Kambiz; Yad Yad, Mohammad Jafar

    2014-01-01

    Background: The occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is defined as the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in the sera or in the liver biopsy and the absence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) by serological test. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate the occult HBV infection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and determine HBV genotyping among the patients with abnormal alanine transaminase (ALT) in Ahvaz city, Iran. Patients and Methods: The sera of 120 patients, 54 (45%) females and 66 (55%) males, with abnormal ALT 40-152 IU were collected. All the patients were negative for HBsAg for more than one year. The patients` sera were tested by PCR using primers specified for the S region of HBV. Then the positive PCR products were sequenced to determine HBV genotyping and phylogenic tree. Results: Of these 120 subjects, 12 (10%) patients including 6 (5%) males and 6 (5%) females were found positive for HBV DNA by PCR, which indicated the presence of occult HBV infection among these patients. The sequencing results revealed that genotype D was predominant with sub-genotyping D1 among OBI patients. Conclusions: Occult hepatitis B infection is remarkably prevalent in Ahvaz, Iran, and should be considered as a potential risk factor for the transmission of Hepatitis B Virus throughout the community by the carriers. PMID:25485052

  16. Serum retinol binding protein 4 is negatively related to beta cell function in Chinese women with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To observe the relationship between serum retinol binding protein 4(RBP4) and ? cell function in Chinese subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and without known diabetes. Methods 106 patients diagnosed as fatty liver by ultrasonography (M/F: 61/45; aged 47.44?±?14.16 years) were enrolled in our current cross-sectional study. Subjects with known diabetes, chronic virus hepatitis and excessive alcohol consumption were excluded. Serum RBP4 was detected by ELISA and validated by quantitative Western blotting. ? cell function were assessed by HOMA in all subjects and by hyperglycemic clamp in 17 normal glucose tolerance subjects (M?=?6, F?=?11). Results The levels of serum RBP4 in men were higher than that in women (55.96?±?11.14 vs 45.87?±?10.31 ?g/ml, p?liver and adipose tissue, may involve in the pathogenesis of ? cell dysfunction in Chinese women patients with NAFLD. PMID:24160775

  17. Serum gamma glutamyl transferase and alanine transaminase concentrations predict endothelial dysfunction in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Arinc, Huseyin; Baktir, Ahmet Oguz; Saglam, Hayrettin; Demirci, Erkan; Dogan, Yasemin; Kurtul, Serkan; Karaman, Hatice; Erden, Abdulsamet; Karaman, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We aimed to investigate the presence of endothelial dysfunction and whether serum concentrations of liver enzymes may reflect the severity of such an endothelial dysfunction in patients with NASH. Methods. Fifty patients with NASH diagnosed by liver biopsies and 30 healthy controls were included. Blood samples after fasting were harvested for measurements of glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglyceride, and liver enzymes. All patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography and brachial and carotid artery Doppler ultrasonography to evaluate flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT). Results. Patients with NASH had impaired FMD (4.9 ± 2.8% to 9.3 ± 4.4%, P < 0.001) and higher CIMT (0.79 ± 0.16 mm to 0.64 ± 0.11 mm, P < 0.001) when compared with healthy controls. Linear regression analyses revealed that serum concentrations of gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were associated with FMD and CIMT. Conclusions. Patients with NASH have impaired FMD and increased CIMT when compared with healthy controls. In patients with NASH, serum concentrations of GGT and ALT might have a predictive value for FMD and CIMT. PMID:23829707

  18. Population-based Risk Factors for Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase in a South Texas Mexican–American Population

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Hui-Qi; Li, Quan; Grove, Megan L.; Lu, Yang; Pan, Jen-Jung; Rentfro, Anne R.; Bickel, Perry E.; Fallon, Michael B.; Hanis, Craig L.; Boerwinkle, Eric; McCormick, Joseph B.; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT >40 IU/mL) is a marker of liver injury but provides little insight into etiology. We aimed to identify and stratify risk factors associated with elevated ALT in a randomly selected population with a high prevalence of elevated ALT (39%), obesity (49%) and diabetes (30%). Methods Two machine learning methods, the support vector machine (SVM) and Bayesian logistic regression (BLR), were used to capture risk factors in a community cohort of 1532 adults from the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort (CCHC). A total of 28 predictor variables were used in the prediction models. The recently identified genetic marker rs738409 on the PNPLA3 gene was genotyped using the Sequenom iPLEX assay. Results The four major risk factors for elevated ALT were fasting plasma insulin level and insulin resistance, increased BMI and total body weight, plasma triglycerides and non-HDL cholesterol, and diastolic hypertension. In spite of the highly significant association of rs738409 in females, the role of rs738409 in the prediction model is minimal, compared to other epidemiological risk factors. Age and drug and alcohol consumption were not independent determinants of elevated ALT in this analysis. Conclusions The risk factors most strongly associated with elevated ALT in this population are components of the metabolic syndrome and point to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This population-based model identifies the likely cause of liver disease without the requirement of individual pathological diagnosis of liver diseases. Use of such a model can greatly contribute to a population-based approach to prevention of liver disease. PMID:22959976

  19. DCE-MRI of the Liver: Reconstruction of the Arterial Input Function Using a Low Dose Pre-Bolus Contrast Injection

    PubMed Central

    Jajamovich, Guido H.; Calcagno, Claudia; Dyvorne, Hadrien A.; Rusinek, Henry; Taouli, Bachir

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess the quality of the arterial input function (AIF) reconstructed using a dedicated pre-bolus low-dose contrast material injection imaged with a high temporal resolution and the resulting estimated liver perfusion parameters. Materials and Methods In this IRB–approved prospective study, 24 DCE-MRI examinations were performed in 21 patients with liver disease (M/F 17/4, mean age 56 y). The examination consisted of 1.3 mL and 0.05 mmol/kg of gadobenate dimeglumine for pre-bolus and main bolus acquisitions, respectively. The concentration-curve of the abdominal aorta in the pre-bolus acquisition was used to reconstruct the AIF. AIF quality and shape parameters obtained with pre-bolus and main bolus acquisitions and the resulting estimated hepatic perfusion parameters obtained with a dual-input single compartment model were compared between the 2 methods. Test–retest reproducibility of perfusion parameters were assessed in three patients. Results The quality of the pre-bolus AIF curve was significantly better than that of main bolus AIF. Shape parameters peak concentration, area under the time activity curve of gadolinium contrast at 60 s and upslope of pre-bolus AIF were all significantly higher, while full width at half maximum was significantly lower than shape parameters of main bolus AIF. Improved liver perfusion parameter reproducibility was observed using pre-bolus acquisition [coefficient of variation (CV) of 4.2%–38.7% for pre-bolus vs. 12.1–71.4% for main bolus] with the exception of distribution volume (CV of 23.6% for pre-bolus vs. 15.8% for main bolus). The CVs between pre-bolus and main bolus for the perfusion parameters were lower than 14%. Conclusion The AIF reconstructed with pre-bolus low dose contrast injection displays better quality and shape parameters and enables improved liver perfusion parameter reproducibility, although the resulting liver perfusion parameters demonstrated no clinically significant differences between pre-bolus and main bolus acquisitions. PMID:25546176

  20. Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 1a1 Null Mice Are Sensitive to Cholestatic Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youcai; Csanaky, Iván L.; Cheng, Xingguo; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D.; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2012-01-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1 (Oatp1a1) is predominantly expressed in livers of mice and is thought to transport bile acids (BAs) from blood into liver. Because Oatp1a1 expression is markedly decreased in mice after bile duct ligation (BDL). We hypothesized that Oatp1a1-null mice would be protected against liver injury during BDL-induced cholestasis due largely to reduced hepatic uptake of BAs. To evaluate this hypothesis, BDL surgeries were performed in both male wild-type (WT) and Oatp1a1-null mice. At 24 h after BDL, Oatp1a1-null mice showed higher serum alanine aminotransferase levels and more severe liver injury than WT mice, and all Oatp1a1-null mice died within 4 days after BDL, whereas all WT mice survived. At 24 h after BDL, surprisingly Oatp1a1-null mice had higher total BA concentrations in livers than WT mice, suggesting that loss of Oatp1a1 did not prevent BA accumulation in the liver. In addition, secondary BAs dramatically increased in serum of Oatp1a1-null BDL mice but not in WT BDL mice. Oatp1a1-null BDL mice had similar basolateral BA uptake (Na+-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide and Oatp1b2) and BA-efflux (multidrug resistance–associated protein [Mrp]-3, Mrp4, and organic solute transporter ?/?) transporters, as well as BA-synthetic enzyme (Cyp7a1) in livers as WT BDL mice. Hepatic expression of small heterodimer partner Cyp3a11, Cyp4a14, and Nqo1, which are target genes of farnesoid X receptor, pregnane X receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, and NF-E2-related factor 2, respectively, were increased in WT BDL mice but not in Oatp1a1-null BDL mice. These results demonstrate that loss of Oatp1a1 function exacerbates cholestatic liver injury in mice and suggest that Oatp1a1 plays a unique role in liver adaptive responses to obstructive cholestasis. PMID:22461449

  1. Blocking of G1/S transition and cell death in the regenerating liver of Hepatitis B virus X protein transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, B.-K. [Faculty of Life Sciences and Institute of Genetics, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Li, C.-C. [Faculty of Life Sciences and Institute of Genetics, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, H.-J. [Division of Molecular and Genomic Medicine, National Health Research Institute, Zhunan, Taiwan (China); Chang, J.-L. [Department of Pathology, Armed Forced Taoyuan General Hospital, Taiwan (China); Jeng, K.-S. [Division of Molecular and Genomic Medicine, National Health Research Institute, Zhunan, Taiwan (China); Chou, C.-K. [Division of Molecular and Genomic Medicine, National Health Research Institute, Zhunan, Taiwan (China); Department of Life Science, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Hsu, M.-T. [Faculty of Life Sciences and Institute of Genetics, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biochemistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tsai, T.-F. [Faculty of Life Sciences and Institute of Genetics, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China) and Division of Molecular and Genomic Medicine, National Health Research Institute, Zhunan, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: tftsai@ym.edu.tw

