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Sample records for liver function alanine

  1. Diluted blood reperfusion as a model for transplantation of ischemic rat livers: alanine aminotransferase is a direct indicator of viability.

    PubMed

    Uygun, K; Tolboom, H; Izamis, M L; Uygun, B; Sharma, N; Yagi, H; Soto-Gutierrez, A; Hertl, M; Berthiaume, F; Yarmush, M L

    2010-09-01

    Donors after cardiac death present a significant pool of untapped organs for transplantation, and use of machine perfusion strategies has been an active focus area in experimental transplantation. However, despite 2 decades of research, a gold standard has yet to emerge for machine perfusion systems and protocols. Whole blood reperfusion has been used as a surrogate for organ transplantation, especially as a model for the short-term response posttransplantation, and for optimization of perfusion systems. Although it is known that there is a strong correlation between liver function in whole-blood reperfusion and survival, the exact nature of these correlations, and to what extent they can be considered as an indicator of viability for transplantation/recipient survival, remain unclear. In this work, we demonstrate that diluted whole-blood reperfusion can be used as a direct model for transplantation of ischemic rat liver grafts. Specifically, we show that recipient survival can be predicted based simply on the value of alanine aminotransferase during perfusion, providing quantitative criteria of viability for use in this animal model. These results indicate that in the rat model graft survival is highly correlated with hepatocellular damage. PMID:20832525

  2. L-ascorbic acid- and L-ascorbic acid 2-glucoside accelerate in vivo liver regeneration and lower serum alanine aminotransaminase activity in 70% partially hepatectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Mitsutoshi; Moteki, Hajime; Uchida, Masaki; Natsume, Hideshi; Ogihara, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    The effects of L-ascorbic acid and its stable analogue L-ascorbic acid 2-glucoside on the restoration of liver mass and recovery of liver function after 70% partial hepatectomy (PH), were compared with other natural vitamin C analogues in rats in vivo. L-Ascorbic acid (100 mg/kg/d, intraperitoneally (i.p.))- and L-ascorbic acid 2-glucoside (50 mg/kg/d, i.p.)-treated rats showed an approximately 1.3-fold increase in the ratio of liver weight (LW) to body weight (BW), when compared to saline (as control)-, L-dehydroascorbic acid (150 mg/kg/d, i.p.)- and D-isoascorbic acid (150 mg/kg/d, i.p.)-administrated rats on day 3 after PH. Accordingly, 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine-labeling index in the regenerating liver was significantly higher in L-ascorbic acid- and L-ascorbic acid 2-glucoside-treated rats compared with saline-, L-dehydroascorbic acid and D-isoascorbic acid-treated rats on day 1. In control rats, liver-related serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity was rapidly elevated on day 1, and then decreased to near pre-operative levels on day 5 following PH. L-Ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid 2-glucoside significantly lowered the serum ALT on day 1 after PH compared with saline-, L-dehydroascorbic acid- and D-isoascorbic acid-administered rats. These results demonstrate that L-ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid 2-glucoside significantly promote the regeneration of liver mass and function with full recovery after liver injury. PMID:24818255

  3. Liver peroxisomal alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase and the effects of mutations associated with Primary Hyperoxaluria Type I: An overview.

    PubMed

    Oppici, Elisa; Montioli, Riccardo; Cellini, Barbara

    2015-09-01

    Liver peroxisomal alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) (EC 2.6.1.44) catalyses the conversion of l-alanine and glyoxylate to pyruvate and glycine, a reaction that allows glyoxylate detoxification. Inherited mutations on the AGXT gene encoding AGT lead to Primary Hyperoxaluria Type I (PH1), a rare disorder characterized by the deposition of calcium oxalate crystals primarily in the urinary tract. Here we describe the results obtained on the biochemical features of AGT as well as on the molecular and cellular effects of polymorphic and pathogenic mutations. A complex scenario on the molecular pathogenesis of PH1 emerges in which the co-inheritance of polymorphic changes and the condition of homozygosis or compound heterozygosis are two important factors that determine the enzymatic phenotype of PH1 patients. All the reported data represent relevant steps toward the understanding of genotype/phenotype correlations, the prediction of the response of the patients to the available therapies, and the development of new therapeutic approaches. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cofactor-dependent proteins: evolution, chemical diversity and bio-applications. PMID:25620715

  4. Histologic Abnormalities in Children with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Normal or Mildly Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase Levels

    PubMed Central

    Molleston, Jean P; Schwimmer, Jeffrey B; Yates, Katherine P; Murray, Karen F; Cummings, Oscar W; Lavine, Joel E.; Brunt, Elizabeth M; Scheimann, Ann O; Unalp-Arida, Aynur

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the histological spectrum of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children with normal, mildly elevated (26–50 U/L boys, 23–44 U/L girls), or elevated (> 50 boys, > 44 girls) serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. Study design The Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network (NASH CRN) enrolls children 5–18 years with NAFLD. We analyzed baseline clinical and histological data from 91 children with suspected NAFLD and normal or mildly elevated ALT and liver biopsy within 180 days of ALT, and compared them with 392 children with elevated ALT. Results Of 91 children, 17 (19%) had normal and 74 (81%) had mildly elevated ALT levels. Overall, 45% of biopsies had ? 33% steatosis, lobular inflammation grade was ? 2 in 22%, 81% had portal inflammation, 29% had ballooned hepatocytes, 35% had “suspicious/borderline” steatohepatitis, and 8% had definite NASH, 34% had NAFLD activity score (NAS) ? 4. Overall, 46% had fibrosis (38% mild/moderate and 8% bridging/cirrhosis). Marked steatosis (50% vs 24%) and fibrosis (54% vs 12%) were significantly more common in mildly elevated vs normal, with no difference in ballooning, inflammation, or NAS ? 4. Fibrosis stage 3/4 was seen in none of the children with normal ALT, and in 9% of the mildly elevated and 15% of the elevated. Conclusions Liver biopsies of children with NAFLD with normal or mildly elevated ALT levels show significant histologic abnormalities, including advanced fibrosis in children with mildly elevated ALT. ALT thus may underestimate liver injury in NAFLD. Appropriate ALT cut-off levels can help identify children at risk for more severe disease. PMID:24360992

  5. ?-alanine supplementation improves tactical performance but not cognitive function in combat soldiers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are no known studies that have examined ?-alanine supplementation in military personnel. Considering the physiological and potential neurological effects that have been reported during sustained military operations, it appears that ?-alanine supplementation may have a potential benefit in maintaining physical and cognitive performance during high-intensity military activity under stressful conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 28 days of ?-alanine ingestion in military personnel while fatigued on physical and cognitive performance. Methods Twenty soldiers (20.1?±?0.9 years) from an elite combat unit were randomly assigned to either a ?-alanine (BA) or placebo (PL) group. Soldiers were involved in advanced military training, including combat skill development, navigational training, self-defense/hand-to-hand combat and conditioning. All participants performed a 4-km run, 5-countermovement jumps using a linear position transducer, 120-m sprint, a 10-shot shooting protocol with assault rifle, including overcoming a misfire, and a 2-min serial subtraction test to assess cognitive function before (Pre) and after (Post) 28 days of supplementation. Results The training routine resulted in significant increases in 4-km run time for both groups, but no between group differences were seen (p?=?0.597). Peak jump power at Post was greater for BA than PL (p?=?0.034), while mean jump power for BA at Post was 10.2% greater (p?=?0.139) than PL. BA had a significantly greater (p?=?0.012) number of shots on target at Post (8.2?±?1.0) than PL (6.5?±?2.1), and their target engagement speed at Post was also significantly faster (p?=?0.039). No difference in serial subtraction performance was seen between the groups (p?=?0.844). Conclusion Results of this study indicate that 4-weeks of ?-alanine ingestion in young, healthy soldiers did not impact cognitive performance, but did enhance power performance, marksmanship and target engagement speed from pre-ingestion levels. PMID:24716994

  6. Eukaryotic beta-alanine synthases are functionally related but have a high degree of structural diversity.

    PubMed Central

    Gojkovi?, Z; Sandrini, M P; Piskur, J

    2001-01-01

    beta-Alanine synthase (EC 3.5.1.6), which catalyzes the final step of pyrimidine catabolism, has only been characterized in mammals. A Saccharomyces kluyveri pyd3 mutant that is unable to grow on N-carbamyl-beta-alanine as the sole nitrogen source and exhibits diminished beta-alanine synthase activity was used to clone analogous genes from different eukaryotes. Putative PYD3 sequences from the yeast S. kluyveri, the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster complemented the pyd3 defect. When the S. kluyveri PYD3 gene was expressed in S. cerevisiae, which has no pyrimidine catabolic pathway, it enabled growth on N-carbamyl-beta-alanine as the sole nitrogen source. The D. discoideum and D. melanogaster PYD3 gene products are similar to mammalian beta-alanine synthases. In contrast, the S. kluyveri protein is quite different from these and more similar to bacterial N-carbamyl amidohydrolases. All three beta-alanine synthases are to some degree related to various aspartate transcarbamylases, which catalyze the second step of the de novo pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway. PYD3 expression in yeast seems to be inducible by dihydrouracil and N-carbamyl-beta-alanine, but not by uracil. This work establishes S. kluyveri as a model organism for studying pyrimidine degradation and beta-alanine production in eukaryotes. PMID:11454750

  7. Liver Function Tests Following Irreversible Electroporation of Liver Tumors: Experience in 174 Procedures.

    PubMed

    Froud, Tatiana; Venkat, Shree R; Barbery, Katuzka J; Gunjan, Arora; Narayanan, Govindarajan

    2015-09-01

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a relatively new ablation modality that uses electric currents to cause cell death. It is commonly used to treat primary and secondary liver tumors in patients with normal liver function and preexisting cirrhosis. Retrospective analysis of 205 procedures sought to evaluate changes in liver function after IRE. Liver function tests (LFTs) results before and after IRE were evaluated from 174 procedures in 124 patients. Aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase (ALKP), and total bilirubin levels were analyzed. The study was Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant and institutional review board approved. Informed consent was waived. Changes in LFT results after IRE were compared with baseline and were followed up over time to see if they resolved. Changes were compared with volume of ablation. The greatest perturbations were in transaminase levels. The levels increased sharply within 24 hours after IRE in 129 (74.1%) procedures to extreme levels (more than 20 times the upper limit of normal in one-third of cases). Resolution occurred in 95% and was demonstrated to have occurred by a mean of approximately 10 weeks, many documented as early as 7 days after procedure. ALKP levels elevated in 10% procedures, was slower to increase, and was less likely to resolve. Total bilirubin level demonstrated 2 different patterns of elevation--early and late--and similar to ALKP, it was more likely to remain elevated. There was no increased risk in patients with cirrhosis or cholangiocarcinoma. There was no correlation of levels with volume of ablation. IRE results in significant abnormalities in LFT results, but in most of the cases, these are self-limiting, do not preclude treatment, and are similar to the changes seen after radiofrequency and cryoablation in the liver. PMID:26365543

  8. Combinatorial libraries of alanine-substituted proteins can be used to rapidly identify residues important for protein function,

    E-print Network

    Weiss, Gregory A.

    residues important for protein function, stability and shape. Each alanine substitution examines sequence and protein shape, stability and activity. Mutagenesis of specific residues in proteins has proven in this context refers to leaving the residue unchanged as the naturally occurring amino acid sidechain. Because

  9. Effects of Beta-Alanine Supplementation on Brain Homocarnosine/Carnosine Signal and Cognitive Function: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Hobson, Ruth M; Artioli, Guilherme G.; Otaduy, Maria C.; Roschel, Hamilton; Robertson, Jacques; Martin, Daniel; S. Painelli, Vitor; Harris, Roger C.; Gualano, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Two independent studies were conducted to examine the effects of 28 d of beta-alanine supplementation at 6.4 g d-1 on brain homocarnosine/carnosine signal in omnivores and vegetarians (Study 1) and on cognitive function before and after exercise in trained cyclists (Study 2). Methods In Study 1, seven healthy vegetarians (3 women and 4 men) and seven age- and sex-matched omnivores undertook a brain 1H-MRS exam at baseline and after beta-alanine supplementation. In study 2, nineteen trained male cyclists completed four 20-Km cycling time trials (two pre supplementation and two post supplementation), with a battery of cognitive function tests (Stroop test, Sternberg paradigm, Rapid Visual Information Processing task) being performed before and after exercise on each occasion. Results In Study 1, there were no within-group effects of beta-alanine supplementation on brain homocarnosine/carnosine signal in either vegetarians (p = 0.99) or omnivores (p = 0.27); nor was there any effect when data from both groups were pooled (p = 0.19). Similarly, there was no group by time interaction for brain homocarnosine/carnosine signal (p = 0.27). In study 2, exercise improved cognitive function across all tests (P<0.05), although there was no effect (P>0.05) of beta-alanine supplementation on response times or accuracy for the Stroop test, Sternberg paradigm or RVIP task at rest or after exercise. Conclusion 28 d of beta-alanine supplementation at 6.4g d-1 appeared not to influence brain homocarnosine/carnosine signal in either omnivores or vegetarians; nor did it influence cognitive function before or after exercise in trained cyclists. PMID:25875297

  10. X MARCKS the spot: myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate in neuronal function and disease

    PubMed Central

    Brudvig, Jon J.; Weimer, Jill M.

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular protein-protein interactions are dynamic events requiring tightly regulated spatial and temporal checkpoints. But how are these spatial and temporal cues integrated to produce highly specific molecular response patterns? A helpful analogy to this process is that of a cellular map, one based on the fleeting localization and activity of various coordinating proteins that direct a wide array of interactions between key molecules. One such protein, myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS) has recently emerged as an important component of this cellular map, governing a wide variety of protein interactions in every cell type within the brain. In addition to its well-documented interactions with the actin cytoskeleton, MARCKS has been found to interact with a number of other proteins involved in processes ranging from intracellular signaling to process outgrowth. Here, we will explore these diverse interactions and their role in an array of brain-specific functions that have important implications for many neurological conditions. PMID:26528135

  11. Metabolism of 7-ethyoxycoumarin by Isolated Perfused Rainbow Trout Livers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Isolated trout livers were perfused using methods designed to preserve tissue viability and function. Liver performance was evaluated by measuring O2 consumption, vascular resistance, K+ leakage, glucose flux, lactate flux, alanine aminotransferase leakage, and metabolic clearanc...

  12. Glutamine synthetase and alanine transaminase expression are decreased in livers of aged vs. young beef cows and GS can be upregulated by 17?-estradiol implants.

    PubMed

    Miles, E D; McBride, B W; Jia, Y; Liao, S F; Boling, J A; Bridges, P J; Matthews, J C

    2015-09-01

    Aged beef cows (? 8 yr of age) produce calves with lower birth and weaning weights. In mammals, aging is associated with reduced hepatic expression of glutamine synthetase (GS) and alanine transaminase (ALT), thus impaired hepatic Gln-Glu cycle function. To determine if the relative protein content of GS, ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST), glutamate transporters (EAAC1, GLT-1), and their regulating protein (GTRAP3-18) differed in biopsied liver tissue of (a) aged vs. young (3 to 4 yr old) nonlactating, nongestating Angus cows (Exp. 1 and 2) and (b) aged mixed-breed cows with and without COMPUDOSE (17?-estradiol) ear implants (Exp. 3), Western blot analyses were performed. In Exp. 1, 12 young (3.62 ± 0.01 yr) and 13 aged (10.08 ± 0.42 yr) cows grazed the same mixed forage for 42 d (August-October). In Exp. 2, 12 young (3.36 ± 0.01 yr) and 12 aged (10.38 ± 0.47 yr) cows were individually fed (1.03% of BW) a corn-silage-based diet to maintain BW for 20 d. For both Exp. 1 and 2, the effect of cow age was assessed by ANOVA using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Cow BW did not change ( ? 0.17). Hepatic ALT (78% and 61%) and GS (52% and 71%) protein content (Exp. 1 and 2, respectively) was decreased ( ? 0.01), whereas GTRAP3-18 (an inhibitor of EAAC1 activity) increased ( ? 0.01; 170% and 136%) and AST, GLT-1, and EAAC1 contents did not differ ( ? 0.17) in aged vs. young cows. In Exp. 2, free concentrations (nmol/g) of Glu, Ala, Gln, Arg, and Orn in liver homogenates were determined. Aged cows tended to have less ( = 0.10) free Gln (15.0%) than young cows, whereas other AA concentrations did not differ ( 0.26). In Exp. 3, 14 aged (> 10 yr) cows were randomly allotted ( = 7) to sham or COMPUDOSE (25.7 mg of 17?-estradiol) implant treatment (TRT), and had ad libitum access to alfalfa hay for 28 d. Blood and liver biopsies were collected 14 and 28 d after implant treatment. Treatment, time after implant (DAY), and TRT × DAY effects were assessed by ANOVA using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Cow BW was not affected ( ? 0.96). Implant increased ( ? 0.02) total plasma estradiol by 220% (5.07 vs. 1.58 pg/mL) and GS protein by 300%, whereas the relative content of other proteins was not altered ( ? 0.16). We conclude that hepatic expression of ALT and GS are reduced in aged vs. young cows, and administration of 17?-estradiol to aged cows increases plasma estradiol and hepatic GS, but not that of other proteins that support hepatic Glu metabolism. PMID:26440349

  13. Multiphoton microscopy in defining liver function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorling, Camilla A.; Crawford, Darrell; Burczynski, Frank J.; Liu, Xin; Liau, Ian; Roberts, Michael S.

    2014-09-01

    Multiphoton microscopy is the preferred method when in vivo deep-tissue imaging is required. This review presents the application of multiphoton microscopy in defining liver function. In particular, multiphoton microscopy is useful in imaging intracellular events, such as mitochondrial depolarization and cellular metabolism in terms of NAD(P)H changes with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. The morphology of hepatocytes can be visualized without exogenously administered fluorescent dyes by utilizing their autofluorescence and second harmonic generation signal of collagen, which is useful in diagnosing liver disease. More specific imaging, such as studying drug transport in normal and diseased livers are achievable, but require exogenously administered fluorescent dyes. If these techniques can be translated into clinical use to assess liver function, it would greatly improve early diagnosis of organ viability, fibrosis, and cancer.

  14. Monitoring of Total and Regional Liver Function after SIRT.

    PubMed

    Bennink, Roelof J; Cieslak, Kasia P; van Delden, Otto M; van Lienden, Krijn P; Klümpen, Heinz-Josef; Jansen, Peter L; van Gulik, Thomas M

    2014-01-01

    Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) is a promising treatment modality for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma or metastatic liver cancer. SIRT is usually well tolerated. However, in most patients, SIRT will result in a (temporary) decreased liver function. Occasionally patients develop radioembolization-induced liver disease (REILD). In case of a high tumor burden of the liver, it could be beneficial to perform SIRT in two sessions enabling the primary untreated liver segments to guarantee liver function until function in the treated segments has recovered or functional hypertrophy has occurred. Clinically used liver function tests provide evidence of only one of the many liver functions, though all of them lack the possibility of assessment of segmental (regional) liver function. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HBS) has been validated as a tool to assess total and regional liver function in liver surgery. It is also used to assess segmental liver function before and after portal vein embolization. HBS is considered as a valuable quantitative liver function test enabling assessment of segmental liver function recovery after regional intervention and determination of future remnant liver function. We present two cases in which HBS was used to monitor total and regional liver function in a patient after repeated whole liver SIRT complicated with REILD and a patient treated unilaterally without complications. PMID:24982851

  15. Toxicity Effect of Nigella Sativa on the Liver Function of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dollah, Mohammad Aziz; Parhizkar, Saadat; Latiff, Latiffah Abdul; Bin Hassan, Mohammad Hafanizam

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the toxic effect of Nigella sativa powder on the liver function which was evaluated by measuring liver enzymes and through histopathological examination of liver tissue. Methods: Twenty four male Sprague Dawley rats were allotted randomly to four groups including: control (taking normal diet); low dose (supplemented with 0.01 g/kg/day Nigella sativa); normal dose (supplemented with 0.1 g/kg/day Nigella sativa) and high dose (supplemented with 1 g/kg/day Nigella sativa). All of supplements administered in powder form mixed with rats’ pellet for 28 days. To assess liver toxicity, liver enzymes measurement and histological study were done at the end of supplementation. Results: The finding revealed that there was no significant change in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) between treatment groups. Histopathological study showed very minimal and mild changes in fatty degeneration in normal and high doses of Nigella sativa treated group. Inflammation and necrosis were absent. Conclusion: The study showed that supplementation of Nigella sativa up to the dose of 1 g/kg supplemented for a period of 28 days resulted no changes in liver enzymes level and did not cause any toxicity effect on the liver function. PMID:24312819

  16. Functional capacity before and after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Iscar, M; Montoliu, M A; Ortega, T; Rodriguez, B; Rodríguez, M; Glez-Pinto, I; Alonso, P

    2009-04-01

    The maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2) max) is a standard tool for preoperative counseling of candidates for lung and heart transplantations, as well as an optional measurement to assess liver or renal transplant patients. Also, it provides an objective tool of the functional capacity of posttransplant patients. Exercise limitation and loss of aerobic capacity are common among patients with end-stage liver disease. The functional capacity of these subjects is decreased, as estimated by measuring the VO(2) max in a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET). After transplantation improvement is expected in physical capacity. We sought to describe the influence of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) on the physical fitness of the recipient at 3 and 12 months after transplantation. Since CPET is an objective test, it is an important tool for clinicians to evaluate patients' functional capacity before and after OLT. PMID:19376414

  17. Optimization of an Isolated Perfused Rainbow Trout Liver Model: Clearance Studies with 7-Ethoxycoumarin

    EPA Science Inventory

    Isolated trout livers were perfused using methods designed to preserve tissue viability and function. Liver performance was evaluated by measuring O2 consumption (VO2), vascular resistance, K+ leakage, glucose flux, lactate flux, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) leakage, and meta...

