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1

Effect of alanine on D-galactosamine-induced acute liver failure in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of high-dose alanine on survival and liver function in rats with acute liver failure caused by a lethal dose of D-galactosamine (D-gal) was studied. Greater than 90% of control animals died within 5 days after D-gal injection, but alanine significantly decreased mortality, even when treatment was started at 12 hours after D-gal injection. Alanyl-glutamine had a slight effect,

K Maezono; K Mawatari; K Kajiwara; A Shinkai; T Maki

1996-01-01

2

Alanine  

PubMed Central

The rice blast pathogen, Magnaporthe oryzae has been widely used as a model pathogen to study plant infection-related fungal morphogenesis, such as penetration via appressorium and plant-microbe interactions at the molecular level. Previously, we identified a gene encoding peroxisomal alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 (AGT1) in M. oryzae and demonstrated that the AGT1 was indispensable for pathogenicity. The AGT1 knockout mutants were unable to penetrate the host plants, such as rice and barley, and therefore were non-pathogenic. The inability of ?Moagt1 mutants to penetrate the susceptible plants was likely due to the disruption in coordination of the ?-oxidation and the glyoxylate cycle resulted from a blockage in lipid droplet mobilization and eventually utilization during conidial germination and appressorium morphogenesis, respectively. Here, we further demonstrate the role of AGT1 in lipid mobilization by in vitro germination assays and confocal microscopy. PMID:22899049

Bhadauria, Vijai; Banniza, Sabine; Vandenberg, Albert; Selvaraj, Gopalan; Wei, Yangdou

2012-01-01

3

Drug-induced liver injury in hospitalized patients with notably elevated alanine aminotransferase  

PubMed Central

AIM: To identify the proportion, causes and the nature of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in patients with notably elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT). METHODS: All the inpatients with ALT levels above 10 times upper limit of normal range (ULN) were retrospectively identified from a computerized clinical laboratory database at our hospital covering a 12-mo period. Relevant clinical information was obtained from medical records. Alternative causes of ALT elevations were examined for each patient, including biliary abnormality, viral hepatitis, hemodynamic injury, malignancy, DILI or undetermined and other causes. All suspected DILI cases were causality assessed using the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale, and only the cases classified as highly probable, probable, or possible were diagnosed as DILI. Comments related to the diagnosis of DILI in the medical record and in the discharge letter for each case were also examined to evaluate DILI detection by the treating doctors. RESULTS: A total of 129 cases with ALT > 10 ULN were identified. Hemodynamic injury (n = 46, 35.7%), DILI (n = 25, 19.4%) and malignancy (n = 21, 16.3%) were the top three causes of liver injury. Peak ALT values were lower in DILI patients than in patients with hemodynamic injury (14.5 ± 5.6 ULN vs 32.5 ± 30.7 ULN, P = 0.001). Among DILI patients, one (4%) case was classified as definite, 19 (76%) cases were classified as probable and 5 (20%) as possible according to the CIOMS scale. A hepatocellular pattern was observed in 23 (92%) cases and mixed in 2 (8%). The extent of severity of liver injury was mild in 21 (84%) patients and moderate in 4 (16%). Before discharge, 10 (40%) patients were recovered and the other 15 (60%) were improved. The improved patients tended to have a higher peak ALT (808 ± 348 U/L vs 623 ± 118 U/L, P = 0.016) and shorter treatment duration before discharge (8 ± 6 d vs 28 ± 12 d, P = 0.008) compared with the recovered patients. Twenty-two drugs and 6 herbs were found associated with DILI. Antibacterials were the most common agents causing DILI in 8 (32%) cases, followed by glucocorticoids in 6 (24%) cases. Twenty-four (96%) cases received treatment of DILI with at least one adjunctive drug. Agents for treatment of DILI included anti-inflammatory drugs (e.g., glycyrrhizinate), antioxidants (e.g., glutathione, ademetionine 1,4-butanedisulfonate and tiopronin), polyene phosphatidyl choline and herbal extracts (e.g., protoporphyrin disodium and silymarin). Diagnosis of DILI was not mentioned in the discharge letter in 60% of the cases. Relative to prevalent cases and cases from wards of internal medicine, incident cases and cases from surgical wards had a higher risk of missed diagnosis in discharge letter [odds ratio (OR) 32.7, 95%CI (2.8-374.1), and OR 58.5, 95%CI (4.6-746.6), respectively]. CONCLUSION: DILI is mostly caused by use of antibacterials and glucocorticoids, and constitutes about one fifth of hospitalized patients with ALT > 10 ULN. DILI is underdiagnosed frequently. PMID:23139615

Xu, Hui-Min; Chen, Yan; Xu, Jie; Zhou, Quan

2012-01-01

4

Determination of Alanine Aminotransferase with an Electrochemical Nano Ir-C Biosensor for the Screening of Liver Diseases  

PubMed Central

Alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), is an enzyme that normally resides in serum and body tissues, especially in the liver. It is released into the serum as a result of tissue injury; hence the concentration of ALT in the serum may be increased with acute damage to hepatic cells. A single use, disposable biosensor, comprising iridium nano-particle as catalyst dispersed on carbon paste, has been developed for the determination of ALT concentration. The biosensor is based on quantifying H2O2 concentration produced by a serial of ALT enzymatic reactions. It operates well at room temperature in different physiological fluids: phosphate buffer, calf serum and human serum for ALT concentration of 0–544 ng/mL. Experimental results in human serum are compared to those obtained by spectrophotometric assays with excellent agreement. Therefore, the Ir/C biosensor shows good relationship on the dilution of concentrated ALT clinical applications. PMID:25586923

Hsueh, Chang-Jung; Wang, Joanne H.; Dai, Liming; Liu, Chung-Chiun

2011-01-01

5

Abnormality on Liver Function Test  

PubMed Central

Children with abnormal liver function can often be seen in outpatient clinics or inpatients wards. Most of them have respiratory disease, or gastroenteritis by virus infection, accompanying fever. Occasionally, hepatitis by the viruses causing systemic infection may occur, and screening tests are required. In patients with jaundice, the tests for differential diagnosis and appropriate treatment are important. In the case of a child with hepatitis B virus infection vertically from a hepatitis B surface antigen positive mother, the importance of the recognition of immune clearance can't be overstressed, for the decision of time to begin treatment. Early diagnosis changes the fate of a child with Wilson disease. So, screening test for the disease should not be omitted. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is mainly discovered in obese children, is a new strong candidate triggering abnormal liver function. Muscular dystrophy is a representative disease mimicking liver dysfunction. Although muscular dystrophy is a progressive disorder, and early diagnosis can't change the fate of patients, it will be better to avoid parent's blame for delayed diagnosis. PMID:24511518

2013-01-01

6

?-alanine supplementation improves tactical performance but not cognitive function in combat soldiers  

PubMed Central

Background There are no known studies that have examined ?-alanine supplementation in military personnel. Considering the physiological and potential neurological effects that have been reported during sustained military operations, it appears that ?-alanine supplementation may have a potential benefit in maintaining physical and cognitive performance during high-intensity military activity under stressful conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 28 days of ?-alanine ingestion in military personnel while fatigued on physical and cognitive performance. Methods Twenty soldiers (20.1?±?0.9 years) from an elite combat unit were randomly assigned to either a ?-alanine (BA) or placebo (PL) group. Soldiers were involved in advanced military training, including combat skill development, navigational training, self-defense/hand-to-hand combat and conditioning. All participants performed a 4-km run, 5-countermovement jumps using a linear position transducer, 120-m sprint, a 10-shot shooting protocol with assault rifle, including overcoming a misfire, and a 2-min serial subtraction test to assess cognitive function before (Pre) and after (Post) 28 days of supplementation. Results The training routine resulted in significant increases in 4-km run time for both groups, but no between group differences were seen (p?=?0.597). Peak jump power at Post was greater for BA than PL (p?=?0.034), while mean jump power for BA at Post was 10.2% greater (p?=?0.139) than PL. BA had a significantly greater (p?=?0.012) number of shots on target at Post (8.2?±?1.0) than PL (6.5?±?2.1), and their target engagement speed at Post was also significantly faster (p?=?0.039). No difference in serial subtraction performance was seen between the groups (p?=?0.844). Conclusion Results of this study indicate that 4-weeks of ?-alanine ingestion in young, healthy soldiers did not impact cognitive performance, but did enhance power performance, marksmanship and target engagement speed from pre-ingestion levels. PMID:24716994

2014-01-01

7

Oxygen radical-mediated oxidation reactions of an alanine peptide motif - density functional theory and transition state theory study  

PubMed Central

Background Oxygen-base (O-base) oxidation in protein backbone is important in the protein backbone fragmentation due to the attack from reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, an alanine peptide was used model system to investigate this O-base oxidation by employing density functional theory (DFT) calculations combining with continuum solvent model. Detailed reaction steps were analyzed along with their reaction rate constants. Results Most of the O-base oxidation reactions for this alanine peptide are exothermic except for the bond-breakage of the C?-N bond to form hydroperoxy alanine radical. Among the reactions investigated in this study, the activated energy of OH ?-H abstraction is the lowest one, while the generation of alkylperoxy peptide radical must overcome the highest energy barrier. The aqueous situation facilitates the oxidation reactions to generate hydroxyl alanine peptide derivatives except for the fragmentations of alkoxyl alanine peptide radical. The C?-C? bond of the alkoxyl alanine peptide radical is more labile than the peptide bond. Conclusion the rate-determining step of oxidation in protein backbone is the generation of hydroperoxy peptide radical via the reaction of alkylperoxy peptide radical with HO2. The stabilities of alkylperoxy peptide radical and complex of alkylperoxy peptide radical with HO2 are crucial in this O-base oxidation reaction. PMID:22524792

2012-01-01

8

Eukaryotic beta-alanine synthases are functionally related but have a high degree of structural diversity.  

PubMed Central

beta-Alanine synthase (EC 3.5.1.6), which catalyzes the final step of pyrimidine catabolism, has only been characterized in mammals. A Saccharomyces kluyveri pyd3 mutant that is unable to grow on N-carbamyl-beta-alanine as the sole nitrogen source and exhibits diminished beta-alanine synthase activity was used to clone analogous genes from different eukaryotes. Putative PYD3 sequences from the yeast S. kluyveri, the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster complemented the pyd3 defect. When the S. kluyveri PYD3 gene was expressed in S. cerevisiae, which has no pyrimidine catabolic pathway, it enabled growth on N-carbamyl-beta-alanine as the sole nitrogen source. The D. discoideum and D. melanogaster PYD3 gene products are similar to mammalian beta-alanine synthases. In contrast, the S. kluyveri protein is quite different from these and more similar to bacterial N-carbamyl amidohydrolases. All three beta-alanine synthases are to some degree related to various aspartate transcarbamylases, which catalyze the second step of the de novo pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway. PYD3 expression in yeast seems to be inducible by dihydrouracil and N-carbamyl-beta-alanine, but not by uracil. This work establishes S. kluyveri as a model organism for studying pyrimidine degradation and beta-alanine production in eukaryotes. PMID:11454750

Gojkovi?, Z; Sandrini, M P; Piskur, J

2001-01-01

9

Evaluation of abnormal liver function tests  

PubMed Central

Interpretation of abnormalities in liver function tests is a common problem faced by clinicians. This has become more common with the introduction of automated routine laboratory testing. Not all persons with one or more abnormalities in these tests actually have liver disease. The various biochemical tests, their pathophysiology, and an approach to the interpretation of abnormal liver function tests are discussed in this review. PMID:12840117

Limdi, J; Hyde, G

2003-01-01

10

The subcellular distribution of rat liver l-alanine–glyoxylate aminotransferase in relation to a pathway for glucose formation involving glyoxylate  

PubMed Central

1. The distribution of l-alanine–glyoxylate aminotransferase activity between subcellular fractions prepared from rat liver homogenates was investigated. The greater part of the homogenate activity (about 80%) was recovered in the `total-particles' fraction sedimented by high-speed centrifugation and the remainder in the cytosol fraction. 2. Subfractionation of the particles by differential sedimentation and on sucrose density gradients revealed a specific association between the aminotransferase and the mitochondrial enzymes glutamate dehydrogenase and rhodanese. 3. The aminotransferase activities in the cytosol and the mitochondria are due to isoenzymes. The solubilized mitochondrial enzyme has a pH optimum of 8.6, an apparent Km of 0.24mm with respect to glyoxylate and is inhibited by glyoxylate at concentrations above 5mm. The cytosol aminotransferase shows no distinct pH optimum (over the range 7.0–9.0) and has an apparent Km of 1.11mm with respect to glyoxylate; there is no evidence of inhibition by glyoxylate. 4. The mitochondrial location of the bulk of the rat liver l-alanine–glyoxylate aminotransferase activity is discussed in relation to a pathway for gluconeogenesis involving glyoxylate. PMID:5073739

Rowsell, E. V.; Snell, K.; Carnie, J. A.; Rowsell, Kathleen V.

1972-01-01

11

ALT (Alanine Aminotransferase) Test  

MedlinePLUS

... disease Iron tests and genetic tests for hereditary hemochromatosis A liver biopsy may be performed to help ... Conditions: Liver Disease , Hepatitis , Cirrhosis , Alcoholism , Wilson Disease , Hemochromatosis Elsewhere On The Web MayoClinic.com: Liver Function ...

12

Ste20Related Proline\\/Alanine-Rich Kinase (SPAK) Regulated Transcriptionally by Hyperosmolarity Is Involved in Intestinal Barrier Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ste20-related protein proline\\/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) plays important roles in cellular functions such as cell differentiation and regulation of chloride transport, but its roles in pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation remain largely unknown. Here we report significantly increased SPAK expression levels in hyperosmotic environments, such as mucosal biopsy samples from patients with Crohn's disease, as well as colon tissues of C57BL\\/6

Yutao Yan; Guillaume Dalmasso; Hang Thi Thu Nguyen; Tracy S. Obertone; Shanthi V. Sitaraman; Didier Merlin; Stefan Bereswill

2009-01-01

13

Multiphoton microscopy in defining liver function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiphoton microscopy is the preferred method when in vivo deep-tissue imaging is required. This review presents the application of multiphoton microscopy in defining liver function. In particular, multiphoton microscopy is useful in imaging intracellular events, such as mitochondrial depolarization and cellular metabolism in terms of NAD(P)H changes with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. The morphology of hepatocytes can be visualized without exogenously administered fluorescent dyes by utilizing their autofluorescence and second harmonic generation signal of collagen, which is useful in diagnosing liver disease. More specific imaging, such as studying drug transport in normal and diseased livers are achievable, but require exogenously administered fluorescent dyes. If these techniques can be translated into clinical use to assess liver function, it would greatly improve early diagnosis of organ viability, fibrosis, and cancer.

Thorling, Camilla A.; Crawford, Darrell; Burczynski, Frank J.; Liu, Xin; Liau, Ian; Roberts, Michael S.

2014-09-01

14

Monitoring of Total and Regional Liver Function after SIRT  

PubMed Central

Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) is a promising treatment modality for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma or metastatic liver cancer. SIRT is usually well tolerated. However, in most patients, SIRT will result in a (temporary) decreased liver function. Occasionally patients develop radioembolization-induced liver disease (REILD). In case of a high tumor burden of the liver, it could be beneficial to perform SIRT in two sessions enabling the primary untreated liver segments to guarantee liver function until function in the treated segments has recovered or functional hypertrophy has occurred. Clinically used liver function tests provide evidence of only one of the many liver functions, though all of them lack the possibility of assessment of segmental (regional) liver function. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HBS) has been validated as a tool to assess total and regional liver function in liver surgery. It is also used to assess segmental liver function before and after portal vein embolization. HBS is considered as a valuable quantitative liver function test enabling assessment of segmental liver function recovery after regional intervention and determination of future remnant liver function. We present two cases in which HBS was used to monitor total and regional liver function in a patient after repeated whole liver SIRT complicated with REILD and a patient treated unilaterally without complications. PMID:24982851

Bennink, Roelof J.; Cieslak, Kasia P.; van Delden, Otto M.; van Lienden, Krijn P.; Klümpen, Heinz-Josef; Jansen, Peter L.; van Gulik, Thomas M.

2014-01-01

15

Intermittent ischaemia maintains function after ischaemia reperfusion in steatotic livers  

PubMed Central

Background: Ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) and intermittent ischaemia (INT) reduce liver injury after ischaemia reperfusion (IR). Steatotic livers are at a higher risk of IR injury, but the protection offered by IPC and INT is not well understood. The aim of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of IPC and INT in maintaining liver function in steatotic livers. Material and methods: A model of segmental hepatic ischaemia (45 min) and reperfusion (60 min) was employed using lean and obese Zucker rats. Bile flow recovery was measured to assess dynamic liver function, hepatocyte fat content quantified and blood electrolytes, metabolites and bile calcium measured to assess liver and whole body physiology. Liver marker enzymes and light and electron microscopy were employed to assess hepatocyte injury. Results: IPC was not effective in promoting bile flow recovery after IR in either lean or steatotic livers, whereas INT promoted good bile flow recovery in steatotic as well as lean livers. However, the bile flow recovery in steatotic livers was less than that in lean livers. In steatotic livers, ischaemia led to a rapid and substantial decrease in fat content. Steatotic livers were more susceptible to IR injury than lean livers, as indicated by increased blood ALT concentrations and major histological injury. Conclusion: INT is more effective than IPC in restoring liver function in the acute phase of IR in steatotic livers. In obese patients, INT may be useful in promoting better liver function after IR after liver resection. PMID:20590895

Steenks, Mathilde; van Baal, Mark CPM; Nieuwenhuijs, Vincent B; de Bruijn, Menno T; Schiesser, Marc; Teo, Mike H; Callahan, Tom; Padbury, Rob TA; Barritt, Greg J

2010-01-01

16

Muscular exercise can cause highly pathological liver function tests in healthy men  

PubMed Central

Aim To investigate the effect of intensive muscular exercise (weightlifting) on clinical chemistry parameters reflecting liver function in healthy men. Methods Fifteen healthy men, used to moderate physical activity not including weightlifting, performed an 1 h long weightlifting programme. Blood was sampled for clinical chemistry parameters [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LD), gamma-glutamyl transferase (?GT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, creatine kinase (CK) and myoglobin] at repeated intervals during 7 days postexercise and at a follow-up examination 10–12 days postexercise. Results Five out of eight studied clinical chemistry parameters (AST, ALT, LD, CK and myoglobin) increased significantly after exercise (P < 0.01) and remained increased for at least 7 days postexercise. Bilirubin, ?GT and ALP remained within the normal range. Conclusion The liver function parameters, AST and ALT, were significantly increased for at least 7 days after the exercise. In addition, LD and, in particular, CK and myoglobin showed highly elevated levels. These findings highlight the importance of imposing restrictions on weightlifting prior to and during clinical studies. Intensive muscular exercise, e.g. weightlifting, should also be considered as a cause of asymptomatic elevations of liver function tests in daily clinical practice. What is already known about this subject The occurrence of idiosyncratic drug hepatotoxicity is a major problem in all phases of clinical drug development and the leading cause of postmarketing warnings and withdrawals.Physical exercise can result in transient elevations of liver function tests.There is no consensus in the literature on which forms of exercise may cause changes in liver function tests and to what extent. What this study adds Weightlifting results in profound increases in liver function tests in healthy men used to moderate physical activity, not including weightlifting.Liver function tests are significantly increased for at least 7 days after weightlifting.It is important to impose relevant restrictions on heavy muscular exercise prior to and during clinical studies. PMID:17764474

Pettersson, Jonas; Hindorf, Ulf; Persson, Paula; Bengtsson, Thomas; Malmqvist, Ulf; Werkström, Viktoria; Ekelund, Mats

2008-01-01

17

Liver Function Profile Anomalies in HIV Seropositive Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Background: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and the Tuberculosis (TB) co infection are contributory to each other in causing a progressive decline in the cell mediated immunity and a damage to the hepatobiliary system. The aim of our study was to estimate the extent of liver damage which was caused by these infections before the start of the therapy with hepatotoxic drugs like Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) and Antitubercular Drugs (ATD). Methods: One hundred and ninty three confirmed HIV positive cases were enrolled in this study. The cases were divided into 2 groups; Group 1-100 subjects with TB and Group 2-93 subjects without TB.80 age and sex matched controls were also included (Group 0). Some parameters of the serum Liver Function Test (LFT) were estimated biochemically by using an auto analyzer (ERBA XL600,Transasia). Results: The serum total bilirubin, Alanine Transaminase (ALT), Aspartate Transaminase (AST) and the Alkaline Phosphatase (ALK-P) levels were significantly higher in the cases as compared to those in the controls, more so in the cases with the associated TB co infection, except the AST levels. The Group 1subjects had lower serum total protein and albumin levels and altered albumin/globulin ratios as compared to the controls. A statistically significant difference was absent in the serum total protein levels between the Group 2 cases and the Group 0 controls. No significant differences were observed when the values for serum total protein, albumin and globulin and the albumin: globulin ratios among the two case groups (1 and 2) were compared. Conclusion: The results have shown the importance of estimating some LFT parameters, prior to the start of ATD and ART in these cases. Hence, a mandatory performance of LFT is recommended, as it is simple and cost effective. PMID:23905105

Dey, Subir Kumar; Ghosh, Indranath; Bhattacharjee, Debojyoti; A., Praveen; Jha, Sumanta; Dasgupta, Anindya; Dey, Sukanta Kumar

2013-01-01

18

VanX, a bacterial d-alanyl-d-alanine dipeptidase: Resistance, immunity, or survival function?  

PubMed Central

The zinc-containing d-alanyl-d-alanine (d-Ala-d-Ala) dipeptidase VanX has been detected in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, where it appears to have adapted to at least three distinct physiological roles. In pathogenic vancomycin-resistant enterococci, vanX is part of a five-gene cluster that is switched on to reprogram cell-wall biosynthesis to produce peptidoglycan chain precursors terminating in d-alanyl-d-lactate (d-Ala-d-lactate) rather than d-Ala-d-Ala. The modified peptidoglycan exhibits a 1,000-fold decrease in affinity for vancomycin, accounting for the observed phenotypic resistance. In the glycopeptide antibiotic producers Streptomyces toyocaensis and Amylocatopsis orientalis, a vanHAX operon may have coevolved with antibiotic biosynthesis genes to provide immunity by reprogramming cell-wall termini to d-Ala-d-lactate as antibiotic biosynthesis is initiated. In the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli, which is never challenged by the glycopeptide antibiotics because they cannot penetrate the outer membrane permeability barrier, the vanX homologue (ddpX) is cotranscribed with a putative dipeptide transport system (ddpABCDF) in stationary phase by the transcription factor RpoS (?s). The combined action of DdpX and the permease would permit hydrolysis of d-Ala-d-Ala transported back into the cytoplasm from the periplasm as cell-wall crosslinks are refashioned. The d-Ala product could then be oxidized as an energy source for cell survival under starvation conditions. PMID:10500118

Lessard, Ivan A. D.; Walsh, Christopher T.

1999-01-01

19

Liver function in survivors of the atomic bomb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screening liver function tests were obtained in survivors of the atomic ; bomb and matched nonexposed controls. Subjects with test values greater than two ; standard deviations from the mean received a detailed clinical evaluation. There ; was no evident long-term effect of exposure to the atomic bomb on liver function, ; detectable clinical liver disease, or hepatic histology. (auth);

P. B. Gregory; K. Amamoto; P. G. Archer; R. R. Rickert; Y. Omori; O. J. Jr. Bizzozero; H. W. Hamilton; K. G. Johnson

1975-01-01

20

A Clinical Perspective on the Criteria for Liver Resection and the Use of Liver Function Tests  

E-print Network

Ó The Author(s) 2009. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com To the Editor, In a recently published survey of 100 liver centers, Breitenstein et al. [1] reported that on a global scale, (1) the average minimal remnant liver volume for resection is 25% (range = 15-40%) for normal liver parenchyma and 50% (range = 25–90%) for cirrhotic livers, (2) portal vein occlusion is employed in 89 % of the centers for purposes of augmenting liver volume before surgery, and that (3) 38 % of the centers employed liver function tests as part of their clinical routine, of which 76 % used the ICG clearance test. The interesting survey provoked a few issues that we feel obliged to address. The authors contend that ‘‘below a certain volume, a remnant liver cannot sustain metabolic, synthetic, and detoxifying functions’ ’ [1]—a statement that is unequivocal and uncontested. However, it should be born in mind that liver volume is not a directly proportional measure of liver function. We have demonstrated a few fundamental aspects of the volume-function relationship that support this notion: (i) Whereas liver function correlates with volume in uncompromised livers [2], there is significantly less correlation between liver volume and

Michal Heger; Wilmar Graaf; Roelof J. Bennink; Ulrich Beuers; Thomas M. Gulik; M. Heger; R. J. Bennink; U. Beuers

2009-01-01

21

Evaluation of Liver Function Tests to Predict Operative Risk in Liver Surgery  

PubMed Central

Despite numerous studies in the past it is not possible yet to predict postoperative liver failure and safe limits for hepatectomy. In this study the following liver function tests ICG-ER (indocyaninegreen elimination rate), GEC (galactose elimination capacity) and MEGX-F (monoethylglycinexylidid formation) are examined with regard to loss of liver tissue and prediction of operative risk. Liver function tests were assessed in 20 patients prior to liver resection and on the 10th. postoperative day. Liver and tumor volume were measured by ultrasound and pathologic specimen and the parenchymal resection rate was calculated. In patients without cirrhosis (n = 10) ICG-ER and MEGX-F remained unchanged after resection, GEC was reduced but did not correspond to the resection rate. Patients with cirrhosis (n = 10) had a significantly lower ICG-ER and GEC before resection than patients without cirrhosis. After resection these tests were unchanged. Patients with liver related complications and cirrhosis (n = 5) had lower ICG-ER and GEC than patients with cirrhosis and no complications. In the postoperative course all liver function tests in these patients were significantly lower compared to preoperative results. Comparing liver function tests ICG serves best to indicate postoperative liver failure. Liver function tests do not correspond with loss of liver tissue. PMID:8857448

Zoedler, Thomas; Ebener, Christoph; Becker, Heinz

1995-01-01

22

Liver Function Test Abnormalities in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: A Hospital-based Survey  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND AIMS Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are frequently associated with altered liver function tests (LFTs). The causal relationship between abnormal LFTs and IBD is unclear. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence and etiology of LFTs abnormalities and their association with clinical variables in a cohort of IBD patients followed up in a single center. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective review was undertaken of all consecutive IBD in- and outpatients routinely followed up at a single referral center. Clinical and demographic parameters were recorded. Subjects were excluded if they had a previous diagnosis of chronic liver disease. LFT abnormality was defined as an increase in aspartate aminotransferase, (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), or total bilirubin. RESULTS A cohort of 335 patients (179 males, mean age 46.0 ± 15.6 years) was analyzed. Abnormal LFTs were detected in 70 patients (20.9%). In most cases, the alterations were mild and spontaneously returned to normal values in about 60% of patients. Patients with abnormal LFTs were less frequently on treatment with aminosalicylates (22.8 vs. 36.6%, P = 0.04). The most frequent cause for transient abnormal LFTs was drug-induced cholestasis (34.1%), whereas fatty liver was the most frequent cause of persistent liver damage (65.4%). A cholestatic pattern was found in 60.0% of patients and was mainly related to older age, longer duration of disease, and hypertension. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of LFT abnormalities is relatively high in IBD patients, but the development of severe liver injury is exceptional. Moreover, most alterations of LFTs are mild and spontaneously return to normal values. Drug-induced hepatotoxicity and fatty liver are the most relevant causes of abnormal LFTs in patients with IBD. PMID:24966712

Cappello, Maria; Randazzo, Claudia; Bravatà, Ivana; Licata, Anna; Peralta, Sergio; Craxì, Antonio; Almasio, Piero Luigi

2014-01-01

23

Assessment of canine liver function by metabolism of lidocaine to monoethylglycinexylidide: a preclinical study  

E-print Network

in diagnosing and monitoring dogs with chronic progressive liver disease. The lidocaine-MEGX test is used in humans for evaluation of liver function during organ transplant selection, prognostication of chronic liver disease, prioritization of liver transplant...

Fradkin, Jonathan Matthew

2012-06-07

24

Correlation of ammonia clearance with classical liver function tests in normal and liver-damaged sheep  

E-print Network

the body is capable of utilizing. The liver is also involved in the regulation of the blood levels of numerous substances, a few of which are glucose, amino acids, vitamins, coagulation factors and plasma proteins. (I, 2, 3, 6, 7, 24, 25). The many...~ 4 25 ~ 27) Ammonia Clearance The liver removes ammonia from circulating blood and converts it into urea via the ornithine-arginine pathway of the Krebs urea cycle, (Figures 1 and 2) (2, 3, 7, 10, 11, 12, 13). The liver has a large functional...

Hansson, Lucille Ann

2012-06-07

25

Longitudinal Study on Liver Functions in Patients with Thalassemia Major before and after Deferasirox (DFX) Therapy  

PubMed Central

By performing regular blood transfusion and iron chelation therapy, most patients with beta thalassemia major (BTM) now survive beyond the third decade of life. Liver disease is becoming an important cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Chronic hepatitis and/or severe iron overload are both important causes of liver pathology. Iron chelation with desferrioxamine (DFO) reduces excessive body iron, but its efficacy is limited by poor compliance and dose related toxicity. The recent use of Deferasirox ( DFX ), an oral single dose therapy, has improved the compliance to chelation. Aims To study the long-term liver functions in BMT patients, seronegative for liver infections before versus after DFX treatment in relation to ferritin level. Methods Only BTM patients with hepatitis negative screening (checked every year) and on treatment with DFO for at least five years and with DFX for four years were enrolled. Liver function tests including serum bilirubin, alanine transferase (ALT), aspartate transferase (AST), albumin, insulin-like growth factor – I (IGF-I) and serum ferritin concentrations were followed every six months in 40 patients with BTM. Results DFX treatment (20 mg/kg/day) significantly decreased serum ferritin level in patients with BTM; this was associated with a significant decrease in serum ALT, AST, ALP and increase in IGF-I concentrations. Albumin concentrations did not change after DFX treatment. ALT and AST levels were correlated significantly with serum ferritin concentrations ( r = 0.45 and 0.33 respectively, p < 0.05). IGF-I concentrations were correlated significantly with serum ALT (r= 0.26, p = 0.05) but not with AST, ALP, bilirubin or albumin levels. The negative correlation between serum ferritin concentrations and ALT suggests that the impairment of hepatic function negatively affect IGF-I synthesis in these patients due to iron toxicity, even in the absence of hepatitis. Conclusions Some impairment of liver function can occur in hepatitis negative thalassemic patients with iron overload. The use of DFX was associated with mild but significant reduction of ALT, AST and ALP and increase in IGF-I levels. The negative correlation between IGF-I and ALT concentrations suggest that preventing hepatic dysfunction may improve the growth potential in these patients. PMID:24803998

Soliman, Ashraf; Yassin, Mohamed; Al Yafei, Fawzia; Al-Naimi, Lolwa; Almarri, Noora; Sabt, Aml; De Sanctis, Vincenzo

2014-01-01

26

Insight into structure-function relationship in phenol-soluble modulins using an alanine screen of the phenol-soluble modulin (PSM) ?3 peptide  

PubMed Central

Phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) are a family of peptides with multiple functions in staphylococcal pathogenesis. To gain insight into the structural features affecting PSM functions, we analyzed an alanine substitution library of PSM?3, a strongly cytolytic and proinflammatory PSM of Staphylococcus aureus with a significant contribution to S. aureus virulence. Lysine residues were essential for both receptor-dependent proinflammatory and receptor-independent cytolytic activities. Both phenotypes also required additional structural features, with the C terminus being crucial for receptor activation. Biofilm formation was affected mostly by hydrophobic amino acid positions, suggesting that the capacity to disrupt hydrophobic interactions is responsible for the effect of PSMs on biofilm structure. Antimicrobial activity, absent from natural PSM?3, could be created by the exchange of large hydrophobic side chains, indicating that PSM?3 has evolved to exhibit cytolytic rather than antimicrobial activity. In addition to gaining insight into the structure-function relationship in PSMs, our study identifies nontoxic PSM?3 derivatives for active vaccination strategies and lays the foundation for future efforts aimed to understand the biological role of PSM recognition by innate host defense.—Cheung, G. Y., Kretschmer, D., Queck, S. Y., Joo, H.-S., Wang, R., Duong, A. C., Nguyen, T. H., Bach, T.-H., Porter, A. R., DeLeo, F. R., Peschel, A., Otto, M. Insight into structure-function relationship in phenol-soluble modulins using an alanine screen of the phenol-soluble modulin (PSM) ?3 peptide. PMID:24008753

Cheung, Gordon Y. C.; Kretschmer, Dorothee; Queck, Shu Y.; Joo, Hwang-Soo; Wang, Rong; Duong, Anthony C.; Nguyen, Thuan H.; Bach, Thanh-Huy L.; Porter, Adeline R.; DeLeo, Frank R.; Peschel, Andreas; Otto, Michael

2014-01-01

27

Changes in lymphocyte single strand breakage and liver function of workers exposed to vinyl chloride monomer.  

PubMed

Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) is a suspected human carcinogen. Its metabolite, chloroethylene epoxide, is able to alkylate the DNA molecule and to produce single strand breakage (SSB). A total of 244 workers from 4 polyvinyl chloride (PVC) manufacturing factories were recruited to assess the SSB of their peripheral lymphocyte DNA. The method of alkaline unwinding and hydroxyapatite chromatography was used to detect and calculate frequencies of SSB. In addition, hepatitis B and C markers and the liver function of the workers were also examined. The worker's cumulative exposures to VCM were retrospectively constructed from the current monitoring data and each worker's job history. Multiple linear regression models were constructed to predict the worker's level of SSB and liver functions based on various exposure indices and variables, such as age, sex, smoking, drinking, and hepatitis markers. The results showed that current smoking and drinking status, and the presence of VCM exposures on the previous day were 3 major determinants of the level of SSB. Among the liver function tests, only gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) was associated with current VCM exposures. In contrast, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were mainly affected by the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) or anti-hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV). We conclude that GGT should be considered to be included in the regular health screening of VCM workers, and that the SSB method may not be suitable for long-term monitoring of cumulative exposure because of the quick DNA repair mechanism in humans. PMID:7618165

Du, C L; Kuo, M L; Chang, H L; Sheu, T J; Wang, J D

1995-05-01

28

Functions of autophagy in normal and diseased liver  

PubMed Central

Autophagy has emerged as a critical lysosomal pathway that maintains cell function and survival through the degradation of cellular components such as organelles and proteins. Investigations specifically employing the liver or hepatocytes as experimental models have contributed significantly to our current knowledge of autophagic regulation and function. The diverse cellular functions of autophagy, along with unique features of the liver and its principal cell type the hepatocyte, suggest that the liver is highly dependent on autophagy for both normal function and to prevent the development of disease states. However, instances have also been identified in which autophagy promotes pathological changes such as the development of hepatic fibrosis. Considerable evidence has accumulated that alterations in autophagy are an underlying mechanism of a number of common hepatic diseases including toxin-, drug- and ischemia/reperfusion-induced liver injury, fatty liver, viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. This review summarizes recent advances in understanding the roles that autophagy plays in normal hepatic physiology and pathophysiology with the intent of furthering the development of autophagy-based therapies for human liver diseases. PMID:23774882

Czaja, Mark J.; Ding, Wen-Xing; Donohue, Terrence M.; Friedman, Scott L.; Kim, Jae-Sung; Komatsu, Masaaki; Lemasters, John J.; Lemoine, Antoinette; Lin, Jiandie D.; Ou, Jing-hsiung James; Perlmutter, David H.; Randall, Glenn; Ray, Ratna B.; Tsung, Allan; Yin, Xiao-Ming

2013-01-01

29

Improvement of liver function in humans using a mixture of schisandra fruit extract and sesamin.  

PubMed

This was a randomized, parallel, and placebo-controlled study. Forty subjects were divided into a test group and a placebo group. The study was focused on the potential effects of a mixture of Schisandra fruit extract and sesamin (hereinafter called 'SCH') in the subjects with borderline high levels (40-60 U/L) of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Twenty subjects taking SCH (four tablets per day) and 20 subjects taking a placebo (four tablets per day) were studied. The effects of SCH on ALT, AST, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, free radical levels, total antioxidant status, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and the lag time for low-density lipoprotein oxidation were determined. The total test period was 5?months. Intervention of SCH clearly reduced the levels of ALT and AST, but it made no change in the total bilirubin and direct bilirubin. Intake of SCH also greatly increased the antioxidant capacity and decreased the values of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, total free radicals, and superoxide anion radicals in the plasma. The activities of glutathione peroxidase and reductase in the erythrocytes were significantly increased. In addition, the lag time for low-density lipoprotein oxidation, an inflammatory marker, was evidently increased. Fatty liver was found to have been significantly improved in this study. SCH proved to have the effects of antioxidation and improving liver function. PMID:22610748

Chiu, Hui-Fang; Chen, Tzy-Yen; Tzeng, Yu-Te; Wang, Chin-Kun

2013-03-01

30

Sarcopenia negatively affects preoperative total functional liver volume in patients undergoing liver resection  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Sarcopenia may negatively affect short-term outcomes after liver resection. The present study aimed to explore whether total functional liver volume (TFLV) is related to sarcopenia in patients undergoing partial liver resection. Methods: Analysis of total liver volume and tumour volume and measurements of muscle surface were performed in patients undergoing liver resection using OsiriX® and preoperative computed tomography. The ratio of TFLV to bodyweight was calculated as: [TFLV (ml)/bodyweight (g)]*100%. The L3 muscle index (cm2/m2) was then calculated by normalizing muscle areas (at the third lumbar vertebral level) for height. Results: Of 40 patients, 27 (67.5%) were classified as sarcopenic. There was a significant correlation between the L3 skeletal muscle index and TFLV (r= 0.64, P < 0.001). Median TFLV was significantly lower in the sarcopenia group than in the non-sarcopenia group [1396 ml (range: 1129–2625 ml) and 1840 ml (range: 867–2404 ml), respectively; P < 0.05]. Median TFLV : bodyweight ratio was significantly lower in the sarcopenia group than in the non-sarcopenia group [2.0% (range: 1.4–2.5%) and 2.3% (range: 1.5–2.5%), respectively; P < 0.05]. Conclusions: Sarcopenic patients had a disproportionally small preoperative TFLV compared with non-sarcopenic patients undergoing liver resection. The preoperative hepatic physiologic reserve may therefore be smaller in sarcopenic patients. PMID:23020663

Dello, Simon A. W. G.; Lodewick, Toine M.; van Dam, Ronald M.; Reisinger, Kostan W.; van den Broek, Maartje A. J.; von Meyenfeldt, Maarten F.; Bemelmans, Marc H. A.; Olde Damink, Steven W. M.; Dejong, Cornelis H. C.

2013-01-01

31

Liver cirrhosis in Fontan patients does not affect 1-year post-heart transplant mortality or markers of liver function  

PubMed Central

Background Liver cirrhosis is recognized with long-term follow-up of patients after the Fontan procedure. The effect of liver cirrhosis on the use of heart transplant (HT) and on post-HT outcomes is unknown. Methods We reviewed Fontan patients evaluated for HT from 2004 to 2012 with hepatic computed tomography (CT) imaging, classified as normal, non-cirrhotic changes, or cirrhosis. The primary outcome was 1-year all-cause mortality, and the secondary outcome was differences in serial post-HT liver evaluation. Results CT imaging in 32 Fontan patients evaluated for HT revealed 20 (63%) with evidence of liver disease, including 13 (41%) with cirrhosis. Twenty underwent HT, including 5 non-cirrhotic and 7 cirrhosis patients. Characteristics at listing between normal or non-cirrhotic (n = 13) and cirrhosis (n = 7) groups were similar, except cirrhosis patients were older (median 17.6 vs 9.6 years, p = 0.002) and further from Fontan (median 180 vs 50 months, p < 0.05). Serial liver evaluation was similar, including aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, bilirubin, albumin, and tacrolimus dose at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Overall patient survival was 80% at 1 year, with no difference between cirrhosis and non-cirrhosis patients (86% vs 77%, p = 0.681). Liver biopsies were performed in 7 patients before HT, and all specimens showed architectural changes with bridging fibrosis. Conclusions Most patients evaluated for HT had abnormal liver findings by CT, with cirrhosis in 41%. One-year mortality and serial liver evaluation were similar between groups after HT. Liver cirrhosis identified by CT imaging may not be an absolute contraindication to HT alone in this population. PMID:24365764

Simpson, Kathleen E.; Esmaeeli, Amir; Khanna, Geetika; White, Francis; Turnmelle, Yumirle; Eghtesady, Pirooz; Boston, Umar; Canter, Charles E.

2014-01-01

32

Peroxisomal Alanine: Glyoxylate Aminotransferase AGT1 Is Indispensable for Appressorium Function of the Rice Blast Pathogen, Magnaporthe oryzae  

PubMed Central

The role of ?-oxidation and the glyoxylate cycle in fungal pathogenesis is well documented. However, an ambiguity still remains over their interaction in peroxisomes to facilitate fungal pathogenicity and virulence. In this report, we characterize a gene encoding an alanine, glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 (AGT1) in Magnaporthe oryzae, the causative agent of rice blast disease, and demonstrate that AGT1 is required for pathogenicity of M. oryzae. Targeted deletion of AGT1 resulted in the failure of penetration via appressoria; therefore, mutants lacking the gene were unable to induce blast symptoms on the hosts rice and barley. This penetration failure may be associated with a disruption in lipid mobilization during conidial germination as turgor generation in the appressorium requires mobilization of lipid reserves from the conidium. Analysis of enhanced green fluorescent protein expression using the transcriptional and translational fusion with the AGT1 promoter and open reading frame, respectively, revealed that AGT1 expressed constitutively in all in vitro grown cell types and during in planta colonization, and localized in peroxisomes. Peroxisomal localization was further confirmed by colocalization with red fluorescent protein fused with the peroxisomal targeting signal 1. Surprisingly, conidia produced by the ?agt1 mutant were unable to form appressoria on artificial inductive surfaces, even after prolonged incubation. When supplemented with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)+pyruvate, appressorium formation was restored on an artificial inductive surface. Taken together, our data indicate that AGT1-dependent pyruvate formation by transferring an amino group of alanine to glyoxylate, an intermediate of the glyoxylate cycle is required for lipid mobilization and utilization. This pyruvate can be converted to non-fermentable carbon sources, which may require reoxidation of NADH generated by the ?-oxidation of fatty acids to NAD+ in peroxisomes. Therefore, it may provide a means to maintain redox homeostasis in appressoria. PMID:22558413

Bhadauria, Vijai; Banniza, Sabine; Vandenberg, Albert; Selvaraj, Gopalan; Wei, Yangdou

2012-01-01

33

Assessment of liver function in primary biliary cirrhosis using Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver MRI  

PubMed Central

Objectives Gd-EOB-DTPA (gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) is a gadolinium-based hepatocyte-specific contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The aim of this study was to determine whether the hepatic uptake and excretion of Gd-EOB-DTPA differ between patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and healthy controls, and whether differences could be quantified. Methods Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver MRI was performed in 20 healthy volunteers and 12 patients with PBC. The uptake of Gd-EOB-DTPA was assessed using traditional semi-quantitative parameters (Cmax, Tmax and T1/2), as well as model-free parameters derived after deconvolutional analysis (hepatic extraction fraction [HEF], input-relative blood flow [irBF] and mean transit time [MTT]). In each individual, all parameters were calculated for each liver segment and the median of the segmental values was used to define a global liver median (GLM). Results Although the PBC patients had relatively mild disease according to their Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD), Child–Pugh and Mayo risk scores, they had significantly lower HEF and shorter MTT values compared with the healthy controls. These differences significantly increased with increasing MELD and Child–Pugh scores. Conclusions Dynamic hepatocyte-specific contrast-enhanced MRI (DHCE-MRI) has a potential role as an imaging-based liver function test. The high spatial resolution of MRI enables hepatic function to be assessed on segmental and sub-segmental levels. PMID:20887325

Nilsson, Henrik; Blomqvist, Lennart; Douglas, Lena; Nordell, Anders; Jonas, Eduard

2010-01-01

34

Liver function tests and urinary albumin in house painters with previous heavy exposure to organic solvents.  

PubMed Central

The serum activities or concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), bilirubin (BIL), cholic acid (CHOL), chenodeoxycholic acid (CHENO), and transferrin with isoelectric point 5.7, and the urinary excretion of albumin were determined among male current or former house painters (n = 135) and house carpenters (n = 71) who had worked in their trades for at least 10 years before 1970. Workers who showed a value above the 90th percentile among the carpenters in at least one of the tests ASAT, ALAT, GGT, BIL, CHOL, or CHENO were regarded as showing "possible signs of liver dysfunction". Each participant's lifetime solvent exposure was evaluated by interview. The painters were divided into categories with low, intermediate, and heavy cumulative exposure during life (LTSE) or during the most exposed year (MEYSE). All participants stated none or slight recent exposure. The prevalence of possible signs of liver dysfunction increased with solvent exposure category according to LTSE as well as MEYSE with a numerically higher risk estimate in the heavy exposure category for MEYSE than for LTSE. ALP activity increased with exposure category according to both exposure estimates. This increase seemed to be due to an interaction between exposure to solvents and current or previous long term intake of medicines potentially toxic to the liver. None of these results was affected by whether or not the subjects had been exposed to solvents during the year before the investigation. The exposure to solvents was not significantly related to any other outcome variable. It is concluded that long term heavy exposure to solvents may elicit changes in conventional liver function tests indicative of a mild chronic effect on the liver. The findings also suggest that heavy solvent exposure during short time periods is a more likely cause of the findings than lifetime cumulative solvent exposure and that an interaction between solvent exposure and medicines potentially harmful to the liver may be important in the causation of the effects. PMID:8199687

Lundberg, I; Nise, G; Hedenborg, G; Högberg, M; Vesterberg, O

1994-01-01

35

Mesenchymal stem cells support hepatocyte function in engineered liver grafts  

PubMed Central

Recent studies suggest that organ decellularization is a promising approach to facilitate the clinical application of regenerative therapy by providing a platform for organ engineering. This unique strategy uses native matrices to act as a reservoir for the functional cells which may show therapeutic potential when implanted into the body. Appropriate cell sources for artificial livers have been debated for some time. The desired cell type in artificial livers is primary hepatocytes, but in addition, other supportive cells may facilitate this stem cell technology. In this context, the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) is an option meeting the criteria for therapeutic organ engineering. Ideally, supportive cells are required to (1) reduce the hepatic cell mass needed in an engineered liver by enhancing hepatocyte function, (2) modulate hepatic regeneration in a paracrine fashion or by direct contact, and (3) enhance the preservability of parenchymal cells during storage. Here, we describe enhanced hepatic function achieved using a strategy of sequential infusion of cells and illustrate the advantages of co-cultivating bone marrow-derived MSCs with primary hepatocytes in the engineered whole-liver scaffold. These co-recellularized liver scaffolds colonized by MSCs and hepatocytes were transplanted into live animals. After blood flow was established, we show that expression of adhesion molecules and proangiogenic factors was upregulated in the graft. PMID:24488046

Kadota, Yoshie; Yagi, Hiroshi; Inomata, Kenta; Matsubara, Kentaro; Hibi, Taizo; Abe, Yuta; Kitago, Minoru; Shinoda, Masahiro; Obara, Hideaki; Itano, Osamu; Kitagawa, Yuko

2014-01-01

36

Structural and functional aspects of the liver and liver sinusoidal cells in relation to colon carcinoma metastasis  

PubMed Central

Nowadays, liver metastasis remains difficult to cure. When tumor cells escape and arrive in the liver sinusoids, they encounter the local defense mechanism specific to the liver. The sinusoidal cells have been widely described in physiologic conditions and in relation to metastasis during the past 30 years. This paper provides an “overview” of how these cells function in health and in diseases such as liver metastasis. PMID:16127736

Vekemans, Katrien; Braet, Filip

2005-01-01

37

Liver Function Parameters in Hip Fracture Patients: Relations to Age, Adipokines, Comorbidities and Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Aim: To asses liver markers in older patients with hip fracture (HF) in relation to age, comorbidities, metabolic characteristics and short-term outcomes. Methods: In 294 patients with HF (mean age 82.0±7.9 years, 72.1% women) serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gammaglutamyltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin, bilirubin, 25(OH)vitaminD, PTH, calcium, phosphate, magnesium, adiponectin, leptin, resistin, thyroid function and cardiac troponin I were measured. Results: Elevated ALT, GGT, ALP or bilirubin levels on admission were observed in 1.7% - 9.9% of patients. With age GGT, ALT and leptin decrease, while PTH and adiponectin concentrations increase. Higher GGT (>30U/L, median level) was associated with coronary artery disease (CAD), diabetes mellitus (DM), and alcohol overuse; lower ALT (?20U/L, median level) with dementia; total bilirubin >20?mol/L with CAD and alcohol overuse; and albumin >33g/L with CAD. Multivariate adjusted regression analyses revealed ALT, ALP, adiponectin, alcohol overuse and DM as independent and significant determinants of GGT (as continuous or categorical variable); GGT for each other liver marker; and PTH for adiponectin. The risk of prolonged hospital stay (>20 days) was about two times higher in patients with GGT>30U/L or adiponectin >17.14 ng/L (median level) and 4.7 times higher if both conditions coexisted. The risk of in-hospital death was 3 times higher if albumin was <33g/L. Conclusions: In older HF patients liver markers even within the normal range are associated with age-related disorders and outcomes. Adiponectin (but not 25(OH)vitaminD, PTH, leptin or resistin) is an independent contributor to higher GGT. Serum GGT and albumin predict prolonged hospital stay and in-hospital death, respectively. A unifying hypothesis of the findings presented. PMID:25589886

Fisher, Leon; Srikusalanukul, Wichat; Fisher, Alexander; Smith, Paul

2015-01-01

38

Assessment of thyroid and gonadal function in liver diseases  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Liver is involved with the synthesis of carrier proteins and metabolism of various hormones and liver diseases may, therefore, be associated with various endocrine disturbances. This study was conducted to assess thyroid and gonadal function in subjects with acute hepatitis (AH), chronic liver disease (CLD), and those who had undergone liver transplantation (LT). Materials and Methods: Patients with AH, CLD with Child-Pugh stage A (CLD-1) and Child-Pugh stage B or C (CLD-2), and LT seen at our tertiary level hospital were assessed clinically, biochemically, and for thyroid and gonadal functions besides 25 healthy controls. Results: Thyroid dysfunction and hypogonadism were present in 14 (16%) and 24 (28%) patients with liver diseases respectively. Among thyroid dysfunction, the commonest was sick euthyroid syndrome six (7%), followed by subclinical hypothyroidism in three patients (3.5%), subclinical hyperthyroidism and thyrotoxicosis in two patients each (2.3%) and overt hypothyroidism in one patient. Among patients with LT and AH groups, the only abnormality was significantly lower total T3 compared with healthy controls. The CLD2 group had significantly lower levels of all thyroid hormones compared with controls and CLD1 group. Hypogonadism was commonest in patients with CLD-2 (14; 50%) followed by LT (3; 33%), CLD-1 (4; 20%), and AH (3; 14%). Hypogonadism was predicted by older age, lower levels of serum albumin, total cholesterol, and triglycerides and higher levels of plasma glucose, serum bilirubin, aspartate transaminases, and international normalized ratio. Gonadal functions showed recovery following LT. Conclusions: Thyroid dysfunction and hypogonadism form an important part of the spectrum of acute and CLD, and patients with LT. Deterioration of synthetic functions of liver disease predicts presence of hypogonadism.

Kharb, Sandeep; Garg, M. K.; Puri, Pankaj; Brar, Karninder S.; Pandit, Aditi; Srivastava, Sharad

2015-01-01

39

Beta-alanine synthesis in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

The enzyme, aspartate 1-decarboxylase (L-aspartate 1-carboxy-lyase; EC 4.1.1.15), that catalyzes the reaction aspartate leads to beta-alanine + CO2 was found in extracts of Escherichia coli. panD mutants of E. coli are defective in beta-alanine biosynthesis and lack aspartate 1-decarboxylase. Therefore, the enzyme functions in the biosynthesis of the beta-alanine moiety of pantothenate. The genetic lesion in these mutants is closely linked to the other pantothenate (pan) loci of E. coli K-12. Images PMID:6767707

Cronan, J E

1980-01-01

40

Functional characterization of a member of alanine or glycine: cation symporter family in halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica.  

PubMed

Membrane proteins of amino acid-polyamine-organocation (APC) superfamily transport amino acids and amines across membranes and play important roles in the regulation of cellular processes. The alanine or glycine: cation symporter (AGCS) family belongs to APC superfamily and is found in prokaryotes, but its substrate specificity remains to be clarified. In this study, we found that a halotolerant cyanobacterium, Aphanothece halophytica has two putative ApagcS genes. The deduced amino acid sequence of one of genes, ApagcS1, exhibited high homology to Pseudomonas AgcS. The ApagcS1 gene was expressed in Escherichia coli JW4166 which is deficient in glycine uptake. Kinetics studies in JW4166 revealed that ApAgcS1 is a sodium-dependent glycine transporter. Competition experiments showed the significant inhibition by glutamine, asparagine, and glycine. The level of mRNA for ApagcS1 was induced by NaCl and nitrogen-deficient stresses. Uptake of glutamine by ApAgcS1 was also observed. Based on these data, the physiological role of ApAgcS1 was discussed. PMID:25421789

Bualuang, Aporn; Kageyama, Hakuto; Tanaka, Yoshito; Incharoensakdi, Aran; Takabe, Teruhiro

2015-02-01

41

Abnormal liver function in different patients with Schistosoma japonicum.  

PubMed

Schistosomiasis japonica, caused by Schistosoma japonicum, is still a serious public health problem in China. It is important for schistosomiasis control to prevent from infection and advanced patients. Recent years, however, the form of the prevalence of schistosomiasis japonica in China was changed these days. Paying attention to the quality of life of these patients already infected with S. japonicum becomes a new objective to schistosomiasis control program. Although most of the chronic infections with S. japonicum will finally appear as liver fibrosis symptoms, it is still unknown liver function abnormalities in patients with severe forms of schistosomiasis, and there is also no evidence whether S. japonicum infection will directly cause damage to liver cells. Thus, this study investigated 494 patients diagnosed with S. japonicum (87.7 %) and 69 healthy subjects from a endemic areas belonging to Jiangxi Province of China and aimed to evaluate the liver function abnormalities in patients with severe forms of schistosomiasis and possible associations with coinfection with HBV. The results showed that the hepatic metabolism situation significantly changed in patients infected with S. japonicum; meanwhile, the abnormal rates of ALT and AST in patients with schistosomiasis were significantly higher than that in the control group, which confirmed that patients infected with S. japonicum not only had damaged liver function but also the hepatic cells were directly influenced. And the coinfection of CHB and schistosomiasis japonica can be a risk factor for more serious outcomes in patients from endemic areas. These results give us the advice that in the further treatment of patients infected with S. japonicum, especially these coinfections, we should better give the routine liver-protection treatment in advance. PMID:25287714

Ning, An; Wu, Xiaoying; Li, Hongyu; Liang, Jinyi; Gao, Zulu; Shen, Jia; Liu, Zhen; Xu, Jun; Hu, Fei; Wu, Feng; Ji, Pengyu; Wu, Zhongdao; Sun, Xi

2015-01-01

42

Hepatic encephalopathy in a liver transplant recipient with stable liver function.  

PubMed

Postshunt hepatic encephalopathy after liver transplantation (LT) is an infrequent condition and is commonly associated with portal occlusion or stenosis and the presence of a patent portosystemic shunt. Portal vein stenosis (PVS) or thrombosis (PVT) are uncommon complications after LT. The overall frequency of both complications is reported to be less than 3%. When PVS or PVT develop early after LT, the occlusion of the portal vein can have catastrophic consequences to the graft including acute liver failure and graft loss. Late PVT/PVS are asymptomatic in approximately 50% of the cases and mainly diagnosed by a routine ultrasound. Symptomatic postshunt hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a very infrequent condition after LT that has been scarcely reported in the literature. We present here the case of a liver recipient with normal graft function who presented with hepatic encephalopathy 3 months after LT with stable liver function but a severe portal stenosis and the presence of a spontaneous portosystemic shunt whose successful endovascular treatment was followed by the complete resolution of the HE. PMID:23390114

Arab, Juan Pablo; Meneses, Luis; Pérez, Rosa M; Arrese, Marco; Benítez, Carlos

2013-04-01

43

Exploring liver mitochondrial function by ¹³C-stable isotope breath tests: implications in clinical biochemistry.  

PubMed

The liver plays a pivotal role in a myriad of metabolic processes, including detoxification, glycolipidic storage and export, and protein synthesis. Breath tests employing (13)C as stable isotope have been introduced to explore such energy-dependent pathways involving mitochondrial function in the liver. Specific substrates are ketoisocaproic acid, methionine, and octanoic acid. In humans, the application of (13)C-breath tests ranges from nonalcoholic and alcoholic liver diseases to liver cirrhosis, hepatocarcinoma, preoperative and postoperative assessment of liver function, and drug-induced liver damage. Studying liver mitochondrial function by (13)C-breath tests represents a complementary tool to monitor complex metabolic processes in health and disease. PMID:25308494

Grattagliano, Ignazio; Bonfrate, Leonilde; Lorusso, Michele; Castorani, Luigi; de Bari, Ornella; Portincasa, Piero

2015-01-01

44

Tumor markers, liver function tests and symptoms in 115 patients with isolated colorectal liver metastases.  

PubMed

Development of the hybridoma technique has made the identification of several new tumor antigens possible. Although it was hoped that they would be more tumor-specific, none of these markers are found exclusively in tumor or in serum of tumor patients. Compared with carcinoembryionic antigen (CEA) and liver function tests, the roles of these markers (CA 19-9, CA 125, CA 15-3) were prospectively evaluated in 115 patients with colorectal liver metastases. Patients were classified according to tumor volume (T1 less than 25%, T2 25-75%, T3 greater than 75%), and the extension of infiltration (solitary/multiple/diffuse; unilateral, bilateral). Patients with benign liver or biliary disease served as a control group (n = 63). Overall sensitivity was 87% for *1, 50% for *2 and 38% for *3, with a significant correlation with tumor size. CEA serum levels were elevated in 88% of all patients. CA 19-9 was less sensitive: positive in 59%. Because of some complementary elevations, the combined use of CEA, CA 19-9 and CA 125 raised sensitivity to 94%. CA 19-9 and LDH could be useful for confirmation because of their higher specificity; however, the specificity of CEA rose to 93% on using a cut-off of 10 ng/ml instead of 3 ng/ml. The results indicate that CEA and CA 19-9 as well as liver function tests are helpful for preoperative staging in conjunction with imaging procedures before liver resection or regional chemotherapy. PMID:2746045

Lorenz, M; Baum, R P; Oremek, G; Inglis, R; Reimann-Kirkowa, M; Hör, G; Seiffert, U; Hottenrott, C

1989-01-01

45

Bilirubin binding with liver cystatin induced structural and functional changes.  