    2006-02-17

    The Hepatitis B virus X (HBx) protein has been strongly implicated in the carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, effects of the HBx protein on cell proliferation and cell death are controversial. This study investigates the effects of the HBx protein on liver regeneration in two independent lines of HBx transgenic mice, which developed HCC at around 14 to 16 months of age. High mortality, lower liver mass restoration, and impaired liver regeneration were found in the HBx transgenic mice post-hepatectomy. The levels of alanine aminotransferase and {alpha}-fetoprotein detected post-hepatectomy increased significantly in the HBx transgenic livers, indicating that they were more susceptible to damage during the regenerative process. Prolonged activation of the immediate-early genes in the HBx transgenic livers suggested that the HBx protein creates a strong effect by promoting the transition of the quiescent hepatocytes from G0 to G1 phase. However, impaired DNA synthesis and mitosis, as well as inhibited activation of G1, S, and G2/M markers, were detected. These results indicated that HBx protein exerted strong growth arrest on hepatocytes and imbalanced cell-cycle progression resulting in the abnormal cell death; this was accompanied by severe fat accumulation and impaired glycogen storage in the HBx transgenic livers. In conclusion, this study provides First physiological evidence that HBx protein blocks G1/S transition of the hepatocyte cell-cycle progression and causes both a failure of liver functionality and cell death in the regenerating liver of the HBx transgenic mice.

  2. Delayed ethanol elimination and enhanced susceptibility to ethanol-induced hepatosteatosis after liver resection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xu; Hakucho, Ayako; Liu, Jinyao; Fujimiya, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis after liver resection and the mechanisms behind it. METHODS: First, the preliminary examination was performed on 6 sham-operated (Sham) and 30 partial hepatectomy (PH) male Wistar rats (8-wk-old) to evaluate the recovery of the liver weight and liver function after liver resection. PH rats were sacrificed at the indicated time points (4, 8, and 12 h; 1, 3, and 7 d) after PH. Second, the time point for the beginning of the chronic ethanol exposure (1 wk after sham- or PH-operation) was determined based on the results of the preliminary examination. Finally, pair-feeding was performed with a controlled diet or with a 5-g/dL ethanol liquid diet for 28 d in another 35 age-matched male Wistar rats with a one-week recovery after undergoing a sham- (n = 15) or PH-operation (n = 20) to evaluate the ethanol-induced liver injury after liver resection. Hepatic steatosis, liver function, fatty acid synthase (Fas) gene expression level, the expression of lipid metabolism-associated enzyme regulator genes [sterol regulatory element binding protein (Srebp)-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Ppar)-?], the mediators that alter lipid metabolism [plasminogen activator (Pai)-1 gene expression level and tumor necrosis factor (Tnf)-? production], and hepatic class-1 alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh1)-associated ethanol elimination were investigated in the 4 groups based on histological, immunohistochemical, biochemical, Western blotting, reverse transcriptase chain reaction, and blood ethanol concentration analyses. The relevant gene expression levels, liver weight, and liver function were assessed before and 1 wk after surgery to determine the subject’s recovery from the liver resection using the rats that had been subjected to the preliminary examination. RESULTS: In the PH rats, ethanol induced marked hepatic steatosis with impaired liver functioning, as evidenced by the accumulation of fatty droplets within the hepatocytes, the higher increases in their hepatic triglyceride and blood alanine aminotransferase and blood aspartate aminotransferase levels after the 28-d pair-feeding period. The Sham-ethanol rats, not the PH-ethanol rats, demonstrated the up-regulation of Srebp-1 and the down-regulation of Ppar-? mRNA expression levels after the 28-d pair-feeding period. The 28-d ethanol administration induced the up-regulation of Pai-1 gene expression level and an overproduction of TNF-? in the Sham and the PH rats; however, the effect was more significant in the PH rats. The PH-ethanol rats (n = 4) showed higher residual blood ethanol concentrations than did the Sham-ethanol rats (n = 6) after a 5-h fast (0.66 ± 0.4 mg/mL vs 0.2 ± 0.1 mg/mL, P < 0.05); these effects manifested without up-regulation of Adh1 gene expression, which was present in the Sham-ethanol group after the 28-d pair-feeding period. One week after the liver resection, the liver weight, function, the gene expression levels of Fas, Srebp-1, Ppar-?, Pai-1 and Tnf-? recovered; however, the Adh1 gene expression did not recover in rats. CONCLUSION: Desensitization to post-hepatectomy ethanol treatment and slow recovery from PH in Adh1 gene expression enhanced the susceptibility to ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis after PH in rats. PMID:25561792

  3. Excess rumen product anions in cattle. I. Blood clearance rates and reduced liver function from sublethal doses of volatile fatty acids, lactate and succinate.

    PubMed Central

    Bide, R W

    1983-01-01

    Blood clearance rates of volatile fatty acids, lactate and succinate were estimated in cattle following a single rapid intravenous injection of a Na-anion solution. Bromosulfophthalein was administered immediately before the anion to monitor the effects upon liver function, blood circulation, and dose equilibrium. Acetate, propionate, and valerate at doses up to 5 mmole/kg were cleared quickly from the blood by a first-order process without effects either upon the animal or bromosulfophthalein clearance. Injection of acetic acid solutions produced no effects. Butyrate was toxic at doses above 1 mmole/kg and progressively affected both the rate and progress of bromosulfophthalein clearance as the dose increased. Lactate and succinate were toxic and lethal at doses around 0.25 mmole/kg, and caused both reduced rates and altered progress of bromosulfophthalein clearance. The toxic reactions resulted in total collapse from loss of muscle tone. The butyrate and lactate effects were accentuated when the anion solutions were injected at low pH where a large portion of the anion would be unionized. Levels of butyrate, lactate and succinate in the rumens of feedlot cattle were high enough to provide toxic doses of these anions. The results are discussed in terms of the effects of excess rumen production of these anions upon the liver function and health of feedlot cattle. PMID:6883189

  4. Association of high viral load and abnormal liver function with high aflatoxin B1-albumin adduct levels in HIV-positive Ghanaians: preliminary observations.

    PubMed

    Jolly, P E; Shuaib, F M; Jiang, Y; Preko, P; Baidoo, J; Stiles, J K; Wang, J-S; Phillips, T D; Williams, J H

    2011-09-01

    We examined the association between certain clinical factors and aflatoxin B(1)-albumin adduct (AF-ALB) levels in HIV-positive people. Plasma samples collected from 314 (155 HIV-positive and 159 HIV-negative) people were tested for AF-ALB levels, viral load, CD4+ T-cell count, liver function profile, malaria parasitaemia, and hepatitis B and C virus infections. HIV-positive participants were divided into high and low groups based on their median AF-ALB of 0.93 pmol mg(-1) albumin and multivariable logistic and linear regression methods used to assess relationships between clinical conditions and AF-ALB levels. Multivariable logistic regression showed statistically significant increased odds of having higher HIV viral loads (OR=2.84; 95% CI=1.17-7.78) and higher direct bilirubin levels (OR=5.47; 95% CI=1.03-22.85) among HIV-positive participants in the high AF-ALB group. There were also higher levels of total bilirubin and lower levels of albumin in association with high AF-ALB. Thus, aflatoxin exposure may contribute to high viral loads and abnormal liver function in HIV-positive people and so promote disease progression. PMID:21749228

  5. Effects of Ergot Alkaloids on Liver Function of Piglets as Evaluated by the 13C-Methacetin and 13C-?-Ketoisocaproic Acid Breath Test

    PubMed Central

    Dänicke, Sven; Diers, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Ergot alkaloids (the sum of individual ergot alkaloids are termed as total alkaloids, TA) are produced by the fungus Claviceps purpurea, which infests cereal grains commonly used as feedstuffs. Ergot alkaloids potentially modulate microsomal and mitochondrial hepatic enzymes. Thus, the aim of the present experiment was to assess their effects on microsomal and mitochondrial liver function using the 13C-Methacetin (MC) and 13C-?-ketoisocaproic acid (KICA) breath test, respectively. Two ergot batches were mixed into piglet diets, resulting in 11 and 22 mg (Ergot 5-low and Ergot 5-high), 9 and 14 mg TA/kg (Ergot 15-low and Ergot 15-high) and compared to an ergot-free control group. Feed intake and live weight gain decreased significantly with the TA content (p < 0.001). Feeding the Ergot 5-high diet tended to decrease the 60-min-cumulative 13CO2 percentage of the dose recovery (cPDR60) by 26% and 28% in the MC and KICA breath test, respectively, compared to the control group (p = 0.065). Therefore, both microsomal and mitochondrial liver function was slightly affected by ergot alkaloids. PMID:23322130

  6. Progression of Liver Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Handouts Education Resources Support Services Helpful Links For Liver Health Information Call 1-800-GO-LIVER (1- ... The Progression of Liver Disease The Progression of Liver Disease There are many different types of liver ...