  18. Domain Motions and Functionally-Key Residues of l-Alanine Dehydrogenase Revealed by an Elastic Network Model

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xing-Yuan; Zhang, Jing-Chao; Zhu, Yan-Ying; Su, Ji-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis l-alanine dehydrogenase (l-MtAlaDH) plays an important role in catalyzing l-alanine to ammonia and pyruvate, which has been considered to be a potential target for tuberculosis treatment. In the present work, the functional domain motions encoded in the structure of l-MtAlaDH were investigated by using the Gaussian network model (GNM) and the anisotropy network model (ANM). The slowest modes for the open-apo and closed-holo structures of the enzyme show that the domain motions have a common hinge axis centered in residues Met133 and Met301. Accompanying the conformational transition, both the 1,4-dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-binding domain (NBD) and the substrate-binding domain (SBD) move in a highly coupled way. The first three slowest modes of ANM exhibit the open-closed, rotation and twist motions of l-MtAlaDH, respectively. The calculation of the fast modes reveals the residues responsible for the stability of the protein, and some of them are involved in the interaction with the ligand. Then, the functionally-important residues relevant to the binding of the ligand were identified by using a thermodynamic method. Our computational results are consistent with the experimental data, which will help us to understand the physical mechanism for the function of l-MtAlaDH. PMID:26690143

  19. Intermittent ischaemia maintains function after ischaemia reperfusion in steatotic livers

    PubMed Central

    Steenks, Mathilde; van Baal, Mark CPM; Nieuwenhuijs, Vincent B; de Bruijn, Menno T; Schiesser, Marc; Teo, Mike H; Callahan, Tom; Padbury, Rob TA; Barritt, Greg J

    2010-01-01

    Background: Ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) and intermittent ischaemia (INT) reduce liver injury after ischaemia reperfusion (IR). Steatotic livers are at a higher risk of IR injury, but the protection offered by IPC and INT is not well understood. The aim of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of IPC and INT in maintaining liver function in steatotic livers. Material and methods: A model of segmental hepatic ischaemia (45 min) and reperfusion (60 min) was employed using lean and obese Zucker rats. Bile flow recovery was measured to assess dynamic liver function, hepatocyte fat content quantified and blood electrolytes, metabolites and bile calcium measured to assess liver and whole body physiology. Liver marker enzymes and light and electron microscopy were employed to assess hepatocyte injury. Results: IPC was not effective in promoting bile flow recovery after IR in either lean or steatotic livers, whereas INT promoted good bile flow recovery in steatotic as well as lean livers. However, the bile flow recovery in steatotic livers was less than that in lean livers. In steatotic livers, ischaemia led to a rapid and substantial decrease in fat content. Steatotic livers were more susceptible to IR injury than lean livers, as indicated by increased blood ALT concentrations and major histological injury. Conclusion: INT is more effective than IPC in restoring liver function in the acute phase of IR in steatotic livers. In obese patients, INT may be useful in promoting better liver function after IR after liver resection. PMID:20590895

  20. A mutant androgen receptor from patients with Reifenstein syndrome: identification of the function of a conserved alanine residue in the D box of steroid receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Kaspar, F; Klocker, H; Denninger, A; Cato, A C

    1993-01-01

    Reifenstein syndrome is an eponymic term that describes partial androgen-insensitive disorders. Androgen receptor isolated from five patients with this syndrome contains a specific mutation in the DNA binding domain of the receptor. This mutation converts an alanine to a threonine at position 596 next to the zinc catenation site at the second finger. The threonine 596 mutant receptor mediated normal androgen response at promoters with closely positioned multiple regulatory elements for the androgen receptor and other transcription factors. Promoters with single isolated androgen response elements were not transactivated by the mutant receptor. In in vitro receptor-DNA binding studies, interaction with DNA by the mutant receptor was achieved only in the presence of an anti-androgen receptor antibody. Exchanging alanine 596 in the wild-type androgen receptor with serine or valine produced mutants with properties indistinguishable from those of the naturally occurring threonine 596 mutant receptor. These results indicate that an alanine residue at position 596 contributes important structural and functional activities to the androgen receptor. In the androgen receptor from the patients with Reifenstein syndrome, in which this alanine is converted to a threonine, wild-type receptor properties can be restored by exchanging an additional threonine at position 602 to an alanine. An alanine residue at position 596 or 602 in the DNA binding domain of the androgen receptor is therefore important for the full function of this receptor. In all steroid receptors that bind the core sequence AGAACANNNTGTTCT, an alanine residue is also present at a position equivalent to alanine 596 in the androgen receptor. Images PMID:8246999

  1. Elevated alanine aminotransferase activity is not associated with dyslipidemias, but related to insulin resistance and higher disease grades in non-diabetic non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Ghamar-Chehreh, Mohammad Ebrahim; Amini, Mohsen; Khedmat, Hossein; Moayed Alavian, Seyed; Daraei, Fatemeh; Mohtashami, Reza; Hadi, Reza; Beyram, Bent-Al-Hoda; Taheri, Saeed

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore demographic and metabolic factors associated with increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity in non-diabetic non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients. Methods Overall 372 patients who consecutively attended to Gastroenterology Clinic of Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran awere diagnosed as NAFLD entered into analysis. Exclusion criteria were having diabetes mellitus and fasting blood glucose over 126 mg/dL, active hepatitis B virus infection, having hepatitis C virus positive serology, and to be under corticosteroid therapy. ALT levels were considered pathologically high when it was over 30 IU/L for men and over 19 IU/L for women. Results Bivariate analyses using t test and chi-square test showed that patients with pathologically augmented ALT levels had significantly higher NAFLD grades in their ultrasonographic evaluations (P=0.003). Moreover, these patients represented significantly higher homeostatic model assessment levels (P=0.003), levels of serum insulin (P=0.002), fasting blood glucose (P<0.001), and uric acid (P=0.02). The prevalence of insulin resistance was also higher in patients with increased serum ALT concentrations. Multifactorial logistic regression models showed that ultrasonographic grading of NAFLD (P=0.027) and insulin resistance (P=0.013) were the only variables significantly associated with abnormal ALT levels. Conclusions This study shows that the associations of increased ALT serum levels in NAFLD patients are different from what are supposed before. By excluding diabetic patients from our population, we find that increased ALT levels are not associated with dyslipidemias but are independently associated with insulin resistance and NAFLD grading on ultrasonographic evaluations. Further studies are needed to confirm our results. PMID:23569998

  2. A comparative analysis of liver transcriptome suggests divergent liver function among human, mouse and rat

    E-print Network

    Tian, Weidong

    MPSS Microarray SAGE EST The human liver plays a vital role in meeting the body's metabolic needsA comparative analysis of liver transcriptome suggests divergent liver function among human, mouse Hao a,d, , Jian Huang c,f, a Bioinformatics Center, Key Lab of Systems Biology, Shanghai Institutes

  3. Catabolic Function of Compartmentalized Alanine Dehydrogenase in the Heterocyst-Forming Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120?

    PubMed Central

    Pernil, Rafael; Herrero, Antonia; Flores, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    In the diazotrophic filaments of heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria, an exchange of metabolites takes place between vegetative cells and heterocysts that results in a net transfer of reduced carbon to the heterocysts and of fixed nitrogen to the vegetative cells. Open reading frame alr2355 of the genome of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is the ald gene encoding alanine dehydrogenase. A strain carrying a green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion to the N terminus of Ald (Ald-N-GFP) showed that the ald gene is expressed in differentiating and mature heterocysts. Inactivation of ald resulted in a lack of alanine dehydrogenase activity, a substantially decreased nitrogenase activity, and a 50% reduction in the rate of diazotrophic growth. Whereas production of alanine was not affected in the ald mutant, in vivo labeling with [14C]alanine (in whole filaments and isolated heterocysts) or [14C]pyruvate (in whole filaments) showed that alanine catabolism was hampered. Thus, alanine catabolism in the heterocysts is needed for normal diazotrophic growth. Our results extend the significance of a previous work that suggested that alanine is transported from vegetative cells into heterocysts in the diazotrophic Anabaena filament. PMID:20675483

  4. ?-Alanine supplementation and military performance.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jay R; Stout, Jeffrey R; Harris, Roger C; Moran, Daniel S

    2015-12-01

    During sustained high-intensity military training or simulated combat exercises, significant decreases in physical performance measures are often seen. The use of dietary supplements is becoming increasingly popular among military personnel, with more than half of the US soldiers deployed or garrisoned reported to using dietary supplements. ?-Alanine is a popular supplement used primarily by strength and power athletes to enhance performance, as well as training aimed at improving muscle growth, strength and power. However, there is limited research examining the efficacy of ?-alanine in soldiers conducting operationally relevant tasks. The gains brought about by ?-alanine use by selected competitive athletes appears to be relevant also for certain physiological demands common to military personnel during part of their training program. Medical and health personnel within the military are expected to extrapolate and implement relevant knowledge and doctrine from research performed on other population groups. The evidence supporting the use of ?-alanine in competitive and recreational athletic populations suggests that similar benefits would also be observed among tactical athletes. However, recent studies in military personnel have provided direct evidence supporting the use of ?-alanine supplementation for enhancing combat-specific performance. This appears to be most relevant for high-intensity activities lasting 60-300 s. Further, limited evidence has recently been presented suggesting that ?-alanine supplementation may enhance cognitive function and promote resiliency during highly stressful situations. PMID:26206727

  5. ?-Alanine Biosynthesis in Methanocaldococcus jannaschii

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Xu, Huimin

    2014-01-01

    One efficient approach to assigning function to unannotated genes is to establish the enzymes that are missing in known biosynthetic pathways. One group of such pathways is those involved in coenzyme biosynthesis. In the case of the methanogenic archaeon Methanocaldococcus jannaschii as well as most methanogens, none of the expected enzymes for the biosynthesis of the ?-alanine and pantoic acid moieties required for coenzyme A are annotated. To identify the gene(s) for ?-alanine biosynthesis, we have established the pathway for the formation of ?-alanine in this organism after experimentally eliminating other known and proposed pathways to ?-alanine from malonate semialdehyde, l-alanine, spermine, dihydrouracil, and acryloyl-coenzyme A (CoA). Our data showed that the decarboxylation of aspartate was the only source of ?-alanine in cell extracts of M. jannaschii. Unlike other prokaryotes where the enzyme producing ?-alanine from l-aspartate is a pyruvoyl-containing l-aspartate decarboxylase (PanD), the enzyme in M. jannaschii is a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent l-aspartate decarboxylase encoded by MJ0050, the same enzyme that was found to decarboxylate tyrosine for methanofuran biosynthesis. A Km of ?0.80 mM for l-aspartate with a specific activity of 0.09 ?mol min?1 mg?1 at 70°C for the decarboxylation of l-aspartate was measured for the recombinant enzyme. The MJ0050 gene was also demonstrated to complement the Escherichia coli panD deletion mutant cells, in which panD encoding aspartate decarboxylase in E. coli had been knocked out, thus confirming the function of this gene in vivo. PMID:24891443

  6. Dietary HMB and ?-alanine co-supplementation does not improve in situ muscle function in sedentary, aged male rats.

    PubMed

    Russ, David W; Acksel, Cara; Boyd, Iva M; Maynard, John; McCorkle, Katherine W; Edens, Neile K; Garvey, Sean M

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of dietary ?-hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate (HMB) combined with ?-alanine (?-Ala) in sedentary, aged male rats. It has been suggested that dietary HMB or ?-Ala supplementation may mitigate age-related declines in muscle strength and fatigue resistance. A total of 20 aged Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. At age 20 months, 10 rats were administered a control, purified diet and 10 rats were administered a purified diet supplemented with both HMB and ?-Ala (HMB+?-Ala) for 8 weeks (approximately equivalent to 3 and 2.4 g per day human dose). We measured medial gastrocnemius (MG) size, force, fatigability, and myosin composition. We also evaluated an array of protein markers related to muscle mitochondria, protein synthesis and breakdown, and autophagy. HMB+?-Ala had no significant effects on body weight, MG mass, force or fatigability, myosin composition, or muscle quality. Compared with control rats, those fed HMB+?-Ala exhibited a reduced (41%, P = 0.039) expression of muscle RING-finger protein 1 (MURF1), a common marker of protein degradation. Muscle from rats fed HMB+?-Ala also exhibited a 45% reduction (P = 0.023) in p70s6K phosphorylation following fatiguing stimulation. These data suggest that HMB+?-Ala at the dose studied may reduce muscle protein breakdown by reducing MURF1 expression, but has minimal effects on muscle function in this model of uncomplicated aging. They do not, however, rule out potential benefits of HMB+?-Ala co-supplementation at other doses or durations of supplementation in combination with exercise or in situations where extreme muscle protein breakdown and loss of mass occur (e.g., bedrest, cachexia, failure-to-thrive). PMID:26579948

  7. Dietary cholesterol induces hepatic inflammation and blunts mitochondrial function in the liver of high-fat-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Songpei; Zeng, Xiao-Yi; Zhou, Xiu; Wang, Hao; Jo, Eunjung; Robinson, Stephen R; Xu, Aimin; Ye, Ji-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of dietary cholesterol and fat in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, a common liver disease in metabolic disorders. Mice were fed a diet of regular chow (CH), chow supplemented with 0.2% w/w cholesterol (CHC), high fat (HF, 45kcal%) or HF with cholesterol (HFC) for 17weeks. While both HF and HFC groups displayed hepatic steatosis and metabolic syndrome, only HFC group developed the phenotype of liver injury, as indicated by an increase in plasma level of alanine transaminase (ALT, by 50-80%). There were ~2-fold increases in mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor ?, interleukin 1? and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 in the liver of HFC-fed mice (vs. HF) but no endoplasmic reticulum stress or oxidative stress was observed. Furthermore, cholesterol suppressed HF-induced increase of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator 1? and mitochondrial transcription factor A expression and blunted fatty acid oxidation. Interestingly, after switching HFC to HF diet for 5weeks, the increases in plasma ALT and liver inflammatory markers were abolished but the blunted of mitochondrial function remained. These findings suggest that cholesterol plays a critical role in the conversion of a simple fatty liver toward nonalcoholic steatohepatitis possibly by activation of inflammatory pathways together with retarded mitochondrial function. PMID:26391864

  8. Renal Function and Transplantation in Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Parajuli, Sandesh; Foley, David; Djamali, Arjang; Mandelbrot, Didier

    2015-09-01

    Kidney injury is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in liver transplant recipients. Since the introduction of the model for end-stage liver disease for the allocation of organs for liver transplantation in 2002, the heavy weighting of serum creatinine in the model for end-stage liver disease score has significantly increased the incidence of renal dysfunction seen among patients undergoing liver transplantation. As a result, the frequency of simultaneous liver-kidney (SLK) transplantation compared to liver transplantation alone (LTA) has also increased. The decision to perform SLK rather than LTA is an important one because the benefits to the liver transplant recipient receiving a kidney transplant must be balanced with the benefits of using that organ for a patient with end-stage renal disease. However, predicting whether or not a patient with liver failure has reversible kidney disease, and therefore does not also need a kidney transplant, is difficult. The severity and duration of pretransplant renal dysfunction, hepatitis c, diabetes, and other risk factors for kidney disease are associated with an increased risk of posttransplant end-stage renal disease. However, there are currently no clinical findings that accurately predict renal recovery post liver transplant. As a result, the rate of SLK versus LTA differs significantly between transplant centers. To increase consistency across centers, multiple guidelines have been proposed to guide the decision between SLK and LTA, but their poor predictive value has limited their uniform adoption. Nevertheless, adoption of uniform rules for the allocation of kidneys would reduce the variability between centers in rates of SLK transplant. PMID:26308413

  9. Assessment of canine liver function by metabolism of lidocaine to monoethylglycinexylidide: a preclinical study 

    E-print Network

    Fradkin, Jonathan Matthew

    2000-01-01

    in diagnosing and monitoring dogs with chronic progressive liver disease. The lidocaine-MEGX test is used in humans for evaluation of liver function during organ transplant selection, prognostication of chronic liver disease, prioritization of liver transplant...

  10. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation Improves Liver Functional Reserve

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Ting; Deng, Qinzhi; Zhang, Shun; Hu, Airong; Gong, Qinghai; Zhang, Xingfen

    2015-01-01

    Background Currently available treatment options for decompensated hepatitis B-induced liver cirrhosis are limited and largely ineffective. Recently, stem cell transplantation has emerged as a promising treatment for cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation can improve liver functional reserve in patients with hepatitis B-induced cirrhosis. Material/Methods In this study, 51 patients with hepatitis B-induced liver cirrhosis were assigned to the treatment group (n=23) or the control group (n=28). The treatment group underwent autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in addition to comprehensive medical treatment, and the control group received comprehensive medical treatment alone. Liver functional reserve was monitored for 48 weeks after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Results After transplantation, most patients showed improvements in symptoms such as fatigue, anorexia, and abdominal distension. The retention rate of indocyanine green at 15 minutes, a common indicator of liver functional reserve, declined from 41.99±4.68 at baseline to 37.79±3.75 by 48 weeks after transplantation, showing significant improvement. Conclusions Autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation can improve several markers of liver health and liver functional reserve and is a promising prospect for clinical application. PMID:25970080

  11. Oral health and liver function in children and adolescents with cirrhosis of the liver

    PubMed Central

    Kowalczyk, Wojciech; Krasuska-S?awi?ska, Ewa; D?dalski, Maciej; Kostewicz, Krzysztof; Paw?owska, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Introduction People with cirrhosis of the liver are predisposed to developing oral lesions. The occurrence and type of lesion depend on the degree of liver function impairment and its type, and on the severity and duration of systemic diseases. In children, the age at which the early symptoms of liver disease are experienced is also of great importance. Aim To assess the prevalence of oral pathological lesions in children and adolescents with cirrhosis of the liver, and their correlation with the degree of liver function impairment. Material and methods Clinical and laboratory results of liver function tests (Model of End-Stage Liver Disease/Score of Paediatric End-Stage Liver Disease, Child-Pugh score) were assessed in 35 patients with cirrhosis of the liver. The average age of the patients was 10.7 ±4.74 years. All patients also had their oral cavities examined (mucosa, gingiva – GI, hygiene – PLI, teeth – dmft/dmfs and DMFt/DMFs, DDE Index and Candida spp. presence) and this was then correlated to the degree of liver function impairment. Results According to the Child-Pugh scale, 16 patients were class A and 19 were class B/C. Jaundice during the first 3 years of life occurred in 9 patients. Mucosal lesions were found in 26 out of 35 patients (74%), including 10 out of 16 (63%) in Child-Pugh group A, and 16 out of 19 (84%) in group B/C (NS – non significant). Oral candidiasis occurred more often in class B/C than in class A (47.4% vs. 12.5%; p < 0.05). The GI index (Gingival Index) and PLI index (Dental Plaque Index) did not differ between the groups (A vs. B/C) but correlated in the whole group (R = 0.58) as well as in subgroups A (R = 0.65) and B/C (R = 0.59). Dmft/dmfs and DMFt/DMFs indexes did not differ between groups A and B/C, and neither did the DMFt/DMFs in patients with/without enamel defects. Conclusions Oral mucosal lesions are commonly found in children with cirrhosis of the liver. Advanced liver disease promotes oral candidiasis. Severity of gingivitis correlates with the presence of dental plaque. PMID:24868295

  12. Single, Double and Quadruple Alanine Substitutions at Oligomeric Interfaces Identify Hydrophobicity as the Key Determinant of Human Neutrophil Alpha Defensin HNP1 Function

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Changyou; Wu, Xueji; Yuan, Weirong; Li, Xu; Pazgier, Marzena; Lu, Wuyuan

    2013-01-01

    HNP1 is a human alpha defensin that forms dimers and multimers governed by hydrophobic residues, including Tyr16, Ile20, Leu25, and Phe28. Previously, alanine scanning mutagenesis identified each of these residues and other hydrophobic residues as important for function. Here we report further structural and functional studies of residues shown to interact with one another across oligomeric interfaces: I20A-HNP1 and L25A-HNP1, plus the double alanine mutants I20A/L25A-HNP1 and Y16A/F28A-HNP1, and the quadruple alanine mutant Y16A/I20A/L25A/F28A-HNP1. We tested binding to HIV-1 gp120 and HNP1 by surface plasmon resonance, binding to HIV-1 gp41 and HNP1 by fluorescence polarization, inhibition of anthrax lethal factor, and antibacterial activity using the virtual colony count assay. Similar to the previously described single mutant W26A-HNP1, the quadruple mutant displayed the least activity in all functional assays, followed by the double mutant Y16A/F28A-HNP1. The effects of the L25A and I20A single mutations were milder than the double mutant I20A/L25A-HNP1. Crystallographic studies confirmed the correct folding and disulfide pairing, and depicted an array of dimeric and tetrameric structures. These results indicate that side chain hydrophobicity is the critical factor that determines activity at these positions. PMID:24236072

  13. Icaritin ameliorates carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury mainly because of the antioxidative function through estrogen-like effects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Jin, Xiang; Lv, Hao; Li, Jing; Xu, Wen; Qian, Hai-hua; Yin, Zhengfeng