PubMed

Cysteine proteinases and their inhibitors play a significant role in the proteolytic environment of the cells. Inhibitors of cysteine proteinases regulate the activity of these enzymes helping in checking the degdration activity of cathepsins. The bilirubin secreated by liver cells can bind to cystatin present in the liver resulting in its functional inactivation, which may further lead to the increase in cathepsins level causing liver cirrhosis. In case of some pathophysiological conditions excess bilirubin gets accumulated e.g. in presence of Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke) in mammals and humans, leading to liver cirrhosis and possibly jaundice or normal blockade of bile duct causing increased level of bilirubin in blood. Protease-cystatin imbalance causes disease progression. In the present study, Bilirubin (BR) and liver cystatin interaction was studied to explore the cystatin inactivation and structural alteration. The binding interaction was studied by UV-absorption, FT-IR and fluorescence spectroscopy. The quenching of protein fluorescence confirmed the binding of BR with buffalo liver cystatin (BLC). Stern-Volmer analysis of BR-BLC system indicates the presence of static component in the quenching mechanism and the number of binding sites to be close to 1. The fluorescence data proved that the fluorescence quenching of liver cystatin by BR was the result of BR-cystatin complex formation. FTIR analysis of BR-Cystatin complex revealed change in the secondary structure due to perturbation in the microenvironment further confirmed by the decreased caseinolytic activity of BLC against papain. Fluorescence measurements also revealed quenching of fluorescence and shift in peak at different time intervals and at varying pH values. Photo-illumination of BR-cystatin complex causes change in the surrounding environment of liver cystatin as indicated by red-shift. The binding constant for BR-BLC complex was found to be 9.279 × 10(4) M(-1). The cystatin binding with bilirubin has a significant biophysical and pathophysiological significance, hence our effort to study the same. PMID:24711081

Mustafa, Mir Faisal; Bano, Bilqees

2014-05-01

46

The impact of ions on allosteric functions in human liver pyruvate kinase  

PubMed Central

Experimental designs used to monitor the magnitude of an allosteric response can greatly influence observed values. We report here the impact of buffer, monovalent cation, divalent cation and anion on the magnitude of the allosteric regulation of the affinity of human liver pyruvate kinase (hL-PYK) for substrate, phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). The magnitudes of the allosteric activation by fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (Fru-1,6-BP) and the allosteric inhibition by alanine are independent of most, but not all buffers tested. However, these magnitudes are dependent on whether Mg2+ or Mn2+ is included as the divalent cation. In the presence of Mn2+, any change in Kapp-PEP caused by Fru-1,6-BP is minimal. hL-PYK activity does not appear to require monovalent cation. Monovalent cation binding in the active site impacts PEP affinity with minimum influence on the magnitude of allosteric coupling. However, Na+ and Li+ reduce the magnitude of the allosteric response to Fru-1,6-BP, likely due to mechanisms outside of the active site. Which anion is used to maintain a constant monovalent cation concentration also influences the magnitude of the allosteric response. The value of determining the impact of ions on allosteric function can be appreciated by considering that representative structures used in comparative studies have often been determined using protein crystals grown in diverse buffer and salt conditions. PMID:21609859

Alontaga, Aileen Y.

2010-01-01

47

Liver  

E-print Network

Lipids in liver wet and dry matter, liver moist and dry matter and their relationships were investigated based on species, sex and age in cows, buffaloes, sheep and goats. Mean percentage of lipids in liver wet and dry matter and liver dry matter in cows were 3.60%, 1.10%, 29.70%, and for buffaloes were 5.30%, 1.55%, 29.20%, sheep 3.00%, 0.83%, 27.90%, and goats 2.910%, 1.55 % and 28.40%, respectively. The highest and lowest percentage of lipids in liver wet and dry matter was observed in buffaloes and sheep, and for the liver dry matter was recorded in cows and sheep, respectively. Analyses showed significant differences in liver parameters among ruminants (p liver parameters. In overall 15.00 % of buffaloes and 3.50 % of cows showed over 10.00 % lipids in liver, while none of small ruminants appeared to have over 6.00 % lipids in liver. There was no correlation between liver lipid and liver dry matter. In conclusion mean percentage of lipid in liver dry matter in small ruminants was less than large ruminants. Liver dry matter was high in cows and low in sheep. Mean differences in liver parameters was significant, while the age and sex of the

Aligholi Ramin; Shahram Nozad; Babak Jelodari; Ghazaleh Ashtab; Zohreh Eftekhari; Sina Ramin; Key Words

2011-01-01

48

Redox Control of Liver Function in Health and Disease  

PubMed Central

Abstract Reactive oxygen species (ROS), a heterogeneous population of biologically active intermediates, are generated as by-products of the aerobic metabolism and exhibit a dual role in biology. When produced in controlled conditions and in limited quantities, ROS may function as signaling intermediates, contributing to critical cellular functions such as proliferation, differentiation, and cell survival. However, ROS overgeneration and, particularly, the formation of specific reactive species, inflicts cell death and tissue damage by targeting vital cellular components such as DNA, lipids, and proteins, thus arising as key players in disease pathogenesis. Given the predominant role of hepatocytes in biotransformation and metabolism of xenobiotics, ROS production constitutes an important burden in liver physiology and pathophysiology and hence in the progression of liver diseases. Despite the recognized role of ROS in disease pathogenesis, the efficacy of antioxidants as therapeutics has been limited. A better understanding of the mechanisms, nature, and location of ROS generation, as well as the optimization of cellular defense strategies, may pave the way for a brighter future for antioxidants and ROS scavengers in the therapy of liver diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 12, 1295—1331. PMID:19803748

Marí, Montserrat; Colell, Anna; Morales, Albert; von Montfort, Claudia; Garcia-Ruiz, Carmen

2010-01-01

49

Serum Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) Concentrations and Liver Function Biomarkers in a Population with Elevated PFOA Exposure  

PubMed Central

Background: Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) persist in the environment and are found in relatively high concentrations in animal livers. Studies in humans have reported inconsistent associations between PFOA and liver enzymes. Objectives: We examined the cross-sectional association between serum PFOA and PFOS concentrations with markers of liver function in adults. Methods: The C8 Health Project collected data on 69,030 persons; of these, a total of 47,092 adults were included in the present analysis. Linear regression models were fitted for natural log (ln)-transformed values of alanine transaminase (ALT), ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and direct bilirubin on PFOA, PFOS, and potential confounders. Logistic regression models were fitted comparing deciles of PFOA or PFOS in relation to high biomarker levels. A multilevel analysis comparing the evidence for association of PFOA with liver function at the individual level within water districts to that at the population level between water districts was also performed. Results: ln-PFOA and ln-PFOS were associated with ln-ALT in linear regression models [PFOA: coefficient, 0.022; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.018, 0.025; PFOS: coefficient, 0.020; 95% CI: 0.014, 0.026] and with raised ALT in logistic regression models [with a steady increase in the odds ratio (OR) estimates across deciles of PFOA and PFOS; PFOA: OR = 1.10; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.13; PFOS: OR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.18]. There was less consistent evidence of an association of PFOA and GGT or bilirubin. The relationship with bilirubin appears to rise at low levels of PFOA and to fall again at higher levels. Conclusions: These results show a positive association between PFOA and PFOS concentrations and serum ALT level, a marker of hepatocellular damage. PMID:22289616

Gallo, Valentina; Leonardi, Giovanni; Genser, Bernd; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Frisbee, Stephanie J.; Karlsson, Lee; Ducatman, Alan M.

2012-01-01

50

In vitro evaluation of metabolic functions of a bioartificial liver.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to develop a bioartificial liver (BAL) with such a simple structure that it can be prepared within several hours and through which whole blood can be perfused as in current hemodialyzers. Hepatocytes were isolated from 37 pigs; each liver weighed 300 to 400 g. The average yield of hepatocytes was 2.4 +/- 0.6 x 10(10) cells per liver, with a cell viability of 89.6 +/- 3.9%. To prepare a BAL device, a cartridge, composed of hollow fibers made of cellulose diacetate was used. Nominal cut-off molecular weight of the hollow fibers was 68 kDa, and the internal diameter was 195 microm. One hundred milliliters of hepatocyte suspension, containing 1 x 10(10) cells, was inoculated into the inner space of the hollow fibers, and both the inlet and outlet of the hollow fiber cartridge were closed. It took only 3 hrs from administration of the pig's anesthesia to the start of an in vitro evaluation of the prepared BAL device. To evaluate the functions of this BAL quantitatively, using a pharmacokinetic method, a mixture of fresh human blood and Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium was circulated in the shell space of the hollow fibers at 200 ml/min. Chemicals (lidocaine, ammonia, and galactose) were then loaded into the perfusion medium. The average intrinsic clearance of the BAL device was found to be 46 ml/min for lidocaine and 8.8 ml/min for ammonia. The galactose elimination capacity of the BAL device was 1.34 mg/min. The metabolic function of the BAL device decreased by 81%, 49%, and 64% of the initial function for lidocaine, ammonia, and galactose, respectively, after 10 days of in vitro circulation. PMID:10445735

Iwata, H; Sajiki, T; Maeda, H; Park, Y G; Zhu, B; Satoh, S; Uesugi, T; Ikai, I; Yamaoka, Y; Ikada, Y

1999-01-01

51

Improvement in renal function and rejection control in pediatric liver transplant recipients with the introduction of sirolimus.  

PubMed

Calcineurin inhibitors have dramatically improved the outcomes of pediatric liver transplantation. However, calcineurin inhibitor use is associated with a 50% reduction in glomerular filtration rate in the first year post-transplant. Nephrotoxicity can be difficult to manage, especially in the pediatric population. We hypothesized that the addition of an mTOR inhibitor with decreased calcineurin inhibitor levels might improve or prevent renal insufficiency and improve control of rejection. A retrospective chart review was performed on the patients treated with sirolimus who had undergone an orthotopic liver transplant between January 2000 and February 2003. Thirty-eight patients were identified. Mean age was 8.6 yr. Fourteen patients were male and 24 were female. Mean weight was 30.3 kg. The most common indications for starting sirolimus were rejection (42%) and renal impairment (29%). Seventy-three percent of patients begun on sirolimus remain on the medication. Those with renal impairment (11 patients) showed improvement in their creatinine levels from a mean baseline of 1.3 to 0.8 mg/dL. Their calculated creatinine clearance (Schwartz formula) improved from 63.7 to 84.8 mL/min (p = 0.03). Patients started on sirolimus for rejection showed significant improvement in hepatocellular enzymes despite a reduction in the tacrolimus level from 12.2 to 7.5 ng/mL. The mean alanine aminotransferase level improved from 221 to 100 units/L (p = 0.02), and the mean aspartate aminotransferase improved from 121 to 99 units/L (p = 0.59). Addition of sirolimus to a tacrolimus-based regimen with lower target tacrolimus levels improved liver function in patients with rejection. Addition of sirolimus significantly improved renal function as shown by creatinine level and calculated creatinine clearance in those children with renal impairment. The effect of combined immunosuppressant treatment with tacrolimus and sirolimus on long-term renal function needs to be evaluated. PMID:15265163

Casas-Melley, Adela T; Falkenstein, Kathleen P; Flynn, Louise M; Ziegler, Valerie L; Dunn, Stephen P

2004-08-01

52

[Analysis of kudiezi injection different dosage impact on patient's liver and kidney function based on hospital information system].  

PubMed

This study aims to explore the impact on patient's liver and kidney function by different dosage of Kudiezi injection. This study retrospectively analyzed 15 228 patients' records from 18 nationwide general hospital information system (HIS). All patients were treated with Kudiezi injection, 1 956 patients that were given doses of > 40 mL, which is above the recommended dose, acted as the observation group. Fifty-five patients receiving the recommended dose of < 40 mL were the control group. Data about alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatinine (Cr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were collected before and after using Kudiezi injection, changes after treatment were outcomes. Also recorded were: age, costs, length of hospitalization and the patients' condition on admission. Propensity score method was used to balance 71 confounding variables such as gender, age, mortality, and costs. There were no significant difference on the four indexes between the two groups. It is hard to conclude that the use of Kudiezi injection over the recommended dose could influence the four indexes of liver and kidney from this data analysis. More conclusive evidence should be collected by further prospective study. PMID:25532401

Liao, Xing; Tang, Hao; Xie, Yan-Ming; Yang, Wei; Ai, Qing-Hua

2014-09-01

53

Transient liver function abnormality following treatment with rabbit antithymocyte globulin for nonmyeloablative hematopoetic stem cell transplant: Two case reports.  

PubMed

Rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) is increasingly used in nonmyeloablative hematopoetic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Elevated liver function tests (LFTs) have been reported for antithymocyte globulin in the treatment of aplastic anemia, but not when used in a conditioning regimen for HSCT. We describe two cases of patients receiving a conditioning regimen for HSCT containing rATG who developed a transient, severe transaminase elevation. In the first case, a 66-year-old woman with a history of acute myeloid leukemia received the first dose of rATG and the patient's transaminases were found to be extremely elevated within a few hours. The aspartate transaminase (AST) peaked at 1286?U/L and alanine transaminase (ALT) peaked at 991?U/L and both resolved within a week. In the second case, a 72-year-old woman with a history of non-Hodgkin lymphoma received the first dose of rATG and the AST and ALT were found to be 1212?U/L and 689?U/L, respectively, 1?h after finishing the infusion. Like the previous case, the transaminase elevation resolved within a week. LFT abnormalities induced by rATG during conditioning therapy for HSCT may be transient and have a rapid onset after the first dose, but quickly subside without any complications or sequelae. It is important to follow the LFTs closely, as well as monitor for any signs and symptoms of acute liver failure. PMID:24395543

Chang, Abraham; Lee-Lam, Fu-Ying; Wang, Joanna; Cheng, Ya-Hwei

2015-02-01

54

Liver and kidney function tests amongst paint factory workers in Nkpor, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Lead, cadmium, nickel and other industrial metals used as part of paint varnishes have been reported to have adverse health implications. An evaluation study on some toxicological effects of occupational exposure to paint, among 25 occupationally exposed artisans and 25 students (control) of Ichi Technical College, Ichi Ekwusigo Local Government Area, Anambra State, Nigeria was carried out. Heavy metals were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and standard assay procedures were employed for biochemical parameters. The biochemical indices used include serum electrolytes urea, creatinine, alanine (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferases (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), conjugated and total bilirubin. Others include blood lead, serum cadmium and nickel. Our results showed that occupational exposure of humans to paints increased the blood lead (39 +/- 4 microg/dL), serum cadmium (13 +/- 1 microg/dL) and nickel (63 +/- 1 microg/dL), when compared with non-paint factory workers (PFW) lead (17 +/- 4 microg/dL), serum cadmium (9 +/- microg/dL) and nickel (25 +/- 44 microg/dL), significantly at P < 0.05 lower values were observed for serum sodium (138.96 +/- 0.58 mmol/L), bicarbonate (26.88 +/- 0.39 mmol/L), urea (3.15 +/- 0.13 mmol/L) and creatinine (80.48 +/- 1.04 micromol/L) for paints factory workers when compared with non-paint factory workers, sodium (139.84 +/- 0.62 mmol/L), bicarbonate (26.20 +/- 0.22 mmol/L), urea (3.44 +/- 0.11 mmol/L) and creatinine (80.40 +/- 1.55 micromol/L); at P > 0.05. The activities of AST (10.36 +/- 0.58 micro/L), ALT(8.76 +/- 0.47 micro/L) and ALP (47.12 +/- 3.33 micro/L) in PFW were slightly elevated compared with non-PFW. Our result indicates that occupational exposure of humans to heavy metals in paints may have long term deleterious effects on liver and renal functions. In conclusion, it should be noted that occupational exposure to cadmium or lead among PFW, may compromise the liver and renal functions in man. PMID:18220158

Orisakwe, O E; Nwachukwu, E; Osadolor, H B; Afonne, O J; Okocha, C E

2007-04-01

55

Impact of Serum Chemerin Levels on Liver Functional Reserves and Platelet Counts in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Obesity-related metabolic abnormalities, including adipokine imbalance and chronic inflammation, are involved in liver carcinogenesis. Chemerin, a novel adipokine, plays a critical role in adipogenesis, energy metabolism, and inflammation. We evaluated the impact of serum chemerin levels on liver functional reserves in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients and on the recurrence and prognosis of HCC. This study included 44 patients with any stage of HCC who underwent curative treatment at Gifu Municipal Hospital (Gifu, Japan) between 2006 and 2007. Recurrence-free survival and overall survival were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Serum albumin levels (Pearson’s correlation coefficient; r = 0.3110, p = 0.0399), platelet counts (r = 0.4159, p = 0.0050), and prothrombin times (r = 0.3775, p = 0.0115) were significantly correlated with serum chemerin levels in patients with HCC, and they were inversely correlated with Child-Pugh scores (r = ?0.3732, p = 0.0126), serum alanine aminotransferase levels (r = ?0.3864, p = 0.0105), and total bilirubin levels (r = ?0.4023, p = 0.0068). Among these variables, a multiple comparison test identified that platelet counts and total bilirubin levels were associated with serum chemerin levels (p < 0.0083). No significant correlation was found between serum chemerin levels and recurrence-free survival (p = 0.3691) or overall survival (p = 0.7916). In HCC patients, serum chemerin concentrations were correlated with liver functional reserves and platelet counts, but not with recurrence or prognosis. PMID:24968270

Imai, Kenji; Takai, Koji; Hanai, Tatsunori; Shiraki, Makoto; Suzuki, Yusuke; Hayashi, Hideki; Naiki, Takafumi; Nishigaki, Youichi; Tomita, Eiichi; Shimizu, Masahito; Moriwaki, Hisataka

2014-01-01

56

A portable centrifugal analyser for liver function screening.  

PubMed

Mortality rates of up to 50% have been reported after liver failure due to drug-induced hepatotoxicity and certain viral infections (Gao et al., 2008). These adverse conditions frequently affect HIV and tuberculosis patients on regular medication in resource-poor settings. Here, we report full integration of sample preparation with the read-out of a 5-parameter liver assay panel (LAP) on a portable, easy-to-use, fast and cost-efficient centrifugal microfluidic analysis system (CMAS). Our unique, dissolvable-film based centrifugo-pneumatic valving was employed to provide sample-to-answer fashion automation for plasma extraction (from finger-prick of blood), metering and aliquoting into separate reaction chambers for parallelized colorimetric quantification during rotation. The entire LAP completes in less than 20 min while using only a tenth the reagent volumes when compared with standard hospital laboratory tests. Accuracy of in-situ liver function screening was validated by 96 separate tests with an average coefficient of variance (CV) of 7.9% compared to benchtop and hospital lab tests. Unpaired two sample statistical t-tests were used to compare the means of CMAS and benchtop reader, on one hand; and CMAS and hospital tests on the other. The results demonstrate no statistical difference between the respective means with 94% and 92% certainty of equivalence, respectively. The portable platform thus saves significant time, labour and costs compared to established technologies, and therefore complies with typical restrictions on lab infrastructure, maintenance, operator skill and costs prevalent in many field clinics of the developing world. It has been successfully deployed to a centralised lab in Nigeria. PMID:24534553

Nwankire, Charles E; Czugala, Monika; Burger, Robert; Fraser, Kevin J; O'Connell, Tríona M; Glennon, Thomas; Onwuliri, Blessing E; Nduaguibe, Isikaku E; Diamond, Dermot; Ducrée, Jens

2014-06-15

57

STE20/SPS1-Related Proline/Alanine-Rich Kinase Is Involved in Plasticity of GABA Signaling Function in a Mouse Model of Acquired Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

The intracellular concentration of chloride ([Cl-]i) determines the strength and polarity of GABA neurotransmission. STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) is known as an indirect regulator of [Cl-]i for its activation of Na-K-2 Cl-co-transporters (NKCC) and inhibition of K-Cl-co-transporters (KCC) in many organs. NKCC1 or KCC2 expression changes have been demonstrated previously in the hippocampal neurons of mice with pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (PISE). However, it remains unclear whether SPAK modulates [Cl-]i via NKCC1 or KCC2 in the brain. Also, there are no data clearly characterizing SPAK expression in cortical or hippocampal neurons or confirming an association between SPAK and epilepsy. In the present study, we examined SPAK expression and co-expression with NKCC1 and KCC2 in the hippocampal neurons of mice with PISE, and we investigated alterations in SPAK expression in the hippocampus of such mice. Significant increases in SPAK mRNA and protein levels were detected during various stages of PISE in the PISE mice in comparison to levels in age-matched sham (control) and blank treatment (control) mice. SPAK and NKCC1 expression increased in vitro, while KCC2 was down-regulated in hippocampal neurons following hypoxic conditioning. However, SPAK overexpression did not influence the expression levels of NKCC1 or KCC2. Using co-immunoprecipitation, we determined that the intensity of interaction between SPAK and NKCC1 and between SPAK and KCC2 increased markedly after oxygen-deprivation, whereas SPAK overexpression strengthened the relationships. The [Cl-]i of hippocampal neurons changed in a corresponding manner under the different conditions. Our data suggests that SPAK is involved in the plasticity of GABA signaling function in acquired epilepsy via adjustment of [Cl-]i in hippocampal neurons. PMID:24058604

Zhou, Jueqian; Chen, Shuda; Chen, Yishu; Chen, Ziyi; Wang, Qian; Fang, Ziyan; Zhou, Liemin

2013-01-01

58

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Volumetric and Functional Recovery of the Remnant Liver After Major Liver Resection with Prior Portal Vein Embolization Recovery After PVE and Liver Resection  

E-print Network

# 2009 The Author(s). This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com Introduction Portal vein embolization is an accepted method to increase the future remnant liver preoperatively. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of preoperative portal vein embolization on liver volume and function 3 months after major liver resection. Materials and methods This is a retrospective case-control study. Data were collected of patients who underwent portal vein embolization prior to (extended) right hemihepatectomy and of control patients who underwent the same type of resection

Jacomina W. Van Den Esschert; Wilmar De Graaf; Krijn P. Van Lienden; Roelof J. Bennink

2009-01-01

59

Ezetimibe markedly attenuates hepatic cholesterol accumulation and improves liver function in the lysosomal acid lipase-deficient mouse, a model for cholesteryl ester storage disease  

PubMed Central

Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) plays a critical role in the intracellular handling of lipids by hydrolyzing cholesteryl esters (CE) and triacylglycerols (TAG) contained in newly internalized lipoproteins. In humans, mutations in the LAL gene result in cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD), or in Wolman disease (WD) when the mutations cause complete loss of LAL activity. A rat model for WD and a mouse model for CESD have been described. In these studies we used LAL-deficient mice to investigate how modulating the amount of intestinally-derived cholesterol reaching the liver might impact its mass, cholesterol content, and function in this model. The main experiment tested if ezetimibe, a potent cholesterol absorption inhibitor, had any effect on CE accumulation in mice lacking LAL. In male Lal?/? mice given ezetimibe in their diet (20 mg/day/kg bw) for 4 weeks starting at 21 days of age, both liver mass and hepatic cholesterol concentration (mg/g) were reduced to the extent that whole-liver cholesterol content (mg/organ) in the treated mice (74.3±3.4) was only 56% of that in those not given ezetimibe (133.5±6.7). There was also a marked improvement in plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity. Thus, minimizing cholesterol absorption has a favorable impact on the liver in CESD. PMID:24370824

Chuang, Jen-Chieh; Lopez, Adam M.; Posey, Kenneth S.; Turley, Stephen D.

2014-01-01

60

Effects of Synthetic Androgens on Liver Function Using the Rabbit as a Model*†  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine if the rabbit was a suitable model to test new synthetic androgens for potential liver toxicity within a short dosing interval. Adult male rabbits were dosed orally daily on days 0–13 with 17?-methyltestosterone (MT), as a positive control, and testosterone (T), as a negative control, to validate this model. Synthetic androgens tested were: 7?-methyl-19-nortestosterone (MENT), dimethandrolone-undecanoate (DMAU), and 11?-methyl-19-nortestosterone-17?-dodecylcarbonate (11?-MNTDC). Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), as well as clearance of intravenous injected bromsulfonphthalein (BSP) from serum on days 0, 7 and 14, were determined. As expected, T (10 mg/kg/day) did not adversely affect BSP retention or serum liver enzymes. MT (10 mg/kg/day) increased BSP retention, and AST, ALT, GGT, and SDH levels indicating that this model could detect androgens known to be hepatotoxic. DMAU and MENT (10 mg/kg/day), increased BSP retention, and all 4 serum liver enzymes as well, but the effects were less than those observed with MT at the same dose. All parameters returned to baseline 2 weeks after cessation of dosing. 11?-MNTDC at 10 mg/kg/day did not have an effect on BSP retention or liver enzymes, but a slight increase in serum GGT levels was observed in rabbits treated with 25 mg/kg/day. For the androgens that exhibited liver toxicity at 10 mg/kg/day (MT, DMAU, and MENT), a no observed effect level (NOEL) of 1 mg/kg/day was established. Overall ranking of the synthetic androgens from most to least hepatotoxic based on %BSP retention was: MT ? DMAU > MENT > 11?-MNTDC. Hence, the rabbit appears to be a promising model for detection of potential liver toxicity by synthetic androgens using BSP clearance and serum liver enzyme levels as early indicators of injury. PMID:20378929

Hild, Sheri Ann; Attardi, Barbara J.; Koduri, Sailaja; Till, Bruce A.; Reel, Jerry R.

2010-01-01

61

Structural and functional changes in acute liver injury.  

PubMed Central

Carbon tetrachloride produces liver cell injury in a variety of animal species. The first structurally recognizable changes occur in the endoplasmic reticulum, with alteration in ribosome-membrane interactions. Later there is an increase in intracellular fat, and the formation of tangled nets of the ergastoplasm. At no time are there changes in mitochondria or single membrane limited bodies in cells with intact plasmalemma, although a relative increase in cell sap may appear. In dead cells (those with plasmalemma discontinuties) crystalline deposits of calcium phosphatase may be noted. Functional changes are related to the endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane. An early decrease in protein synthesis takes place; an accumulation of neutral lipid is related to this change. Later alterations in the ergastoplasmic functions (e.g., mixed function oxidation) occurs. Carbon tetrachloride is not the active agent; rather, a product of its metabolism, probably the CC1, free radical, is. The mechanisms of injury include macromolecular adduction and peroxide propagation. A third possibility includes a cascade effect with the production of secondary and tertiary products, also toxic in nature, with the ability to produce more widespread damage to intracellular structures. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 11. PMID:1001290

Smuckler, E A

1976-01-01

62

Effects of exercise and ethanol on liver mitochondrial function  

SciTech Connect

Rates of ADP stimulated respiration for various substrates were determined in mitochondria isolated from the livers of female Sprague-Dawley rats following 8 weeks of treatment with daily swimming, ethanol consumption, or both. All rats were fed an American Institute of Nutrition (AIN) type liquid diet with the ethanol treated rats receiving 35% of the calories as ethanol. Chronic exposure to ethanol depressed both state 3 respiration with glutamate as a substrate and cytochrome oxidase activity. Respiratory control ratios and P:O ratios, however, were unaffected by the ethanol exposure. Exercise alone had no effect on hepatic mitochondrial function. There were also no significant alterations in oxidative function of hepatic mitochondria from rats which were endurance-trained by swimming while receiving the ethanol diet. This lack of alteration in mitochondrial function was in spite of the fact that these rats consumed an identical amount of ethanol as those which incurred mitochondrial dysfunction. These results indicate that regular exercise has the potential to attenuate the ethanol induced decline in hepatic mitochondria. 32 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

Ardies, C.M.; Morris, G.S.; Erickson, C.K.; Farrar, R.P.

1987-03-16

63

Functional role of intrahepatic monocyte subsets for the progression of liver inflammation and liver fibrosis in vivo.  

PubMed

Sustained inflammation upon chronic liver injury induces the development of liver fibrosis in mice and men. Experimental models of liver fibrosis highlight the importance of hepatic macrophages, so-called Kupffer cells, for perpetuating inflammation by releasing proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines as well as activating hepatic stellate cells (HSC). Recent studies in mice demonstrate that these actions are only partially conducted by liver-resident macrophages, classically termed Kupffer cells, but largely depend on recruitment of monocytes into the liver. Monocytes are circulating precursors of tissue macrophages and dendritic cells (DC), which comprise two major subsets in blood, characterized by the differential expression of chemokine receptors, adhesion molecules and distinct markers, such as Ly6C/Gr1 in mice or CD14 and CD16 in humans. Upon organ injury, chemokine receptor CCR2 and its ligand MCP-1 (CCL2) as well as CCR8 and CCL1 promote monocyte subset accumulation in the liver, namely of the inflammatory Ly6C(+) (Gr1(+)) monocyte subset as precursors of tissue macrophages. The infiltration of proinflammatory monocytes into injured murine liver can be specifically blocked by novel anti-MCP-1 directed agents. In contrast, chemokine receptor CX3CR1 and its ligand fractalkine (CX3CL1) are important negative regulators of monocyte infiltration in hepatic inflammation by controlling their survival and differentiation into functionally diverse macrophage subsets. In patients with liver cirrhosis, 'non-classical' CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes are found activated in blood as well as liver and promote pro-inflammatory along with pro-fibrogenic actions by the release of distinct cytokines and direct interactions with HSC, indicating that the findings from murine models can be translated into pathogenesis of human liver fibrosis. Moreover, experimental animal models indicate that monocytes/macrophages and DCs are not only critical for fibrosis progression, but also for fibrosis regression, because macrophages can also degrade extracellular matrix proteins and exert anti-inflammatory actions. The recently identified cellular and molecular pathways for monocyte subset recruitment, macrophage differentiation and interactions with other hepatic cell types in injured liver may therefore represent interesting novel targets for future therapeutic approaches in liver fibrosis. PMID:23259611

Tacke, Frank

2012-01-01

64

21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.  

...Alanine amino transferase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of certain liver diseases (e.g., viral hepatitis and cirrhosis) and heart diseases. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt...

2014-04-01

65

21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Alanine amino transferase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of certain liver diseases (e.g., viral hepatitis and cirrhosis) and heart diseases. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt...

2013-04-01

66

Alanine repeats influence protein localization in splicing speckles and paraspeckles  

PubMed Central

Mammalian splicing regulatory protein RNA-binding motif protein 4 (RBM4) has an alanine repeat-containing C-terminal domain (CAD) that confers both nuclear- and splicing speckle-targeting activities. Alanine-repeat expansion has pathological potential. Here we show that the alanine-repeat tracts influence the subnuclear targeting properties of the RBM4 CAD in cultured human cells. Notably, truncation of the alanine tracts redistributed a portion of RBM4 to paraspeckles. The alanine-deficient CAD was sufficient for paraspeckle targeting. On the other hand, alanine-repeat expansion reduced the mobility of RBM4 and impaired its splicing activity. We further took advantage of the putative coactivator activator (CoAA)-RBM4 conjoined splicing factor, CoAZ, to investigate the function of the CAD in subnuclear targeting. Transiently expressed CoAZ formed discrete nuclear foci that emerged and subsequently separated—fully or partially—from paraspeckles. Alanine-repeat expansion appeared to prevent CoAZ separation from paraspeckles, resulting in their complete colocalization. CoAZ foci were dynamic but, unlike paraspeckles, were resistant to RNase treatment. Our results indicate that the alanine-rich CAD, in conjunction with its conjoined RNA-binding domain(s), differentially influences the subnuclear localization and biogenesis of RBM4 and CoAZ. PMID:25414336

Chang, Shuo-Hsiu; Chang, Wei-Lun; Lu, Chia-Chen; Tarn, Woan-Yuh

2014-01-01

67

Liver Function After Irradiation Based on Computed Tomographic Portal Vein Perfusion Imaging  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether individual and regional liver sensitivity to radiation could be assessed by measuring liver perfusion during a course of treatment using dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography scanning. Methods and Materials: Patients with intrahepatic cancer undergoing conformal radiotherapy underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (to measure perfusion distribution) and an indocyanine extraction study (to measure liver function) before, during, and 1 month after treatment. We hoped to determine whether the residual functioning liver (i.e., those regions showing portal vein perfusion) could be used to predict overall liver function after irradiation. Results: Radiation doses from 45 to 84 Gy resulted in undetectable regional portal vein perfusion 1 month after treatment. The volume of each liver with undetectable portal vein perfusion ranged from 0 to 39% and depended both on the patient's sensitivity and on dose distribution. There was a significant correlation between indocyanine green clearance and the mean of the estimated portal vein perfusion in the functional liver parenchyma (p < 0.001). Conclusion: This study reveals substantial individual variability in the sensitivity of the liver to irradiation. In addition, these findings suggest that hepatic perfusion imaging may be a marker for liver function and has the potential to be a tool for individualizing therapy.

Cao Yue [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)], E-mail: yuecao@umich.edu; Pan, Charlie; Balter, James M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Platt, Joel F.; Francis, Isaac R. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Knol, James A. [Department of Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Normolle, Daniel; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Haken, Randall K. ten; Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

2008-01-01

68

Synthesis and application of lactosylated, 99mTc chelating albumin for measurement of liver function.  

PubMed

Neogalactosylated and neolactosylated albumins are currently used as radiopharmaceutical agents for imaging the liver asialoglycoprotein receptors, which allows the quantification of hepatic liver function in various diseases and also in healthy liver transplant donors. We developed an original process for synthesizing a chelating neolactosylated human albumin using maleimidopropyl-lactose and maleimidopropyl-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) derivatives. The lactosylated protein (LACTAL) conjugate showed excellent liver uptake compared to nonlactosylated protein and a very high signal-to-noise ratio, based on functional assessment of biodistribution in mice using (99m)Tc-scintigraphy. PMID:20201600

Chaumet-Riffaud, Philippe; Martinez-Duncker, Ivan; Marty, Anne-Laure; Richard, Cyrille; Prigent, Alain; Moati, Frederic; Sarda-Mantel, Laure; Scherman, Daniel; Bessodes, Michel; Mignet, Nathalie

2010-04-21

69

Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Liver Cirrhosis: Assessment of the Liver Function after Yttrium90 Radioembolization with Resin Microspheres or after CT-Guided High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To identify changes of liver function after single-fraction irradiation or yttrium-90 radioembolization (90Y-RE) of hepatocellular carcinoma associated with liver cirrhosis on the basis of laboratory data. Methods and Materials: 24 patients with primary liver carcinoma and liver cirrhosis classified Child-Pugh A or B were treated either by image-guided high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) (12 patients) or by 90Y-RE (12 patients). The

Ricarda Rühl; Max Seidensticker; Nils Peters; Konrad Mohnike; Jan Bornschein; Kerstin Schütte; Holger Amthauer; Peter Malfertheiner; Maciej Pech; Jens Ricke

2009-01-01

70

Effect of delayed CNI-based immunosuppression with Advagraf® on liver function after MELD-based liver transplantation [IMUTECT  

PubMed Central

Background MELD-based allocation for liver transplantation follows the “sickest-patient-first” strategy. The latter patients present with both, decreased immune competence and poor kidney function which is further impaired by immunosuppressants. Methods/Design In this prospective observational study, 50 patients with de novo low-dose standard Advagraf®-based immunosuppression consisting of Advagraf®, Mycophenolat-mofetil and Corticosteroids after liver transplantation will be evaluated. Advagraf® trough levels of 7-10 ?g/l will be reached at the end of the first postoperative week. Immunostatus, infectious complications, graft and kidney function are compared between patients with a pretransplant calculated MELD-score of ?20 and >20. Each group comprises of 25 consecutive patients. Prior to liver transplantation and on the postoperative days 1, 3 and 7, the patients’ graft function (LiMAx test) will be evaluated. On the postoperative days 3, 5 and 7 the patients’ immune status will be evaluated by the measurement of their monocytic HLA-DR status. Infectious complications (CMV-reactivation, wound infection, urinary tract infection, and pneumonia), graft- and kidney function will be analysed on day 0, within the first week, and 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after liver transplantation. Discussion This study was designed to assess the effect of a standard low-dose Calcineurin inhibitor-based immunosuppression regime with Advagraf® on the rate of infectious complications, graft and renal function after liver transplantation. Trial registration The trial is registered at “Clinical Trials” (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov), NCT01781195. PMID:25178675

2014-01-01

71

Platelet function rather than plasmatic coagulation explains hypercoagulable state in cholestatic liver disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: As compared to other chronic liver diseases, cholestatic disorders are associated with a better outcome of variceal bleeding and less blood loss at transplantation, suggesting the presence of a hypercoagulable state. We have assessed plasmatic coagulation and platelet function in patients with cholestatic and non-cholestatic liver disease.Methods: Thirty-seven patients with chronic cholestatic liver disease (primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC)\\/primary sclerosing

Rudolf Pihusch; Andreas Rank; Peter Göhring; Markus Pihusch; Erhard Hiller; Ulrich Beuers

2002-01-01

72

ROOM TEMPERATURE STORAGE EFFECTS ON PICM-19H CELL FUNCTION: ARTIFICIAL LIVER DEVICE IMPLICATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Extracorporeal artificial liver device (ALD) support systems may offer a feasible approach for patients suffering from liver disease. The overall objective of this work is to develop an ALD using the pig epiblast-derived PICM-19H cell line. PICM-19H cells exhibit hepatocyte functions including ammon...

73

Discoidin domain receptor 1: isoform expression and potential functions in cirrhotic human liver.  

PubMed

Discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that binds and is activated by collagens. Transcriptional profiling of cirrhosis in human liver using a DNA array and quantitative PCR detected elevated mRNA expression of DDR1 compared with that in nondiseased liver. The present study characterized DDR1 expression in cirrhotic and nondiseased human liver and examined the cellular effects of DDR1 expression. mRNA expression of all five isoforms of DDR1 was detected in human liver, whereas DDR1a demonstrated differential expression in liver with hepatitis C virus and primary biliary cirrhosis compared with nondiseased liver. In addition, immunoblot analysis detected shed fragments of DDR1 more readily in cirrhotic liver than in nondiseased liver. Inasmuch as DDR1 is subject to protease-mediated cleavage after prolonged interaction with collagen, this differential expression may indicate more intense activation of DDR1 protein in cirrhotic compared with nondiseased liver. In situ hybridization and immunofluorescence localized intense DDR1 mRNA and protein expression to epithelial cells including hepatocytes at the portal-parenchymal interface and the luminal aspect of the biliary epithelium. Overexpression of DDR1a altered hepatocyte behavior including increased adhesion and less migration on extracelular matrix substrates. DDR1a regulated extracellular expression of matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 2. These data elucidate DDR1 function pertinent to cirrhosis and indicate the importance of epithelial cell-collagen interactions in chronic liver injury. PMID:21356365

Song, Sunmi; Shackel, Nicholas A; Wang, Xin M; Ajami, Katerina; McCaughan, Geoffrey W; Gorrell, Mark D

2011-03-01

74

Systemic administration of 2-hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin to symptomatic Npc1-deficient mice slows cholesterol sequestration in the major organs and improves liver function.  

PubMed

In Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease, loss-of-function mutations in either NPC1 or NPC2 result in progressive accumulation of unesterified cholesterol (UC) and glycosphingolipids in all organs, leading to neurodegeneration, pulmonary dysfunction and sometimes liver failure. There is no cure for this disorder. Studies using primarily NPC mouse models have shown that systemic administration of 2-hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (2HP?CD), starting in early neonatal life, diminishes UC accumulation in most organs, slows disease progression and extends lifespan. The key question now is whether delaying the start of 2HP?CD treatment until early adulthood, when the amount of entrapped UC throughout the body is markedly elevated, has any of the benefits found when treatment begins at 7 days of age. In the present study, Npc1(-/-) and Npc1(+/+) mice were given saline or 2HP?CD subcutaneously at 49, 56, 63 and 70 days of age, with measurements of organ weights, liver function tests and tissue cholesterol levels performed at 77 days. In Npc1(-/-) mice, treatment with 2HP?CD from 49 days reduced whole-liver cholesterol content at 77 days from 33.0 ± 1.0 to 9.1 ± 0.5 mg/organ. Comparable improvements were seen in other organs, such as the spleen, and in the animal as a whole. There was a transient increase in biliary cholesterol concentration in Npc1(-/-) mice after 2HP?CD. Plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities in 77-day-old 2HP?CD-treated Npc1(-/-) mice were reduced compared with saline-treated controls. The lifespan of Npc1(-/-) mice given 2HP?CD marginally exceeded that of the saline-treated controls (99 ± 1.1 vs 94 ± 1.4 days, respectively; P < 0.05). Thus, 2HP?CD is effective in mobilizing entrapped cholesterol in late-stage NPC disease leading to improved liver function. PMID:25115571

Lopez, Adam M; Terpack, Sandi J; Posey, Kenneth S; Liu, Benny; Ramirez, Charina M; Turley, Stephen D

2014-10-01

75

Liver Facts  

MedlinePLUS

... Heart/Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Liver Facts How the Liver Works The liver is one of the largest and most complex ... a spongy mass of wedge-shaped lobes. The liver has numerous functions that are necessary for life. ...

76

Ontogeny, distribution and potential roles of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in human liver function  

PubMed Central

Background Interindividual differences in liver functions such as protein synthesis, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and drug metabolism are influenced by epigenetic factors. The role of the epigenetic machinery in such processes has, however, been barely investigated. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is a recently re-discovered epigenetic DNA modification that plays an important role in the control of gene expression. Results In this study, we investigate 5hmC occurrence and genomic distribution in 8 fetal and 7 adult human liver samples in relation to ontogeny and function. LC-MS analysis shows that in the adult liver samples 5hmC comprises up to 1% of the total cytosine content, whereas in all fetal livers it is below 0.125%. Immunohistostaining of liver sections with a polyclonal anti-5hmC antibody shows that 5hmC is detected in most of the hepatocytes. Genome-wide mapping of the distribution of 5hmC in human liver samples by next-generation sequencing shows significant differences between fetal and adult livers. In adult livers, 5hmC occupancy is overrepresented in genes involved in active catabolic and metabolic processes, whereas 5hmC elements which are found in genes exclusively in fetal livers and disappear in the adult state, are more specific to pathways for differentiation and development. Conclusions Our findings suggest that 5-hydroxymethylcytosine plays an important role in the development and function of the human liver and might be an important determinant for development of liver diseases as well as of the interindividual differences in drug metabolism and toxicity. PMID:23958281

2013-01-01

77

Pharmacological Effects of Ginseng on Liver Functions and Diseases: A Minireview  

PubMed Central

Ginseng, an ancient and famous medicinal herb in the Orient, has been used as a valuable tonic and for the treatment of various diseases including hepatic disorders. Ginseng saponins, commonly known as ginsenosides, are principal constituents and have believed to be responsible for multiple ginseng health benefits. There are more 40 ginsenosides isolated from ginseng. To date, treatment options for common liver diseases such as cirrhosis, fatty liver, and chronic hepatitis remain problematic. In this regard, ginseng extracts and individual ginsenosides have shown a wide array of beneficial role in the regulation of regular liver functions and the treatment of liver disorders of acute/chronic hepatotoxicity, hepatitis, hepatic fibrosis/cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and so on in various pathways and mechanisms. In this paper, we first outline the pharmacological effects of ginseng and ginsenosides on the liver functions. PMID:22997528

Huu Tung, Nguyen; Uto, Takuhiro; Morinaga, Osamu; Kim, Young Ho; Shoyama, Yukihiro

2012-01-01

78

Evaluation of liver function after proton beam therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeOur previous results for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma with proton beam therapy (PBT) revealed excellent local control. In this study, we focused on the impact of PBT on normal liver function.

Masashi Mizumoto; Toshiyuki Okumura; Takayuki Hashimoto; Kuniaki Fukuda; Yoshiko Oshiro; Nobuyoshi Fukumitsu; Masato Abei; Atsushi Kawaguchi; Yasutaka Hayashi; Ayako Ohkawa; Haruko Hashii; Ayae Kanemoto; Takashi Moritake; Eriko Tohno; Koji Tsuboi; Takeji Sakae; Hideyuki Sakurai

79

Key role of L-alanine in the control of hepatic protein synthesis.  

PubMed Central

We investigated the effects of administration of single amino acids to starved rats on the regulation of protein synthesis in the liver. Of all the amino acids tested, only alanine, ornithine and proline promoted statistically significant increases in the extent of hepatic polyribosome aggregation. The most effective of these was alanine, whose effect of promoting polyribosomal aggregation was accompanied by a decrease in the polypeptide-chain elongation time. The following observations indicate that alanine plays an important physiological role in the regulation of hepatic protein synthesis. Alanine was the amino acid showing the largest decrease in hepatic content in the transition from high (fed) to low (starved) rates of protein synthesis. The administration of glucose or pyruvate is also effective in increasing liver protein synthesis in starved rats, and their effects were accompanied by an increased hepatic alanine content. An increase in hepatic ornithine content does not lead to an increased protein synthesis, unless it is accompanied by an increase of alanine. The effect of alanine is observed either in vivo, in rats pretreated with cycloserine to prevent its transamination, or in isolated liver cells under conditions in which its metabolic transformation is fully impeded. PMID:3593204

Pérez-Sala, D; Parrilla, R; Ayuso, M S

1987-01-01

80

[The effect of chronic internal irradiation from incorporated radionuclides on liver function].  

PubMed

On chronic supply to the body of a mixture of nuclear division products lanthanum-140, barium-140, tellurium-132, neodymium-147, neptunium-239, zirconium-95, niobium-95, iodine-131, cerium-141, -144, cesium-134, -137, and ruthenium-103 are detectable in liver tissue within the first months. In the 2 to 4 years following the disaster, liver tissue primarily accumulates cerium-144, radium-226, thorium-228, -232, ruthenium-106, antimony-125, and europium-154. Within the first periods the liver radionuclide content was 19 to 31% higher than that in the blood, and in the following years it was 24 to 38% higher. The radionuclides indicated were actively excreted with the bile into the gastrointestinal lumen. Within the first months after the chronic internal radiation the functional liver disorders were detectable in 30 to 40% of the patients. Later on diverse acute and chronic diseases of the liver, gallbladder and pancreas were detectable in 20 to 30% of the patients. The radionuclide content in the body was found to be in parallel with functional liver disorders. Acceleration of radionuclide excretion from the body results in liver function improvement. PMID:2084889

Dedenko, I K; Zakharash, M P; Ganich, O N; Siksa?, L T; Shnitser, R I; Sofienko, G I; Bytsa?, N N; Zemskov, V S; Trunov, V I; Bukanov, V N

1990-01-01

81

The gold nanoparticle size and exposure duration effect on the liver and kidney function of rats: In vivo  

PubMed Central

Nanoparticles (NPs) offer a great possibility for biomedical application, not only to deliver pharmaceutics, but also to be used as novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Currently, there are no data available regarding to what extent the degree of the toxicity and the accumulation of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are present in in vivo administration. This study aimed to address the GNP size and exposure duration effect on the liver and kidney function of rats: in vivo. Methods A total of 30 healthy male Wistar-Kyoto rats of the same age (12 weeks old) and weighing 220–240 g of King Saud University colony were used. Animals were randomly divided into groups, two GNP-treated rat groups and one control group (CG). The 50 ?l of 10 and 50 nm GNPs was intraperitoneally administered in rats for exposure duration of 3 days. Then, several biochemical parameters such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), urea (UREA) and creatinine (CREA) were evaluated. Results In this study, the AST values increased with the administration of 10 and 50 nm GNPs compared with the control. The AST values significantly increased with 10 nm GNPs compared with 50 nm GNPs and control. The GGT and ALT values decreased with the administration of 10 and 50 nm GNPs compared with the control. The GGT and ALT values significantly decreased with 50 nm GNPs compared with 10 nm GNPs and control. The ALP values significantly decreased with the administration of 10 and 50 nm GNPs compared with the control. The decrease in ALP values with 10 nm GNPs was higher than those compared with 50 nm GNPs. In this study, the levels of UREA and CREA values increased in a non significant manner after the administration of 10 and 50 nm GNPs compared with the control. Conclusions This study demonstrates that the increase in the enzymes AST and the decrease in ALP are smaller GNPs (10 nm) size-dependent for exposure duration of 3 days; while the decrease in the enzymes GGT and ALT are bigger GNPs (50 nm) size-dependent. The levels of UREA and CREA values indicated no significant changes with the administration of 10 and 50 nm GNPs for exposure duration of 3 days compared with the control. The administration of 10 and 50 nm GNPs for short exposure duration of 3 days induced only significant variations with some liver enzymes while kidney showed no significant variations. This study suggests that synthesis and metabolism of GNPs as well as the protection of the liver will be more important issues for medical applications of gold-based nanomaterials in future. PMID:23961234

Abdelhalim, Mohamed Anwar K.; Abdelmottaleb Moussa, Sherif A.

2013-01-01

82

Prediction of Liver Function by Using Magnetic Resonance-based Portal Venous Perfusion Imaging  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate whether liver function can be assessed globally and spatially by using volumetric dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging MRI (DCE-MRI) to potentially aid in adaptive treatment planning. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients with intrahepatic cancer undergoing focal radiation therapy (RT) were enrolled in institution review board-approved prospective studies to obtain DCE-MRI (to measure regional perfusion) and indocyanine green (ICG) clearance rates (to measure overall liver function) prior to, during, and at 1 and 2 months after treatment. The volumetric distribution of portal venous perfusion in the whole liver was estimated for each scan. We assessed the correlation between mean portal venous perfusion in the nontumor volume of the liver and overall liver function measured by ICG before, during, and after RT. The dose response for regional portal venous perfusion to RT was determined using a linear mixed effects model. Results: There was a significant correlation between the ICG clearance rate and mean portal venous perfusion in the functioning liver parenchyma, suggesting that portal venous perfusion could be used as a surrogate for function. Reduction in regional venous perfusion 1 month after RT was predicted by the locally accumulated biologically corrected dose at the end of RT (P<.0007). Regional portal venous perfusion measured during RT was a significant predictor for regional venous perfusion assessed 1 month after RT (P<.00001). Global hypovenous perfusion pre-RT was observed in 4 patients (3 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis), 3 of whom had recovered from hypoperfusion, except in the highest dose regions, post-RT. In addition, 3 patients who had normal perfusion pre-RT had marked hypervenous perfusion or reperfusion in low-dose regions post-RT. Conclusions: This study suggests that MR-based volumetric hepatic perfusion imaging may be a biomarker for spatial distribution of liver function, which could aid in individualizing therapy, particularly for patients at risk for liver injury after RT.

Cao Yue, E-mail: yuecao@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Wang Hesheng [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Johnson, Timothy D. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Pan, Charlie [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Hussain, Hero [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Balter, James M.; Normolle, Daniel; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Feng, Mary [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

2013-01-01

83

Serum Alanine Transaminase Total Bilirubin Concentrations Predict CYP3A Activity as Measured by Midazolam and 1'-Hydroxylation.  

PubMed

Background Microsomal enzyme P450 (CYP450) plays an important role in metabolism of most xenobiotics. The activity of CYP3A decreases in patients with liver dysfunction. However, whether serum concentrations of liver enzymes reflect the activity of CYP3A is unclear. We aimed to search for a new clue to predict the activity of CYP3A and guide clinical medication. Material and Methods Forty-five patients undergoing surgery under general anesthesia were enrolled in the study, including 15 cases with normal liver function (Group N), 15 cases with moderate fatty liver according to both the results of ultrasonic diagnosis of moderate fatty liver and the laboratory results of elevated alanine transaminase less than 3 times the normal (Group M), and 15 cases with end-stage liver disease (Group S). Each patient received a single dose of 5 mg midazolam intravenously. CYP3A activity was measured by plasma 1'hydroxymidsazolam/midazolam (1'-OH-MDZ/MDZ) ratio at 2 h after administration of midazolam. Results They was no significant difference in CYP3A activity between the patients with normal liver function and moderate fatty liver (P=0.332). The activity of CYP3A in Group S was lower than in Group N and Group M (P=0.000). Multiple linear regression analysis showed a statistically significant linear relationship between the activity of CYP3A and alanine transaminase (ALT, R2=0.682, P=0.000), and total bilirubin (TB, R2=0.519, P=0.002). There were no other factors, including albumin (ALB, P=0.881) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, P=0.497), correlated with the activity of CYP3A. Conclusions We conclude that the activity of CYP3A in patients with end-stage liver disease decreased. The decrease in the activity of CYP3A was determined by the increase in the serum concentration of ALT and TB and not by patient's age or body weight. ALT and TB therefore might have predictive value for the activity of CYP3A. An abnormal liver function test likely gives the clinician a hint about dosage adjustment. PMID:25648948

He, Rui; Li, Yuhong; Ruan, Jinguang

2015-01-01

84

Serum Alanine Transaminase Total Bilirubin Concentrations Predict CYP3A Activity as Measured by Midazolam and 1?-Hydroxylation  

PubMed Central

Background Microsomal enzyme P450 (CYP450) plays an important role in metabolism of most xenobiotics. The activity of CYP3A decreases in patients with liver dysfunction. However, whether serum concentrations of liver enzymes reflect the activity of CYP3A is unclear. We aimed to search for a new clue to predict the activity of CYP3A and guide clinical medication. Material/Methods Forty-five patients undergoing surgery under general anesthesia were enrolled in the study, including 15 cases with normal liver function (Group N), 15 cases with moderate fatty liver according to both the results of ultrasonic diagnosis of moderate fatty liver and the laboratory results of elevated alanine transaminase less than 3 times the normal (Group M), and 15 cases with end-stage liver disease (Group S). Each patient received a single dose of 5 mg midazolam intravenously. CYP3A activity was measured by plasma 1?hydroxymidsazolam/midazolam (1?-OH-MDZ/MDZ) ratio at 2 h after administration of midazolam. Results They was no significant difference in CYP3A activity between the patients with normal liver function and moderate fatty liver (P=0.332). The activity of CYP3A in Group S was lower than in Group N and Group M (P=0.000). Multiple linear regression analysis showed a statistically significant linear relationship between the activity of CYP3A and alanine transaminase (ALT, R2=0.682, P=0.000), and total bilirubin (TB, R2=0.519, P=0.002). There were no other factors, including albumin (ALB, P=0.881) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, P=0.497), correlated with the activity of CYP3A. Conclusions We conclude that the activity of CYP3A in patients with end-stage liver disease decreased. The decrease in the activity of CYP3A was determined by the increase in the serum concentration of ALT and TB and not by patient’s age or body weight. ALT and TB therefore might have predictive value for the activity of CYP3A. An abnormal liver function test likely gives the clinician a hint about dosage adjustment. PMID:25648948

He, Rui; Li, Yuhong; Ruan, Jinguang

2015-01-01

85

Verapamil pharmacokinetics and liver function in patients with cirrhosis.  

PubMed

In seven patients with liver cirrhosis, verapamil plasma levels were measured in blood drawn simultaneously from the hepatic vein and from an artery during the post-distributive phase after an intravenous bolus infusion of 5 mg of verapamil. In addition the hepatic plasma flow was measured using the indocyanine-green constant infusion technique. From these data the verapamil hepatic clearance and verapamil intrinsic clearance were calculated. The verapamil hepatic clearance was 423 +/- 92 ml/m, the hepatic plasma flow was 819 +/- 318 ml/m, and the verapamil intrinsic clearance was 1431 +/- 961 ml/m. As compared to values reported in the literature, a decrease of the verapamil hepatic clearance by 50% approximately was found, while the hepatic plasma flow was in the normal range and the verapamil intrinsic clearance was reduced by 75%. These data show that in patients with cirrhosis the decrease in verapamil clearance is due to an impairment in the capacity of the liver to remove the drug, and not to a decrease in liver perfusion. PMID:3378854

Finucci, G F; Padrini, R; Piovan, D; Melica, E; Merkel, C; Gatta, A; Zuin, R

1988-01-01

86

Adiponectin is better predictor of subclinical atherosclerosis than liver function tests in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.  

PubMed

Adiponectin has recently been considered as a possible link between liver dysfunction and atherosclerosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The present study was designed to evaluate the relation between circulating adiponectin and arterial stiffness parameters, such as pulse wave velocity (PWV) and aortic augmentation index (AI), in patients with hepatic steatosis. The study group consisted of 52 subjects with NAFLD. PWV and AI were performed using SphygmoCor (version 7.1, AtCor Medical, Sydney, Australia). Metabolic parameters, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, and adiponectin levels were determined. Adiponectin was significantly, positively associated with AI (r = 0.467; P < .0001) and with PWV (r = 0.348; P = .011). No association between arterial stiffness parameters and liver function tests was observed. In a multiple linear regression analysis, adiponectin remained a significant predictor of PWV even after controlling for age, gender, and MAP. Serum adiponectin levels were significantly associated with indices of subclinical atherosclerosis, such as PWV and AI in patients with NAFLD. This association was independent of age, gender, and blood pressure level and suggests an active role of adiponectin in the pathophysiology of vascular disease in this particular population group. PMID:24794207

Omelchenko, Elena; Gavish, Dov; Shargorodsky, Marina

2014-06-01

87

A Decision-Support System for the Identification, Staging, Functional Evaluation of Liver Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a HEPASCORE has been developed to optimize the application of objective criteria for qualitative and quantitative assessment of liver\\u000a function. Early recognition of abnormal liver states is performed according to a sequential approach, based at first on clinical rules using data from history and physical examination,\\u000a then confirming or denying the hypothesis by means of selected laboratory tests. Once an abnormal

Mauro Torchio; Stefania Battista; Fabrizio Bar; Cristina Pollet; Marina Marzuoli; Maria Cesira Bucchi; Roberto Pagni; Gianpaolo Molino

1999-01-01

88

Prediction of liver disease in patients whose liver function tests have been checked in primary care: model development and validation using population-based observational cohorts  

PubMed Central

Objective To derive and validate a clinical prediction model to estimate the risk of liver disease diagnosis following liver function tests (LFTs) and to convert the model to a simplified scoring tool for use in primary care. Design Population-based observational cohort study of patients in Tayside Scotland identified as having their LFTs performed in primary care and followed for 2?years. Biochemistry data were linked to secondary care, prescriptions and mortality data to ascertain baseline characteristics of the derivation cohort. A separate validation cohort was obtained from 19 general practices across the rest of Scotland to externally validate the final model. Setting Primary care, Tayside, Scotland. Participants Derivation cohort: LFT results from 310?511 patients. After exclusions (including: patients under 16?years, patients having initial LFTs measured in secondary care, bilirubin >35??mol/L, liver complications within 6?weeks and history of a liver condition), the derivation cohort contained 95?977 patients with no clinically apparent liver condition. Validation cohort: after exclusions, this cohort contained 11?653 patients. Primary and secondary outcome measures Diagnosis of a liver condition within 2?years. Results From the derivation cohort (n=95?977), 481 (0.5%) were diagnosed with a liver disease. The model showed good discrimination (C-statistic=0.78). Given the low prevalence of liver disease, the negative predictive values were high. Positive predictive values were low but rose to 20–30% for high-risk patients. Conclusions This study successfully developed and validated a clinical prediction model and subsequent scoring tool, the Algorithm for Liver Function Investigations (ALFI), which can predict liver disease risk in patients with no clinically obvious liver disease who had their initial LFTs taken in primary care. ALFI can help general practitioners focus referral on a small subset of patients with higher predicted risk while continuing to address modifiable liver disease risk factors in those at lower risk. PMID:24889852

McLernon, David J; Donnan, Peter T; Sullivan, Frank M; Roderick, Paul; Rosenberg, William M; Ryder, Steve D; Dillon, John F

2014-01-01

89

21 CFR 582.5118 - Alanine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5118 Alanine. (a) Product. Alanine (L- and DL-forms). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good...

2010-04-01

90

Nuclear imaging techniques for the assessment of hepatic function in liver surgery and transplantation.  

PubMed

This review describes the application of 2 nuclear imaging techniques for assessment of hepatic function in the setting of liver surgery and transplantation. The biochemical and technical background, as well as the clinical applications, of (99m)Tc-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid galactosyl human serum albumin (GSA) scintigraphy and hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HBS) with (99m)Tc-labeled iminodiacetic acid derivates is discussed. (99m)Tc-mebrofenin is considered the most suitable iminodiacetic acid agent for (99m)Tc-HBS. (99m)Tc-GSA scintigraphy and (99m)Tc-mebrofenin HBS are based on 2 different principles. (99m)Tc-GSA scintigraphy is a receptor-mediated technique whereas HBS represents hepatic uptake and excretion function. Both techniques are noninvasive and provide visual and quantitative information on both total and regional liver function. They can be used for preoperative assessment of future remnant liver function, follow-up after preoperative portal vein embolization, and evaluation of postoperative liver regeneration. In liver transplantation, these methods are used to assess graft function and biliary complications. PMID:20395336

de Graaf, Wilmar; Bennink, Roelof J; Veteläinen, Reeta; van Gulik, Thomas M

2010-05-01

91

[Data analysis of electronic medical recored clinical changes in indexs of liver and kidney function when salvianolate injection is parenterally administered over extended period].  