  7. A population pharmacokinetic study of tacrolimus in healthy Chinese volunteers and liver transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yan-xia; Su, Qing-hong; Wu, Ke-hua; Ren, Yu-peng; Li, Liang; Zhou, Tian-yan; Lu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To develop a population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) model of tacrolimus in healthy Chinese volunteers and liver transplant recipients for investigating the difference between the populations, and for potential individualized medication. Methods: A set of 1100 sparse trough concentration data points from 112 orthotopic liver transplant recipients, as well as 851 dense data points from 40 healthy volunteers receiving a single dose of tacrolimus (2 mg, po) were collected. PopPK model of tacrolimus was constructed using the program NONMEM. Related covariates such as age, hepatic and renal functions that were potentially associated with tacrolimus disposition were evaluated. The final model was validated using bootstrapping and a visual predictive check. Results: A two-compartment model of tacrolimus could best describe the data from the two populations. The final model including two covariates, population (liver transplant recipients or volunteers) and serum ALT (alanine aminotransferase) level, was verified and adequately described the pharmacokinetic characteristics of tacrolimus. The estimates of V2/F, Q/F and V3/F were 22.7 L, 76.3 L/h and 916 L, respectively. The estimated CL/F in the volunteers and liver transplant recipients was 32.8 and 18.4 L/h, respectively. Serum ALT level was inversely related to CL/F, whereas age did not influence CL/F. Thus, the elderly (?65 years) and adult (<65 years) groups in the liver transplant recipients showed no significant difference in the clearance of tacrolimus. Conclusion: Compared with using the sparse data only, the integrating modeling technique combining sparse data from the patients and dense data from the healthy volunteers improved the PopPK analysis of tacrolimus. PMID:25500866

  8. Tumour necrosis factor-? promotes liver ischaemia-reperfusion injury through the PGC-1?/Mfn2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Ke, Wenbo; Zhou, Qi; Wu, Yongzhong; Luo, Hong; Zhou, Hong; Yang, Bin; Guo, Yu; Zheng, Qichang; Zhang, Yong

    2014-09-01

    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-? has been considered to induce ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) of liver which is characterized by energy dysmetabolism. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? co-activator (PGC)-1? and mitofusion2 (Mfn2) are reported to be involved in the regulation of mitochondrial function. However, whether PGC-1? and Mfn2 form a pathway that mediates liver IRI, and if so, what the underlying involvement is in that pathway remain unclear. In this study, L02 cells administered recombinant human TNF-? had increased TNF-? levels and resulted in down-regulation of PGC-1? and Mfn2 in a rat liver IRI model. This was associated with hepatic mitochondrial swelling, decreased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, and increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity as well as cell apoptosis. Inhibition of TNF-? by neutralizing antibody reversed PGC-1? and Mfn2 expression, and decreased hepatic injury and cell apoptosis both in cell culture and in animals. Treatment by rosiglitazone sustained PGC-1? and Mfn2 expression both in IR livers, and L02 cells treated with TNF-? as indicated by increased hepatic mitochondrial integrity and ATP production, reduced ROS and ALT activity as well as decreased cell apoptosis. Overexpression of Mfn2 by lentiviral-Mfn2 transfection decreased hepatic injury in IR livers and L02 cells treated with TNF-?. However, there was no up-regulation of PGC-1?. These findings suggest that PGC-1? and Mfn2 constitute a regulatory pathway, and play a critical role in TNF-?-induced hepatic IRI. Inhibition of the TNF-? or PGC-1?/Mfn2 pathways may represent novel therapeutic interventions for hepatic IRI. PMID:24898700

  9. Metabolism of 18S rRNA in rat liver cells in different functional states of protein-synthesizing apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Chirkov, G.P.; Druzhinina, M.K.; Todorov, I.N.

    1986-04-10

    The ratio of the absolute radioactivities of 28S and 18S RNAs in the fractions of membrane-bound and free polysomes and the fraction of free rat liver ribosomes was studied under conditions of inhibition of translation by cycloheximide, insulin, and cAMP. It was found that insulin and cAMP, in contrast to cycloheximide, do not induce selective degradation of 18S rRNA. The results are discussed from the standpoint of the possible role of the phosphorylation of protein S6 in the degradation of the 40S ribosomal subunit.

  10. DrugScorePPI webserver: fast and accurate in silico alanine scanning for scoring protein–protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Dennis M.; Gohlke, Holger

    2010-01-01

    Protein–protein complexes play key roles in all cellular signal transduction processes. We have developed a fast and accurate computational approach to predict changes in the binding free energy upon alanine mutations in protein–protein interfaces. The approach is based on a knowledge-based scoring function, DrugScorePPI, for which pair potentials were derived from 851 complex structures and adapted against 309 experimental alanine scanning results. Based on this approach, we developed the DrugScorePPI webserver. The input consists of a protein–protein complex structure; the output is a summary table and bar plot of binding free energy differences for wild-type residue-to-Ala mutations. The results of the analysis are mapped on the protein–protein complex structure and visualized using J mol. A single interface can be analyzed within a few minutes. Our approach has been successfully validated by application to an external test set of 22 alanine mutations in the interface of Ras/RalGDS. The DrugScorePPI webserver is primarily intended for identifying hotspot residues in protein–protein interfaces, which provides valuable information for guiding biological experiments and in the development of protein–protein interaction modulators. The DrugScorePPI Webserver, accessible at http://cpclab.uni-duesseldorf.de/dsppi, is free and open to all users with no login requirement. PMID:20511591

  11. DrugScorePPI webserver: fast and accurate in silico alanine scanning for scoring protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Dennis M; Gohlke, Holger

    2010-07-01

    Protein-protein complexes play key roles in all cellular signal transduction processes. We have developed a fast and accurate computational approach to predict changes in the binding free energy upon alanine mutations in protein-protein interfaces. The approach is based on a knowledge-based scoring function, DrugScore(PPI), for which pair potentials were derived from 851 complex structures and adapted against 309 experimental alanine scanning results. Based on this approach, we developed the DrugScore(PPI) webserver. The input consists of a protein-protein complex structure; the output is a summary table and bar plot of binding free energy differences for wild-type residue-to-Ala mutations. The results of the analysis are mapped on the protein-protein complex structure and visualized using J mol. A single interface can be analyzed within a few minutes. Our approach has been successfully validated by application to an external test set of 22 alanine mutations in the interface of Ras/RalGDS. The DrugScore(PPI) webserver is primarily intended for identifying hotspot residues in protein-protein interfaces, which provides valuable information for guiding biological experiments and in the development of protein-protein interaction modulators. The DrugScore(PPI) Webserver, accessible at http://cpclab.uni-duesseldorf.de/dsppi, is free and open to all users with no login requirement. PMID:20511591

  12. Alanine-shaving Mutagenesis to Determine Key Interfacial Residues Governing the Assembly of a Nano-cage Maxi-ferritin*?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Raudah, Siti; Teo, Huihian; Teo, Gwenda W. S.; Fan, Rongli; Sun, Xiaoming; Orner, Brendan P.

    2010-01-01

    The fundamental process of protein self-assembly is governed by protein-protein interactions between subunits, which combine to form structures that are often on the nano-scale. The nano-cage protein, bacterioferritin from Escherichia coli, a maxi-ferritin made up of 24 subunits, was chosen as the basis for an alanine-shaving mutagenesis study to discover key amino acid residues at symmetry-related protein-protein interfaces that control protein stability and self-assembly. By inspection of these interfaces and “virtual alanine scanning,” nine mutants were designed, expressed, purified, and characterized using transmission electron microscopy, size exclusion chromatography, dynamic light scattering, native PAGE, and temperature-dependent CD. Many of the selected amino acids act as hot spot residues. Four of these (Arg-30, which is located at the two-fold axis, and Arg-61, Tyr-114, and Glu-128, which are located at the three-fold axis), when individually mutated to alanine, completely shut down detectable solution formation of 24-mer, favoring a cooperatively folded dimer, suggesting that they may be oligomerization “switch residues.” Furthermore, two residues, Arg-30 and Arg-61, when changed to alanine form mutants that are more thermodynamically stable than the native protein. This investigation into the structure and energetics of this self-assembling nano-cage protein not only can act as a jumping off point for the eventual design of novel protein nano-structures but can also help to understand the role that structure plays on the function of this important class of proteins. PMID:20139406

  13. Volume-regulatory K+ efflux during concentrative uptake of alanine in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, L O; Folke, M

    1984-01-01

    Changes in cell volume and 42K+ efflux associated with concentrative alanine uptake were studied in isolated rat hepatocytes suspended in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer. After addition of 10 mM-alanine, cellular water volume increased by 15% and the rate constant of 42K+ efflux by 250%. Alanine-induced 42K+ efflux was abolished by quinine and was strongly decreased when the cell-volume increase was counteracted by sucrose. The results suggest that K+ efflux during alanine uptake is implicated in a volume-regulatory response. PMID:6466316

  14. Iron homeostasis in the liver

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Erik R; Shah, Yatrik M

    2014-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient that is tightly regulated. A principal function of the liver is the regulation of iron homeostasis. The liver senses changes in systemic iron requirements and can regulate iron concentrations in a robust and rapid manner. The last 10 years have led to the discovery of several regulatory mechanisms in the liver which control the production of iron regulatory genes, storage capacity, and iron mobilization. Dysregulation of these functions leads to an imbalance of iron, which is the primary causes of iron-related disorders. Anemia and iron overload are two of the most prevalent disorders worldwide and affect over a billion people. Several mutations in liver-derived genes have been identified, demonstrating the central role of the liver in iron homeostasis. During conditions of excess iron, the liver increases iron storage and protects other tissues, namely the heart and pancreas from iron-induced cellular damage. However, a chronic increase in liver iron stores results in excess reactive oxygen species production and liver injury. Excess liver iron is one of the major mechanisms leading to increased steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:23720289

  15. Liver transplant

    MedlinePLUS

    ... damage from poisoning or medications Problems with the drainage system of the liver (the biliary tract), such as ... you must take medications that suppress the immune system to prevent ... Diarrhea Drainage Fever Jaundice Redness Swelling Tenderness

  16. Liver Transplantation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Scientists Current Funding Opportunities Open grant, contract, and cooperative agreement listings with closing dates and contacts Funded ... demands of living with a liver transplant Scoring Systems When people are registered on the waiting list, ...