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the effects of icaritin, an active ingredient extracted from Epimedium Sagittatum (Sieb. et Zucc.), on CCl4-induced liver injury and its possible mechanisms. Hepatocytes isolated from Sprague-Dawley male rats were treated with 3 mmol/L CCl4 for 24 h to induce acute liver cell injury, then icaritin (0.1, 1, 10, 100 ?mol/L, respectively) was administrated to the cells, and estrogen receptor antagonist ICI182,780 (1 ?mol/L) was co-treated with 10 ?mol/L icaritin. Biochemical parameters (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), malondialdehyde (MDA), and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) and cell apoptosis were detected to evaluate the injury degree. Protein expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were determined by western blot. Icaritin alleviated CCl4-induced liver cell injury in a concentration-dependent manner and 10 ?mol/L was the optimal concentration. Icaritin (10 ?mol/L) significantly reduced activities of ALT, AST in cell culture medium and MDA level of the impaired liver cells, but increased the intercellular SOD activity. The apoptotic rate of the impaired liver cells was also decreased by icaritin (10 ?mol/L) treatment. Icaritin might exert antioxidative and anti-apoptotic functions via estrogen-like effect, as the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax was significantly increased, while protein expressions of L-FABP and PPAR-? were markedly increased, and this function was blocked by the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI182,780 efficiently. Icaritin may be a promising drug candidate for acute liver injury benefiting from the antioxidative and anti-apoptotic functions via estrogen-like effect. PMID:25148823

  14. Functions of autophagy in normal and diseased liver

    PubMed Central

    Czaja, Mark J.; Ding, Wen-Xing; Donohue, Terrence M.; Friedman, Scott L.; Kim, Jae-Sung; Komatsu, Masaaki; Lemasters, John J.; Lemoine, Antoinette; Lin, Jiandie D.; Ou, Jing-hsiung James; Perlmutter, David H.; Randall, Glenn; Ray, Ratna B.; Tsung, Allan; Yin, Xiao-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy has emerged as a critical lysosomal pathway that maintains cell function and survival through the degradation of cellular components such as organelles and proteins. Investigations specifically employing the liver or hepatocytes as experimental models have contributed significantly to our current knowledge of autophagic regulation and function. The diverse cellular functions of autophagy, along with unique features of the liver and its principal cell type the hepatocyte, suggest that the liver is highly dependent on autophagy for both normal function and to prevent the development of disease states. However, instances have also been identified in which autophagy promotes pathological changes such as the development of hepatic fibrosis. Considerable evidence has accumulated that alterations in autophagy are an underlying mechanism of a number of common hepatic diseases including toxin-, drug- and ischemia/reperfusion-induced liver injury, fatty liver, viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. This review summarizes recent advances in understanding the roles that autophagy plays in normal hepatic physiology and pathophysiology with the intent of furthering the development of autophagy-based therapies for human liver diseases. PMID:23774882

  15. Psychosocial functioning in patients with alcohol-related liver disease post liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Pegum, Nell; Connor, Jason P; Young, Ross McD; Feeney, Gerald F X

    2015-06-01

    Emotional and role functioning difficulties are associated with chronic alcohol use and liver disease. Little is known about prospective changes in psychological and psychosocial functioning following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) amongst patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD). We aimed to assess the functioning of this patient group post liver transplantation. Comprehensive psychosocial assessment of depression (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]), anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Form X [STAI]) and psychosocial adjustment (Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale-Self-Report version [PAIS-SR]) was conducted with 42 ALD patients available for pre and post OLT testing. Dependence severity was assessed by the Brief Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (bMAST). Significant reductions in average anxiety and depression symptoms were observed 12-months post-OLT. Significant improvements in psychosocial adjustment to illness were also reported. Patients with higher levels of alcohol dependence severity pre transplant assessment improved comparably to those with lower levels of dependence. In summary, the study found that OLT contributed to reducing overall levels of mood and anxiety symptoms in ALD patients, approximating general (non-clinical) population norms. Psychosocial adjustment also improved significantly post liver transplantation. PMID:25644590

  16. Musculoskeletal Health, Kidney and Liver Function in Retired Jockeys.

    PubMed

    Cullen, S; Donohoe, A; McGoldrick, A; McCaffrey, N; Davenport, C; Byrne, B; Donaghy, C; Tormey, W; Smith, D; Warrington, G

    2015-11-01

    The long-term implications of making-weight daily on musculoskeletal health and functioning of the kidney and liver remain unknown. This study aimed to investigate musculoskeletal health and kidney and liver function in a group of retired jockeys. 28 retired male jockeys (age 50-70 years) provided fasting blood samples for markers of bone metabolism and kidney and liver function. A dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan was performed for the assessment of bone mineral density (BMD). Established reference ranges were used for interpretation of results. Comparisons were made between retired jockeys based on the professional racing licence held: Flat, National Hunt or Dual. Mean whole-body osteopenia was reported, with no differences between groups. Bone markers, micronutrients, electrolytes and associated hormones, and markers for kidney and liver function were within clinical normative ranges. No differences existed between groups. Results indicate the retired jockeys in this study do not demonstrate compromised bone health or kidney and liver function. However, the retired jockeys may not have undergone chronic weight cycling in the extreme manner evident in present-day jockeys, indicating the next generation of jockeys may face more of a problem. Jockeys should be tracked longitudinally throughout their racing career and beyond. PMID:26212243

  17. A novel RNA oligonucleotide improves liver function and inhibits liver carcinogenesis in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Reebye, V.; Sætrom, P.; Mintz, P.J.; Huang, K.W.; Swiderski, P.; Peng, L.; Liu, C.; Liu, X.X.; Jensen, S.; Zacharoulis, D.; Kostomitsopoulos, N.; Kasahara, N.; Nicholls, J.P.; Jiao, L.R.; Pai, M.; Mizandari, M.; Chikovani, T.; Emara, M.M.; Haoudi, A.; Tomalia, D.A.; Rossi, J.J.; Habib, N.A.; Spalding, D.R.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurs predominantly in patients with liver cirrhosis. Here, we show an innovative RNA-based targeted approach to enhance endogenous albumin production whilst reducing liver tumour burden. We designed short-activating RNAs (saRNA) to enhance expression of C/EBP? (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-?), a transcriptional regulator and activator of albumin gene expression. Increased levels of both C/EBP? and albumin mRNA in addition to a 3-fold increase in albumin secretion and 50% decrease in cell proliferation was observed in C/EBP?-saRNA transfected HepG2 cells. Intravenous injection of C/EBP?-saRNA in a cirrhotic rat model with multifocal liver tumours increased circulating serum albumin by over 30% showing evidence of improved liver function. Tumour burden decreased by 80% (p = 0.003) with a 40% reduction in a marker of pre-neoplastic transformation. Since C/EBP? has known anti-proliferative activities via retinoblastoma, p21 and cyclins; we used mRNA expression liver cancer specific microarray in C/EBP?-saRNA transfected HepG2 cells to confirm down-regulation of genes strongly enriched for negative regulation of apoptosis, angiogenesis and metastasis. Up-regulated genes were enriched for tumour suppressors and positive regulators of cell differentiation. A quantitative PCR and Western-blot analysis of C/EBP?-saRNA transfected cells suggested that in addition to the known anti-proliferative targets of C/EBP?, we also observed suppression of IL6R, c-Myc and reduced STAT3 phosphorylation. Conclusion We demonstrate for the first time that a novel injectable saRNA-oligonucleotide that enhances C/EBP? expression successfully reduces tumour burden and simultaneously improves liver function in a clinically relevant liver cirrhosis/HCC model. PMID:23929703

  18. Alanine increases blood pressure during hypotension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conlay, L. A.; Maher, T. J.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of L-alanine administration on blood pressure (BP) during haemorrhagic shock was investigated using anesthetized rats whose left carotid arteries were cannulated for BP measurement, blood removal, and drug administration. It was found that L-alanine, in doses of 10, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, increased the systolic BP of hypotensive rats by 38 to 80 percent (while 100 mg/kg pyruvate increased BP by only 9.4 mmhg, not significantly different from saline). The results suggest that L-alanine might influence cardiovascular function.

  19. Liver Function Parameters in Hip Fracture Patients: Relations to Age, Adipokines, Comorbidities and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Leon; Srikusalanukul, Wichat; Fisher, Alexander; Smith, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To asses liver markers in older patients with hip fracture (HF) in relation to age, comorbidities, metabolic characteristics and short-term outcomes. Methods: In 294 patients with HF (mean age 82.0±7.9 years, 72.1% women) serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gammaglutamyltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin, bilirubin, 25(OH)vitaminD, PTH, calcium, phosphate, magnesium, adiponectin, leptin, resistin, thyroid function and cardiac troponin I were measured. Results: Elevated ALT, GGT, ALP or bilirubin levels on admission were observed in 1.7% - 9.9% of patients. With age GGT, ALT and leptin decrease, while PTH and adiponectin concentrations increase. Higher GGT (>30U/L, median level) was associated with coronary artery disease (CAD), diabetes mellitus (DM), and alcohol overuse; lower ALT (?20U/L, median level) with dementia; total bilirubin >20?mol/L with CAD and alcohol overuse; and albumin >33g/L with CAD. Multivariate adjusted regression analyses revealed ALT, ALP, adiponectin, alcohol overuse and DM as independent and significant determinants of GGT (as continuous or categorical variable); GGT for each other liver marker; and PTH for adiponectin. The risk of prolonged hospital stay (>20 days) was about two times higher in patients with GGT>30U/L or adiponectin >17.14 ng/L (median level) and 4.7 times higher if both conditions coexisted. The risk of in-hospital death was 3 times higher if albumin was <33g/L. Conclusions: In older HF patients liver markers even within the normal range are associated with age-related disorders and outcomes. Adiponectin (but not 25(OH)vitaminD, PTH, leptin or resistin) is an independent contributor to higher GGT. Serum GGT and albumin predict prolonged hospital stay and in-hospital death, respectively. A unifying hypothesis of the findings presented. PMID:25589886

  20. ALT (Alanine Aminotransferase) Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Aminotransferase Related tests: AST ; ALP ; GGT ; Bilirubin ; Liver Panel ; Albumin ; Total Protein All content on Lab Tests ... aminotransferase (AST) or as part of a liver panel to screen for and/or help diagnose liver ...

  1. Assessment of thyroid and gonadal function in liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kharb, Sandeep; Garg, M. K.; Puri, Pankaj; Brar, Karninder S.; Pandit, Aditi; Srivastava, Sharad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Liver is involved with the synthesis of carrier proteins and metabolism of various hormones and liver diseases may, therefore, be associated with various endocrine disturbances. This study was conducted to assess thyroid and gonadal function in subjects with acute hepatitis (AH), chronic liver disease (CLD), and those who had undergone liver transplantation (LT). Materials and Methods: Patients with AH, CLD with Child-Pugh stage A (CLD-1) and Child-Pugh stage B or C (CLD-2), and LT seen at our tertiary level hospital were assessed clinically, biochemically, and for thyroid and gonadal functions besides 25 healthy controls. Results: Thyroid dysfunction and hypogonadism were present in 14 (16%) and 24 (28%) patients with liver diseases respectively. Among thyroid dysfunction, the commonest was sick euthyroid syndrome six (7%), followed by subclinical hypothyroidism in three patients (3.5%), subclinical hyperthyroidism and thyrotoxicosis in two patients each (2.3%) and overt hypothyroidism in one patient. Among patients with LT and AH groups, the only abnormality was significantly lower total T3 compared with healthy controls. The CLD2 group had significantly lower levels of all thyroid hormones compared with controls and CLD1 group. Hypogonadism was commonest in patients with CLD-2 (14; 50%) followed by LT (3; 33%), CLD-1 (4; 20%), and AH (3; 14%). Hypogonadism was predicted by older age, lower levels of serum albumin, total cholesterol, and triglycerides and higher levels of plasma glucose, serum bilirubin, aspartate transaminases, and international normalized ratio. Gonadal functions showed recovery following LT. Conclusions: Thyroid dysfunction and hypogonadism form an important part of the spectrum of acute and CLD, and patients with LT. Deterioration of synthetic functions of liver disease predicts presence of hypogonadism. PMID:25593833

  2. ALT1-encoded alanine aminotransferase plays a central role in the metabolism of alanine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    García-Campusano, Florencia; Anaya, Víctor-Hugo; Robledo-Arratia, Luis; Quezada, Héctor; Hernández, Hugo; Riego, Lina; González, Alicia

    2009-04-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the paralogous genes ALT1 and ALT2 have been proposed to encode alanine aminotransferase isozymes. Although in other microorganisms this enzyme constitutes the main pathway for alanine biosynthesis, its role in S. cerevisiae had remained unclear. Results presented in this paper show that under respiratory conditions, Alt1p constitutes the sole pathway for alanine biosynthesis and catabolism, constituting the first example of an alanine aminotransferase that simultaneously carries out both functions. Conversely, under fermentative conditions, it plays a catabolic role and alanine is mainly synthesized through an alternative pathway. It can thus be concluded that ALT1 has functions in alanine biosynthesis and utilization or only alanine utilization under respiratory and fermentative conditions, respectively. ALT2 expression was repressed under all tested conditions, suggesting that Alt2p biosynthesis is strictly controlled and only allowed to express under peculiar physiological conditions. PMID:19396236

  3. Amino acid residues in the GerAB protein important in the function and assembly of the alanine spore germination receptor of Bacillus subtilis 168.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Gareth R; Moir, Anne

    2011-05-01

    The paradigm gerA operon is required for endospore germination in response to c-alanine as the sole germinant, and the three protein products, GerAA, GerAB, and GerAC are predicted to form a receptor complex in the spore inner membrane. GerAB shows homology to the amino acid-polyamine-organocation (APC) family of single-component transporters and is predicted to be an integral membrane protein with 10 membrane-spanning helices. Site-directed mutations were introduced into the gerAB gene at its natural location on the chromosome. Alterations to some charged or potential helix-breaking residues within membrane spans affected receptor function dramatically. In some cases, this is likely to reflect the complete loss of the GerA receptor complex, as judged by the absence of the germinant receptor protein GerAC, which suggests that the altered GerAB protein itself may be unstable or that the altered structure destabilizes the complex. Mutants that have a null phenotype for Instituto de Biotecnología de León, INBIOTEC, Parque Científico de León, Av. Real, 1, 24006 León, Spain-alanine germination but retain GerAC protein at near-normal levels are more likely to define amino acid residues of functional, rather than structural, importance. Single-amino-acid substitutions in each of the GerAB and GerAA proteins can prevent incorporation of GerAC protein into the spore; this provides strong evidence that the proteins within a specific receptor interact and that these interactions are required for receptor assembly. The lipoprotein nature of the GerAC receptor subunit is also important; an amino acid change in the prelipoprotein signal sequence in the gerAC1 mutant results in the absence of GerAC protein from the spore. PMID:21378181

  4. ?-Lipoic acid attenuates LPS-induced liver injury by improving mitochondrial function in association with GR mitochondrial DNA occupancy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiqing; Guo, Jun; Sun, Hailin; Huang, Yanping; Zhao, Ruqian; Yang, Xiaojing

    2015-09-01

    ?-Lipoic acid (LA) has been demonstrated to be a key regulator of energy metabolism. However, whether LA can protect the liver from inflammation, as well as the underlying mechanism involved, are still largely unclear. In the present study, mice treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and injected with LA were used as a model. Liver injury, energy metabolism and mitochondrial regulation were investigated to assess the protective effect of LA on the liver and explore the possible mechanisms involved. Our results showed that LA attenuated liver injury, as evidenced by the decreased plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels after LA treatment compared with the LPS-treated group. The hepatic ATP and NADH levels, expression levels of most mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded genes as well as mitochondrial complex I, IV and V activities were all significantly increased in the LA-treated group compared with the LPS-treated group. Levels of Sirt3 protein, which is essential for the regulation of mitochondrial metabolism, were also increased in the LA-treated group. Regarding the regulation of mtDNA-encoded genes expression, we observed no obvious change in the methylation status of the mtDNA D-loop region. However, compared to the LPS-treated group, LA treatment increased glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein expression in the liver, as well as the level of GR occupancy on the mtDNA D-loop region. Our study demonstrates that LA exerts a liver-protective effect in an inflammation state by improving mitochondrial function. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, we demonstrate for the first time that GR may be involved in this effect via an enhanced binding to the mtDNA transcriptional control region, thereby regulating the expression of mtDNA-encoded genes. PMID:26133658

  5. Simultaneous measurement of hundreds of liver proteins: application in assessment of liver function.

    PubMed

    Anderson, N L; Taylor, J; Hofmann, J P; Esquer-Blasco, R; Swift, S; Anderson, N G

    1996-01-01

    Proteins implement most biological functions at the molecular level. As one might expect based on this fact, it appears that the altered functional states associated with toxic effects involve changes in the abundance or structure of proteins. Although numerous specific assays exist to measure changes in the abundance of individual proteins, practical limitations have prevented widespread use of multiple protein assays for the global characterization of toxicity. Recent developments in protein analytical technology are rapidly changing this picture. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, a technique capable of resolving and quantitating hundreds of proteins simultaneously, is becoming an automated, high-throughput tool. In parallel, techniques have been developed that allow the resulting deluge of protein measurements to be organized into a prototype Molecular Effects Database describing xenobiotic effects in rodent liver. This database can detect, classify, and characterize a broad range of liver toxicity mechanisms. It currently contains approximately 10 million protein measurements, including data on the liver effects of 43 compounds, with a further 50 compounds to be added in 1995. Observed effects range from very broad (sex steroids alter levels of 45% of all liver proteins) to very specific (e.g., hepatic hydroxymethyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors). Companion 2-dimensional databases describing rodent brain and kidney have been initiated, as have linkages to the genomic sequence databases. Assimilation of this approach into research and regulatory toxicology poses an interesting challenge--one that is likely to lead to a radically more sophisticated understanding of toxicity and its biological basis. PMID:8839283

  6. Bioreactor technologies to support liver function in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimkhani, Mohammad R; Neiman, Jaclyn A Shepard; Raredon, Micha Sam B; Hughes, David J; Griffith, Linda G

    2014-04-01

    Liver is a central nexus integrating metabolic and immunologic homeostasis in the human body, and the direct or indirect target of most molecular therapeutics. A wide spectrum of therapeutic and technological needs drives efforts to capture liver physiology and pathophysiology in vitro, ranging from prediction of metabolism and toxicity of small molecule drugs, to understanding off-target effects of proteins, nucleic acid therapies, and targeted therapeutics, to serving as disease models for drug development. Here we provide perspective on the evolving landscape of bioreactor-based models to meet old and new challenges in drug discovery and development, emphasizing design challenges in maintaining long-term liver-specific function and how emerging technologies in biomaterials and microdevices are providing new experimental models. PMID:24607703

  7. Bioreactor Technologies to Support Liver Function In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimkhani, Mohammad R; Neiman, Jaclyn A Shepard; Raredon, Micah Sam B; Hughes, David J; Griffith, Linda G

    2014-01-01

    Liver is a central nexus integrating metabolic and immunologic homeostasis in the human body, and the direct or indirect target of most molecular therapeutics. A wide spectrum of therapeutic and technological needs drive efforts to capture liver physiology and pathophysiology in vitro, ranging from prediction of metabolism and toxicity of small molecule drugs, to understanding off-target effects of proteins, nucleic acid therapies, and targeted therapeutics, to serving as disease models for drug development. Here we provide perspective on the evolving landscape of bioreactor-based models to meet old and new challenges in drug discovery and development, emphasizing design challenges in maintaining long-term liver-specific function and how emerging technologies in biomaterials and microdevices are providing new experimental models. PMID:24607703

  8. Modified high-intensity interval training reduces liver fat and improves cardiac function in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hallsworth, Kate; Thoma, Christian; Hollingsworth, Kieren G; Cassidy, Sophie; Anstee, Quentin M; Day, Christopher P; Trenell, Michael I

    2015-12-01

    Although lifestyle changes encompassing weight loss and exercise remain the cornerstone of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) management, the effect of different types of exercise on NAFLD is unknown. This study defines the effect of modified high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on liver fat, cardiac function and metabolic control in adults with NAFLD. Twenty-three patients with NAFLD [age 54±10 years, body mass index (BMI) 31±4 kg/m(2), intra-hepatic lipid >5%) were assigned to either 12 weeks HIIT or standard care (controls). HIIT involved thrice weekly cycle ergometry for 30-40 min. MRI and spectroscopy were used to assess liver fat, abdominal fat and cardiac structure/function/energetics. Glucose control was assessed by oral glucose tolerance test and body composition by air displacement plethysmography. Relative to control, HIIT decreased liver fat (11±5% to 8±2% compared with 10±4% to 10±4% P=0.019), whole-body fat mass (35±7 kg to 33±8 kg compared with 31±9 kg to 32±9 kg, P=0.013), alanine (52±29 units/l to 42±20 units/l compared with 47±22 units/l to 51±24 units/l, P=0.016) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST; 36±18 units/l to 33±15 units/l compared with 31±8 units/l to 35±8 units/l, P=0.017) and increased early diastolic filling rate (244±84 ml/s to 302±107 ml/s compared with 255±82 ml/s to 251±82 ml/s, P=0.018). There were no between groups differences in glucose control. Modified HIIT reduces liver fat and improves body composition alongside benefits to cardiac function in patients with NAFLD and should be considered as part of the broader treatment regimen by clinical care teams. ISRCTN trial ID: ISRCTN78698481. PMID:26265792

  9. Splenectomy Improves Hemostatic and Liver Functions in Hepatosplenic Schistosomiasis Mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Luiz Arthur Calheiros; Pimenta Filho, Adenor Almeida; Ferreira, Rita de Cássia dos Santos; da Fonseca, Caíque Silveira Martins; dos Santos, Bianka Santana; Montenegro, Silvia Maria Lucena; Lopes, Edmundo Pessoa de Almeida; Domingues, Ana Lúcia Coutinho; Owen, James Stuart; Lima, Vera Lucia de Menezes