PubMed

To understand the impact of salvianolate injection treatment of liver and kidney function using different from the hospital information system nationwide 18 large three hospitals (hospital information system, HIS) to extract using salvianolate age 18-80 years-old patient, a total of 10 470 cases, depending on the treatment used to have two times before and after treatment 7 d aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase patients (ALT), serum creatinine (Cr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) measurement indicators grouped according salvianolate continuous use different treatment patients were divided into two groups, continuous medication time > 14 d were defined as the observation group, ? 14 d were defined as the control group, continuous medication longer than 31 d were not included in the analysis. Each index number of the observation group and the control group were: ALT (268/1 465), AST (270/1 585), Cr (278/1 582), BUN (278/1 611). After using propensity score methods to balance two groups of covariates, based on unweighted logistic regression logistic regression propensity score weighting combined with propensity score weighting to adjust for covariates logistic regression of liver and kidney function in the two groups were analyzed. The results showed: three logistic regression analysis showed no likelihood of ALT, AST, Cr targets two groups of patients with abnormal statistically significant difference, continuous medication time > 14 d may increase the risk of abnormal BUN indicators, comprehensive analysis still can not explain use different treatment of patients salvianolate cause liver and kidney toxicity damage, still large prospective randomized controlled trials further study. PMID:25532402

Li, Yuan; Xie, Yan-Ming; Huo, Jian; Zhang, Hui

2014-09-01

92

Nuclear imaging for functional evaluation and theragnosis in liver malignancy and transplantation  

PubMed Central

Currently, nuclear imaging such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is increasingly used in the management of liver malignancy. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET is the most widely used nuclear imaging in liver malignancy as in other cancers, and has been reported to be effective in diagnosis, response monitoring, recurrence evaluation, and prognosis prediction. Other PET imaging such as 11C-acetate PET is also used complementarily to FDG-PET in diagnosis of liver malignancy. Additionally, image-based evaluation of regional hepatic function can be performed using nuclear imaging. Those imaging modalities are also effective for candidate selection, treatment planning, and perioperative evaluation in liver surgery and transplantation. Recently, nuclear imaging has been actively adopted in the transarterial radioembolization therapy of liver malignancy, according to the concept of theragnosis. With the development of new hybrid imaging technologies such as PET/magnetic resonance imaging and SPECT/CT, nuclear imaging is expected to be more useful in the management of liver malignancy, particularly regarding liver surgery and transplantation. In this review, the efficacy and roles of nuclear imaging methods in diagnosis, transplantation and theragnosis are discussed. PMID:24833867

Eo, Jae Seon; Paeng, Jin Chul; Lee, Dong Soo

2014-01-01

93

Nuclear imaging for functional evaluation and theragnosis in liver malignancy and transplantation.  

PubMed

Currently, nuclear imaging such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is increasingly used in the management of liver malignancy. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET is the most widely used nuclear imaging in liver malignancy as in other cancers, and has been reported to be effective in diagnosis, response monitoring, recurrence evaluation, and prognosis prediction. Other PET imaging such as (11)C-acetate PET is also used complementarily to FDG-PET in diagnosis of liver malignancy. Additionally, image-based evaluation of regional hepatic function can be performed using nuclear imaging. Those imaging modalities are also effective for candidate selection, treatment planning, and perioperative evaluation in liver surgery and transplantation. Recently, nuclear imaging has been actively adopted in the transarterial radioembolization therapy of liver malignancy, according to the concept of theragnosis. With the development of new hybrid imaging technologies such as PET/magnetic resonance imaging and SPECT/CT, nuclear imaging is expected to be more useful in the management of liver malignancy, particularly regarding liver surgery and transplantation. In this review, the efficacy and roles of nuclear imaging methods in diagnosis, transplantation and theragnosis are discussed. PMID:24833867

Eo, Jae Seon; Paeng, Jin Chul; Lee, Dong Soo

2014-05-14

94

[Effects of ß-alanine supplementation on athletic performance].  

PubMed

Carnosine, dipeptide formed by amino acids ß-alanine and L-histidine, has important physiological functions among which its antioxidant and related memory and learning. However, in connection with the exercise, the most important functions would be associated with muscle contractility, improving calcium sensitivity in muscle fibers, and the regulatory function of pH. Thus, it is proposed that carnosine is the major intracellular buffer, but could contribute to 7-10% in buffer or buffer capacity. Since carnosine synthesis seems to be limited by the availability of ß-alanine supplementation with this compound has been gaining increasing popularity among the athlete population. Therefore, the objective of this study literature review was to examine all those research works have shown the effect of ß-alanine supplementation on athletic performance. Moreover, it also has attempted to establish a specific dosage that maximizing the potential benefits, minimize paresthesia, the main side effect presented in response to supplementation. PMID:25561107

Domínguez, Raúl; Hernández Lougedo, Juan; Maté-Muñoz, José Luis; Garnacho-Castaño, Manuel Vicente

2015-01-01

95

Expression of Functional Cell-Cell Channels from Cloned Rat Liver Gap Junction Complementary DNA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An oocyte expression system was used to test the relation between a complementary DNA (cDNA) clone encoding the liver gap junction protein and cell-cell channels. Total liver polyadenylated messenger RNA injected into oocytes induced cell-cell channels between paired oocytes. This induction was blocked by simultaneous injection of antisense RNA transcribed from the gap junction cDNA. Messenger RNA selected by hybridization to the cDNA clone and translated in oocyte pairs yielded a higher junctional conductance than unselected liver messenger RNA. Cell-cell channels between oocytes were also formed when the cloned cDNA was expressed under the control of a heat-shock promoter. A concentration-dependent induction of channels was observed in response to injection with in vitro transcribed gap junction messenger RNA. Thus, the liver gap junction cDNA encodes a protein that is essential for the formation of functional cell-cell channels.

Dahl, G.; Miller, T.; Paul, D.; Voellmy, R.; Werner, R.

1987-06-01

96

Cyclooxygenase-1 serves a vital hepato-protective function in chemically induced acute liver injury.  

PubMed

Cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) is the constitutive form of the COX enzyme family, which produces bioactive lipids called prostanoids. Although the role of COX-2 in liver diseases has been studied, little is known about the function of COX-1 in liver injury. We aimed to investigate the role and mechanism of COX-1 in acute liver injury. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was administered to induce acute liver injury in wild-type or COX-1-deficient mice. Both genetic (partially or completely) deletion of COX-1 expression and pharmacological inhibition of COX-1 activity in mice exacerbated acute liver injury induced by CCl4, revealing the (1) histopathological changes and increased serum levels of aminotransferases; (2) oxidative stress in the liver partly through the action of cytochrome P450 2E1-dependent pathway; (3) enhanced inflammatory and chemoattractive responses with increased number of activated macrophages; and (4) increased apoptosis through both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. These pathological changes were partly through the modulation of transcription factor-dependent pathways (eg, NF-?B and C/EBP-?). Pre-treatment with prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) or 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) inhibitor in homozygous COX-1 knockout mice significantly ameliorated CCl4-induced hepatic injury. In addition, level of hepato-protective molecules (eg, OSM and OSMR) and associated liver regeneration pathway were significantly inhibited by the deficiency of COX-1 but restored by the addition of PGE2 or the inhibition of 5-LO. Furthermore, the alternative arachidonic acid metabolism pathway of 5-LO, which induced additional inflammation in the liver, was activated in response to the deficiency of COX-1. In conclusion, basal expression of COX-1 is essential for the protection of liver against chemical-induced hepatotoxicity and required for hepatic homeostatic maintenance. PMID:25432964

Xiao, Jia; Liong, Emily C; Huang, Hai; On Tse, Wing; Lau, Kam Shing; Pan, Jingfei; Nanji, Amin A; Fung, Man Lung; Xing, Feiyue; Tipoe, George L

2015-02-01

97

Alanine derivatives with reactive groups.  

PubMed

The synthesis of diazoketone analogs of amino acids and associated problems were investigated with N-phthaloyl-DL-alanine serving as a model. The carboxyl was activated by conversion to the acid chloride or, under mild conditions, to the mixed anhydride obtained with ethyl chloroformate or dicyclohexylcarbodiimide; the product was reacted with diazomethane. Deblocking the phthaloyl group with hydrazine gave 3-amino-1-diazo-2-butanone as a well-characterized solid salt and as a less stable oil. Further reactions of the blocked diazoketone of DL-alanine, such as conversion to alpha-haloketones, Wolff rearrangement, and deuterium exchange on C-1 were investigated. 3-A-mino-1-diazo-2-butanone had moderate inhibitory activity against mouse mammary adenocarcinoma in cell culture. PMID:641800

Paul, B; Korytnyk, W

1978-05-01

98

Intrahepatic IL-10 Maintains NKG2A+Ly49? Liver NK Cells in a Functionally Hyporesponsive State  

PubMed Central

The tolerogenic nature of the liver allows daily exposure to gut-derived foreign Ags without causing inflammation, but it may facilitate persistent infection in the liver. NK cells play a central role in innate immunity, as well as in shaping the adaptive immune response. We hypothesized that the naive mouse liver maintains intrahepatic NK cells in a functionally hyporesponsive state. Compared with splenic NK cells, liver NK cells displayed a dampened IFN-? response to IL-12/IL-18 stimulation. Importantly, the liver contains a significant population of functionally hyporesponsive NK cells that express high levels of the inhibitory receptor NKG2A and lack expression of MHC class I-binding Ly49 receptors. Adoptively transferred splenic NK cells that migrate to the liver displayed phenotypic and functional changes, suggesting that the liver environment modifies NK cell receptor expression and functional responsiveness. Notably, IL-10 is present at high levels within the liver, and in vivo blockade of IL-10R resulted in a decreased percentage of intrahepatic NKG2A+Ly49? NK cells. These data suggest that the liver environment regulates NK cell receptor expression and that IL-10 contributes to the regulation of liver NK cells, in part, by maintaining a greater percentage of the hyporesponsive NKG2A+Ly49? NK cells in the liver. PMID:20124099

Lassen, Matthew G.; Lukens, John R.; Dolina, Joseph S.; Brown, Michael G.; Hahn, Young S.

2010-01-01

99

Effects of inducer pretreatment on liver function and morphology in the mountain vole Microtus montanus.  

PubMed

Liver function and morphology of the mountain vole, Microtus montanus, were examined after i.p. injections of phenobarbital, beta-naphthoflavone, or Aroclor 1254 at three dose levels. The results of the liver function tests showed serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase and serum malathion carboxylesterase activities were normal in all the treatment groups. The histological results showed no necrotic tissue but did reveal two different morphological stages related to the level of monooxygenase activity; a low induction state was represented by foamy vacuolated hepatocytes while high induction states were related to enlarged, swollen, hypertrophied cells. PMID:2882929

Hincks, J R; Brindley, W A

1987-01-01

100

Free Radical Scavengers Improve Liver Function but Not Morphological Changes Induced by Reperfusion Injury.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Objective: Reperfusion injury (RI) is associated with high generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), but the extent of involvement of these agents in the injury remains controversial. The present study aimed to examine the effectiveness of ROS scavengers against hepatic reperfusion injury in the rat. Methods: The RI was induced in the liver using an isolated slow-flow, reflow perfused rat liver in both anterograde and retrograde perfusion. The effects of gentisic acid, N-acetyl cysteine, and trolox C on the superoxide production, liver function, and morphological changes were examined using different biochemical and histological assays. Results: The hepatic RI caused a significant (p < 0.05) increase in superoxide production and enzyme releases and a decrease in bile flow in both directions. Histological changes induced by RI include apoptosis, necrosis, pale cytoplasm, cell vacuolation, and attenuation of cell cords. Although the production of superoxide in retrograde direction was significantly less than the anterograde, the extent of the injury in the retrograde was greater than the anterograde direction. Pretreatment of the livers with each of the test compounds significantly reduced the release of lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase and improved bile flow in the liver exposed to hypoxia/reperfusion. However, they failed to protect the liver against the structural alterations induced by RI. Conclusion: ROS scavengers can reduce superoxide-induced damage and improve the liver function, but they are not able to prevent the structural changes. It shows that ROS are not the sole causative mechanism of hepatic RI and other mechanisms and mediators may be involved. PMID:25393956

Arab, Hossein-Ali; Walker, Neal I; Cheung, Kee; Hickman, Peter E; Potter, Jolia M; Kadkhodaee, Mehri; Roberts, Michael S

2014-11-13

101

CT/99mTc-GSA SPECT fusion images demonstrate functional differences between the liver lobes  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the functional differences between the 2 liver lobes in non-cirrhotic patients by using computed tomography/99mTc-galactosyl human serum albumin (CT/99mTc-GSA) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) fusion images. METHODS: Between December 2008 and March 2012, 264 non-cirrhotic patients underwent preoperative liver function assessment using CT/99mTc-GSA SPECT fusion images. Of these, 30 patients, in whom the influence of a tumor on the liver parenchyma was estimated to be negligible, were selected. Specifically, the selected patients were required to meet either of the following criteria: (1) the presence of an extrahepatic tumor; or (2) presence of a single small intrahepatic tumor. These 30 patients were retrospectively analyzed to calculate the percentage volume (%Volume) and the percentage function (%Function) of each lobe. The ratio between the %Function and %Volume (function-to-volume ratio) of each lobe was also calculated, and the ratios were compared between the 2 lobes. Furthermore, the correlations between the function-to-volume ratio and each of 2 liver parameters [lobe volume and diameter ratio of the left portal vein to the right portal vein (LPV-to-RPV diameter ratio)] were investigated. RESULTS: The median values of %Volume and %Function were 62.6% and 67.1% in the right lobe, with %Function being significantly higher than %Volume (P < 0.01). The median values of %Volume and %Function were 31.0% and 28.7% in the left lobe, with %Function being significantly lower than %Volume (P < 0.01). The function-to-volume ratios of the right lobe (1.04-1.14) were significantly higher than those of the left lobe (0.74-0.99) (P < 0.01). The function-to-volume ratio showed no significant correlation between the lobe volume in either lobe. In contrast, the function-to-volume ratio showed significant correlations with the LPV-to-RPV diameter ratio in both lobes (right lobe: negative correlation, rs = -0.37, P = 0.048; left lobe: positive correlation, rs = 0.71, P < 0.001). The function-to-volume ratio in the left lobe tended to be higher, and that in the right lobe tended to be lower, in accordance with the increase in the LPV-to-RPV diameter ratio. CONCLUSION: CT/99mTc-GSA SPECT fusion images demonstrated that the function of the left lobe was significantly decreased compared with that of the right lobe in non-cirrhotic livers. PMID:23745023

Sumiyoshi, Tatsuaki; Shima, Yasuo; Tokorodani, Ryoutarou; Okabayashi, Takehiro; Kozuki, Akihito; Hata, Yasuhiro; Noda, Yoshihiro; Murata, Yoriko; Nakamura, Toshio; Uka, Kiminori

2013-01-01

102

Hepatocytes buried in the cirrhotic livers of patients with biliary atresia proliferate and function in the livers of urokinase-type plasminogen activator–NOG mice  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis of biliary atresia (BA), which leads to end-stage cirrhosis in most patients, has been thought to inflame and obstruct the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts. BA is not believed to be caused by abnormalities in parenchymal hepatocytes. However, there has been no report of a detailed analysis of hepatocytes buried in the cirrhotic livers of patients with BA. Therefore, we evaluated the proliferative potential of these hepatocytes in immunodeficient, liver-injured mice [the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) transgenic NOD/Shi-scid IL2r?null (NOG); uPA-NOG strain]. We succeeded in isolating viable hepatocytes from the livers of patients with BA who had various degrees of fibrosis. The isolated hepatocytes were intrasplenically transplanted into the livers of uPA-NOG mice. The hepatocytes of only 3 of the 9 BA patients secreted detectable amounts of human albumin in sera when they were transplanted into mice. However, human leukocyte antigen–positive hepatocyte colonies were detected in 7 of the 9 mice with hepatocyte transplants from patients with BA. We demonstrated that hepatocytes buried in the cirrhotic livers of patients with BA retained their proliferative potential. A liver that was reconstituted with hepatocytes from patients with BA was shown to be a functioning human liver with a drug-metabolizing enzyme gene expression pattern that was representative of mature human liver and biliary function, as ascertained by fluorescent dye excretion into the bile canaliculi. These results imply that removing the primary etiology via an earlier portoenterostomy may increase the quantity of functionally intact hepatocytes remaining in a cirrhotic liver and may contribute to improved outcomes. PMID:24838399

Suemizu, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Kazuaki; Kawai, Kenji; Higuchi, Yuichiro; Kasahara, Mureo; Fujimoto, Junichiro; Tanoue, Akito; Nakamura, Masato

2014-01-01

103

Replacement of Liver Function in Rats by Transplantation of Microcarrier-Attached Hepatocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolated hepatocytes, harvested from normal rat livers by portal vein collagenase perfusion, can be attached to collagen-coated dextran microcarriers and transplanted by intraperitoneal injection into rats. Survival and function of the transplanted hepatocytes have been demonstrated in mutant rats lacking bilirubin--uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase activity (Gunn strain) and rats with inherited lack of plasma albumin (Nagase analbuminemia rat strain). This simple

Achilles A. Demetriou; James F. Whiting; David Feldman; Stanley M. Levenson; Namita Roy Chowdhury; Albert D. Moscioni; Michael Kram; Jayanta Roy Chowdhury

1986-01-01

104

Liver transplant - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

The liver is in the right upper abdomen. The liver serves many functions, including the detoxification of substances delivered ... A liver transplant may be recommended for: liver damage due to alcoholism (Alcoholic cirrhosis) primary biliary cirrhosis long-term ( ...

105

Cellular and molecular functions of hepatic stellate cells in inflammatory responses and liver immunology  

PubMed Central

The liver is a central immunological organ. Liver resident macrophages, Kupffer cells (KC), but also sinusoidal endothelial cells, dendritic cells (DC) and other immune cells are involved in balancing immunity and tolerance against pathogens, commensals or food antigens. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) have been primarily characterized as the main effector cells in liver fibrosis, due to their capacity to transdifferentiate into collagen-producing myofibroblasts (MFB). More recent studies elucidated the fundamental role of HSC in liver immunology. HSC are not only the major storage site for dietary vitamin A (Vit A) (retinol, retinoic acid), which is essential for proper function of the immune system. This pericyte further represents a versatile source of many soluble immunological active factors including cytokines [e.g., interleukin 17 (IL-17)] and chemokines [C-C motif chemokine (ligand) 2 (CCL2)], may act as an antigen presenting cell (APC), and has autophagy activity. Additionally, it responds to many immunological triggers via toll-like receptors (TLR) (e.g., TLR4, TLR9) and transduces signals through pathways and mediators traditionally found in immune cells, including the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway or inflammasome activation. Overall, HSC promote rather immune-suppressive responses in homeostasis, like induction of regulatory T cells (Treg), T cell apoptosis (via B7-H1, PDL-1) or inhibition of cytotoxic CD8 T cells. In conditions of liver injury, HSC are important sensors of altered tissue integrity and initiators of innate immune cell activation. Vice versa, several immune cell subtypes interact directly or via soluble mediators with HSC. Such interactions include the mutual activation of HSC (towards MFB) and macrophages or pro-apoptotic signals from natural killer (NK), natural killer T (NKT) and gamma-delta T cells (?? T-cells) on activated HSC. Current directions of research investigate the immune-modulating functions of HSC in the environment of liver tumors, cellular heterogeneity or interactions promoting HSC deactivation during resolution of liver fibrosis. Understanding the role of HSC as central regulators of liver immunology may lead to novel therapeutic strategies for chronic liver diseases. PMID:25568859

2014-01-01

106

The Utility of Liver Function Tests for Mortality Prediction within One Year in Primary Care Using the Algorithm for Liver Function Investigations (ALFI)  

PubMed Central

Background Although liver function tests (LFTs) are routinely measured in primary care, raised levels in patients with no obvious liver disease may trigger a range of subsequent expensive and unnecessary management plans. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a prediction model to guide decision-making by general practitioners, which estimates risk of one year all-cause mortality in patients with no obvious liver disease. Methods In this population-based historical cohort study, biochemistry data from patients in Tayside, Scotland, with LFTs performed in primary care were record-linked to secondary care and prescription databases to ascertain baseline characteristics, and to mortality data. Using this derivation cohort a survival model was developed to predict mortality. The model was assessed for calibration, discrimination (using the C-statistic) and performance, and validated using a separate cohort of Scottish primary care practices. Results From the derivation cohort (n?=?95 977), 2.7% died within one year. Predictors of mortality included: age; male gender; social deprivation; history of cancer, renal disease, stroke, ischaemic heart disease or respiratory disease; statin use; and LFTs (albumin, transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, and gamma-glutamyltransferase). The C-statistic for the final model was 0.82 (95% CI 0.80–0.84), and was similar in the validation cohort (n?=?11 653) 0.86 (0.79–0.90). As an example of performance, for a 10% predicted probability cut-off, sensitivity?=?52.8%, specificity?=?94.0%, PPV?=?21.0%, NPV?=?98.5%. For the model without LFTs the respective values were 43.8%, 92.8%, 15.6%, 98.1%. Conclusions The Algorithm for Liver Function Investigations (ALFI) is the first model to successfully estimate the probability of all-cause mortality in patients with no apparent liver disease having LFTs in primary care. While LFTs added to the model's discrimination and sensitivity, the clinical utility of ALFI remains to be established since LFTs did not improve an already high NPV for short term mortality and only modestly improved a very low PPV. PMID:23272082

McLernon, David J.; Dillon, John F.; Sullivan, Frank M.; Roderick, Paul; Rosenberg, William M.; Ryder, Stephen D.; Donnan, Peter T.

2012-01-01

107

New insights into family functioning and quality of life after pediatric liver transplantation.  

PubMed

Thorough research of the medical aspects of pediatric liver transplantation has given way to recent interest in the impact of the transplantation process on the QOL of recipients and their families. In this cross-sectional study, we compared the family functioning and QOL of children (n = 30) aged between three and 16 yr (M = 10.10, s.d. = 3.62) who had received a liver transplant in the previous 1-12 yr (M = 5.31, s.d. = 3.44) with non-transplant children (n = 33), as reported via parent proxy. Results showed that parents of pediatric liver transplant recipients made significantly more adjustments to family routines to accommodate their children, particularly in relation to childcare. Impaired family functioning was also found to be associated with decreased QOL. These preliminary findings of relative deficits in family functioning may inform psychosocial interventions to assist pediatric liver transplant patients and their families. Further investigation beyond a single-center study incorporating subjective information from pediatric patients and their parents is recommended. PMID:22775776

Denny, Bianca; Beyerle, Kathe; Kienhuis, Mandy; Cora, Ancuta; Gavidia-Payne, Susana; Hardikar, Winita

2012-11-01

108

Functional Roles of Protein Nitration in Acute and Chronic Liver Diseases  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide, when combined with superoxide, produces peroxynitrite, which is known to be an important mediator for a number of diseases including various liver diseases. Peroxynitrite can modify tyrosine residue(s) of many proteins resulting in protein nitration, which may alter structure and function of each target protein. Various proteomics and immunological methods including mass spectrometry combined with both high pressure liquid chromatography and 2D PAGE have been employed to identify and characterize nitrated proteins from pathological tissue samples to determine their roles. However, these methods contain a few technical problems such as low efficiencies with the detection of a limited number of nitrated proteins and labor intensiveness. Therefore, a systematic approach to efficiently identify nitrated proteins and characterize their functional roles is likely to shed new insights into understanding of the mechanisms of hepatic disease pathophysiology and subsequent development of new therapeutics. The aims of this review are to briefly describe the mechanisms of hepatic diseases. In addition, we specifically describe a systematic approach to efficiently identify nitrated proteins to study their causal roles or functional consequences in promoting acute and chronic liver diseases including alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases. We finally discuss translational research applications by analyzing nitrated proteins in evaluating the efficacies of potentially beneficial agents to prevent or treat various diseases in the liver and other tissues. PMID:24876909

Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A.; Song, Byoung-Joon

2014-01-01

109

Measurement of serum paraoxonase-1 activity in the evaluation of liver function  

PubMed Central

Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is an esterase and lactonase synthesized by the liver and found in the circulation associated with high-density lipoproteins. The physiological function of PON1 seems to be to degrade specific oxidized cholesteryl esters and oxidized phospholipids in lipoproteins and cell membranes. PON1 is, therefore, an antioxidant enzyme. Alterations in circulating PON1 levels have been reported in a variety of diseases involving oxidative stress including chronic liver diseases. Measurement of serum PON1 activity has been proposed as a potential test for the evaluation of liver function. However, this measurement is still restricted to research and has not been extensively applied in routine clinical chemistry laboratories. The reason for this restriction is due to the problem that the substrate commonly used for PON1 measurement, paraoxon, is toxic and unstable. The recent development of new assays with non-toxic substrates makes this proposal closer to a practical development. The present editorial summarizes PON1 biochemistry and function, its involvement with chronic liver impairment, and some aspects related to the measurement of PON1 activity in circulation. PMID:19399923

Camps, Jordi; Marsillach, Judit; Joven, Jorge

2009-01-01

110

ADH1B and ADH1C Genotype, Alcohol Consumption and Biomarkers of Liver Function: Findings from a Mendelian Randomization Study in 58,313 European Origin Danes  

PubMed Central

Background The effect of alcohol consumption on liver function is difficult to determine because of reporting bias and potential residual confounding. Our aim was to determine this effect using genetic variants to proxy for the unbiased effect of alcohol. Methods We used variants in ADH1B and ADH1C genes as instrumental variables (IV) to estimate the causal effect of long-term alcohol consumption on alanine aminotransferase (ALT), ?-glutamyl-transferase (?-GT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin and prothrombin action. Analyses were undertaken on 58,313 Danes (mean age 56). Results In both confounder adjusted multivariable and genetic-IV analyses greater alcohol consumption, amongst those who drank any alcohol, was associated with higher ALT [mean difference per doubling of alcohol consumption: 3.4% (95% CI: 3.1, 3.7) from multivariable analyses and 3.7% (?4.5, 11.9) from genetic-IV analyses] and ?-GT [8.2% (7.8, 8.5) and 6.8% (?2.8, 16.5)]. The point estimates from the two methods were very similar and statistically the results from the two methods were consistent with each other for effects with ALT and ?-GT (both pdiff>0.3). Results from the multivariable analyses suggested a weak inverse association of alcohol with ALP [?1.5% (?1.7, ?1.3)], which differed from the strong positive effect found in genetic-IV analyses [11.6% (6.8, 16.4)] (pdiff<0.0001). In both multivariable and genetic-IV analyses associations with bilirubin and protrombin action were weak and close to the null. Conclusions Our results suggest that greater consumption of alcohol is related to poorer liver function as indicated by higher ALT, ?-GT and ALP, but not to clotting or bilirubin. PMID:25503943

Lawlor, Debbie A.; Benn, Marianne; Zuccolo, Luisa; De Silva, N. Maneka G.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Smith, George Davey; Nordestgaard, Børge G.

2014-01-01

111

Molecular Functions of Thyroid Hormones and Their Clinical Significance in Liver-Related Diseases  

PubMed Central

Thyroid hormones (THs) are potent mediators of several physiological processes, including embryonic development, cellular differentiation, metabolism, and cell growth. Triiodothyronine (T3) is the most biologically active TH form. Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily and mediate the biological functions of T3 via transcriptional regulation. TRs generally form heterodimers with the retinoid X receptor (RXR) and regulate target genes upon T3 stimulation. Research over the past few decades has revealed that disruption of cellular TH signaling triggers chronic liver diseases, including alcoholic or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Animal model experiments and epidemiologic studies to date imply close associations between high TH levels and prevention of liver disease. Moreover, several investigations spanning four decades have reported the therapeutic potential of T3 analogs in lowering lipids, preventing chronic liver disease, and as anticancer agents. Thus, elucidating downstream genes/signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms of TH actions is critical for the treatment of significant public health issues. Here, we have reviewed recent studies focusing on the roles of THs and TRs in several disorders, in particular, liver diseases. We also discuss the potential therapeutic applications of THs and underlying molecular mechanisms. PMID:23878812

Chi, Hsiang Cheng; Chen, Cheng-Yi; Tsai, Ming-Ming; Tsai, Chung-Ying; Lin, Kwang-Huei

2013-01-01

112

Association of Heme Oxygenase 1 with the Restoration of Liver Function after Damage in Murine Malaria by Plasmodium yoelii  

PubMed Central

The liver efficiently restores function after damage induced during malarial infection once the parasites are cleared from the blood. However, the molecular events leading to the restoration of liver function after malaria are still obscure. To study this, we developed a suitable model wherein mice infected with Plasmodium yoelii (45% parasitemia) were treated with the antimalarial ?/?-arteether to clear parasites from the blood and, subsequently, restoration of liver function was monitored. Liver function tests clearly indicated that complete recovery of liver function occurred after 25 days of parasite clearance. Analyses of proinflammatory gene expression and neutrophil infiltration further indicated that hepatic inflammation, which was induced immediately after parasite clearance from the blood, was gradually reduced. Moreover, the inflammation in the liver after parasite clearance was found to be correlated positively with oxidative stress and hepatocyte apoptosis. We investigated the role of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) in the restoration of liver function after malaria because HO-1 normally renders protection against inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis under various pathological conditions. The expression and activity of HO-1 were found to be increased significantly after parasite clearance. We even found that chemical silencing of HO-1 by use of zinc protoporphyrin enhanced inflammation, oxidative stress, hepatocyte apoptosis, and liver injury. In contrast, stimulation of HO-1 by cobalt protoporphyrin alleviated liver inflammation and reduced oxidative stress, hepatocyte apoptosis, and associated tissue injury. Therefore, we propose that selective induction of HO-1 in the liver would be beneficial for the restoration of liver function after parasite clearance. PMID:24818663

Dey, Sumanta; Mazumder, Somnath; Siddiqui, Asim Azhar; Iqbal, M. Shameel; Banerjee, Chinmoy; Sarkar, Souvik; De, Rudranil; Goyal, Manish; Bindu, Samik

2014-01-01

113

Acetyl-L-carnitine and lipoic acid improve mitochondrial abnormalities and serum levels of liver enzymes in a mouse model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial abnormalities are suggested to be associated with the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver. Liver mitochondrial content and function have been shown to improve in oral feeding of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) to rodents. Carnitine is involved in the transport of acyl-coenzyme A across the mitochondrial membrane to be used in mitochondrial ?-oxidation. We hypothesized that oral administration ALC with the antioxidant lipoic acid (ALC + LA) would benefit nonalcoholic fatty liver. To test our hypothesis, we fed Balb/C mice a standard diet (SF) or SF with ALC + LA or high-fat diet (HF) or HF with ALC + LA for 6 months. Acetyl-L-carnitine and LA were dissolved at 0.2:0.1% (wt/vol) in drinking water, and mice were allowed free access to food and water. Along with physical parameters, insulin resistance (blood glucose, insulin, glucose tolerance), liver function (alanine transaminase [ALT], aspartate transaminase [AST]), liver histology (hematoxylin and eosin), oxidative stress (malondialdehyde), and mitochondrial abnormalities (carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 and electron microscopy) were done. Compared with SF, HF had higher body, liver, liver-to-body weight ratio, white adipose tissue, ALT, AST, liver fat, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance. Coadministration of ALC + LA to HF animals significantly improved the mitochondrial marker carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 and the size of the mitochondria in liver. Alanine transaminase and AST levels were decreased. In a nonalcoholic fatty liver mice model, ALC + LA combination improved liver mitochondrial content, size, serum ALT, and AST without significant changes in oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and liver fat accumulation. PMID:24176233

Kathirvel, Elango; Morgan, Kengathevy; French, Samuel W; Morgan, Timothy R

2013-11-01

114

Vibrational dynamics of crystalline L-alanine  

SciTech Connect

The authors report a new, complete vibrational analysis of L-alanine and L-alanine-d{sub 4} which utilizes IINS intensities in addition to frequency information. The use of both isotopomers resulted in a self-consistent force field for and assignment of the molecular vibrations in L-alanine. Some details of the calculation as well as a comparison of calculated and observed IINS spectra are presented. The study clarifies a number of important issues on the vibrational dynamics of this molecule and presents a self-consistent force field for the molecular vibrations in crystalline L-alanine.

Bordallo, H.N.; Eckert, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Barthes, M. [Univ. Montpellier II (France)

1997-11-01

115

Inducible l-Alanine Exporter Encoded by the Novel Gene ygaW (alaE) in Escherichia coli ?  

PubMed Central

We previously isolated a mutant hypersensitive to l-alanyl-l-alanine from a non-l-alanine-metabolizing Escherichia coli strain and found that it lacked an inducible l-alanine export system. Consequently, this mutant showed a significant accumulation of intracellular l-alanine and a reduction in the l-alanine export rate compared to the parent strain. When the mutant was used as a host to clone a gene(s) that complements the dipeptide-hypersensitive phenotype, two uncharacterized genes, ygaW and ytfF, and two characterized genes, yddG and yeaS, were identified. Overexpression of each gene in the mutant resulted in a decrease in the intracellular l-alanine level and enhancement of the l-alanine export rate in the presence of the dipeptide, suggesting that their products function as exporters of l-alanine. Since ygaW exhibited the most striking impact on both the intra- and the extracellular l-alanine levels among the four genes identified, we disrupted the ygaW gene in the non-l-alanine-metabolizing strain. The resulting isogenic mutant showed the same intra- and extracellular l-alanine levels as observed in the dipeptide-hypersensitive mutant obtained by chemical mutagenesis. When each gene was overexpressed in the wild-type strain, which does not intrinsically excrete alanine, only the ygaW gene conferred on the cells the ability to excrete alanine. In addition, expression of the ygaW gene was induced in the presence of the dipeptide. On the basis of these results, we concluded that YgaW is likely to be the physiologically most relevant exporter for l-alanine in E. coli and proposed that the gene be redesignated alaE for alanine export. PMID:21531828

Hori, Hatsuhiro; Yoneyama, Hiroshi; Tobe, Ryuta; Ando, Tasuke; Isogai, Emiko; Katsumata, Ryoichi

2011-01-01

116

HepatoProteomics: Applying Proteomic Technologies to the Study of Liver Function and Disease  

SciTech Connect

The wealth of human genome sequence information now available, coupled with technological advances in robotics, nanotechnology, mass spectrometry, and information systems, has given rise to a method of scientific inquiry known as functional genomics. By using these technologies to survey gene expression and protein production on a near global scale, the goal of functional genomics is to assign biological function to genes with currently unknown roles in physiology. This approach carries particular appeal in disease research, where it can uncover the function of previously unknown genes and molecular pathways that are directly involved in disease progression. With this knowledge may come improved diagnostic techniques, prognostic capabilities, and novel therapeutic approaches. In this regard, the continuing evolution of proteomic technologies has resulted in an increasingly greater impact of proteome studies in many areas of research and hepatology is no exception. Our laboratory has been extremely active in this area, applying both genomic and proteomic technologies to the analysis of virus-host interactions in several systems, including the study of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and HCV-associated liver disease. Since proteomic technologies are foreign to many hepatologists (and to almost everyone else), this article will provide an overview of proteomic methods and technologies and describe how they're being used to study liver function and disease. We use our studies of HCV infection and HCV-associated liver disease to present an operational framework for performing high throughput proteome analysis and extracting biologically meaningful information.

Diamond, Deborah L.; Proll, Sean; Jacobs, Jon M.; Chan, Eric Y.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Katze, Michael G.

2006-08-01

117

Outcomes following liver trauma in equestrian accidents  

PubMed Central

Background Equestrian sports are common outdoor activities that may carry a risk of liver injury. Due to the relative infrequency of equestrian accidents the injury patterns and outcomes associated with liver trauma in these patients have not been well characterized. Methods We examined our experience of the management of equestrian liver trauma in our regional hepatopancreaticobiliary unit at a tertiary referral center. The medical records of patients who sustained liver trauma secondary to equestrian activities were analysed for parameters such as demographic data, liver function tests, patterns of injury, radiological findings, the need for intervention and outcomes. Results 20 patients sustained liver trauma after falling from or being kicked by a horse. The majority of patients were haemodynamically stable on admission. Alanine transaminase (ALT) levels were elevated in all patients and right-sided rib fractures were a frequently associated finding. CT demonstrated laceration of the liver in 12 patients, contusion in 3 and subcapsular haematoma in 2. The right lobe of the liver was most commonly affected. Only two patients required laparotomy and liver resection; the remaining 18 were successfully managed conservatively. Conclusions The risk of liver injury following a horse kick or falling off a horse should not be overlooked. Early CT imaging is advised in these patients, particularly in the presence of high ALT levels and concomitant chest injuries such as rib fractures. Despite significant liver trauma, conservative management in the form of close observation, ideally in a high-dependency setting, is often sufficient. Laparotomy is only rarely warranted and associated with a significantly higher risk of post-operative bile leaks. PMID:25177363

2014-01-01

118

The liver of wrasse - morphology and function as a mirror of point source chemical impact.  

PubMed

Corkwing wrasse (Symphodus melops L.), a protogynous, non-migratory lipfish species, living close to rocky shores was chosen as an indicator species for the monitoring of biological effects of contaminants. Fish were caught by local fisherman at the Norwegian west coast in fjord sites within the framework of the EU BEEP project. The sites represented different point source impacts of (I) copper (a former copper mine), (II) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, aluminium smelter discharge), (III) formaldehyde plus PAHs (kelp-factory and influence of the aluminium smelter). Livers of wrasse were studied for histopathological alterations and compared to healthy livers of fish from a reference location. Besides liver morphology, different functional and metabolic parameters were measured to link pathological alterations to functional disorders. The integrity of the lysosomal compartment was tested by the assessment of lysosomal membrane stability (lys), and the accumulation of neutral lipids and lipofuscin. Activity and intracellular localisation of the NADPH-producing enzymes in the liver were assessed histochemically and measured by computer-assisted image analysis. Histopathological alterations were most severe at the site impacted by formaldehyde and PAHs. These findings were associated with highest tumor prevalence, lowest membrane stabilities in hepatocytes and highest accumulation rates of lipofuscin in the liver. The activities of the NADPH-producing enzymes phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGDH) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) were significantly lower compared to unimpacted reference fish. Histopathological alterations showed clear differences dependent on the input source. Potential links between specific contaminant impact and functional and morphological disorders are discussed. PMID:18403010

Broeg, Katja; Kaiser, Wiebke; Bahns, Sieglinde; Koehler, Angela

2008-07-01

119

A molecular dynamics study of the dielectric properties of aqueous solutions of alanine and alanine dipeptide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular dynamics simulations were used to compute the frequency-dependent dielectric susceptibility of aqueous solutions of alanine and alanine dipeptide. We studied four alanine solutions, ranging in concentration from 0.13-0.55 mol\\/liter, and two solutions of alanine dipeptide (0.13 and 0.27 mol\\/liter). In accord with experiment we find a strong dielectric increment for both solutes, whose molecular origin is shown to be

Stefan Boresch; Martin Willensdorfer; Othmar Steinhauser

2004-01-01

120

Importance of intrahepatic mechanisms to gluconeogenesis from alanine during exercise and recovery  

SciTech Connect

These studies were performed to assess the importance of intrahepatic mechanisms to gluconeogenesis in the dog during 150 min of treadmill exercise and 90 min of recovery. Sampling catheters were implanted in an artery and portal and hepatic veins 16 days before experimentation. Infusions of (U-/sup 14/C)alanine, (3-/sup 3/H)glucose, and indocyanine green were used to assess gluconeogenesis. During exercise, a decline in arterial and portal vein plasma alanine and in hepatic blood flow led to a decrease in hepatic alanine delivery. During recovery, hepatic blood flow was restored to basal, causing an increase in hepatic alanine delivery beyond exercise rates but still below resting rates. Hepatic fractional alanine extraction increased from 0.26 +/- 0.02 at rest to 0.64 +/- 0.03 during exercise and remained elevated during recovery. Net hepatic alanine uptake was 2.5 +/- 0.2 mumol.kg-1.min-1 at rest and remained unchanged during exercise but was increased during recovery. The conversion rate of (/sup 14/C)alanine to glucose had increased by 248 +/- 38% by 150 min of exercise and had increased further during recovery. The efficiency with which alanine was channeled into glucose in the liver was accelerated to a rate of 338 +/- 55% above basal by 150 min of exercise but declined slightly during recovery. In conclusion, 1) gluconeogenesis from alanine is accelerated during exercise, due to an increase in the hepatic fractional extraction of the amino acid and through intrahepatic mechanisms that more efficiently channel it into glucose.

Wasserman, D.H.; Williams, P.E.; Lacy, D.B.; Green, D.R.; Cherrington, A.D.

1988-04-01

121

Detection of serum AFB1-lysine adduct in Malaysia and its association with liver and kidney functions.  

PubMed

Aflatoxin is ubiquitously found in many foodstuffs and produced by Aspergillus species of fungi. Of many aflatoxin metabolites, AFB1 is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as group one carcinogen and linked to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The study on molecular biomarker of aflatoxin provides a better assessment on the extent of human exposure to aflatoxin. In Malaysia, the occurrences of aflatoxin-contaminated foods have been documented, but there is a lack of data on human exposure to aflatoxin. Hence, this study investigated the occurrence of AFB1-lysine adduct in serum samples and its association with liver and kidney functions. 5ml fasting blood samples were collected from seventy-one subjects (n=71) for the measurement of AFB1-lysine adduct, albumin, total bilirubin, AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALT (alanine transaminase), ALP (alkaline phosphatase), GGT (gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase), creatinine and BUN (blood urea nitrogen). The AFB1-lysine adduct was detected in all serum samples (100% detection rate) with a mean of 6.85±3.20pg/mg albumin (range: 1.13-18.85pg/mg albumin). Male subjects (mean: 8.03±3.41pg/mg albumin) had significantly higher adduct levels than female subjects (mean: 5.64±2.46pg/mg albumin) (p<0.01). It was noteworthy that subjects with adduct levels greater than average (>6.85pg/mg albumin) had significantly elevated level of total bilirubin (p<0.01), GGT (p<0.05) and creatinine (p<0.01). Nevertheless, only the level of total bilirubin, (r=0.347, p-value=0.003) and creatinine (r=0.318, p-value=0.007) showed significant and positive correlation with the level of AFB1-lysine adduct. This study provides a valuable insight on human exposure to aflatoxin in Malaysia. Given that aflatoxin can pose serious problem to the health, intervention strategies should be implemented to limit/reduce human exposure to aflatoxin. Besides, a study with a big sample size should be warranted in order to assess aflatoxin exposure in the general population of Malaysia. PMID:24095591

Mohd Redzwan, S; Rosita, Jamaluddin; Mohd Sokhini, A M; Nurul 'Aqilah, A R; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Kang, Min-Su; Zuraini, Ahmad

2014-01-01

122

Cloning, expression, and functional analysis of rat liver cytosolic inorganic pyrophosphatase gene and characterization of its functional promoter.  

PubMed

Inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) is formed in several metabolic processes and its hydrolysis by the ubiquitously expressed enzyme inorganic pyrophosphatase (iPPase) is essential for the reactions to proceed in the direction of biosynthesis. Recently, we have reported differential expression and activity of cytosolic iPPase in rat liver with aging. In this article we report the cloning of the coding region of rat liver cytosolic iPPase gene in a bacterial expression vector, its expression, purification, and functional analysis by in-gel enzyme assay. SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis of this expressed protein revealed that its molecular weight (MW) is approximately 33 kDa, while in-gel assay showed that it is functionally active just as the liver cytosolic iPPase. We have determined the genomic organization of this gene by genome blast approach. We have also cloned and characterized its proximal approximate 1 kb functional promoter (-1009 to +82) by transient transfection and luciferase assay of different 5'-deleted iPPase promoter-luciferase constructs and also established its transcription start site by primer extension analysis, along with protein-DNA interaction studies for a few putative transcription factor binding sites. PMID:17933215

Panda, Harekrushna; Pandey, Ravi S; Debata, Priya R; Supakar, Prakash C

2007-01-01

123

Spirulina maxima Protects Liver From Isoniazid and Rifampicin Drug Toxicity.  

PubMed

Hepatotoxicity associated with isoniazid and rifampicin is one of the major impediments in antituberculosis therapy. The present study explored the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacies of Spirulina maxima in isoniazid and rifampicin induced hepatic damage in a rat model. Hepatic damage induced in Wistar rats by isoniazid and rifampicin resulted in significant alterations in biomarkers of liver function, namely, bilirubin, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and oxidative stress markers such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Co-administration of Spirulina maxima along with antituberculosis drugs protected liver from hepatotoxicity due to isoniazid and rifampicin. Administration of Spirulina maxima consecutively for 2 weeks to hepatodamaged animals resulted in restoration of hepatic function as evident from normalization of serum markers of liver function. Thus, the present study revealed remarkable prophylactic and therapeutic potential of Spirulina maxima. Co-administration of Spirulina maxima and antituberculosis drugs is advantageous as it provides extra nutritional benefit. PMID:24742608

Jatav, Santosh Kumar; Kulshrestha, Archana; Zacharia, Anish; Singh, Nita; Tejovathi, G; Bisen, P S; Prasad, G B K S

2014-04-17

124

Change in hepatic function, hemodynamics, and morphology after liver transplant. Physiological effect of therapy.  

PubMed Central

Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) has become standard therapy for patients with acute hepatic necrosis and end-stage liver disease. This study measured change in hepatic function (galactose elimination capacity [GEC]), liver blood flow (low dose galactose clearance: flow), hepatic volume (CT scan; volume) and morphology after OLT. The aim was to measure the physiologic response after OLT and compare this response with that after selective shunt (SS) and sclerotherapy (ES) to determine which patients should receive specific therapy. Between January 1987 and November 1988, 37 patients underwent OLT. Operative mortality was 18%, which was similar to that of SS in Child's C cirrhotics. GEC and volume were less in transplant patients than in cirrhotics treated with SS or ES. GEC, flow, and volume normalized after OLT; GEC was preserved after ES and SS, but volume decreased. Three preoperative patterns were observed that can aid in selection of OLT candidates. Patients with chronic cirrhosis (chronic active hepatitis; cryptogenic) need OLT when GEC is less than or equal to 225 mg/min and volume is less than or equal to 50% normal. Patients with Budd-Chiari Syndrome require OLT if cirrhosis has evolved. Patients with sclerosing cholangitis and primary biliary cirrhosis qualify for transplants when complications of the portal hypertensive syndrome develop. The studies can also direct therapy for ES failures. Selective shunt is indicated in those patients with stable disease whose GEC is greater than or equal to 300 mg/min and liver volume is greater than 75% normal; OLT is indicated for cirrhotics with GEC that is less than 225 mg/min and liver volume that is less than 50% predicted normal. PMID:2650642

Millikan, W J; Henderson, J M; Stewart, M T; Warren, W D; Marsh, J W; Galloway, J R; Jennings, H; Kawasaki, S; Dodson, T F; Perlino, C A

1989-01-01

125

Liver Immunology  

PubMed Central

The liver is the largest organ in the body and is generally regarded by non-immunologists as not having lymphoid function. However, such is far from accurate. This review highlights the importance of the liver as a lymphoid organ. Firstly, we discuss experimental data surrounding the role of liver as a lymphoid organ. The liver facilitates a tolerance rather than immunoreactivity, which protects the host from antigenic overload of dietary components and drugs derived from the gut and is also instrumental to fetal immune tolerance. Loss of liver tolerance leads to autoaggressive phenomena which if are not controlled by regulatory lymphoid populations may lead to the induction of autoimmune liver diseases. Liver-related lymphoid subpopulations also act as critical antigen-presenting cells. The study of the immunological properties of liver and delineation of the microenvironment of the intrahepatic milieu in normal and diseased livers provides a platform to understand the hierarchy of a series of detrimental events which lead to immune-mediated destruction of the liver and the rejection of liver allografts. The majority of emphasis within this review will be on the normal mononuclear cell composition of the liver. However, within this context, we will discus select, but not all, immune mediated liver disease and attempt to place these data in the context of human autoimmunity. PMID:23720323

Bogdanos, Dimitrios P.; Gao, Bin; Gershwin, M. Eric

2014-01-01

126

In vitro gene regulatory networks predict in vivo function of liver  

PubMed Central

Background Evolution of toxicity testing is predicated upon using in vitro cell based systems to rapidly screen and predict how a chemical might cause toxicity to an organ in vivo. However, the degree to which we can extend in vitro results to in vivo activity and possible mechanisms of action remains to be fully addressed. Results Here we use the nitroaromatic 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) as a model chemical to compare and determine how we might extrapolate from in vitro data to in vivo effects. We found 341 transcripts differentially expressed in common among in vitro and in vivo assays in response to TNT. The major functional term corresponding to these transcripts was cell cycle. Similarly modulated common pathways were identified between in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we uncovered the conserved common transcriptional gene regulatory networks between in vitro and in vivo cellular liver systems that responded to TNT exposure, which mainly contain 2 subnetwork modules: PTTG1 and PIR centered networks. Interestingly, all 7 genes in the PTTG1 module were involved in cell cycle and downregulated by TNT both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions The results of our investigation of TNT effects on gene expression in liver suggest that gene regulatory networks obtained from an in vitro system can predict in vivo function and mechanisms. Inhibiting PTTG1 and its targeted cell cyle related genes could be key machanism for TNT induced liver toxicity. PMID:21073692

2010-01-01

127

Green light for liver function monitoring using indocyanine green? An overview of current clinical applications.  

PubMed

The dye indocyanine green is familiar to anaesthetists, and has been studied for more than half a century for cardiovascular and hepatic function monitoring. It is still, however, not yet in routine clinical use in anaesthesia and critical care, at least in Europe. This review is intended to provide a critical analysis of the available evidence concerning the indications for clinical measurement of indocyanine green elimination as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in two areas: its role in peri-operative liver function monitoring during major hepatic resection and liver transplantation; and its role in critically ill patients on the intensive care unit, where it is used for prediction of mortality, and for assessment of the severity of acute liver failure or that of intra-abdominal hypertension. Although numerous studies have demonstrated that indocyanine green elimination measurements in these patient populations can provide diagnostic or prognostic information to the clinician, 'hard' evidence - i.e. high-quality prospective randomised controlled trials - is lacking, and therefore it is not yet time to give a green light for use of indocyanine green in routine clinical practice. PMID:24894115

Vos, J J; Wietasch, J K G; Absalom, A R; Hendriks, H G D; Scheeren, T W L

2014-12-01

128

The influence of chronic ethanol feeding to rats on liver mitochondrial membrane structure and function.  

PubMed

Arrhenius plots were generated on the activity of rat liver mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase from Metrecal-sucrose fed controls and Metrecal-alcohol fed experimentals. Chronic alcohol feeding resulted in diminished specific activity of cytochrome c oxidase and abolition of the discontinuity temperature at 17.5 degrees C found in the controls. Twenty-four hours after alcohol withdrawal, a discontinuity temperature reappeared at 14.4 degrees C; at 48 h it increased to 22.6 degrees C and returned to normal (17.4 degrees C) at 72 h. Such liver mitochondria also showed a decreased capacity to oxidize the acetyl group of acetyl carnitine immediately following prolonged alcohol feeding. When the assay was performed following withdrawal from alcohol 24 h later, oxidation was enhanced and this effect persisted for another 48 h. These latter results revealed a diminished capacity of such mitochondria to oxidize short chain fatty acids during alcohol feeding and the reverse during alcohol withdrawal. These results, complemented by thermographic data obtained through differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) reinforced the view that chronic alcoholic feeding induced adaptive changes in the fluidity of rat liver mitochondrial membrane lipids. Moreover, they demonstrated that in the microenvironment of the membrane-bound enzymes on withdrawal from ethanol, the membrane readapts to the new conditions without alcohol. This involved modulation of membrane structure and function and at the same time demonstrated a role for the membrane in the expression of tolerance and functional dependence on alcohol. PMID:6257339

Hosein, E A; Lee, H; Hofmann, I

1980-10-01

129

Lipid Profiling and Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals a Functional Interplay between Estradiol and Growth Hormone in Liver  

PubMed Central

17?-estradiol (E2) may interfere with endocrine, metabolic, and gender-differentiated functions in liver in both females and males. Indirect mechanisms play a crucial role because of the E2 influence on the pituitary GH secretion and the GHR-JAK2-STAT5 signaling pathway in the target tissues. E2, through its interaction with the estrogen receptor, exerts direct effects on liver. Hypothyroidism also affects endocrine and metabolic functions of the liver, rendering a metabolic phenotype with features that mimic deficiencies in E2 or GH. In this work, we combined the lipid and transcriptomic analysis to obtain comprehensive information on the molecular mechanisms of E2 effects, alone and in combination with GH, to regulate liver functions in males. We used the adult hypothyroid-orchidectomized rat model to minimize the influence of internal hormones on E2 treatment and to explore its role in male-differentiated functions. E2 influenced genes involved in metabolism of lipids and endo-xenobiotics, and the GH-regulated endocrine, metabolic, immune, and male-specific responses. E2 induced a female-pattern of gene expression and inhibited GH-regulated STAT5b targeted genes. E2 did not prevent the inhibitory effects of GH on urea and amino acid metabolism-related genes. The combination of E2 and GH decreased transcriptional immune responses. E2 decreased the hepatic content of saturated fatty acids and induced a transcriptional program that seems to be mediated by the activation of PPAR?. In contrast, GH inhibited fatty acid oxidation. Both E2 and GH replacements reduced hepatic CHO levels and increased the formation of cholesterol esters and triacylglycerols. Notably, the hepatic lipid profiles were endowed with singular fingerprints that may be used to segregate the effects of different hormonal replacements. In summary, we provide in vivo evidence that E2 has a significant impact on lipid content and transcriptome in male liver and that E2 exerts a marked influence on GH physiology, with implications in human therapy. PMID:24816529

Fernández-Pérez, Leandro; Santana-Farré, Ruymán; de Mirecki-Garrido, Mercedes; García, Irma; Guerra, Borja; Mateo-Díaz, Carlos; Iglesias-Gato, Diego; Díaz-Chico, Juan Carlos; Flores-Morales, Amilcar; Díaz, Mario

2014-01-01

130

Evaluation of the 13C-methacetin breath test for quantitative liver function testing.  

PubMed

Noninvasive 13C-breath tests are used for the assessment of hepatocellular dysfunction. 13C-methacetin is metabolized in the liver by O-demethylation to 13CO2 and acetaminophen. The aim of the study was to evaluate the 13C-methacetin breath test in comparison to the Child-Pugh score and other quantitative liver function tests (MEGX-test and indocyanin green-clearance). 2 mg/kg 13C-methacetin were orally given to 31 patients with histologically proven liver cirrhosis of different etiology and severity (nine Child A, 13 Child B, nine Child C), ten patients with chronic viral hepatitis and ten healthy volunteers. The increase of exhaled 13CO2 was expressed as delta over baseline (DOB; delta /1000). Different DOB-values were compared as parameters for assessing hepatocellular dysfunction. All breath test parameters analyzed provided an excellent discrimination between cirrhotic and noncirrhotic individuals. The DOB-value at 20 min showed a superior correlation with the Child-Pugh score (r = 0.67) than did MEGX-test or indocyanine green clearance results (r = 0.39 and r = 0.43, respectively). With a cut-off value of < or = 25 delta /1000 at 20 min, sensitivity and specificity to discriminate between cirrhotic and noncirrhotic individuals was 93.5% and 95%, respectively. The 13C-methacetin breath test is a safe and precise quantitative liver function test. Using one single breath sample 20 min after substrate administration, the test discriminates well between cirrhotic and noncirrhotic patients. Its prognostic value remains to be established. PMID:9297776

Klatt, S; Taut, C; Mayer, D; Adler, G; Beckh, K

1997-08-01

131

Effect of combination of aripiprazole with carbamazepine and fluvoxamine on liver functions in experimental animals  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Aripiprazole, a new atypical antipsychotic drug extensively metabolized by enzyme CYP3A4, is found to produce asymptomatic elevation of serum transaminase levels on long-term treatment. The present study aims to evaluate the hepatotoxic effect of aripiprazole when coprescribed with carbamazepine and fluvoxamine. Materials and Methods: The rats were subjected to chronic treatment with two different doses, therapeutic dose (TD) and maximum therapeutic dose (MTD), of aripiprazole in combination with carbamazepine and fluvoxamine. The changes in hepatic function was assessed by various biochemical liver enzyme markers like serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, histological studies, and physical parameters (liver weight, liver volume, and body weight). Results: The combination of aripiprazole with fluvoxamine at both TD and MTD showed the hepatic damage and significant elevation in serum transaminase level which is supported by histological reports. The coadministration of aripiprazole with carbamazepine leads to significant decrease in blood concentration of aripiprazole possibly due to induction of enzyme CYP3A4 resulting in loss or reduction of clinical efficacy. Conclusions: There would be an accumulation of aripiprazole when coadministered with fluvoxamine, a known inhibitor of CYP3A4, leading to hepatic damage and reduction in aripiprazole when administered along with carbamazepine. Therefore, aripiprazole with fluvoxamine and carbamazepine should be coprescribed with caution. The patients should be monitored for signs of adverse effects like hepatic damage or decreased efficacy of these drugs. PMID:23716885

Shastry, Chakrakodi S.; Shafeeque, Aboobakar A.; Ashwathnarayana, Badavanahalli J.

2013-01-01

132

Phenotypic and in vivo functional characterization of immortalized human fetal liver cells  

PubMed Central

We report the establishment and characterization of immortalized human fetal liver progenitor cells by expression of the Simian virus 40 large T (SV40 LT) antigen. Well-characterized cells at various passages were transplanted into nude mice with acute liver injury and tested for functional capacity. The SV40LT antigen-immortalized fetal liver cells showed a morphology similar to primary cells. Cultured cells demonstrated stable phenotypic expression in various passages, of hepatic markers such as albumin, CK 8, CK18, transcription factors HNF-4? and HNF-1? and CYP3A/7. The cells did not stain for any of the tested cancer-associated markers. Albumin, HNF-4? and CYP3A7 expression was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Flow cytometry showed expression of some progenitor cell markers. In vivo study showed that the cells expressed both fetal and differentiated hepatocytes markers. Our study suggests new approaches to expand hepatic progenitor cells, analyze their fate in animal models aiming at cell therapy of hepatic diseases. PMID:24730442

Patil, Pradeep B.; Begum, Setara; Joshi, Meghnad; Kleman, Marika I; Olausson, Michael

2014-01-01

133

Dynamic carbon 13 breath tests for the study of liver function and gastric emptying.  

PubMed

In gastroenterological practice, breath tests (BTs) are diagnostic tools used for indirect, non-invasive assessment of several pathophysiological metabolic processes, by monitoring the appearance in breath of a metabolite of a specific substrate. Labelled substrates originally employed radioactive carbon 14 ((14)C) and, more recently, the stable carbon 13 isotope ((13)C) has been introduced to label specific substrates. The ingested (13)C-substrate is metabolized, and exhaled (13)CO2 is measured by mass spectrometry or infrared spectroscopy. Some (13)C-BTs evaluate specific (microsomal, cytosolic, and mitochondrial) hepatic metabolic pathways and can be employed in liver diseases (i.e. simple liver steatosis, non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis, liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, drug and alcohol effects). Another field of clinical application for (13)C-BTs is the assessment of gastric emptying kinetics in response to liquids ((13)C-acetate) or solids ((13)C-octanoic acid in egg yolk or in a pre-packed muffin or the (13)C-Spirulina platensis given with a meal or a biscuit). Studies have shown that (13)C-BTs, used for gastric emptying studies, yield results that are comparable to scintigraphy and can be useful in detecting either delayed- (gastroparesis) or accelerated gastric emptying or changes of gastric kinetics due to pharmacological effects. Thus, (13)C-BTs represent an indirect, cost-effective and easy method of evaluating dynamic liver function and gastric kinetics in health and disease, and several other potential applications are being studied. PMID:25339354

Bonfrate, Leonilde; Grattagliano, Ignazio; Palasciano, Giuseppe; Portincasa, Piero

2014-10-21

134

Abnormal hemostatic function one year after orthotopic liver transplantation can be fully attributed to endothelial cell activation  

PubMed Central

Background: The long-term risk of thrombotic and vascular complications is elevated in liver transplant recipients compared to the general population. Patients with cirrhosis are in a hypercoagulable status during and directly after orthotopic liver transplantation, but it is unclear whether this hypercoagulability persists over time. Aim: We aimed to investigate the hemostatic status of liver transplant recipients one year after transplantation. Methods: We prospectively collected blood samples of 15 patients with a functioning graft one year after orthotopic liver transplantation and compared the hemostatic status of these patients with that of 30 healthy individuals. Results: Patients one year after liver transplantation had significantly elevated plasma levels of von Willebrand factor (VWF). Thrombin generation, as assessed by the endogenous thrombin potential, was decreased in patients, which was associated with increased plasma levels of the natural anticoagulants antithrombin and tissue factor pathway inhibitor.  Plasma fibrinolytic potential was significantly decreased in patients and correlated inversely with levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Conclusion: One year after liver transplantation, liver graft recipients have a dysregulated hemostatic system characterised by elevation of plasma levels of endothelial-derived proteins. Increased levels of von Willebrand factor and decreased fibrinolytic potential may (in part) be responsible for the increased risk for vascular disease seen in liver transplant recipients. PMID:25285204

Arshad, Freeha; Adelmeijer, Jelle; Blokzijl, Hans; van den Berg, Aad; Porte, Robert; Lisman, Ton

2014-01-01

135

Suppression of intralysosomal proteolysis aggravates structural damage and functional impairment of liver lysosomes in rats with toxic hepatitis  

SciTech Connect

This paper estimates the effect of lowering protein catabolism in the lysosomes on structural and functional properties of the latter during liver damage. For comparison, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), which is inert relative to intralysosomal proteolysis, and which also accumulates largely in lysosomes of the kupffer cells of the liver, was used. The uptake of labeled bovine serum albuman (C 14-BSA) by the liver is shown and the rate of intralysosomal proteolysis is given 24 hours after administration of suramin an CCl/sub 4/ to rats. It is suggested that it is risky to use drugs which inhibit intralysosomal proteolysis in the treatment of patients with acute hepatitis.