  17. Liver Panel

    MedlinePLUS

    ... GGT) – another enzyme found mainly in liver cells Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) – an enzyme released with cell damage; ... and with conditions, such as congestive heart failure . Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) This is a non-specific marker ...

  18. Quantitative Liver Function Tests Improve the Prediction of Clinical Outcomes in Chronic Hepatitis C: Results from the HALT-C Trial

    PubMed Central

    Everson, Gregory T.; Shiffman, Mitchell L.; Hoefs, John C.; Morgan, Timothy R.; Sterling, Richard K.; Wagner, David A.; Lauriski, Shannon; Curto, Teresa M.; Stoddard, Anne; Wright, Elizabeth C.

    2011-01-01

    Risk for future clinical outcomes is proportional to the severity of liver disease in patients with chronic hepatitis C. We measured disease severity by quantitative liver function tests (QLFTs) to determine cutoffs for QLFTs that identified patients who were at low and high risk for a clinical outcome. Two hundred twenty seven participants in the Hepatitis C Antiviral Long-Term Treatment Against Cirrhosis (HALT-C) Trial underwent baseline QLFTs and were followed for a median of 5.5 years for clinical outcomes. QLFTs were repeated in 196 patients at month 24 and in 165 patients at month 48. Caffeine elimination rate (k), antipyrine (AP) clearance (Cl), MEGX concentration, methionine breath test (MBT), galactose elimination capacity (GEC), dual cholate (CA) clearances and shunt, and perfused hepatic mass (PHM) and liver and spleen volumes (SPECT) were measured. Baseline QLFTs were significantly worse (p=0.0017 to <0.0001) and spleen volumes larger (p<0.0001) in the 54 patients who subsequently experienced clinical outcomes. QLFT cutoffs that characterized patients as “low” and “high risk” for clinical outcome yielded hazard ratios ranging from 2.21 (95%CI 1.29–3.78) for GEC to 6.52 (95%CI 3.63–11.71) for CA Cloral. QLFTs independently predicted outcome in models with Ishak fibrosis score, platelet count, and standard laboratory tests. In serial studies, patients with “high risk” results for CA Cloral or PHM had a nearly 15-fold increase in risk for clinical outcome. Less than 5% of patients with “low risk” QLFTs experienced a clinical outcome. Conclusion QLFTs independently predict risk for future clinical outcomes. By improving risk assessment, QLFTs could enhance noninvasive monitoring, counseling, and management of patients with chronic hepatitis C. PMID:22030902

  19. Multiple defects occur in the guanine nucleotide regulatory protein system in liver plasma membranes of obese (fa/fa) but not lean (Fa/Fa) Zucker rats: loss of functional Gi and abnormal Gs function.

    PubMed

    Houslay, M D; Gawler, D J; Milligan, G; Wilson, A

    1989-01-01

    Hepatocyte membranes from both lean and obese Zucker rats exhibited adenylate cyclase activity that could be stimulated by glucagon, forskolin, NaF and elevated concentrations of p[NH]ppG. In membranes from lean animals, functional Gi was detected by the ability of low concentrations of p[NH]ppG to inhibit forskolin-activated adenylate cyclase. This activity was abolished by treatment of hepatocytes with either pertussis toxin or the phorbol ester TPA, prior to making membranes for assay of adenylate cyclase activity. In hepatocyte membranes from obese animals no functional Gi activity was detected. Quantitative immunoblotting, using an antibody able to detect the alpha subunit of Gi, showed that hepatocyte plasma membranes from both lean and obese Zucker rats had similar amounts of Gi-alpha subunit. This was 6.2 pmol/mg plasma membrane for lean and 6.5 pmol/mg plasma membrane for obese animals. Using thiol pre-activated pertussis toxin and [32P]-NAD+, similar degrees of labelling of the 40 kDa alpha subunit of Gi were found using plasma membranes of both lean and obese Zucker rats. We suggest that liver plasma membranes from obese Zucker rats express an inactive Gi alpha subunit. Thus lesions in liver Gi functioning are seen in insulin-resistant obese rats and in alloxan- and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats which also show resistance as regards the acute actions of insulin. Liver plasma membranes of obese animals also showed an impairment in the coupling of glucagon receptors to Gs-controlled adenylate cyclase, with the Kd values for activation by glucagon being 17.3 and 126 nM for lean and obese animals respectively. Membranes from obese animals also showed a reduced ability for high concentration of p[NH]ppG to activate adenylate cyclase. The use of [32P]-NAD+ and thiol-preactivated cholera toxin to label the 43 kDa and 52 kDa forms of the alpha-subunit of Gs showed that a reduced labelling occurred using liver plasma membranes from obese animals. It is suggested that abnormalities in the levels of expression of primarily the 52 kDa form of alpha-Gs may give rise to the abnormal coupling between glucagon receptors and adenylate cyclase in liver membranes from obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats. PMID:2561940

  20. Living Donor Liver Transplantation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the donor's blood type matches the recipient’s blood type. Next, the transplant team will measure liver and kidney function as well as red cell, white cell, and platelet counts. The donor is also tested for viruses ... the donor’s and recipient’s blood types are compatible, the donor will get a physical ...

  1. Octreotide attenuates liver fibrosis by inhibiting hepatic heme oxygenase-1 expression

    PubMed Central

    GUO, SHI-BIN; LI, QING; DUAN, ZHI-JUN; WANG, QIU-MING; ZHOU, QIN; SUN, XIAO-YU

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of octreotide treatment on hepatic heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, together with the influence of altered hepatic HO-1 expression levels on hepatic function and fibrosis in bile duct-ligated rats. The rats were divided randomly into sham, cirrhotic, cobalt protoporphyrin and octreotide treatment groups. The expression levels of hepatic HO-1 mRNA were measured by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, while the protein expression was determined by western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis. Hematoxylin and eosin, and Van Gieson’s staining, along with determination of the hydroxyproline content in the liver, were performed to determine the degree of liver fibrosis. The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TBIL) and carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in arterial blood, and the mean arterial pressure and portal vein pressure were also measured. As compared with the sham group, hepatic HO-1 mRNA and protein expression levels, serum levels of ALT, AST and TBIL, COHb in arterial blood, hydroxyproline and collagen type I content were all significantly increased in the cirrhotic group. As compared with the cirrhotic group, the octreotide-treated group exhibited significantly reduced hepatic HO-1 expression levels, serum levels of ALT, AST and TBIL, COHb in arterial blood and the extent of hepatic fibrosis, whereas the cobalt protoporphyrin group exhibited significantly increased hepatic HO-1 expression levels, as well as aggravated hepatic function and fibrosis (P<0.05). In conclusion, octreotide inhibited hepatic HO-1 overexpression in cirrhotic rats, reduced hepatic HO-1 expression levels to relieve liver injury and attenuated liver fibrosis. PMID:25338529

  2. Gliotoxicity of the cyanotoxin, ?-methyl-amino-L-alanine (BMAA)

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Alexander S.; Gehringer, Michelle M.; Braidy, Nady; Guillemin, Gilles J.; Welch, Jeffrey H.; Neilan, Brett A.

    2013-01-01

    The amino acid variant ?-methyl-amino-L-alanine (BMAA) has long been associated with the increased incidence and progression of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/Parkinsonism dementia complex (ALS/PDC). Previous studies have indicated that BMAA damages neurons via excitotoxic mechanisms. We have challenged rat olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) with exogenous BMAA and found it to be cytotoxic. BMAA also induces a significant increase in Ca2+ influx, enhanced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and disrupts mitochondrial activity in OECs. This is the first study investigating BMAA toxicity using pure glial cells. These findings align BMAA with the three proposed mechanisms of degeneration in ALS, those being non-cell autonomous death, excitotoxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:23508043

  3. Radiolysis of alanine adsorbed in a clay mineral

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Ovando, Ellen Y.; Negron-Mendoza, Alicia [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Apartado Postal 70-543, Deleg. Coyoacan, C.P. 04510 (Mexico)

    2013-07-03

    Optical activity in molecules is a chemical characteristic of living beings. In this work, we examine the hypothesis of the influence of different mineral surfaces on the development of a specific chirality in organic molecules when subjected to conditions simulating the primitive Earth during the period of chemical evolution. By using X-ray diffraction techniques and HPLC/ELSD to analyze aqueous suspensions of amino acids adsorbed on minerals irradiated in different doses with a cobalt-60 gamma source, the experiments attempt to prove the hypothesis that some solid surfaces (like clays and meteorite rocks) may have a concentration capacity and protective role against external sources of ionizing radiation (specifically {gamma}-ray) for some organic compounds (like some amino acids) adsorbed on them. Preliminary results show a slight difference in the adsorption and radiolysis of the D-and L-alanine.