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis mansoni is a chronic liver disease, in which some patients (5–10%) progress to the most severe form, hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. This form is associated with portal hypertension and splenomegaly, and often episodes of gastrointestinal bleeding, even with liver function preserved. Splenectomy is a validated procedure to reduce portal hypertension following digestive bleeding. Here, we evaluate beneficial effects of splenectomy on blood coagulation factors and liver function tests in hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni compared to non-operated patients. Methodology/Principal Findings Forty-five patients who had undergone splenectomy surgery were assessed by laboratory analyses and ultrasound examination and compared to a non-operated group (n = 55). Blood samples were obtained for liver function tests, platelet count and prothrombin time. Coagulation factors (II, VII, VIII, IX and X), protein C and antithrombin IIa, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were measured by routine photometric, chromogenic or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, while hyperfibrinolysis was defined by plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels. Both groups had similar age, gender and pattern of periportal fibrosis. Splenectomized patients showed significant reductions in portal vein diameter, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin levels compared to non-operated patients, while for coagulation factors there were significant improvement in prothrombin, partial thromboplastin times and higher levels of factor VII, VIII, IX, X, protein C and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Conclusion/Significance This study shows that the decrease of flow pressure in portal circulation after splenectomy restores the capacity of hepatocyte synthesis, especially on the factor VII and protein C levels, and these findings suggest that portal hypertension in patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis influences liver functioning and the blood coagulation status. PMID:26267788

  10. MR Prediction of Liver Function and Pathology Using Gd-EOB-DTPA: Effect of Liver Volume Consideration

    PubMed Central

    Shimamoto, Dai; Nishie, Akihiro; Asayama, Yoshiki; Ushijima, Yasuhiro; Takayama, Yukihisa; Fujita, Nobuhiro; Shirabe, Ken; Hida, Tomoyuki; Kubo, Yuichiro; Honda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate whether the diagnostic performance of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI in evaluating liver function and pathology is improved by considering liver volume (LV). Methods. This retrospective study included 104 patients who underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI before liver surgery. For each patient, using the precontrast and hepatobiliary phase images, we calculated the increase rate of the liver-to-spleen signal intensity ratio (LSR), that is, the “?LSR,” and the increase rate of the liver-to-muscle signal intensity ratio (LMR), that is, the “?LMR.” ?LSR × LV and ?LMR × LV were also calculated. The correlation of each MR parameter with liver function data or liver pathology was assessed. The correlation coefficients were compared between ?LSR (?LMR) and ?LSR (?LMR) × LV. Results. The correlation coefficient between ?LSR (?LMR) × LV and cholinesterase was significantly higher than that between ?LSR (?LMR) and cholinesterase. The correlation coefficient between ?LSR (?LMR) × LV and the degree of fibrosis or necroinflammatory activity was significantly lower than that between ?LSR (?LMR) and the degree of fibrosis or necroinflammatory activity. Conclusion. The inclusion of liver volume may improve Gd-EOB-DTPA-based predictions of liver function, but not in predictions of liver pathology. PMID:26609519

  11. Structural and functional hepatocyte polarity and liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Gissen, Paul; Arias, Irwin M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Hepatocytes form a crucially important cell layer that separates sinusoidal blood from the canalicular bile. They have a uniquely organized polarity with a basal membrane facing liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, while one or more apical poles can contribute to several bile canaliculi jointly with the directly opposing hepatocytes. Establishment and maintenance of hepatocyte polarity is essential for many functions of hepatocytes and requires carefully orchestrated cooperation between cell adhesion molecules, cell junctions, cytoskeleton, extracellular matrix and intracellular trafficking machinery. The process of hepatocyte polarization requires energy and, if abnormal, may result in severe liver disease. A number of inherited disorders affecting tight junction and intracellular trafficking proteins have been described and demonstrate clinical and pathophysiological features overlapping those of the genetic cholestatic liver diseases caused by defects in canalicular ABC transporters. Thus both structural and functional components contribute to the final hepatocyte polarity phenotype. Many acquired liver diseases target factors that determine hepatocyte polarity, such as junctional proteins. Hepatocyte depolarization frequently occurs but is rarely recognized because hematoxylin-eosin staining does not identify the bile canaliculus. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these defects are not well understood. Here we aim to provide an update on the key factors determining hepatocyte polarity and how it is affected in inherited and acquired diseases. PMID:26116792

  12. Structural and functional hepatocyte polarity and liver disease.

    PubMed

    Gissen, Paul; Arias, Irwin M

    2015-10-01

    Hepatocytes form a crucially important cell layer that separates sinusoidal blood from the canalicular bile. They have a uniquely organized polarity with a basal membrane facing liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, while one or more apical poles can contribute to several bile canaliculi jointly with the directly opposing hepatocytes. Establishment and maintenance of hepatocyte polarity is essential for many functions of hepatocytes and requires carefully orchestrated cooperation between cell adhesion molecules, cell junctions, cytoskeleton, extracellular matrix and intracellular trafficking machinery. The process of hepatocyte polarization requires energy and, if abnormal, may result in severe liver disease. A number of inherited disorders affecting tight junction and intracellular trafficking proteins have been described and demonstrate clinical and pathophysiological features overlapping those of the genetic cholestatic liver diseases caused by defects in canalicular ABC transporters. Thus both structural and functional components contribute to the final hepatocyte polarity phenotype. Many acquired liver diseases target factors that determine hepatocyte polarity, such as junctional proteins. Hepatocyte depolarization frequently occurs but is rarely recognized because hematoxylin-eosin staining does not identify the bile canaliculus. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these defects are not well understood. Here we aim to provide an update on the key factors determining hepatocyte polarity and how it is affected in inherited and acquired diseases. PMID:26116792

  13. Biochemical Parameters for Longitudinal Monitoring of Liver Function in Rat Models of Partial Hepatectomy Following Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Boeykens, Nele; Ponsaerts, Peter; Ysebaert, Dirk; De Greef, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Background While evaluation of liver function in preclinical animal studies is commonly performed at selected time-points by invasive determination of the liver/body weight ratio and histological analyses, the validation of longitudinal measurement tools for monitoring liver function are of major interest. Aims To longitudinally evaluate serum cholinesterase (CHE) and total serum bilirubin (TSB) levels as non-invasive markers to determine injury- and partial hepatectomy (PHx)-induced alterations of liver function in rats. Methods Male and female Lewis rats were subjected to either methionine/choline deficient (MCD) diet or treatment with FOLFOX chemotherapy prior to PHx. Body weight and CHE/TSB levels are determined weekly. Following PHx and at the study end, histological analyses of liver tissue are performed. Results Following MCD diet, but not after FOLFOX chemotherapy treatment, results indicate gender-specific alterations in serum CHE levels and gender-independent alterations in TSB levels. Likewise, histological analyses of resected liver parts indicate significant liver injury following MCD-diet, but not following FOLFOX treatment. While TSB levels rapidly recover following MCD diet/FOLFOX treatment combined with a PHx, serum CHE levels are subject to significant model- and gender-specific differences, despite full histopathological recovery of liver tissue. Conclusions Longitudinal measurements of serum CHE levels and TSB levels in rats are highly complementary as non-invasive parameters for evaluation of liver injury and/or recovery. PMID:23824267

  14. Ab Initio and Density Functional Theory Modeling of the Chiroptical Response of Glycine and Alanine in Solution Using Explicit Solvation and Molecular Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Kundrat, Matthew D; Autschbach, Jochen

    2008-11-11

    We investigate ways in which simple point charge (SPC) water models can be used in place of more expensive quantum mechanical water molecules to efficiently model the solvent effect on a solute molecule's chiroptical responses. The effect that SPC waters have on the computed circular dichroism of a solvated glycine molecule are comparable to, albeit somewhat weaker than, that of quantum mechanical waters at the coupled cluster CC2 level of theory. The effects of SPC waters in fact correlate better with QM-CC2 waters than quantum mechanical waters computed with density functional theory (DFT) methods, since they do not promote spurious charge transfer excitations that are a known deficiency with most popular density functionals. Furthermore, the near zero order scaling of point charge waters allows multiple layers of explicit solvation to be modeled with negligible computational cost, which is not practical with CC2 or DFT levels. As a practical example, we model the molar rotations of glycine and alanine, and track their convergence. PMID:26620334

  15. Serum Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) Concentrations and Liver Function Biomarkers in a Population with Elevated PFOA Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Valentina; Leonardi, Giovanni; Genser, Bernd; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Frisbee, Stephanie J.; Karlsson, Lee; Ducatman, Alan M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) persist in the environment and are found in relatively high concentrations in animal livers. Studies in humans have reported inconsistent associations between PFOA and liver enzymes. Objectives: We examined the cross-sectional association between serum PFOA and PFOS concentrations with markers of liver function in adults. Methods: The C8 Health Project collected data on 69,030 persons; of these, a total of 47,092 adults were included in the present analysis. Linear regression models were fitted for natural log (ln)-transformed values of alanine transaminase (ALT), ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and direct bilirubin on PFOA, PFOS, and potential confounders. Logistic regression models were fitted comparing deciles of PFOA or PFOS in relation to high biomarker levels. A multilevel analysis comparing the evidence for association of PFOA with liver function at the individual level within water districts to that at the population level between water districts was also performed. Results: ln-PFOA and ln-PFOS were associated with ln-ALT in linear regression models [PFOA: coefficient, 0.022; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.018, 0.025; PFOS: coefficient, 0.020; 95% CI: 0.014, 0.026] and with raised ALT in logistic regression models [with a steady increase in the odds ratio (OR) estimates across deciles of PFOA and PFOS; PFOA: OR = 1.10; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.13; PFOS: OR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.18]. There was less consistent evidence of an association of PFOA and GGT or bilirubin. The relationship with bilirubin appears to rise at low levels of PFOA and to fall again at higher levels. Conclusions: These results show a positive association between PFOA and PFOS concentrations and serum ALT level, a marker of hepatocellular damage. PMID:22289616

  16. The Relationship of Liver Function Tests to Mixed Exposure to Lead and Organic Solvents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aims to compare liver function indices (aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], and gamma glutamyl transferase [GGT]) among males who work with lead, organic solvents, or both lead and organic solvents, under the permissible exposure limit (PEL). Methods A total of 593 (out of 2,218) male workers who agreed to share their personal health information for medical research were selected for this study. Those excluded were hepatitis B carriers, individuals exposed to occupational risk factors other than lead and organic solvents, and individuals without liver function results. The 593 were divided into five groups: a lead-exposed group, an organic solvent-exposed group exposed to trichloroethylene (TCE co-exposed solvent group), an organic solvent-exposed group not exposed to trichloroethylene (TCE non-exposed solvent group), a lead and organic solvent-exposed group (mixed exposure group), and a non-exposed group (control group). We performed a one way-analysis of variance (one way-ANOVA) test to compare the geometric means of liver function indices among the groups, using a general linear model (GLM) to adjust for age, work duration, body mass index (BMI), smoking, and alcohol intake. In addition, we performed a binary logistic regression analysis to compare the odds ratios among groups with an abnormal liver function index, according to a cut-off value. Results The ALT and AST of the mixed exposure group were higher than those of the other groups. The GGT of the mixed exposure group was higher than the TCE co-exposed solvent group, but there was no difference among the control group, TCE non-exposed solvent group, lead-exposed group, and mixed exposure group. The same result was evident after adjusting by GLM for age, work duration, BMI, smoking, and alcohol intake, except that ALT from the mixed exposure group showed no difference from the TCE co-exposed solvent group. When the cut-off values of the AST, ALT, and GGT were 40 IU/L, 42 IU/L, and 63 IU/L, respectively, a logistic regression analysis showed no differences in the odds ratios of those who had an abnormal liver function index among the groups. However, if the cut-off values of the AST, ALT, and GGT were 30 IU/L, 30 IU/L, and 40 IU/L, respectively, the odds ratio of the AST in the mixed exposure group was 4.39 (95% CI 1.86-10.40) times higher than the control. Conclusion This study indicates that a mixed exposure to lead and organic solvents is dangerous, even if each single exposure is safe under the permissible exposure limit. Therefore, to ensure occupational health and safety in industry, a continuous efforts to study the effects from exposure to mixed chemicals is needed. PMID:24472152

  17. Redox Control of Liver Function in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Marí, Montserrat; Colell, Anna; Morales, Albert; von Montfort, Claudia; Garcia-Ruiz, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Reactive oxygen species (ROS), a heterogeneous population of biologically active intermediates, are generated as by-products of the aerobic metabolism and exhibit a dual role in biology. When produced in controlled conditions and in limited quantities, ROS may function as signaling intermediates, contributing to critical cellular functions such as proliferation, differentiation, and cell survival. However, ROS overgeneration and, particularly, the formation of specific reactive species, inflicts cell death and tissue damage by targeting vital cellular components such as DNA, lipids, and proteins, thus arising as key players in disease pathogenesis. Given the predominant role of hepatocytes in biotransformation and metabolism of xenobiotics, ROS production constitutes an important burden in liver physiology and pathophysiology and hence in the progression of liver diseases. Despite the recognized role of ROS in disease pathogenesis, the efficacy of antioxidants as therapeutics has been limited. A better understanding of the mechanisms, nature, and location of ROS generation, as well as the optimization of cellular defense strategies, may pave the way for a brighter future for antioxidants and ROS scavengers in the therapy of liver diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 12, 1295—1331. PMID:19803748

  18. Correlation between fibroscan, liver biopsy, and clinical liver function in patients with hepatitis C virus infection after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, R; Ramírez, E; Fernandez, I; Martin, A; Romero, M; Romero, E; Dominguez-Gil, B; Hernandez, A; Morales, E; Andres, A; Castellano, G; Morales, J M

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the most important liver disease (LD) after renal transplantation. Liver biopsy is the gold standard for the diagnosis and follow-up of LD. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the correlation between values of Fibroscan (EchoSens, Paris, France), a new noninvasive method to assess liver fibrosis, liver biopsy, and clinical data among HCV-positive renal transplant patients. Twenty-four HCV/RNA-positive patients with a previous liver biopsy were selected to undergo Fibroscan (transient elastography) and a clinical evaluation of liver function. Fibroscan values were expressed in kilopascals (kPa). As 2 patients were eliminated due to obesity or ascites, we analyzed 22 patients. Thirteen patients (59%) with fibrosis F0-F1 (METAVIR score) by biopsy and normal liver function showed a mean Fibroscan score of 5.2 kPa (range, 2.3-6.8 kPa). Three patients (13.6%) exhibited F2 by biopsy and normal liver function with a mean Fibroscan score of 8.2 kPa (range, 7.3-8.9 kPa). Three patients (13.6%) with F3 by biopsy and abnormal liver function showed a high mean Fibroscan score of 10.9 kPa (range, 10.5-11.6 kPa). The last 3 patients (13.6%) with F4 (cirrhosis) by biopsy and abnormal clinical data showed the highest mean Fibroscan value of 14.2 kPa (range, 8.9-18 kPa). In conclusion, among renal transplant patients with HCV the values of Fibroscan seem to correlate with the degree of fibrosis by biopsy and with clinical liver function. Therefore, Fibroscan may be useful to follow patients with LD. However, these results should be analyzed with caution due to the small number of cases and retrospective nature of the study. PMID:19715940

  19. Preoperative assessment of postoperative liver function: the importance of residual liver volume.

    PubMed

    Pulitano, Carlo; Crawford, Michael; Joseph, David; Aldrighetti, Luca; Sandroussi, Charbel

    2014-09-01

    An inadequate volume of future liver remnant (FLR) remains an absolute contraindication to liver resection. FLR measurement correlates with surgical outcome and is fundamental to identify those patients that may benefit from portal vein embolization (PVE) and to assess the liver volume change following embolization. In order to minimize the risk of postoperative liver failure, preoperative analysis of FLR must be included in the surgical planning of every major liver resection. The aims of this review are to describe the use of preoperative volumetric analysis in modern liver surgery and indications for PVE. PMID:24962104

  20. Liver reserve function assessment by acoustic radiation force impulse imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiao-Lan; Liang, Li-Wei; Cao, Hui; Men, Qiong; Hou, Ke-Zhu; Chen, Zhen; Zhao, Ya-E

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the utility of liver reserve function by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging in patients with liver tumors. METHODS: Seventy-six patients with liver tumors were enrolled in this study. Serum biochemical indexes, such as aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), serum albumin (ALB), total bilirubin (T-Bil), and other indicators were observed. Liver stiffness (LS) was measured by ARFI imaging, measurements were repeated 10 times, and the average value of the results was taken as the final LS value. Indocyanine green (ICG) retention was performed, and ICG-K and ICG-R15 were recorded. Child-Pugh (CP) scores were carried out based on patient’s preoperative biochemical tests and physical condition. Correlations among CP scores, ICG-R15, ICG-K and LS values were observed and analyzed using either the Pearson correlation coefficient or the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare LS values of CP scores, and the receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve was used to analyze liver reserve function assessment accuracy. RESULTS: LS in the ICG-R15 10%-20% group was significantly higher than in the ICG-R15 < 10% group; and the difference was statistically significant (2.19 ± 0.27 vs 1.59 ± 0.32, P < 0.01). LS in the ICG-R15 > 20% group was significantly higher than in the ICG-R15 < 10% group; and the difference was statistically significant (2.92 ± 0.29 vs 1.59 ± 0.32, P < 0.01). The LS value in patients with CP class A was lower than in patients with CP class B (1.57 ± 0.34 vs 1.86 ± 0.27, P < 0.05), while the LS value in patients with CP class B was lower than in patients with CP class C (1.86 ± 0.27 vs 2.47 ± 0.33, P < 0.01). LS was positively correlated with ICG-R15 (r = 0.617, P < 0.01) and CP score (r = 0.772, P < 0.01). Meanwhile, LS was negatively correlated with ICG-K (r = -0.673, P < 0.01). AST, ALT and T-Bil were positively correlated with LS, while ALB was negatively correlated with LS (P < 0.05). The ROC curve revealed that the when the LS value was 2.34 m/s, the Youden index was at its highest point, sensitivity was 69.2% and specificity was 92.1%. CONCLUSION: For patients with liver tumors, ARFI imaging is a useful tool for assessing liver reserve function. PMID:26327773

  1. Evolution of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 peroxisomal and mitochondrial targeting. A survey of its subcellular distribution in the livers of various representatives of the classes Mammalia, Aves and Amphibia.

    PubMed

    Danpure, C J; Fryer, P; Jennings, P R; Allsop, J; Griffiths, S; Cunningham, A

    1994-08-01

    As part of a wider study on the molecular evolution of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 (AGT1) intracellular compartmentalization, we have determined the subcellular distribution of immunoreactive AGT1, using postembedding protein A-gold immunoelectron microscopy, in the livers of various members of the classes Mammalia, Aves, and Amphibia. As far as organellar distribution is concerned, three categories could be distinguished. In members of the first category (type I), all, or nearly all, of the immunoreactive AGT1 was concentrated within the peroxisomes. In the second category (type II), AGT1 was found more evenly distributed in both peroxisomes and mitochondria. In the third category (type III), AGT1 was localized mainly within the mitochondria with much lower, but widely variable, amounts in the peroxisomes. Type I animals include the human, two great apes (gorilla, orangutan), two Old World monkeys (anubis baboon, Japanese macaque), a New World monkey (white-faced Saki monkey), a lago, morph (European rabbit), a bat (Seba's short-tailed fruit bat), two caviomorph rodents (guinea pig, orange-rumped agouti), and two Australian marsupials (koala, Bennett's wallaby). Type II animals include two New World monkeys (common marmoset, cotton-top tamarin), three prosimians (brown lemur, fat-tailed dwarf lemur, pygmy slow loris), five rodents (a hybrid crested porcupine, Colombian ground squirrel, laboratory rat, laboratory mouse, golden hamster), an American marsupial (grey short-tailed opossum), and a bird (raven). Type III animals include the large tree shrew, three insectivores (common Eurasian mole, European hedgehog, house shrew), four carnivores (domestic cat, ocelot, domestic dog, polecat ferret), and an amphibian (common frog). In addition to these categories, some animals (e.g. guinea pig, common frog) possessed significant amounts of cytosolic AGT1. Whereas the subcellular distribution of AGT1 in some orders (e.g. Insectivora and Carnivora) did not appear to vary markedly between the different members, in other orders (e.g. Primates, Rodentia and Marsupialia) it fluctuated widely between the different species. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the subcellular distribution of AGT1 has changed radically on numerous occasions during the evolution of mammals. The new observations presented in this paper are compatible with our previous demonstration of a relationship between AGT1 subcellular distribution and either present or putative ancestral dietary habit, and our previous suggestion that the molecular evolution of the AGT gene has been markedly influenced by dietary selection pressure. PMID:7813517

  2. Serum Basal Paraoxonase 1 Activity as an Additional Liver Function Test for the Evaluation of Patients with Chronic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Halappa, Chandrakanth K; Pyati, Sudharani A; Nagaraj; Wali, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Background The diagnostic accuracy of currently available standard panel of liver function tests is not satisfactory for the reliable diagnosis of chronic liver disorders. Earlier studies have reported that serum basal paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity measurement may add a significant contribution to the liver function tests. Aim To assess whether the measurement of serum basal paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity would be useful as an index of liver function status in chronic hepatitis patients. Materials and Methods The study included 50 chronic hepatitis patients and 50 apparently healthy controls based on inclusion & exclusion criteria. In all the subjects, standard liver function tests were analysed by using standard methods. Basal PON1 activity was estimated using spectrophotometric method by the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylacetate. Student t-test, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, diagnostic validity tests and ROC curve analysis were the methods used for the statistical analysis of the data. Results The serum basal PON1 activity was significantly decreased in chronic hepatitis cases when compared to controls (p< 0.001). Also basal PON1 activity was positively correlated with serum total protein and albumin, and negatively correlated with serum total bilirubin, alanine amino transferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (p< 0.001) in chronic hepatitis cases but not in healthy controls. Diagnostic validity tests showed, basal PON1 activity was a better discriminator of chronic hepatitis than total protein, albumin and ALP with sensitivity of 68%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 75%. ROC curve analysis demonstrated highest diagnostic accuracy for ALT (AUC = 0.999) followed by PON1 (AUC = 0.990), total bilirubin (AUC = 0.977), ALP (AUC = 0.904), total protein (AUC = 0.790) and albumin (AUC = 0.595). Conclusion Diagnostic accuracy of serum PON1 activity is better than total bilirubin, total protein, albumin and ALP. PON1 activity measurement could significantly improve the current efficiency of a laboratory’s evaluation of patients with suspected chronic hepatitis. PMID:26674516