Korolenko, T.A.; Gavrilova, N.I.; Kurysheva, N.G.; Malygin, A.E.; Pupyshev, A.B.

1986-01-01

136

Zebrafish fgf10b has a Complementary Function to fgf10a in Liver and Pancreas Development.  

PubMed

Fgf10 is a critical growth factor in mammals for development of endodermal organs such as the liver, pancreas, lung, and gut. Due to whole genome duplication, the zebrafish has two fgf10 orthologs, fgf10a and fgf10b. While fgf10a has a role in development of the esophagus and swimbladder, we found in the present study that fgf10b had a complementary expression pattern in the liver, pancreas, and gut. Morpholino knockdown of Fgf10b further confirmed its essential role in the normal development of liver and pancreas. Thus, our data provide another example of functional partition of two duplicated othologous genes during evolution. PMID:25326376

Yan, Chuan; Zheng, Weiling; Gong, Zhiyuan

2014-10-18

137

When Your Child Needs a Liver Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... Hereditary Hemochromatosis Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel Digestive System Hepatitis Your Liver Hepatitis Your Digestive System Blood Test: Liver Function Tests Hepatitis Digestive System ...

138

Growth and characterization of L-Alanine-doped Zinc Thiourea Chloride single crystal (ZTC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single crystal of L-Alanine-doped Zinc Thiourea Chloride (ZTC) was grown by slow evaporation technique. L-Alanine was added in saturated ZTC solution by molar percent. The second-harmonic generation efficiency was studied by Kurtz and Perry powder SHG test for 1, 2, and 3 mole% L-Alanine-doped ZTC and compared with pure ZTC. We observed enhancement in the SHG efficiency of L-Alanine-doped ZTC. Higher enhancement was observed for 3 mole% L-Alanine-doped ZTC. Incorporation of L-Alanine in the crystal was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) qualitatively confirms the presence of all the functional groups. The unit cell parameters and crystal structure were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The UV-visible absorption spectra of L-Alanine-doped ZTC show excellent transmittance from 300 nm to 1100 nm. The thermal stability of the grown crystal was also studied by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA).

Dhumane, N. R.; Hussaini, S. S.; Dongre, V. G.; Ghugare, P.; Shirsat, M. D.

2009-06-01

139

Relations between liver cadmium, cumulative exposure, and renal function in cadmium alloy workers.  

PubMed Central

Detailed biochemical investigations of renal function were made on 75 male workers exposed to cadmium and an equal number of referents matched for age, sex, and employment status. The exposed group consisted of current and retired workers who had been employed in the manufacture of copper-cadmium alloy at a single factory in the United Kingdom for periods of up to 39 years and for whom cumulative cadmium exposure indices could be calculated. In vivo measurements of liver and kidney cadmium burden were made on exposed and referent workers using a transportable neutron activation analysis facility. Significant increases in the urinary excretion of albumin, retinol binding protein, beta 2 microglobulin, N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG), alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transferase and significant decreases in the renal reabsorption of calcium, urate, and phosphate were found in the exposed group compared with the referent group. Measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (creatinine clearance, serum creatinine, and beta 2 microglobulin) indicated a reduction in GFR in the exposed population. Many of these tubular and glomerular function indicators were significantly correlated with both cumulative exposure index and liver cadmium burden. Using cumulative exposure index and liver cadmium as estimates of dose, a two phase linear regression model was applied to identify an inflection point signifying a threshold level above which changes in renal function occur. Many biochemical variables fitted this model; urinary total protein, retinol binding protein, albumin, and beta 2 microglobulin gave similar inflection points at cumulative exposure levels of about 1100 y.micrograms/m3 whereas changes in the tubular reabsorption of urate and phosphate occurred at higher cumulative exposure indices. Measures of GFR, although fitting the threshold model did not give well defined inflection points. Fewer variables fitted the two phase model using liver cadmium; those that did gave threshold levels in the range 20.3-55.1 ppm. When cadmium workers with cumulative exposure indices of less than 1100 y.micrograms/m3 were compared with their respective referents only serum beta 2 microglobulin and urinary NAG were significantly increased in the exposed group and these differences were not related to the degree of cadmium exposure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3219304

Mason, H J; Davison, A G; Wright, A L; Guthrie, C J; Fayers, P M; Venables, K M; Smith, N J; Chettle, D R; Franklin, D M; Scott, M C

1988-01-01

140

Complex I Function and Supercomplex Formation Are Preserved in Liver Mitochondria Despite Progressive Complex III Deficiency  

PubMed Central

Functional oxidative phosphorylation requires appropriately assembled mitochondrial respiratory complexes and their supercomplexes formed mainly of complexes I, III and IV. BCS1L is the chaperone needed to incorporate the catalytic subunit, Rieske iron-sulfur protein, into complex III at the final stage of its assembly. In cell culture studies, this subunit has been considered necessary for supercomplex formation and for maintaining the stability of complex I. Our aim was to assess the importance of fully assembled complex III for supercomplex formation in intact liver tissue. We used our transgenic mouse model with a homozygous c.232A>G mutation in Bcs1l leading to decreased expression of BCS1L and progressive decrease of Rieske iron-sulfur protein in complex III, resulting in hepatopathy. We studied supercomplex formation at different ages using blue native gel electrophoresis and complex activity using high-resolution respirometry. In isolated liver mitochondria of young and healthy homozygous mutant mice, we found similar supercomplexes as in wild type. In homozygotes aged 27–29 days with liver disorder, complex III was predominantly a pre-complex lacking Rieske iron-sulfur protein. However, the main supercomplex was clearly detected and contained complex III mainly in the pre-complex form. Oxygen consumption of complex IV was similar and that of complex I was twofold compared with controls. These complexes in free form were more abundant in homozygotes than in controls, and the mRNA of complex I subunits were upregulated. In conclusion, when complex III assembly is deficient, the pre-complex without Rieske iron-sulfur protein can participate with available fully assembled complex III in supercomplex formation, complex I function is preserved, and respiratory chain stability is maintained. PMID:24466228

Davoudi, Mina; Kotarsky, Heike; Hansson, Eva; Fellman, Vineta

2014-01-01

141

Preparation of L-Alanine Crystals Containing Gold Nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amino acids provide useful foods, medicines, health foods, and nutritional supplements. We studied the morphology control of alanine, an amino acid. We also studied the effects of amino acid addition on the dispersion stability of gold nanoparticles. We then studied hybridization between alanine crystals and arginine-capped gold nanoparticles. Alanine crystal growth in a supersaturated alanine solution was found to increase

Masako Koyama; Masaharu Shiraishi; Koji Sasaki; Kijiro Kon-no

2008-01-01

142

CEPP regimen (cyclophosphamide, etoposide, procarbazine and prednisone) as initial treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma patients presenting with severe abnormal liver function  

PubMed Central

ABVD regimen (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine) remains the most commonly used front-line therapy for Hodgkin lymphoma. However, atypical and extranodal presentations present challenges to initial therapy, especially in the presence of renal and liver failure. We hereby present two cases of young male patients with atypical presentation of Hodgkin lymphoma with severe abnormal liver function. Patients showed excellent response to cyclophosphamide, etoposide, procarbazine and prednisone (CEPP regimen). PMID:24991411

2014-01-01

143

CEPP regimen (cyclophosphamide, etoposide, procarbazine and prednisone) as initial treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma patients presenting with severe abnormal liver function.  

PubMed

ABVD regimen (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine) remains the most commonly used front-line therapy for Hodgkin lymphoma. However, atypical and extranodal presentations present challenges to initial therapy, especially in the presence of renal and liver failure. We hereby present two cases of young male patients with atypical presentation of Hodgkin lymphoma with severe abnormal liver function. Patients showed excellent response to cyclophosphamide, etoposide, procarbazine and prednisone (CEPP regimen). PMID:24991411

Thakar, Keyur; Novero, Aileen; Das, Arundhati; Lisinschi, Adriana; Mehta, Bella; Ahmed, Tauseef; Liu, Delong

2014-01-01

144

Glutathione depletion in human erythrocytes and rat liver: a study on the interplay between bioactivation and inactivation functions of liver and blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interplay between bioactivation and inactivation functions of human erythrocytes and rat liver was studied. Glutathione depletion was used as a measure of the amount of reduced glutathione (GSH)-reactive compound. Iodoacetamide (IAcA), N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) and diethyl maleate (DEM), which are electrophiles that need no metabolic activation, were able to deplete GSH in incubations with either aqueous GSH solution or erythrocytes.

N. G. M. Palmen; C. T. A. Evelo

1996-01-01

145

The influence of small doses of paracetamol on rabbit liver.  

PubMed

Paracetamol has properties that make it useful in many kinds of drugs that are readily available to users. These drugs are often used for extensive periods of time without a doctor's supervision, which might lead to unexpected overdose. The aim of this work was to assess the extent of liver damage in rabbits after administering them with paracetamol for approximately 2 months. The results we obtained suggest that paracetamol administered for a long time causes liver function impairment. It was, however, not possible to determine the impairment by measuring the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or gamma-glutamylotranspeptidase (GGTP). It was determined by measuring the concentration of ketone bodies and arterial ketone body ratio (AKBR) value. Even when taken in small doses, paracetamol causes changes in liver metabolism when taken for an extended period of time. PMID:17601712

Maciejewska-Paszek, Izabela; Paw?owska-Góral, Katarzyna; Kostrzewski, Marek; Kurzeja, Ewa; Wardas, Maria; Rzepecka-Stojko, Anna

2007-10-01

146

Alanine Aminotransferase-Old Biomarker and New Concept: A Review  

PubMed Central

Measurement of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is a common, readily available, and inexpensive laboratory assay in clinical practice. ALT activity is not only measured to detect liver disease, but also to monitor overall health. ALT activity is influenced by various factors, including viral hepatitis, alcohol consumption, and medication. Recently, the impact of metabolic abnormalities on ALT variation has raised concern due to the worldwide obesity epidemic. The normal ranges for ALT have been updated and validated considering the metabolic covariates in the various ethnic districts. The interaction between metabolic and demographic factors on ALT variation has also been discussed in previous studies. In addition, an extremely low ALT value might reflect the process of aging, and frailty in older adults has been raised as another clinically significant feature of this enzyme, to be followed with additional epidemiologic investigation. Timely updated, comprehensive, and systematic introduction of ALT activity is necessary to aid clinicians make better use of this enzyme. PMID:25013373

Liu, Zhengtao; Que, Shuping; Xu, Jing; Peng, Tao

2014-01-01

147

Quantitative Proteomic and Functional Analysis of Liver Mitochondria from High Fat Diet (HFD) Diabetic Mice*  

PubMed Central

Insulin resistance plays a major role in the development of type 2 diabetes and obesity and affects a number of biological processes such as mitochondrial biogenesis. Though mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to the development of insulin resistance and pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, the precise mechanism linking the two is not well understood. We used high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity dependent diabetes mouse models to gain insight into the potential pathways altered with metabolic disease, and carried out quantitative proteomic analysis of liver mitochondria. As previously reported, proteins involved in fatty acid oxidation, branched chain amino acid degradation, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation were uniformly up-regulated in the liver of HFD fed mice compared with that of normal diet. Further, our studies revealed that retinol metabolism is distinctly down-regulated and the mitochondrial structural proteins—components of mitochondrial inter-membrane space bridging (MIB) complex (Mitofilin, Sam50, and ChChd3), and Tim proteins—essential for protein import, are significantly up-regulated in HFD fed mice. Structural and functional studies on HFD and normal diet liver mitochondria revealed remodeling of HFD mitochondria to a more condensed form with increased respiratory capacity and higher ATP levels compared with normal diet mitochondria. Thus, it is likely that the structural remodeling is essential to accommodate the increased protein content in presence of HFD: the mechanism could be through the MIB complex promoting contact site and crista junction formation and in turn facilitating the lipid and protein uptake. PMID:24030101

Guo, Yurong; Darshi, Manjula; Ma, Yuliang; Perkins, Guy A.; Shen, Zhouxin; Haushalter, Kristofer J.; Saito, Rintaro; Chen, Ai; Lee, Yun Sok; Patel, Hemal H.; Briggs, Steven P.; Ellisman, Mark H.; Olefsky, Jerrold M.; Taylor, Susan S.

2013-01-01

148

Comprehensive treatment of a functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor with multifocal liver metastases  

PubMed Central

A 64-year-old man was admitted to the Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center with chief complaints of recurrent abdominal pain and diarrhea for about 3 years and with a history of surgical repair for intestinal perforation owing to stress ulcer. Positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a primary tumor on the pancreatic tail with multifocal liver metastases. Pathological and immunohistochemistry staining revealed the lesion to be a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (pNET). According to the latest World Health Organization (WHO, 2013) classification, the tumor was classified as stage IV functional G1 pNET. After referral to the multidisciplinary treatment board (MDT), the patient was started on periodic dose of omeprazole, somatostatin analogues and Interferon ? (IFN?) and had scanning follow-ups. Based upon the imaging results, CT-guided radioactive iodine-125 (125I) seeds implantation therapy, radiofrequency ablation therapy (RFA) or microwave ablation technique were chosen for the treatment of the primary tumor. Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), RFA and microwave ablation techniques were decided upon for liver metastases. The patient showed beneficial response to the treatment with clinically manageable low-grade side effects and attained partial remission (RECIST criteria) with a good quality of life. PMID:25232226

Wang, Wei; Seeruttun, Sharvesh Raj; Fang, Cheng

2014-01-01

149

Expression, by functional proteomics, of spontaneous tolerance in rat orthotopic liver transplantation  

PubMed Central

Orthotopic liver transplants (OLT) performed in certain combinations of donor and recipient rat strains, such as DA (RT1a) to PVG (RT1c), without immunosuppressive drugs could completely overcome major histocompatibility complex barriers. Although other organs transplanted in a similar fashion within the same combination have been promptly rejected, 60 day post-OLT serum (POD 60) has been proven competent in rapidly reversing the established rejection in animal models. In order to understand the functional role of tolerogenic serum proteins and their involvement with immune response regulation, a comprehensive analysis surveying global changes in complex OLT systems by proteomic techniques was applied. The results display the varying protein expressions in sera extracted from naïve and transplanted animals on POD 60 with regard to immunosuppression. Among these proteins, haptoglobin (Hp) which is related to inhibition of T-cell proliferation was found to be up-regulated following OLT. In addition, the transcriptional expression level and intracellular localization of Hp correlated with the immune events. Hp also exhibited a strong in vitro immunosuppressive effect on the mixed lymphocyte reaction. In conclusion, the presence of Hp may play an important role in modulating the spontaneous tolerance of liver transplantation. Furthermore, the serum proteome map could provide guidance with respect to discovering potential protein targets in OLT tolerance and eventually prolong hepatic allograft survival in the future. PMID:15312136

Pan, Tai-Long; Wang, Pei-Wen; Huang, Chao-Chen; Goto, Shigeru; Chen, Chao-Long

2004-01-01

150

Innate Functions of Immunoglobulin M Lessen Liver Gene Transfer with Helper-Dependent Adenovirus  

PubMed Central

The immune system poses obstacles to viral vectors, even in the first administration to preimmunized hosts. We have observed that the livers of B cell-deficient mice were more effectively transduced by a helper-dependent adenovirus serotype-5 (HDA) vector than those of WT mice. This effect was T-cell independent as shown in athymic mice. Passive transfer of the serum from adenovirus-naïve WT to Rag1KO mice resulted in a reduction in gene transfer that was traced to IgM purified from serum of adenovirus-naïve mice. To ascribe the gene transfer inhibition activity to either adenoviral antigen-specific or antigen-unspecific functions of IgM, we used a monoclonal IgM antibody of unrelated specificity. Both the polyclonal and the irrelevant monoclonal IgM inhibited gene transfer by the HDA vector to either cultured hepatocellular carcinoma cells or to the liver of mice in vivo. Adsorption of polyclonal or monoclonal IgMs to viral capsids was revealed by ELISAs on adenovirus-coated plates. These observations indicate the existence of an inborn IgM mechanism deployed against a prevalent virus to reduce early post-infection viremia. In conclusion, innate IgM binding to adenovirus serotype-5 capsids restrains gene-transfer and offers a mechanism to be targeted for optimization of vector dosage in gene therapy with HDA vectors. PMID:24465560

Unzu, Carmen; Morales-Kastresana, Aizea; Sampedro, Ana; Serrano-Mendioroz, Irantzu; Azpilikueta, Arantza; Ochoa, María Carmen; Dubrot, Juan; Martínez-Ansó, Eduardo

2014-01-01

151

Innate functions of immunoglobulin M lessen liver gene transfer with helper-dependent adenovirus.  

PubMed

The immune system poses obstacles to viral vectors, even in the first administration to preimmunized hosts. We have observed that the livers of B cell-deficient mice were more effectively transduced by a helper-dependent adenovirus serotype-5 (HDA) vector than those of WT mice. This effect was T-cell independent as shown in athymic mice. Passive transfer of the serum from adenovirus-naïve WT to Rag1KO mice resulted in a reduction in gene transfer that was traced to IgM purified from serum of adenovirus-naïve mice. To ascribe the gene transfer inhibition activity to either adenoviral antigen-specific or antigen-unspecific functions of IgM, we used a monoclonal IgM antibody of unrelated specificity. Both the polyclonal and the irrelevant monoclonal IgM inhibited gene transfer by the HDA vector to either cultured hepatocellular carcinoma cells or to the liver of mice in vivo. Adsorption of polyclonal or monoclonal IgMs to viral capsids was revealed by ELISAs on adenovirus-coated plates. These observations indicate the existence of an inborn IgM mechanism deployed against a prevalent virus to reduce early post-infection viremia. In conclusion, innate IgM binding to adenovirus serotype-5 capsids restrains gene-transfer and offers a mechanism to be targeted for optimization of vector dosage in gene therapy with HDA vectors. PMID:24465560

Unzu, Carmen; Melero, Ignacio; Morales-Kastresana, Aizea; Sampedro, Ana; Serrano-Mendioroz, Irantzu; Azpilikueta, Arantza; Ochoa, María Carmen; Dubrot, Juan; Martínez-Ansó, Eduardo; Fontanellas, Antonio

2014-01-01

152

Liver extracellular matrix providing dual functions of two-dimensional substrate coating and three-dimensional injectable hydrogel platform for liver tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Decellularization of tissues or organs can provide an efficient strategy for preparing functional scaffolds for tissue engineering. Microstructures of native extracellular matrices and their biochemical compositions can be retained in the decellularized matrices, providing tissue-specific microenvironments for efficient tissue regeneration. Here, we report the versatility of liver extracellular matrix (LEM) that can be used for two-dimensional (2D) coating and three-dimensional (3D) hydrogel platforms for culture and transplantation of primary hepatocytes. Collagen type I (Col I) has typically been used for hepatocyte culture and transplantation. In this study, LEM was compared with Col I in terms of biophysical and mechanical characteristics and biological performance for enhancing cell viability, differentiation, and hepatic functions. Surface properties of LEM coating and mechanical properties and gelation kinetics of LEM hydrogel could be manipulated by adjusting the LEM concentration. In addition, LEM hydrogel exhibited improved elastic properties, rapid gelation, and volume maintenance compared to Col I hydrogel. LEM coating significantly improved hepatocyte functions such as albumin secretion and urea synthesis. More interestingly, LEM coating upregulated hepatic gene expression of human adipose-derived stem cells, indicating enhanced hepatic differentiation of these stem cells. The viability and hepatic functions of primary hepatocytes were also significantly improved in LEM hydrogel compared to Col I hydrogel both in vitro and in vivo. Albumin and hepatocyte transcription factor expression was upregulated in hepatocytes transplanted in LEM hydrogels. In conclusion, LEM can provide functional biomaterial platforms for diverse applications in liver tissue engineering by promoting survival and maturation of hepatocytes and hepatic commitment of stem cells. This study demonstrates the feasibility of decellularized matrix for both 2D coating and 3D hydrogel in liver tissue engineering. PMID:24350561

Lee, Jung Seung; Shin, Jisoo; Park, Hae-Min; Kim, Yun-Gon; Kim, Byung-Gee; Oh, Jong-Won; Cho, Seung-Woo

2014-01-13

153

Association of elevated serum alanine aminotransferase with metabolic factors in obese children: sex-related analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevations are considered a surrogate marker of nonalcoholic liver disease and predict later development of diabetes and metabolic syndrome in adults. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence of high ALT levels in obese children using updated and sex-related cutoff ALT value (ALT >30 IU\\/L for boys and >19 IU\\/L for girls). We

Procolo Di Bonito; Eduardo Sanguigno; Teresa Di Fraia; Claudia Forziato; Gabriella Boccia; Francesco Saitta; Maria Rosaria Iardino; Brunella Capaldo

2009-01-01

154

Structural and functional aspects of liver sinusoidal endothelial cell fenestrae: a review  

PubMed Central

This review provides a detailed overview of the current state of knowledge about the ultrastructure and dynamics of liver sinusoidal endothelial fenestrae. Various aspects of liver sinusoidal endothelial fenestrae regarding their structure, origin, species specificity, dynamics and formation will be explored. In addition, the role of liver sinusoidal endothelial fenestrae in relation to lipoprotein metabolism, fibrosis and cancer will be approached. PMID:12437787

Braet, Filip; Wisse, Eddie

2002-01-01

155

[Studies on the antilipid peroxidation of nine sorts of Chinese herbal medicines with the function of protecting liver].  

PubMed

The antilipid peroxidation of nine sorts of Chinese herbal medicines with the function of protecting liver, including Salivia miltiorrhiza, Hypericum japonicum, Scutellaria baicalensis, Callicarpa cathayana, Chrysanthemum indicum, Paeonia latiflora, Lysimachia christinae, Ligustrum lucidum (L1), Patrinia villosa (Pv) on hepatic homogenate of rat were tested. It was found that all tested medicines showed inhibition with dose-effect relationship, the inhibitory rate of L1 and Pv were lower than the other's. All results showed that these Chinese herbal medicines have strong antilipid peroxidation and are natural oxidation inhibitor. It was suggested that their function of protecting liver and others have relationship with the antioxidation. PMID:12572505

Jiang, H; Huang, X; Yang, Y; Zhang, Q

1997-12-01

156

Enhanced liver functions of HepG2 cells in the alginate/xyloglucan scaffold.  

PubMed

A scaffold provides a framework and initial support for the cells to attach, proliferate and differentiate, and form an extracellular matrix (ECM) in tissue engineering. Here, xyloglucan (XG) was used as a new synthetic ECM for HepG2 cell attachment in alginate capsules. The effects of XG on HepG2 cells on adherent behavior, albumin secretion, ammonia elimination, cell proliferation and gene expression of Connexin 32 and epithelial-cadherin were investigated. Xyloglucan could also promote the HepG2 cell-matrix interactions and the cell clusters formation of HepG2 cells in three dimensional scaffold, thus enhance the liver-specific functions in the three-dimensional space. PMID:25208748

Deng, Xiaojie; Cao, Yu; Yan, Hao; Yang, Jihong; Xiong, Guomei; Yao, Hanchao; Qi, Chao

2015-01-01

157

Failure of Fibrotic Liver Regeneration in Mice Is Linked to a Severe Fibrogenic Response Driven by Hepatic Progenitor Cell Activation  

PubMed Central

Failure of fibrotic liver to regenerate after resection limits therapeutic options and increases demand for liver transplantation, representing a significant clinical problem. The mechanism underlying regenerative failure in fibrosis is poorly understood. Seventy percent partial hepatectomy (PHx) was performed in C57Bl/6 mice with or without carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis. Liver function and regeneration was monitored at 1 to 14 days thereafter by assessing liver mass, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), mRNA expression, and histology. Progenitor (oval) cell mitogen tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) and TWEAK-neutralizing antibody were used to manipulate progenitor cell proliferation in vivo. In fibrotic liver, hepatocytes failed to replicate efficiently after PHx. Fibrotic livers showed late (day 5) peak of serum ALT (3542 ± 355 IU/L compared to 93 ± 65 IU/L in nonfibrotic livers), which coincided with progenitor cell expansion, increase in profibrogenic gene expression and de novo collagen deposition. In fibrotic mice, inhibition of progenitor activation using TWEAK-neutralizing antibody after PHx resulted in strongly down-regulated profibrogenic mRNA, reduced serum ALT levels and improved regeneration. Failure of hepatocyte-mediated regeneration in fibrotic liver triggers activation of the progenitor (oval) cell compartment and a severe fibrogenic response. Inhibition of progenitor cell proliferation using anti-TWEAK antibody prevents fibrogenic response and augments fibrotic liver regeneration. Targeting the fibrogenic progenitor response represents a promising strategy to improve hepatectomy outcomes in patients with liver fibrosis. PMID:23680654

Kuramitsu, Kaori; Sverdlov, Deanna Y.; Liu, Susan B.; Csizmadia, Eva; Burkly, Linda; Schuppan, Detlef; Hanto, Douglas W.; Otterbein, Leo E.; Popov, Yury

2014-01-01

158

MRI-based estimation of liver function: Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced T1 relaxometry of 3T vs. the MELD score  

PubMed Central

Gd-EOB-DTPA is a hepatocyte-specific MRI contrast agent. Due to its hepatocyte-specific uptake and paramagnetic properties, functioning areas of the liver exhibit shortening of the T1 relaxation time. We report the potential use of T1 relaxometry of the liver with Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for estimating the liver function as expressed by the MELD score. 3 T MRI relaxometry was performed before and 20?min after Gd-EOB-DTPA administration. A strong correlation between changes in the T1 relaxometry and the extent of liver disease, expressed by the MELD score, was documented. Reduced liver function correlates with decreased Gd-EOB-DTPA accumulation in the hepatocytes during the hepatobiliary phase. MRI-based T1 relaxometry with Gd-EOB-DTPA may be a useful method for assessing overall and segmental liver function. PMID:25001391

Haimerl, Michael; Verloh, Niklas; Fellner, Claudia; Zeman, Florian; Teufel, Andreas; Feigl, Stefan Fichtner-; Schreyer, Andreas G.; Stroszczynski, Christian; Wiggermann, Philipp

2014-01-01

159

A novel NADPH:(bound) NADP+ reductase and NADH:(bound) NADP+ transhydrogenase function in bovine liver catalase  

PubMed Central

Many catalases have the shared property of containing bound NADPH and being susceptible to inactivation by their own substrate, H2O2. The presence of additional (unbound) NADPH effectively prevents bovine liver and human erythrocytic catalase from becoming compound II, the reversibly inactivated state of catalase, and NADP+ is known to be generated in the process. The function of the bound NADPH, which is tightly bound in bovine liver catalase, has been unknown. The present study with bovine liver catalase and [14C]NADPH and [14C]NADH revealed that unbound NADPH or NADH are substrates for an internal reductase and transhydrogenase reaction respectively; the unbound NADPH or NADH cause tightly bound NADP+ to become NADPH without becoming tightly bound themselves. This and other results provide insight into the function of tightly bound NADPH. PMID:15456401

2004-01-01

160

The standard amino acids alanine ala A  

E-print Network

The standard amino acids alanine ala A cysteine cys C aspartic acid asp D glutamic acid glu E's the mapping from nucleotide triplets in DNA sequences (via messenger RNA) to individual amino acids, and T) but only 20 amino acids, and that the code is redundant or "degenerate" in the sense that several

Guevara-Vasquez, Fernando

161

Effects of dual arterial blood supply on liver regeneration in the graft and the host following heterotopic auxiliary liver transplantation  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to investigate the effect of the dual arterial blood supply method used in auxiliary liver transplantation on the regeneration of grafted and host liver. A total of 72 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three experimental groups, namely the 68% hepatectomy group (group A), the 68% hepatectomy with dual arterial blood supply group (group B) and the auxiliary liver transplantation with dual arterial blood supply group (group C). Group C was further divided into the host liver subgroup (group Ca) and the transplanted liver subgroup (group Cb). Six animals from each group were sacrificed at 1, 2 and 7 days after surgery. The calculation of the liver regeneration rate (LRR) was based on measuring liver weight. Liver function was assessed by measuring serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. Immunohistochemistry was employed to detect the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Apoptotic changes in the grafts and host livers were evaluated using TUNEL staining. The LRR in each group exhibited a tendency to increase over time. At each time point, the LRR of transplanted livers in group C exhibited no significant difference from that of host livers in group C (P>0.05). The ALT levels for each group exhibited a time-dependent decreasing tendency. The ALT level in group C was significantly higher compared to that in groups A and B at each time point (P<0.05). The expression of PCNA in transplanted and host livers in group C was significantly lower compared to that in groups A and B at the same time point (P<0.001). Although the number of apoptotic cells in each group varied at different time points, there was no statistically significant difference (P>0.05). In auxiliary liver transplantation with the dual arterial blood supply method, the capacity of the liver regeneration in the grafts was similar to that of the host livers. Therefore, this technique may reduce the potential risk of graft liver atrophy caused by functional competition. PMID:25289034

ZHANG, JUNJING; XI, JUNQING; DONG, CHAOXUAN; MENG, XINGKAI

2014-01-01

162

Liver Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... Your Liver > Liver Disease Information > Liver Transplant Liver Transplant Explore this section to learn more about liver ... substances from your blood. What is a liver transplant? A liver transplant is the process of replacing ...

163

Liver fibrosis in overweight patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: A common clinical issue is whether overweight patients with abnormal liver function test results should undergo liver biopsy. Although serious liver injury can occur, its prevalence and risk factors are not well known. Methods: Ninety-three consecutive patients with abnormal liver function tests (but without overt liver disease), body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg\\/m2, and no alcoholic,

Vlad Ratziu; Philippe Giral; Frederic Charlotte; Eric Bruckert; Vincent Thibault; Ioannis Theodorou; Lina Khalil; Gérard Turpin; Pierre Opolon; Thierry Poynard

2000-01-01

164

Estradiol affects liver mitochondrial function in ovariectomized and tamoxifen-treated ovariectomized female rats  

SciTech Connect

Given the tremendous importance of mitochondria to basic cellular functions as well as the critical role of mitochondrial impairment in a vast number of disorders, a compelling question is whether 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) modulates mitochondrial function. To answer this question we exposed isolated liver mitochondria to E2. Three groups of rat females were used: control, ovariectomized and ovariectomized treated with tamoxifen. Tamoxifen has antiestrogenic effects in the breast tissue and is the standard endocrine treatment for women with breast cancer. However, under certain circumstances and in certain tissues, tamoxifen can also exert estrogenic agonist properties. We observed that at basal conditions, ovariectomy and tamoxifen treatment do not induce any statistical alteration in oxidative phosphorylation system and respiratory chain parameters. Furthermore, tamoxifen treatment increases the capacity of mitochondria to accumulate Ca{sup 2+} delaying the opening of the permeability transition pore. The presence of 25 {mu}M E2 impairs respiration and oxidative phosphorylation system these effects being similar in all groups of animals studied. Curiously, E2 protects against lipid peroxidation and increases the production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in energized mitochondria of control females. Our results indicate that E2 has in general deleterious effects that lead to mitochondrial impairment. Since mitochondrial dysfunction is a triggering event of cell degeneration and death, the use of exogenous E2 must be carefully considered.

Moreira, Paula I. [Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Institute of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Custodio, Jose B.A. [Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Nunes, Elsa [Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Institute of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Moreno, Antonio [Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Department of Zoology, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Institute of Marine Research, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Seica, Raquel [Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Institute of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Oliveira, Catarina R. [Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal); Santos, Maria S. [Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal) and Department of Zoology, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3005-504 Coimbra (Portugal)]. E-mail: mssantos@ci.uc.pt

2007-05-15

165

Living with Your Liver  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn the function of the liver and how biomedical engineers can use liver regeneration to help people. Students test the effects of toxic chemicals on a beef liver by adding hydrogen peroxide to various liver and salt solutions. They observe, record and graph their results.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

166

Puerarin improves metabolic function leading to hepatoprotective effects in chronic alcohol-induced liver injury in rats.  

PubMed

Puerarin (PR), an active component extracted from the kudzu root, has been widely used as an ethno-medicine to treat hepatopathy in China. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the hepatoprotective action of PR in chronic alcohol-induced liver injury in rats. Data showed that the serum levels of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) were elevated following PR administration. In addition, the levels of endogenous CYP2E1, CYP1A2, and CYP3A proteins in liver tissue were also gradually decreased following PR treatment. Histopathological examinations suggested that alcohol-induced hepatocellular lesions were mitigated by PR treatment. Collectively, these data indicate that PR contributes to cytoprotection against alcohol-induced liver lesions through improving metabolic function. PMID:23669266

Chen, Xu; Li, Rong; Liang, Tao; Zhang, Kefeng; Gao, Ya; Xu, Lingyuan

2013-07-15

167

Improvement of quantitative testing of liver function in patients with chronic hepatitis C after installment of antiviral therapy  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate if and to what extent antiviral therapy influenced a broad panel of quantitative testing of liver function (QTLF). METHODS: Fifty patients with chronic hepatitis C were either treated with interferon (n = 8), interferon/ribavirin (n = 19) or peg-interferon/ribavirin (n = 23). Quantitative testing of liver function, including aminopyrine breath test (ABT), galactose elimination capacity (GEC), sorbitol clearance (SCl) and indocyanine green clearance (ICG) was performed before and 3 mo after initiation of antiviral therapy. RESULTS: After 3 mo of antiviral treatment, 36 patients showed normal transaminases and were negative for HCV-RNA, 14 patients did not respond to therapy. ABT and GEC as parameters of microsomal and cytosolic liver function were reduced in all patients before therapy initiation and returned to normal values in the 36 therapy responders after 3 mo. Parameters of liver perfusion (SCl and ICG) were not affected by antiviral therapy. In the 14 non-responders, no changes in QTLF values were observed during the treatment period. CONCLUSION: ICG and SCl remained unaffected in patients with chronic hepatitis C, while ABT and GEC were significantly compromised. ABT and GEC normalized in responders to antiviral therapy. Early determination of ABT and GEC may differentiate responders from non-responders to antiviral treatment in hepatitis C. PMID:16222747

Ocker, Matthias; Ganslmayer, Marion; Zopf, Steffen; Gahr, Susanne; Janson, Christopher; Hahn, Eckhart G.; Herold, Christoph

2005-01-01

168

Protective effect of aqueous extract of Feronia elephantum correa leaves on thioacetamide induced liver necrosis in diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Objective To evalueate hepatoprotective effects Feronia elephantum (F. elephantum) correa against thioacetamide (TA) induced liver necrosis in diabetic rats. Methods Male wistar rats were made diabetic with alloxan (160 mg/kg) on day 0 of the study. They were intoxicated with hepatotoxicant (thioacetamide, 300 mg/kg, ip) on day 9 of study to produce liver necrosis. Effects of 7 day daily once administration (day 2 to day 9) of EF (400 and 800 mg/kg, po) were evaluated on necorosis of liver in terms of mortality, liver volume, liver weight, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and serum alanine transaminase (ALT), and histopathology of liver sections (for signs of necorosis and inflammation) on day-9 of the study. Separate groups of rats with treated only with alloxan (DA control), thioacetamide (TA control) and both (TA+DA control) were maintained. Results FE significantly lowered the mortality rate and showed improvement in liver function parameters in TA-induced diabetic rats without change in liver weight, volume and serum glucose levels. Conclusions FE showed promising activity against TA-induced liver necorsis in diabetic rats and so might be useful for prevention of liver complications in DM. PMID:23569996

Sharma, Prashant; Bodhankar, Subhash L; Thakurdesai, Prasad A

2012-01-01

169

Direct differentiation of homogeneous human adipose stem cells into functional hepatocytes by mimicking liver embryogenesis.  

PubMed

The potential of adult human adipose tissue stem cells (hASCs) to differentiate into hepatocytes has generated much excitement over the possible use of hASCs in therapeutic applications. An understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie the plasticity of hASCs toward hepatocytes will help to make this possibility a reality. Herein, we show that a homogenous population of hASCs characterized by a high level of CD73, CD90, and CD105 express the pluripotent transcription factors OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, and SALL4 under proliferation conditions. A high level of activin A allows for hASCs acquiring the fate of definitive endoderm (DE) cells and expressing the specific transcription factors HEX, FOXA2, SOX17, and GATA4 synchronously. Using a reproducible three-stage method by mimicking liver embryogenesis, hASCs were directed to differentiate into functional hepatocytes. In the first stage, hASCs were induced to become DE cells by 2 days cultured in serum-free medium and 3 days of activin A treatment. Next, the presence of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 4 and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2 in the medium for 5 days induced efficient hepatic differentiation from DE cells. After 10 days of further maturated by the sequential exposure to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), oncostatin M (OSM), and dexamethasone (DEX), the hASC-derived hepatocytes expressed mature hepatocytes marker and exhibited functional characterization, including albumin secretion, glycogen storage, urea production, activity of drug transporters, and cytochrome P450 activity. These findings will be useful for the implementation of hASC-derived hepatocytes in therapeutic purposes, metabolic analyses, drug toxicity screening, and studies of hepatocyte function. PMID:24166453

Li, Xueyang; Yuan, Jie; Li, Weihong; Liu, Sicheng; Hua, Mingxi; Lu, Xin; Zhang, Haiyan

2014-06-01

170

Liver Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy is a very complex and well-orchestrated phenomenon. It is carried out by the participation of all mature liver cell types. The process is associated with signaling cascades involving growth factors, cytokines, matrix remodeling, and several feedbacks of stimulation and inhibition of growth related signals. Liver manages to restore any lost mass and adjust its size to that of the organism, while at the same time providing full support for body homeostasis during the entire regenerative process. In situations when hepatocytes or biliary cells are blocked from regeneration, these cell types can function as facultative stem cells for each other. PMID:17559071

Michalopoulos, George K.

2009-01-01

171

Photoinduced effects in l-alanine crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

An influence of the cw laser treatment at 660nm (red), 532nm (green) and 405nm (blue) wavelengths on the absorption in l-alanine crystals was studied. We have established that increasing time of illumination for red laser wavelength leads to slight changes of absorption backgrounds without changes in the spectral features. The drastic changes are observed after illumination by green laser leading

A. Wojciechowski; K. Ozga; A. H. Reshak; R. Miedzinski; I. V. Kityk; J. Berdowski; Z. Tylczy?ski

2010-01-01

172

Cultured mycelium Cordyceps sinensis protects liver sinusoidal endothelial cells in acute liver injured mice.  

PubMed

Cultured mycelium Cordyceps sinensis (CMCS) was widely used for a variety of diseases including liver injury, the current study aims to investigate the protective effects of CMCS on liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) in acute injury liver and related action mechanisms. The mice were injected intraperitoneally with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and D-galactosamine (D-GalN). 39 male BABL/c mice were randomly divided into four groups: normal control, model control, CMCS treatment and 1,10-phenanthroline treatment groups. The Serum liver function parameters including alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were assayed with the commercial kit. The inflammation and scaffold structure in liver were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and silver staining respectively. The LSECs and sub-endothelial basement membrane were observed with the scanning and transmission electronic microscope. The protein expressions of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in liver were analyzed with Western blotting. Expression of von Willebrand factor (vWF) was investigated with immunofluorescence staining. The lipid peroxidation indicators including antisuperoxideanion (ASAFR), hydroxyl free radical (·OH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were determined with kits, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 and 9 (MMP-2/9) activities in liver were analyzed with gelatin zymography and in situ fluorescent zymography respectively. The model mice had much higher serum levels of ALT and AST than the normal mice. Compared to that in the normal control, more severe liver inflammation and hepatocyte apoptosis, worse hepatic lipid peroxidation demonstrated by the increased ASAFR, ·OH and MDA, but decreased SOD and GST, increased MMP-2/9 activities and VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and vWF expressions, which revealed obvious LSEC injury and scaffold structure broken, were shown in the model control. Compared with the model group, CMCS and 1,10-phenanthroline significantly improved serum ALT/AST, attenuated hepatic inflammation and improved peroxidative injury in liver, decreased MMP-2/9 activities in liver tissue, improved integration of scaffold structure, and decreased protein expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. CMCS could protect LSECs from injury and maintain the microvasculature integration in acute injured liver of mice induced by LPS/D-GalN. Its action mechanism was associated with the down-regulation of MMP-2/9 activities and inhibition of peroxidation in injured liver. PMID:24442316

Peng, Yuan; Chen, Qian; Yang, Tao; Tao, Yanyan; Lu, Xiong; Liu, Chenghai

2014-03-01

173

Helper and suppressor T lymphocyte function in severe alcoholic liver disease.  

PubMed Central

The immune regulatory T cell status of patients with severe alcoholic liver disease (ALD) was investigated. Using monoclonal antibodies to identify lymphocyte subsets in 22 patients, a significant decrease in the percentage of T suppressor/cytotoxic cells (P less than 0.01) and increase in the percentage T helper/inducer population (P less than 0.05) was observed when the results were compared with 20 normal controls. However, when absolute numbers of these lymphocyte subsets were calculated the patient group did not differ significantly from the controls. Further studies revealed T immunoregulatory cell function to be normal. Concanavalin A induced suppressor cells resulted in equivalent inhibition of autologous cell mitogen responsiveness in the patient and control groups. In addition, purified patient T lymphocytes were demonstrated to provide normal help to and manifest normal suppression of IgG, IgA and IgM synthesis by allogeneic B cells. When spontaneous immunoglobulin synthesis by circulating mononuclear cells was investigated, a significant increase in IgA synthesis was found in the ALD patients (P less than 0.05). These results suggest that T cell immunoregulation is normal in patients with ALD and a defect in this system is not responsible for the increased synthesis of immunoglobulin observed in ALD. PMID:3159525

McKeever, U; O'Mahony, C; Whelan, C A; Weir, D G; Feighery, C

1985-01-01

174

Fistuloclysis Improves Liver Function and Nutritional Status in Patients with High-Output Upper Enteric Fistula  

PubMed Central

Background. We aimed to determine the efficacy of fistuloclysis in patients with high-output upper enteric fistula (EF). Methods. Patients were assigned into the fistuloclysis group (n = 35, receiving fistuloclysis plus total enteral nutrition (TEN)) and the control group (n = 60, receiving TEN). Laboratory variables were measured during the four-week treatment. Results. At baseline, variables were similar between the two groups. Delta value was defined as the changes from baseline to day 28. Compared with the control group, the fistuloclysis group showed greater improvements in liver function (Delta total bilirubin (TB): 20.3 ± 9.7 in the fistuloclysis group versus 15.6 ± 6.3 in the control group, P = 0.040; Delta direct bilirubin (DB): 12.5 ± 3.4 versus 10.0 ± 3.6, P = 0.011; Delta alkaline phosphatase (ALP): 98.4 ± 33.5 versus 57.6 ± 20.9, P < 0.001); nutritional status (Delta total protein: 21.8 ± 8.7 versus 10.7 ± 2.1, P < 0.001; Delta albumin: 11.3 ± 2.5 versus 4.2 ± 1.3, P < 0.001). In the fistuloclysis subgroups, biliary fistula patients had the maximum number of variables with the greatest improvements. Conclusions. Fistuloclysis improved hepatic and nutritional parameters in patients with high-output upper EF, particularly in biliary fistula patients. PMID:24719613

Wu, Yin; Ren, Jianan; Wang, Gefei; Zhou, Bo; Ding, Chao; Gu, Guosheng; Chen, Jun; Liu, Song; Li, Jieshou

2014-01-01

175

Biguanides inhibit complex I, II and IV of rat liver mitochondria and modify their functional properties.  

PubMed

In this study, we focused on an analysis of biguanides effects on mitochondrial enzyme activities, mitochondrial membrane potential and membrane permeability transition pore function. We used phenformin, which is more efficient than metformin, and evaluated its effect on rat liver mitochondria and isolated hepatocytes. In contrast to previously published data, we found that phenformin, after a 5 min pre-incubation, dose-dependently inhibits not only mitochondrial complex I but also complex II and IV activity in isolated mitochondria. The enzymes complexes inhibition is paralleled by the decreased respiratory control index and mitochondrial membrane potential. Direct measurements of mitochondrial swelling revealed that phenformin increases the resistance of the permeability transition pore to Ca(2+) ions. Our data might be in agreement with the hypothesis of Schäfer (1976) that binding of biguanides to membrane phospholipids alters membrane properties in a non-specific manner and, subsequently, different enzyme activities are modified via lipid phase. However, our measurements of anisotropy of fluorescence of hydrophobic membrane probe diphenylhexatriene have not shown a measurable effect of membrane fluidity with the 1 mM concentration of phenformin that strongly inhibited complex I activity. Our data therefore suggest that biguanides could be considered as agents with high efficacy but low specifity. PMID:24182344

Drahota, Z; Palenickova, E; Endlicher, R; Milerova, M; Brejchova, J; Vosahlikova, M; Svoboda, P; Kazdova, L; Kalous, M; Cervinkova, Z; Cahova, M

2014-01-01

176

Fistuloclysis improves liver function and nutritional status in patients with high-output upper enteric fistula.  

PubMed

Background. We aimed to determine the efficacy of fistuloclysis in patients with high-output upper enteric fistula (EF). Methods. Patients were assigned into the fistuloclysis group (n = 35, receiving fistuloclysis plus total enteral nutrition (TEN)) and the control group (n = 60, receiving TEN). Laboratory variables were measured during the four-week treatment. Results. At baseline, variables were similar between the two groups. Delta value was defined as the changes from baseline to day 28. Compared with the control group, the fistuloclysis group showed greater improvements in liver function (Delta total bilirubin (TB): 20.3 ± 9.7 in the fistuloclysis group versus 15.6 ± 6.3 in the control group, P = 0.040; Delta direct bilirubin (DB): 12.5 ± 3.4 versus 10.0 ± 3.6, P = 0.011; Delta alkaline phosphatase (ALP): 98.4 ± 33.5 versus 57.6 ± 20.9, P < 0.001); nutritional status (Delta total protein: 21.8 ± 8.7 versus 10.7 ± 2.1, P < 0.001; Delta albumin: 11.3 ± 2.5 versus 4.2 ± 1.3, P < 0.001). In the fistuloclysis subgroups, biliary fistula patients had the maximum number of variables with the greatest improvements. Conclusions. Fistuloclysis improved hepatic and nutritional parameters in patients with high-output upper EF, particularly in biliary fistula patients. PMID:24719613

Wu, Yin; Ren, Jianan; Wang, Gefei; Zhou, Bo; Ding, Chao; Gu, Guosheng; Chen, Jun; Liu, Song; Li, Jieshou

2014-01-01

177

A dual-functionally modified chitosan derivative for efficient liver-targeted gene delivery.  

PubMed

Galactosylated chitosan-hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium (gal-HTCC) was synthesized by galactosylating and quaternizing chitosan to endue chitosan with targeting specificity for potential applications as gene vectors. The composition and physicochemical properties of gal-HTCC were characterized by FT-IR, (1) H NMR, elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction, and turbidity measurement. It was found that water-soluble gal-HTCC showed a more amorphous structure than chitosan, and it also had a much better plasmid condensation capability than galactosylated chitosan. Cytotoxicity measurements revealed that gal-HTCC showed significantly lower cytotoxicity in HepG2 and HeLa cell lines compared to branched polyethylenimine (bPEI, 25 kDa) which was used as a positive control. The nanoparticles (NPs) consisted of gal-HTCC and plasmid DNA had desirable particle size (around 250 nm) with a narrow size distribution. Confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed that NPs could be internalized and transported to the nucleus efficiently within 6 h. In vitro gene transfection results indicated that gal-HTCC had significantly higher transfection efficiency (7- to 32-fold) compared to chitosan and gal-chitosan for targetable delivery of pGL3 luciferase plasmid to HepG2, and its transfection efficiency was highly inhibited in the presence of galactose (20 mM). All these results suggest that gal-HTCC can function as a promising nonviral gene vector for efficient liver-targeted gene delivery. PMID:23203540

Xiao, Bo; Wang, Xiaoyu; Qiu, Zhiye; Ma, Jun; Zhou, Lei; Wan, Ying; Zhang, Shengmin

2013-07-01

178

Liver Wellness  

MedlinePLUS

... Liver Foundation www.liverfoundation.org 1-800-GO-LIVER © 2009 American Liver Foundation. All rights reserved. Increasing Public Awareness of Liver Health Liver Wellness • The liver is the second ...

179

Quantification of Drug Transport Function across the Multiple Resistance-Associated Protein 2 (Mrp2) in Rat Livers  

PubMed Central

To understand the transport function of drugs across the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes, it would be important to measure concentrations in hepatocytes and bile. However, these concentration gradients are rarely provided. The aim of the study is then to measure these concentrations and define parameters to quantify the canalicular transport of drugs through the multiple resistance associated-protein 2 (Mrp2) in entire rat livers. Besides drug bile excretion rates, we measured additional parameters to better define transport function across Mrp2: (1) Concentration gradients between hepatocyte and bile concentrations over time; and (2) a unique parameter (canalicular concentration ratio) that represents the slope of the non-linear regression curve between hepatocyte and bile concentrations. This information was obtained in isolated rat livers perfused with gadobenate dimeglumine (BOPTA) and mebrofenin (MEB), two hepatobiliary drugs used in clinical liver imaging. Interestingly, despite different transport characteristics including excretion rates into bile and hepatocyte clearance into bile, BOPTA and MEB have a similar canalicular concentration ratio. In contrast, the ratio was null when BOPTA was not excreted in bile in hepatocytes lacking Mrp2. The canalicular concentration ratio is more informative than bile excretion rates because it is independent of time, bile flows, and concentrations perfused in portal veins. It would be interesting to apply such information in human liver imaging where hepatobiliary compounds are increasingly investigated. PMID:25547484

Bonnaventure, Pierre; Pastor, Catherine M.

2014-01-01

180

Rhinacanthus nasutus Improves the Levels of Liver Carbohydrate, Protein, Glycogen, and Liver Markers in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

The present study was designed to investigate the total carbohydrate, total protein, and glycogen levels in the liver and to measure functional liver markers such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in streptozotocin-(STZ-) induced diabetic rats after treatment with methanolic extract of Rhinacanthus nasutus (R. nasutus). The methanolic extract of R. nasutus was orally administered at 200?mg/kg/day while glibenclamide was administered at 50?mg/kg/day. All animals were treated for 30 days before being sacrificed. The amounts of carbohydrate, glycogen, proteins, and liver markers (AST and ALT) were measured in the liver tissue of the experimental animals. The levels of carbohydrate, glycogen, and proteins were significantly reduced in the diabetic rats but were augmented considerably after 30 days of R. nasutus treatment. The elevated AST and ALT levels in diabetic rats showed a significant decline after treatment with R. nasutus for 30 days. These results show that the administration of R. nasutus ameliorates the altered levels of carbohydrate, glycogen, proteins, and AST and ALT observed in diabetic rats and indicate that R. nasutus restores overall metabolism and liver function in experimental diabetic rats. In conclusion, the outcomes of the present study support the traditional belief that R. nasutus could ameliorate the diabetic state. PMID:24204387

Visweswara Rao, Pasupuleti; Madhavi, K.; Dhananjaya Naidu, M.; Gan, Siew Hua

2013-01-01

181

Heat Shock Protein 70 Expression is Increased in the Liver of Neonatal Intrauterine Growth Retardation Piglets  

PubMed Central

Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) leads to the dysfunction in digestive system, as well as the alteration in the expression of some functional proteins. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) could be induced by various stress factors, but whether Hsp70 expression is changed in neonatal IUGR infants has not been demonstrated. This study was conducted to explore the expression of Hsp70 in the liver by using the IUGR piglet model. Liver and plasma samples were obtained from IUGR and normal birth weight (NBW) piglets at birth. The neonatal IUGR piglets had significantly lower liver weight than their counterparts. The activities of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in serum were enhanced significantly in IUGR indicating liver dysfunction. The activities of superoxide dismutase (p<0.01), glutathione peroxidase (p<0.01) and catalase (p>0.05) were lower and the level of malondialdehybe was higher (p<0.05) in IUGR liver compared with in NBW. According to the results of histological tests, fatty hepatic infiltrates and cytoplasmic vacuolization were present in the liver of IUGR piglets, but not in NBW liver. The expression of Hsp70 protein was significantly higher (p<0.05) in IUGR piglet liver than in NBW. Similar to where the hepatic injuries were observed, location of Hsp70 was mostly in the midzonal hepatic lobule indicating that oxidative stress might be responsible for the increased expression of Hsp70. PMID:25049668

Li, Wei; Zhong, Xiang; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Yuanxiao; Wang, Tian

2012-01-01

182

Lack of induction of rat liver mixed-function oxidases after chronic administration of high brotizolam doses to rats.  

PubMed

Rats were treated with 10, 200 or 400 mg/kg brotizolam (Lendormin) for 4 weeks, then liver microsomes were prepared and the in vitro transformation of several model substances studied. Furthermore, after similar treatment of rats, the metabolite pattern in the plasma was studied using [14C]brotizolam as a marker. Finally the same investigations were performed after pretreating the rats with the enzyme inducers, phenobarbital or 3-methylchol-anthrene, for 3 days instead of brotizolam. The amount of microsomal protein in the rat liver was increased after all 3 doses of brotizolam, the liver weight after the highest dose only. Activity of the flavoenzyme NADPH cytochrome-c reductase was the only enzyme activity increased after 200 and 400 mg/kg brotizolam, whereas cytochrome P-450 content decreased after 400 mg/kg brotizolam. Activities of the mixed-function oxidases studied were not changed at all. Marked changes after brotizolam administration were seen in the metabolite pattern. The higher doses led to reduced amounts of both of the very polar metabolites. Simultaneously metabolite We 964 (= brotizolam hydroxylated at the methyl group) and the unchanged brotizolam increased several-fold. Treatment of rats with phenobarbital or 3-methylcholanthrene showed the typical but different changes in enzyme activities. The metabolite pattern of brotizolam, however, was not changed. From the results it is concluded that a 4-week treatment of rats with up to 400 mg/kg brotizolam causes no induction of mixed-function oxidases in the liver. The changes of the metabolite pattern described can be discussed as an effect of liver enzyme saturation. PMID:2346533

Bechtel, W D

1990-03-01

183

A molecular dynamics study of the dielectric properties of aqueous solutions of alanine and alanine dipeptide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular dynamics simulations were used to compute the frequency-dependent dielectric susceptibility of aqueous solutions of alanine and alanine dipeptide. We studied four alanine solutions, ranging in concentration from 0.13-0.55 mol/liter, and two solutions of alanine dipeptide (0.13 and 0.27 mol/liter). In accord with experiment we find a strong dielectric increment for both solutes, whose molecular origin is shown to be the zwitterionic nature of the solutes. The dynamic properties were analyzed based on a dielectric component analysis into solute, a first hydration shell, and all remaining (bulk) waters. The results of this three component decomposition were interpreted directly, as well as by uniting the solute and hydration shell component to a "suprasolute" component. In both approaches three contributions to the frequency-dependent dielectric properties can be discerned. The quantitatively largest and fastest component arises from bulk water [i.e., water not influenced by the solute(s)]. The interaction between waters surrounding the solute(s) (the hydration shell) and bulk water molecules leads to a relaxation process occurring on an intermediate time scale. The slowest relaxation process originates from the solute(s) and the interaction of the solute(s) with the first hydration shell and bulk water. The primary importance of the hydration shell is the exchange of shell and bulk waters; the self-contribution from bound water molecules is comparatively small. While in the alanine solutions the solute-water cross-terms are more important than the solute self-term, the solute contribution is larger in the dipeptide solutions. In the latter systems a much clearer separation of time scales between water and alanine dipeptide related properties is observed. The similarities and differences of the dielectric properties of the amino acid/peptide solutions studied in this work and of solutions of mono- and disaccharides and of the protein ubiquitin are discussed.

Boresch, Stefan; Willensdorfer, Martin; Steinhauser, Othmar

2004-02-01

184

The effect of immunonutrition (glutamine, alanine) on fracture healing  

PubMed Central

Background There have been various studies related to fracture healing. Glutamine is an amino acid with an important role in many cell and organ functions. This study aimed to make a clinical, radiological, and histopathological evaluation of the effects of glutamine on fracture healing. Methods Twenty rabbits were randomly allocated into two groups of control and immunonutrition. A fracture of the fibula was made to the right hind leg. All rabbits received standard food and water. From post-operative first day for 30 days, the study group received an additional 2 ml/kg/day 20% L-alanine L-glutamine solution via a gastric catheter, and the control group received 2 ml/kg/day isotonic via gastric catheter. At the end of 30 days, the rabbits were sacrificed and the fractures were examined clinically, radiologically, and histopathologically in respect to the degree of union. Results Radiological evaluation of the control group determined a mean score of 2.5 according to the orthopaedists and 2.65 according to the radiologists. In the clinical evaluation, the mean score was 1.875 for the control group and 2.0 for the study group. Histopathological evaluation determined a mean score of 8.5 for the control group and 9.0 for the study group. Conclusion One month after orally administered glutamine–alanine, positive effects were observed on fracture healing radiologically, clinically, and histopathologically, although no statistically significant difference was determined.

Küçükalp, Abdullah; Durak, Kemal; Bayyurt, Sarp; Sönmez, Gürsel; Bilgen, Muhammed S.

2014-01-01

185

Purification and characterization of alanine aminotransferase from Panicum miliaceum leaves.  

PubMed

Three alanine aminotransferases, two minor (AlaAT-1, AlaAT-3) and one major (AlaAT-2), were detected by native gel electrophoresis of leaf extracts from Panicum miliaceum L. AlaAT-2 was purified to homogeneity and a specific polyclonal antibody was raised against it which did not react with the other two forms of the enzyme. The enzyme, with an apparent molecular size of 102 kDa, appeared to be a dimer of a single 50-kDa polypeptide. The enzyme has a relatively broad pH optima with similar curves for the forward and reverse directions, ranging between 6.5 and 7.5. The Km values of this enzyme were 6.67, 0.15, 5.00, and 0.33 mM for alanine, 2-oxoglutarate, glutamate, and pyruvate, respectively. The activity of AlaAT-2 was found to increase markedly during leaf greening in parallel with the increase of immunochemically titrated protein, and it is suggested to function in the C4 photosynthetic cycle. PMID:1898070

Son, D; Jo, J; Sugiyama, T

1991-09-01

186

Detection of carbonyl functions in phospholipids of liver microsomes in CCl4- and BrCCl3-poisoned rats.  