  4. Charge dependent photodynamic activity of alanine based zinc phthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ao; Li, Yejing; Zhou, Lin; Yuan, Linxin; Lu, Shan; Lin, Yun; Zhou, Jiahong; Wei, Shaohua

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, to minimize the effects of different structure, three alanine-based zinc phthalocyanines (Pcs) of differing charges were engineered and synthesized with the same basic structure. On this premise, the relationship between nature of charge and photodynamic activity was studied. Besides, further verification and explanation of some inconsistent results were also carried out. The results showed that charge can influence the aggregation state, singlet oxygen generation ability and cellular uptake of Pcs, thereby affecting their photodynamic activity. In addition, the biomolecules inside cells may interact with Pcs of differing charges, which can also influence the aggregation state and singlet oxygen generation of the Pcs, and then influence the relationship between nature of charge and photodynamic activity. PMID:25305750

  5. Liver in Leprosy: Histological and Biochemical Findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. B. A. Karat; C. K. Job; P. S. S. Rao

    1971-01-01

    The histological findings and their correlation with biochemical functions of the liver in 240 leprosy patients are presented. In 21% with tuberculoid leprosy and in 62% with lepromatous leprosy leprous granulomata were found in the liver. A significant prevalence of granulomatous lesions in the liver among patients with tuberculoid and borderline-tuberculoid leprosy of less than one year's duration suggests that

  6. Hot Topics in Liver Intensive Care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bacher; M. Zimpfer

    2008-01-01

    Liver dysfunction is an independent predictor of mortality among intensive care patients. Avoidance or early restoration of normal liver function should therefore be targeted in all critically ill patients. The present work seeks to provide an overview of the “hottest topics” among liver-related problems in intensive care. The management of increased intracranial pressure in severe hepatic encephalopathy is still not

  7. Effects of long-term feeding of a diet supplemented with clinoptilolite to dairy cows on the incidence of ketosis, milk yield and liver function.

    PubMed

    Katsoulos, P D; Panousis, N; Roubies, N; Christaki, E; Arsenos, G; Karatzias, H

    2006-09-23

    Fifty-two clinically healthy Holstein cows were randomly assigned to one of three groups according to their age and parity. The first group (A) consisted of 17 cows that were fed a concentrate ration supplemented with 1.25 per cent clinoptilolite, the second group (B) consisted of 17 cows fed a ration supplemented with 2.5 per cent clinoptilolite, and the third group (C) consisted of 18 cows, which were fed the basal ration containing no clinoptilolite. The rations were fed from four weeks before the cows' expected parturition dates until the beginning of the next dry period. Blood samples were collected from each animal at the start of the experiment, on the day of calving and then monthly, and analysed for serum glucose, ketone bodies, liver enzymes, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and total proteins. The milk yield of each cow was recorded monthly. The cows in group B had significantly fewer cases of clinical ketosis during the first month after calving and a higher total milk yield. Feeding the cows with clinoptilolite for a long period had no apparent adverse effects on their liver function, and did not significantly affect the concentrations of glucose, ketone bodies, BUN and total proteins in their serum. PMID:16997998

  8. Dysbiosis gut microbiota associated with inflammation and impaired mucosal immune function in intestine of humans with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Weiwei; Wu, Na; Wang, Xuemei; Chi, Yujing; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Qiu, Xinyun; Hu, Ying; Li, Jing; Liu, Yulan

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has recently been considered to be under the influence of the gut microbiota, which might exert toxic effects on the human host after intestinal absorption and delivery to the liver via the portal vein. In this study, the composition of the gut microbiota in NAFLD patients and healthy subjects was determined via 16S ribosomal RNA Illumina next-generation sequencing. Among those taxa displaying greater than 0.1% average abundance in all samples, five genera, including Alistipes and Prevotella, were significantly more abundant in the gut microbiota of healthy subjects compared to NAFLD patients. Alternatively, Escherichia, Anaerobacter, Lactobacillus and Streptococcus were increased in the gut microbiota of NAFLD patients compared to healthy subjects. In addition, decreased numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and increased levels of TNF-?, IL-6 and IFN-? were detected in the NAFLD group compared to the healthy group. Furthermore, irregularly arranged microvilli and widened tight junctions were observed in the gut mucosa of the NAFLD patients via transmission electron microscopy. We postulate that aside from dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, gut microbiota-mediated inflammation of the intestinal mucosa and the related impairment in mucosal immune function play an important role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. PMID:25644696

  9. [Liver parameters in intensive care medicine].

    PubMed

    Penndorf, V; Saner, F; Gerken, G; Canbay, A

    2013-12-01

    Elevated liver function tests in ICU-bound patients are associated with a greater risk of mor-tality. Chronic liver diseases as well as acute events and complications of therapy are among the causes. The disorder could further be investigated by assessment of liver cell integrity markers (AST, ALT and GLDH), cholestasis parameters -(bilirubin, GGT, ALP) and liver synthethic function (albumin, coagulation profile). Ultrasound and elastography are cheap and mobile options to evaluate chronic liver disease, cholestasis or perfusion of the liver. The interpretation of the results should include the medical history on the ICU. Liver injury could be due to septic or isch-aemic complications as well as toxic side effects or parenteral nutrition. The main therapeutic option is to identify the cause of the liver dysfuntion and to eliminate it as far as possible. PMID:22565500

  10. Heritability and genetic loci of fatty liver in familial combined hyperlipidemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martijn C. G. J. Brouwers; Rita M. Cantor; Naoko Kono; J. l. Yoon; C. J. H. van der Kallen; M. A. L. Bilderbeek-Beckers; M. M. J. van Greevenbroek; A. J. Lusis; T. W. A. de Bruin

    2006-01-01

    VLDL overproduction, a process that is driven by an excess amount of hepatic fat, is a well-documented fea- ture of familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL). The aims of this study were to investigate whether fatty liver, mea- sured with ultrasound and as plasma alanine aminotrans- ferase (ALT) levels, develops against a genetic background in FCHL and to identify chromosomal loci that

  11. Crystallization of Rat Liver Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor for MAD Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Sugimoto; Mamoru Suzuki; Atsushi Nakagawa; Isao Tanaka; Mami Fujinaga; Jun Nishihira

    1995-01-01

    The recombinant macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) of a rat liver was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. We also crystallized a selenomethionyl rat MIF under similar conditions for X-ray structure analysis using the multiwavelength anomalous diffraction method. Furthermore, two kinds of selenomethionyl rat MIF mutants, in which one or two of three methionine residues were replaced by alanine

  12. Alanine Aminotransferase Variants Conferring Diverse NUE Phenotypes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, Chandra H.; Good, Allen G.

    2015-01-01

    Alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT, E.C. 2.6.1.2), is a pyridoxal-5’-phosphate-dependent (PLP) enzyme that catalyzes the reversible transfer of an amino group from alanine to 2-oxoglutarate to produce glutamate and pyruvate, or vice versa. It has been well documented in both greenhouse and field studies that tissue-specific over-expression of AlaAT from barley (Hordeum vulgare, HvAlaAT) results in a significant increase in plant NUE in both canola and rice. While the physical phenotypes associated with over-expression of HvAlaAT have been well characterized, the role this enzyme plays in vivo to create a more N efficient plant remains unknown. Furthermore, the importance of HvAlaAT, in contrast to other AlaAT enzyme homologues in creating this phenotype has not yet been explored. To address the role of AlaAT in NUE, AlaAT variants from diverse sources and different subcellular locations, were expressed in the wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 background and alaat1;2 (alaat1-1;alaat2-1) knockout background in various N environments. The analysis and comparison of both the physical and physiological properties of AlaAT over-expressing transgenic plants demonstrated significant differences between plants expressing the different AlaAT enzymes under different external conditions. This analysis indicates that the over-expression of AlaAT variants other than HvAlaAT in crop plants could further increase the NUE phenotype(s) previously observed. PMID:25830496

  13. Bone mesenchymal stem cell transplantation via four routes for the treatment of acute liver failure in rats

    PubMed Central

    SUN, LIHUA; FAN, XIAOTANG; ZHANG, LIJUAN; SHI, GUIXIU; AILI, MAIMAITI; LU, XIAOBO; JIANG, TAO; ZHANG, YUEXIN

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we assessed the efficiency of four BMSC transplantation methods as a therapy for liver failure. A rat model (80 Sprague-Dawley rats) of D-galactosamine (D-gal)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute liver failure (ALF) was established and the rats were divided into 5 groups: a hepatic artery injection group, a portal vein injection group, a vena caudalis injection group, an intraperitoneal injection group and a control group (16 per group). Following transplantation, the liver tissue and blood samples were collected on days 1, 3 and 7, we detected the EdU (5-ethynyl-2?-deoxyuridine)-labeled cells homing to the liver tissue and assessed the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cysteine-containing aspartate-specific protease (caspase)-3 expression in the liver tissue and detected the levels of stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in the liver tissues. Compared with the control group, the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and damage to the liver tissue in the hepatic artery group, the portal vein group and the vena caudalis group improved in vivo. The expression of PCNA and HGF in the liver was higher and caspase-3 expression was lower in the hepatic artery injection group, the portal vein injection group and the vena caudalis injection group than that in the intraperitoneal injection and control groups. The EdU-labeled BMSCs were only observed homing to the liver tissue in these three groups. However, no significant differences were observed between these three groups. Liver function in the rats with ALF was improved following BMSC transplantation via 3 endovascular implantation methods (through the hepatic artery, portal vein and vena caudalis). These 3 methods were effective in transplanting BMSCs for the treatment of ALF. However, the selection of blood vessel in the implantation pathway does not affect the transplantation outcome. Transplantation via intraperitoneal injection showed no therapeutic effect in our animal experiments. PMID:25110277

  14. Rat liver mitochondrial damage under acute or chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced intoxication: Protection by melatonin and cranberry flavonoids

    SciTech Connect

    Cheshchevik, V.T. [Institute for Pharmacology and Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus) [Institute for Pharmacology and Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Department of Biochemistry, Yanka Kupala Grodno State University, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Lapshina, E.A.; Dremza, I.K.; Zabrodskaya, S.V. [Institute for Pharmacology and Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus)] [Institute for Pharmacology and Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Reiter, R.J. [Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, University of Texas Health Science Center, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229–3900 (United States)] [Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, University of Texas Health Science Center, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229–3900 (United States); Prokopchik, N.I. [Grodno State Medical University, Gorkogo - 80, 230015 Grodno (Belarus)] [Grodno State Medical University, Gorkogo - 80, 230015 Grodno (Belarus); Zavodnik, I.B., E-mail: zavodnik_il@mail.ru [Institute for Pharmacology and Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Department of Biochemistry, Yanka Kupala Grodno State University, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus)