  3. A portable centrifugal analyser for liver function screening.

    PubMed

    Nwankire, Charles E; Czugala, Monika; Burger, Robert; Fraser, Kevin J; O'Connell, Tríona M; Glennon, Thomas; Onwuliri, Blessing E; Nduaguibe, Isikaku E; Diamond, Dermot; Ducrée, Jens

    2014-06-15

    Mortality rates of up to 50% have been reported after liver failure due to drug-induced hepatotoxicity and certain viral infections (Gao et al., 2008). These adverse conditions frequently affect HIV and tuberculosis patients on regular medication in resource-poor settings. Here, we report full integration of sample preparation with the read-out of a 5-parameter liver assay panel (LAP) on a portable, easy-to-use, fast and cost-efficient centrifugal microfluidic analysis system (CMAS). Our unique, dissolvable-film based centrifugo-pneumatic valving was employed to provide sample-to-answer fashion automation for plasma extraction (from finger-prick of blood), metering and aliquoting into separate reaction chambers for parallelized colorimetric quantification during rotation. The entire LAP completes in less than 20 min while using only a tenth the reagent volumes when compared with standard hospital laboratory tests. Accuracy of in-situ liver function screening was validated by 96 separate tests with an average coefficient of variance (CV) of 7.9% compared to benchtop and hospital lab tests. Unpaired two sample statistical t-tests were used to compare the means of CMAS and benchtop reader, on one hand; and CMAS and hospital tests on the other. The results demonstrate no statistical difference between the respective means with 94% and 92% certainty of equivalence, respectively. The portable platform thus saves significant time, labour and costs compared to established technologies, and therefore complies with typical restrictions on lab infrastructure, maintenance, operator skill and costs prevalent in many field clinics of the developing world. It has been successfully deployed to a centralised lab in Nigeria. PMID:24534553

  4. Dynamic liver scintigraphy: a new way of measuring the function of the reticuloendothelial system of the liver.

    PubMed

    Baas, J; Senninger, N; Elser, H; Herfarth, C

    1995-01-01

    The phagocytic function and biokinetics of the hepatic reticuloendothelial system (RES) were evaluated using a 25-nm diameter colloid (Nanocoll) and a scintillation camera technique in opossums with obstruction of the pancreatic duct (group I) and additional obstruction of the common bile duct (group II). The liver net uptake curve was analysed using natural log regression. The regression curves proved to fit very well (r > 0.93) and a parameter R was calculated to describe the curves. In group I there was a slight but significant decrease in the RES function and no morphological change in the pancreas. In group II, RES function was significantly more suppressed than in group I. The opossums developed severe haemorrhagic pancreatitis. The results show that the regression parameter R is well suited to described liver RES function, and suggest that a suppressed liver RES after biliary obstruction could be an important factor in the pathogenesis of biliary pancreatitis. PMID:7781650

  5. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Alanine amino transferase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of certain liver diseases (e.g., viral hepatitis and cirrhosis) and heart diseases. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Alanine amino transferase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of certain liver diseases (e.g., viral hepatitis and cirrhosis) and heart diseases. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Alanine amino transferase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of certain liver diseases (e.g., viral hepatitis and cirrhosis) and heart diseases. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Alanine amino transferase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of certain liver diseases (e.g., viral hepatitis and cirrhosis) and heart diseases. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Alanine amino transferase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of certain liver diseases (e.g., viral hepatitis and cirrhosis) and heart diseases. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt...

  10. LIVER FUNCTION AFTER IRRADIATION BASED UPON CT PORTAL VEIN PERFUSION IMAGING

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yue; Pan, Charlie; Balter, James M.; Platt, Joel F.; Francis, Isaac R.; Knol, James A.; Normolle, Daniel; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Lawrence, Theodore S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The role of radiation in the treatment of intrahepatic cancer is limited by the development of radiation-induced liver disease (RILD), which occurs weeks after the course of radiation is completed. We hypothesized that, as the pathophysiology of RILD is veno-occlusive disease, we could assess individual and regional liver sensitivity to radiation by measuring liver perfusion during a course of treatment using dynamic contrast enhanced CT (DCE-CT) scanning. Materials and Methods Patients with intrahepatic cancer undergoing conformal radiotherapy underwent DCE-CT (to measure perfusion distribution) and an indocyanine extraction study (to measure liver function) prior to, during, and one month after treatment. We wished to determine if the residual functioning liver (i.e. those regions showing portal vein perfusion) could be used to predict overall liver function after irradiation. Results Radiation doses from 45 to 84 Gy resulted in undectable regional portal vein perfusion one month after treatment. The volume of each liver with undectable portal vein perfusion ranged from 0% to 39% and depended both on the patient’s sensitivity and dose distribution. There was a significant correlation between indocyanine green clearance and the mean of the estimated portal vein perfusion in the functional liver parenchyma (P < .001). Conclusion This study reveals substantial individual variability in the sensitivity of the liver to irradiation. In addition, these findings suggest that hepatic perfusion imaging may be a marker for liver function, and has the potential to be a tool for individualizing therapy. PMID:17855011

  11. The role of CUGBP1 in age-dependent changes of liver functions

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Karlie; Timchenko, Lubov; Timchenko, Nikolai A.

    2013-01-01

    Aging liver is characterized by alterations of liver biology and by a reduction of many functions which are important for the maintenance of body homeostasis. The main dysfunctions include appearance of enlarged hepatocytes, impaired liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH), development of hepatic steatosis, reduction of secretion of proteins and alterations in the hepatic sinusoid. RNA binding proteins are involved in the regulation of gene expression in all tissues including regulation of biological processes in the liver. This review is focused on the role of a conserved, multi-functional RNA-binding protein, CUGBP1, in the development of aging phenotype in the liver. CUGBP1 has been identified as a protein which binds to RNA CUG repeats expanded in Myotonic Dystrophy type 1 (DM1). CUGBP1 is highly expressed in the liver and regulates translation of proteins which are critical for maintenance of liver functions. In livers of young mice, CUGBP1 forms complexes with eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF2 and supports translation of C/EBP? and HDAC1 proteins, which are involved in liver growth, differentiation and liver cancer. Aging changes several signaling pathways which lead to the elevation of the CUGBP1-eIF2? complex and to an increase of translation of C/EBP? and HDAC1. These proteins form multi-protein complexes with additional transcription factors and with chromatin remodeling proteins causing epigenetic alterations of gene expression in livers of old mice. It appears that CUGBP1-mediated translational elevation of HDAC1 is one of the key events in the epigenetic changes in livers of old mice, leading to the development of age- associated dysfunctions of the liver. This review will also discuss a possible role of CUGBP1 in liver dysfunction in patients affected with DM1. PMID:22446383

  12. [Hepatobiliary scintigraphy in evaluation of liver transplant function].

    PubMed

    Obradovi?, V; Artiko, V; Radevi?, B; Dapcevi?, B; Petrovi?, N

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study is evaluation of hepatocellular function, as well as morphology and patency of the biliary three of the liver transplants by dynamic hepatobiliary scintigraphy. The study was performed in 10 controls and 10 patients after orthotopic transplantation (up to two years). Sixty minutes dynamic acquisition (1 frame/min) was performed with scintillation camera after injection of 360 MBq 99mTc-diethyl- IDA. Hepatobiliary scintigrams were analysed for morphology, and parenchymal and hepatobiliary TA curves were generated and analysed as regard to the time to maximal acitivity (Tmax) and the time to half of maximum acitivity (T1/2). Uptake of the radiopharmaceutical was slightly but not significantly delayed (Tmax=18.5 +/- 2.9 min) in comparison to the controls (Tmax=14.2 +/- 3.4min), while excretion was significantly prolonged (T1/2=59.5 +/- 12.1 min) than physiological (Tmax=34.2 +/- 4.1min). Intrahepatic bile flow was nonsignificantly prolonged (Tmax=31.3 +/- 3.7 min) in comparison to the controls (Tmax=25.7 +/- 3.5 min) while extrahepatic one is high significantly prolonged (T1/2=89.0 +/- 14.3 min) than physiological (T1/2 =45.0 +/- 7.2 min). Biliary phase of hepatobiliary scintigraphy showed increased accumulation of radiopharmaceutical in the left (n=1) or right (n=2) hepatic duct. Radionuclide methods are noninvasive, and apear to be sensitive and valuable for the monitoring of liver transplants. PMID:16989142

  13. TH-A-9A-04: Incorporating Liver Functionality in Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, V; Epelman, M; Feng, M; Cao, Y; Wang, H; Romeijn, E; Matuszak, M

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Liver SBRT patients have both variable pretreatment liver function (e.g., due to degree of cirrhosis and/or prior treatments) and sensitivity to radiation, leading to high variability in potential liver toxicity with similar doses. This work aims to explicitly incorporate liver perfusion into treatment planning to redistribute dose to preserve well-functioning areas without compromising target coverage. Methods: Voxel-based liver perfusion, a measure of functionality, was computed from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Two optimization models with different cost functions subject to the same dose constraints (e.g., minimum target EUD and maximum critical structure EUDs) were compared. The cost functions minimized were EUD (standard model) and functionality-weighted EUD (functional model) to the liver. The resulting treatment plans delivering the same target EUD were compared with respect to their DVHs, their dose wash difference, the average dose delivered to voxels of a particular perfusion level, and change in number of high-/low-functioning voxels receiving a particular dose. Two-dimensional synthetic and three-dimensional clinical examples were studied. Results: The DVHs of all structures of plans from each model were comparable. In contrast, in plans obtained with the functional model, the average dose delivered to high-/low-functioning voxels was lower/higher than in plans obtained with its standard counterpart. The number of high-/low-functioning voxels receiving high/low dose was lower in the plans that considered perfusion in the cost function than in the plans that did not. Redistribution of dose can be observed in the dose wash differences. Conclusion: Liver perfusion can be used during treatment planning potentially to minimize the risk of toxicity during liver SBRT, resulting in better global liver function. The functional model redistributes dose in the standard model from higher to lower functioning voxels, while achieving the same target EUD and satisfying dose limits to critical structures. This project is funded by MCubed and grant R01-CA132834.

  14. N-Acetyl-L-alanine N'-methylamide: a density functional analysis of the vibrational absorption and vibrational circular dichroism spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalkanen, K. J.; Suhai, S.

    1996-07-01

    Ab initio 6-31G ? Becke 3LYP DFT optimized geometries, vibrational frequencies, vibrational absorption (VA) intensities and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) intensities have been calculated for the eight low energy conformers of N-acetyl-L-alanine N'-methylamide (L-AANMA) in the gas phase and one conformer stabilized by the addition of four water molecules. The VA and VCD spectra are calculated with the 6-31G ? Becke 3LYP force fields (Hessians) and atomic polar tensors (APT); 6-31G ?? RHF atomic axial tensors (AAT) for the eight gas phase structures and 6-31G ?/6-31G RHF AAT for the L-AANMA-water complex. The VA and VCD spectra are also calculated using the 6-31G ? Becke 3LYP Hessians; 6-31G ?? RHF APT and AAT for the eight gas phase structures and 6-31G ?/6-31G RHF APT and AAT for the L-AANMA-water complex. The rotational strengths of the amide A, I, II, III, IV, V and VI modes found in proteins as a function of ? and ? (for various secondary structures) are for the first time reported for an inherently optically active molecule (non-glycine model) using the 6-31G ?? and 6-31G ?/6-31G RHF DOG AAT and 6-31G ? Becke 3LYP Hessians and APT. This is also the first reported VCD calculation of a molecule with the solvent present. The molecule is not completely solvated, but the important hydrogen-bonded interactions are present and the feasibility of the calculation of the Hessian, APT and AAT with solvent molecules present is demonstrated. The VA and VCD spectra are compared to the experimental VA and VCD spectra in the literature and the conformational analysis (CA) and vibrational assignment of L-AANMA are reinvestigated. The rotational strengths of the amide modes for the various conformers are also compared to peptide and protein VCD spectra of molecules with known secondary structures. The agreement between the calculated rotational strengths of the various amide modes for which experimental measurements have been made is very good, in particular, for the right handed ?-helical conformation of a poly(L-amino acid) we correctly predict the negative couplet for the amide A band, the positive couplet for the amide I band and the negative monosignate signal for the amide II band as measured by the groups of Nafie and Keiderling. The large change in the amide I region in aqueous solution from this region in carbon tetrachloride or the Ar matrix is also reproduced, documenting that the qualitative features of the vibrational absorption and VCD spectra can reproduced by explicitly adding water molecules to the Hessian and tensor calculations.

  15. Angelica keiskei Koidzumi extracts improve some markers of liver function in habitual alcohol drinkers: a randomized double-blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Noh, Hye-Mi; Ahn, Eun-Mi; Yun, Jae-Moon; Cho, Be-Long; Paek, Yu-Jin

    2015-02-01

    Alcohol induces oxidative stress and inflammatory response, which can lead to hepatitis and cirrhosis. Previous studies reported that the extracts of Angelica keiskei Koidzumi (AKE) have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, suggesting that AKE could improve abnormalities associated with alcoholic liver disease. In this study, the effectiveness of AKE supplementation was assessed in 82 habitual alcohol drinkers (male: more than 14 units per week, female: more than 7 units per week) with abnormal liver biochemistry in a placebo-controlled, randomized double-blind trial over 12 weeks. Among the subjects, 65% (n=43) were heavy drinkers consuming more than 35 units per week. Among heavy drinkers, gamma-glutamyl transferase levels of 19 subjects per AKE-treated group were significantly decreased (21.16±37.63, P=.016) with significant differences observed compared to the 24 subjects per placebo group (P=.046). However, no significant differences were observed in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels between the AKE- and placebo-treated groups. These results suggest that AKE supplementation might improve liver function in heavy drinkers. PMID:25531033

  16. Liver Facts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Heart/Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Liver Facts How the Liver Works The liver is one of the largest and most complex ... a spongy mass of wedge-shaped lobes. The liver has numerous functions that are necessary for life. ...

  17. Functional pitch of a liver: fatty liver disease diagnosis with photoacoustic spectrum analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guan; Meng, Zhuoxian; Lin, Jiandie; Carson, Paul; Wang, Xueding

    2014-03-01

    To provide more information for classification and assessment of biological tissues, photoacoustic spectrum analysis (PASA) moves beyond the quantification of the intensities of the photoacoustic (PA) signals by the use of the frequency-domain power distribution, namely power spectrum, of broadband PA signals. The method of PASA quantifies the linear-fit to the power spectrum of the PA signals from a biological tissue with 3 parameters, including intercept, midband-fit and slope. Intercept and midband-fit reflect the total optical absorption of the tissues whereas slope reflects the heterogeneity of the tissue structure. Taking advantage of the optical absorption contrasts contributed by lipid and blood at 1200 and 532 nm, respectively and the heterogeneous tissue microstructure in fatty liver due to the lipid infiltration, we investigate the capability of PASA in identifying histological changes of fatty livers in mouse model. 6 and 9 pairs of normal and fatty liver tissues from rat models were examined by ex vivo experiment with a conventional rotational PA measurement system. One pair of rat models with normal and fatty livers was examined non-invasively and in situ with our recently developed ultrasound and PA parallel imaging system. The results support our hypotheses that the spectrum analysis of PA signals can provide quantitative measures of the differences between the normal and fatty liver tissues and that part of the PA power spectrum can suffice for characterization of microstructures in biological tissues. Experimental results also indicate that the vibrational absorption peak of lipid at 1200nm could facilitate fatty liver diagnosis.

  18. Bioreactor technologies to support liver function in vitro

    E-print Network

    Neiman, Jaclyn A. Shepard

    Liver is a central nexus integrating metabolic and immunologic homeostasis in the human body, and the direct or indirect target of most molecular therapeutics. A wide spectrum of therapeutic and technological needs drives ...

  19. L-alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase II of rat kidney and liver mitochondria possesses cysteine S-conjugate beta-lyase activity: a contributing factor to the nephrotoxicity/hepatotoxicity of halogenated alkenes?

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Arthur J L; Krasnikov, Boris F; Okuno, Etsuo; Jeitner, Thomas M

    2003-01-01

    Several halogenated alkenes are metabolized in part to cysteine S-conjugates, which are mitochondrial toxicants of kidney and, to a lesser extent, other organs. Toxicity is due to cysteine S-conjugate beta-lyases, which convert the cysteine S-conjugate into pyruvate, ammonia and a reactive sulphur-containing fragment. A section of the human population is exposed to halogenated alkenes. To understand the health effects of such exposure, it is important to identify cysteine S-conjugate beta-lyases that contribute to mitochondrial damage. Mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase [Cooper, Bruschi, Iriarte and Martinez-Carrion (2002) Biochem. J. 368, 253-261] and mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase [Cooper, Bruschi, Conway and Hutson (2003) Biochem. Pharmacol. 65, 181-192] exhibit beta-lyase activity toward S -(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (the cysteine S-conjugate of trichloroethylene) and S -(1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl)-L-cysteine (the cysteine S-conjugate of tetrafluoroethylene). Turnover leads to eventual inactivation of these enzymes. Here we report that mitochondrial L-alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase II, which, in the rat, is most active in kidney, catalyses cysteine S-conjugate beta-lyase reactions with S -(1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl)-L-cysteine, S -(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine and S -(benzothiazolyl-L-cysteine); turnover leads to inactivation. Previous workers showed that the reactive-sulphur-containing fragment released from S -(1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl)-L-cysteine and S -(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine is toxic by acting as a thioacylating agent - particularly of lysine residues in nearby proteins. Toxicity, however, may also involve 'self-inactivation' of key enzymes. The present findings suggest that alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase II may be an important factor in the well-established targeting of rat kidney mitochondria by toxic halogenated cysteine S-conjugates. Previous reports suggest that alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase II is absent in some humans, but present in others. Alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase II may contribute to the bioactivation (toxification) of halogenated cysteine S-conjugates in a subset of individuals exposed to halogenated alkenes. PMID:12859250

  20. Effects of acute exercise on liver function and blood redox status in heavy drinkers

    PubMed Central

    GEORGAKOULI, KALLIOPI; MANTHOU, EIRINI; FATOUROS, IOANNIS G.; DELI, CHARIKLIA K.; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDIS M.; KOURETAS, DEMETRIOS; KOUTEDAKIS, YIANNIS; THEODORAKIS, YANNIS; JAMURTAS, ATHANASIOS Z.

    2015-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption can induce oxidative stress, resulting in the development of several diseases. Exercise has been reported to prevent and/or improve a number of health issues through several mechanisms, including an improvement in redox status. It has also been previously suggested that exercise can help individuals with alcohol use disorders reduce their alcohol intake; however, research in this field is limited. The aim of the present study was to investigage the effects of acute exercise of moderate intensity on the liver function and blood redox status in heavy drinkers. For this purpose, a total of 17 heavy drinkers [age, 31.6±3.2 years; body mass index (BMI), 27.4±0.8 kg/m2; experimental group (EG)] and 17 controls [age, 33.5±1.3 years; BMI, 26.1±1.4 kg/m2; control group (CG), who did not exceed moderate alcohol consumption], underwent one trial of acute exercise of moderate intensity (50–60% of the heart rate reserve) for 30 min on a cycle ergometer, following an overnight fast, and abstaining from smoking and alcohol consumption. Blood samples were obtained before and immediately after exercise for later determination of the indices of liver function and blood redox status. The subjects in the EG had significantly higher (p<0.05) baseline ?-glutamyl transferase (?-GT) levels compared to the subjects in the CG. Exercise thus resulted in significantly higher ?-GT levels (p<0.005) only in the EG. No significant differences in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) baseline levels were observed between the 2 groups. Following exercise, the AST levels increased significantly (p<0.001) in both groups, whereas the ALT levels increased significantly (p<0.01) only in the EG. The baseline glutathione (GSH) levels were significantly lower (p<0.05) and remained low following exercise in the EG. In addition, we observed a trend for higher (p=0.07) baseline levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), which remained elevated post-exercise in the EG compared to the CG. Significantly increased post-exercise total antioxidant capacity (TAC; p<0.01) and uric acid (UA; p<0.05) levels were noted in the CG, whereas the TAC (p=0.06) and UA (p=0.08) levels increased and approached significance post-exercise in the EG. No significant differences in the baseline levels of total bilirubin and protein carbonyl were observed between the 2 groups, even post-exercise. Thus, the findings of the present study indicate that even though heavy drinkers may be prone to oxidative stress, their exercise-induced antioxidant response is similar to that of individuals who do not drink heavily.

  1. Structural and functional importance of transmembrane domain 3 (TM3) in the aspartate:alanine antiporter AspT: topology and function of the residues of TM3 and oligomerization of AspT.