PubMed

Since the peroxidative cleavage of unsaturated fatty acids can result in either the release of carbonyl compounds or the formation of carbonyl functions in the acyl residues, evidence for the presence of carbonyl groups in liver microsomal phospholipids was searched for in in vivo conditions (CCl4 and BrCCl3 intoxications) in which peroxidation of lipids of hepatic endoplasmic reticulum had been previously demonstrated. The spectrophotometric examination of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine-treated phospholipids of liver microsomes from the intoxicated animals showed absorption spectra similar to those observed for the dinitrophenylhydrazones of various carbonyls. Similar spectra, although magnified from a quantitative point of view, were also observed with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine-treated phospholipids of liver microsomes peroxidized in the NADPH-Fe-dependent system. A time-course study of microsomal lipid peroxidation showed that the amount of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine-reacting groups (carbonyl functions) in phospholipids of liver microsomes increases with the incubation time and is correlated to the amount of malonic dialdehyde formed in the incubation mixture. The kinetics of the production of 4-hydroxynonenal was somewhat similar to that of malonic dialdehyde formation. In both the in vivo conditions (CCl4 and BrCCl3 intoxications) the amount of carbonyl functions in microsomal phospholipids, which was higher in the BrCCl3-intoxicated animals as compared to the CCl4-poisoned ones, was close to that found in the vitro condition in which lipid peroxidation is induced by 6 microM Fe2+. The possible pathological significance of formation of carbonyl functions in membrane phospholipids is discussed. PMID:7126629

Benedetti, A; Fulceri, R; Ferrali, M; Ciccoli, L; Esterbauer, H; Comporti, M

1982-09-14

187

Effects of feeding a high level of D-glucose on liver function in juvenile white sturgeon ( Acipenser transmontanus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were fed three isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets containing either 35% D-glucose (HC), a mixture of 20% dextrin and\\u000a 10% cellulose (MC), or 23% cellulose (LC), to investigate the effects of dietary carbohydrate on liver function. After 8-week\\u000a feeding, body weight gain of fish fed the HC diet was consistently higher than that of fish fed

Kofi Fynn-Aikins; Silas S. O. Hung; Steven G. Hughes

1993-01-01

188

The LKB1-salt-inducible kinase pathway functions as a key gluconeogenic suppressor in the liver  

PubMed Central

LKB1 is a master kinase that regulates metabolism and growth through adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and 12 other closely related kinases. Liver-specific ablation of LKB1 causes increased glucose production in hepatocytes in vitro and hyperglycaemia in fasting mice in vivo. Here we report that the salt-inducible kinases (SIK1, 2 and 3), members of the AMPK-related kinase family, play a key role as gluconeogenic suppressors downstream of LKB1 in the liver. The selective SIK inhibitor HG-9-91-01 promotes dephosphorylation of transcriptional co-activators CRTC2/3 resulting in enhanced gluconeogenic gene expression and glucose production in hepatocytes, an effect that is abolished when an HG-9-91-01-insensitive mutant SIK is introduced or LKB1 is ablated. Although SIK2 was proposed as a key regulator of insulin-mediated suppression of gluconeogenesis, we provide genetic evidence that liver-specific ablation of SIK2 alone has no effect on gluconeogenesis and insulin does not modulate SIK2 phosphorylation or activity. Collectively, we demonstrate that the LKB1–SIK pathway functions as a key gluconeogenic gatekeeper in the liver. PMID:25088745

Patel, Kashyap; Foretz, Marc; Marion, Allison; Campbell, David G.; Gourlay, Robert; Boudaba, Nadia; Tournier, Emilie; Titchenell, Paul; Peggie, Mark; Deak, Maria; Wan, Min; Kaestner, Klaus H.; Göransson, Olga; Viollet, Benoit; Gray, Nathanael S.; Birnbaum, Morris J.; Sutherland, Calum; Sakamoto, Kei

2014-01-01

189

Characterization of the effects of erythromycin estolate and erythromycin base on the excretory function of the isolated rat liver  

SciTech Connect

To investigate the mechanisms of erythromycin cholestasis, the effects of erythromycin estolate (EE) on the excretory function of the isolated perfused rat liver and on liver plasma membrane (LM) preparations were studied and compared to those of erythromycin base (EB) and lauryl sulfate (LS), added alone or in combination. EE (at 125 to 200 microM) caused dose-dependent reductions of bile and perfusate flows, bile acid (BA) excretion, and biliary BA concentration. The alterations of the excretory function were only in part due to the decreased perfusate flow. In contrast, both 200 and 300 microM concentrations of EB elicited similar choleretic responses, which were presumably related to the osmotic activity of the drug excreted in the bile. LS did not affect hepatic excretory functions. However, the simultaneous addition of EB and LS resulted in a rate of bile flow lower than that observed with EB alone. EE, but not EB, increased canalicular permeability to (/sup 14/C)sucrose as measured by bile to plasma (B:P) ratio. Neither drugs altered (/sup 14/C)erythritol B:P ratio. In LM preparations both Na+,K+- and Mg2+-ATPase activities were inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by EE, but not by EB. The data suggest that EE could affect bile flow by inhibiting cotransport of Na+ and BA and by altering LM permeability and support the view that the effect of erythromycins on the liver may be related to their surface activity.

Gaeta, G.B.; Utili, R.; Adinolfi, L.E.; Abernathy, C.O.; Giusti, G.

1985-09-15

190

Clinical applicability of rapid thrombelastography and functional fibrinogen thrombelastography to adult liver transplantation.  

PubMed

Unlike kaolin thrombelastography (k-TEG), the clinical utility of rapid thrombelastography (r-TEG) and functional fibrinogen thrombelastography (FF-TEG) has not been tested in liver transplantation (LT). These thrombelastography techniques were simultaneously performed at the time of the skin incision (the baseline) and 30 minutes after graft reperfusion (III?+?30) for 27 consecutive adult LT patients. k-TEG and r-TEG parameters [alpha angle (?) and maximum amplitude of the clot (MA)] were compared in addition to the assay time. Estimated FF-TEG fibrinogen levels were compared with plasma fibrinogen measurements. At the baseline, the values of Spearman's correlation coefficient (r) between k-TEG and r-TEG were moderate for ? (r?=?0.40, P?=?0.06) and strong for MA (r?=?0.90, P?

Yang Lu, Shu; Tanaka, Kenichi A; Abuelkasem, Ezeldeen; Planinsic, Raymond M; Sakai, Tetsuro

2014-09-01

191

Regulation of liver metabolism by enzyme phosphorylation during mammalian hibernation.  

PubMed

Kinetic properties of regulatory enzymes of glycolysis in liver of the mouse, Zapus hudsonius, were modified during hibernation, the probable mechanism being covalent modification. Liver glycogen phosphorylase activity was strongly depressed during both short (less than 24 h) and long (5-8 days) term hibernation, the mechanism involving a decrease in both the percentage of enzyme in the active a form and the total amount (a + b) of enzyme expressed. Phosphofructokinase showed kinetic changes (a 2.5-fold increase in Ka for fructose-2,6-P2, 4- and 3.7-fold decreases in I50 values for ATP and citrate, compared to euthermic controls) in liver of hibernators indicative of phosphorylation inactivation of the enzyme. Measured levels of fructose-2,6-P2 in liver did not change during hibernation. Changes in pyruvate kinase kinetics in liver from long term hibernators similarly indicated enzyme phosphorylation in the depressed state (Ka for fructose-1,6-P2 increased 4.4-fold, I50 for L-alanine decreased 6.3-fold). Apparent covalent modification of glycolytic enzymes during hibernation may serve two functions: depression of glycolytic activity as part of the general metabolic rate depression of hibernation, or reorganization of fuel use in the hibernating state to limit carbohydrate catabolism and promote gluconeogenesis. PMID:2948958

Storey, K B

1987-02-01

192

Zingiber officinale acts as a nutraceutical agent against liver fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Background/objective Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger) (Zingiberaceae) has been cultivated for thousands of years both as a spice and for medicinal purposes. Ginger rhizomes successive extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol) were examined against liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. Results The evaluation was done through measuring antioxidant parameters; glutathione (GSH), total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Liver marker enzymes; succinate and lactate dehydrogenases (SDH and LDH), glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase), acid phosphatase (AP), 5'- nucleotidase (5'NT) and liver function enzymes; aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT) as well as cholestatic markers; alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), total bilirubin were estimated. Liver histopathological analysis and collagen content were also evaluated. Treatments with the selected extracts significantly increased GSH, SOD, SDH, LDH, G-6-Pase, AP and 5'NT. However, MDA, AST, ALT ALP, GGT and total bilirubin were significantly decreased. Conclusions Extracts of ginger, particularly the ethanol one resulted in an attractive candidate for the treatment of liver fibrosis induced by CCl4. Further studies are required in order to identify the molecules responsible of the pharmacological activity. PMID:21689445

2011-01-01

193

Direct calculations of vibrational absorption and circular dichroism spectra of alanine dipeptide analog in water: Quantum mechanical\\/molecular mechanical molecular dynamics simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vibrational absorption (IR) and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of alanine dipeptide analog in water are directly calculated by Fourier transforming the time correlation functions of the electric and magnetic dipole moments, which are calculated using the dynamic partial charges and trajectory of the peptide generated from the quantum mechanical\\/molecular mechanical molecular dynamics simulations. The alanine dipeptide analog is

Seongeun Yang; Minhaeng Cho

2009-01-01

194

A controlled trial on the effect of feeding dietary chestnut extract and glycerol monolaurate on liver function in newborn calves.  

PubMed

Beginning in the fall of 2010, an increasing and alarming number of cases of calves suffering from liver dystrophy were reported in the south of Germany. An epidemiological investigation was carried out by the authors between November 2010 and July 2011, leading to the implication of a commercial dietary supplement as the potential cause for this outbreak. The components of this product were first tested in a cell culture model and two of them (dietary chestnut extract and glycerol monolaurate) showed a cytotoxic effect. The objective of this study was therefore to evaluate the effect of supplemental feeding of both components alone or in combination on liver function in newborn calves on a commercial dairy farm. Ten calves were enrolled in each of the three treatment groups and the control group (group O) following a blocked design. Treatment consisted of supplementation with chestnut extract at 0.02% of birth body mass (BM) (group C), supplementation with glycerol monolaurate at 0.006% of BM (group G) or a combined treatment (group CG) for five consecutive days. The effect of treatments on liver function was evaluated clinically and by measurement of glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities as well as the determination of the concentrations of glucose, L-lactate and total bilirubin in serum. There was a significant increase in GLDH and AST activities and a significant decrease in glucose concentration in treatment groups C and CG compared with the control group (p ? 0.035), whereas no difference was shown for group G. Survival was significantly decreased in groups C (p = 0.029) and CG (p = 0.001) compared with both group G and the control group. These results suggest that dietary chestnut extract in an amount of 0.02% of BM alone or in combination has a toxic effect on liver function in newborn calves. PMID:24605953

Wieland, M; Weber, B K; Hafner-Marx, A; Sauter-Louis, C; Bauer, J; Knubben-Schweizer, G; Metzner, M

2015-02-01

195

Purification and functional characterization of type II DNA topoisomerase from rat testis and comparison with topoisomerase II from liver.  

PubMed

A number of studies in yeast have shown that DNA topoisomerase II is essential for chromosome condensation and disjunction during mitosis at the metaphase/anaphase transition and meiosis I. Accordingly, kinetic and mechanistic studies have implied a role for topoisomerase II in chromosome disjunction. As a step toward understanding the nature and role of topoisomerase II in a mammalian germline in vivo, we have purified topoisomerase II from rat testis to homogeneity and ascertained several of its catalytic activities in conjunction with that of the purified enzyme from liver. The purified enzymes appeared to be monomers under denaturing conditions; however, they differed in their relative molecular mass. Topoisomerase II from testis and liver have apparent molecular masses of 150 +/- 10 kDa and 160 +/- 10 kDa, respectively. The native molecular mass of testis topoisomerase II as assayed by immunoblot analysis of cell-free extracts, prepared in the presence of SDS and a number of protease inhibitors, corroborated with the size of the purified enzyme. Both enzymes are able to promote decatenation and relax supercoiled DNA substrates in an ATP and Mg(2+)-dependent manner. However, quantitative comparison of catalytic properties of topoisomerase II from testis with that of the enzyme from liver displayed significant differences in their efficiencies. Optimal pH values for testis enzyme are 6.5 to 8.5 while they are 6 to 7.5 for the liver enzyme. Intriguingly, the relaxation activity of liver topoisomerase II was inhibited by potassium glutamate at 1 M, whereas testis enzyme required about half its concentration. These findings argue that topoisomerase II from rat testis is structurally distinct from that of its somatic form and the functional differences between the two enzymes parallels with the physiological environment that is unique to these two tissues. PMID:8765751

Galande, S; Muniyappa, K

1996-07-31

196

Liver enzymes, metabolomics and genome-wide association studies: From systems biology to the personalized medicine  

PubMed Central

For several decades, serum levels of alanine (ALT) and aspartate (AST) aminotransferases have been regarded as markers of liver injury, including a wide range of etiologies from viral hepatitis to fatty liver. The increasing worldwide prevalence of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease revealed that transaminases are strong predictors of type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, atherothrombotic risk profile, and overall risk of metabolic disease. Therefore, it is plausible to suggest that aminotransferases are surrogate biomarkers of “liver metabolic functioning” beyond the classical concept of liver cellular damage, as their enzymatic activity might actually reflect key aspects of the physiology and pathophysiology of the liver function. In this study, we summarize the background information and recent findings on the biological role of ALT and AST, and review the knowledge gained from the application of genome-wide approaches and “omics” technologies that uncovered new concepts on the role of aminotransferases in human diseases and systemic regulation of metabolic functions. Prediction of biomolecular interactions between the candidate genes recently discovered to be associated with plasma concentrations of liver enzymes showed interesting interconnectivity nodes, which suggest that regulation of aminotransferase activity is a complex and highly regulated trait. Finally, links between aminotransferase genes and metabolites are explored to understand the genetic contributions to the metabolic diversity. PMID:25624707

Sookoian, Silvia; Pirola, Carlos J

2015-01-01

197

Alteration of substrate specificity of alanine dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

The l-alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH) has a natural history that suggests it would not be a promising candidate for expansion of substrate specificity by protein engineering: it is the only amino acid dehydrogenase in its fold family, it has no sequence or structural similarity to any known amino acid dehydrogenase, and it has a strong preference for l-alanine over all other substrates. By contrast, engineering of the amino acid dehydrogenase superfamily members has produced catalysts with expanded substrate specificity; yet, this enzyme family already contains members that accept a broad range of substrates. To test whether the natural history of an enzyme is a predictor of its innate evolvability, directed evolution was carried out on AlaDH. A single mutation identified through molecular modeling, F94S, introduced into the AlaDH from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtAlaDH) completely alters its substrate specificity pattern, enabling activity toward a range of larger amino acids. Saturation mutagenesis libraries in this mutant background additionally identified a double mutant (F94S/Y117L) showing improved activity toward hydrophobic amino acids. The catalytic efficiencies achieved in AlaDH are comparable with those that resulted from similar efforts in the amino acid dehydrogenase superfamily and demonstrate the evolvability of MtAlaDH specificity toward other amino acid substrates. PMID:25538307

Fernandes, Puja; Aldeborgh, Hannah; Carlucci, Lauren; Walsh, Lauren; Wasserman, Jordan; Zhou, Edward; Lefurgy, Scott T; Mundorff, Emily C

2015-02-01

198

Liver metastases  

MedlinePLUS

Metastases to the liver; Metastatic liver cancer; Liver cancer - metastatic ... Almost any cancer can spread to the liver. Cancers that can spread to the liver include: Breast cancer Colorectal cancer Esophageal ...

199

Influence of minerals on lead-induced alterations in liver function in rats exposed to long-term lead exposure.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of minerals on lead-induced effect on the liver. Differentiation of minerals and heavy metals pose an inherent problem due to certain common properties shared by them. With this approach to the problem of heavy metal toxicity, in the present study two groups of male Wistar albino rats, one group (well-nourished) fed on mineral rich diet and other group (undernourished) fed on diet without mineral supplements were used. Both the groups of rats were subjected to long-term lead exposure. The diet of well-nourished group was supplemented with calcium (Ca); 1.2%, phosphorous (P); 0.6%, iron (Fe); 90 mg/kg, zinc (Zn); 50mg/kg, magnesium (Mg); 0.08%, manganese (Mn); 70 mg/kg, selenium (Se); 0.2mg/kg, copper (Cu); 5mg/kg, molybdenum (Mo); 0.8 mg/kg, iodine (I); 0.6 mg/kg, cobalt (Co); 3.0mg/kg. Their blood lead and parameters of liver function were monitored periodically. Results of the study showed a very high statistically significant increase (p<0.001) in the blood lead (PbB) levels and liver function test parameters in the undernourished subjects compared to the well-nourished subjects. Nutritional management of lead poisoning is of importance since essential elements and toxic heavy metals may interact to minimize the absorption of lead. PMID:19167163

Herman, D'souza Sunil; Geraldine, Menezes; T, Venkatesh

2009-07-30

200

Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST/GOT) and Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT/GPT) Detection Techniques  

PubMed Central

The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST/GOT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT/GPT) in serum can help people diagnose body tissues especially the heart and the liver are injured or not. This article provides a comprehensive review of research activities that concentrate on AST/GOT and ALT/GPT detection techniques due to their clinical importance. The detection techniques include colorimetric, spectrophotometric, chemiluminescence, chromatography, fluorescence and UV absorbance, radiochemical, and electrochemical techniques. We devote the most attention on experimental principle. In some methods a few representative devices and important conclusions are presented.

Huang, Xing-Jiu; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Im, Hyung-Soon; Yarimaga, Oktay; Yoon, Euisik; Kim, Hak-Sung

2006-01-01

201

Effect of supernatant from fibroblasts from the progeny of female rats with chronic liver disease of different origin on the morphology and function of cultured peritoneal macrophages.  

PubMed

We studied the effects of supernatant from ovarian fibroblasts derived from the progeny of female rats with experimental chronic liver disease of different genesis on the function of cultured allogenic peritoneal macrophages. Addition of fibroblast supernatant derived from animals with liver disease to the culture medium suppressed the function of peritoneal macrophages from intact newborn rats, which manifested in reduction of the adhesion characteristics and decrease of their phagocytic parameter and phagocytic index. PMID:23486594

Bryukhin, G V; Zubarev, I V

2013-02-01

202

[Functional activity of the liver in immersion and effects of the countermeasures].  

PubMed

Two groups of male volunteers for 4-day dry immersion with and w/o countermeasures (support load imitator (SLI) or high-frequency electrostimulator) underwent ultrasonic investigation (USI) of the liver, gastroduodenal organs and vessels, and blood biochemical analysis. Two other groups of volunteers performed the 13C-methacetin breath test (13C-MBT) to study the effects of immersion and SLI on the liver detox activity and metabolic capacity. In immersion, USI diagnosed slowdown of blood flow along the hepatic vein and signs of plethora in the abdominal venous system. In addition, immersion was accompanied by increases in blood pepsinogen, pancreatic amylase, total bilirubin, the "indirect" fraction specifically, insulin and C-peptide. 13C-MBT detected deceleration of 13C-methacetin inactivation and diminution of the liver metabolic capacity. Administration of the countermeasures did not improve the ultrasonic image of hemodynamic alterations in the liver and abdomen significantly. High-frequency electrostimulation cancelled out changes in all biochemical parameters except C-peptide; SLI was favorable to recovery of pepsinogen and amylase baseline values only. Besides, the SLI wearing prevented loss of the 13C-methacetin inactivation rate but was not effective enough against diminution of the hepatic metabolic capacity. PMID:25087407

Solov'eva, A A; Sedova, E A; Tomilovskaia, E S; Shigueva, T A; Afonin, B V

2014-01-01

203

Effect of syrepar and oxaphenamide on liver function in experimental hypokinesia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments on albino rats showed that 30 day hypokinesia changes the reaction of the liver to cholagogues. The choleretic action of oxaphenamide as well as its inhibitory effect on synthesis of bile acids diminishes, while the influence of bilirubin secretion increases.

Skakun, L. N.

1980-01-01

204

EFFECTS OF DIPHENYLHYDATOIN AND CHLOROQUINE ON MONKEY LIVER MICROSOMAL MIXED-FUNCTION OXIDASES  

EPA Science Inventory

Sixteen adult male squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) were randomly divided into three treatment groups and one control group. Each treatment group received 10 mg/kg oral doses of diphenylhydantoin and/or chloroquine. Following sacrifice, in vitro assays for activity of liver mi...

205

ATP-dependent degradation of a mutant serine: pyruvate\\/alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase in a primary hyperoxaluria type 1 case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH 1), an in- born error of glyoxylate metabolism characterized by excessive synthesis of oxalate and glycolate, is caused by a defect in serine:pyruvate\\/alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (SPT\\/AGT). This enzyme is per- oxisomal in human liver. Recently, we cloned SPT\\/ AGT-cDNA from a PH 1 case, and demonstrated a point mutation of T to C in the coding

Kozo Nishiyama; Tsuneyoshi Funai; Sadaki Yokota; Arata Ichiyama

1993-01-01

206

Liver Protective Effects of Morinda citrifolia (Noni)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the protective effects of Noni fruit juice on acute liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Liver damage (micro-centrilobular necrosis) was observed in animals pretreated with\\u000a 20% placebo (drinking water) + CCl4. However, pretreatment with 20% Noni juice in drinking water + CCl4 resulted in markedly decreased hepatotoxic lesions. Furthermore, serum alanine

Mian-Ying Wang; Diane Nowicki; Gary Anderson; Jarakae Jensen; Brett West

2008-01-01

207

The association between the metabolic syndrome and alanine amino transferase is mediated by insulin resistance via related metabolic intermediates (the Cohort on Diabetes and Atherosclerosis Maastricht [CODAM] study)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metabolic syndrome is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as well as with insulin resistance, inflammatory adipokines, endothelial dysfunction, and higher plasma levels of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), all of which may also affect the development of NAFLD. Therefore, we investigated to what extent the association between the metabolic syndrome and alanine aminotransferase (ALT, as a surrogate of

Marjon Jacobs; Marleen M. J. van Greevenbroek; Isabel Ferreira; Edith J. M. Feskens; Eugene H. J. M. Jansen; Casper G. Schalkwijk; Coen Stehouwer

2011-01-01

208

The effectiveness of fermented turmeric powder in subjects with elevated alanine transaminase levels: a randomised controlled study  

PubMed Central

Background Previous animal studies have shown that Curcuma longa (turmeric) improves liver function. Turmeric may thus be a promising ingredient in functional foods aimed at improving liver function. The purpose of the study is to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of fermented turmeric powder (FTP) on liver function in subjects with elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) levels. Methods A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted between November 2010 and April 2012 at the clinical trial center for functional foods of the Chonbuk National University Hospital. The trial included 60 subjects, 20 years old and above, who were diagnosed mild to moderate elevated ALT levels between 40 IU/L and 200 IU/L. Sixty subjects were randomised to receive FTP 3.0 g per day or placebo 3.0 g per day for 12 weeks. The treatment group received two capsules of FTP three times a day after meals, for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was change in the ALT levels in the two groups. The secondary efficacy endpoints included its effect on aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), total bilirubin (TB), and lipid profiles. Safety was assessed throughout the study using ongoing laboratory tests. Adverse events (AEs) were also recorded. Results Sixty subjects were randomised in the study (30 into the FTP group, 30 into the placebo group), and among them, twelve subjects were excluded from the analysis for protocol violation, adverse events or consent withdrawal. The two groups did not differ in baseline characteristics. After 12 weeks of treatment, 48 subjects were evaluated. Of the 48 subjects, 26 randomly received FTP capsules and 22 received placebo. The FTP group showed a significant reduction in ALT levels after 12 weeks of treatment compared with the placebo group (p?=?0.019). There was also observed that the serum AST levels were significantly reduce in the FTP group than placebo group (p?=?0.02). The GGT levels showed a tendency to decrease, while the serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), TB, and lipids levels were not modified. There were no reported severe AEs during this study, or abnormalities observed on blood glucose, total protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine levels. Conclusion The data of this trial indicate that FTP is effective and safe, generally well-tolerated without severe AEs, in the treatment of subjects with elevated ALT levels over a 12 weeks period. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: http://NCT01634256 PMID:23497020

2013-01-01

209

Characterization, evolution and functional analysis of the liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (LEAP-2) gene in miiuy croaker.  

PubMed

As an evolutionarily older defense strategy, the innate immune is the dominant immune system and provides a first line of antimicrobial host defense in teleost. Liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide-2 (LEAP-2) is a critical molecule of the innate immune system and plays a very important role in resistance against bacterial infections. We reported comprehensive analysis and characterization of LEAP-2 gene from miiuy croaker (Miichthys miiuy) in here. The complete cDNA of miiuy croaker LEAP-2 consists 2360 bp, including a 5' terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 170 bp, an open reading frame (ORF) of 312 bp, and a 3'-UTR of 1878 bp. Interestingly, two polyadenylation signals (AATTAAA) which may involve the stability, translation efficiency, or localization of an mRNA in a tissue were found in 3'-UTR. Genomic DNA of miiuy croaker LEAP-2 includes three exons and two introns, which is similar to LEAP-2 genes in other mammals and fish. The deduced 103 amino acids consist of signal peptide, prodomain and mature peptide. Four highly conserved cysteine residues involved two disulfide bridges in mature peptide. Real-time PCR results showed that LEAP-2 was ubiquitously expressed in all tissues and the expression level was highest in liver. Significantly, the expression levels were increased after infection with Vibrio anguillarum in liver and spleen. The antimicrobial activity analysis result of LEAP-2 in vitro indicated that LEAP-2 of miiuy croaker was effective in controlling Aeromonas hydrophila. In addition, we performed evolutionary analysis in order to estimate the selective constraints on the LEAP-2 gene. The result indicated that no positive selection exists in LEAP-2 gene sequences, which may be on account of irreplaceable function constrains. Meanwhile, we compared the structure of LEAP-2 with that of another Liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide (LEAP-1, also named HAMP), and found the LEAP-2 from miiuy croaker comprises of ?-helix, ?-sheet, and ?-turn while the LEAP-1 of miiuy croaker only contains ?-sheet. PMID:25180825

Liu, Tianxing; Gao, Yunhang; Wang, Rixin; Xu, Tianjun

2014-12-01

210

Differentiation of liver progenitor cell line to functional organotypic cultures in 3D nanofibrillar cellulose and hyaluronan-gelatin hydrogels.  

PubMed

Physiologically relevant hepatic cell culture models must be based on three-dimensional (3D) culture of human cells. However, liver cells are generally cultured in two-dimensional (2D) format that deviates from the normal in vivo morphology. We generated 3D culture environment for HepaRG liver progenitor cells using wood-derived nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC) and hyaluronan-gelatin (HG) hydrogels. Culture of undifferentiated HepaRG cells in NFC and HG hydrogels induced formation of 3D multicellular spheroids with apicobasal polarity and functional bile canaliculi-like structures, structural hallmarks of the liver tissue. Furthermore, hepatobiliary drug transporters, MRP2 and MDR1, were localized on the canalicular membranes of the spheroids and vectorial transport of fluorescent probes towards the biliary compartment was demonstrated. Cell culture in 3D hydrogel supported the mRNA expression of hepatocyte markers (albumin and CYP3A4), and metabolic activity of CYP3A4 in the HepaRG cell cultures. On the contrary, the 3D hydrogel cultures with pre-differentiated HepaRG cells showed decreasing expression of albumin and CYP3A4 transcripts as well as CYP3A4 activity. It is concluded that NFC and HG hydrogels expedite the hepatic differentiation of HepaRG liver progenitor cells better than the standard 2D culture environment. This was shown as improved cell morphology, expression and localization of hepatic markers, metabolic activity and vectorial transport. The NFC and HG hydrogels are promising materials for hepatic cell culture and tissue engineering. PMID:24698520

Malinen, Melina M; Kanninen, Liisa K; Corlu, Anne; Isoniemi, Helena M; Lou, Yan-Ru; Yliperttula, Marjo L; Urtti, Arto O

2014-06-01

211

Synthesis and evaluation of 18F labeled alanine derivatives as potential tumor imaging agents  

PubMed Central

Introduction This paper reports the synthesis and labeling of 18F alanine derivatives. We also investigate their biological characteristics as potential tumor imaging agents mediated by alanine-serine-cysteine preferring (ASC) transporter system. Methods Three new 18F alanine derivatives were prepared from corresponding tosylate-precursors through a two-step labelling reaction. In vitro uptake studies to evaluate and to compare these three analogs were carried out in 9L glioma and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines. Potential transport mechanisms, protein incorporation and stability of 3-(1-[18F]fluoromethyl)-L-alanine (L[18F]FMA) were investigated in 9L glioma cells. Its biodistribution was determined in a rat-bearing 9L tumor model. PET imaging studies were performed on rat bearing 9L glioma tumors and transgenic mouse carrying spontaneous generated M/tomND tumor (mammary gland adenocarcinoma). Results New 18F alanine derivatives were prepared with 7–34% uncorrected radiochemical yields, excellent enantiomeric purity (>99%) and good radiochemical purity (>99%). In vitro uptake of the L-[18F]FMA in 9L glioma and PC-3 prostate cancer cells was higher than those observed for other two alanine derivatives and [18F]FDG in first 1 h. Inhibition of cell uptake studies suggested that L-[18F]FMA uptake in 9L glioma was predominantly via transport system ASC. After entering into cells, L-[18F]FMA remained stable and was not incorporated into protein within 2 h. In vivo biodistribution studies demonstrated that L-[18F]FMA had relatively high uptake in liver and kidney. Tumor uptake was fast, reaching a maximum within 30 min. The tumor-to-muscle, tumor-to-blood and tumor-to-brain ratios at 60 min post injection were 2.2, 1.9 and 3.0, respectively. In PET imaging studies, tumors were visualized with L-[18F]FMA in both 9L rat and transgenic mouse. Conclusion L-[18F]FMA showed promising properties as a PET imaging agent for up-regulated ASC transporter associated with tumor proliferation. PMID:22542392

Wang, Limin; Zha, Zhihao; Qu, Wenchao; Qiao, Hongwen; Lieberman, Brian P.; Plössl, Karl; Kung, Hank F.

2012-01-01

212

Differential distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes in patients with and without liver function abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection persists for an indefinite length of time in a major proportion of patients, inducing chronic liver lesions that evolve to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in approximately 20% of cases. We studied HCV viremia and genotypes by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) in 341 consecutive anti-HCV-positive patients. Of these, 167 patients had persistently normal or

Enrico Silini; Fulvia Bono; Agostino Cividini; Antonella Cerino; Savino Bruno; Sonia Rossi; Giovanni Belloni; Bruno Brugnetti; Emilio Civardi; Laura Salvaneschi; Mario U. Mondelli

1995-01-01

213

[Liver function in cows with traumatic inflammation of the reticulum and peritoneum after rumenotomy].  

PubMed

The studies resulted from clinical observations recorded earlier on the basis of which it was found that traumatic inflammation of the reticulum and peritoneum Uzco is accompanied by liver lesion. Basing on the animal material (72 cows) collected in the area of the Station's activity at Busko-Zdrój, the diagnostic value of the selected laboratory liver tests was estimated to be utilized in diagnosing the damage of this organ as well as in the treatment of cows after rumenotomy. The studies showed that for these purposes the determination of total bilirubin and its fraction, the concentration of which in cows of the Uzco breed before the operation exceeded considerably their normal level, is of highest value. In the postoperation period lasting about 10 days, the level of total bilirubin constantly decreased. The determination of total cholesterol and protein was found to be of slightly lower value. Among the opacity tests the iodic one is of highest value in determinations of liver parenchyma lesions in cows with the Uzco. The decrease in the level of total bilirubin and its fraction as well as the decrease in the number of positive reactions to iodic test in the postoperaton period have been recognized as prognostically favourable symptom. PMID:7196571

Czerwonka, B

1980-01-01

214

Absolute quantification of pharmacokinetic distribution of RES colloids in individuals with normal liver function.  

PubMed

Estimates of the radiation dose resulting from liver-spleen scintigraphy 99Tcm-labelled colloids are based on pharmacokinetic data mainly determined in animals. The aim of this study was to check the pharmacokinetic data by direct, absolute in vivo quantification in man. For this purpose appropriate methods of measurement were developed, or procedures taken over from literature were modified. Liver and spleen activities were directly measured using a double-energy window technique. Activities in other organs were quantified by conjugate whole-body scans. All measurement procedures were checked using the whole-body Alderson phantom. Pharmacokinetic data for sulphur colloid, tin colloid, human serum albumin (HSA) millimicrospheres, and phytate were obtained in 13 to 20 normal subjects for each type of colloid. Depending on the colloid type liver uptake was between 54 and 75% of the total administered dose (TAD) and spleen uptake was 3.5 to 21% TAD. Activity measured in blood, urine, lung and thyroid proved to be far from negligible. The results of this work suggest a correction of the animal-based data of colloid distribution and radiation dose on the basis of the direct measurement of absolute uptake in man. PMID:3108736

Herzog, H; Spohr, G; Notohamiprodjo, G; Feinendegen, L E

1987-03-01

215

Case report: Alanine aminotransferase deficiency detected in a patient with chronic hepatitis C.  

PubMed

We report a case of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) deficiency in a 68-year-old Japanese female with chronic hepatitis C. The serum was positive for antibody to hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HCV-RNA. Liver biopsy showed histological evidence of chronic active hepatitis. The level of serum aspartate aminotransferase (sAST) was elevated, but sALT was extremely low. The patient was followed up for her serum aminotransferase levels for 1.5 years under the treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid. The low sALT level persisted during all the follow-up period. The ALT activity in liver tissue was also decreased. Based on these findings, ALT deficiency was suspected. sALT activity was also found to be low in her two sons. This latter finding suggests the hereditary character of this abnormality. PMID:9641644

Uno, S; Kaito, M; Kobayashi, Y; Ishida, S; Kato, H; Gabazza, E; Tamaki, S; Ikoma, J; Imoto, I; Watanabe, S; Adachi, Y

1998-05-01

216

Enterocyte fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs): Different functions of liver and intestinal FABPs in the intestine.  

PubMed

Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABP) are highly abundant cytosolic proteins that are expressed in most mammalian tissues. In the intestinal enterocyte, both liver- (LFABP; FABP1) and intestinal FABPs (IFABP; FABP2) are expressed. These proteins display high-affinity binding for long-chain fatty acids (FA) and other hydrophobic ligands; thus, they are believed to be involved with uptake and trafficking of lipids in the intestine. In vitro studies have identified differences in ligand-binding stoichiometry and specificity, and in mechanisms of FA transfer to membranes, and it has been hypothesized that LFABP and IFABP have different functions in the enterocyte. Studies directly comparing LFABP- and IFABP-null mice have revealed markedly different phenotypes, indicating that these proteins indeed have different functions in intestinal lipid metabolism and whole body energy homeostasis. In this review, we discuss the evolving knowledge of the functions of LFABP and IFABP in the intestinal enterocyte. PMID:25458898

Gajda, Angela M; Storch, Judith

2014-10-14

217

Engineered Liver for Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Orthotopic liver transplantation is the only definitive treatment for end stage liver failure and the shortage of donor organs severely limits the number of patients receiving transplants. Liver tissue engineering aims to address the donor liver shortage by creating functional tissue constructs to replace a damaged or failing liver. Despite decades of work, various bottoms-up, synthetic biomaterials approaches have failed to produce a functional construct suitable for transplantation. Recently, a new strategy has emerged using whole organ scaffolds as a vehicle for tissue engineering. This technique involves preparation of these organ scaffolds via perfusion decellularization with the resulting scaffold retaining the circulatory network of the native organ. This important phenomenon allows for the construct to be repopulated with cells and to be connected to the blood torrent upon transplantation. This opinion paper presents the current advances and discusses the challenges of creating fully functional transplantable liver grafts with this whole liver engineering approach. PMID:23791465

Uygun, Basak E

2013-01-01

218

Alanine and Sodium Fluxes Across Mucosal Border of Rabbit Ileum  

PubMed Central

Unidirectional influxes of L-alanine and Na from the mucosal solution into the epithelium of in vitro rabbit ileum have been determined. In the presence of 140 mM Na, alanine influx is approximately 2.2 µmoles/hr cm2, but is inhibited if the NaCl in the mucosal solution is replaced by choline Cl, Tris-Cl, mannitol, LiCl, or KCl. Although alanine influx is strongly dependent upon Na in the mucosal solution, it is uninfluenced by marked reduction of intracellular Na pools. In addition, alanine influx is unaffected by intracellular alanine concentration. Na influx is markedly inhibited by the presence of Li. Evidence is presented that Na transport across the mucosal border cannot be attributed to simple diffusion even though the net flux across this surface is in the direction of the electrochemical potential difference. PMID:6033584

Schultz, Stanley G.; Curran, Peter F.; Chez, Ronald A.; Fuisz, Robert E.

1967-01-01

219

The structure of alanine racemase from Acinetobacter baumannii  

PubMed Central

Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic Gram-negative bacterium which is a common cause of hospital-acquired infections. Numerous antibiotic-resistant strains exist, emphasizing the need for the development of new antimicrobials. Alanine racemase (Alr) is a pyridoxal 5?-phosphate dependent enzyme that is responsible for racemization between enantiomers of alanine. As d-alanine is an essential component of the bacterial cell wall, its inhibition is lethal to prokaryotes, making it an excellent antibiotic drug target. The crystal structure of A. baumannii alanine racemase (AlrAba) from the highly antibiotic-resistant NCTC13302 strain has been solved to 1.9?Å resolution. Comparison of AlrAba with alanine racemases from closely related bacteria demonstrates a conserved overall fold. The substrate entryway and active site of the enzymes were shown to be highly conserved. The structure of AlrAba will provide the template required for future structure-based drug-design studies. PMID:25195891

Davis, Emily; Scaletti-Hutchinson, Emma; Opel-Reading, Helen; Nakatani, Yoshio; Krause, Kurt L.

2014-01-01

220

Living donor liver transplantation for acute liver failure in pediatric patients caused by the ingestion of fireworks containing yellow phosphorus.  

PubMed

Yellow phosphorus is a protoplasmic toxicant that targets the liver. The ingestion of fireworks containing yellow phosphorus, either by children who accidentally consume them or by adults who are attempting suicide, often results in death due to acute liver failure (ALF). We present the outcomes of 10 children who ingested fireworks containing yellow phosphorus. There were 6 boys and 4 girls, and their ages ranged from 21 to 60 months. One patient remained stable without liver complications and was discharged. Three patients died of hepatorenal failure and cardiovascular collapse, and living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) was performed for 6 patients. The patients had grade II or III encephalopathy, a mean alanine aminotransferase level of 1148.2 IU/L, a mean aspartate aminotransferase level of 1437.5 IU/L, a mean total bilirubin level of 6.9 mg/dL, a mean international normalized ratio of 6.6, a mean Pediatric End-Stage Liver Disease score of 33.7, and a mean Child-Pugh score of 11.3. Postoperatively, 2 patients had persistent encephalopathy and died on the second or third postoperative day, and 1 patient died of cardiac arrest on the first postoperative day despite a well-functioning graft. The other 3 patients were still alive at a mean of 204 days. In conclusion, the ingestion of fireworks containing yellow phosphorus causes ALF with a high mortality rate. When signs of irreversible ALF are detected, emergency LDLT should be considered as a lifesaving procedure; however, if yellow phosphorus toxicity affects both the brain and the heart in addition to the liver, the mortality rate remains very high despite liver transplantation. PMID:21761550

Ates, Mustafa; Dirican, Abuzer; Ozgor, Dincer; Aydin, Cemalettin; Isik, Burak; Ara, Cengiz; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Ayse Selimoglu, M; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Yilmaz, Sezai

2011-11-01

221

Increased differentiation properties in two- and three-dimensional coculture of hepatocytes and liver epithelial cells by a novel quantitative functional liver assay  

E-print Network

Hepatic stem cells in adult rats are activated by chemical injury to the liver, causing hepatic progenitor cells to proliferate, integrate into the hepatic plates, and differentiate into hepatocytes. In an attempt to model ...

Moritz, Joseph M. (Joseph Michael)

2007-01-01

222

Altered UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase and Sulfotransferase Expression and Function during Progressive Stages of Human Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease  

PubMed Central

The UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) and sulfotransferases (SULTs) represent major phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes that are also responsible for maintaining cellular homeostasis by metabolism of several endogenous molecules. Perturbations in the expression or function of these enzymes can lead to metabolic disorders and improper management of xenobiotics and endobiotics. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum of liver damage ranging from steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. Because the liver plays a central role in the metabolism of xenobiotics, the purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of human NAFLD progression on the expression and function of UGTs and SULTs in normal, steatosis, NASH (fatty), and NASH (not fatty/cirrhosis) samples. We identified upregulation of UGT1A9, 2B10, and 3A1 and SULT1C4 mRNA in both stages of NASH, whereas UGT2A3, 2B15, and 2B28 and SULT1A1, 2B1, and 4A1 as well as 3?-phosphoadenosine-5?-phosphosulfate synthase 1 were increased in NASH (not fatty/cirrhosis) only. UGT1A9 and 1A6 and SULT1A1 and 2A1 protein levels were decreased in NASH; however, SULT1C4 was increased. Measurement of the glucuronidation and sulfonation of acetaminophen (APAP) revealed no alterations in glucuronidation; however, SULT activity was increased in steatosis compared with normal samples, but then decreased in NASH compared with steatosis. In conclusion, the expression of specific UGT and SULT isoforms appears to be differentially regulated, whereas sulfonation of APAP is disrupted during progression of NAFLD. PMID:23223517

Hardwick, Rhiannon N.; Ferreira, Daniel W.; More, Vijay R.; Lake, April D.; Lu, Zhenqiang; Manautou, Jose E.; Slitt, Angela L.

2013-01-01

223

Long-term effects of calcineurin inhibitor conversion to mycophenolate mofetil on renal function after liver transplantation.  

PubMed

Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) are the cornerstone of immunosuppression after liver transplantation. However, CNI treatment is frequently associated with chronic renal failure (CRF). The reduction or interruption of CNI may reduce renal failure. We prospectively studied 49 liver recipients treated with CNI (tacrolimus, n = 14; cyclosporine, n = 35) who secondarily developed CNI-associated CRF and for whom mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) was introduced to reduce or withdraw CNI. The creatinine clearance (CCl; 42.9 +/- 14 ml/minute) increased significantly after CNI reduction (48.8 +/- 17 ml/minute after 1 year, 49.9 +/- 18 ml/minute after 2 years, and 58.4 +/- 20 ml/minute after 3 years, P < 0.0001). CCl decreased during the 2 years before CNI reduction at a rate of -5.6 +/- 5 ml/minute/year; for the 2 years after CNI reduction, CCl increased significantly by +3.2 +/- 4.3 ml/minute/year (P < 0.0001). Ten patients did not have improved renal function after 1 year, but the rate of decrease in CCl slowed after CNI reduction. Three parameters were identified as risk factors for unresponsiveness to CNI reduction: (1) low CCl at MMF introduction, (2) a high rate of CCl decrease during the 2 years before conversion, and (3) alcoholic cirrhosis. The type of CNI molecule used did not impair the renal response. None of the patients developed acute or chronic graft rejection after the reduction or interruption of CNI. In liver recipients with CRF, a reduction or withdrawal of CNI concomitantly with the introduction of MMF was safe and was associated with an improvement in renal function. PMID:17600361

Créput, Caroline; Blandin, Frederique; Deroure, Benjamin; Roche, Bruno; Saliba, Faouzi; Charpentier, Bernard; Samuel, Didier; Durrbach, Antoine

2007-07-01

224

Liver Transplantation  

MedlinePLUS

... you on a waiting list for a liver transplant. Doctors do liver transplants when other treatment cannot keep a damaged liver ... and replaces it with a healthy one. Most transplant livers come from a donor who has died. ...

225

High doses of olive leaf extract induce liver changes in mice.  

PubMed

Virtually ever since it was first commercialized in 1995, there have been several studies focusing on the use of olive leaf extract (OLE) as a natural therapy and its medical properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of three different concentrations of OLE on the function of mice livers over the course of 14 weeks. Female ICR mice were divided into four groups, depending on OLE concentration used: 0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 0.75%. Alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin and albumin serum concentrations were all measured. Histopathological changes of the liver were observed after haematoxylin and eosin, reticulin, and Masson's trichrome staining was carried out while liver mitochondrial bioenergetics were also evaluated. Alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase serum enzyme activities increased significantly in the groups in which 0.5% and 0.75% OLE concentrations were used. Histologically, all the groups exposed to OLE exhibited hyperplasia of the bile ducts, cholestasis, hepatocyte necrosis and inflammatory infiltrated. Hepatic fibrosis was observed in the groups featuring 0.5% and 0.75% OLE concentrations. The mitochondrial membrane potential, respiratory control ratio and ADP/O of samples from animals fed the higher OLE concentration was significantly decreased when compared to the control group. PMID:21609751

Arantes-Rodrigues, R; Henriques, A; Pires, M J; Colaço, B; Calado, A M; Rema, P; Colaço, A; Fernandes, T; De la Cruz, P L F; Lopes, C; Fidalgo-Gonçalves, L; Vilela, S; Pedrosa, T; Peixoto, F; Oliveira, P A

2011-09-01

226

Heap of stones: an unusual cause for biliary colic and elevated liver function tests.  

PubMed

A 40-year old woman presented with symptomatic intrahepatic gallstones in one liver segment only four years after cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis. Multiple small, yellow and round calculi were completely removed from the intrahepatic bile ducts via ERCP. The young age of the patient, recurrence of gallstones after cholecystectomy and intrahepatic gallstones suggested a subtype of the low-phospholipid associated cholelithiasis syndrome, a monogenic form of cholesterol cholelithiasis due to variations of the ABCB4 gene that encodes the canalicular phospholipid transporter MDR3. PMID:23619268

Wittenburg, Henning; Keim, Volker; Hoffmeister, Albrecht

2013-01-01

227

Emerging Therapies for Liver Fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver fibrosis occurs as a result of a wide range of injurious processes and in its end-stage results in cirrhosis. This gross disruption of liver architecture is associated with impaired hepatic function, portal hypertension and significant resultant morbidity and mortality. Indeed, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis represent a major worldwide healthcare burden. Recent progress in liver transplantation, the management of portal

Andrew J. Fowell; John P. Iredale

2006-01-01

228

Bees' honey protects the liver of male rats against melamine toxicity.  

PubMed

The protective effect of natural bees' honey to the liver of male albino rats against melamine toxicity was studied. Melamine supplementation at a dose of 20000 ppm in the diet for 28 days induced adverse effects on the liver, decreased serum total protein and increased liver enzyme: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase. Histological changes of the melamine supplemented group showed necrosis in the hepatic tissues around the central veins of the liver and precipitation of melamine crystals. Treating the male albino rats (that were presupplemented regularly with 20000 ppm melamine) with natural bees' honey at a dose of 2.5 g/kg body weight for 28 days improved both liver functions and increased serum protein. In addition, a positive impact on the shape of the cells after treatment with honey compared to the positive melamine supplemented group was observed. In conclusion, the results of this study revealed that the use of natural bees' honey has the ability to protect the liver of rats against the toxic effects of melamine. PMID:23971045

El Rabey, Haddad A; Al-Seeni, Madeha N; Al-Solamy, Suad M

2013-01-01

229

Bees' Honey Protects the Liver of Male Rats against Melamine Toxicity  

PubMed Central

The protective effect of natural bees' honey to the liver of male albino rats against melamine toxicity was studied. Melamine supplementation at a dose of 20000?ppm in the diet for 28 days induced adverse effects on the liver, decreased serum total protein and increased liver enzyme: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase. Histological changes of the melamine supplemented group showed necrosis in the hepatic tissues around the central veins of the liver and precipitation of melamine crystals. Treating the male albino rats (that were presupplemented regularly with 20000?ppm melamine) with natural bees' honey at a dose of 2.5?g/kg body weight for 28 days improved both liver functions and increased serum protein. In addition, a positive impact on the shape of the cells after treatment with honey compared to the positive melamine supplemented group was observed. In conclusion, the results of this study revealed that the use of natural bees' honey has the ability to protect the liver of rats against the toxic effects of melamine. PMID:23971045

El Rabey, Haddad A.; Al-Seeni, Madeha N.; Al-Solamy, Suad M.

2013-01-01

230

5'-Methylthioadenosine attenuates ischemia reperfusion injury after liver transplantation in rats.  

PubMed

5'-Methylthioadenosine (MTA) is a nucleoside generated from S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) during polyamine synthesis. Previous study has indicated that MTA regulated the production of inflammatory mediators by modulating the activation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathway. The objective of this study was to determine whether MTA possessed anti-inflammatory properties during rat liver transplantation. Sprague Dawley (SD) to SD rat orthotropic liver transplantation was performed according to the Kamada's technique. Donors in MTA group were given a single dose of MTA (96 ?mol/kg, intraperitoneal) 30 min before surgery (n?=?36), and the control group were given the same volume of normal saline (n?=?36) intraperitoneally. The histopathologic change in the liver was analyzed. The levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), inhibitors of kappa B alpha (I?B?) degradation, NF-?B transcriptional activity, and MAPK activation were determined at 3, 6, and 24 h after reperfusion. Pretreatment with MTA significantly improved liver function, attenuated hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) by downregulating TNF-? level and suppressing inflammatory reaction after liver transplantation. Moreover, MTA also inhibited the I?B? degradation, NF-?B transcriptional activity, and the activation of MAPK signal. MTA protected against hepatic IRI by suppressing inflammatory reaction following liver transplantation. The mechanism for this effect of MTA is mediated, at least in part, by inhibiting the activation of NF-?B and MAPK signal pathway. PMID:24609837

Tang, Yong; Zhang, Weikang; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Wenjing; Yao, Feng; Yan, Jiaqi; Wan, Chidan

2014-10-01

231

Recent Progress on Liver Kinase B1 (LKB1): Expression, Regulation, Downstream Signaling and Cancer Suppressive Function  

PubMed Central

Liver kinase B1 (LKB1), known as a serine/threonine kinase, has been identified as a critical cancer suppressor in many cancer cells. It is a master upstream kinase of 13 AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-related protein kinases, and possesses versatile biological functions. LKB1 gene is mutated in many cancers, and its protein can form different protein complexes with different cellular localizations in various cell types. The expression of LKB1 can be regulated through epigenetic modification, transcriptional regulation and post-translational modification. LKB1 dowcnstream pathways mainly include AMPK, microtubule affinity regulating kinase (MARK), salt-inducible kinase (SIK), sucrose non-fermenting protein-related kinase (SNRK) and brain selective kinase (BRSK) signalings, etc. This review, therefore, mainly discusses recent studies about the expression, regulation, downstream signaling and cancer suppressive function of LKB1, which can be helpful for better understanding of this molecular and its significance in cancers. PMID:25244018

Gan, Ren-You; Li, Hua-Bin

2014-01-01

232

Water-resistant alanine-EPR dosimeter alanpol ®  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alanpol ®-water-resistant alanine-electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimeter consisted of cheap DL- ?-alanine (9.8-27%) suspended in polyethylene matrix was presented. The rods (Ø=2.8 mm) were extruded from a hot mixture of alanine and low-density polyethylene. No grinding or crushing was used for alanine preparation. An orientation of cylindrical crystals, up to 300 ?m long in parallel to the rod axis was responsible for some differences in a shape of EPR signal. These differences had no negative consequences for dosimetric applications. Signal-to-dose dependence was linear up to 10 kGy. Standard deviation of dosimetric answer was up to ±1.8% and up to 2.4% for dosimeters with 9.8% and 27% of DL- ?-alanine, respectively. Irradiation temperature coefficient for both dosimeters was equal 0.2%/°C. Hydrophobic properties of polyethylene and small number of alanine crystals located on the surface of the rod led to high resistance of dosimeters to water and humidity. The 24 h soaking of irradiated dosimeters in liquid water-reduced EPR signals by 3-4% and by 2-3% for dosimeters with 27% and 9.8% of DL-?-alanine, respectively. Three month storage time of irradiated dosimeters in room conditions decreases EPR signal for ˜3%.

Peimel-Stuglik, Zofia; Bryl-Sandelewska, Teresa; Mirkowski, Krzysztof; Sartowska, Bo?ena

2009-07-01

233

Nucleation kinetics, growth and studies of ?-alanine single crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solubility and metastable zone width for the re-crystallized salt of ?-alanine was determined. Induction period measurement for the selected supersaturation ratios at room temperature (31 °C) was carried out for supersaturated aqueous solutions of ?-alanine and it is noticed that induction period decreases with increase of supersaturation ratio. The nucleation parameters such as Gibbs free energy change, radius and number of molecules of the critical nucleus, interfacial tension and the nucleation rate have been evaluated by classical nucleation theory. Single crystals of ?-alanine were grown using the optimized nucleation parameters by solution method and grown crystals have been subjected to various studies like XRD studies, FTIR, optical, thermal and SHG studies.

Shanthi, D.; Selvarajan, P.; HemaDurga, K. K.; Lincy Mary Ponmani, S.

2013-06-01

234

Optical and Spectral Studies on ? Alanine Metal Halide Hybrid Crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have synthesized and grown ? alanine metal halide hybrid crystals viz. ? alanine cadmium chloride (BACC), an amino acid transition metal halide complex crystal and ? alanine potassium chloride (BAPC), an amino acid alkali metal halide complex crystal by slow evaporation method. The grown crystals were found to be transparent and have well defined morphology. The optical characteristics of the grown crystals were carried out with the help of UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The optical transmittances of the spectrums show that BAPC is more transparent than BACC. The Photoluminescence of the materials were determined by the Photoluminescent Spectroscopy

Sweetlin, M. Daniel; Selvarajan, P.; Perumal, S.; Ramalingom, S.

2011-10-01

235

Biliary lipids, faecal steroids, and liver function in patients with chronic active hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis: significance of hepatic orcein-stained complexes.  

PubMed Central

Biliary lipids, faecal steroids, and serum bile acids were studied in patients with chronic active hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis. The results were correlated with excretory and parenchymal liver function tests and with the presence or absence of orcein-positive copper-protein complexes in histological liver specimens. In general, faecal bile acids, but not neutral and total sterols, correlated negatively with the percentage of biliary cholic acid, serum cholesterol, and serum bile acids and positively with the percentage of biliary deoxycholic acid. In orcein-positive subjects-indicative of long-standing cholestasis-the bile was undersaturated with cholesterol, biliary deoxycholic acid was subnormal, cholic acid correspondingly increased, and serum cholesterol and bile acids were raised. Only patients with marked impairment of both excretory and parenchymal liver functions had a decreased output of neutral sterols, bile acids, and total steroids, and, thus, low bile acid and cholesterol synthesis. The findings indicate that mild disturbances in parenchymal liver function infrequently cause major changes in cholesterol metabolism, while abnormalities in secretory liver function-in orcein-positive subjects especially-are frequently associated with proportionate changes in parameters of cholesterol metabolism. PMID:6167493

Kesäniemi, Y A; Miettinen, T A; Salaspuro, M P

1981-01-01

236

Metabolomics analysis identifies d-Alanine-d-Alanine ligase as the primary lethal target of d-Cycloserine in mycobacteria.  

PubMed

d-Cycloserine is an effective second line antibiotic used as a last resort to treat multi (MDR)- and extensively (XDR) drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis . d-Cycloserine interferes with the formation of peptidoglycan biosynthesis by competitive inhibition of alanine racemase (Alr) and d-alanine-d-alanine ligase (Ddl). Although the two enzymes are known to be inhibited, the in vivo lethal target is still unknown. Our NMR metabolomics work has revealed that Ddl is the primary target of DCS, as cell growth is inhibited when the production of d-alanyl-d-alanine is halted. It is shown that inhibition of Alr may contribute indirectly by lowering the levels of d-alanine, thus allowing DCS to outcompete d-alanine for Ddl binding. The NMR data also supports the possibility of a transamination reaction to produce d-alanine from pyruvate and glutamate, thereby bypassing Alr inhibition. Furthermore, the inhibition of peptidoglycan synthesis results in a cascading effect on cellular metabolism as there is a shift toward the catabolic routes to compensate for accumulation of peptidoglycan precursors. PMID:24303782

Halouska, Steven; Fenton, Robert J; Zinniel, Denise K; Marshall, Darrell D; Barletta, Raúl G; Powers, Robert

2014-02-01

237

Are metal-induced hypersensitivities in harbor seals associated with liver function?  

PubMed

Environmental exposure to metals is believed to affect marine mammal health adversely including immunosuppression or acute as well as chronic inflammatory processes leading to hypersensitivities or autoimmune diseases. Metal-specific hypersensitivities were found in several pinnipeds of the North Sea. However, hypersensitivity is a complex phenomenon whose characteristics are still not completely understood; in particular, effects on health are not well established. In the present study, we compared basic hematological and biochemical parameters of seals with and without metal-specific hypersensitivities. We found altered hematological parameters and liver enzyme patterns in seals with a metal-induced hypersensitivity, including a reduction in macrophages, an increase in lymphocytes, and elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase. These findings support the suggestion of a chronic influence of metal pollutants on the health of marine mammals of the North Sea. PMID:21723569

Kakuschke, Antje; Valentine-Thon, Elizabeth; Griesel, Simone; Fonfara, Sonja; Siebert, Ursula; Prange, Andreas

2011-08-01

238

Thyroid hormone-induced cytosol-to-nuclear translocation of rat liver Nrf2 is dependent on Kupffer cell functioning.  

PubMed

L-3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T(3)) administration upregulates nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in rat liver, which is redox-sensitive transcription factor mediating cytoprotection. In this work, we studied the role of Kupffer cell respiratory burst activity, a process related to reactive oxygen species generation and liver homeostasis, in Nrf2 activation using the macrophage inactivator gadolinium chloride (GdCl(3); 10 mg/kg i.v. 72 h before T(3) [0.1 mg/kg i.p.]) or NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin (1.5 mmol/L added to the drinking water for 7 days before T(3)), and determinations were performed 2 h after T(3). T(3) increased nuclear/cytosolic Nrf2 content ratio and levels of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), catalytic subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase, and thioredoxin (Western blot) over control values, proteins whose gene transcription is induced by Nrf2. These changes were suppressed by GdCl(3) treatment prior to T(3), an agent-eliciting Kupffer-cell depletion, inhibition of colloidal carbon phagocytosis, and the associated respiratory burst activity, with enhancement in nuclear inhibitor of Nrf2 kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)/Nrf2 content ratios suggesting Nrf2 degradation. Under these conditions, T(3)-induced tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) response was eliminated by previous GdCl(3) administration. Similar to GdCl(3), apocynin given before T(3) significantly reduced liver Nrf2 activation and HO-1 expression, a NADPH oxidase inhibitor eliciting abolishment of colloidal carbon-induced respiratory burst activity without altering carbon phagocytosis. It is concluded that Kupffer cell functioning is essential for upregulation of liver Nrf2-signaling pathway by T(3). This contention is supported by suppression of the respiratory burst activity of Kupffer cells and the associated reactive oxygen species production by GdCl(3) or apocynin given prior to T(3), thus hindering Nrf2 activation. PMID:22649286

Videla, Luis A; Cornejo, Pamela; Romanque, Pamela; Santibáñez, Catherine; Castillo, Iván; Vargas, Romina

2012-01-01

239

Metabolism of benzene and phenol by a reconstituted purified phenobarbital induced rat liver mixed function oxidase system  

SciTech Connect

Cytochrome P-450 and the electron-donor, NADPH-cytochrome c reductase were isolated from phenobarbital induced rat liver microsomes. Both benzene and its primary metabolite phenol, were substrates for the reconstituted purified phenobarbital induced rat liver mixed function oxidase system. Benzene was metabolized to phenol and the polyhydroxylated metabolites; catechol, hydroquinone and 1,2,4 benzenetriol. Benzene elicited a Type I spectral change upon its interaction with the cytochrome P-450 while phenol's interaction with the cytochrome P-450 produced a reverse Type I spectra. The formation of phenol showed a pH optimum of 7.0 compared with 6.6-6.8 for the production of the polyhyrdoxylated metabolites. Cytochrome P-450 inhibitors, such as metyrapone and SKF 525A, diminished the production of phenol from benzene but not the production of the polyhydroxylated metabolites from phenol. The radical trapping agents, DMSO, KTBA and mannitol, decreased the recovery of polyhydroxylated metabolites, from /sup 14/C-labeled benzene and/or phenol. As KTBA and DMSO interacted with OH. There was a concomitant release of ethylene and methane, which was measured. Desferrioxamine, an iron-chelator and catalase also depressed the recovery of polyhydroxylated metabolites. In summary, benzene and phenol were both substrates for this reconstituted purified enzyme system, but they differed in binding to cytochrome P-450, pH optima and mode of hydroxylation.

Griffiths, J.C.

1986-01-01

240

Experimental diabetes treated with trigonelline: effect on key enzymes related to diabetes and hypertension, ?-cell and liver function.  