    2012-06-15

    In current societies, the risk of toxic liver damage has markedly increased. The aim of the present work was to carry out further research into the mechanism(s) of liver mitochondrial damage induced by acute (0.8 g/kg body weight, single injection) or chronic (1.6 g/ kg body weight, 30 days, biweekly injections) carbon tetrachloride – induced intoxication and to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of the antioxidant, melatonin, as well as succinate and cranberry flavonoids in rats. Acute intoxication resulted in considerable impairment of mitochondrial respiratory parameters in the liver. The activity of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) decreased (by 25%, p < 0.05). Short-term melatonin treatment (10 mg/kg, three times) of rats did not reduce the degree of toxic mitochondrial dysfunction but decreased the enhanced NO production. After 30-day chronic intoxication, no significant change in the respiratory activity of liver mitochondria was observed, despite marked changes in the redox-balance of mitochondria. The activities of the mitochondrial enzymes, succinate dehydrogenase and glutathione peroxidase, as well as that of cytoplasmic catalase in liver cells were inhibited significantly. Mitochondria isolated from the livers of the rats chronically treated with CCl{sub 4} displayed obvious irreversible impairments. Long-term melatonin administration (10 mg/kg, 30 days, daily) to chronically intoxicated rats diminished the toxic effects of CCl{sub 4}, reducing elevated plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin concentration, prevented accumulation of membrane lipid peroxidation products in rat liver and resulted in apparent preservation of the mitochondrial ultrastructure. The treatment of the animals by the complex of melatonin (10 mg/kg) plus succinate (50 mg/kg) plus cranberry flavonoids (7 mg/kg) was even more effective in prevention of toxic liver injury and liver mitochondria damage. Highlights: ? After 30-day chronic CCl{sub 4} intoxication mitochondria displayed considerable changes. ? The functional parameters of mitochondria were similar to the control values. ? Melatonin + succinate + flavonoids prevented mitochondrial ultrastructure damage. ? The above complex enhanced regenerative processes in the liver.

  15. 5182 Biochemistry 1984, 23, 5 182-5 187 Catabolic Alanine Racemase from Salmonella typhimurium: DNA

    E-print Network

    Botstein, David

    -alanine for bacterial cell wall assembly,they have been seen as particularly suitable targets for antibiotic research-alanine metab- olism (Wang & Walsh, 1978), the action of this enzyme is relevant to antibiotic research. We now value of 1.O. Determination of 22 of the 25 N-terminal amino acid residues of the purified polypeptide

  16. Conformational Equilibria of -Alanine and Related Compounds as Studied by NMR Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Goddard III, William A.

    as the conjugate acid and conjugate base of -alanine, also show no significant conformational preference in water,N,N-trimethyltaurine is predominantly trans in acidic or neutral solution. The conformational equilibria of the N. In this context, we were much intrigued by several reports2-5 that proton NMR spectra of -alanine in acid, neutral

  17. Regulation of the ald Gene Encoding Alanine Dehydrogenase by AldR in Mycobacterium smegmatis

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Ji-A; Baek, Eun-Young; Kim, Si Wouk; Choi, Jong-Soon

    2013-01-01

    The regulatory gene aldR was identified 95 bp upstream of the ald gene encoding l-alanine dehydrogenase in Mycobacterium smegmatis. The AldR protein shows sequence similarity to the regulatory proteins of the Lrp/AsnC family. Using an aldR deletion mutant, we demonstrated that AldR serves as both activator and repressor for the regulation of ald gene expression, depending on the presence or absence of l-alanine. The purified AldR protein exists as a homodimer in the absence of l-alanine, while it adopts the quaternary structure of a homohexamer in the presence of l-alanine. The binding affinity of AldR for the ald control region was shown to be increased significantly by l-alanine. Two AldR binding sites (O1 and O2) with the consensus sequence GA-N2-ATC-N2-TC and one putative AldR binding site with the sequence GA-N2-GTT-N2-TC were identified upstream of the ald gene. Alanine and cysteine were demonstrated to be the effector molecules directly involved in the induction of ald expression. The cellular level of l-alanine was shown to be increased in M. smegmatis cells grown under hypoxic conditions, and the hypoxic induction of ald expression appears to be mediated by AldR, which senses the intracellular level of alanine. PMID:23749971

  18. Immunobiology of liver xenotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Ekser, Burcin; Burlak, Christopher; Waldman, Joshua P; Lutz, Andrew J; Paris, Leela L; Veroux, Massimiliano; Robson, Simon C; Rees, Michael A; Ayares, David; Gridelli, Bruno; Tector, A Joseph; Cooper, David KC

    2013-01-01

    Pigs are currently the preferred species for future organ xenotransplantation. With advances in the development of genetically modified pigs, clinical xenotransplantation is becoming closer to reality. In preclinical studies (pig-to-nonhuman primate), the xenotransplantation of livers from pigs transgenic for human CD55 or from ?1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout pigs+/? transgenic for human CD46, is associated with survival of approximately 7–9 days. Although hepatic function, including coagulation, has proved to be satisfactory, the immediate development of thrombocytopenia is very limiting for pig liver xenotransplantation even as a ‘bridge’ to allotransplantation. Current studies are directed to understand the immunobiology of platelet activation, aggregation and phagocytosis, in particular the interaction between platelets and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, hepatocytes and Kupffer cells, toward identifying interventions that may enable clinical application. PMID:23078060

  19. ATF3-mediated NRF2/HO-1 signaling regulates TLR4 innate immune responses in mouse liver ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Rao, J; Qian, X; Li, G; Pan, X; Zhang, C; Zhang, F; Zhai, Y; Wang, X; Lu, L

    2015-01-01

    Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a stress-induced transcription factor that has been shown to repress inflammatory gene expression in multiple cell types and diseases. However, little is known about the roles and mechanisms of ATF3 in liver ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). In warm and cold liver IRI models, we showed that ATF3 deficiency significantly increased ischemia/reperfusion (IR)-stressed liver injury, as evidenced by increased serum alanine aminotransferase levels, histological liver damage, and hepatocellular apoptosis. These may correlate with inhibition of the intrahepatic nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2/heme oxygenase-1 (NRF2/HO-1) signaling pathway leading to enhancing Toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor kappa beta (TLR4/NF-?B) activation, pro-inflammatory programs and macrophage/neutrophil trafficking, while simultaneously repressing anti-apoptotic molecules in ischemic liver. Interestingly, activation of NRF2/HO-1 signaling using an NRF2 activator, oltipraz (M2), during hepatic IRI-rescued ATF3 anti-inflammatory functions in ATF3-deficient mice. For in vitro studies, ATF3 ablation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) depressed levels of NRF2/HO-1 and PI3K/AKT, resulting in enhanced TLR4/NF-?B activation. Pretreatment of LPS-stimulated BMMs with M2 increased NRF2/HO-1 expression, promoted PI3K/AKT, which in turn suppressed TLR4/NF-?B-mediated proinflammatory mediators. Thus, our results first demonstrate ATF3-mediated NRF2/HO-1 signaling in the regulation of TLR4-driven inflammatory responses in IR-stressed livers. Our findings provide a rationale for a novel therapeutic strategy for managing IR-induced liver injury. PMID:25359217

  20. Analysis of Biochemical Markers Related to Fatty Liver Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jae-Hwan; Namgung, Jang-Sun; Lee, Jin; Moon, Deog-Hwan; Lee, Hae-Kag

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was designed to study the correlation between biochemical tests and fatty liver. [Subjects and Methods] The study subjects were 242 people who received an abdominal ultrasound examination at a general hospital in Seoul, Korea, from March 2012 to March 2013. After the abdominal ultrasound examination, the subjects were categorized according to the presence or absence of fatty liver (n = 118 and 124, respectively). [Results] Comparison of biochemical markers revealed that glucose, total protein, aspartate transminase, alanine transaminase and triglyceride were higher in fatty liver patients. Risk analysis of general characteristics determined that hypertensive and diabetic patients had a 2.475- and 2.026-times greater risk of onset of fatty liver, respectively. The comparison of fatty liver with individual characteristics and biochemical markers revealed a 1.804-times greater chance of fatty liver when total protein was high, 0.964-times greater chance when high density lipoprotein was elevated and 1.204-times greater chance when triglyceride was elevated. When hypertension became severe, the chance of experiencing onset of fatty liver was 2.848 times higher. [Conclusion] Fatty liver is a representative disease of obese people in general and more active attention is necessary for its prevention and treatment. A direct cause of fatty liver was not found. Large-scale prospective studies will be required. PMID:25540483

  1. Thermal decomposition behavior of potassium and sodium jarosite synthesized in the presence of methylamine and alanine

    SciTech Connect

    J. Michelle Kotler; Nancy W. Hinman; C. Doc Richardson; Jill R. Scott

    2010-10-01

    Biomolecules, methylamine and alanine, found associated with natural jarosite samples peaked the interest of astrobiologists and planetary geologists. How the biomolecules are associated with jarosite remains unclear although the mechanism could be important for detecting biosignatures in the rock record on Earth and other planets. A series of thermal gravimetric experiments using synthetic K-jarosite and Na-jarosite were conducted to determine if thermal analysis could differentiate physical mixtures of alanine and methylamine with jarosite from samples where the methylamine or alanine was incorporated into the synthesis procedure. Physical mixtures and synthetic experiments with methylamine and alanine could be differentiated from one another and from the standards by thermal analysis for both the K-jarosite and Na-jarosite end-member suites. Changes included shifts in on-set temperatures, total temperature changes from on-set to final, and the presence of indicator peaks for methylamine and alanine in the physical mixture experiments.