    PubMed

    Nanatani, Kei; Maloney, Peter C; Abe, Keietsu

    2009-04-01

    AspT, the aspartate:alanine antiporter of Tetragenococcus halophilus, a membrane protein of 543 amino acids with 10 putative transmembrane (TM) helices, is the prototype of the aspartate:alanine exchanger (AAE) family of transporters. Because TM3 (isoleucine 64 to methionine 85) has many amino acid residues that are conserved among members of the AAE family and because TM3 contains two charged residues and four polar residues, it is thought to be located near (or to form part of) the substrate translocation pathway that includes the binding site for the substrates. To elucidate the role of TM3 in the transport process, we carried out cysteine-scanning mutagenesis. The substitutions of tyrosine 75 and serine 84 had the strongest inhibitory effects on transport (initial rates of l-aspartate transport were below 15% of the rate for cysteine-less AspT). Considerable but less-marked effects were observed upon the replacement of methionine 70, phenylalanine 71, glycine 74, arginine 76, serine 83, and methionine 85 (initial rates between 15% and 30% of the rate for cysteine-less AspT). Introduced cysteine residues at the cytoplasmic half of TM3 could be labeled with Oregon green maleimide (OGM), whereas cysteines close to the periplasmic half (residues 64 to 75) were not labeled. These results suggest that TM3 has a hydrophobic core on the periplasmic half and that hydrophilic residues on the cytoplasmic half of TM3 participate in the formation of an aqueous cavity in membranes. Furthermore, the presence of l-aspartate protected the cysteine introduced at glycine 62 against a reaction with OGM. In contrast, l-aspartate stimulated the reactivity of the cysteine introduced at proline 79 with OGM. These results demonstrate that TM3 undergoes l-aspartate-induced conformational alterations. In addition, nonreducing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses and a glutaraldehyde cross-linking assay suggest that functional AspT forms homo-oligomers as a functional unit. PMID:19181816

  2. Molecular regulation of urea cycle function by the liver glucocorticoid receptor

    PubMed Central

    Okun, Jürgen G.; Conway, Sean; Schmidt, Kathrin V.; Schumacher, Jonas; Wang, Xiaoyue; de Guia, Roldan; Zota, Annika; Klement, Johanna; Seibert, Oksana; Peters, Achim; Maida, Adriano; Herzig, Stephan; Rose, Adam J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective One of the major side effects of glucocorticoid (GC) treatment is lean tissue wasting, indicating a prominent role in systemic amino acid metabolism. In order to uncover a novel aspect of GCs and their intracellular-receptor, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), on metabolic control, we conducted amino acid and acylcarnitine profiling in human and mouse models of GC/GR gain- and loss-of-function. Methods Blood serum and tissue metabolite levels were determined in Human Addison's disease (AD) patients as well as in mouse models of systemic and liver-specific GR loss-of-function (AAV-miR-GR) with or without dexamethasone (DEX) treatments. Body composition and neuromuscular and metabolic function tests were conducted in vivo and ex vivo, the latter using precision cut liver slices. Results A serum metabolite signature of impaired urea cycle function (i.e. higher [ARG]:[ORN + CIT]) was observed in human (CTRL: 0.45 ± 0.03, AD: 1.29 ± 0.04; p < 0.001) and mouse (AAV-miR-NC: 0.97 ± 0.13, AAV-miR-GR: 2.20 ± 0.19; p < 0.001) GC/GR loss-of-function, with similar patterns also observed in liver. Serum urea levels were consistently affected by GC/GR gain- (?+32%) and loss (??30%) -of-function. Combined liver-specific GR loss-of-function with DEX treatment revealed a tissue-autonomous role for the GR to coordinate an upregulation of liver urea production rate in vivo and ex vivo, and prevent hyperammonaemia and associated neuromuscular dysfunction in vivo. Liver mRNA expression profiling and GR-cistrome mining identified Arginase I (ARG1) a urea cycle gene targeted by the liver GR. Conclusions The liver GR controls systemic and liver urea cycle function by transcriptional regulation of ARG1 expression. PMID:26500844

  3. Ontogeny, distribution and potential roles of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in human liver function

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Interindividual differences in liver functions such as protein synthesis, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and drug metabolism are influenced by epigenetic factors. The role of the epigenetic machinery in such processes has, however, been barely investigated. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is a recently re-discovered epigenetic DNA modification that plays an important role in the control of gene expression. Results In this study, we investigate 5hmC occurrence and genomic distribution in 8 fetal and 7 adult human liver samples in relation to ontogeny and function. LC-MS analysis shows that in the adult liver samples 5hmC comprises up to 1% of the total cytosine content, whereas in all fetal livers it is below 0.125%. Immunohistostaining of liver sections with a polyclonal anti-5hmC antibody shows that 5hmC is detected in most of the hepatocytes. Genome-wide mapping of the distribution of 5hmC in human liver samples by next-generation sequencing shows significant differences between fetal and adult livers. In adult livers, 5hmC occupancy is overrepresented in genes involved in active catabolic and metabolic processes, whereas 5hmC elements which are found in genes exclusively in fetal livers and disappear in the adult state, are more specific to pathways for differentiation and development. Conclusions Our findings suggest that 5-hydroxymethylcytosine plays an important role in the development and function of the human liver and might be an important determinant for development of liver diseases as well as of the interindividual differences in drug metabolism and toxicity. PMID:23958281

  4. Impact of Donation Mode on the Proportion and Function of T Lymphocytes in the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Fang; Huang, Xiaohong; Pop, Oltin Tiberiu; Quaglia, Alberto; Heaton, Nigel; Prachalias, Andreas; Rela, Mohamed; Fuggle, Susan; Ma, Yun; Jassem, Wayel

    2015-01-01

    Background Liver T-cells respond to the inflammatory insult generated during organ procurement and contribute to the injury following reperfusion. The mode of liver donation alters various metabolic and inflammatory pathways but the way it affects intrahepatic T-cells is still unclear. Methods We investigated the modifications occurring in the proportion and function of T-cells during liver procurement for transplantation. We isolated hepatic mononuclear cells (HMC) from liver perfusate of living donors (LD) and donors after brain death (DBD) or cardiac death (DCD) and assessed the frequency of T-cell subsets, their cytokine secretion profile and CD8 T-cell cytotoxicity function, responsiveness to a danger associated molecular pattern (High Mobility Group Box1, HMGB1) and association with donor and recipient clinical parameters and immediate graft outcome. Results We found that T-cells in healthy human livers were enriched in memory CD8 T-cells exhibiting a phenotype of non-circulating tissue-associated lymphocytes, functionally dominated by more cytotoxicity and IFN-?-production in DBD donors, including upon activation by HMGB1 and correlating with peak of post-transplant AST. This liver-specific pattern of CD8 T-cell was prominent in DBD livers compared to DCD and LD livers suggesting that it was influenced by events surrounding brain death, prior to retrieval. Conclusion Mode of liver donation can affect liver T-cells with increased liver damage in DBD donors. These findings may be relevant in designing therapeutic strategies aimed at organ optimization prior to transplantation. PMID:26513368

  5. Serum Alanine Transaminase Total Bilirubin Concentrations Predict CYP3A Activity as Measured by Midazolam and 1?-Hydroxylation

    PubMed Central

    He, Rui; Li, Yuhong; Ruan, Jinguang

    2015-01-01

    Background Microsomal enzyme P450 (CYP450) plays an important role in metabolism of most xenobiotics. The activity of CYP3A decreases in patients with liver dysfunction. However, whether serum concentrations of liver enzymes reflect the activity of CYP3A is unclear. We aimed to search for a new clue to predict the activity of CYP3A and guide clinical medication. Material/Methods Forty-five patients undergoing surgery under general anesthesia were enrolled in the study, including 15 cases with normal liver function (Group N), 15 cases with moderate fatty liver according to both the results of ultrasonic diagnosis of moderate fatty liver and the laboratory results of elevated alanine transaminase less than 3 times the normal (Group M), and 15 cases with end-stage liver disease (Group S). Each patient received a single dose of 5 mg midazolam intravenously. CYP3A activity was measured by plasma 1?hydroxymidsazolam/midazolam (1?-OH-MDZ/MDZ) ratio at 2 h after administration of midazolam. Results They was no significant difference in CYP3A activity between the patients with normal liver function and moderate fatty liver (P=0.332). The activity of CYP3A in Group S was lower than in Group N and Group M (P=0.000). Multiple linear regression analysis showed a statistically significant linear relationship between the activity of CYP3A and alanine transaminase (ALT, R2=0.682, P=0.000), and total bilirubin (TB, R2=0.519, P=0.002). There were no other factors, including albumin (ALB, P=0.881) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, P=0.497), correlated with the activity of CYP3A. Conclusions We conclude that the activity of CYP3A in patients with end-stage liver disease decreased. The decrease in the activity of CYP3A was determined by the increase in the serum concentration of ALT and TB and not by patient’s age or body weight. ALT and TB therefore might have predictive value for the activity of CYP3A. An abnormal liver function test likely gives the clinician a hint about dosage adjustment. PMID:25648948

  6. Recovery of liver function in partially hepatectomized rats evaluated by aminopyrine demethylation capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Sendama, I.; de Hemptinne, B.; Lambotte, L.

    1985-07-01

    Aminopyrine demethylation was investigated in rats after a 70% hepatectomy to assess possible parallelism between the recovery of mass and function. Tests were performed by analyzing UCO2 exhalation from 0.1 microCi per 100 gm of body weight of (dimethylamine- UC)aminopyrine given intraperitoneally with incremental doses of unlabeled drug. Early after 70% hepatectomy, Vmax was reduced by 52%. This discordance between mass and function was not due to extrahepatic aminopyrine demethylation, since liver exclusion reduced demethylation of aminopyrine to nearly nil. Whether it results from increased liver blood flow in the remnant liver is less clear. The early increase in Vmax could be related to a hepatotrophic factor of splanchnic origin which increased after partial hepatectomy and decreased after portacaval shunt. After the early period, Vmax, expressed per gram of actual liver weight, returned to control range. Throughout regeneration (4 to 144 hr), no modification was observed in Km nor in cytochrome P-450 concentration. Enzymatic induction with phenobarbital increased the demethylation capacity more than liver weight in intact and regenerating liver. Except for the first hours after partial hepatectomy or after enzymatic induction, the aminopyrine demethylation capacity directly correlated with liver mass and may be useful in evaluating liver regeneration in vivo.

  7. Importance of Endocytic Pathways in Liver Function and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Barbara; McNiven, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular endocytosis is a highly dynamic process responsible for the internalization of a variety of different receptor ligand complexes, trophic factors, lipids, and, unfortunately, many different pathogens. The uptake of these external agents has profound effects on seminal cellular processes including signaling cascades, migration, growth, and proliferation. The hepatocyte, like other well-polarized epithelial cells, posses a host of different endocytic mechanisms and entry routes to ensure the selective internalization of cargo molecules. These pathways include receptor-mediated endocytosis, lipid raft associated endocytosis, caveolae, or fluid-phase uptake although there are likely many others. Understanding and defining the regulatory mechanisms underlying these distinct entry routes, sorting and vesicle formation, as well as the postendocytic trafficking pathways is of high importance especially in the liver, as their mis-regulation can contribute to aberrant liver pathology and liver diseases. Further, these processes can be “hijacked” by a variety of different infectious agents and viruses. This review provides an overview of common components of the endocytic and postendocytic trafficking pathways utilized by hepatocytes. It will also discuss in more detail how these general themes apply to liver-specific processes including iron homeostasis, HBV infection, and even hepatic steatosis. PMID:25428849

  8. Prediction of Liver Function by Using Magnetic Resonance-based Portal Venous Perfusion Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Cao Yue; Wang Hesheng; Johnson, Timothy D.; Pan, Charlie; Hussain, Hero; Balter, James M.; Normolle, Daniel; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Feng, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether liver function can be assessed globally and spatially by using volumetric dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging MRI (DCE-MRI) to potentially aid in adaptive treatment planning. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients with intrahepatic cancer undergoing focal radiation therapy (RT) were enrolled in institution review board-approved prospective studies to obtain DCE-MRI (to measure regional perfusion) and indocyanine green (ICG) clearance rates (to measure overall liver function) prior to, during, and at 1 and 2 months after treatment. The volumetric distribution of portal venous perfusion in the whole liver was estimated for each scan. We assessed the correlation between mean portal venous perfusion in the nontumor volume of the liver and overall liver function measured by ICG before, during, and after RT. The dose response for regional portal venous perfusion to RT was determined using a linear mixed effects model. Results: There was a significant correlation between the ICG clearance rate and mean portal venous perfusion in the functioning liver parenchyma, suggesting that portal venous perfusion could be used as a surrogate for function. Reduction in regional venous perfusion 1 month after RT was predicted by the locally accumulated biologically corrected dose at the end of RT (P<.0007). Regional portal venous perfusion measured during RT was a significant predictor for regional venous perfusion assessed 1 month after RT (P<.00001). Global hypovenous perfusion pre-RT was observed in 4 patients (3 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis), 3 of whom had recovered from hypoperfusion, except in the highest dose regions, post-RT. In addition, 3 patients who had normal perfusion pre-RT had marked hypervenous perfusion or reperfusion in low-dose regions post-RT. Conclusions: This study suggests that MR-based volumetric hepatic perfusion imaging may be a biomarker for spatial distribution of liver function, which could aid in individualizing therapy, particularly for patients at risk for liver injury after RT.

  9. Prediction of Liver Function by Using Magnetic Resonance-based Portal Venous Perfusion Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yue; Wang, Hesheng; Johnson, Timothy D.; Pan, Charlie; Hussain, Hero; Balter, James M.; Normolle, Daniel; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Feng, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate whether liver function can be assessed globally and spatially by using volumetric dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging MRI (DCE-MRI) to potentially aid in adaptive treatment planning. Methods and Materials Seventeen patients with intrahepatic cancer undergoing focal radiation therapy (RT) were enrolled in institution review board-approved prospective studies to obtain DCE-MRI (to measure regional perfusion) and indocyanine green (ICG) clearance rates (to measure overall liver function) prior to, during, and at 1 and 2 months after treatment. The volumetric distribution of portal venous perfusion in the whole liver was estimated for each scan. We assessed the correlation between mean portal venous perfusion in the nontumor volume of the liver and overall liver function measured by ICG before, during, and after RT. The dose response for regional portal venous perfusion to RT was determined using a linear mixed effects model. Results There was a significant correlation between the ICG clearance rate and mean portal venous perfusion in the functioning liver parenchyma, suggesting that portal venous perfusion could be used as a surrogate for function. Reduction in regional venous perfusion 1 month after RT was predicted by the locally accumulated biologically corrected dose at the end of RT (P<.0007). Regional portal venous perfusion measured during RT was a significant predictor for regional venous perfusion assessed 1 month after RT (P<.00001). Global hypovenous perfusion pre-RT was observed in 4 patients (3 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis), 3 of whom had recovered from hypoperfusion, except in the highest dose regions, post-RT. In addition, 3 patients who had normal perfusion pre-RT had marked hypervenous perfusion or reperfusion in low-dose regions post-RT. Conclusions This study suggests that MR-based volumetric hepatic perfusion imaging may be a biomarker for spatial distribution of liver function, which could aid in individualizing therapy, particularly for patients at risk for liver injury after RT. PMID:22520476

  10. Choline’s role in maintaining liver function: new evidence for epigenetic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Mehedint, Mihai G.; Zeisel, Steven H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Humans eating diets low in choline develop fatty liver and liver damage. Rodents fed choline–methionine-deficient diets not only develop fatty liver, but also progress to develop fibrosis and hepatocarcinoma. This review focuses on the role of choline in liver function, with special emphasis on the epigenetic mechanisms of action. Recent findings Dietary intake of methyl donors like choline influences the methylation of DNA and histones, thereby altering the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. The liver is the major organ within which methylation reactions occur, and many of the hepatic genes involved in pathways for the development of fatty liver, hepatic fibrosis, and hepatocarcinomas are epigenetically regulated. Summary Dietary intake of choline varies over a three-fold range and many humans have genetic polymorphisms that increase their demand for choline. Choline is an important methyl donor needed for the generation of S-adenosylmethionine. Dietary choline intake is an important modifier of epigenetic marks on DNA and histones, and thereby modulates the gene expression in many of the pathways involved in liver function and dysfunction. PMID:23493015

  11. Liver Panel

    MedlinePLUS

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Liver Panel Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... Liver Function Tests; LFTs Formal name: Hepatic Function Panel Related tests: ALT , ALP , AST , Bilirubin , Albumin , Total ...

  12. d-Alanine Oxidase from Escherichia coli: Localization and Induction by l-Alanine

    PubMed Central

    Raunio, R. P.; Jenkins, W. T.

    1973-01-01

    Dialyzed membranes of Escherichia coli prepared by an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-lysozyme method catalyze the oxidation of both l-alanine and d-alanine. The specific activities for the oxidations of both d-alanine and l-alanine are increased fivefold when the cells are grown in the presence of either l-alanine or dl-alanine, but are increased only slightly when grown in the presence of d-alanine. In the dl-alanine-induced system, the specific activities for the oxidations of some other d-amino acids are also raised. dl-alanine also induces two other alanine catabolizing enzymes, alanine dehydrogenase and alanine-glutamate aminotransferase which are found in the “soluble” fraction of lysozyme-treated cells. The oxidations of both l-alanine and d-alanine were associated with the membranes of induced cells. After the membranes were disintegrated by sonic treatment, both l-alanine and d-alanine oxidation catalysts sedimented in a sucrose density gradient together with d-lactate and l-lactate dehydrogenases, apparently as a single multienzyme complex. PMID:4146872

  13. Self-assembling functionalized nanopeptides for immediate hemostasis and accelerative liver tissue regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Tzu-Yun; Wu, Hsi-Chin; Huang, Ming-Yuan; Chang, Wen-Han; Lee, Chao-Hsiung; Wang, Tzu-Wei

    2013-03-01

    Traumatic injury or surgery may trigger extensive bleeding. However, conventional hemostatic methods have limited efficacy and may cause surrounding tissue damage. In this study, we use self-assembling peptides (SAPs) and specifically extend fragments of functional motifs derived from fibronectin and laminin to evaluate the capability of these functionalized SAPs in the effect of hemostasis and liver tissue regeneration. From the results, these peptides can self-assemble into nanofibrous network structure and gelate into hydrogel with pH adjustment. In animal studies, the efficacy of hemostasis is achieved immediately within seconds in a rat liver model. The histological analyses by hematoxylin-eosin stain and immunohistochemistry reveal that SAPs with these functionalized motifs significantly enhance liver tissue regeneration. In brief, these SAPs may have potential as pharmacological tools to extensively advance clinical therapeutic applications in hemostasis and tissue regeneration in the field of regenerative medicine.Traumatic injury or surgery may trigger extensive bleeding. However, conventional hemostatic methods have limited efficacy and may cause surrounding tissue damage. In this study, we use self-assembling peptides (SAPs) and specifically extend fragments of functional motifs derived from fibronectin and laminin to evaluate the capability of these functionalized SAPs in the effect of hemostasis and liver tissue regeneration. From the results, these peptides can self-assemble into nanofibrous network structure and gelate into hydrogel with pH adjustment. In animal studies, the efficacy of hemostasis is achieved immediately within seconds in a rat liver model. The histological analyses by hematoxylin-eosin stain and immunohistochemistry reveal that SAPs with these functionalized motifs significantly enhance liver tissue regeneration. In brief, these SAPs may have potential as pharmacological tools to extensively advance clinical therapeutic applications in hemostasis and tissue regeneration in the field of regenerative medicine. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1. Experimental models of rat liver injury. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr33710c

  14. Prediction of liver disease in patients whose liver function tests have been checked in primary care: model development and validation using population-based observational cohorts

    PubMed Central

    McLernon, David J; Donnan, Peter T; Sullivan, Frank M; Roderick, Paul; Rosenberg, William M; Ryder, Steve D; Dillon, John F

    2014-01-01

    Objective To derive and validate a clinical prediction model to estimate the risk of liver disease diagnosis following liver function tests (LFTs) and to convert the model to a simplified scoring tool for use in primary care. Design Population-based observational cohort study of patients in Tayside Scotland identified as having their LFTs performed in primary care and followed for 2?years. Biochemistry data were linked to secondary care, prescriptions and mortality data to ascertain baseline characteristics of the derivation cohort. A separate validation cohort was obtained from 19 general practices across the rest of Scotland to externally validate the final model. Setting Primary care, Tayside, Scotland. Participants Derivation cohort: LFT results from 310?511 patients. After exclusions (including: patients under 16?years, patients having initial LFTs measured in secondary care, bilirubin >35??mol/L, liver complications within 6?weeks and history of a liver condition), the derivation cohort contained 95?977 patients with no clinically apparent liver condition. Validation cohort: after exclusions, this cohort contained 11?653 patients. Primary and secondary outcome measures Diagnosis of a liver condition within 2?years. Results From the derivation cohort (n=95?977), 481 (0.5%) were diagnosed with a liver disease. The model showed good discrimination (C-statistic=0.78). Given the low prevalence of liver disease, the negative predictive values were high. Positive predictive values were low but rose to 20–30% for high-risk patients. Conclusions This study successfully developed and validated a clinical prediction model and subsequent scoring tool, the Algorithm for Liver Function Investigations (ALFI), which can predict liver disease risk in patients with no clinically obvious liver disease who had their initial LFTs taken in primary care. ALFI can help general practitioners focus referral on a small subset of patients with higher predicted risk while continuing to address modifiable liver disease risk factors in those at lower risk. PMID:24889852

  15. In Vitro Generation of Functional Liver Organoid-Like Structures Using Adult Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Sarada Devi; Schirmer, Katharina; Münst, Bernhard; Heinz, Stefan; Ghafoory, Shahrouz; Wölfl, Stefan; Simon-Keller, Katja; Marx, Alexander; Øie, Cristina Ionica; Ebert, Matthias P.; Walles, Heike

    2015-01-01

    In this study we used differentiated adult human upcyte® cells for the in vitro generation of liver organoids. Upcyte® cells are genetically engineered cell strains derived from primary human cells by lenti-viral transduction of genes or gene combinations inducing transient proliferation capacity (upcyte® process). Proliferating upcyte® cells undergo a finite number of cell divisions, i.e., 20 to 40 population doublings, but upon withdrawal of proliferation stimulating factors, they regain most of the cell specific characteristics of primary cells. When a defined mixture of differentiated human upcyte® cells (hepatocytes, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)) was cultured in vitro on a thick layer of Matrigel™, they self-organized to form liver organoid-like structures within 24 hours. When further cultured for 10 days in a bioreactor, these liver organoids show typical functional characteristics of liver parenchyma including activity of cytochromes P450, CYP3A4, CYP2B6 and CYP2C9 as well as mRNA expression of several marker genes and other enzymes. In summary, we hereby describe that 3D functional hepatic structures composed of primary human cell strains can be generated in vitro. They can be cultured for a prolonged period of time and are potentially useful ex vivo models to study liver functions. PMID:26488607

  16. Assessment of Liver Function Using 99mTc-Mebrofenin Hepatobiliary Scintigraphy in ALPPS (Associating Liver Partition and Portal Vein Ligation for Staged Hepatectomy)

    PubMed Central

    Cieslak, Kasia P.; Olthof, Pim B.; van Lienden, Krijn P.; Besselink, Marc G.; Busch, Olivier R.C.; van Gulik, Thomas M.; Bennink, Roelof J.