PubMed

Type 2 diabetes is quite diverse, including the improvement of insulin sensitivity by dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, ?-glucosidase inhibitors, and the protection of ?-cells islet. The aim of this study was to search the effect of trigonelline (Trig) on DPP-4, ?-glucosidase and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activities as well as ?-cells architecture, and starch and glucose tolerance test. In surviving diabetic rats, the supplement of Trig potentially inhibited DPP-4 and ?-glucosidase activities in both plasma and small intestine. The pancreas islet and less ?-cells damage were observed after the administration of trig to diabetic rats. The increase of GLP-1 in surviving diabetic rats suppressed the increase of blood glucose level and improved results in the oral glucose and starch tolerance test. Trig also normalized key enzyme related to hypertension as ACE and improved the hemoglobin A1c and lipid profiles (plasma triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and total cholesterol), and liver indices toxicity. Therefore, these results revealed that Trig was successful in improving glycemic control, metabolic parameters, and liver function in diabetic rats. It is therefore suggested that Trig may be a potential agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:23754616

Hamden, Khaled; Bengara, Amel; Amri, Zahra; Elfeki, Abdelfattah

2013-09-01

241

Liver fibrosis markers in alcoholic liver disease  

PubMed Central

Alcohol is one of the main factors of liver damage. The evaluation of the degree of liver fibrosis is of great value for therapeutic decision making in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Staging of liver fibrosis is essential to define prognosis and management of the disease. Liver biopsy is a gold standard as it has high sensitivity and specificity in fibrosis diagnostics. Taking into account the limitations of liver biopsy, there is an exigency to introduce non-invasive serum markers for fibrosis that would be able to replace liver biopsy. Ideal serum markers should be specific for the liver, easy to perform and independent to inflammation and fibrosis in other organs. Serum markers of hepatic fibrosis are divided into direct and indirect. Indirect markers reflect alterations in hepatic function, direct markers reflect extracellular matrix turnover. These markers should correlate with dynamic changes in fibrogenesis and fibrosis resolution. The assessment of the degree of liver fibrosis in alcoholic liver disease has diagnostic and prognostic implications, therefore noninvasive assessment of fibrosis remains important. There are only a few studies evaluating the diagnostic and prognostic values of noninvasive biomarkers of fibrosis in patients with ALD. Several noninvasive laboratory tests have been used to assess liver fibrosis in patients with alcoholic liver disease, including the hyaluronic acid, FibroTest, FibrometerA, Hepascore, Forns and APRI indexes, FIB4, an algorithm combining Prothrombin index (PI), ?-2 macroglobulin and hyaluronic acid. Among these tests, Fibrotest, FibrometerA and Hepascore demonstrated excellent diagnostic accuracy in identifying advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis, and additionally, Fibrotest was independently associated with survival. Therefore, the use of biomarkers may reduce the need for liver biopsy and permit an earlier treatment of alcoholic patients. PMID:25009372

Chrostek, Lech; Panasiuk, Anatol

2014-01-01

242

Organelle isolation: functional mitochondria from mouse liver, muscle and cultured filroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondria participate in key metabolic reactions of the cell and regulate crucial signaling pathways including apoptosis. Although several approaches are available to study mitochondrial function in situ are available, investigating functional mitochondria that have been isolated from different tissues and from cultured cells offers still more unmatched advantages. This protocol illustrates a step-by-step procedure to obtain functional mitochondria with high

Christian Frezza; Sara Cipolat; Luca Scorrano

2007-01-01

243

The Effects of High-Dose Qinggan Huoxue Recipe on Acute Liver Failure Induced by D-Galactosamine in Rats  

PubMed Central

Qinggan Huoxue Recipe is a traditional Chinese medicine, which has been usually used to improve liver function in hepatitis. In order to investigate the effects of high-dose Qinggan Huoxue Recipe on acute liver failure and explore the potential mechanism, we had built acute liver failure models in rats by intraperitoneal injection of D-galactosamine (D-GalN). High-dose Qinggan Huoxue Recipe was delivered by gavage. After treatment, the blood alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TBIL), albumin (ALB), cholinesterase (CHE), and prothrombin time (PT) were determined. The pathological score of liver tissue was recorded. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry staining and fluorescence quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B), and Caspase-3 were performed. The survival curve was also depicted. Our results demonstrated that high-dose Qinggan Huoxue Recipe could significantly improve liver function and increase survival rates in rats with acute liver failure. These effects were supposed to be mediated by suppressing inflammatory reaction and apoptosis. PMID:23554835

Zhu, Hong; Zhang, Yang; Hu, Xiaoyu; Yi, Cheng; Zhong, Sen; Wang, Yanyan; Yang, Fang

2013-01-01

244

Dissociation of reticuloendothelial cell and hepatocyte functions in alcoholic liver disease: a clinical study with a new Tc-99m-labeled hepatobiliary agent  

SciTech Connect

Tc-99m-sulfur colloid scintigrams were abnormal in four patients with hepatic dysfunction due to chronic alcohol abuse. Minimal uptake of radiocolloid in the liver suggested local reticuloendothelial (RE) cell failure. Imaging with a new hepatobiliary agent, Tc-99m-PIPIDA, revealed rapid hepatic accumulation and excretion of radiotracer with adequate visualization of the organ. Scintigraphic findings in these patients indicated a dissociation of hepatocyte and RE cell functions. Demonstration of adequate hepatocyte function with severe RE failure in alcoholic liver disease using a Tc-99m-labeled hepatobiliary agent has not been previously reported.

Rao, B.K.; Weir, G.J. Jr.; Lieberman, L.M.

1981-07-01

245

First Definition of Reference Intervals of Liver Function Tests in China: A Large-Population-Based Multi-Center Study about Healthy Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Reference intervals of Liver function tests are very important for the screening, diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of liver diseases. We aim to establish common reference intervals of liver function tests specifically for the Chinese adult population. Methods A total of 3210 individuals (20–79 years) were enrolled in six representative geographical regions in China. Analytes of ALT, AST, GGT, ALP, total protein, albumin and total bilirubin were measured using three analytical systems mainly used in China. The newly established reference intervals were based on the results of traceability or multiple systems, and then validated in 21 large hospitals located nationwide qualified by the National External Quality Assessment (EQA) of China. Results We had been established reference intervals of the seven liver function tests for the Chinese adult population and found there were apparent variances of reference values for the variables for partitioning analysis such as gender(ALT, GGT, total bilirubin), age(ALP, albumin) and region(total protein). More than 86% of the 21 laboratories passed the validation in all subgroup of reference intervals and overall about 95.3% to 98.8% of the 1220 validation results fell within the range of the new reference interval for all liver function tests. In comparison with the currently recommended reference intervals in China, the single side observed proportions of out of range of reference values from our study for most of the tests deviated significantly from the nominal 2.5% such as total bilirubin (15.2%), ALP (0.2%), albumin (0.0%). Most of reference intervals in our study were obviously different from that of other races. Conclusion These used reference intervals are no longer applicable for the current Chinese population. We have established common reference intervals of liver function tests that are defined specifically for Chinese population and can be universally used among EQA-approved laboratories located all over China. PMID:24058449

Zhang, Chuanbao; Guo, Wei; Huang, Hengjian; Ma, Yueyun; Zhuang, Junhua; Zhang, Jie

2013-01-01

246

Abnormal fecal microbiota community and functions in patients with hepatitis B liver cirrhosis as revealed by a metagenomic approach  

PubMed Central

Background Assessment and characterization of human colon microbiota is now a major research area in human diseases, including in patients with hepatitis B liver cirrhosis (HBLC). Methods We recruited 120 patients with HBLC and 120 healthy controls. The fecal microbial community and functions in the two groups were analyzed using high-throughput Solexa sequencing of the complete metagenomic DNA and bioinformatics methods. Results Community and metabolism-wide changes of the fecal microbiota in 20 HBLC patients and 20 healthy controls were observed and compared. A negative correlation was observed between the Child-Turcotte-Pugh scores and Bacteroidetes (P?liver cirrhosis microbiota samples from normal ones. The functional diversity was significantly reduced in the fecal microbiota of cirrhotic patients compared with in the controls. At the module or pathway levels, the fecal microbiota of the HBLC patients showed enrichment in the metabolism of glutathione, gluconeogenesis, branched-chain amino acid, nitrogen, and lipid (P?

2013-01-01

247

Expression of an L-alanine dehydrogenase gene in Zymomonas mobilis and excretion of L-alanine  

SciTech Connect

Gene alaD for L-alanine dehydrogenase from Bacillus sphaericus was cloned and introduced into Z. mobilis. Under the control of the strong promoter of the pyruvate decarboxylase (pdc) gene, the enzyme was expressed up to a specific activity of nearly 1 {mu}mol {center dot} min{sup {minus}1} {center dot} mg of protein{sup {minus}1} in recombinant cells. As a result of this high L-alanine dehydrogenase activity, growing cells excreted up to 10 mmol of alanine per 280 mmol of glucose utilized into a mineral salts medium. By the addition of 85 mM NH{sub 4}{sup +} to the medium, growth of the recombinant cells stopped, and up to 41 mmol of alanine was secreted. As alanine dehydrogenase competed with pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) for the same substrate (pyruvate), PDC activity was reduced by starvation for the essential PDC cofactor thiamine PP{sub i}. A thiamine auxotrophy mutant of Z. mobilis which carried the alaD gene was starved for 40 h in glucose-supplemented mineral salts medium and then shifted to mineral salts medium with 85 mM NH {sub 4}{sup +} and 280 mmol of glucose. The recombinants excreted up to 84 mmol of alanine over 25 h. Alanine excretion proceeded at an initial velocity of 238 nmol {center dot} min{sup {minus}1} {center dot} mg(dry weight){sup {minus}1}. Despite this high activity, the excretion rate seemed to be a limiting factor, as the intracellular concentration of alanine was as high as 260 mM at the beginning of the excretion phase and decreased to 80 to 90 mM over 24 h.

Uhlenbusch, I.; Sahm, H.; Sprenger, G.A. (Inst. fur Biotechnologie 1, Julich (Germany))

1991-05-01

248

Rapid Crystallization of L-Alanine on Engineered Surfaces using Metal-Assisted and Microwave-Accelerated Evaporative Crystallization.  

PubMed

This study demonstrates the application of metal-assisted and microwave-accelerated evaporative crystallization (MA-MAEC) technique to rapid crystallization of L-alanine on surface engineered silver nanostructures. In this regard, silver island films (SIFs) were modified with hexamethylenediamine (HMA), 1-undecanethiol (UDET), and 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUDA), which introduced -NH(2), -CH(3) and -COOH functional groups to SIFs, respectively. L-Alanine was crystallized on these engineered surfaces and blank SIFs at room temperature and using MA-MAEC technique. Significant improvements in crystal size, shape, and quality were observed on HMA-, MUDA- and UDET-modified SIFs at room temperature (crystallization time = 144, 40 and 147 min, respectively) as compared to those crystals grown on blank SIFs. Using the MA-MAEC technique, the crystallization time of L-alanine on engineered surfaces were reduced to 17 sec for microwave power level 10 (i.e., duty cycle 100%) and 7 min for microwave power level 1 (duty cycle 10%). Raman spectroscopy and powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements showed that L-Alanine crystals grown on engineered surfaces using MA-MAEC technique had identical characteristic peaks of L-alanine crystals grown using traditional evaporative crystallization. PMID:22267957

Alabanza, Anginelle M; Pozharski, Edwin; Aslan, Kadir

2012-01-01

249

Guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor activity of the triple GoLoco motif protein G18: alanine-to-aspartate mutation restores function to an inactive second GoLoco motif.  

PubMed Central

GoLoco ('Galpha(i/o)-Loco' interaction) motif proteins have recently been identified as novel GDIs (guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors) for heterotrimeric G-protein alpha subunits. G18 is a member of the mammalian GoLoco-motif gene family and was uncovered by analyses of human and mouse genomes for anonymous open-reading frames. The encoded G18 polypeptide is predicted to contain three 19-amino-acid GoLoco motifs, which have been shown in other proteins to bind Galpha subunits and inhibit spontaneous nucleotide release. However, the G18 protein has thus far not been characterized biochemically. Here, we have cloned and expressed the G18 protein and assessed its ability to act as a GDI. G18 is capable of simultaneously binding more than one Galpha(i1) subunit. In binding assays with the non-hydrolysable GTP analogue guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate, G18 exhibits GDI activity, slowing the exchange of GDP for GTP by Galpha(i1). Only the first and third GoLoco motifs within G18 are capable of interacting with Galpha subunits, and these bind with low micromolar affinity only to Galpha(i1) in the GDP-bound form, and not to Galpha(o), Galpha(q), Galpha(s) or Galpha12. Mutation of Ala-121 to aspartate in the inactive second GoLoco motif of G18, to restore the signature acidic-glutamine-arginine tripeptide that forms critical contacts with Galpha and its bound nucleotide [Kimple, Kimple, Betts, Sondek and Siderovski (2002) Nature (London) 416, 878-881], results in gain-of-function with respect to Galpha binding and GDI activity. PMID:14656218

Kimple, Randall J; Willard, Francis S; Hains, Melinda D; Jones, Miller B; Nweke, Gift K; Siderovski, David P

2004-01-01

250

Energy landscapes and global thermodynamics for alanine peptides.  

PubMed

We compare different approaches for computing the thermodynamics of biomolecular systems. Techniques based on parallel replicas evolving via molecular dynamics or Monte Carlo simulations produce overlapping histograms for the densities of states. In contrast, energy landscape methods employ a superposition partition function constructed from local minima of the potential energy surface. The latter approach is particularly powerful for systems exhibiting broken ergodicity, and it is usually implemented using a harmonic normal mode approximation, which has not been extensively tested for biomolecules. The present contribution compares these alternative approaches for small alanine peptides modelled using the CHARMM and AMBER force fields. Densities of states produced from canonical sampling using multiple temperature replicas provide accurate reference data to evaluate the effect of the harmonic normal mode approximation in the superposition calculations. This benchmarking lays foundations for the application of energy landscape methods to larger biomolecules. It will also provide well characterised model systems for developing enhanced sampling methods, and for the treatment of anharmonicity corresponding to individual local minima. PMID:24089721

Somani, Sandeep; Wales, David J

2013-09-28

251

Efficient in vitro refolding and functional characterization of recombinant human liver carboxylesterase (CES1) expressed in E. coli.  

PubMed

Human liver carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) plays a critical role in the hydrolysis of various ester- and amide-containing molecules, including active metabolites, drugs and prodrugs. However, it has been problematic to express recombinant CES1 in bacterial expression systems due to low solubility, with the CES1 protein being mainly expressed in inclusion bodies, accompanied by insufficient purity issues. In this study, we report an efficient in vitro method for refolding recombinant CES1 from inclusion bodies. A one-step purification with an immobilized-metal affinity column was utilized to purify His-tagged recombinant CES1. Conveniently, both denaturant and imidazole can be removed while the enzyme is refolded via buffer exchange, a dilution method. We show that the refolding of recombinant CES1 was successful in Tris-HCl at pH 7.5 containing a combination of 1% glycerol and 2 mM ?-mercaptoethanol, whereas a mixture of other additives (trehalose, sorbitol and sucrose) and ?-mercaptoethanol failed to recover a functional protein. His-tagged recombinant CES1 retains its biological activity after refolding and can be used directly without removing the fusion tag. Altogether, our results provide an alternative method for obtaining a substantial amount of functionally active protein, which is advantageous for further investigations such as structural and functional studies. PMID:25462813

Boonyuen, Usa; Promnares, Kamoltip; Junkree, Suwapat; Day, Nichloas P J; Imwong, Mallika

2015-03-01

252

Liver biopsy  

MedlinePLUS

Biopsy - liver; Percutaneous biopsy ... the biopsy needle to be inserted into the liver. This is often done by using ultrasound. The ... the chance of damage to the lung or liver. The needle is removed quickly. Pressure will be ...

253

Liver Biopsy  

MedlinePLUS

... 525 KB) Spanish Version Alternate Language URL Español Liver Biopsy Page Content DUE TO UNFORESEEN CIRCUMSTANCES, PUBLICATION ... Research For More Information Acknowledgments What is a liver biopsy? A liver biopsy is a procedure that ...

254

Deletion of Smad2 in Mouse Liver Reveals Novel Functions in Hepatocyte Growth and Differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smad family proteins Smad2 and Smad3 are activated by transforming growth factor (TGF-)\\/activin\\/ nodal receptors and mediate transcriptional regulation. Although differential functional roles of Smad2 and Smad3 are apparent in mammalian development, the relative functional roles of Smad2 and Smad3 in postnatal systems remain unclear. We used Cre\\/loxP-mediated gene targeting for hepatocyte-specific deletion of Smad2 (S2HeKO) in adult mice and

Wenjun Ju; Atsushi Ogawa; Joerg Heyer; Dirk Nierhof; Liping Yu; Raju Kucherlapati; David A. Shafritz; Erwin P. Bottinger

2006-01-01

255

Diethylnitrosamine causes pituitary damage, disturbs hormone levels, and reduces sexual dimorphism of certain liver functions in the rat.  

PubMed Central

The acute toxicity of diethylnitrosamine (DEN) to the liver has been well documented in the literature, but whether DEN also affects the endocrine parameters has been addressed in only a few studies. We thus investigated the effects of DEN on pituitary, serum hormone levels, and certain sex-differentiated liver enzymes in this study. Adult male Wister rats were intraperitoneally injected with DEN at a single dose of 200 mg/kg and were sacrificed at 1, 3, 7, and 35 days after injection; DEN-treated females were included as controls at days 7 and 35. Electron microscopic observation showed that during the first week after injection, all types of granular cells of the anterior pituitary in male animals exhibited cellular damage, including disrupted organelles and cellular structure, as well as pyknotic or lytic nuclei. Many undamaged secretory cells exhibited dilated endoplasmic reticula, hypertrophic Golgi complexes, and peripheral location of secretory granules, which usually are morphologic features of increased cellular activities. In male rats, the serum level of total testosterone decreased and the corticosterone increased 1 day after DEN treatment. The serum level of growth hormone (GH) decreased and the prolactin level increased on day 3. The hepatic expression of the male-specific cytochrome P450 2C11 (CYP2C11) decreased to 1-5% of the normal levels during the first week and was still 50% lower than the normal level on day 35, whereas the female-specific CYP2C12 expression increased only slightly. Activities of the male predominant 16alpha, 16beta, and 6beta hydroxylation of androstenedione by microsome decreased in an in vitro assay, whereas the non-sex-differentiated 7alpha hydroxylation and the female-predominant 5alpha reduction of androstenedione were unaffected. In female rats, decreased serum GH level was observed on day 7. The CYP2C12 expression in females was decreased to about 1% and 80% of the normal levels on day 7 and day 35, respectively, but the CYP2C11 expression was unchanged. These data suggest that in male rats, DEN treatment may cause pituitary damage, disturb serum hormone levels, and induce long-lasting reduction of sexual dimorphism in certain liver functions. PMID:11673124

Liao, D J; Blanck, A; Eneroth, P; Gustafsson, J A; Hällström, I P

2001-01-01

256

Effects of the venom and the dermonecrotic toxin LiRecDT1 of Loxosceles intermedia in the rat liver.  

PubMed

Brown spider bites cause dermonecrotic lesions and systemic manifestations known as loxoscelism. The Loxosceles intermedia venom contains many active proteins, as phospholipase D. There are reports of increased levels of hepatic transaminases in humans with loxoscelism, but detailed studies about the action of the Loxosceles intermedia venom on the liver functions are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the venom and the dermonecrotic recombinant toxin 1 (LiRecDT1) in the liver of Wistar rats injected subcutaneously with venom (80 microg) or toxin (80 microg). After 6 and 12h the liver immunofluorescence was positive for venom and toxin. Hepatocytes from the venom group were tumefacted and apoptotic. There was leucocyte infiltration in the portal region combined with a high degree of steatosis in 12h. In the toxin group the histological alterations were less severe. Plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl-transferase were significantly elevated only in the venom group in 6h. Hepatic metabolism was modified: the venom, but not LiRecDT1, reduced gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis from alanine and glycogen accumulation. These results show that the venom is hepatotoxic and that the dermonecrotic toxin is only partly responsible. PMID:18765244

de Oliveira Christoff, Adriana; de Oliveira, Anabel; Chaim, Olga Meiri; Lugarini, Daiana; Bastos Pereira, Amanda Leite; Paludo, Katia Sabrina; Queiroz Telles, José Ederaldo; Bracht, Adelar; Veiga, Silvio Sanches; Acco, Alexandra

2008-11-01

257

Change in Growth Performance and Liver Function Enzymes of Broiler Chickens Challenged with Infectious Bursal Disease Virus to Dietary Supplementation of Methionine and Threonine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: The aim of this study was to verify the effects of methionine and threonine supplementations higher than the NRC recommendation on growth performance, liver function enzymes, blood parameters and immune tissues of broiler chickens challenged with infectious bursal disease. Approach: A total of 450 day-old male broiler chicks were as signed to nine groups. Chickens were fed by

Elham Maroufyan; Azhar Kasim; Seyed Reza Hashemi

2010-01-01

258

Testing the validity of a receptor kinetic model via TcNGA functional imaging of liver transplant recipients. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The author had accomplished the expertise for I-125-HSA plasma volume, galactose clearance for determination of hepatic plasma flow as well as finalizing the kinetic model. They have just completed modifying the microscale Scatchard assay for greater precision of receptor measurement using only 5--10 mg of liver tissue. In addition, he determined during the past year that the most practical method and clinically reasonable measurement of liver volume was to measure the transplanted liver in vivo using Tc-NGA images in the anterior, posterior, and right lateral projections, using the method of Rollo and DeLand. Direct measurement of liver weight obtained during transplant operation was not reliable due to variability of fluid retention in the donor liver secondary to ischemia, preservation fluid, etc., which thereby did not reflect an accurate liver weight which is needed in the kinetic analysis comparison, i.e., V{sub h} (hepatic plasma volume).

Stadalnik, R.C.

1993-03-25

259

Upper Limits of Normal for Serum Alanine Aminotransferase Levels in Chinese Han Population  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity is the most common tool for the assessment of liver diseases. However, it is not clear whether the current normal ALT range really discriminate patients with or without liver diseases. The present study was to establish a new normal range of ALT and examine its ability to identify patients with hepatitis B or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Chinese Han population. Methods 53037 adults were included in this study from January 1st 2008 to August 31st 2010. The 95th percentile of ALT in population with relative low risk factors for liver diseases was set as the new upper limits of normal ALT in gender-specific manner. Results The 95th percentile levels at low risk factors for liver diseases were achieved at 35 U/L for men and 23 U/L for women. The concordance statistics for detection were 0.873 (95%CI: 0.865–0.881) for HBV and 0.932 (95%CI: 0.927–0.937) for NAFLD in men while 0.857 (95%CI: 0.850–0.864) for HBV and 0.909 (95%CI: 0.903–0.915) for NAFLD in women. The median sensitivity of the current used ALT upper limit (40 U/L) was 6.6% for HBV and 29.7% for NAFLD and median specificity was 98.7% for men and 99.4% for women. Using our new-derived thresholds, the sensitivities ranged from 35.3% to 61.1% and the specificities were 94.8% for men and 94.6% for women. Conclusions Our results suggest that upper limits of ALT 35 U/L for men and 23 U/L for women in Chinese Han population. Re-consideration of normal limits of ALT should be recommended. Trial Registration ChiCTR.org ChiCTR-OCS-11001173 PMID:22962588

Zheng, Ming-Hua; Shi, Ke-Qing; Fan, Yu-Chen; Liu, Wen-Yue; Lin, Xian-Feng; Li, Ling-Fei; Chen, Yong-Ping

2012-01-01

260

Alanine and aspartate aminotransferase and glutamine-cycling pathway: their roles in pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome.  

PubMed

Although new research technologies are constantly used to look either for genes or biomarkers in the prediction of metabolic syndrome (MS), the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of this complex disease remains a major challenge. Interestingly, Cheng et al recently investigated possible pathways underlying MS by high-throughput metabolite profiling in two large and well characterized community-based cohorts. The authors explored by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry the plasma concentrations of 45 distinct metabolites and examined their relation to cardiometabolic risk, and observed that metabolic risk factors such as obesity, insulin resistance (IR), high blood pressure, and dyslipidemia were associated with several metabolites, including branched-chain amino acids, other hydrophobic amino acids, tryptophan breakdown products, and nucleotide metabolites. In addition, the authors found a significant association of IR traits with glutamine, glutamate and the glutamine-to-glutamate ratio. These data provide new insight into the pathogenesis of MS-associated phenotypes and introduce a crucial role of glutamine-cycling pathway as prominently involved in the development of metabolic risk. We consider that the hypothesis about the role of abnormal glutamate metabolism in the pathogenesis of the MS is certainly challenging and suggests the critical role of the liver in the global metabolic modulation as glutamate metabolism is linked with aminotransferase reactions. We discuss here the critical role of the "liver metabolism" in the pathogenesis of the MS and IR, and postulate that before fatty liver develops, abnormal levels of liver enzymes, such as alanine and aspartate aminotransferases might reflect high levels of hepatic transamination of amino acids in the liver. PMID:22876026

Sookoian, Silvia; Pirola, Carlos J

2012-08-01

261

Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? ligand, prevents abnormal liver function induced by a fasting–refeeding process  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •A fasting–refeeding high fat diet (HDF) model mimics irregular eating habit. •A fasting–refeeding HFD induces liver ballooning injury. •A fasting–refeeding HDF process elicits hepatic triglyceride accumulation. •Fenofibrate, PPAR? ligand, prevents liver damage induced by refeeding HFD. -- Abstract: Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) agonist, is an anti-hyperlipidemic agent that has been widely used in the treatment of dyslipidemia. In this study, we examined the effect of fenofibrate on liver damage caused by refeeding a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice after 24 h fasting. Here, we showed that refeeding HFD after fasting causes liver damage in mice determined by liver morphology and liver cell death. A detailed analysis revealed that hepatic lipid droplet formation is enhanced and triglyceride levels in liver are increased by refeeding HFD after starvation for 24 h. Also, NF-?B is activated and consequently induces the expression of TNF-?, IL1-?, COX-2, and NOS2. However, treating with fenofibrate attenuates the liver damage and triglyceride accumulation caused by the fasting–refeeding HFD process. Fenofibrate reduces the expression of NF-?B target genes but induces genes for peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, peroxisome biogenesis and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. These results strongly suggest that the treatment of fenofibrate ameliorates the liver damage induced by fasting–refeeding HFD, possibly through the activation of fatty acid oxidation.

Lee, Joon No; Dutta, Raghbendra Kumar; Kim, Seul-Gi; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Se-Jin; Choe, Seong-Kyu [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)] [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Kyeong-Won [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of) [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Immune-network Pioneer Research Center, Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Song, Seung Ryel [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)] [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Do-Sim [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of) [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Department of Laboratory of Medicine, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); So, Hong-Seob [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)] [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Raekil, E-mail: rkpark@wku.ac.kr [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)] [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

2013-12-06

262

Effect of garlic-derived organosulfur compounds on mitochondrial function and integrity in isolated mouse liver mitochondria  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this work were to evaluate the direct effects of diallysulfide (DAS) and diallyldisulfide (DADS), two major organosulfur compounds of garlic oil, on mitochondrial function and integrity, by using isolated mouse liver mitochondria in a cell-free system. DADS produced concentration-dependent mitochondrial swelling over the range 125–1000 ?M, while DAS was ineffective. Swelling experiments performed with de-energized or energized mitochondria showed similar maximal swelling amplitudes. Cyclosporin A (1 ?M), or ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N?,N?-tetraacetic acid (EGTA, 1 mM) were ineffective in inhibiting DADS-induced mitochondrial swelling. DADS produced a minor (12%) decrease in mitochondrial membrane protein thiols, but did not induce clustering of mitochondrial membrane proteins. Incubation of mitochondria with DADS (but not DAS) produced an increase in the oxidation rate of 2?,7? dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA), together with depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) and increased lipid peroxidation. DADS (but not DAS) produced a concentration-dependent dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential, but did not induce cytochrome c release. DADS-dependent effects, including mitochondrial swelling, DCFH-DA oxidation, lipid peroxidation and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, were inhibited by antioxidants and iron chelators. These results suggest that DADS causes direct impairment of mitochondrial function as the result of oxidation of the membrane lipid phase initiated by the GSH- and iron-dependent generation of oxidants. PMID:22960305

Caro, Andres A.; Adlong, Luke W.; Crocker, Samuel J.; Gardner, Michael W.; Luikart, Emily F.; Gron, Liz U.

2012-01-01

263

Low-dose splenic radiation inhibits liver tumor development of rats through functional changes in CD4(+)CD25(+)Treg cells.  

PubMed

The increased number of CD4(+)CD25(+)Treg cells in tumor local and peripheral splenic tissues is related to the low immune function as well as to tumor recurrence and metastasis. Our pre-clinical studies showed that low-dose radiation (LDR) of the spleen in liver cancer patients significantly improves immune functions. However, the molecular mechanisms of such radiation remained ill defined. This study explores the role of CD4(+)CD25(+)Treg cells in radiation-induced immunomodulatory effects. Using the diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced rat liver tumor model and in vitro cell experiments, the percentage of CD4(+)CD25(+)Treg/CD4(+) cells in the blood and the expressions of Foxp3(+), IL-10, TGF-?, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4(CTLA-4) in spleen and liver tumors significantly decreased after LDR of the spleen in rats with liver cancer. The tumors became smaller than those in the non-radiated group, with both showing a parallel relation. Flow cytometry and MTT results revealed that LDR failed to inhibit CD4(+)CD25(+)Treg cell proliferation. Conversely, apoptosis was reduced and proliferation was stimulated. This process also changed CTLA-4 molecule expression on the surfaces of CD4(+)CD25(+)Treg cells and reduced their inhibitory function against CD4(+)CD25(-)T cell proliferation, and the suppression function of CD4(+)CD25(+)Treg cells was further weakened with the introduction of the CTLA-4 inhibitor. Findings demonstrate that the reduction of CTLA-4 expression on the CD4(+)CD25(+)Treg cell surface and the further inhibition of cell function may be considered as important regulators of LDR-induced immunomodulatory effects. This study provides experimental evidence to elucidate the immune enhancement induced by this process and presents a novel method for liver cancer immunotherapy. PMID:25168696

Wang, Baofeng; Li, Baohua; Dai, Zhijun; Ren, Song; Bai, Minghua; Wang, Zhongwei; Li, Zongfang; Lin, Shuai; Wang, Zhidong; Huang, Na; Yang, Pengtao; Liu, Mengjie; Min, Weili; Ma, Hongbing

2014-10-01

264

Melatonin protects liver from intestine ischemia reperfusion injury in rats  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the protective effect of melatonin on liver after intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. METHODS: One hundred and fifty male Wistar rats, weighing 190-210 g, aged 7 wk, were randomly divided into melatonin exposure group, alcohol solvent control group and normal saline control group. Rats in the melatonin exposure group received intraperitoneal (IP) melatonin (20 mg/kg) 30 min before intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (IR), rats in the alcohol solvent control group received the same concentration and volume of alcohol, and rats in the normal saline control group received the same volume of normal saline. Serum samples were collected from each group 0.5, 1, 6, 12, and 24 h after intestinal IR. Levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured with an auto-biochemical analyzer. Serum TNF-? was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver was detected by colorimetric assay. Pathological changes in liver and immunohistochemical straining of ICAM-1 were observed under an optical microscope. RESULTS: The levels of ALT measured at various time points after intestinal IR in the melatonin exposure group were significantly lower than those in the other two control groups (P < 0.05). The serum AST levels 12 and 24 h after intestinal IR and the ICAM-1 levels (%) 6, 12 and 24 h after intestinal IR in the melatonin exposure group were also significantly lower than those in the other two control groups (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Exotic melatonin can inhibit the activity of ALT, AST and TNF-?, decrease the accumulation of MDA, and depress the expression of ICAM-1 in liver after intestinal IR injury, thus improving the liver function. PMID:19109875

Li, Jian-Yi; Yin, Hong-Zhuan; Gu, Xi; Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Wen-Hai; Qin, Yi-Min

2008-01-01

265

On the existence of "L-threonine formate", "L-alanine lithium chloride" and "bis L-alanine lithium chloride" crystals.  

PubMed

We argue that the recently reported crystals "L-threonine formate" as well as "L-alanine lithium chloride" and "bis L-alanine lithium chloride" actually are the well-known crystals L-threonine and L-alanine, respectively. PMID:23384774

Petrosyan, A M; Ghazaryan, V V; Fleck, M

2013-03-15

266

Continued influence of preoperative renal function on outcome of orthotopic liver transplant (OLTX) in the US: where will MELD lead us?  

PubMed

Renal function is a component of the Model for End Stage Liver Disease (MELD), We queried the 1999-2004 OPTN/UNOS database to determine whether preoperative renal function remained an important determinant of survival in primary deceased donor liver transplant alone patients (DDLTA) or primary combined kidney liver transplant patients (KLTX). We examined preoperative creatinine, renal replacement therapy (RRT), incidence of KLTX, and patient survival in the 34 months before and after introduction of MELD and performed a multivariate Cox regression analysis of time to death. Preoperative renal function is an independent predictor of survival in DDLTA but not in KLTX. When compared to DDLTA with a preoperative serum creatinine of 0-0.99 mg/dL, patients with serum creatinine from 1-1.99 mg/dL, >2.0 mg/dL, those requiring RRT, and those receiving KLTX had a relative risk of death following transplant of 1.11, 1.58, 1.77, and 1.44 respectively. KLTX requiring RRT had better survival than DDLTA requiring RRT. Since introduction of MELD, KLTX, preoperative creatinine, and number of patients requiring preoperative RRT have increased. Despite this, patient survival following orthotopic liver transplant (OLTX) in the 34 months after introduction of MELD is not different than prior to introduction of MELD. PMID:16939515

Gonwa, T A; McBride, M A; Anderson, K; Mai, M L; Wadei, H; Ahsan, N

2006-11-01

267

Exogenous Alanine and/or Glucose plus Kanamycin Kills Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria.  

PubMed

Multidrug-resistant bacteria are an increasingly serious threat to human and animal health. However, novel drugs that can manage infections by multidrug-resistant bacteria have proved elusive. Here we show that glucose and alanine abundances are greatly suppressed in kanamycin-resistant Edwardsiella tarda by GC-MS-based metabolomics. Exogenous alanine or glucose restores susceptibility of multidrug-resistant E. tarda to killing by kanamycin, demonstrating an approach to killing multidrug-resistant bacteria. The mechanism underlying this approach is that exogenous glucose or alanine promotes the TCA cycle by substrate activation, which in turn increases production of NADH and proton motive force and stimulates uptake of antibiotic. Similar results are obtained with other Gram-negative bacteria (Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram-positive bacterium (Staphylococcus aureus), and the results are also reproduced in a mouse model for urinary tract infection. This study establishes a functional metabolomics-based strategy to manage infection by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. PMID:25651179

Peng, Bo; Su, Yu-Bin; Li, Hui; Han, Yi; Guo, Chang; Tian, Yao-Mei; Peng, Xuan-Xian

2015-02-01

268

Structural, spectral, thermal, dielectric, mechanical and optical properties of urea L-alanine acetate single crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new organic nonlinear optical crystal, urea L-alanine acetate (ULAA) has been grown by solution growth using slow cooling technique with the vision to improve the properties of the L-alanine crystals. Urea and L-alanine material were mixed in the molar ratio 1:4. Solubility and metastable zone width were determined. Single crystal XRD analyses revealed that the crystal lattice of ULAA is orthorhombic system, primitive lattice with cell parameters a=5.7971 Å, b=6.0391 Å, c=12.3276 Å with space group P2 12 12 1 (D 24). High-resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD) analysis was carried out to study their crystalline perfection. FTIR spectrum was recorded to identify the presence of functional groups and molecular structure was confirmed by 1H NMR spectrum. From the mass spectrum, the ratio of compound formation of ULAA was analyzed. Thermal strength of the grown crystal has been studied using thermo-gravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Dielectric measurements reveal that the grown crystals have very low dielectric loss. The mechanical behavior was studied by Vickers microhardness test. The grown crystals were found to be transparent in the entire visible region. Preliminary measurement using Kurtz powder technique with Nd-YAG laser light of wavelength 1064 nm indicates that their second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency is roughly equal to that of pure KDP.

Jaikumar, D.; Kalainathan, S.; Bhagavannarayana, G.

2010-05-01

269

A case of moderate liver enzyme elevation after acute acetaminophen overdose despite undetectable acetaminophen level and normal initial liver enzymes.  

PubMed

Liver function test (LFT) increase is an early sign of acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity. Typically, when an acute overdose patient is evaluated and has an initial undetectable APAP level and normal liver enzymes, the patient is not treated with N-acetylcysteine, and liver enzymes are not expected to increase later. We report a case of moderate LFT increase despite normal LFTs and an undetectable APAP level after delayed presentation of an APAP ingestion. A 22-year-old male with no medical history ingested 15-25 hydrocodone/APAP tablets (5 mg/500 mg). His suicide note and his bunkmate corroborated the overdose time. He arrived at the emergency department 16 hours after ingestion. At that time, his APAP level was <10 ?g/mL, and his liver enzymes were normal [aspartate transaminase (AST) 31 U/L and alanine transaminase (ALT) 34 U/L]. Twenty-nine hours after ingestion, the psychiatry team obtained LFTs (AST 45, ALT 61). He had persistent nausea and diffuse abdominal pain. On repeat analysis, the APAP level at 36 hours was found to be <10 ?g/mL, AST 150, and ALT 204. After 2 more days of increasing LFTs and persistent abdominal pain and nausea, the toxicology department was consulted, the patient was transferred to the medicine department, and intravenous N-acetylcysteine was started 66 hours after ingestion. He was treated for 16 hours and had a significant decline in LFTs and symptom resolution. His prothrombin time, bilirubin, lactate, creatinine, and mental status were normal throughout the admission. Other cases of LFT increase were excluded. Our case report illustrates that a moderate increase in liver transaminase may occur despite an initial undetectable APAP level and normal transaminases after a delayed presentation. In our case, no serious clinical effects were reported. PMID:23011168

Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Shiner, Drew C; Varney, Shawn M

2014-01-01

270

Liver Biopsy  

MedlinePLUS

A liver biopsy is a medical procedure performed in order to obtain a small sample of the liver. This is accomplished with a special needle, and ... small scar. The most common reasons for a liver biopsy include the evaluation of: ? Jaundice ? Liver inflammation ( ...

271

Nucleation kinetics, growth and studies of ?-alanine single crystals.  

PubMed

Solubility and metastable zone width for the re-crystallized salt of ?-alanine was determined. Induction period measurement for the selected supersaturation ratios at room temperature (31 °C) was carried out for supersaturated aqueous solutions of ?-alanine and it is noticed that induction period decreases with increase of supersaturation ratio. The nucleation parameters such as Gibbs free energy change, radius and number of molecules of the critical nucleus, interfacial tension and the nucleation rate have been evaluated by classical nucleation theory. Single crystals of ?-alanine were grown using the optimized nucleation parameters by solution method and grown crystals have been subjected to various studies like XRD studies, FTIR, optical, thermal and SHG studies. PMID:23548638

Shanthi, D; Selvarajan, P; HemaDurga, K K; Lincy Mary Ponmani, S

2013-06-01

272

Thyroid hormone receptors mutated in liver cancer function as distorted antimorphs  

PubMed Central

Aberrant thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are found in over 70% of the human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) analysed. To better understand the role(s) of these TR mutants in this neoplasia, we analysed a panel of HCC mutant receptors for their molecular properties. Virtually all HCC-associated TR mutants tested retained the ability to repress target genes in the absence of T3, yet were impaired in T3-driven gene activation and functioned as dominant-negative inhibitors of wild-type TR activity. Intriguingly, the HCC TR?1 mutants exerted dominant-negative interference at all T3 concentrations tested, whereas the HCC TR?1 mutants were dominant-negatives only at low and intermediate T3 concentrations, reverting to transcriptional activators at higher hormone levels. The relative affinity for the SMRT versus N-CoR corepressors was detectably altered for several of the HCC mutant TRs, suggesting changes in corepressor preference and recruitment compared to wild type. Several of the TR? HCC mutations also altered the DNA recognition properties of the encoded receptors, indicating that these HCC TR mutants may regulate a distinct set of target genes from those regulated by wild-type TRs. Finally, whereas wild-type TRs interfere with c-Jun/AP-1 function in a T3-dependent fashion and suppress anchorage-independent growth when ectopically expressed in HepG2 cells, at least certain of the HCC mutants did not exert these inhibitory properties. These alterations in transcriptional regulation and DNA recognition appear likely to contribute to oncogenesis by reprogramming the differentiation and proliferative properties of the hepatocytes in which the mutant TRs are expressed. PMID:16434963

Chan, IH; Privalsky, ML

2009-01-01

273

Transferrin-targeted magnetic/fluorescence micelles as a specific bi-functional nanoprobe for imaging liver tumor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to delineate the location of the tumor both before and during operation, we developed targeted bi-functional polymeric micelles for magnetic resonance (MR) and fluorescence imaging in liver tumors. Hydrophobic superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) were loaded into the polymeric micelles through self-assembly of an amphiphilic block copolymer poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(?-caprolactone). After, transferrin (Tf) and near-infrared fluorescence molecule Cy5.5 were conjugated onto the surface of the polymeric micelles to obtain the nanosized probe SPIO@PEG- b-PCL-Tf/Cy5.5 (SPPTC). Imaging capabilities of this nanoprobe were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. The accumulation of SPPTC in HepG2 cells increased over SPIO@PEG- b-PCL-Cy5.5 (SPPC) by confocal microscopy. The targeted nanoprobe SPPTC possessed favorable properties on the MR and fluorescence imaging both in vitro and in vivo. The MTT results showed that the nanoprobes were well tolerated. SPPTC had the potential for pre-operation evaluation and intra-operation navigation of tumors in clinic.

Qi, Hui; Li, Zhengzheng; Du, Kai; Mu, Ketao; Zhou, Qing; Liang, Shuyan; Zhu, Wenzhen; Yang, Xiangliang; Zhu, Yanhong

2014-10-01

274

Postoperative Assessment of Hepatic Asialoglycoprotein Receptor Function with Tc-99m GSA: The Safety Margin of Resection Size in Living Donor Liver Transplantation.  

PubMed

Background Living liver donation is associated with size-dependent complications. The resectable size and its safety margin should be defined for the safety of donors. The purpose of the present study was to determine if the current partial hepatectomies are done under the safety margin of the resectable size, by measuring asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) function of donor's remnant liver. Material and Methods Seventy-four living donors (age 35±11 years) underwent Technetium-99m-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-galactosyl-human serum albumin (Tc-99m GSA) scintigraphy at postoperative week 1. We evaluated the scintigraphic results using established parameters of GSA uptake (LHL15) and its clearance from the blood pool (HH15). Based on the literature, we consider HH15 <0.55 to indicate normal ASGPR function, and 0.55£ HH15 <0.65 to indicate mild impairment. In terms of the hepatic uptake, we consider LHL15>0.93 to indicate normal ASGPR function, and 0.87< LHL15 £0.93 to indicate mild impairment. Results The average resected size was 337±170 mL, corresponding to 28±12% of the original donor's whole liver volume. No donors showed 0.65? HH15 or LHL15 <0.87, suggesting moderate or severely impaired ASGPR function. However, larger resection size (35-53%) was positively associated with higher HH15 values (R=0.53, p<0.001). In the range of HH15 (0.35-0.64) among present donors, higher HH15 values did not affect the regeneration volume (R=0.03, p=NS). Conclusions Larger partial resection (?35% of the original liver volume) may impair postsurgical ASGPR function, but smaller resection (<35%) was considered to be under the safety margin of the hepatectomy. Although mildly impaired postsurgical ASGPR function did not indicate poor prognosis, careful attention may be required for donors undergoing larger (³35%) partial resection. PMID:25620580

Kobayashi, Kentaro; Hattori, Naoya; Manabe, Osamu; Hirata, Kenji; Magota, Keiichi; Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Tamaki, Nagara

2015-01-01

275

Circadian clock-dependent and -independent rhythmic proteomes implement distinct diurnal functions in mouse liver  

PubMed Central

Diurnal oscillations of gene expression controlled by the circadian clock underlie rhythmic physiology across most living organisms. Although such rhythms have been extensively studied at the level of transcription and mRNA accumulation, little is known about the accumulation patterns of proteins. Here, we quantified temporal profiles in the murine hepatic proteome under physiological light–dark conditions using stable isotope labeling by amino acids quantitative MS. Our analysis identified over 5,000 proteins, of which several hundred showed robust diurnal oscillations with peak phases enriched in the morning and during the night and related to core hepatic physiological functions. Combined mathematical modeling of temporal protein and mRNA profiles indicated that proteins accumulate with reduced amplitudes and significant delays, consistent with protein half-life data. Moreover, a group comprising about one-half of the rhythmic proteins showed no corresponding rhythmic mRNAs, indicating significant translational or posttranslational diurnal control. Such rhythms were highly enriched in secreted proteins accumulating tightly during the night. Also, these rhythms persisted in clock-deficient animals subjected to rhythmic feeding, suggesting that food-related entrainment signals influence rhythms in circulating plasma factors. PMID:24344304

Mauvoisin, Daniel; Wang, Jingkui; Jouffe, Céline; Martin, Eva; Atger, Florian; Waridel, Patrice; Quadroni, Manfredo; Gachon, Frédéric; Naef, Felix

2014-01-01

276

Evaluation of the immune function assay in pediatric living donor liver transplantation.  

PubMed

The immune function (ImmuKnow) assay is a measure of cell-mediated immunity based on the peripheral CD4+ T cell ATP activity. The efficacy of ImmuKnow in pediatric LDLT is not well documented. The aim of this study was to assess the correlations between the ImmuKnow and the clinical status in pediatric LDLT recipients. A total of 716 blood samples were obtained from 60 pediatric LDLT recipients (one month to 16 yr of age). The recipient's status was classified as follows: stable, infection, or rejection. The ImmuKnow values in the pediatric LDLT recipients with a clinically stable status had a lower immune response (IQR 85-297 ATP ng/mL) than that previously reported in adults. Meanwhile, the ImmuKnow values of the stable patients were not correlated with age. Furthermore, a significant difference was found in the ImmuKnow values between the bacterial or fungal infection and stable groups, but not between the CMV or EBV infection and stable groups. The ImmuKnow levels in the pediatric LDLT were lower than those observed in the adult LDLT. The proposed reference value is between 85 and 297 ATP ng/mL in pediatric LDLT recipients. We conclude that the ImmuKnow assay could be helpful for monitoring pediatric LDLT recipients with bacterial or fungal infections. PMID:25418834

Fukuda, Akinari; Imadome, Ken-Ichi; Sakamoto, Seisuke; Shigeta, Takanobu; Uchida, Hajime; Matsunami, Masatoshi; Sasaki, Kengo; Kanazawa, Hiroyuki; Kawano, Fuyuko; Nakazawa, Atsuko; Fujiwara, Shigeyoshi; Kasahara, Mureo

2015-03-01

277

Gamma aminobutyric acid B and 5-hydroxy tryptamine 2A receptors functional regulation during enhanced liver cell proliferation by GABA and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticles treatment.  

PubMed

Liver is one of the major organs in vertebrates and hepatocytes are damaged by many factors. The liver cell maintenance and multiplication after injury and treatment gained immense interest. The present study investigated the role of Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) coupled with chitosan nanoparticles in the functional regulation of Gamma aminobutyric acid B and 5-hydroxy tryptamine 2A receptors mediated cell signaling mechanisms, extend of DNA methylation and superoxide dismutase activity during enhanced liver cell proliferation. Liver injury was achieved by partial hepatectomy of male Wistar rats and the GABA and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticles treatments were given intraperitoneally. The experimental groups were sham operated control (C), partially hepatectomised rats with no treatment (PHNT), partially hepatectomised rats with GABA chitosan nanoparticle (GCNP), 5-HT chitosan nanoparticle (SCNP) and a combination of GABA and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticle (GSCNP) treatments. In GABA and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticle treated group there was a significant decrease (P<0.001) in the receptor expression of Gamma aminobutyric acid B and a significant increase (P<0.001) in the receptor expression of 5-hydroxy tryptamine 2A when compared to PHNT. The cyclic adenosine monophosphate content and its regulatory protein, presence of methylated DNA and superoxide dismutase activity were decreased in GCNP, SCNP and GSCNP when compared to PHNT. The Gamma aminobutyric acid B and 5-hydroxy tryptamine 2A receptors coupled signaling elements played an important role in GABA and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticles induced liver cell proliferation which has therapeutic significance in liver disease management. PMID:23748019

Shilpa, Joy; Pretty, Mary Abraham; Anitha, Malat; Paulose, Cheramadathikudyil Skaria

2013-09-01

278

Coenzyme Q10 supplementation improves metabolic parameters, liver function and mitochondrial respiration in rats with high doses of atorvastatin and a cholesterol-rich diet  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the actions of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) on rats with a cholesterol-rich diet (HD) and high doses of atorvastatin (ATV, 0.2, 0.56 or 1.42 mg/day). Methods Two experiments were done, the first one without coenzyme Q10 supplementation. On the second experiment all groups received coenzyme Q10 0.57 mg/day as supplement. After a 6-week treatment animals were sacrificed, blood and liver were analyzed and liver mitochondria were isolated and its oxygen consumption was evaluated in state 3 (phosphorylating state) and state 4 (resting state) in order to calculate the respiratory control (RC). Results HD increased serum and hepatic cholesterol levels in rats with or without CoQ10. ATV reduced these values but CoQ10 improved even more serum and liver cholesterol. Triacylglycerols (TAG) were also lower in blood and liver of rats with ATV?+?CoQ10. HDL-C decreased in HD rats. Treatment with ATV maintained HDL-C levels. However, these values were lower in HD?+?CoQ10 compared to control diet (CD)?+?CoQ10. RC was lessened in liver mitochondria of HD. The administration of ATV increased RC. All groups supplemented with CoQ10 showed an increment in RC. In conclusion, the combined administration of ATV and CoQ10 improved biochemical parameters, liver function and mitochondrial respiration in hypercholesterolemic rats. Conclusions Our results suggest a potential beneficial effect of CoQ10 supplementation in hypercholesterolemic rats that also receive atorvastatin. This beneficial effect of CoQ10 must be combined with statin treatment in patient with high levels of cholesterol. PMID:24460631

2014-01-01

279

Effects of Yerba Mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) on vascular endothelial function and liver lipoprotein receptor gene expression in hyperlipidemic rats.  

PubMed

Yerba Mate tea (Mate), an infusion made from the leaves of the tree Ilex paraguariensis, is a widely consumed beverage in South America. This study was performed to investigate the effect of Mate tea on vascular endothelial dysfunction and liver lipoprotein receptor gene expression in hyperlipidemic rats, with the aim of gaining insight into its known lipid-lowering protective mechanisms. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: a normal control group (NC), a high-fat diet group (HC), and three Mate tea-treated groups. In the NC group, rats were fed with standard diet while in the other groups the rats were fed a high-fat diet for 8weeks. In the Mate tea-treated groups, the rats were fed a high-fat diet supplemented with low, moderate or high concentrations of aqueous Mate tea extract for the final 4weeks. Compared to the HC group, aqueous Mate tea extract significantly reduced endothelin (ET) and thromboxane B(2) (TXB(2)) levels and increased nitric oxide (NO) and 6-keto prostaglandin F(1?) (6-keto-PGF(1?)) levels in the blood, reduced the pathological damage of vascular endothelial cells, decreased intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) protein expression in the thoracic aorta, and upregulated mRNA expression of hepatic low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and scavenger receptor B1 (SR-B1). These findings indicate that Mate tea administration might have a regulatory effect on blood fat and endothelial function in hyperlipidemia rats. The mechanism may involve protecting vascular endothelial cell function and upregulating the expression of LDLR and SR-B1 genes, thereby inhibiting the occurrence of atherosclerosis. PMID:23266732

Gao, Hongli; Liu, Zhaochun; Qu, Xiaolan; Zhao, Ying

2013-01-01

280

Cirrhosis-related changes in left ventricular function and correlation with the model for end-stage liver disease score  

PubMed Central

Objective: The purpose of our study is to investigate cirrhosis-related left ventricular remodeling and functional changes, further to analyze the correlations with model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score. Methods: A total of 89 cirrhotic patients were enrolled for study and subgrouped according to MELD score: ? 9, 10-19, and ? 20. Thirty healthy individuals were enrolled as controls. All study participants underwent cardiac assessment of the left ventricle with Doppler echocardiography; the parameters assessed included left ventricular-end systolic diameter (LVESD), left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD), interventricular septal thickness (IVST), left ventricular posterior wall thickness (LVPWT), left atrial diameter (LAD), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), cardiac output (CO), mitral flow velocity (VE/VA ratio), and E-wave deceleration time (DT). Results: The cirrhotic patients had significantly higher LVESD, LVEDD, IVST, LAD, CO and DT than the control group, but significantly lower VE/VA ratio (all P < 0.05). Subgroup analysis showed that the higher the MELD score, the greater the increase in LVESD, LVEDD, IVST, LAD and DT (all P < 0.05). Nearly one-half of the cirrhotic patients showed left atrial enlargement and a VE/VA ratio ? 1, and these features were more common in patients with MELD score ? 20. LAD, LVEDD and DT were positively correlated with MELD score (r = 0.208, 0.319 and 0.197, respectively; all P < 0.05). Conclusions: Patients with cirrhosis had impaired cardiac function, mainly present as left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, and the extent of dysfunction was correlated with the MELD score. Left atrial enlargement and VE/VA ratio ? 1 may serve as useful diagnostic indexes for cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. PMID:25664102

Li, Xiaopeng; Yu, Shanshan; Li, Lu; Han, Donggang; Dai, Shejiao; Gao, Ya

2014-01-01

281

Formation of {gamma}-alumina nanorods in presence of alanine  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Nanorod aluminas with a possible hexagonal symmetry, high surface area and relatively narrow pore size distribution were obtained. Research highlights: {yields} Research highlights {yields} Boehmite was prepared using a green sol-gel process in the presence of alanine. {yields} Nanorod aluminas with a high surface area were obtained. {yields} Addition of alanine would shape the size of the holes and crevices. {yields} The morphologies of the nanorods were revealed by transmission electron microscope. -- Abstract: Boehmite and alumina nanostructures were prepared using a simple green sol-gel process in the presence of alanine in water medium at room temperature. The uncalcined (dried at 200 {sup o}C) and the calcined materials (at 500, 600 and 700 {sup o}C for 4 h) were characterized using XRD, TEM, SEM, N{sub 2} physisorption and TGA. Nanorod aluminas with a possible hexagonal symmetry, high surface area and relatively narrow pore size distribution were obtained. The surface area was enhanced and crystallization was retarded as the alanine content increased. The morphologies of the nanoparticles and nanorods were revealed by a transmission electron microscope (TEM).

Dabbagh, Hossein A., E-mail: dabbagh@cc.iut.ac.ir [Catalysis Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, 8415483111 Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rasti, Elham [Catalysis Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, 8415483111 Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Catalysis Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, 8415483111 Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yalfani, Mohammad S. [Departament d'Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)] [Departament d'Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Medina, Francesc, E-mail: francesc.medina@urv.cat [Departament d'Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)] [Departament d'Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)

2011-02-15

282

Dextran sulfate sodium inhibits alanine synthesis in Caco-2 cells.  

PubMed

To understand and characterize the pathogenic mechanisms of inflammatory bowel disease, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) has been used to induce acute and chronic colitis in animal models by causing intestinal epithelium damage. The mechanism of action of DSS in producing this outcome is not well understood. In an effort to understand how DSS might impact epithelial cell metabolism, we studied the intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2 incubated with 1% DSS over 56 hours using (1)H NMR spectroscopy. We observed no difference in cell viability as compared to control cultures, and an approximately 1.5-fold increase in IL-6 production upon incubation with 1% DSS. The effect on Caco-2 cell metabolism as measured through changes in the concentration of metabolites in the cell supernatant included a three-fold decrease in the concentration of alanine. Given that the concentrations of other amino acids in the cell culture supernatant were not different between treated and control cultures over 56 hours suggest that DSS inhibits alanine synthesis, specifically alanine aminotransferase, without affecting other key metabolic pathways. The importance of alanine aminotransferase in inflammatory bowel disease is discussed. PMID:21731444

Ye, Zhong; Mishchuk, Darya O; Stephens, Natasha S; Slupsky, Carolyn M

2011-01-01

283

Hypoxia and fatty liver.  

PubMed

The liver is a central organ that metabolizes excessive nutrients for storage in the form of glycogen and lipids and supplies energy-producing substrates to the peripheral tissues to maintain their function, even under starved conditions. These processes require a considerable amount of oxygen, which causes a steep oxygen gradient throughout the hepatic lobules. Alcohol consumption and/or excessive food intake can alter the hepatic metabolic balance drastically, which can precipitate fatty liver disease, a major cause of chronic liver diseases worldwide, ranging from simple steatosis, through steatohepatitis and hepatic fibrosis, to liver cirrhosis. Altered hepatic metabolism and tissue remodeling in fatty liver disease further disrupt hepatic oxygen homeostasis, resulting in severe liver hypoxia. As master regulators of adaptive responses to hypoxic stress, hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) modulate various cellular and organ functions, including erythropoiesis, angiogenesis, metabolic demand, and cell survival, by activating their target genes during fetal development and also in many disease conditions such as cancer, heart failure, and diabetes. In the past decade, it has become clear that HIFs serve as key factors in the regulation of lipid metabolism and fatty liver formation. This review discusses the molecular mechanisms by which hypoxia and HIFs regulate lipid metabolism in the development and progression of fatty liver disease. PMID:25386057

Suzuki, Tomohiro; Shinjo, Satoko; Arai, Takatomo; Kanai, Mai; Goda, Nobuhito

2014-11-01

284

Hypoxia and fatty liver  

PubMed Central

The liver is a central organ that metabolizes excessive nutrients for storage in the form of glycogen and lipids and supplies energy-producing substrates to the peripheral tissues to maintain their function, even under starved conditions. These processes require a considerable amount of oxygen, which causes a steep oxygen gradient throughout the hepatic lobules. Alcohol consumption and/or excessive food intake can alter the hepatic metabolic balance drastically, which can precipitate fatty liver disease, a major cause of chronic liver diseases worldwide, ranging from simple steatosis, through steatohepatitis and hepatic fibrosis, to liver cirrhosis. Altered hepatic metabolism and tissue remodeling in fatty liver disease further disrupt hepatic oxygen homeostasis, resulting in severe liver hypoxia. As master regulators of adaptive responses to hypoxic stress, hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) modulate various cellular and organ functions, including erythropoiesis, angiogenesis, metabolic demand, and cell survival, by activating their target genes during fetal development and also in many disease conditions such as cancer, heart failure, and diabetes. In the past decade, it has become clear that HIFs serve as key factors in the regulation of lipid metabolism and fatty liver formation. This review discusses the molecular mechanisms by which hypoxia and HIFs regulate lipid metabolism in the development and progression of fatty liver disease. PMID:25386057

Suzuki, Tomohiro; Shinjo, Satoko; Arai, Takatomo; Kanai, Mai; Goda, Nobuhito

2014-01-01

285

Effects of Re-Arterialization on Early Graft Function and Regeneration in the Rat Model of Heterotopic Auxiliary Liver Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the rat model of heterotopic auxiliary liver transplantation, graft re-arterialization may influence the outcome of inter-liver competition. This was investigated in the current study using two transplanted groups with or without graft re-arterialization. Immediately after reperfusion, the re-arterialized grafts showed significantly higher bile flow rate and bilirubin excretion than the grafts without re-arterialization. DNA synthesis rate was also increased

Y.-D. Fan; M. Praet; B. Vanzieleghem; D. Vanwynsberghe; D. Stoop; G. Leroux-Roels; J. Delanghe; B. de Hemptinne

2000-01-01

286

Generation of Functional Insulin-Producing Cells from Neonatal Porcine Liver-Derived Cells by PDX1/VP16, BETA2/NeuroD and MafA  

PubMed Central

Surrogate ?-cells derived from stem cells are needed to cure type 1 diabetes, and neonatal liver cells may be an attractive alternative to stem cells for the generation of ?-cells. In this study, we attempted to generate insulin-producing cells from neonatal porcine liver-derived cells using adenoviruses carrying three genes: pancreatic and duodenal homeobox factor1 (PDX1)/VP16, BETA2/NeuroD and v-maf musculo aponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MafA), which are all known to play critical roles in pancreatic development. Isolated neonatal porcine liver-derived cells were sequentially transduced with triple adenoviruses and grown in induction medium containing a high concentration of glucose, epidermal growth factors, nicotinamide and a low concentration of serum following the induction of aggregation for further maturation. We noted that the cells displayed a number of molecular characteristics of pancreatic ?-cells, including expressing several transcription factors necessary for ?-cell development and function. In addition, these cells synthesized and physiologically secreted insulin. Transplanting these differentiated cells into streptozotocin-induced immunodeficient diabetic mice led to the reversal of hyperglycemia, and more than 18% of the cells in the grafts expressed insulin at 6 weeks after transplantation. These data suggested that neonatal porcine liver-derived cells can be differentiated into functional insulin-producing cells under the culture conditions presented in this report and indicated that neonatal porcine liver-derived cells (NPLCs) might be useful as a potential source of cells for ?-cell replacement therapy in efforts to cure type I diabetes. PMID:24260156

Ham, Dong-Sik; Shin, Juyoung; Kim, Ji-Won; Park, Heon-Seok; Cho, Jae-Hyoung; Yoon, Kun-Ho

2013-01-01

287

Supplementation of Eurycoma longifolia Jack Extract for 6 Weeks Does Not Affect Urinary Testosterone: Epitestosterone Ratio, Liver and Renal Functions in Male Recreational Athletes  

PubMed Central

Background: Eurycoma longifolia Jack (ElJ) has been shown to elevate serum testosterone and increased muscle strength in humans. This study investigated the effects of Physta® a standardized water extract of ElJ (400 mg/day for 6 weeks) on testosterone: epitestosterone (T:E) ratio, liver and renal functions in male recreational athletes. Methods: A total of 13 healthy male recreational athletes were recruited in this double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. The participants were required to consume either 400 mg of ElJ or placebo daily for 6 weeks in the first supplementation regimen. Following a 3 week wash-out period, the participants were requested to consume the other supplement for another 6 weeks. Mid-stream urine samples and blood samples were collected prior to and after 6 weeks of supplementation with either ElJ or placebo. The urine samples were subsequently analyzed for T:E ratio while the blood samples were analyzed for liver and renal functions. Results: T:E ratio was not significantly different following 6 weeks supplementation of either ElJ or placebo compared with their respective baseline values. Similarly, there were no significant changes in both the liver and renal functions tests following the supplementation of ElJ. Conclusions: Supplementation of ElJ i.e. Physta® at a dosage of 400 mg/day for 6 weeks did not affect the urinary T:E ratio and hence will not breach any doping policies of the International Olympic Committee for administration of exogenous testosterone or its precursor. In addition, the supplementation of ElJ at this dosage and duration was safe as it did adversely affect the liver and renal functions. PMID:25013692

Chen, Chee Keong; Mohamad, Wan Mohd Zahiruddin Wan; Ooi, Foong Kiew; Ismail, Shaiful Bahari; Abdullah, Mohamad Rusli; George, Annie

2014-01-01

288

Proliferative suppression by CDK4/6 inhibition: complex function of the RB-pathway in liver tissue and hepatoma cells  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Hepatocellular carcinoma is the third leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide and current chemotherapeutic interventions for this disease are largely ineffective. The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (RB) is functionally inactivated at relatively high frequency in hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatoma cell lines. Here we interrogated the ability of CDK4/6-inhibition to inhibit hepatocyte proliferation and the impact of RB-status on this process. Methods Hepatoma cell lines and xenograft models harboring RB knockdown and mice harboring liver specific Rb deletion were utilized to define the role of RB function in response to CDK4/6 inhibition. Results Our study shows that CDK4/6-dependent, cell cycle progression in hepatoma cells was readily arrested by inhibition of CDK4/6 by PD-0332991 or p16ink4a irrespective of RB status. Interestingly, upon CDK4/6 inhibition, p107 protein stability was dramatically increased as a function of RB loss. This engagement of compensatory mechanisms was critical for cell cycle inhibition in the absence of RB, as both the E1A oncoprotein and overexpression of E2F proteins were capable of overcoming the impact of CDK4/6 inhibition. These findings were recapitulated in xenograft models. Furthermore, to determine how these findings relate to hepatocyte proliferation in vivo, mice were exposed to carbon tetrachloride to induce liver regeneration followed by treatment with PD-0332991. This treatment significantly inhibited hepatocyte proliferation. Strikingly, this facet of PD-0332991 function was retained even in RB-deficient livers. Conclusions These data demonstrate that CDK4/6 inhibition is a potent mediator of cytostasis, and RB loss can be readily compensated for in the context of both hepatoma cell lines and in liver tissue. PMID:20100483

Rivadeneira, Dayana B; Mayhew, Christopher N; Thangavel, Chellappagounder; Sotillo, Elena; Reed, Christopher A; Graña, Xavier; Knudsen, Erik S

2010-01-01

289

Gly161 mutations associated with Primary Hyperoxaluria Type I induce the cytosolic aggregation and the intracellular degradation of the apo-form of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase.  