  2. Functional Coupling of ATP-binding Cassette Transporter Abcb6 to Cytochrome P450 Expression and Activity in Liver.

    PubMed

    Chavan, Hemantkumar; Li, Feng; Tessman, Robert; Mickey, Kristen; Dorko, Kenneth; Schmitt, Timothy; Kumer, Sean; Gunewardena, Sumedha; Gaikwad, Nilesh; Krishnamurthy, Partha

    2015-03-20

    Although endogenous mechanisms that negatively regulate cytochrome P450 (P450) monooxygenases in response to physiological and pathophysiological signals are not well understood, they are thought to result from alterations in the level of endogenous metabolites, involved in maintaining homeostasis. Here we show that homeostatic changes in hepatic metabolite profile in Abcb6 (mitochondrial ATP-binding cassette transporter B6) deficiency results in suppression of a specific subset of hepatic P450 activity. Abcb6 null mice are more susceptible to pentobarbital-induced sleep and zoxazolamine-induced paralysis, secondary to decreased expression and activity of Cyp3a11 and Cyp2b10. The knock-out mice also show decrease in both basal and xeno-inducible expression and activity of a subset of hepatic P450s that appear to be related to changes in hepatic metabolite profile. These data, together with the observation that liver extracts from Abcb6-deficient mice suppress P450 expression in human primary hepatocytes, suggest that this mouse model may provide an opportunity to understand the physiological signals and the mechanisms involved in negative regulation of P450s. PMID:25623066

  3. Detection of Cyanotoxins, ?-N-methylamino-l-alanine and Microcystins, from a Lake Surrounded by Cases of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Banack, Sandra Anne; Caller, Tracie; Henegan, Patricia; Haney, James; Murby, Amanda; Metcalf, James S.; Powell, James; Cox, Paul Alan; Stommel, Elijah

    2015-01-01

    A cluster of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has been previously described to border Lake Mascoma in Enfield, NH, with an incidence of ALS approximating 25 times expected. We hypothesize a possible association with cyanobacterial blooms that can produce ?-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), a neurotoxic amino acid implicated as a possible cause of ALS/PDC in Guam. Muscle, liver, and brain tissue samples from a Lake Mascoma carp, as well as filtered aerosol samples, were analyzed for microcystins (MC), free and protein-bound BMAA, and the BMAA isomers 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB) and N-(2-aminoethyl)glycine (AEG). In carp brain, BMAA and DAB concentrations were 0.043 ?g/g ± 0.02 SD and 0.01 ?g/g ± 0.002 SD respectively. In carp liver and muscle, the BMAA concentrations were 1.28 ?g/g and 1.27 ?g/g respectively, and DAB was not detected. BMAA was detected in the air filters, as were the isomers DAB and AEG. These results demonstrate that a putative cause for ALS, BMAA, exists in an environment that has a documented cluster of ALS. Although cause and effect have not been demonstrated, our observations and measurements strengthen the association. PMID:25643180

  4. Detection of cyanotoxins, ?-N-methylamino-L-alanine and microcystins, from a lake surrounded by cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Banack, Sandra Anne; Caller, Tracie; Henegan, Patricia; Haney, James; Murby, Amanda; Metcalf, James S; Powell, James; Cox, Paul Alan; Stommel, Elijah

    2015-02-01

    A cluster of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has been previously described to border Lake Mascoma in Enfield, NH, with an incidence of ALS approximating 25 times expected. We hypothesize a possible association with cyanobacterial blooms that can produce ?-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a neurotoxic amino acid implicated as a possible cause of ALS/PDC in Guam. Muscle, liver, and brain tissue samples from a Lake Mascoma carp, as well as filtered aerosol samples, were analyzed for microcystins (MC), free and protein-bound BMAA, and the BMAA isomers 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB) and N-(2-aminoethyl)glycine (AEG). In carp brain, BMAA and DAB concentrations were 0.043 ?g/g ± 0.02 SD and 0.01 ?g/g ± 0.002 SD respectively. In carp liver and muscle, the BMAA concentrations were 1.28 ?g/g and 1.27 ?g/g respectively, and DAB was not detected. BMAA was detected in the air filters, as were the isomers DAB and AEG. These results demonstrate that a putative cause for ALS, BMAA, exists in an environment that has a documented cluster of ALS. Although cause and effect have not been demonstrated, our observations and measurements strengthen the association. PMID:25643180

  5. Oral Administration of Saccharomyces boulardii Ameliorates Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Rats via Reducing Intestinal Permeability and Modulating Gut Microbial Composition.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Zhu, Lin; Xie, Ao; Yuan, Jieli

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the effects of orally administrated Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii) on the progress of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis, 34 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four experimental groups including the control group (n?=?8), the cirrhotic group (n?=?10), the preventive group (n?=?8), and the treatment group (n?=?8). Results showed that the liver expression levels of collagen, type I, alpha 1 (Col1A1), alpha smooth muscle actin (?SMA), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) and the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) increased significantly in cirrhotic rats compared with control and decreased by S. boulardii administration. Treatment of S. boulardii also attenuated the increased endotoxin levels and pro-inflammatory cytokines in CCl4-treated rats. And, these were associated with the changes of intestinal permeability and fecal microbial composition. Our study suggested that oral administration of S. boulardii can promote the liver function of CCl4-treated rats, and the preventive treatment of this probiotic yeast may decelerate the progress of liver fibrosis. PMID:25227279

  6. Adoptive Transfer of Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1)–Modified Macrophages Rescues the Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2–Related Factor (Nrf2) Antiinflammatory Phenotype in Liver Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jing; Shen, Xiu-Da; Yue, Shi; Zhu, Jianjun; Gao, Feng; Zhai, Yuan; Busuttil, Ronald W; Ke, Bibo; Kupiec-Weglinski, Jerzy W

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages are instrumental in the pathophysiology of liver ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). Although Nrf2 regulates macrophage-specific heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) antioxidant defense, it remains unknown whether HO-1 induction might rescue macrophage Nrf2-dependent antiinflammatory functions. This study explores the mechanisms by which the Nrf2–HO-1 axis regulates sterile hepatic inflammation responses after adoptive transfer of ex vivo modified HO-1 overexpressing bone marrow–derived macrophages (BMMs). Livers in Nrf2-deficient mice preconditioned with Ad-HO-1 BMMs, but not Ad-?-Gal-BMMs, ameliorated liver IRI (at 6 h of reperfusion after 90 min of warm ischemia), evidenced by improved hepatocellular function (serum alanine aminotransferase [sALT] levels) and preserved hepatic architecture (Suzuki histological score). Treatment with Ad-HO-1 BMMs decreased neutrophil accumulation, proinflammatory mediators and hepatocellular necrosis/apoptosis in ischemic livers. Moreover, Ad-HO-1 transfection of Nrf2-deficient BMMs suppressed M1 (Nos2+) while promoting the M2 (Mrc-1/Arg-1+) phenotype. Unlike in controls, Ad-HO-1 BMMs increased the expression of Notch1, Hes1, phosphorylation of Stat3 and Akt in IR-stressed Nrf2-deficient livers as well as in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BMMs. Thus, adoptive transfer of ex vivo generated Ad-HO-1 BMMs rescued Nrf2-dependent antiinflammatory phenotype by promoting Notch1/Hes1/Stat3 signaling and reprogramming macrophages toward the M2 phenotype. These findings provide the rationale for a novel clinically attractive strategy to manage IR liver inflammation/damage. PMID:25014792

  7. Structural Analysis and Mutant Growth Properties Reveal Distinctive Enzymatic and Cellular Roles for the Three Major L-Alanine Transaminases of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    López-Estepa, Miguel; Garces, Fernando; Richardson, Andrew J.; Quintana, Juan F.; Rudd, Kenneth E.; Coll, Miquel; Vega, M. Cristina

    2014-01-01

    In order to maintain proper cellular function, the metabolism of the bacterial microbiota presents several mechanisms oriented to keep a correctly balanced amino acid pool. Central components of these mechanisms are enzymes with alanine transaminase activity, pyridoxal 5?-phosphate-dependent enzymes that interconvert alanine and pyruvate, thereby allowing the precise control of alanine and glutamate concentrations, two of the most abundant amino acids in the cellular amino acid pool. Here we report the 2.11-Å crystal structure of full-length AlaA from the model organism Escherichia coli, a major bacterial alanine aminotransferase, and compare its overall structure and active site composition with detailed atomic models of two other bacterial enzymes capable of catalyzing this reaction in vivo, AlaC and valine-pyruvate aminotransferase (AvtA). Apart from a narrow entry channel to the active site, a feature of this new crystal structure is the role of an active site loop that closes in upon binding of substrate-mimicking molecules, and which has only been previously reported in a plant enzyme. Comparison of the available structures indicates that beyond superficial differences, alanine aminotransferases of diverse phylogenetic origins share a universal reaction mechanism that depends on an array of highly conserved amino acid residues and is similarly regulated by various unrelated motifs. Despite this unifying mechanism and regulation, growth competition experiments demonstrate that AlaA, AlaC and AvtA are not freely exchangeable in vivo, suggesting that their functional repertoire is not completely redundant thus providing an explanation for their independent evolutionary conservation. PMID:25014014

  8. Liver disease - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - liver disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on liver disease : American Liver Foundation - www.liverfoundation.org Children's Liver Association for Support Services - www.classkids.org Hepatitis ...

  9. Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Home Cancers Selected for Study Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma Last Updated: May 14, 2013 What is liver cancer?Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common form of liver cancer in the United States, making up more than

  10. Liver cancer - Hepatocellular carcinoma

    MedlinePLUS

    Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Cancer - liver; Hepatoma ... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually seen in people age 50 or older. Hepatocellular ...

  11. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Liver cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the liver. The liver is one of the largest organs ...