    2015-01-01

    ALPPS (associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy) is a new surgical technique for patients in whom conventional treatment is not feasible due to insufficient future remnant liver (FRL). During the first stage of ALPPS, accelerated hypertrophy of the FRL is induced by ligation of the portal vein and in situ split of the liver. In the second stage, the deportalized liver is removed when the FRL volume has reached ?25% of total liver volume. However, FRL volume does not necessarily reflect FRL function. 99mTc-mebrofenin hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HBS) with SPECT-CT is a quantitative test enabling regional assessment of parenchymal uptake function using a validated cut-off value for the prediction of postoperative liver failure (2.7%/min/m2). This paper describes the changes in FRL function and FRL volume in a 79-year-old patient diagnosed with metachronous colonic liver metastases who underwent ALPPS. We have observed a substantial difference between the increase in FRL volume and FRL function suggesting that HBS with SPECT-CT enables monitoring of the FRL function and could be a useful tool in the timing of resection in the second stage of the ALPPS procedure. PMID:26675783

  17. Correction of Arterial Input Function in Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI of the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hesheng; Cao, Yue

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To develop a post-processing method to correct saturation of arterial input function (AIF) in T1-weighted DCE-MRI for quantification of hepatic perfusion. Materials and Methods The saturated AIF is corrected by parameterizing the first pass of the AIF as a smooth function with a single peak and minimizing a least squares error in fitting the liver DCE-MRI data to a dual-input single-compartment model. Sensitivities of the method to the degree of saturation in the AIF first-pass peak and the image contrast-to-noise ratio were assessed. The method was also evaluated by correlating portal venous perfusion with an independent overall liver function measurement. Results The proposed method corrects the distorted AIF with a saturation ratio up to 0.45. The corrected AIF improves hepatic arterial perfusion by ?23.4% and portal venous perfusion by 26.9% in a study of 12 patients with liver cancers. The correlation between the mean voxelwise portal venous perfusion and overall liver function measurement was improved by using the corrected AIFs (R2=0.67) compared with the saturated AIFs (R2=0.39). Conclusion The method is robust for correcting AIF distortion, and has the potential to improve quantification of hepatic perfusion for assessment of liver tissue response to treatment in patients with hepatic cancers. PMID:22392876

  18. Role of Gut Barrier Function in the Pathogenesis of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xin; Wang, Bangmao

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common forms of chronic liver disease, and its incidence is increasing year by year. Many efforts have been made to investigate the pathogenesis of this disease. Since 1998 when Marshall proposed the conception of “gut-liver axis,” more and more researchers have paid close attention to the role of gut barrier function in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. The four aspects of gut barrier function, including physical, chemical, biological, and immunological barriers, are interrelated closely and related to NAFLD. In this paper, we present a summary of research findings on the relationship between gut barrier dysfunction and the development of NAFLD, aiming at illustrating the role of gut barrier function in the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:25945084

  19. Inhibition of Key Digestive Enzymes Related to Diabetes and Hyperlipidemia and Protection of Liver-Kidney Functions by Trigonelline in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hamden, Khaled; Mnafgui, Kais; Amri, Zahra; Aloulou, Ahmed; Elfeki, Abdelfattah

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is a serious health problem and a source of risk for numerous severe complications such as obesity and hypertension. Treatment of diabetes and its related diseases can be achieved by inhibiting key digestive enzymes related to starch and lipid digestion. The findings revealed that the administration of trigonelline to surviving diabetic rats helped to protect the pancreas ?-cells from death and damage. Additionally, the supplement of trigonelline to surviving diabetic rats significantly decreased intestinal ?-amylase and maltase by 36 and 52%, respectively, which led to a significant decrease in the blood glucose rate by 46%. Moreover, the administration of trigonelline to surviving diabetic rats potentially inhibited key enzymes of lipid metabolism and absorption such as lipase activity in the small intestine by 56%, which led to a notable decrease in serum triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) rates and an increase in the HDL cholesterol level. This treatment also improved glucose, maltase, starch, and lipid oral tolerance. Trigonelline was also observed to protect the liver-kidney functions efficiently, which was evidenced by the significant decrease in the serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities and creatinine, albumin, and urea rates. The histological analysis of the pancreas, liver, and kidney tissues further established the positive effect of trigonelline. Overall, the findings presented in this study demonstrate that the administration of trigonelline to diabetic rats can make it a potentially strong candidate for industrial application as a pharmacological agent for the treatment of hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and liver-kidney dysfunctions. PMID:23641341

  20. Abnormal Liver Function Tests in an Anorexia Nervosa Patient and an Atypical Manifestation of Refeeding Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Vootla, Vamshidhar R.; Daniel, Myrta

    2015-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is defined as electrolyte and fluid abnormalities that occur in significantly malnourished patients when they are refed orally, enterally, or parenterally. The principal manifestations include hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, vitamin deficiencies, volume overload and edema. This can affect multiple organ systems, such as the cardiovascular, pulmonary, or neurological systems, secondary to the above-mentioned abnormalities. Rarely, patients may develop gastrointestinal symptoms and show abnormal liver function test results. We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with anorexia nervosa who developed refeeding syndrome and simultaneous elevations of liver function test results, which normalized upon the resolution of the refeeding syndrome. PMID:26351414

  1. Expression of an epidermal keratin protein in liver of transgenic mice causes structural and functional abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    To examine the role of keratin intermediate filament proteins in cell structure and function, transgenic mice were isolated that express a modified form of the human K14 keratin protein in liver hepatocytes. A modified K14 cDNA (K14.P) sequence was linked downstream of the mouse transthyretin (TTR) gene promoter and enhancer elements to achieve targeted expression in hepatocytes. Hepatocytes expressing high levels of the transgene were found to have abnormal keratin filament networks as detected by indirect immunofluorescence using an antibody specific for the transgene product. Light and electron microscopic level histological analysis of isolated liver tissue showed in many cases degenerative changes that included inflammatory infiltration, ballooning degeneration, an increase in fat containing vacuoles, and glycogen accumulation. These changes were most evident in older mice over four months of age. No indication of typical Mallory body structures were identified at either the light or electron microscopic level. To evaluate secretory function in transgenic livers, bile acid secretion rates were measured in isolated perfused liver and found to be approximately twofold lower than aged-matched controls. These findings indicate that expression of an abnormal keratin in liver epithelial cells in the in vivo setting can alter the structure and function of a tissue and suggest a role of the keratin network in cellular secretion. PMID:7529766

  2. Effect of nadolol on liver haemodynamics and function in patients with cirrhosis.

    PubMed Central

    Merkel, C; Sacerdoti, D; Finucci, G F; Zuin, R; Bazzerla, G; Bolognesi, M; Gatta, A

    1986-01-01

    Beta-adrenoceptor blockers used in the medical management of portal hypertension decrease liver blood flow. The sporadic onset of hepatic encephalopathy during propranolol treatment was ascribed to this decrease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of chronic treatment with nadolol on liver blood flow and liver function. Nadolol, a non-cardioselective beta-adrenoceptor blocker, has been reported to be as powerful as propranolol in decreasing portal pressure. Before and after 1 month of treatment with nadolol at a dose reducing heart rate by 25%, in 15 cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension, the following parameters were determined: hepatic venous pressure gradient, hepatic blood flow, galactose eliminating capacity, aminopyrine metabolic activity, ICG clearance and intrinsic hepatic clearance. Hepatic venous pressure gradient and hepatic blood flow were decreased by nadolol. However liver function was not affected by the drug. We conclude that, despite a lowered hepatic blood flow, liver function is not affected by 1 month of nadolol treatment. PMID:3741719

  3. The multiple functional roles of mesenchymal stem cells in participating in treating liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei-hui; Song, Fu-qiang; Ren, Li-na; Guo, Wen-qiong; Wang, Tao; Feng, Ya-xing; Tang, Li-jun; Li, Kun

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a group of stem cells derived from the mesodermal mesenchyme. MSCs can be obtained from a variety of tissues, including bone marrow, umbilical cord tissue, umbilical cord blood, peripheral blood and adipose tissue. Under certain conditions, MSCs can differentiate into many cell types both in vitro and in vivo, including hepatocytes. To date, four main strategies have been developed to induce the transdifferentiation of MSCs into hepatocytes: addition of chemical compounds and cytokines, genetic modification, adjustment of the micro-environment and alteration of the physical parameters used for culturing MSCs. Although the phenomenon of transdifferentiation of MSCs into hepatocytes has been described, the detailed mechanism is far from clear. Generally, the mechanism is a cascade reaction whereby stimulating factors activate cellular signalling pathways, which in turn promote the production of transcription factors, leading to hepatic gene expression. Because MSCs can give rise to hepatocytes, they are promising to be used as a new treatment for liver dysfunction or as a bridge to liver transplantation. Numerous studies have confirmed the therapeutic effects of MSCs on hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis and other liver diseases, which may be related to the differentiation of MSCs into functional hepatocytes. In addition to transdifferentiation into hepatocytes, when MSCs are used to treat liver disease, they may also inhibit hepatocellular apoptosis and secrete various bioactive molecules to promote liver regeneration. In this review, the capacity and molecular mechanism of MSC transdifferentiation, and the therapeutic effects of MSCs on liver diseases are thoroughly discussed. PMID:25534251

  4. Patterns and predictors of sexual function after liver donation: The Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort study.

    PubMed

    DiMartini, Andrea F; Dew, Mary Amanda; Butt, Zeeshan; Simpson, Mary Ann; Ladner, Daniela P; Smith, Abigail R; Hill-Callahan, Peg; Gillespie, Brenda W

    2015-05-01

    Although sexual functioning is an important facet of a living donor's quality of life, it has not received an extensive evaluation in this population. Using data from the Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study, we examined donor sexual functioning across the donation process from the predonation evaluation to 3 months and 1 year after donation. Donors (n?=?208) and a comparison group of nondonors (n?=?155) completed self-reported surveys with specific questions on sexual desire, satisfaction, orgasm, and (for men) erectile function. Across the 3 time points, donor sexual functioning was lower at the evaluation phase and 3 months after donation versus 1 year after donation. In the early recovery period, abdominal pain was associated with difficulty reaching orgasm [odds ratio (OR), 3.98; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.30-12.16], concerns over appearance were associated with lower sexual desire (OR, 4.14; 95% CI, 1.02-16.79), and not feeling back to normal was associated with dissatisfaction with sexual life (OR, 3.58; 95% CI, 1.43-8.99). Efforts to educate donors before the surgery and prepare them for the early recovery phase may improve recovery and reduce distress regarding sexual functioning. PMID:25779554

  5. Expression and function of the atypical cadherin FAT1 in chronic liver disease

    SciTech Connect

    Valletta, Daniela; Czech, Barbara; Thasler, Wolfgang E.; Mueller, Martina; Bosserhoff, Anja-Katrin; Hellerbrand, Claus

    2012-09-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The expression of the atypical cadherin FAT1 is increased in chronic liver disease. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FAT1 expression goes up during the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activated HSCs are the cellular source of enhanced FAT1 expression in diseased livers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FAT1 enhanced NFkB activity and resistance to apoptosis in activated HSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FAT1 is a new therapeutic target for prevention and treatment of hepatic fibrosis. -- Abstract: Hepatic fibrosis can be considered as wound healing process in response to hepatocellular injury. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is a key event of hepatic fibrosis since activated HSCs are the cellular source of enhanced extracellular matrix deposition, and reversion of liver fibrosis is accompanied by clearance of activated HSCs by apoptosis. The atypical cadherin FAT1 has been shown to regulate diverse biological functions as cell proliferation and planar cell polarity, and also to affect wound healing. Here, we found increased FAT1 expression in different murine models of chronic liver injury and in cirrhotic livers of patients with different liver disease. Also in hepatic tissue of patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis FAT1 expression was significantly enhanced and correlated with collagen alpha I(1) expression. Immunohistochemistry revealed no significant differences in staining intensity between hepatocytes in normal and cirrhotic liver tissue but myofibroblast like cells in fibrotic septa of cirrhotic livers showed a prominent immunosignal. Furthermore, FAT1 mRNA and protein expression markedly increased during in vitro activation of primary human and murine HSCs. Together, these data indicated activated HSCs as cellular source of enhanced FAT1 expression in diseased livers. To gain insight into the functional role of FAT1 in activated HSCs we suppressed FAT1 in these cells by siRNA. We newly found that FAT1 suppression in activated HSCs caused a downregulation of NF{kappa}B activity. This transcription factor is critical for apoptosis resistance of HSCs, and consequently, we detected a higher apoptosis rate in FAT1 suppressed HSCs compared to control cells. Our findings suggest FAT1 as new therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of hepatic fibrosis in chronic liver disease.

  6. Characterization of the l-alanine exporter AlaE of Escherichia coli and its potential role in protecting cells from a toxic-level accumulation of l-alanine and its derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seryoung; Ihara, Kohei; Katsube, Satoshi; Hori, Hatsuhiro; Ando, Tasuke; Isogai, Emiko; Yoneyama, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that the alaE gene of Escherichia coli encodes the l-alanine exporter AlaE. The objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of the AlaE exporter. The minimum inhibitory concentration of l-alanine and l-alanyl-l-alanine in alaE-deficient l-alanine-nonmetabolizing cells MLA301?alaE was 4- and >4000-fold lower, respectively, than in the alaE-positive parent cells MLA301, suggesting that AlaE functions as an efflux pump to avoid a toxic-level accumulation of intracellular l-alanine and its derivatives. Furthermore, the growth of the alaE-deficient mutant derived from the l-alanine-metabolizing strain was strongly inhibited in the presence of a physiological level of l-alanyl-l-alanine. Intact MLA301?alaE and MLA301?alaE/pAlaE cells producing plasmid-borne AlaE, accumulated approximately 200% and 50%, respectively, of the [3H]l-alanine detected in MLA301 cells, suggesting that AlaE exports l-alanine. When 200 mmol/L l-alanine-loaded inverted membrane vesicles prepared from MLA301?alaE/pAlaE were placed in a solution containing 200 mmol/L or 0.34 ?mol/L l-alanine, energy-dependent [3H]l-alanine accumulation occurred under either condition. This energy-dependent uphill accumulation of [3H]l-alanine was strongly inhibited in the presence of carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone but not by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, suggesting that the AlaE-mediated l-alanine extrusion was driven by proton motive force. Based on these results, physiological roles of the l-alanine exporter are discussed. PMID:26073055

  7. Catalytic Stereoinversion of L-Alanine to Deuterated D-Alanine.

    PubMed

    Moozeh, Kimia; So, Soon Mog; Chin, Jik

    2015-08-01

    A combination of an achiral pyridoxal analogue and a chiral base has been developed for catalytic deuteration of L-alanine with inversion of stereochemistry to give deuterated D-alanine under mild conditions (neutral pD and 25?°C) without the use of any protecting groups. This system can also be used for catalytic deuteration of D-alanine with retention of stereochemistry to give deuterated D-alanine. Thus a racemic mixture of alanine can be catalytically deuterated to give an enantiomeric excess of deuterated D-alanine. While catalytic deracemization of alanine is forbidden by the second law of thermodynamics, this system can be used for catalytic deracemization of alanine with deuteration. Such green and biomimetic approach to catalytic stereocontrol provides insights into efficient amino acid transformations. PMID:26119066

  8. Outcomes following liver trauma in equestrian accidents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Equestrian sports are common outdoor activities that may carry a risk of liver injury. Due to the relative infrequency of equestrian accidents the injury patterns and outcomes associated with liver trauma in these patients have not been well characterized. Methods We examined our experience of the management of equestrian liver trauma in our regional hepatopancreaticobiliary unit at a tertiary referral center. The medical records of patients who sustained liver trauma secondary to equestrian activities were analysed for parameters such as demographic data, liver function tests, patterns of injury, radiological findings, the need for intervention and outcomes. Results 20 patients sustained liver trauma after falling from or being kicked by a horse. The majority of patients were haemodynamically stable on admission. Alanine transaminase (ALT) levels were elevated in all patients and right-sided rib fractures were a frequently associated finding. CT demonstrated laceration of the liver in 12 patients, contusion in 3 and subcapsular haematoma in 2. The right lobe of the liver was most commonly affected. Only two patients required laparotomy and liver resection; the remaining 18 were successfully managed conservatively. Conclusions The risk of liver injury following a horse kick or falling off a horse should not be overlooked. Early CT imaging is advised in these patients, particularly in the presence of high ALT levels and concomitant chest injuries such as rib fractures. Despite significant liver trauma, conservative management in the form of close observation, ideally in a high-dependency setting, is often sufficient. Laparotomy is only rarely warranted and associated with a significantly higher risk of post-operative bile leaks. PMID:25177363

  9. Cellular and molecular functions of hepatic stellate cells in inflammatory responses and liver immunology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The liver is a central immunological organ. Liver resident macrophages, Kupffer cells (KC), but also sinusoidal endothelial cells, dendritic cells (DC) and other immune cells are involved in balancing immunity and tolerance against pathogens, commensals or food antigens. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) have been primarily characterized as the main effector cells in liver fibrosis, due to their capacity to transdifferentiate into collagen-producing myofibroblasts (MFB). More recent studies elucidated the fundamental role of HSC in liver immunology. HSC are not only the major storage site for dietary vitamin A (Vit A) (retinol, retinoic acid), which is essential for proper function of the immune system. This pericyte further represents a versatile source of many soluble immunological active factors including cytokines [e.g., interleukin 17 (IL-17)] and chemokines [C-C motif chemokine (ligand) 2 (CCL2)], may act as an antigen presenting cell (APC), and has autophagy activity. Additionally, it responds to many immunological triggers via toll-like receptors (TLR) (e.g., TLR4, TLR9) and transduces signals through pathways and mediators traditionally found in immune cells, including the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway or inflammasome activation. Overall, HSC promote rather immune-suppressive responses in homeostasis, like induction of regulatory T cells (Treg), T cell apoptosis (via B7-H1, PDL-1) or inhibition of cytotoxic CD8 T cells. In conditions of liver injury, HSC are important sensors of altered tissue integrity and initiators of innate immune cell activation. Vice versa, several immune cell subtypes interact directly or via soluble mediators with HSC. Such interactions include the mutual activation of HSC (towards MFB) and macrophages or pro-apoptotic signals from natural killer (NK), natural killer T (NKT) and gamma-delta T cells (?? T-cells) on activated HSC. Current directions of research investigate the immune-modulating functions of HSC in the environment of liver tumors, cellular heterogeneity or interactions promoting HSC deactivation during resolution of liver fibrosis. Understanding the role of HSC as central regulators of liver immunology may lead to novel therapeutic strategies for chronic liver diseases. PMID:25568859

  10. Putative prethymic T cell precursors within the early human embryonic liver: a molecular and functional analysis

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Hematopoietic cells present in the liver in early human fetal life were characterized by phenotypic analysis using a broad panel of monoclonal antibodies. Expression of very late antigen 4 and leukocyte function- associated antigen 3 cell adhesion receptors and 4F2 cell activation molecules was found in all fetal liver hematopoietic cells before acquisition of T cell-, B cell-, or myeloid-specific surface markers, and before the time of intrathymic colonization. Molecular studies showed that expression of the interleukin 2 receptor beta (IL-2R beta) also occurred in the embryonic liver at this early ontogenic stage. In contrast, no expression of IL-2R alpha or IL-2 transcripts was found in fetal liver cells, whereas transcription of the IL-4 gene was detected in a small fetal liver cell subset. Putative T cell precursors were identified among the hematopoietic fetal liver cells by the expression of genes encoding the gamma, delta, epsilon, and zeta invariant chains of the CD3-T cell receptor (TCR) complex. However, no transcription of the polymorphic alpha and beta TCR genes was detected. Functional in vitro assays further demonstrated that fetal liver hematopoietic cells from those early embryos were capable of proliferating in response to T cell growth factors, including IL-4 and IL-2. However, whereas IL-4- induced proliferation paralleled the appearance in vitro of CD45+CD7- CD4dull cells expressing the CD14 myeloid antigen, as well as of CD34+ primitive hematopoietic progenitors, differentiation into CD45+CD7+CD8+CD3- immature T cells was observed when using IL-2. Moreover, coculture with thymic epithelial cell monolayers provided additional evidence that early fetal liver hematopoietic cells may include very primitive T cell precursors, which were able to differentiate in vitro into TCR alpha/beta+ mature T cells. Therefore, our results indicate that, after triggering of the T cell-specific maturation program in primitive fetal liver hematopoietic progenitors, specific signals provided intrathymically by epithelial cells may fulfill the requirements to drive terminal differentiation of prethymically committed T cell precursors. PMID:8418199

  11. Severity of polymicrobial sepsis modulates mitochondrial function in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Herminghaus, A; Barthel, F; Heinen, A; Beck, C; Vollmer, C; Bauer, I; Weidinger, A; Kozlov, A V; Picker, O

    2015-09-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is assumed to be an important contributor to multi organ dysfunction syndrome. Here, the effects of varying degrees of sepsis on hepatic mitochondrial function were investigated. Moderate or more severe sepsis was induced in rats using a colon ascendens stent peritonitis (CASP)-model (16 G and 14 G stent respectively). Respiratory control ratio (RCR) was significantly higher in the 16 G-group and unchanged in the 14 G-group compared with healthy controls. The ADP/O ratio was similar in all groups. Our results indicate that different severities of sepsis differently influence the mitochondrial function, which could be a sign of adaptive reaction. PMID:26277734

  12. Probing alanine transaminase catalysis with hyperpolarized 13CD3-pyruvate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barb, A. W.; Hekmatyar, S. K.; Glushka, J. N.; Prestegard, J. H.