PubMed

Primary Hyperoxaluria Type I (PH1) is a severe rare disorder of metabolism due to inherited mutations on liver peroxisomal alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT), a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme whose deficiency causes the deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in the kidneys and urinary tract. PH1 is an extremely heterogeneous disease and there are more than 150 disease-causing mutations currently known, most of which are missense mutations. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms by which missense mutations lead to AGT deficiency span from structural, functional to subcellular localization defects. Gly161 is a highly conserved residue whose mutation to Arg, Cys or Ser is associated with PH1. Here we investigated the molecular bases of the AGT deficit caused by Gly161 mutations with expression studies in a mammalian cellular system paired with biochemical analyses on the purified recombinant proteins. Our results show that the mutations of Gly161 (i) strongly reduce the expression levels and the intracellular half-life of AGT, and (ii) make the protein in the apo-form prone to an electrostatically-driven aggregation in the cell cytosol. The coenzyme PLP, by shifting the equilibrium from the apo- to the holo-form, is able to reduce the aggregation propensity of the variants, thus partly decreasing the effect of the mutations. Altogether, these results shed light on the mechanistic details underlying the pathogenicity of Gly161 variants, thus expanding our knowledge of the enzymatic phenotypes leading to AGT deficiency. PMID:24055001

Oppici, Elisa; Roncador, Alessandro; Montioli, Riccardo; Bianconi, Silvia; Cellini, Barbara

2013-12-01

290

Effect of cholera enterotoxin on carbohydrate metabolism in the liver and small intestinal mucosa of rabbits  

SciTech Connect

The effect of cholera enterotoxin injected in vivo on glucose formation from alanine, and also on glucose-6-phosphatase activity in the liver and mucosa of the small intestine was studied. L-(2,3-/sup 3/H)-alanine was added to the incubation medium. Chromatograms were developed with 5% AgNO/sub 3/ with the addition of an aqueous solution of ammonia. The quantity of radioactive glucose was determined in a scintillation counter.

Vengrov, P.R.; Cherkasova, T.D.; Yurkiv, V.A.; Pokrovskii, V.I.

1987-09-01

291

Computational studies of dielectric permittivity effects on chemical shifts of alanine dipeptide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dielectric permittivity effect on chemical shifts of alanine dipeptide is studied using hybrid density functional theory. The dependence is shown to be highly sensitive to conformation, and, a reasonable explanation is outlined based on the solvent reaction field model. The danger of the observed shape of dependence for the chemical shift evaluations at low dielectric constant environment, as in the case of protein interior, is emphasized. The nuclear shielding sensitivity towards the dielectric permittivity is examined over different ?/? combinations. Comparison with the experimental data from protein backbone suggests an effective dielectric constant of ?4-5 for protein interior.

Sahakyan, Aleksandr B.

2012-09-01

292

Liver transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... end up with fully working livers after a successful transplant. The donor liver is transported in a ... and the likelihood that a transplant will be successful. The amount of time you spend on a ...

293

D-alanine: D-alanine ligase of Escherichia coli. Expression, purification and inhibitory studies on the cloned enzyme.  

PubMed Central

A 1.2 kb BamHI fragment from pDK30 [Robinson, Kenan, Sweeney & Donachie (1986) J. Bacteriol. 167, 809-817] was cloned in pDOC55 [O'Connor & Timmis (1987) J. Bacteriol. 169, 4457-4482] to give two constructs, pDOC89 and pDOC87, in which the Escherichia coli D-alanine:D-alanine ligase (EC 6.3.2.4) gene (ddl) was placed under the control of the lac and lambda PL promoters respectively. Both constructs, when used to transform E. coli M72, gave similar levels of expression of the ddl gene. The expressed enzyme was purified to homogeneity and the amino acid sequence of its N-terminal region was found to be consistent with that predicted from the gene sequence, except that the N-terminal methionine was not present in the mature protein. [1(S)-Aminoethyl][(2RS)2-carboxy-1-octyl]phosphinic acid (I), previously shown to bind tightly to Enterococcus faecalis and Salmonella typhimurium D-alanine:D-alanine ligases following phosphorylation Parsons, Patchett, Bull, Schoen, Taub, Davidson, Combs, Springer, Gadebusch, Weissberger, Valiant, Mellin & Busch (1988) J. Med. Chem. 31, 1772-1778; Duncan & Walsh (1988) Biochemistry 27, 3709-3714], was found to be a classical slow-binding inhibitor of the E. coli ligase. Images Fig. 2. PMID:1554356

al-Bar, O A; O'Connor, C D; Giles, I G; Akhtar, M

1992-01-01

294

The Effect of Helicobacter Pylori Eradication on Liver Fat Content in Subjects With Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Randomized Open-Label Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Background The role of Helicobacter pylori (HP) in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is unclear. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of HP eradication on liver fat content (LFC), liver function tests (LFT), lipid profile, and homeostasis model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR) index in NAFLD. Patients and Methods Dyspeptic patients with increased serum aminotransferase levels were enrolled in the study. The exclusion criteria were factors affecting serum aminotransferase or HP treatment strategy. Participants with persistent elevated serum aminotransferase level and ultrasound criteria for identification of fatty liver were presumed to have NAFLD. “NAFLD liver fat score” was used to classify NAFLD. Those with “NAFLD liver fat score” greater than -0.64 and positive results for urea breath test (UBT), were included. Lifestyle modification was provided to all participants. HP eradication was performed in intervention arm. LFC, fasting serum glucose (FSG), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (CHOL), high and low-density lipoprotein (HDL, LDL), and HOMA-IR were checked at baseline and after that, at intervals of eight weeks and twenty four weeks. Results One hundred (49 males) patients with the mean age of 43.46 (± 11.52) were studied. Repeated measure ANOVA showed a significant reduction in LFC, anthropometric measurements, and laboratory parameters (except for HDL) in the both groups during the study; however, no significant difference was observed between the groups. Conclusions It seems that HP eradication per se might not affect LFC, LFT, lipid profile, and insulin resistance in dyspeptic NAFLD patients. PMID:24358044

Jamali, Raika; Mofid, Alireza; Vahedi, Homayoon; Farzaneh, Rojin; Dowlatshahi, Shahab

2013-01-01

295

Threshold Doses for Focal Liver Reaction After Stereotactic Ablative Body Radiation Therapy for Small Hepatocellular Carcinoma Depend on Liver Function: Evaluation on Magnetic Resonance Imaging With Gd-EOB-DTPA  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Focal liver reaction (FLR) appears on radiographic images after stereotactic ablative body radiation therapy (SABR) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and chronic liver disease. We investigated the threshold dose (TD) of FLR and possible factors affecting the TD on gadoxetate acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods and Materials: In 50 patients who were treated with SABR for small HCC and followed up by MRI for >6 months, FLR, seen as a hypointense area, was evaluated on the hepatobiliary phase of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI. The follow-up MRI with the largest extent of FLR was fused to the planning computed tomography (CT) image, and patients with good image fusion concordance were eligible. After delineating the border of the FLR manually, a dose–volume histogram was used to identify the TD for the FLR. Clinical and volumetric factors were analyzed for correlation with the TD. Results: A total of 45 patients were eligible for analysis with a median image fusion concordance of 84.9% (range, 71.6-95.4%). The median duration between SABR and subsequent hepatobiliary phase MRI with the largest extent of FLR was 3 months (range, 1-6 months). The median TD for FLR was 28.0 Gy (range, 22.3-36.4 Gy). On univariate analysis, pre-treatment Child-Pugh (CP) score and platelet count were significantly correlated with the TD. On multiple linear regression analysis, CP score was the only parameter that predicted TD. Median TDs were 30.5 Gy (range, 26.2.3-36.4 Gy) and 25.2 Gy (range, 22.3-27.5 Gy) for patients with CP-A and CP-B disease, respectively. Conclusion: The TD was significantly correlated with baseline liver function. We propose 30 Gy for CP-A disease and 25 Gy for CP-B disease in 5 fractions as TDs for FLR after SABR for patients with HCC and chronic liver disease. Use of these TDs will help to predict potential loss of liver tissue after SABR.

Sanuki, Naoko; Takeda, Atsuya; Oku, Yohei [Radiation Oncology Center, Ofuna Chuo Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokai University, Kanagawa (Japan); Eriguchi, Takahisa; Nishimura, Shuichi; Aoki, Yosuke [Radiation Oncology Center, Ofuna Chuo Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan); Mizuno, Tomikazu [Department of Radiology, Ofuna Chuo Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan); Iwabuchi, Shogo [Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Ofuna Chuo Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan); Kunieda, Etsuo, E-mail: kunieda-mi@umin.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tokai University, Kanagawa (Japan)

2014-02-01

296

Early maternal undernutrition programs increased feed intake, altered glucose metabolism and insulin secretion, and liver function in aged female offspring  

PubMed Central

Insulin resistance and obesity are components of the metabolic syndrome that includes development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes with advancing age. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis suggests that offspring of poorly nourished mothers are predisposed to the various components of the metabolic syndrome due to adaptations made during fetal development. We assessed the effects of maternal nutrient restriction in early gestation on feeding behavior, insulin and glucose dynamics, body composition, and liver function in aged female offspring of ewes fed either a nutrient-restricted [NR 50% National Research Council (NRC) recommendations] or control (C: 100% NRC) diet from 28 to 78 days of gestation, after which both groups were fed at 100% of NRC from day 79 to lambing and through lactation. Female lambs born to NR and C dams were reared as a single group from weaning, and thereafter, they were fed 100% NRC recommendations until assigned to this study at 6 yr of age. These female offspring were evaluated by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, followed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for body composition analysis prior to and after ad libitum feeding of a highly palatable pelleted diet for 11 wk with automated monitoring of feed intake (GrowSafe Systems). Aged female offspring born to NR ewes demonstrated greater and more rapid feed intake, greater body weight gain, and efficiency of gain, lower insulin sensitivity, higher insulin secretion, and greater hepatic lipid and glycogen content than offspring from C ewes. These data confirm an increased metabolic “thriftiness” of offspring born to NR mothers, which continues into advanced age, possibly predisposing these offspring to metabolic disease. PMID:22277936

George, Lindsey A.; Zhang, Liren; Tuersunjiang, Nuermaimaiti; Ma, Yan; Long, Nathan M.; Uthlaut, Adam B.; Smith, Derek T.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.

2012-01-01

297

Cholesterol biosynthesis from lanosterol: molecular cloning, chromosomal localization, functional expression and liver-specific gene regulation of rat sterol delta8-isomerase, a cholesterogenic enzyme with multiple functions.  

PubMed Central

Sterol Delta(8)-isomerase (SI) (EC 5.3.3.5), also known as emopamil binding protein or sigma receptor, catalyses the conversion of the 8-ene isomer into the 7-ene isomer in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway in mammals. Recently, mutations of SI have been found to be associated with Conradi-Hünermann syndrome in humans. To investigate the in vitro and in vivo modes of molecular regulation of SI and its role in cholesterol biosynthesis in mammals, we isolated a full-length cDNA encoding rat SI. The deduced amino-acid sequence of rat SI predicts a 230-residue protein (26737 Da) with 87% and 80% amino-acid identity to mouse and human counterparts. The rat SI gene was mapped to chromosome 12q1.2 using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The biological function of the cloned rat SI cDNA was verified by overexpressing recombinant Myc-SI in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It showed a characteristic pattern of inhibition on exposure to trans-2-[4-(1,2-diphenylbuten-1-yl)phenoxy]-N,N-dimethylethylamine (tamoxifen; IC(50)=11.2 microM) and 3beta-[2-(diethylamino)ethoxy]androst-5-en-17-one (U18666A; IC(50)=4.2 microM), two well known potent inhibitors of SI. Northern-blot analysis of 3-week-old rats compared with 2-year-old rats showed that SI mRNA expression in both age groups was restricted to liver, where a 70% reduction in mRNA levels was observed in 2-year-old rats. The FISH studies revealed ubiquitous expression of SI mRNA in rat hepatocytes. The in vitro studies showed that the SI mRNA was highly suppressed by 25-hydroxycholesterol in H4IIE cells. Treatment of H4IIE cells grown in medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum with tamoxifen for 24 h resulted in a dose-dependent induction of SI mRNA, with a concomitant suppression of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 mRNA. Interestingly, this effect was not seen in emopamil-treated cells. The in vivo experiments also indicate that both mRNA expression and enzymic activity of SI in liver were induced approx. 3-fold in rats fed 5% (w/w) cholestyramine plus 0.1% (w/w) lovastatin in normal chow for 2 weeks. With this newly cloned rat SI cDNA, it becomes possible to gain molecular understanding of previously unknown and tamoxifen-mediated gene regulation of SI that is involved in cholesterol metabolism, ischaemia and genetic diseases. PMID:11171067

Bae, S; Seong, J; Paik, Y

2001-01-01

298

Hepatoprotective and anti-fibrotic functions of interleukin-22: therapeutic potential for the treatment of alcoholic liver disease.  

PubMed

Interleukin-22 (IL-22) plays a key role in promoting antimicrobial immunity and tissue repair at barrier surfaces by binding to the receptors IL-22R1, which is generally thought to be expressed exclusively in epithelial cells, and IL-10R2. Our laboratory previously demonstrated that IL-22 plays an important role in ameliorating liver injury in many rodent models by targeting hepatocytes that express high levels of IL-22R1 and IL-10R2. Recently, we have identified high expression levels of IL-22R1 and IL-10R2 in liver progenitor cells and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Overexpression of IL-22 in vivo or treatment with IL-22 in vitro promotes proliferation of liver progenitor cells via a signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-dependent mechanism. IL-22 treatment also prevents HSC apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Surprisingly, overexpression of IL-22, via either gene targeting or exogenous administration of adenovirus expressing IL-22, reduces liver fibrosis and accelerates the resolution of liver fibrosis during recovery. The anti-fibrotic effects of IL-22 are mediated via the activation of STAT3 in HSCs and subsequent induction of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3, which induces HSC senescence. Taken together, the hepatoprotective, mitogenic, and anti-fibrotic effects of IL-22 are beneficial in ameliorating alcoholic liver injury. Importantly, due to the restricted expression of IL-22R1, IL-22 therapy is expected to have few side effects, thus making IL-22 a potential candidate for treatment of alcoholic liver disease. PMID:23855297

Kong, Xiaoni; Feng, Dechun; Mathews, Stephanie; Gao, Bin

2013-08-01

299

Liver Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Liver transplantation has become a lifesaving procedure for patients who have chronic end-stage liver disease and acute liver failure. The satisfactory outcome of liver transplantation has led to insufficient supplies of deceased donor organs, particularly in East Asia. Hence, East Asian surgeons are concentrating on developing and performing living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT). This review article describes an update on the present status of liver transplantation, mainly in adults, and highlights some recent developments on indications for transplantation, patient selection, donor and recipient operation between LDLT and deceased-donor liver transplantation (DDLT), immunosuppression, and long-term management of liver transplant recipients. Currently, the same indication criteria that exist for DDLT are applied to LDLT, with technical refinements for LDLT. In highly experienced centers, LDLT for high-scoring (>30 points) Model of End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) patients and acute-on-chronic liver-failure patients yields comparably good outcomes to DDLT, because timely liver transplantation with good-quality grafting is possible. With increasing numbers of liver transplantations and long-term survivors, specialized attention should be paid to complications that develop in the long term, such as chronic renal failure, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, obesity, bone or neurological complications, and development of de novo tumors, which are highly related to the immunosuppressive treatment. PMID:20431740

Moon, Deok-Bog

2009-01-01

300

Liver regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The liver can precisely regulate its growth and mass. Surgical resection of hepatic lobes or hepatocyte loss caused by viral or chemical injury triggers hepatocyte replication while enlarged liver mass is corrected by apoptosis. Hepatocytes have a great replicative capacity and are capable of repopulating the liver. However, “stem-like” cells proliferate when hepatocyte replication is blocked or delayed. Detailed studies

Nelson Fausto

2000-01-01

301

Structure of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis D-Alanine:D-Alanine Ligase, a Target of the Antituberculosis Drug D-Cycloserine  

SciTech Connect

D-Alanine:D-alanine ligase (EC 6.3.2.4; Ddl) catalyzes the ATP-driven ligation of two D-alanine (D-Ala) molecules to form the D-alanyl:D-alanine dipeptide. This molecule is a key building block in peptidoglycan biosynthesis, making Ddl an attractive target for drug development. D-Cycloserine (DCS), an analog of D-Ala and a prototype Ddl inhibitor, has shown promise for the treatment of tuberculosis. Here, we report the crystal structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ddl at a resolution of 2.1 {angstrom}. This structure indicates that Ddl is a dimer and consists of three discrete domains; the ligand binding cavity is at the intersection of all three domains and conjoined by several loop regions. The M. tuberculosis apo Ddl structure shows a novel conformation that has not yet been observed in Ddl enzymes from other species. The nucleotide and D-alanine binding pockets are flexible, requiring significant structural rearrangement of the bordering regions for entry and binding of both ATP and D-Ala molecules. Solution affinity and kinetic studies showed that DCS interacts with Ddl in a manner similar to that observed for D-Ala. Each ligand binds to two binding sites that have significant differences in affinity, with the first binding site exhibiting high affinity. DCS inhibits the enzyme, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC{sub 50}) of 0.37 mM under standard assay conditions, implicating a preferential and weak inhibition at the second, lower-affinity binding site. Moreover, DCS binding is tighter at higher ATP concentrations. The crystal structure illustrates potential drugable sites that may result in the development of more-effective Ddl inhibitors.

Bruning, John B.; Murillo, Ana C.; Chacon, Ofelia; Barletta, Raúl G.; Sacchettini, James C. (TAM); (UNL)

2011-09-28

302

Structure of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis d-Alanine:d-Alanine Ligase, a Target of the Antituberculosis Drug d-Cycloserine? †  

PubMed Central

d-Alanine:d-alanine ligase (EC 6.3.2.4; Ddl) catalyzes the ATP-driven ligation of two d-alanine (d-Ala) molecules to form the d-alanyl:d-alanine dipeptide. This molecule is a key building block in peptidoglycan biosynthesis, making Ddl an attractive target for drug development. d-Cycloserine (DCS), an analog of d-Ala and a prototype Ddl inhibitor, has shown promise for the treatment of tuberculosis. Here, we report the crystal structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ddl at a resolution of 2.1 Å. This structure indicates that Ddl is a dimer and consists of three discrete domains; the ligand binding cavity is at the intersection of all three domains and conjoined by several loop regions. The M. tuberculosis apo Ddl structure shows a novel conformation that has not yet been observed in Ddl enzymes from other species. The nucleotide and d-alanine binding pockets are flexible, requiring significant structural rearrangement of the bordering regions for entry and binding of both ATP and d-Ala molecules. Solution affinity and kinetic studies showed that DCS interacts with Ddl in a manner similar to that observed for d-Ala. Each ligand binds to two binding sites that have significant differences in affinity, with the first binding site exhibiting high affinity. DCS inhibits the enzyme, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.37 mM under standard assay conditions, implicating a preferential and weak inhibition at the second, lower-affinity binding site. Moreover, DCS binding is tighter at higher ATP concentrations. The crystal structure illustrates potential drugable sites that may result in the development of more-effective Ddl inhibitors. PMID:20956591

Bruning, John B.; Murillo, Ana C.; Chacon, Ofelia; Barletta, Raúl G.; Sacchettini, James C.

2011-01-01

303

Serum Liver Enzyme Pattern in Birth Asphyxia Associated Liver Injury  

PubMed Central

Purpose To study temporal pattern of serum liver enzymes levels in newborns with hepatic injury associated with birth asphyxia (BA). Methods Singleton term newborns with BA and ?72 hours of age admitted to neonatal intensive care unit were prospectively enrolled. Term newborns with physiological jaundice and without BA were studied as controls. Serum liver enzymes were measured at <24 hours, 24-72 hours, and at 6-12 days of age for cases and at 1-6 days of age for controls. BA was defined by 1 minute Apgar score <7 or delayed or absent cry with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. BA-associated liver injury was defined as serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation beyond +2 standard deviation (ALT > +2 SD) above the mean of control subjects at any of the three time points. Results Sixty controls and 62 cases were enrolled. Thirty-five cases (56%) developed BA-associated liver injury (ALT>81 IU/L). They had higher serum levels of ALT, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase than the control infants, with peak at 24-72 hours. In controls, serum liver enzyme levels were significantly higher in appropriate-for-date (AFD) babies than small-for-date (SFD) babies. Serum enzyme pattern and extent of elevation were comparable between SFD and AFD babies. Degree of serum liver enzyme elevation had no relationship with severity of hypoxic encephalopathy. Conclusion Serum liver enzyme elevation is common in BA; it peaks at 24-72 hours followed by a sharp decline by 6-12 days of age. Pattern and extent of enzyme elevation are comparable between SFD and AFD babies. PMID:25349832

Chhavi, Nanda; Zutshi, Kiran; Singh, Niranjan Kumar; Awasthi, Ashish

2014-01-01

304

Discovery That Theonellasterol a Marine Sponge Sterol Is a Highly Selective FXR Antagonist That Protects against Liver Injury in Cholestasis  

PubMed Central

Background The farnesoid-x-receptor (FXR) is a bile acid sensor expressed in the liver and gastrointestinal tract. Despite FXR ligands are under investigation for treatment of cholestasis, a biochemical condition occurring in a number of liver diseases for which available therapies are poorly effective, mice harboring a disrupted FXR are protected against liver injury caused by bile acid overload in rodent models of cholestasis. Theonellasterol is a 4-methylene-24-ethylsteroid isolated from the marine sponge Theonella swinhoei. Here, we have characterized the activity of this theonellasterol on FXR-regulated genes and biological functions. Principal Findings Interrogation of HepG2 cells, a human hepatocyte cell line, by microarray analysis and transactivation assay shows that theonellasterol is a selective FXR antagonist, devoid of any agonistic or antagonistic activity on a number of human nuclear receptors including the vitamin D receptor, PPARs, PXR, LXRs, progesterone, estrogen, glucorticoid and thyroid receptors, among others. Exposure of HepG2 cells to theonellasterol antagonizes the effect of natural and synthetic FXR agonists on FXR-regulated genes, including SHP, OST?, BSEP and MRP4. A proof-of-concept study carried out to investigate whether FXR antagonism rescues mice from liver injury caused by the ligation of the common bile duct, a model of obstructive cholestasis, demonstrated that theonellasterol attenuates injury caused by bile duct ligation as measured by assessing serum alanine aminostrasferase levels and extent of liver necrosis at histopathology. Analysis of genes involved in bile acid uptake and excretion by hepatocytes revealed that theonellasterol increases the liver expression of MRP4, a basolateral transporter that is negatively regulated by FXR. Administering bile duct ligated mice with an FXR agonist failed to rescue from liver injury and downregulated the expression of MRP4. Conclusions FXR antagonism in vivo results in a positive modulation of MRP4 expression in the liver and is a feasible strategy to target obstructive cholestasis. PMID:22291955

Renga, Barbara; Mencarelli, Andrea; D'Amore, Claudio; Cipriani, Sabrina; D'Auria, Maria Valeria; Sepe, Valentina; Chini, Maria Giovanna; Monti, Maria Chiara; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Zampella, Angela; Fiorucci, Stefano

2012-01-01

305

Growth and characterization of L-Alanine-doped Zinc Thiourea Chloride single crystal (ZTC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single crystal of L-Alanine-doped Zinc Thiourea Chloride (ZTC) was grown by slow evaporation technique. L-Alanine was added in saturated ZTC solution by molar percent. The second-harmonic generation efficiency was studied by Kurtz and Perry powder SHG test for 1, 2, and 3 mole% L-Alanine-doped ZTC and compared with pure ZTC. We observed enhancement in the SHG efficiency of L-Alanine-doped ZTC.

N. R. Dhumane; S. S. Hussaini; V. G. Dongre; P. Ghugare; M. D. Shirsat

2009-01-01

306

Effects of exposure to low concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons on the kidney and liver of industrial workers.  

PubMed Central

An assessment has been made of biochemical alterations in renal and hepatic functions of 73 male operators employed for an average of 8.2 years (range 0.5-23 years) in a chemical plant producing chlorinated hydrocarbons. Exposure to allyl chloride (AC), 1,3-dichloropropene (DCP), epichlorohydrin (ECH), and hexachlorocyclopentadiene (HEX) has regularly been determined by personal air monitoring since 1980. Although exposures to DCP and ECH were well below currently accepted maximum allowable concentrations (MACs), relatively high exposures to AC and HEX, occasionally exceeding the MAC, have been measured. The results of the kidney and liver function tests were compared with those of a control group comprising 35 men employed at the materials division and not occupationally exposed to chemicals. Biochemical alterations of liver function were assessed by determination in serum of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALAT, ASAT), alkaline phosphatase (AP), total bilirubin (BIL), gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and total bile acids (SBA). No differences between the exposed group and the control group were found. Nor were differences found in biochemical tests for renal tubular damage (urinary alanine aminopeptidase (AAP) and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and renal tubular function (urinary retinol binding protein (RBP). Total urinary protein and albumin excretion were measured to assess the integrity of the glomerulus. Urinary total protein did not differ between the groups, but urinary albumin, although within normal limits in both groups, was significantly higher (p < 0.02) in the exposed group. This difference in urinary albumin could not simply be explained by exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbons because albumin concentrations did not correlate with the duration of employment. It is concluded that long term exposure to concentrations of AC, DCP, ECH, or HEX below or near the current limit threshold value does not lead to clinically significant effects on kidney and liver. PMID:8494773

Boogaard, P J; Rocchi, P S; van Sittert, N J

1993-01-01

307

The changes in renal function after a single dose of intravenous furosemide in patients with compensated liver cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with compensated Child-A cirrhosis have sub clinical hypovolemia and diuretic treatment could result in renal impairment. Aim To evaluate the changes in renal functional mass as reflected by DMSA uptake after single injection of intravenous furosemide in patients with compensated liver cirrhosis. Methods Eighteen cirrhotic patients were divided in two groups; eight patients (group 1, age 56 ± 9.6 yrs, Gender 5M/3F, 3 alcoholic and 5 non alcoholic) were given low intravenous 40 mg furosemide and ten other patients (group 2, age 54 ± 9.9, Gender 6M/4F, 4 alcoholic and 6 non alcoholic) were given high 120 mg furosemide respectively. Renoscintigraphy with 100MBq Of Tc 99 DMSA was given intravenously before and 90 minutes after furosemide administration and SPECT imaging was determined 3 hours later. All patients were kept under low sodium diet (80mEq/d) and all diuretics were withdrawn for 3 days. 8-hours UNa exertion, Calculated and measured Creatinine clearance (CCT) were performed for all patients. Results Intravenous furosemide increased the mean renal DMSA uptake in 55% of patients with compensated cirrhosis and these changes persist up to three hours after injection. This increase was at the same extent in either low or high doses of furosemide. (From 12.8% ± 3.8 to 15.2% ± 2.2, p < 0.001 in Gr I as compared to 10.6% ± 4.6 to 13.5% ± 3.6 in Gr 2, p < 0.001). In 8 patients (45%, 3 pts from Gr 1 and 5 pts from Gr 2) DMSA uptake remain unchanged. The mean 8 hrs UNa excretion after intravenous furosemide was above 80 meq/l and was higher in Gr 2 as compared to Gr 1 respectively (136 ± 37 meq/l) VS 100 ± 36.6 meq/l, P = 0.05). Finally, basal global renal DMSA uptake was decreased in 80% of patients; 22.5 ± 7.5% (NL > 40%), as compared to normal calculated creatinine clearance (CCT 101 ± 26), and measured CCT of 87 ± 30 cc/min (P < 0.001). Conclusion A single furosemide injection increases renal functional mass as reflected by DMSA in 55% of patients with compensated cirrhosis and identify 45% of patients with reduced uptake and who could develop renal impairment under diuretics. Whether or not albumin infusion exerts beneficial effect in those patients with reduced DMSA uptake remains to be determined. PMID:17134488

Assy, Nimer; kayal, Mohib; Mejirisky, Yoram; Gorenberg, Miguel; Hussein, Osamah; Schlesinger, Sorina

2006-01-01

308

Protective effects of dioscin against alcohol-induced liver injury.  

PubMed

Our previous studies have shown that dioscin has protective effect against liver injury. However, the action of the compound against ethanol-induced liver injury is still unknown. In the present paper, ethanol-induced acute and chronic liver damage rat models were used, and the results showed that dioscin significantly alleviated liver steatosis, reduced the levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol and malondialdehyde, and increased the levels of high-density lipoprotein, superoxide dismutase, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase. Transmission electron microscopy and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assays showed that dioscin prevented mitochondrial ultrastructural alterations and apoptosis caused by ethanol. In addition, dioscin significantly inhibited ethanol-induced cytochrome P450 2E1 activation, down-regulated the levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases phosphorylation, inhibited the expressions of nuclear factor kappa B, glucose regulated protein 78, activating transcription factor 6 and alpha subunit of translation initiation factor 2 to attenuate oxidative damage, decreased the expressions of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6, and down-regulated the expressions of apoptosis-related proteins including p53, caspase-3, caspase-9, poly (ADP-ribose)-polymerase and cytokeratin-18. Further investigation indicated that dioscin markedly increased the expressions of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor ? and its target genes including medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, carnitine palmitoyl-CoA transferase I and acyl-CoA oxidase to advance fatty acid ?-oxidation, up-regulated the expressions of acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1, acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 5, alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase and acyl-CoA dehydrogenase to promote fatty acid metabolism, and down-regulated the expressions of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 to accelerate TG synthesis. However, dioscin had no effects on the expressions of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 associated with fatty acid synthesis. In conclusion, dioscin shows excellent protective effect against ethanol-induced liver injury through ameliorating ethanol-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial function, inflammatory cytokine production, apoptosis and liver steatosis, which should be developed as a new drug for the treatment of ethanol-induced liver injury in the future. PMID:24146112

Xu, Tingting; Zheng, Lingli; Xu, Lina; Yin, Lianhong; Qi, Yan; Xu, Youwei; Han, Xu; Peng, Jinyong

2014-03-01

309

Organ reengineering through development of a transplantable recellularized liver graft using decellularized liver matrix  

PubMed Central

Orthotopic liver transplantation is the only available treatment for severe liver failure, but it is currently limited by organ shortage. One technical challenge that has thus far limited the development of a tissue-engineered liver graft is oxygen and nutrient transport. Here we demonstrate a novel approach to generate transplantable liver grafts using decellularized liver matrix. The decellularization process preserves the structural and functional characteristics of the native microvascular network, allowing efficient recellularization of the liver matrix with adult hepatocytes and subsequent perfusion for in vitro culture. The recellularized graft supports liver-specific function including albumin secretion, urea synthesis and cytochrome P450 expression at comparable levels to normal liver in vitro. The recellularized liver grafts can be transplanted into rats, supporting hepatocyte survival and function with minimal ischemic damage. These results provide a proof of principle for the generation of a transplantable liver graft as a potential treatment for liver disease. PMID:20543851

Uygun, Basak E; Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro; Yagi, Hiroshi; Izamis, Maria-Louisa; Guzzardi, Maria A; Shulman, Carley; Milwid, Jack; Kobayashi, Naoya; Tilles, Arno; Berthiaume, Francois; Hertl, Martin; Nahmias, Yaakov; Yarmush, Martin L; Uygun, Korkut

2010-01-01

310

Liver transplantation?  

PubMed Central

Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) involves the substitution of a diseased native liver with a normal liver (or part of one) taken from a deceased or living donor. Considered an experimental procedure through the 1980s, OLT is now regarded as the treatment of choice for a number of otherwise irreversible forms of acute and chronic liver disease. The first human liver transplantation was performed in the United States in 1963 by Prof. T.E. Starzl of the University of Colorado. The first OLT to be performed in Italy was done in 1982 by Prof. R. Cortesini. The procedure was successfully performed at the Policlinico Umberto I of the University of Rome (La Sapienza). The paper reports the indications for liver transplantation, donor selection and organ allocation in our experience, surgical technique, immunosuppression, complications and results of liver transplantation in our center. PMID:23396075

Rossi, M.; Mennini, G.; Lai, Q.; Ginanni Corradini, S.; Drudi, F.M.; Pugliese, F.; Berloco, P.B.

2007-01-01

311

Pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of gadoversetamide injection (OptiMARK) in subjects with central nervous system or liver pathology and varying degrees of renal function.  

PubMed

The pharmacokinetic parameters, safety, and tolerability of OptiMARK (gadoversetamide injection), a gadolinium-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent, were evaluated in 163 subjects with either central nervous system (CNS) or liver pathology with and without renal insufficiency, for which a contrast-enhanced MRI was indicated. A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group design was used in which subjects received 0.1, 0.3, or 0.5 mmol/kg of OptiMARK or placebo intravenously. Samples were analyzed for total gadolinium by inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry. Gadolinium pharmacokinetics were affected by renal impairment: area under the curve, half-life, and steady-state distribution volume significantly increased with declining renal function, while total body clearance decreased. In subjects with normal renal function, neither age, gender, nor liver versus CNS pathology altered gadolinium pharmacokinetics. No clinically significant changes from baseline were noted in vital signs, laboratory measures, electrocardiograms, or physical examinations. OptiMARK is safe and well-tolerated following a single intravenous injection in subjects with either liver or CNS pathology despite a prolonged elimination half-life in subjects with renal impairment. PMID:10077031

Swan, S K; Baker, J F; Free, R; Tucker, R M; Barron, B; Barr, R; Seltzer, S; Gazelle, G S; Maravilla, K R; Barr, W; Stevens, G R; Lambrecht, L J; Pierro, J A

1999-02-01

312

[Effect of high doses of shark liver oil supplementation on T cell polarization and peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cell function].  

PubMed

Fish oils supplementation has been recently widely used in prevention and treatment of the diseases in humans. Fish oil beneficial effects have been investigated in a number of animal disease models as well as human studies. Here, we examined clinical, immunological and biochemical effects of shark liver oil supplementation in high doses in 13 volunteers. The experiment was based on the consumption of 3.6 g of squalene, 3.6 g of alkylglycerols and 750 mg of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) per day for 4 weeks. We have shown the increased response of neutrophils towards bacteria, the increased level of C4 component of complement in blood, the rise of total antioxidant status of serum, and the predominance of Type I cytokine IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and IL-2 production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells after shark liver oil intake. Moreover, shark liver oil supplementation markedly affect lipid metabolism and cholesterol balance. The increase of total cholesterol level from 182.92 +/- 29.290 mg/dl before oil consumption to 224.46 +/- 62.198 mg/dl after diet rich in oil, and the decrease of HDL fraction were noted. However, metabolism of lipids normalised spontaneously after the end of the experiment in all the individuals. The results of the present study have shown, that the main effects of shark liver oil are the result of the biological activity of squalene and 1-O-alkylglycerols, which dominate in the composition of the oil quantitatively. On the contrary, anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 PUFA do not manifest, when taking together with high doses of squalene and alkylglycerols. On the bases of these observations, we propose that shark liver oil supplementation in high doses is beneficial in bacterial, viral and fungal infections, whereas patients with atherosclerosis or autoimmune diseases should avoid the consumption of high amounts of shark liver oil. PMID:16124384

Lewkowicz, Przemys?aw; Banasik, Ma?gorzata; G?owacka, Ewa; Lewkowicz, Natalia; Tchórzewski, Henryk

2005-06-01

313

Crystal Structures of Aedes Aegypt Alanine Glyoxylate Aminotransferase  

SciTech Connect

Mosquitoes are unique in having evolved two alanine glyoxylate aminotransferases (AGTs). One is 3-hydroxykynurenine transaminase (HKT), which is primarily responsible for catalyzing the transamination of 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) to xanthurenic acid (XA). Interestingly, XA is used by malaria parasites as a chemical trigger for their development within the mosquito. This 3-HK to XA conversion is considered the major mechanism mosquitoes use to detoxify the chemically reactive and potentially toxic 3-HK. The other AGT is a typical dipteran insect AGT and is specific for converting glyoxylic acid to glycine. Here we report the 1.75{angstrom} high-resolution three-dimensional crystal structure of AGT from the mosquito Aedes aegypti (AeAGT) and structures of its complexes with reactants glyoxylic acid and alanine at 1.75 and 2.1{angstrom} resolution, respectively. This is the first time that the three-dimensional crystal structures of an AGT with its amino acceptor, glyoxylic acid, and amino donor, alanine, have been determined. The protein is dimeric and adopts the type I-fold of pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-dependent aminotransferases. The PLP co-factor is covalently bound to the active site in the crystal structure, and its binding site is similar to those of other AGTs. The comparison of the AeAGT-glyoxylic acid structure with other AGT structures revealed that these glyoxylic acid binding residues are conserved in most AGTs. Comparison of the AeAGT-alanine structure with that of the Anopheles HKT-inhibitor complex suggests that a Ser-Asn-Phe motif in the latter may be responsible for the substrate specificity of HKT enzymes for 3-HK.

Han,Q.; Robinson, H.; Gao, Y.; Vogelaar, N.; Wilson, S.; Rizzi, M.; Li, J.

2006-01-01

314

Pressure-induced phase transformations in l-alanine crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raman scattering and synchrotron X-ray diffraction have been used to investigate the high-pressure behavior of l-alanine. This study has confirmed a structural phase transition observed by Raman scattering at 2.3GPa and identified it as a change from orthorhombic to tetragonal structure. Another phase transformation from tetragonal to monoclinic structure has been observed at about 9GPa. From the equation of state,

J. Staun Olsen; L. Gerward; P. T. C. Freire; J. Mendes Filho; F. E. A. Melo; A. G. Souza Filho

2008-01-01

315

High-pressure Raman study of l-alanine crystal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-crystal samples of l-alanine, CH3CH(NH2)COOH, a fundamental amino acid of most proteins, have been studied by Raman spectroscopy in a diamond-anvil cell up to pressures of 43kbar. From the analysis of results we observed that the crystal undergoes a phase transition about 22–23kbar. The transition is accompanied by abrupt changes in the relative intensity of low-energy bands, by the appearance

A. M. R. Teixeira; P. T. C. Freire; A. J. D. Moreno; J. M. Sasaki; A. P. Ayala; J. Mendes Filho; F. E. A. Melo

2000-01-01

316

Enzyme activities in plasma, liver, and kidney of black ducks and mallards  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured in plasma, liver, and kidney, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) was measured in liver and kidney of black ducks (Anas rubripes). Activities of ALT, AST, GGT, and ornithine carbamyl transferase (OCT) were assayed in plasma, liver, and kidney of game-farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Appreciable OCT and AST activity occurred in both liver and kidney. Activities of ALT, CPK, ALP and GGT were higher in kidney, while LDH was higher in liver, GGT was detected in plasma from one of four mallards.

Franson, J.C.

1982-01-01

317

Role of hydration in determining the structure and vibrational spectra of L -alanine and N -acetyl L -alanine N ?-methylamide in aqueous solution: a combined theoretical and experimental approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we have utilized recent density functional theory Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations to determine\\u000a the first principles locations of the water molecules in the first solvation shell which are responsible for stabilizing the\\u000a zwitterionic structure of L-alanine. Previous works have used chemical intuition or classical molecular dynamics simulations to position the water molecules.\\u000a In addition, a complete shell

K. J. Jalkanen; I. M. Degtyarenko; R. M. Nieminen; X. Cao; L. A. Nafie; F. Zhu; L. D. Barron

2008-01-01

318

Genome-wide identification and functional analysis of Apobec-1-mediated C-to-U RNA editing in mouse small intestine and liver  

PubMed Central

Background RNA editing encompasses a post-transcriptional process in which the genomically templated sequence is enzymatically altered and introduces a modified base into the edited transcript. Mammalian C-to-U RNA editing represents a distinct subtype of base modification, whose prototype is intestinal apolipoprotein B mRNA, mediated by the catalytic deaminase Apobec-1. However, the genome-wide identification, tissue-specificity and functional implications of Apobec-1-mediated C-to-U RNA editing remain incompletely explored. Results Deep sequencing, data filtering and Sanger-sequence validation of intestinal and hepatic RNA from wild-type and Apobec-1-deficient mice revealed 56 novel editing sites in 54 intestinal mRNAs and 22 novel sites in 17 liver mRNAs, all within 3? untranslated regions. Eleven of 17 liver RNAs shared editing sites with intestinal RNAs, while 6 sites are unique to liver. Changes in RNA editing lead to corresponding changes in intestinal mRNA and protein levels for 11 genes. Analysis of RNA editing in vivo following tissue-specific Apobec-1 adenoviral or transgenic Apobec-1 overexpression reveals that a subset of targets identified in wild-type mice are restored in Apobec-1-deficient mouse intestine and liver following Apobec-1 rescue. We find distinctive polysome profiles for several RNA editing targets and demonstrate novel exonic editing sites in nuclear preparations from intestine but not hepatic apolipoprotein B RNA. RNA editing is validated using cell-free extracts from wild-type but not Apobec-1-deficient mice, demonstrating that Apobec-1 is required. Conclusions These studies define selective, tissue-specific targets of Apobec-1-dependent RNA editing and show the functional consequences of editing are both transcript- and tissue-specific. PMID:24946870

2014-01-01

319

Characterization of psychrophilic alanine racemase from Bacillus psychrosaccharolyticus.  

PubMed

A psychrophilic alanine racemase gene from Bacillus psychrosaccharolyticus was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli SOLR with a plasmid pYOK3. The gene starting with the unusual initiation codon GTG showed higher preference for codons ending in A or T. The enzyme purified to homogeneity showed the high catalytic activity even at 0 degrees C and was extremely labile over 35 degrees C. The enzyme was found to have a markedly large Km value (5.0 microM) for the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) cofactor in comparison with other reported alanine racemases, and was stabilized up to 50 degrees C in the presence of excess amounts of PLP. The low affinity of the enzyme for PLP may be related to the thermolability, and may be related to the high catalytic activity, initiated by the transaldimination reaction, at low temperature. The enzyme has a distinguishing hydrophilic region around the residue no. 150 in the deduced amino acid sequence (383 residues), whereas the corresponding regions of other Bacillus alanine racemases are hydrophobic. The position of the region in the three dimensional structure of C atoms of the enzyme was predicted to be in a surface loop surrounding the active site. The region may interact with solvent and reduce the compactness of the active site. PMID:10080917

Okubo, Y; Yokoigawa, K; Esaki, N; Soda, K; Kawai, H

1999-03-16

320

Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell therapy for decompensated liver cirrhosis: A meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (BM-MSC) in the treatment of decompensated liver cirrhosis. METHODS: The search terms “bone marrow stem cell” “chronic liver disease” “transfusion” and “injection” were used in the Cochrane Library, Med-Line (Pub-Med) and Embase without any limitations with respect to publication date or language. Journals were also hand-searched and experts in the field were contacted. The studies which used BM-MSC in the treatment of any chronic liver disease were included. Comprehensive Review Manager and Meta-Analyst software were used for statistical analysis. Publication bias was evaluated using Begg’s test. RESULTS: Out of 78 studies identified, five studies were included in the final analysis. The studies were conducted in China, Iran, Egypt and Brazil. Analysis of pooled data of two controlled studies by Review Manager showed that the mean decline in scores for the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) was -1.23 [95%CI: -2.45-(-0.01)], -1.87 [95%CI: -3.16-(-0.58)], -2.01 [95%CI: -3.35-(-0.68)] at 2, 4 and 24 wk, respectively after transfusion. Meta-analysis of the 5 studies showed that the mean improvement in albumin levels was -0.28, 2.60, 5.28, 4.39 g/L at the end of 8, 16, 24, and 48 wk, respectively, after transfusion. MELD scores, alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin levels and prothrombin times improved to some extent. BM-MSC injections resulted in no serious adverse events or complications. CONCLUSION: BM-MSC infusion in the treatment of decompensated liver cirrhosis improved liver function. At the end of year 1, there were no serious side effects or complications. PMID:25320545

Pan, Xing-Nan; Zheng, Lian-Qiu; Lai, Xiao-Huan

2014-01-01

321

Liver fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Liver fibrosis is the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins including collagen that occurs in most types of chronic liver diseases. Advanced liver fibrosis results in cirrhosis, liver failure, and portal hypertension and often requires liver transplantation. Our knowledge of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of liver fibrosis has greatly advanced. Activated hepatic stellate cells, portal fibroblasts, and myofibroblasts of bone marrow origin have been identified as major collagen-producing cells in the injured liver. These cells are activated by fibrogenic cytokines such as TGF-?1, angiotensin II, and leptin. Reversibility of advanced liver fibrosis in patients has been recently documented, which has stimulated researchers to develop antifibrotic drugs. Emerging antifibrotic therapies are aimed at inhibiting the accumulation of fibrogenic cells and/or preventing the deposition of extracellular matrix proteins. Although many therapeutic interventions are effective in experimental models of liver fibrosis, their efficacy and safety in humans is unknown. This review summarizes recent progress in the study of the pathogenesis and diagnosis of liver fibrosis and discusses current antifibrotic strategies. PMID:15690074

Bataller, Ramón; Brenner, David A.

2005-01-01

322

Diet and Your Liver  

MedlinePLUS

... Liver How can alcohol and medicine affect the liver? Alcohol Alcohol can damage or destroy liver cells. ... Liver Foundation www.liverfoundation.org 1-800-GO-LIVER © 2009 American Liver Foundation. All rights reserved. Increasing ...

323

Peripheral vein infusion of autologous mesenchymal stem cells in Egyptian HCV-positive patients with end-stage liver disease  

PubMed Central

Introduction We have assessed the utility of autologous mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) peripheral vein infusion as a possible therapeutic modality for patients with end-stage liver diseases. Methods Forty patients with post-hepatitis C virus (HCV) end-stage liver disease were randomized into two groups: Group 1 (GI): 20 patients who received granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) for 5 days followed by autologous MSCs peripheral-vein infusion and group 2 (GII): 20 patients who received regular liver-supportive treatment only (control group). Results In MSC-infused patients (GI), 54% showed near normalization of liver enzymes and improvement in liver synthetic function. Significant changes were reported in albumin (P?=?0.000), bilirubin (P?=?0.002), increased international normalized ratio (INR) (P?=?0.017), prothrombin concentration (P?=?0.029) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels (P?=?0.029), with stabilization of clinical and biochemical status in 13% of cases. None of the patients in GII showed any significant improvement. Hepatic fibrosis was assessed in GI by detection of procollagen IIIC peptide level (PIIICP) and procollagen III N peptide level (PIIINP). The pretreatment values of s-PIIICP and s-PIIINP were 9.4?±?4.2 and 440?±?189, respectively, with a decrease to 8.1?±?2.6 and 388?±?102, respectively, 3 months after MSC therapy. However, the difference was statistically nonsignificant (P?=?0.7). A significant correlation coefficient was reported after 3 months between the s-PIIINP and prothrombin concentration (P?=?-0.5) and between s-PIIICP and ascites (P?=?0.550). Conclusions First, autologous MSC infusion into a peripheral vein is as effective as the previously reported intrahepatic infusion. Second, MSCs have a supportive role in the treatment of end-stage liver disease, with satisfactory tolerability and beneficial effects on liver synthetic functions and hepatic fibrosis. Third, IV infusion of MSCs after G-CSF mobilization improves s-albumin within the first 2 weeks and prothrombin concentration and alanine Taransaminase after 1 month. According to the data from this current study and those previously reported by our group, we recommend further studies on patients’ infusion with pure CD133 and CD34 followed by IV infusion of in vitro-differentiated MSCs within 1 week and another infusion after 3 months. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01729221. Registered 17 November 2012. PMID:24886681

2014-01-01

324

Structural, optical, spectral and thermal studies of nonlinear optical pure and deuterated l-alanine single crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

l-Alanine single crystals have been grown from H2O and D2O by slow evaporation and temperature lowering methods. The grown crystals were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction analysis and the vibrational frequencies of various functional groups in the crystals have been derived from FTIR spectrum. Optical transparency of the grown crystals was investigated by UV–vis–NIR spectrum. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was

K. Suriya Kumar; Thenneti Raghavalu; V. Mathivanan; M. Kovendhan; B. Sivakumar; G. Ramesh Kumar; S. Gokul Raj; R. Mohan

2008-01-01

325

Accelerated hepatic glycerol synthesis in rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) is fuelled directly by glucose and alanine: a 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance study.  

PubMed

At seawater temperatures below 1 degrees C, rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) accumulate plasma levels of glycerol up to 400 mM. Aspects of the synthesis of glycerol in liver and its regulation were previously investigated, but the pathways leading to glycerol synthesis remained unconfirmed. Here, we report nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies which elucidate, in more detail, the fuel sources for rapid glycerol synthesis in rainbow smelt. Initial NMR analysis of liver homogenates from fish held at cold (-1 degrees C) temperatures and from fish transferred from 8 degrees C to -1 degrees C showed elevated glycerol, whereas those from fish held at 8 degrees C had far lower glycerol levels. These results confirm a temperature-responsive glycerol synthesis and show that NMR is a suitable approach to investigate the phenomenon. Further studies with fish held at low temperature and injected with labelled L-[2,3-(13)C(2)] alanine or D-[U-(13)C(6)]glucose revealed conversion of both alanine and glucose to glycerol. (13)C spectra showed satellites ((1)J(CC)=41.1 Hz) about the glycerol resonances indicating intact incorporation of a (13)C-(13)C unit in liver glycerol of fish injected with L-[2,3-(13)C(2)]alanine and a (13)C-(13)C-(13)C unit in liver glycerol of fish injected with D[U-(13)C(6)]glucose. Thus, glycerol can be efficiently produced directly from amino acid precursors by glyceroneogenesis, which is an abbreviated gluconeogenesis process leading to glycerol through dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP). Glucose can also be metabolised to glycerol via an abbreviated form of glycolysis that similarly leads to glycerol through DHAP. PMID:16506225

Walter, John A; Ewart, K Vanya; Short, Connie E; Burton, Ian W; Driedzic, William R

2006-06-01

326

Diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease  

PubMed Central

Alcohol is a hepatotoxin that is commonly consumed worldwide and is associated with a spectrum of liver injury including simple steatosis or fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a general term used to refer to this spectrum of alcohol-related liver injuries. Excessive or harmful alcohol use is ranked as one of the top five risk factors for death and disability globally and results in 2.5 million deaths and 69.4 million annual disability adjusted life years. All patients who present with clinical features of hepatitis or chronic liver disease or who have elevated serum elevated transaminase levels should be screened for an alcohol use disorder. The diagnosis of ALD can generally be made based on history, clinical and laboratory findings. However, the diagnosis of ALD can be clinically challenging as there is no single diagnostic test that confirms the diagnosis and patients may not be forthcoming about their degree of alcohol consumption. In addition, clinical findings may be absent or minimal in early ALD characterized by hepatic steatosis. Typical laboratory findings in ALD include transaminase levels with aspartate aminotransferase greater than alanine aminotransferase as well as increased mean corpuscular volume, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, and IgA to IgG ratio. In unclear cases, the diagnosis can be supported by imaging and liver biopsy. The histological features of ALD can ultimately define the diagnosis according to the typical presence and distribution of hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and Mallory-Denk bodies. Because of the potential reversible nature of ALD with sobriety, regular screening of the general population and early diagnosis are essential. PMID:25206273

Torruellas, Cara; French, Samuel W; Medici, Valentina

2014-01-01

327

The prognostic value of functional and anatomical parameters for the selection of patients receiving yttrium-90 microspheres for the treatment of liver cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yttrium-90 (90Y) microsphere therapy is being utilized as a treatment option for patients with primary and metastatic liver cancer due to its ability to target tumors within the liver. The success of this treatment is dependent on many factors, including the extent and type of disease and the nature of prior treatments received. Metabolic activity, as determined by PET imaging, may correlate with the number of viable cancer cells and reflect changes in viable cancer cell volume. However, contouring of PET images by hand is labor intensive and introduces an element of irreproducibility into the determination of functional target/tumor volume (FTV). A computer-assisted method to aid in the automatic contouring of FTV has the potential to substantially improve treatment individualization and outcome assessment. Commercial software to determine FTV in FDG-avid primary and metastatic liver tumors has been evaluated and optimized. Volumes determined using the automated technique were compared to those from manually drawn contours identified using the same cutoff in the standard uptake value (SUV). The reproducibility of FTV is improved through the introduction of an optimal threshold value determined from phantom experiments. Application of the optimal threshold value from the phantom experiments to patient scans was in good agreement with hand-drawn determinations of the FTV. It is concluded that computer-assisted contouring of the FTV for primary and metastatic liver tumors improves reproducibility and increases accuracy, especially when combined with the selection of an optimal SUV threshold determined from phantom experiments. A method to link the pre-treatment assessment of functional (PET based) and anatomical (CT based) parameters to post-treatment survival and time to progression was evaluated in 22 patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases treated using 90Y microspheres and chemotherapy. The values for pre-treatment parameters that were the best predictors of response were determined for FTV, anatomical tumor volume, total lesion glycolysis, and the tumor marker, CEA. Of the parameters considered, the best predictors of response were found to be pre-treatment FTV ?153 cm3, ATV ?163 cm3, TLG ?144 g in the chemo-SIRT treated field, and CEA ?11.6 ng/mL.

Mesoloras, Geraldine

328

Health effects of selected nanoparticlesin vivo: Liver function and hepatotoxicity following intravenous injection of titanium dioxide and Na-oleate coated iron oxide nanoparticles in rodents.  

PubMed

Abstract The study determined the effect of i.v. administration of acutely toxic or sub-lethal doses of Na-oleate coated Fe3O4 (OC-Fe3O4) NPs on liver structure and function in Wistar rats, compared to TiO2 NPs and saline injected controls. The acute study, using a modified OECD 425 progressive dosing procedure, found LD50 values of 59.22 and 36.42 mg/kg for TiO2and OC- Fe3O4NPs respectively. In the sub-lethal study rats were either injected with saline (negative controls), a sub-lethal reference (0.592 mg/kg TiO2 NPs, equal to 1% of LD50 on a body weight basis); or OC-Fe3O4 NPs in doses equivalent to 0.1, 1 or 10% of the LD50 respectively (corresponding to 0.0364, 0.364, and 3.64 mg Fe3O4 /kg body weight). Animals were sampled 24 h, 1, 2, and 4 weeks post-injection for adverse effects. Mitochondrial respiration was significantly increased 2 weeks after injection of 10 % OC-Fe3O4 NPs compared to controls, but the effect was transient. Cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations in the liver tissue did not increase in any treatment. There were some disturbances to antioxidant enzymes after OC-Fe3O4 NPs treatment in the livers of animals one week post-exposure; with the most sensitive changes occurring in glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities. Lipidosis and mild necrosis with changes in sinusoid space were also observed in histological sections of the liver. Overall, these data suggest that the liver likely retains functional integrity with acute and sub-lethal doses of OC-Fe3O4 NPs, albeit with some stimulation of redox defences and evidence of some tissue injury. PMID:23763576

Volkovova, Katarina; Ulicna, Olga; Kucharska, Jarmila; Handy, Richard; Staruchova, Marta; Kebis, Anton; Pribojova, Jana; Tulinska, Jana; Dusinska, Maria

2013-06-13

329

Simultaneous determination of glucose turnover, alanine turnover, and gluconeogenesis in human using a double stable-isotope-labeled tracer infusion and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis  

SciTech Connect

We have developed and validated a new method to measure simultaneously glucose turnover, alanine turnover, and gluconeogenesis in human, in steady and non-steady states, using a double stable-isotope-labeled tracer infusion and GC-MS analysis. The method is based on the concomitant infusion and dilution of D-(2,3,4,6,6-2H5)glucose and L-(1,2,3-13C3)alanine. The choice of the tracers was done on the basis of a minimal overlap between the ions of interest and those arising from natural isotopic abundances. Alanine was chosen as the gluconeogenic substrate because it is the major gluconeogenic amino acid extracted by the liver and, with lactate, constitutes the bulk of the gluconeogenic precursors. The method was validated by comparing the results obtained during simultaneous infusion of trace amounts of both stable isotope labeled compounds with the radioactive tracers (D-(3-3H)glucose and L-(1,2,3-14C3)alanine) in a normal and a diabetic subject; the radiolabeled tracers were used as the accepted reference procedure. A slight overestimation of glucose turnover (7.3 versus 6.8 in normal and 10.8 versus 9.2 mumol/kg min in diabetic subject) was noticed when the stable isotope-labeled tracers were used. For the basal turnover rate of alanine, similar values were obtained with both methods (6.2 mumol/kg min). For gluconeogenesis, higher values were observed in the basal state with the stable isotopes (0.42 versus 0.21 mumol/kg min); however, these differences disappeared in the postprandial period after the ingestion of a mixed meal. Despite those minor differences, the overall correlation with the reference method was excellent for glucose turnover (r = 0.87) and gluconeogenesis (r = 0.86).