  12. Androgenic steroid effects on liver and red cells.

    PubMed Central

    Alén, M

    1985-01-01

    Haematological and hepatic effects of testosterone/anabolic steroid self-administration were investigated in five power athletes during 26 weeks of training. During steroid administration blood haematocrit had increased 9.6% (p less than .05) in the study group (n = 5), but not in the control group (n = 6). This erythropoietic phenomenon was supported by increased (p less than .05) RBC and unchanged MCV. Blood haemoglobin concentration did not change markedly and consequently MCHC level in the study group decreased significantly (p less than .001). Also the erythrocyte sedimentation rate decreased (p less than .05) in the study group. The mean values of serum alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyltransferase were and remained within normal range in both groups, although those of the study group were higher. The mean values of serum aspartate aminotransferase exceeded the normal range (56 U/l, at highest) but this may be of muscular rather than hepatic origin because of the severe training. It can be concluded that erythropoiesis was stimulated and liver function mildly impaired due to sustained high-dose testosterone/anabolic steroid administration. Images p15-a PMID:3995222

  13. Effects of maternal ethanol ingestion on uptake of glucose alanine analogs in fetal rats

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, A.K.; Singh, S.P.; Pullen, G.L.

    1986-05-01

    The distribution of maternally-derived glucose and alanine has been studied in selected tissues of fetuses from ethanol-fed (EF) rats (30% of caloric intake throughout gestation). Controls received diet without ethanol by pair-feeding (PF) or ad libitum (AF). On the 22nd day of gestation, 2 ..mu..Ci /sup 3/H 2-deoxyglucose (DG) and 1 ..mu..Ci /sup 14/C ..cap alpha..-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) were administered i.v. to each rat. One hour later, maternal blood, placenta, and fetal blood, liver, lung and brain were sampled for /sup 3/H and /sup 14/C activities. When compared to either control group, the mean /sup 14/C AIB activities of tissues from EF animals were reduced from 19 to 46%, with the greatest effect seen in the brain (3.7 +/- 0.1, 7.2 +/- 0.3 and 6.9 +/- 1.3 dpm/mg in EF, PF and AF fetuses respectively). In addition, the ratios of tissue:plasma /sup 14/C were reduced (p < 0.01 or lower) in the EF fetal tissues and placenta. Maternal ethanol ingestion reduced the /sup 3/H 2-DG content of placenta (p < 0.05) and of brain (38.6 + 1.2, 48.1 +/- 1.2 and 47.2 +/- 1.2 in EF, PF and AF, p < 0.001). Brain weight showed significant positive correlations with AIB content (r = 0.466, p < 0.001) and with 2-DG content (r = 0.267, p < 0.01). Impaired uptake of maternally-derived nutrients may play a significant role in the effects of ethanol in utero.

  14. Calcium Signaling in the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Amaya, Maria Jimena; Nathanson, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) is a highly versatile second messenger that regulates a wide range of functions in every type of cell and tissue. To achieve this versatility, the Ca2+ signaling system operates in a variety of ways to regulate cellular processes that function over a wide dynamic range. This is particularly well exemplified for Ca2+ signals in the liver, which modulate diverse and specialized functions such as bile secretion, glucose metabolism, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. These Ca2+ signals are organized to control distinct cellular processes through tight spatial and temporal coordination of [Ca2+]i signals, both within and between cells. This article will review the machinery responsible for the formation of Ca2+ signals in the liver, the types of subcellular, cellular, and intercellular signals that occur, the physiological role of Ca2+ signaling in the liver, and the role of Ca2+ signaling in liver disease. PMID:23720295

  15. Calibration of helical tomotherapy machine using EPR/alanine dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Perichon, Nicolas; Garcia, Tristan; Francois, Pascal; Lourenco, Valerie; Lesven, Caroline; Bordy, Jean-Marc [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette CEDEX (France); Department of Physics, Institut Curie, 26 rue d'Ulm, 75005 Paris (France); CEA, LIST, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette CEDEX (France); Department of Physics, Institut Curie, 26 rue d'Ulm, 75005 Paris (France); CEA, LIST, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette CEDEX (France)

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: Current codes of practice for clinical reference dosimetry of high-energy photon beams in conventional radiotherapy recommend using a 10x10 cm{sup 2} square field, with the detector at a reference depth of 10 cm in water and 100 cm source to surface distance (SSD) (AAPM TG-51) or 100 cm source-to-axis distance (SAD) (IAEA TRS-398). However, the maximum field size of a helical tomotherapy (HT) machine is 40x5 cm{sup 2} defined at 85 cm SAD. These nonstandard conditions prevent a direct implementation of these protocols. The purpose of this study is twofold: To check the absorbed dose in water and dose rate calibration of a tomotherapy unit as well as the accuracy of the tomotherapy treatment planning system (TPS) calculations for a specific test case. Method: Both topics are based on the use of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) using alanine as transfer dosimeter between the Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNHB) {sup 60}Co-{gamma}-ray reference beam and the Institut Curie's HT beam. Irradiations performed in the LNHB reference {sup 60}Co-{gamma}-ray beam allowed setting up the calibration method, which was then implemented and tested at the LNHB 6 MV linac x-ray beam, resulting in a deviation of 1.6% (at a 1% standard uncertainty) relative to the reference value determined with the standard IAEA TRS-398 protocol. Results: HT beam dose rate estimation shows a difference of 2% with the value stated by the manufacturer at a 2% standard uncertainty. A 4% deviation between measured dose and the calculation from the tomotherapy TPS was found. The latter was originated by an inadequate representation of the phantom CT-scan values and, consequently, mass densities within the phantom. This difference has been explained by the mass density values given by the CT-scan and used by the TPS which were not the true ones. Once corrected using Monte Carlo N-Particle simulations to validate the accuracy of this process, the difference between corrected TPS calculations and alanine measured dose values was then found to be around 2% (with 2% standard uncertainty on TPS doses and 1.5% standard uncertainty on EPR measurements). Conclusion: Beam dose rate estimation results were found to be in good agreement with the reference value given by the manufacturer at 2% standard uncertainty. Moreover, the dose determination method was set up with a deviation around 2% (at a 2% standard uncertainty).

  16. Protective effect of Zhuyeqing liquor, a Chinese traditional health liquor, on acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The study first evaluated the hepatoprotective effect of Zhuyeqing Liquor (ZYQL) against acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. Animals were administered orally with 50% alcohol 12 ml/kg at 4 h after the doses of ZYQL everyday for fourteen consecutive days except mice in normal group. The protective effect was evaluated by biochemical parameters including serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), total-bilirubin (TBIL) and reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver tissue. The result were confirmed histopathologically and the expression of TNF-? in mice liver was determined by immunohistochemistry analysis. HPLC-PDA was used for phytochemical analysis of ZYQL, and the plant source of each compound was claritied by UPLC-TOF-MS. The result showed that pretreatment with ZYQL exhibited a significant protective effect by reversing the biochemical parameters and histopathological changes in a dose depended manner. HPLC analysis indicated that ZYQL contained flavonoids, iridoids, terpenoids and phenolic acids, which might be the active chemicals. This study demonstrated the hepatoprotective activity of ZYQL, thus scientifically supported the function of its health care. PMID:24090365

  17. An alteration of the gut-liver axis drives pulmonary inflammation after intoxication and burn injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Michael M; Zahs, Anita; Brown, Mary M; Ramirez, Luis; Turner, Jerrold R; Choudhry, Mashkoor A; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2014-10-01

    Approximately half of all adult burn patients are intoxicated at the time of their injury and have worse clinical outcomes than those without prior alcohol exposure. This study tested the hypothesis that intoxication alters the gut-liver axis, leading to increased pulmonary inflammation mediated by burn-induced IL-6 in the liver. C57BL/6 mice were given 1.2 g/kg ethanol 30 min prior to a 15% total body surface area burn. To restore gut barrier function, the specific myosin light chain kinase inhibitor membrane-permeant inhibitor of kinase (PIK), which we have demonstrated to reduce bacterial translocation from the gut, was administered 30 min after injury. Limiting bacterial translocation with PIK attenuated hepatic damage as measured by a 47% reduction in serum alanine aminotransferase (P < 0.05), as well as a 33% reduction in hepatic IL-6 mRNA expression (P < 0.05), compared with intoxicated and burn-injured mice without PIK. This mitigation of hepatic damage was associated with a 49% decline in pulmonary neutrophil infiltration (P < 0.05) and decreased alveolar wall thickening compared with matched controls. These results were reproduced by prophylactic reduction of the bacterial load in the intestines with oral antibiotics before intoxication and burn injury. Overall, these data suggest that the gut-liver axis is deranged when intoxication precedes burn injury and that limiting bacterial translocation in this setting attenuates hepatic damage and pulmonary inflammation. PMID:25104501

  18. [Liver diseases].

    PubMed

    Calleja, José Luis; Albillos, Agustín; Bañares, Rafael

    2008-10-01

    In Digestive Disease Week 2008, interesting advances in the treatment of hepatitis C were presented, especially related to the promising increase in the therapeutic efficacy of the combination of conventional treatment with the protease inhibitor, telaprevir. Also revealed was the influence of viral replication of hepatitis B virus in the development of complications, including hepatocarcinoma. In this sense, drugs such as entecavir and tenofovir seem to provide sustained inhibition of viral replication without the development of resistance. Among the complications of cirrhosis, the growing prognostic implications of bacterial infections, associated with an increased risk of death, have been demonstrated. Likewise, diverse studies have provided greater understanding of the role of elastography in the evaluation of liver fibrosis, including the role of this technique in the evaluation of treatment response and in liver transplantation. The importance of fatty acid liver disease was clearly shown in several studies confirming the influence of diabetes in the presence of inflammation and fibrosis and the increase in the i