Martineau, A.; Lecavalier, L.; Falardeau, P.; Chiasson, J.L.

1985-12-01

330

Ov-APR-1, an aspartic protease from the carcinogenic liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini: Functional expression, immunolocalization and subsite specificity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini is endemic in Thailand, Laos and Cambodia where long standing infection is associated with cancer of the bile ducts, cholangiocarcinoma. Here we describe a cathepsin D-like aspartic protease from the gut and other tissues in O. viverrini. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Ov-APR-1 is cathepsin D-like, conforming with Clan AA, Family A1 of the MEROPS

Sutas Suttiprapa; Jason Mulvenna; Ngo Thi Huong; Mark S. Pearson; Paul J. Brindley; Thewarach Laha; Sopit Wongkham; Sasithorn Kaewkes; Banchob Sripa; Alex Loukas

2009-01-01

331

Comparative genomics and experimental promoter analysis reveal functional liver-specific elements in mammalian hepatic lipase genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Mammalian hepatic lipase (HL) genes are transcribed almost exclusively in hepatocytes. The basis for this liver-restricted expression is not completely understood. We hypothesized that the responsible cis-acting elements are conserved among mammalian HL genes. To identify these elements, we made a genomic comparison of 30 kb of 5'-flanking region of the rat, mouse, rhesus monkey, and human HL genes.

Diederik van Deursen; Gert-Jan Botma; Hans Jansen; Adrie JM Verhoeven

2007-01-01

332

A comparative integrated transcript analysis and functional characterization of differential mechanisms for induction of liver hypertrophy in the rat  

SciTech Connect

The main goal of the present work was to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying liver hypertrophy (LH), a recurrent finding observed following acute or repeated drug administration to animals, using transcriptomic technologies together with the results from conventional toxicology methods. Administration of 5 terminated proprietary drug candidates from participating companies involved in the EU Innomed PredTox Project or the reference hepatotoxicant troglitazone to rats for up to a 14-day duration induced LH as the main liver phenotypic toxicity outcome. The integrated analysis of transcriptomic liver expression data across studies turned out to be the most informative approach for the generation of mechanistic models of LH. In response to a xenobiotic stimulus, a marked increase in the expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XME) was observed in a subset of 4 studies. Accumulation of these newly-synthesized proteins within the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) would suggest proliferation of this organelle, which most likely is the main molecular process underlying the LH observed in XME studies. In another subset of 2 studies (including troglitazone), a marked up-regulation of genes involved in peroxisomal fatty acid {beta}-oxidation was noted, associated with induction of genes involved in peroxisome proliferation. Therefore, an increase in peroxisome abundance would be the main mechanism underlying LH noted in this second study subset. Together, the use of transcript profiling provides a means to generate putative mechanistic models underlying the pathogenesis of liver hypertrophy, to distinguish between subtle variations in subcellular organelle proliferation and creates opportunities for improved mechanism-based risk assessment.

Boitier, Eric, E-mail: eric.boitier@sanofi-aventis.com [sanofi aventis R and D, Disposition, Safety and Animal Research, Vitry sur Seine (France); Amberg, Alexander [sanofi aventis R and D, Disposition, Safety and Animal Research, Frankfurt (Germany); Barbie, Valerie [Merck Serono S.A., Stratified Medicine, Geneva (Switzerland); Blichenberg, Arne [Nycomed GmbH, Institute for Pharmacology and Preclinical Drug Safety, Barsbuettel (Germany); Brandenburg, Arnd; Gmuender, Hans [Genedata AG, Basel (Switzerland); Gruhler, Albrecht [Novo Nordisk A/S, Protein Science, Malov (Denmark); McCarthy, Diane [Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA (United States); Meyer, Kirstin; Riefke, Bjoern; Raschke, Marian [Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Investigational Toxicology, Berlin (Germany); Schoonen, Willem [MSD, Toxicology and Drug Disposition, Oss (Netherlands); Sieber, Maximilian [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Institut fuer Toxikologie, Wuerzburg (Germany); Suter, Laura [Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., Investigative Toxicology, Basel (Switzerland); Thomas, Craig E. [Eli Lilly and Company, Investigative Toxicology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Sajot, Nicolas [Servier, Drug Safety Assessment, Orleans-Gidy (France)

2011-04-15

333

Life-threatening postpartum hemolysis, elevated liver functions tests, low platelets syndrome versus thrombocytopenic purpura - Therapeutic plasma exchange is the answer.  

PubMed

The differential diagnosis of life-threatening microangiopathic disorders in a postpartum female includes severe preeclampsia-eclampsia, hemolysis, elevated liver functions tests, low platelets syndrome and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. There is considerable overlapping in the clinical and laboratory findings between these conditions, and hence an exact diagnosis may not be always possible. However, there is considerable maternal mortality and morbidity associated with these disorders. This case underlines the complexity of pregnancy-related microangiopathies regarding their differential diagnosis, multiple organ dysfunction and role of therapeutic plasma exchange in their management. PMID:21814380

Nasa, Prashant; Dua, J M; Kansal, Sudha; Chadha, Geeta; Chawla, Rajesh; Manchanda, Manav

2011-04-01

334

Life-threatening postpartum hemolysis, elevated liver functions tests, low platelets syndrome versus thrombocytopenic purpura – Therapeutic plasma exchange is the answer  

PubMed Central

The differential diagnosis of life-threatening microangiopathic disorders in a postpartum female includes severe preeclampsia–eclampsia, hemolysis, elevated liver functions tests, low platelets syndrome and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. There is considerable overlapping in the clinical and laboratory findings between these conditions, and hence an exact diagnosis may not be always possible. However, there is considerable maternal mortality and morbidity associated with these disorders. This case underlines the complexity of pregnancy-related microangiopathies regarding their differential diagnosis, multiple organ dysfunction and role of therapeutic plasma exchange in their management. PMID:21814380

Nasa, Prashant; Dua, J. M.; Kansal, Sudha; Chadha, Geeta; Chawla, Rajesh; Manchanda, Manav

2011-01-01

335

Rotational isomers of N-(?-phenylpropionyl)alanine ethyl dithioester: a Raman spectroscopic and MO study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman spectra of N-(?-phenylpropionyl)alanine ethyl dithioester (C 6H 5CH 2CH 2C(?O)NHCH(CH 3)C(?S)SC 2H 5) in CCl 4 and CH 3CN solutions were measured as a function of temperature and the enthalpy differences (? H) between rotational isomers differing by internal rotation around the NH?CH(CH 3) and CH(CH 3)?C(?S) bonds (forms A, B and C 5) were evaluated from relative band intensities. The spectroscopic results are consistent with a greater thermodynamical stability of the B-type conformer, where the N and S (thiol) atoms are in close contact. In addition, a comparison of the measured ? H(A-B) for the present molecules with previously reported values for a series of similar glycine-based ethyl dithioesters shows that the presence of the extra CH 3 group at the ?-carbon atom leads to a stabilization of the B-type conformer relative to the A-type form in the alanine-based dithioester. Semiempirical AM1 molecular orbital calculations were also performed on the title molecule and on its glycine analogue, N(?-phenylpropionyl)glycine ethyl dithioester. In general terms, the results of these calculations agree with the experimental findings, thus providing good theoretical support for the experimental data.

Fausto, R.; Teixeira-Dias, J. J. C.; Tonge, P. J.; Carey, P. R.

1994-07-01

336

Free-energy profile along an isomerization pathway: Conformational isomerization in alanine dipeptide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The free-energy profile for the conformational isomerization process in alanine dipeptide is presented in atomistic detail by using an action-derived molecular dynamics (ADMD) method and replica-exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) method. First, by employing ADMD, a dynamic isomerization pathway model of the alanine dipeptide with two available low-energy conformations, C7 ax and C7 eq , is determined. The pathway model is chosen to be the reaction coordinate, so the isomerization process is characterized by the ADMD step index, which is not an a-priori reaction coordinate as found in conventional studies of molecular conformational changes. Second, by employing the REMD method, the free-energy profile is calculated as a function of temperature. This couple of procedures is a quite natural protocol for conformational isomerization process simulations, irrespective of the arbitrary selection of the reaction coordinate. The alliance between the two simulation methods, ADMD and REMD, is demonstrated to have a great synergy effect on understanding the conformational changes in molecules.

Lee, In-Ho

2013-02-01

337

Precision in liver surgery.  

PubMed

Continuous theoretical and technological progress in the face of increasing expectations for quality health care has transformed the surgical paradigm. The authors systematically review these historical trends and propose the novel paradigm of "precision surgery," featuring certainty-based practice to ensure the best result for each patient with multiobjective optimization of therapeutic effectiveness, surgical safety, and minimal invasiveness. The main characteristics of precision surgery may be summarized as determinacy, predictability, controllability, integration, standardization, and individualization. The strategy of precision in liver surgery is to seek a balance of maximizing the removal of the target lesion, while maximizing the functional liver remnant and minimizing surgical invasiveness. In this article, the authors demonstrate the application of precision approaches in specific settings in complex liver surgery. They propose that the concept of precision surgery should be considered for wider application in liver surgery and other fields as a step toward the ultimate goal of perfect surgery. PMID:23943100

Dong, Jiahong; Yang, Shizhong; Zeng, Jianping; Cai, Shouwang; Ji, Wenbin; Duan, Weidong; Zhang, Aiqun; Ren, Weizheng; Xu, Yinzhe; Tan, Jingwang; Bu, Xiangyang; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Xuedong; Wang, Xianqiang; Meng, Xiangfei; Jiang, Kai; Gu, Wanqing; Huang, Zhiqiang

2013-08-01

338

Hot topics in liver anesthesia.  

PubMed

Anesthetic techniques for liver surgery still have many controversial issues for anesthesiologists who want to provide optimal care for their patients. There are unanswered questions: What is the best technique to prevent excessive blood loss during live donor liver dissection? What is the proper compromise of filling pressures to reduce bleeding and not compromise vital organ function? Epidural analgesia, an established method for pain relief, carries a risk of epidural hematoma formation in liver resections and especially liver transplantation because of compromised coagulation. New inhalation anesthetics would be ideal for liver surgery except for their potential for renal failure, and the IV agent propofol may have insufficient metabolism when liver function is absent. Several recent studies are reviewed to elucidate these questions. PMID:18555145

Lukanovic, N P

2008-05-01

339

Inelastic neutron scattering, Raman, vibrational analysis with anharmonic corrections, and scaled quantum mechanical force field for polycrystalline L-alanine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scaled quantum mechanical harmonic force field (SQMFF) corrected for anharmonicity is obtained for the 23 K L-alanine crystal structure using van der Waals corrected periodic boundary condition density functional theory (DFT) calculations with the PBE functional. Scale factors are obtained with comparisons to inelastic neutron scattering (INS), Raman, and FT-IR spectra of polycrystalline L-alanine at 15-23 K. Calculated frequencies for all 153 normal modes differ from observed frequencies with a standard deviation of 6 wavenumbers. Non-bonded external k = 0 lattice modes are included, but assignments to these modes are presently ambiguous. The extension of SQMFF methodology to lattice modes is new, as are the procedures used here for providing corrections for anharmonicity and van der Waals interactions in DFT calculations on crystals. First principles Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (BOMD) calculations are performed on the L-alanine crystal structure at a series of classical temperatures ranging from 23 K to 600 K. Corrections for zero-point energy (ZPE) are estimated by finding the classical temperature that reproduces the mean square displacements (MSDs) measured from the diffraction data at 23 K. External k = 0 lattice motions are weakly coupled to bonded internal modes.

Williams, Robert W.; Schlücker, Sebastian; Hudson, Bruce S.

2008-01-01

340

Radiation-Associated Liver Injury  

SciTech Connect

The liver is a critically important organ that has numerous functions including the production of bile, metabolism of ingested nutrients, elimination of many waste products, glycogen storage, and plasma protein synthesis. The liver is often incidentally irradiated during radiation therapy (RT) for tumors in the upper- abdomen, right lower lung, distal esophagus, or during whole abdomen or whole body RT. This article describes the endpoints, time-course, and dose-volume effect of radiation on the liver.

Pan, Charlie C., E-mail: cpan@umich.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kavanagh, Brian D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO (United States); Dawson, Laura A. [Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Li, X. Allen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Das, Shiva K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Miften, Moyed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO (United States); Ten Haken, Randall K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

2010-03-01

341

Effects of ergot alkaloids in feed on performance and liver function of piglets as evaluated by the ¹³C-methacetin breath test.  

PubMed

Ergot alkaloids (the sum of individual alkaloids is termed as total alkaloids, TA) are mycotoxins of the fungus Claviceps purpurea and might adversely affect the performance and aspects of liver physiology of pigs. The objective of the study was to assess the effect of feeding ergot alkaloids to piglets on performance and liver function by using the ¹³C-methacetin breath test. Two ergot batches were mixed into piglet diets resulting in 5 and 6 mg (Ergot 17-low and -high) and 9 and 21 mg TA/kg (Ergot 19-low and -high) and compared to an ergot free Control group. Feed intake and live weight gain decreased significantly with the TA content (p = 0.006). The time of the maximum ¹³CO?-exhalation (t (max)) occurred significantly earlier in Control piglets (8.9 min) compared to the groups Ergot 17-high and Ergot 19-high (24.7 and 23.6 min, respectively, p = 0.014) whilst the elimination half-life remained uninfluenced by dietary treatments (55-64 min). The cumulative ¹³CO?-recovery (cPDR) was significantly reduced in piglets fed the Ergot 19-high diet (7.6%) compared to the groups Control and Ergot 17-high (13.1% and 10.8%, respectively, p = 0.011). In conclusion, the TA content of the diets is closer related to the adverse effects of ergot on piglet performance than the dietary ergot content itself. The mechanisms by which TA affects porcine liver function need to be studied further. PMID:23301866

Dänicke, Sven; Diers, Sonja

2013-02-01

342

Direct and indirect effects of kisspeptin on liver oxidant and antioxidant systems in young male rats.  

PubMed

Kisspeptin is a recently discovered hypothalamic peptide which plays an important role in the central control of reproductive functions. We have investigated direct and indirect effects of kisspeptin on the liver oxidative stress in young male rats. Twenty-four rats were divided into four groups (n = 6/group). First group served as control and received saline. Kisspeptin-10 was administered to the animals in the second group (20 nmol/rat/day), for a period of 7 days. Rats were given only one dose gosereline (0.9 mg/rat), a GnRH agonist in the third group. The last group received kisspeptin-10 with gosereline. The activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), xanthine oxidase (XO), adenosine deaminase (AD) and level of malondialdehyde were studied in liver tissue. Serum samples were separated for total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), colesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglyceride. Kisspeptin increased the activities of SOD and catalase (p < 0.05). When compared to the control group, the levels of malondialdehyde, TOS and AST were lower, but levels of BUN, cholesterole, HDL and AD were higher in the other three groups (p < 0.05). In conclusion, our findings suggest that kisspeptin may have antioxidant and thus protective effects on the liver tissue. PMID:20517893

Aydin, M; Oktar, S; Yonden, Z; Ozturk, O H; Yilmaz, B

2010-06-01

343

DCE-MRI of the Liver: Reconstruction of the Arterial Input Function Using a Low Dose Pre-Bolus Contrast Injection  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess the quality of the arterial input function (AIF) reconstructed using a dedicated pre-bolus low-dose contrast material injection imaged with a high temporal resolution and the resulting estimated liver perfusion parameters. Materials and Methods In this IRB–approved prospective study, 24 DCE-MRI examinations were performed in 21 patients with liver disease (M/F 17/4, mean age 56 y). The examination consisted of 1.3 mL and 0.05 mmol/kg of gadobenate dimeglumine for pre-bolus and main bolus acquisitions, respectively. The concentration-curve of the abdominal aorta in the pre-bolus acquisition was used to reconstruct the AIF. AIF quality and shape parameters obtained with pre-bolus and main bolus acquisitions and the resulting estimated hepatic perfusion parameters obtained with a dual-input single compartment model were compared between the 2 methods. Test–retest reproducibility of perfusion parameters were assessed in three patients. Results The quality of the pre-bolus AIF curve was significantly better than that of main bolus AIF. Shape parameters peak concentration, area under the time activity curve of gadolinium contrast at 60 s and upslope of pre-bolus AIF were all significantly higher, while full width at half maximum was significantly lower than shape parameters of main bolus AIF. Improved liver perfusion parameter reproducibility was observed using pre-bolus acquisition [coefficient of variation (CV) of 4.2%–38.7% for pre-bolus vs. 12.1–71.4% for main bolus] with the exception of distribution volume (CV of 23.6% for pre-bolus vs. 15.8% for main bolus). The CVs between pre-bolus and main bolus for the perfusion parameters were lower than 14%. Conclusion The AIF reconstructed with pre-bolus low dose contrast injection displays better quality and shape parameters and enables improved liver perfusion parameter reproducibility, although the resulting liver perfusion parameters demonstrated no clinically significant differences between pre-bolus and main bolus acquisitions. PMID:25546176

Jajamovich, Guido H.; Calcagno, Claudia; Dyvorne, Hadrien A.; Rusinek, Henry; Taouli, Bachir

2014-01-01

344

Occult Hepatitis B Virus Among the Patients With Abnormal Alanine Transaminase  

PubMed Central

Background: The occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is defined as the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in the sera or in the liver biopsy and the absence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) by serological test. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate the occult HBV infection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and determine HBV genotyping among the patients with abnormal alanine transaminase (ALT) in Ahvaz city, Iran. Patients and Methods: The sera of 120 patients, 54 (45%) females and 66 (55%) males, with abnormal ALT 40-152 IU were collected. All the patients were negative for HBsAg for more than one year. The patients` sera were tested by PCR using primers specified for the S region of HBV. Then the positive PCR products were sequenced to determine HBV genotyping and phylogenic tree. Results: Of these 120 subjects, 12 (10%) patients including 6 (5%) males and 6 (5%) females were found positive for HBV DNA by PCR, which indicated the presence of occult HBV infection among these patients. The sequencing results revealed that genotype D was predominant with sub-genotyping D1 among OBI patients. Conclusions: Occult hepatitis B infection is remarkably prevalent in Ahvaz, Iran, and should be considered as a potential risk factor for the transmission of Hepatitis B Virus throughout the community by the carriers. PMID:25485052

Makvandi, Manoochehr; Neisi, Niloofar; Khalafkhany, Davod; Makvandi, Kamyar; Hajiani, Eskandar; Shayesteh, Ali Akbar; Masjedi Zadeh, Abdolrahim; Sina, Amir Hosein; Hamidifard, Mojtaba; Rasti, Mojtaba; Aryan, Ehsan; Ahmadi, Kambiz; Yad Yad, Mohammad Jafar

2014-01-01

345

Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 1a1 Null Mice Are Sensitive to Cholestatic Liver Injury  

PubMed Central

Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1 (Oatp1a1) is predominantly expressed in livers of mice and is thought to transport bile acids (BAs) from blood into liver. Because Oatp1a1 expression is markedly decreased in mice after bile duct ligation (BDL). We hypothesized that Oatp1a1-null mice would be protected against liver injury during BDL-induced cholestasis due largely to reduced hepatic uptake of BAs. To evaluate this hypothesis, BDL surgeries were performed in both male wild-type (WT) and Oatp1a1-null mice. At 24 h after BDL, Oatp1a1-null mice showed higher serum alanine aminotransferase levels and more severe liver injury than WT mice, and all Oatp1a1-null mice died within 4 days after BDL, whereas all WT mice survived. At 24 h after BDL, surprisingly Oatp1a1-null mice had higher total BA concentrations in livers than WT mice, suggesting that loss of Oatp1a1 did not prevent BA accumulation in the liver. In addition, secondary BAs dramatically increased in serum of Oatp1a1-null BDL mice but not in WT BDL mice. Oatp1a1-null BDL mice had similar basolateral BA uptake (Na+-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide and Oatp1b2) and BA-efflux (multidrug resistance–associated protein [Mrp]-3, Mrp4, and organic solute transporter ?/?) transporters, as well as BA-synthetic enzyme (Cyp7a1) in livers as WT BDL mice. Hepatic expression of small heterodimer partner Cyp3a11, Cyp4a14, and Nqo1, which are target genes of farnesoid X receptor, pregnane X receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, and NF-E2-related factor 2, respectively, were increased in WT BDL mice but not in Oatp1a1-null BDL mice. These results demonstrate that loss of Oatp1a1 function exacerbates cholestatic liver injury in mice and suggest that Oatp1a1 plays a unique role in liver adaptive responses to obstructive cholestasis. PMID:22461449

Zhang, Youcai; Csanaky, Iván L.; Cheng, Xingguo; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D.; Klaassen, Curtis D.

2012-01-01

346

Beneficial effects of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive K+ channel opener on liver ischemia/reperfusion injury  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effect of diazoxide administration on liver ischemia/reperfusion injury. METHODS: Wistar male rats underwent partial liver ischemia performed by clamping the pedicle from the medium and left anterior lateral segments for 1 h under mechanical ventilation. They were divided into 3 groups: Control Group, rats submitted to liver manipulation, Saline Group, rats received saline, and Diazoxide Group, rats received intravenous injection diazoxide (3.5 mg/kg) 15 min before liver reperfusion. 4 h and 24 h after reperfusion, blood was collected for determination of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), nitrite/nitrate, creatinine and tumor growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1). Liver tissues were assembled for mitochondrial oxidation and phosphorylation, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and histologic analysis. Pulmonary vascular permeability and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were also determined. RESULTS: Four hours after reperfusion the diazoxide group presented with significant reduction of AST (2009 ± 257 U/L vs 3523 ± 424 U/L, P = 0.005); ALT (1794 ± 295 U/L vs 3316 ± 413 U/L, P = 0.005); TNF-? (17 ± 9 pg/mL vs 152 ± 43 pg/mL, P = 0.013; IL-6 (62 ± 18 pg/mL vs 281 ± 92 pg/mL); IL-10 (40 ± 9 pg/mL vs 78 ± 10 pg/mL P = 0.03), and nitrite/nitrate (3.8 ± 0.9 ?mol/L vs 10.2 ± 2.4 ?mol/L, P = 0.025) when compared to the saline group. A significant reduction in liver mitochondrial dysfunction was observed in the diazoxide group compared to the saline group (P < 0.05). No differences in liver MDA content, serum creatinine, pulmonary vascular permeability and MPO activity were observed between groups. Twenty four hours after reperfusion the diazoxide group showed a reduction of AST (495 ± 78 U/L vs 978 ± 192 U/L, P = 0.032); ALT (335 ± 59 U/L vs 742 ± 182 U/L, P = 0.048), and TGF-?1 (11 ± 1 ng/mL vs 17 ± 0.5 ng/mL, P = 0.004) serum levels when compared to the saline group. The control group did not present alterations when compared to the diazoxide and saline groups. CONCLUSION: Diazoxide maintains liver mitochondrial function, increases liver tolerance to ischemia/reperfusion injury, and reduces the systemic inflammatory response. These effects require further evaluation for using in a clinical setting. PMID:25386080

Nogueira, Mateus Antunes; Coelho, Ana Maria Mendonça; Sampietre, Sandra Nassa; Patzina, Rosely Antunes; Pinheiro da Silva, Fabiano; D'Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto Carneiro; Machado, Marcel Cerqueira Cesar

2014-01-01

347

Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1 null mice are sensitive to cholestatic liver injury.  

PubMed

Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1 (Oatp1a1) is predominantly expressed in livers of mice and is thought to transport bile acids (BAs) from blood into liver. Because Oatp1a1 expression is markedly decreased in mice after bile duct ligation (BDL). We hypothesized that Oatp1a1-null mice would be protected against liver injury during BDL-induced cholestasis due largely to reduced hepatic uptake of BAs. To evaluate this hypothesis, BDL surgeries were performed in both male wild-type (WT) and Oatp1a1-null mice. At 24 h after BDL, Oatp1a1-null mice showed higher serum alanine aminotransferase levels and more severe liver injury than WT mice, and all Oatp1a1-null mice died within 4 days after BDL, whereas all WT mice survived. At 24 h after BDL, surprisingly Oatp1a1-null mice had higher total BA concentrations in livers than WT mice, suggesting that loss of Oatp1a1 did not prevent BA accumulation in the liver. In addition, secondary BAs dramatically increased in serum of Oatp1a1-null BDL mice but not in WT BDL mice. Oatp1a1-null BDL mice had similar basolateral BA uptake (Na(+)-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide and Oatp1b2) and BA-efflux (multidrug resistance-associated protein [Mrp]-3, Mrp4, and organic solute transporter ?/?) transporters, as well as BA-synthetic enzyme (Cyp7a1) in livers as WT BDL mice. Hepatic expression of small heterodimer partner Cyp3a11, Cyp4a14, and Nqo1, which are target genes of farnesoid X receptor, pregnane X receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, and NF-E2-related factor 2, respectively, were increased in WT BDL mice but not in Oatp1a1-null BDL mice. These results demonstrate that loss of Oatp1a1 function exacerbates cholestatic liver injury in mice and suggest that Oatp1a1 plays a unique role in liver adaptive responses to obstructive cholestasis. PMID:22461449

Zhang, Youcai; Csanaky, Iván L; Cheng, Xingguo; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D; Klaassen, Curtis D

2012-06-01

348

Delayed ethanol elimination and enhanced susceptibility to ethanol-induced hepatosteatosis after liver resection  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis after liver resection and the mechanisms behind it. METHODS: First, the preliminary examination was performed on 6 sham-operated (Sham) and 30 partial hepatectomy (PH) male Wistar rats (8-wk-old) to evaluate the recovery of the liver weight and liver function after liver resection. PH rats were sacrificed at the indicated time points (4, 8, and 12 h; 1, 3, and 7 d) after PH. Second, the time point for the beginning of the chronic ethanol exposure (1 wk after sham- or PH-operation) was determined based on the results of the preliminary examination. Finally, pair-feeding was performed with a controlled diet or with a 5-g/dL ethanol liquid diet for 28 d in another 35 age-matched male Wistar rats with a one-week recovery after undergoing a sham- (n = 15) or PH-operation (n = 20) to evaluate the ethanol-induced liver injury after liver resection. Hepatic steatosis, liver function, fatty acid synthase (Fas) gene expression level, the expression of lipid metabolism-associated enzyme regulator genes [sterol regulatory element binding protein (Srebp)-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Ppar)-?], the mediators that alter lipid metabolism [plasminogen activator (Pai)-1 gene expression level and tumor necrosis factor (Tnf)-? production], and hepatic class-1 alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh1)-associated ethanol elimination were investigated in the 4 groups based on histological, immunohistochemical, biochemical, Western blotting, reverse transcriptase chain reaction, and blood ethanol concentration analyses. The relevant gene expression levels, liver weight, and liver function were assessed before and 1 wk after surgery to determine the subject’s recovery from the liver resection using the rats that had been subjected to the preliminary examination. RESULTS: In the PH rats, ethanol induced marked hepatic steatosis with impaired liver functioning, as evidenced by the accumulation of fatty droplets within the hepatocytes, the higher increases in their hepatic triglyceride and blood alanine aminotransferase and blood aspartate aminotransferase levels after the 28-d pair-feeding period. The Sham-ethanol rats, not the PH-ethanol rats, demonstrated the up-regulation of Srebp-1 and the down-regulation of Ppar-? mRNA expression levels after the 28-d pair-feeding period. The 28-d ethanol administration induced the up-regulation of Pai-1 gene expression level and an overproduction of TNF-? in the Sham and the PH rats; however, the effect was more significant in the PH rats. The PH-ethanol rats (n = 4) showed higher residual blood ethanol concentrations than did the Sham-ethanol rats (n = 6) after a 5-h fast (0.66 ± 0.4 mg/mL vs 0.2 ± 0.1 mg/mL, P < 0.05); these effects manifested without up-regulation of Adh1 gene expression, which was present in the Sham-ethanol group after the 28-d pair-feeding period. One week after the liver resection, the liver weight, function, the gene expression levels of Fas, Srebp-1, Ppar-?, Pai-1 and Tnf-? recovered; however, the Adh1 gene expression did not recover in rats. CONCLUSION: Desensitization to post-hepatectomy ethanol treatment and slow recovery from PH in Adh1 gene expression enhanced the susceptibility to ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis after PH in rats.

Liu, Xu; Hakucho, Ayako; Liu, Jinyao; Fujimiya, Tatsuya

2014-01-01

349

Causes of Persistently Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase Levels in Patients who Presented to Two Referral Hospitals in Mashhad, Iran during 2011  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Worldwide, chronic liver disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Causes of elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels vary depending on the population under study. The aim of this study is to evaluate the frequency and causes of persistently elevated ALT levels in patients of the Gastroenterology (GI) Clinics in Ghaem and Emam Reza Hospitals in Mashhad, Iran. METHODS A total of 100 consecutive patients with persistently elevated ALT levels that referred to the GI Clinics at Ghaem and Emam Reza Hospitals in 2011 were studied. Elevated levels were defined as ALT ?40 U/L at least twice within six months. A comprehensive history that included previous surgeries, transfusion, alcohol consumption and medications was obtained. Patients underwent physical examinations, laboratory analyses and ultrasonography studies. When necessary, liver biopsies were performed. RESULTS Patients’ mean age was 44.4 ± 11.83 years. Females comprised 62% of cases. Patients presented with the following conditions: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, 55%), hepatitis B (17%), autoimmune hepatitis (13%), hepatitis C (4%), autoimmune hepatitis and hepatitis C (2%), overlapping autoimmune disease (2%), Wilson disease (1%), celiac disease (1%), alcoholiche patitis (1%), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC, 1%), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC, 1%), and cryptogenic (2%). CONCLUSION NAFLD was the most common cause of persistently elevated serum ALT levels in this study. PMID:24829700

Khorashad, Ahmad; Vossoughinia, Hassan; Saadatnia, Hassan; Esmaelzadeh, Abbas; Ahadi, Mitra; Farzanehfar, Mohammad Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Mossareza; Afzalaghaii, Monavvar; Amirmajdi, Elham; Barari, Linda; Saadatnia, Farzad

2014-01-01

350

Altered expression and function of canalicular transporters during early development of cholestatic liver injury in Abcb4-deficient mice.  

PubMed

Deficiency of ABCB4 is associated with several forms of cholestasis in humans. Abcb4(-/-) mice also develop cholestasis, but it remains uncertain what role other canalicular transporters play in the development of this disease. We examined the expression of these transporters in Abcb4(-/-) mice compared with their wild-type littermate controls at ages of 10 days and 3, 6, and 12 wk. Elevated plasma bile acid levels were already detected at 10 days and at all ages thereafter in Abcb4(-/-) mice. The expression of Bsep, Mrp2, Atp8b1, Abcg5, and Abcg8 liver proteins did not change at 10 days, but Bsep, Mrp2, and Atp8b1 were reduced, whereas Abcg5 and Abcg8 expression were increased in Abcb4(-/-) mice at all later ages. Lower bile acid concentrations were also detected in the bile of 6-wk-old Abcb4(-/-) mice. Immunofluorescence labeling revealed distorted canalicular architecture in the liver tissue by 12 wk in Abcb4(-/-) mice. Whereas Bsep and Mrp2 remained associated with the apical membrane, Atp8b1 was now localized in discrete punctuate structures adjacent to the canalicular membrane in these mice. Expression of Bsep mRNA was increased in the livers of 10-day-old Abcb4(-/-) mice, whereas Ost-? was decreased. By 12 wk, Bsep, Mrp2, and Abcg5 mRNA were all increased, whereas Ost-? and Ntcp were reduced. These findings indicate that canalicular transporters that determine the formation of bile are altered early in the development of cholestasis in Abcb4(-/-) mice and may contribute to the pathogenesis of cholestasis in this disorder. PMID:24481602

Cai, Shi-Ying; Mennone, Albert; Soroka, Carol J; Boyer, James L

2014-04-15

351

Effects of ergot alkaloids on liver function of piglets as evaluated by the (13)C-methacetin and (13)C-?-ketoisocaproic acid breath test.  

PubMed

Ergot alkaloids (the sum of individual ergot alkaloids are termed as total alkaloids, TA) are produced by the fungus Claviceps purpurea, which infests cereal grains commonly used as feedstuffs. Ergot alkaloids potentially modulate microsomal and mitochondrial hepatic enzymes. Thus, the aim of the present experiment was to assess their effects on microsomal and mitochondrial liver function using the (13)C-Methacetin (MC) and (13)C-?-ketoisocaproic acid (KICA) breath test, respectively. Two ergot batches were mixed into piglet diets, resulting in 11 and 22 mg (Ergot 5-low and Ergot 5-high), 9 and 14 mg TA/kg (Ergot 15-low and Ergot 15-high) and compared to an ergot-free control group. Feed intake and live weight gain decreased significantly with the TA content (p < 0.001). Feeding the Ergot 5-high diet tended to decrease the 60-min-cumulative (13)CO(2) percentage of the dose recovery (cPDR(60)) by 26% and 28% in the MC and KICA breath test, respectively, compared to the control group (p = 0.065). Therefore, both microsomal and mitochondrial liver function was slightly affected by ergot alkaloids. PMID:23322130

Dänicke, Sven; Diers, Sonja

2013-01-01

352

Effects of Ergot Alkaloids on Liver Function of Piglets as Evaluated by the 13C-Methacetin and 13C-?-Ketoisocaproic Acid Breath Test  

PubMed Central

Ergot alkaloids (the sum of individual ergot alkaloids are termed as total alkaloids, TA) are produced by the fungus Claviceps purpurea, which infests cereal grains commonly used as feedstuffs. Ergot alkaloids potentially modulate microsomal and mitochondrial hepatic enzymes. Thus, the aim of the present experiment was to assess their effects on microsomal and mitochondrial liver function using the 13C-Methacetin (MC) and 13C-?-ketoisocaproic acid (KICA) breath test, respectively. Two ergot batches were mixed into piglet diets, resulting in 11 and 22 mg (Ergot 5-low and Ergot 5-high), 9 and 14 mg TA/kg (Ergot 15-low and Ergot 15-high) and compared to an ergot-free control group. Feed intake and live weight gain decreased significantly with the TA content (p < 0.001). Feeding the Ergot 5-high diet tended to decrease the 60-min-cumulative 13CO2 percentage of the dose recovery (cPDR60) by 26% and 28% in the MC and KICA breath test, respectively, compared to the control group (p = 0.065). Therefore, both microsomal and mitochondrial liver function was slightly affected by ergot alkaloids. PMID:23322130

Dänicke, Sven; Diers, Sonja

2013-01-01

353

Living donor liver transplantation: issues regarding left liver grafts  

PubMed Central

Background The necessity of widening the indications for living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been emphasised. Clarification of the advantages and limitations of using a left liver graft for LDLT in adults is essential for donor safety. Methods Between June 1990 and November 2002, 185 patients underwent LDLT at Shinshu University Hospital, Japan. In 97 of these, the graft comprised the left liver with or without the left portion of the caudate lobe. The peri-hepatectomy profiles of the donors, significance of left liver grafts, postoperative courses of the donors and recipients, and survival of the recipients were investigated. Results All the donors recovered well and returned to a normal lifestyle. None required banked-blood transfusion or repeat surgery, and postoperative liver function tests had satisfactory results. The cold ischaemic time for the graft was 127±54 minutes. The graft volumes (GVs) ranged from 230 to 625 ml, and GV/standard liver volume (SV) ratios varied from 22% to 65%, at the time of transplantation. Although 85% of the liver grafts had GV/SV ratios <50%, no patient developed immediate postoperative liver failure. Patient survival rates were 89%, 84% and 84% at 1, 3 and 5 years, respectively. Discussion Although LDLT using a left liver graft imposes potential postoperative complications (a small liver is more vulnerable to injury, and recipients of small grafts are at higher risk of complications during recovery), such grafts have yielded acceptable results in adult LDLT, with minimal burden to the donors. PMID:18333058

Hashikura, Y

2004-01-01

354

Progression of Liver Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Handouts Education Resources Support Services Helpful Links For Liver Health Information Call 1-800-GO-LIVER (1- ... The Progression of Liver Disease The Progression of Liver Disease There are many different types of liver ...

355

Associated liver enzymes with hyperlipidemic profile in type 2 diabetes patients  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by hyperglycemia and is associated with dyslipidemia and disturbed liver function. Aim of the present work is to assess the liver enzymes and to find its association with hyperlipidemic profile in T2DM. Total of 157 subjects were studied and divided into two groups; diabetes (n=81) and non-diabetes (n=76). Various biochemical parameters like fasting glucose, post prandial glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (Tg), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were analyzed by ROCHE module Cobas 6000 (C501 & C601) analyzer, kits were procured by ROCHE diagnostics. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was estimated by Freidwald’s formula. Statistical analysis was performed by applying student t test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient, at 0.0001 and 0.05 level of significance, respectively. All the glycemic control parameters, lipid profile parameters except HDL-C and liver enzymes were found increased in diabetes group and significantly differ from non-diabetes group (p>0.0001). ALT showed significant positive correlation with fasting glucose, post prandial glucose, HbA1c, TC, Tg, LDL-C and GGT at p>0.05. AST showed very weak relation with all parameters while GGT was positively associated with fasting glucose, post prandial glucose, HbA1c, TC, Tg, LDL-C and ALT at p>0.05. In conclusion, T2DM incline to elevate liver enzymes, especially ALT and GGT were of significance. Routine screening of ALT and GGT in T2DM patients may assists early detection of liver abnormalities and to arrest the progress of disease. PMID:25120819

Al-Jameil, Noura; Khan, Farah A; Arjumand, Sadia; Khan, Mohammad F; Tabassum, Hajera

2014-01-01

356

Structural, spectral, thermal, dielectric, mechanical and optical properties of urea l-alanine acetate single crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new organic nonlinear optical crystal, urea l-alanine acetate (ULAA) has been grown by solution growth using slow cooling technique with the vision to improve the properties of the l-alanine crystals. Urea and l-alanine material were mixed in the molar ratio 1:4. Solubility and metastable zone width were determined. Single crystal XRD analyses revealed that the crystal lattice of ULAA

D. Jaikumar; S. Kalainathan; G. Bhagavannarayana

2010-01-01

357

Structural Isotopic Effects in the smallest chiral amino acid: Observation of a structural phase transition in fully deuterated alanine.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A first study of possible changes instigated by deuteration in amino acids was carried out using neutron diffraction, inelastic neutron scattering and Raman scattering in L-alanine, C2H4(NH2)COOH. Careful analysis of the structural parameters shows that deuteration of L-alanine engenders significant geometric changes as a function of temperature, which can be directly related to the observation of new lattice vibration modes in the Raman spectra. The combination of the experimental data suggests that C2D4(ND2)COOD undergoes a structural phase transition (or a structural rearrangement) at about 170 K. Considering that this particular amino acid is a hydrogen-bonded system with short hydrogen bonds (OH ˜ 1.8 å), we evoke the Ubbelohde effect to conclude that substitution of hydrogen for deuterium gives rise to changes in the hydrogen-bonding interactions. The structural differences suggest distinct relative stabilities for the hydrogenous and deuterated L-alanine. De Souza et al. - Journal of Physical Chemistry B (Letters) 111, 5034-39 (2007)

Bordallo, Heloisa; de Souza, Joelma; de Tarso, Paulo; Argyriou, Dimitri

2008-03-01

358

Liquid chromatographic behavior of two alanine-substituted calix[4]arene-bonded silica gel stationary phases.  

PubMed

Two new kinds of alanine-substituted calix[4]arene stationary phases of 5,11,17,23-p-tert-butyl-25,27-bis(l-alanine-methylester-N-carbonyl-methoxy)-26,28-dihyroxycalix[4]arene-bonded silica gel stationary phase (BABS4) and 5, 11, 17, 23-p-tert-butyl-25,26,27,28-tetra(l-alanine-methylester-N-carbonyl-methoxy)-calix[4]arene-bonded silica gel stationary phase (TABS4) were prepared and characterized in the present study. They were compared with each other and investigated in terms of their chromatographic performance by using polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, disubstituted benzene isomers, and mono-substituted benzenes as solute probes. The results indicated that both BABS4 and TABS4 exhibited multiple interactions with analytes. In addition, the commonly used Tanaka characterization protocol for the evaluation of commercially available stationary phases was applied to evaluate the properties of these two new functionalized calixarene stationary phases. The Tanaka test results were compared with Zorbax Eclipse XDB C18 and Kromasil phenyl columns, respectively. BABS4 has stronger hydrogen-bonding capacity and ion-exchange capacity than TABS4, and features weaker hydrophobicity and hydrophobic selectivity. Both of them behave similarly in stereoselectivity. Both BABS4 and TABS4 are weaker than C18 and phenyl stationary phases in hydrophobicity and hydrophobic selectivity. PMID:25160994

Deng, Zhifen; Liu, Junwei; Hu, Chenchen; Yang, Liu; Du, Huifang; Hu, Kai; Huang, Yanjie; Yang, Xiaoqing; Jiang, Qiong; Zhang, Shusheng

2014-11-01

359

THE CHEMISTRY OF THE LIVER IN ACUTE YELLOW ATROPHY  

PubMed Central

From the liver of a young man who died of typical, " idiopathic" acute yellow atrophy of the liver, after an illness of six weeks, there were isolated and identified the following amino acids: Histidin, lysin, tyrosin, leucin, glycocoll, alanin, prolin, glutaminic acid, aspartic acid. These were found free in extracts of the liver, and presumably represent products of the autolysis of liver cells, although the amount of soluble non-protein nitrogen present in the extracts was so large as to suggest that there must be some other source for these substances. Small quantities of free proteoses and peptones, and of xanthin and hypoxanthin, were also found in the extracts. In the insoluble proteins of the liver the proportion of diamino acids was decreased slightly as compared with normal livers. The proportion of protein phosphorus was increased, probably because of active regenerative proliferation, while the sulphur was normal in amount. Iron was increased because of the large quantity of blood in the liver and the hematogenous pigmentation of the liver cells. Gelatigenous material was increased both absolutely and relatively, because of the loss of parenchyma and the proliferation of the stroma. The proportion of water to solids was much increased, there having been a loss of over two-thirds of the entire parenchymatous elements of the liver. The amount of fat, lecithin and cholesterin was not far from that normal for the liver. PMID:19867115

Wells, H. Gideon

1907-01-01

360

Iron homeostasis in the liver  

PubMed Central

Iron is an essential nutrient that is tightly regulated. A principal function of the liver is the regulation of iron homeostasis. The liver senses changes in systemic iron requirements and can regulate iron concentrations in a robust and rapid manner. The last 10 years have led to the discovery of several regulatory mechanisms in the liver which control the production of iron regulatory genes, storage capacity, and iron mobilization. Dysregulation of these functions leads to an imbalance of iron, which is the primary causes of iron-related disorders. Anemia and iron overload are two of the most prevalent disorders worldwide and affect over a billion people. Several mutations in liver-derived genes have been identified, demonstrating the central role of the liver in iron homeostasis. During conditions of excess iron, the liver increases iron storage and protects other tissues, namely the heart and pancreas from iron-induced cellular damage. However, a chronic increase in liver iron stores results in excess reactive oxygen species production and liver injury. Excess liver iron is one of the major mechanisms leading to increased steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:23720289

Anderson, Erik R; Shah, Yatrik M

2014-01-01

361

Growth and characterization of L-Alanine-doped Zinc Thiourea Chloride single crystal (ZTC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single crystal of L-Alanine-doped Zinc Thiourea Chloride (ZTC) was grown by slow evaporation technique. L-Alanine was added\\u000a in saturated ZTC solution by molar percent. The second-harmonic generation efficiency was studied by Kurtz and Perry powder\\u000a SHG test for 1, 2, and 3 mole% L-Alanine-doped ZTC and compared with pure ZTC. We observed enhancement in the SHG efficiency\\u000a of L-Alanine-doped ZTC. Higher

N. R. Dhumane; S. S. Hussaini; V. G. Dongre; P. Ghugare; M. D. Shirsat

2009-01-01

362

Nanostructured self-assembling peptides as a defined extracellular matrix for long-term functional maintenance of primary hepatocytes in a bioartificial liver modular device.  

PubMed

Much effort has been directed towards the optimization of the capture of in vivo hepatocytes from their microenvironment. Some methods of capture include an ex vivo cellular model in a bioreactor based liver module, a micropatterned module, a microfluidic 3D chip, coated plates, and other innovative approaches for the functional maintenance of primary hepatocytes. However, none of the above methods meet US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines, which recommend and encourage that the duration of a toxicity assay of a drug should be a minimum of 14 days, to a maximum of 90 days for a general toxicity assay. Existing innovative reports have used undefined extracellular matrices like matrigel, rigid collagen, or serum supplementations, which are often problematic, unacceptable in preclinical and clinical applications, and can even interfere with experimental outcomes. We have overcome these challenges by using integrated nanostructured self-assembling peptides and a special combination of growth factors and cytokines to establish a proof of concept to mimic the in vivo hepatocyte microenvironment pattern in vitro for predicting the in vivo drug hepatotoxicity in a scalable bioartificial liver module. Hepatocyte functionality (albumin, urea) was measured at days 10, 30, 60, and 90 and we observed stable albumin secretion and urea function throughout the culture period. In parallel, drug metabolizing enzyme biomarkers such as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, the methylthiazol tetrazolium test, and the lactate dehydrogenase test were carried out at days 10, 30, 60, and 90. We noticed excellent mitochondrial status and membrane stability at 90 days of culture. Since alpha glutathione S-transferase (GST) is highly sensitive and a specific marker of hepatocyte injury, we observed significantly low alpha GST levels on all measured days (10, 30, 60, and 90). Finally, we performed the image analysis of mitochondria-cultured hepatocytes at day 90 in different biophysical parameters using confocal microscopy. We applied an automatic algorithm-based method for 3D visualization to show the classic representation of the mitochondrial distribution in double hepatocytes. An automated morphological measurement was conducted on the mitochondrial distribution in the cultured hepatocytes. Our proof of concept of a scalable bioartificial liver modular device meets FDA guidelines and may function as an alternative model of animal experimentation for pharmacological and toxicological studies involving drug metabolism, enzyme induction, transplantation, viral hepatitis, hepatocyte regeneration, and can also be used in other existing bioreactor modules for long-term culture for up to 90 days or more. PMID:23626466

Giri, Shibashish; Braumann, Ulf-Dietrich; Giri, Priya; Acikgöz, Ali; Scheibe, Patrick; Nieber, Karen; Bader, Augustinus

2013-01-01

363

Effect of nutritional counselling on hepatic, muscle and adipose tissue fat content and distribution in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease  

PubMed Central

AIM: To assess the effectiveness of the current UK clinical practice in reducing hepatic fat (IHCL). METHODS: Whole body MRI and 1H MRS were obtained, before and after 6 mo nutritional counselling, from liver, soleus and tibialis muscles in 10 subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). RESULTS: A 500 Kcal-restricted diet resulted in an average weight loss of 4% (-3.4 kg,) accompanied by significant reductions in most adipose tissue (AT) depots, including subcutaneous (-9.9%), abdominal subcutaneous (-10.2%) and intra-abdominal-AT (-11.4%). Intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) were significantly reduced in the tibialis muscle (-28.2%). Decreases in both IHCL (-39.9%) and soleus IMCL (-12.2%) content were also observed, although these were not significant. Several individuals showed dramatic decreases in IHCL, while others paradoxically showed increases in IHCL content. Changes in body composition were accompanied by improvements in certain liver function tests: serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Significant correlations were found between decreases in IHCL and reductions in both intra-abdominal and abdominal subcutaneous AT. Improvements in liver function tests were associated with reductions in intra-abdominal AT, but not with changes in IHCL. CONCLUSION: This study shows that even a very modest reduction in body weight achieved through lifestyle modification can result in changes in body fat depots and improvements in LFTs. PMID:17007047

Thomas, E Louise; Brynes, Audrey E; Hamilton, Gavin; Patel, Nayna; Spong, Adam; Goldin, Robert D; Frost, Gary; Bell, Jimmy D; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D

2006-01-01

364

New automatic liver segmentation and extraction method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liver segmentation is critical in designing and developing computer-assisted systems that have been used for liver disease diagnosis before surgery or transplantation. The purpose of this study is to develop a computerized system for extracting liver contours and reconstructing liver volume using contrast-enhanced hepatic CT images. The automatic liver segmentation method adopted the graph optimal algorithm with ratio contour as its salient measure. This new cost function encoded the Gestalt laws and synthesized the gap length, the liver region area, the length of the closed contour and the average curvature of the closed boundary. With the extracted liver contours, a promising system to exclude tissues outside the liver was developed. It promised to save time and simplify liver volume reconstruction by minimizing intervention operations. Some 3D-rendered reconstruction results were also created to demonstrate the final results of our system.

Zhang, Pinzheng; Xu, Qinzheng; Wang, Zheng

2007-12-01

365

Oncostatin M Enhances the Antiviral Effects of Type I Interferon and Activates Immunostimulatory Functions in Liver Epithelial Cells?  

PubMed Central

Oncostatin M (OSM) is released together with type I interferon (IFN) by activated dendritic cells, suggesting a concerted action of these cytokines in the biological response against infection. We found that OSM increases the antiviral effect of IFN-? in Huh7 hepatoma cells infected with hepatitis A or hepatitis C virus and synergizes with IFN-? in the induction of antiviral genes. The combination of OSM and IFN-? led to upregulation of both STAT1 and STAT3 together with intense and prolonged activation of STAT1, STAT3, and Jak1. OSM with or without IFN-? also activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, which is known to enhance transcription of IFN-?-inducible genes. Interestingly, OSM combined with IFN-? strongly induced immunoproteasome genes and other genes involved in antigen processing and presentation. Moreover, OSM, alone or in combination with IFN-?, upregulated relevant innate immunity molecules and increased the expression of intracellular adhesion molecule 1 and interleukin-15 receptor alpha (IL-15R?) in liver cells. Hepatoma cells transfected with a plasmid encoding a viral antigen were able to activate effector T cells when pretreated with IFN-? plus OSM but not with each cytokine separately. Also, OSM, more than IFN-?, augmented the ability of Huh7 cells to transpresent IL-15 to responding lymphocytes and increased the immunostimulatory activity of liver epithelial cells by presenting a short viral peptide to sensitized cytotoxic T cells. In conclusion, OSM enhances the antiviral effects of type I interferon and cooperates with it in the induction of adaptive immune responses to pathogens. These findings may have therapeutic implications. PMID:19158240

Larrea, Esther; Aldabe, Rafael; Gonzalez, Iranzu; Segura, Victor; Sarobe, Pablo; Echeverria, Itziar; Prieto, Jesus

2009-01-01

366

Dysbiosis gut microbiota associated with inflammation and impaired mucosal immune function in intestine of humans with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease  

PubMed Central

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has recently been considered to be under the influence of the gut microbiota, which might exert toxic effects on the human host after intestinal absorption and delivery to the liver via the portal vein. In this study, the composition of the gut microbiota in NAFLD patients and healthy subjects was determined via 16S ribosomal RNA Illumina next-generation sequencing. Among those taxa displaying greater than 0.1% average abundance in all samples, five genera, including Alistipes and Prevotella, were significantly more abundant in the gut microbiota of healthy subjects compared to NAFLD patients. Alternatively, Escherichia, Anaerobacter, Lactobacillus and Streptococcus were increased in the gut microbiota of NAFLD patients compared to healthy subjects. In addition, decreased numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and increased levels of TNF-?, IL-6 and IFN-? were detected in the NAFLD group compared to the healthy group. Furthermore, irregularly arranged microvilli and widened tight junctions were observed in the gut mucosa of the NAFLD patients via transmission electron microscopy. We postulate that aside from dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, gut microbiota-mediated inflammation of the intestinal mucosa and the related impairment in mucosal immune function play an important role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. PMID:25644696

Jiang, Weiwei; Wu, Na; Wang, Xuemei; Chi, Yujing; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Qiu, Xinyun; Hu, Ying; Li, Jing; Liu, Yulan

2015-01-01

367

Dysbiosis gut microbiota associated with inflammation and impaired mucosal immune function in intestine of humans with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.  

PubMed

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has recently been considered to be under the influence of the gut microbiota, which might exert toxic effects on the human host after intestinal absorption and delivery to the liver via the portal vein. In this study, the composition of the gut microbiota in NAFLD patients and healthy subjects was determined via 16S ribosomal RNA Illumina next-generation sequencing. Among those taxa displaying greater than 0.1% average abundance in all samples, five genera, including Alistipes and Prevotella, were significantly more abundant in the gut microbiota of healthy subjects compared to NAFLD patients. Alternatively, Escherichia, Anaerobacter, Lactobacillus and Streptococcus were increased in the gut microbiota of NAFLD patients compared to healthy subjects. In addition, decreased numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and increased levels of TNF-?, IL-6 and IFN-? were detected in the NAFLD group compared to the healthy group. Furthermore, irregularly arranged microvilli and widened tight junctions were observed in the gut mucosa of the NAFLD patients via transmission electron microscopy. We postulate that aside from dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, gut microbiota-mediated inflammation of the intestinal mucosa and the related impairment in mucosal immune function play an important role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. PMID:25644696

Jiang, Weiwei; Wu, Na; Wang, Xuemei; Chi, Yujing; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Qiu, Xinyun; Hu, Ying; Li, Jing; Liu, Yulan

2015-01-01

368

Role of liver progenitors in acute liver injury  

PubMed Central

Acute liver failure (ALF) results from the acute and rapid loss of hepatocyte function and frequently exhibits a fulminant course, characterized by high mortality in the absence of immediate state-of-the-art intensive care and/or emergency liver transplantation (ELT). The role of hepatocyte-mediated liver regeneration during acute and chronic liver injury has been extensively investigated, and recent studies suggest that hepatocytes are not exclusively responsible for the regeneration of the injured liver during fulminant liver injury. Liver progenitor cells (LPC) (or resident liver stem cells) are quiescent in the healthy liver, but may be activated under conditions where the regenerative capacity of mature hepatocytes is severely impaired. This review aims to provide an overview of the role of the LPC population during ALF, and the role of putative cytokines, growth factors, mitogens, and hormones in the LPC response. We will highlight the potential interaction among cellular compartments during ALF, and discuss the possible prognostic value of the LPC response on ALF outcomes. PMID:24133449

Best, Jan; Dollé, Laurent; Manka, Paul; Coombes, Jason; van Grunsven, Leo A.; Syn, Wing-Kin

2013-01-01

369

Radiolysis of alanine adsorbed in a clay mineral  

SciTech Connect

Optical activity in molecules is a chemical characteristic of living beings. In this work, we examine the hypothesis of the influence of different mineral surfaces on the development of a specific chirality in organic molecules when subjected to conditions simulating the primitive Earth during the period of chemical evolution. By using X-ray diffraction techniques and HPLC/ELSD to analyze aqueous suspensions of amino acids adsorbed on minerals irradiated in different doses with a cobalt-60 gamma source, the experiments attempt to prove the hypothesis that some solid surfaces (like clays and meteorite rocks) may have a concentration capacity and protective role against external sources of ionizing radiation (specifically {gamma}-ray) for some organic compounds (like some amino acids) adsorbed on them. Preliminary results show a slight difference in the adsorption and radiolysis of the D-and L-alanine.

Aguilar-Ovando, Ellen Y.; Negron-Mendoza, Alicia [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Apartado Postal 70-543, Deleg. Coyoacan, C.P. 04510 (Mexico)

2013-07-03

370

Effect of Dietary Advanced Glycation End Products on Mouse Liver  

PubMed Central

The exact pathophysiology of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is not known. Previous studies suggest that dietary advanced glycation end products (AGEs) can cause oxidative stress in liver. We aim to study the effects of dietary AGEs on liver health and their possible role in the pathogenesis of NASH. METHODS: Two groups of mice were fed the same diet except the AGE content varied. One group was fed a high AGE diet and the second group was fed a regular AGE diet. Liver histology, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, insulin resistance and glucose tolerance were assessed. RESULTS: Histology revealed that neutrophil infiltration occurred in the livers of the high AGE group at week 26; steatosis did not accompany liver inflammation. At week 39 livers from both groups exhibited macro- or micro-steatosis, yet no inflammation was detected. Higher insulin levels were detected in the regular AGE group at week 26 (P?=?0.034), compared to the high AGE group. At week 39, the regular AGE group showed higher levels of alanine aminotransferase (P<0.01) and aspartate aminotransferase (P?=?0.02) than those of the high AGE group. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that a high AGE diet can cause liver inflammation in the absence of steatosis. Our results show that dietary AGEs could play a role in initiating liver inflammation contributing to the disease progression of NASH. Our observation that the inflammation caused by high AGE alone did not persist suggests interesting future directions to investigate how AGEs contribute to pro-oxidative and anti-oxidative pathways in the liver. PMID:22496902

Patel, Raza; Baker, Susan S.; Liu, Wensheng; Desai, Sonal; Alkhouri, Razan; Kozielski, Rafal; Mastrandrea, Lucy; Sarfraz, Adil; Cai, Weijing; Vlassara, Helen; Patel, Mulchand S.; Baker, Robert D.; Zhu, Lixin

2012-01-01

371

Rat liver mitochondrial damage under acute or chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced intoxication: Protection by melatonin and cranberry flavonoids  

SciTech Connect

In current societies, the risk of toxic liver damage has markedly increased. The aim of the present work was to carry out further research into the mechanism(s) of liver mitochondrial damage induced by acute (0.8 g/kg body weight, single injection) or chronic (1.6 g/ kg body weight, 30 days, biweekly injections) carbon tetrachloride – induced intoxication and to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of the antioxidant, melatonin, as well as succinate and cranberry flavonoids in rats. Acute intoxication resulted in considerable impairment of mitochondrial respiratory parameters in the liver. The activity of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) decreased (by 25%, p < 0.05). Short-term melatonin treatment (10 mg/kg, three times) of rats did not reduce the degree of toxic mitochondrial dysfunction but decreased the enhanced NO production. After 30-day chronic intoxication, no significant change in the respiratory activity of liver mitochondria was observed, despite marked changes in the redox-balance of mitochondria. The activities of the mitochondrial enzymes, succinate dehydrogenase and glutathione peroxidase, as well as that of cytoplasmic catalase in liver cells were inhibited significantly. Mitochondria isolated from the livers of the rats chronically treated with CCl{sub 4} displayed obvious irreversible impairments. Long-term melatonin administration (10 mg/kg, 30 days, daily) to chronically intoxicated rats diminished the toxic effects of CCl{sub 4}, reducing elevated plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin concentration, prevented accumulation of membrane lipid peroxidation products in rat liver and resulted in apparent preservation of the mitochondrial ultrastructure. The treatment of the animals by the complex of melatonin (10 mg/kg) plus succinate (50 mg/kg) plus cranberry flavonoids (7 mg/kg) was even more effective in prevention of toxic liver injury and liver mitochondria damage. Highlights: ? After 30-day chronic CCl{sub 4} intoxication mitochondria displayed considerable changes. ? The functional parameters of mitochondria were similar to the control values. ? Melatonin + succinate + flavonoids prevented mitochondrial ultrastructure damage. ? The above complex enhanced regenerative processes in the liver.

Cheshchevik, V.T. [Institute for Pharmacology and Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus) [Institute for Pharmacology and Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Department of Biochemistry, Yanka Kupala Grodno State University, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Lapshina, E.A.; Dremza, I.K.; Zabrodskaya, S.V. [Institute for Pharmacology and Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus)] [Institute for Pharmacology and Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Reiter, R.J. [Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, University of Texas Health Science Center, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229–3900 (United States)] [Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, University of Texas Health Science Center, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229–3900 (United States); Prokopchik, N.I. [Grodno State Medical University, Gorkogo - 80, 230015 Grodno (Belarus)] [Grodno State Medical University, Gorkogo - 80, 230015 Grodno (Belarus); Zavodnik, I.B., E-mail: zavodnik_il@mail.ru [Institute for Pharmacology and Biochemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus); Department of Biochemistry, Yanka Kupala Grodno State University, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno (Belarus)

2012-06-15