    2013-03-01

    Hyperpolarized metabolites offer a tremendous sensitivity advantage (>104 fold) when measuring flux and enzyme activity in living tissues by magnetic resonance methods. These sensitivity gains can also be applied to mechanistic studies that impose time and metabolite concentration limitations. Here we explore the use of hyperpolarization by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) in mechanistic studies of alanine transaminase (ALT), a well-established biomarker of liver disease and cancer that converts pyruvate to alanine using glutamate as a nitrogen donor. A specific deuterated, 13C-enriched analog of pyruvic acid, 13C3D3-pyruvic acid, is demonstrated to have advantages in terms of detection by both direct 13C observation and indirect observation through methyl protons introduced by ALT-catalyzed H-D exchange. Exchange on injecting hyperpolarized 13C3D3-pyruvate into ALT dissolved in buffered 1H2O, combined with an experimental approach to measure proton incorporation, provided information on mechanistic details of transaminase action on a 1.5 s timescale. ALT introduced, on average, 0.8 new protons into the methyl group of the alanine produced, indicating the presence of an off-pathway enamine intermediate. The opportunities for exploiting mechanism-dependent molecular signatures as well as indirect detection of hyperpolarized 13C3-pyruvate and products in imaging applications are discussed.

  13. Functional Roles of Protein Nitration in Acute and Chronic Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A.; Song, Byoung-Joon

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide, when combined with superoxide, produces peroxynitrite, which is known to be an important mediator for a number of diseases including various liver diseases. Peroxynitrite can modify tyrosine residue(s) of many proteins resulting in protein nitration, which may alter structure and function of each target protein. Various proteomics and immunological methods including mass spectrometry combined with both high pressure liquid chromatography and 2D PAGE have been employed to identify and characterize nitrated proteins from pathological tissue samples to determine their roles. However, these methods contain a few technical problems such as low efficiencies with the detection of a limited number of nitrated proteins and labor intensiveness. Therefore, a systematic approach to efficiently identify nitrated proteins and characterize their functional roles is likely to shed new insights into understanding of the mechanisms of hepatic disease pathophysiology and subsequent development of new therapeutics. The aims of this review are to briefly describe the mechanisms of hepatic diseases. In addition, we specifically describe a systematic approach to efficiently identify nitrated proteins to study their causal roles or functional consequences in promoting acute and chronic liver diseases including alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases. We finally discuss translational research applications by analyzing nitrated proteins in evaluating the efficacies of potentially beneficial agents to prevent or treat various diseases in the liver and other tissues. PMID:24876909

  14. The functional role of microRNAs in alcoholic liver injury.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Kelly; Herrera, Leonardo; Zhou, Tianhao; Francis, Heather; Han, Yuyan; Levine, Phillip; Lin, Emily; Glaser, Shannon; Alpini, Gianfranco; Meng, Fanyin

    2014-02-01

    The function of microRNAs (miRNAs) during alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has recently become of great interest in biological research. Studies have shown that ALD associated miRNAs play a crucial role in the regulation of liver-inflammatory agents such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), one of the key inflammatory agents responsible for liver fibrosis (liver scarring) and the critical contributor of alcoholic liver disease. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria, is responsible for TNF-? release by Kupffer cells. miRNAs are the critical mediators of LPS signalling in Kupffer cells, hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells. Certain miRNAs, in particular miR-155 and miR-21, show a positive correlation in up-regulation of LPS signalling when they are exposed to ethanol. ALD is related to enhanced gut permeability that allows the levels of LPS to increase, leads to increased secretion of TNF-? by the Kupffer cells and subsequently promotes alcoholic liver injury through specific miRNAs. Meanwhile, two of the most frequently dysregulated miRNAs in steatohepatitis, miR-122 and miR-34a are the critical mediators in ethanol/LPS activated survival signalling during ALD. In this review, we summarize recent findings regarding the experimental and clinical aspects of functions of specific microRNAs, focusing mainly on inflammation and cell survival after ethanol/LPS treatment, and advances on the role of circulating miRNAs in human alcoholic disorders. PMID:24400890

  15. HepatoProteomics: Applying Proteomic Technologies to the Study of Liver Function and Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, Deborah L.; Proll, Sean; Jacobs, Jon M.; Chan, Eric Y.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Katze, Michael G.

    2006-08-01

    The wealth of human genome sequence information now available, coupled with technological advances in robotics, nanotechnology, mass spectrometry, and information systems, has given rise to a method of scientific inquiry known as functional genomics. By using these technologies to survey gene expression and protein production on a near global scale, the goal of functional genomics is to assign biological function to genes with currently unknown roles in physiology. This approach carries particular appeal in disease research, where it can uncover the function of previously unknown genes and molecular pathways that are directly involved in disease progression. With this knowledge may come improved diagnostic techniques, prognostic capabilities, and novel therapeutic approaches. In this regard, the continuing evolution of proteomic technologies has resulted in an increasingly greater impact of proteome studies in many areas of research and hepatology is no exception. Our laboratory has been extremely active in this area, applying both genomic and proteomic technologies to the analysis of virus-host interactions in several systems, including the study of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and HCV-associated liver disease. Since proteomic technologies are foreign to many hepatologists (and to almost everyone else), this article will provide an overview of proteomic methods and technologies and describe how they're being used to study liver function and disease. We use our studies of HCV infection and HCV-associated liver disease to present an operational framework for performing high throughput proteome analysis and extracting biologically meaningful information.

  16. Use of magnetic resonance elastography for assessing liver functional reserve: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bin; Min, Jie; Liang, Wei-Ren; Zhang, Guang-Qiang; Wu, Jian-Jun; Jin, Kai; Huang, Wei; Ying, Cai-Yu; Chao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the value of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) with regard to assessing liver functional reserve. METHODS: Data from inpatients diagnosed with a liver tumor at an interventional radiology department from July 2013 to June 2014 were analyzed. A 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance unit was used to scan 32 patients with confirmed diagnoses of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); an MRE sequence was added to the protocol, and the data were reconstructed and analyzed by two attending radiologists. Regions of interest were identified in different slices of the non-tumor liver parenchyma to measure average stiffness. In addition, the indocyanine green (ICG) test was performed no more than 1 wk before or after the magnetic resonance examination for all 32 patients; the ICG retention rate at 15 min (ICGR-15) and the ICG plasma clearance rate (ICG-K) were recorded. Correlational analyses were performed between the liver stiffness values and the ICGR-15 as well as between the liver stiffness values and the ICG-K. RESULTS: Magnetic resonance imaging, including an MRE sequence and the ICG test, was performed successfully in all 32 enrolled patients. None of the patients developed complications. The mean ± SD of the elasticity values measured by the two attending radiologists were 4.7 ± 2.2 kPa and 4.7 ± 2.1 kPa, respectively. The average liver stiffness value of the non-tumor parenchyma measured using MRE in HCC patients was 4.7 ± 2.2 kPa. The average ICGR-15 was 0.089 ± 0.077, and the average ICG-K was 0.19 ± 0.07. We found that the liver stiffness value of the non-tumor parenchyma was significantly and positively related to the ICGR-15 (r = 0.746, P < 0.01) as well as significantly and negatively related to the ICG-K (r = -0.599, P < 0.01). The ICGR-15 was significantly and negatively related to the ICG-K (r = -0.852, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: MRE is accurate and non-invasive; furthermore, it can be used to effectively assess the liver functional reserve of HCC patients. PMID:26139999

  17. Evaluation of Liver Function After Proton Beam Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Mizumoto, Masashi; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Hashimoto, Takayuki; Fukuda, Kuniaki; Oshiro, Yoshiko; Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Abei, Masato; Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Hayashi, Yasutaka; Ohkawa, Ayako; Hashii, Haruko; Kanemoto, Ayae; Moritake, Takashi; Tohno, Eriko; Tsuboi, Koji; Sakae, Takeji; Sakurai, Hideyuki

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Our previous results for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma with proton beam therapy (PBT) revealed excellent local control. In this study, we focused on the impact of PBT on normal liver function. Methods and Materials: The subjects were 259 patients treated with PBT at University of Tsukuba between January 2001 and December 2007. We evaluated the Child-Pugh score pretreatment, on the final day of PBT, and 6, 12, and 24 months after treatment with PBT. Patients who had disease progression or who died with tumor progression at each evaluation point were excluded from the analysis to rule out an effect of tumor progression. An increase in the Child-Pugh score of 1 or more was defined as an adverse event. Results: Of the 259 patients, 241 had no disease progression on the final day of PBT, and 91 had no progression within 12 months after PBT. In univariate analysis, the percentage volumes of normal liver receiving at least 0, 10, 20, and 30 GyE in PBT (V0, 10, 20, and 30) were significantly associated with an increase of Child-Pugh score at 12 months after PBT. Of the 91 patients evaluated at 12 months, 66 had no increase of Child-Pugh score, 15 had a 1-point increase, and 10 had an increase of {>=}2 points. For the Youden index, the optimal cut-offs for V0, V10, V20, and V30 were 30%, 20%, 26%, and 18%, respectively. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that liver function after PBT is significantly related to the percentage volume of normal liver that is not irradiated. This suggests that further study of the relationship between liver function and PBT is required.

  18. Impaired function of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells in murine liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Shirakura, Katsuya; Masuda, Haruchika; Kwon, Sang-Mo; Obi, Syotaro; Ito, Rie; Shizuno, Tomoko; Kurihara, Yusuke; Mine, Tetsuya; Asahara, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    Liver fibrosis (LF) caused by chronic liver damage has been considered as an irreversible disease. As alternative therapy for liver transplantation, there are high expectations for regenerative medicine of the liver. Bone marrow (BM)- or peripheral blood-derived stem cells, including endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), have recently been used to treat liver cirrhosis. We investigated the biology of BM-derived EPC in a mouse model of LF. C57BL/6J mice were subcutaneously injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) every 3 days for 90 days. Sacrificed 2 days after final injection, whole blood (WB) was collected for isolation of mononuclear cells (MNCs) and biochemical examination. Assessments of EPC in the peripheral blood and BM were performed by flow cytometry and EPC colony-forming assay, respectively, using purified MNCs and BM c-KIT(+), Sca-1(+), and Lin(-) (KSL) cells. Liver tissues underwent histological analysis with hematoxylin/eosin/Azan staining, and spleens were excised and weighed. CCl(4)-treated mice exhibited histologically bridging fibrosis, pseudolobular formation, and splenomegaly, indicating successful induction of LF. The frequency of definitive EPC-colony-forming-units (CFU) as well as total EPC-CFU at the equivalent cell number of 500 BM-KSL cells decreased significantly (p < 0.0001) in LF mice compared with control mice; no significant changes in primitive EPC-CFU occurred in LF mice. The frequency of WB-MNCs of definitive EPC-CFU decreased significantly (p < 0.01) in LF mice compared with control mice. Together, these findings indicated the existence of impaired EPC function and differentiation in BM-derived EPCs in LF mice and might be related to clinical LF. PMID:21572251

  19. A systematic review of the prevalence of mildly abnormal liver function tests and associated health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Radcke, Sven; Dillon, John F; Murray, Aja L

    2015-01-01

    Liver function tests (LFTs) are commonly performed to investigate asymptomatic individuals or those with nonspecific symptoms. Understanding the prevalence of mildly abnormal LFTs in the general population and the prevalence of liver disease following abnormal LFTs has important implications for the planning of care pathways and the provision of healthcare services. A systematic review of the literature on the prevalence of abnormal LFTs in the general population and their respective health outcomes was conducted. A total of 37 studies reporting data on the prevalence of abnormal LFTs (published between 2000 and 2014) were identified from online database searches or were manually selected from article bibliographies. The prevalence of mildly abnormal LFTs, with one or more abnormal constituents in the LFT, was high at 10-21.7%. The prevalence of severe liver disease within cohorts with abnormal LFTs is relatively low (<5%), and a large proportion of abnormal LFTs remains unexplained. Among individuals with unexplained abnormal LFTs, risk factors include obesity and insulin resistance. Common aetiologies for abnormal LFTs were non-alcohol-related fatty liver disease (NAFLD), followed by alcohol use and viral infections. In addition, normal LFTs do not rule out liver disease. The prevalence of abnormal LFTs depends on the definition and population but is likely to be between 10 and 20% in the general population. Abnormal LFTs are associated with a range of health outcomes but are not necessarily strongly diagnostic of severe liver pathology. Important areas of future research include further studies on the prevalence and predictive ability of LFTs in large, population-representative samples. PMID:25380394

  20. Dose-response relationship between arsenic exposure and the serum enzymes for liver function tests in the individuals exposed to arsenic: a cross sectional study in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Chronic arsenic exposure has been shown to cause liver damage. However, serum hepatic enzyme activity as recognized on liver function tests (LFTs) showing a dose-response relationship with arsenic exposure has not yet been clearly documented. The aim of our study was to investigate the dose-response relationship between arsenic exposure and major serum enzyme marker activity associated with LFTs in the population living in arsenic-endemic areas in Bangladesh. Methods A total of 200 residents living in arsenic-endemic areas in Bangladesh were selected as study subjects. Arsenic concentrations in the drinking water, hair and nails were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The study subjects were stratified into quartile groups as follows, based on concentrations of arsenic in the drinking water, as well as in subjects' hair and nails: lowest, low, medium and high. The serum hepatic enzyme activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were then assayed. Results Arsenic concentrations in the subjects' hair and nails were positively correlated with arsenic levels in the drinking water. As regards the exposure-response relationship with arsenic in the drinking water, the respective activities of ALP, AST and ALT were found to be significantly increased in the high-exposure groups compared to the lowest-exposure groups before and after adjustments were made for different covariates. With internal exposure markers (arsenic in hair and nails), the ALP, AST and ALT activity profiles assumed a similar shape of dose-response relationship, with very few differences seen in the higher groups compared to the lowest group, most likely due to the temporalities of exposure metrics. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that arsenic concentrations in the drinking water were strongly correlated with arsenic concentrations in the subjects' hair and nails. Further, this study revealed a novel exposure- and dose- response relationship between arsenic exposure metrics and serum hepatic enzyme activity. Elevated serum hepatic enzyme activities in the higher exposure gradients provided new insights into arsenic-induced liver toxicity that might be helpful for the early prognosis of arsenic-induced liver diseases. PMID:21740555

  1. Magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate inhibits inflammatory response through STAT3 pathway to protect remnant liver function

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Guang-Hua; Yang, Hua-Yu; Zhang, Jin-Chun; Ren, Jin-Jun; Sang, Xin-Ting; Lu, Xin; Zhong, Shou-Xian; Mao, Yi-Lei

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the protective effect of magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate (MgIG) on excessive hepatectomy animal model and its possible mechanism. METHODS: We used the standard 90% hepatectomy model in Sprague-Dawley rats developed using the modified Emond’s method, in which the left, middle, right upper, and right lower lobes of the liver were removed. Rats with 90% liver resection were divided into three groups, and were injected intraperitoneally with 3 mL saline (control group), 30 mg/kg (low-dose group) and 60 mg/kg (high-dose group) of MgIG, respectively. Animals were sacrificed at various time points and blood was drawn from the vena cava. Biochemical tests were performed with an automatic biochemical analyzer for the following items: serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glutamyl endopeptidase, total bilirubin (TBil), direct bilirubin (DBil), total protein, albumin, blood glucose (Glu), hyper-sensitivity C-reactive protein, prothrombin time (PT), and thrombin time (TT). Postoperative survival time was observed hourly until death. Hepatocyte regeneration was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Serum inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, and iNOS) was analyzed by ELISA. STAT3 protein and mRNA were analyzed by Western blot and quantitative reverse-transcription PCR, respectively. RESULTS: The high-dose group demonstrated a significantly prolonged survival time, compared with both the control and the low-dose groups (22.0 ± 4.7 h vs 8.9 ± 2.0 vs 10.3 ± 3.3 h, P = 0.018). There were significant differences among the groups in ALT, Glu and PT levels starting from 6 h after surgery. The ALT levels were significantly lower in the MgIG treated groups than in the control group. Both Glu and PT levels were significantly higher in the MgIG treated groups than in the control group. At 12 h, ALT, AST, TBil, DBil and TT levels showed significant differences between the MgIG treated groups and the control group. No significant differences in hepatocyte regeneration were found. Compared to the control group, the high-dose group showed a significantly increase in serum inflammatory cytokines IL-1 and IL-10, and a decrease in IL-6. Both STAT3 protein and mRNA levels were significantly lower in the MgIG treated groups than in the control group at 6 h, 12 h, and 18 h after surgery. CONCLUSION: High-dose MgIG can extend survival time in rats after excessive hepatectomy. This hepatoprotective effect is mediated by inhibiting the inflammatory response through inhibition of the STAT3 pathway. PMID:26604644

  2. Estimating Functional Liver Reserve Following Hepatic Irradiation: Adaptive Normal Tissue Response Models

    PubMed Central

    Stenmark, Matthew H.; Cao, Yue; Wang, Hesheng; Jackson, Andrew; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Feng, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the limit of functional liver reserve for safe application of hepatic irradiation using changes in indocyanine green, an established assay of liver function. Materials and Methods From 2005–2011, 60 patients undergoing hepatic irradiation were enrolled in a prospective study assessing the plasma retention fraction of indocyanine green at 15-min (ICG-R15) prior to, during (at 60% of planned dose), and after radiotherapy (RT). The limit of functional liver reserve was estimated from the damage fraction of functional liver (DFL) post-RT [1?(ICG-R15pre-RT/ICG-R15post-RT)] where no toxicity was observed using a beta distribution function. Results Of 48 evaluable patients, 3 (6%) developed RILD, all within 2.5 months of completing RT. The mean ICG-R15 for non-RILD patients pre-RT, during-RT and 1-month post-RT was 20.3%(SE 2.6), 22.0%(3.0), and 27.5%(2.8), and for RILD patients was 6.3%(4.3), 10.8%(2.7), and 47.6%(8.8). RILD was observed at post-RT damage fractions of ?78%. Both DFL assessed by during-RT ICG and MLD predicted for DFL post-RT (p<0.0001). Limiting the post-RT DFL to 50%, predicted a 99% probability of a true complication rate <15%. Conclusion The DFL as assessed by changes in ICG during treatment serves as an early indicator of a patient’s tolerance to hepatic irradiation. PMID:24813090

  3. Restoration of Liver Function and Portosystemic Pressure Gradient after TIPSS and Late TIPSS Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Maedler, U.; Hansmann, J.; Duex, M.; Noeldge, G.; Sauer, P.; Richter, G.M.

    2002-03-15

    TIPSS (transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt) may be indicated to control bleeding from esophageal and gastric varicose veins, to reduce ascites, and to treat patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome and veno-occlusive disease. Numerous measures to improve the safety and methodology of the procedure have helped to increase the technical and clinical success. Follow-up of TIPSS patients has revealed shunt stenosis to occur more often in patients with preserved liver function (Child A, Child B). In addition, the extent of liver cirrhosis is the main factor that determines prognosis in the long term. Little is known about the effects of TIPSS with respect to portosystemic hemodynamics. This report deals with a cirrhotic patient who stopped drinking 7 months prior to admission. He received TIPSS to control ascites and recurrent esophageal bleeding. Two years later remarkable hypertrophy of the left liver lobe and shunt occlusion was observed. The portosystemic pressure gradient dropped from 24 mmHg before TIPSS to 11 mmHg and remained stable after shunt occlusion. The Child's B cirrhosis prior to TIPSS turned into Child's A cirrhosis and remained stable during the follow-up period of 32 months. This indicates that liver function of TIPSS patients may recover due to hypertrophy of the remaining non-cirrhotic liver tissue. In addition the hepatic hemodynamics may return to normal. In conclusion, TIPSS cannot cure cirrhosis but its progress may be halted if the cause can be removed. This may result in a normal portosystemic gradient, leading consequently to shunt occlusion.

  4. Functional integration of hepatocytes derived from human mesenchymal stem cells into mouse livers

    PubMed Central

    Aurich1, Ines; Mueller1, Lutz P; Aurich, Hendryk; Luetzkendorf, Jana; Tisljar, Kai; Dollinger, Matthias M; Schormann, Wiebke; Walldorf, Jens; Hengstler, Jan G; Fleig, Wolfgang E; Christ, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Aims At present, clinical success of hepatocyte transplantation as an alternative to whole liver transplantation is hampered by the limited availability of suitable donor organs for the isolation of transplantable hepatocytes. Hence, novel cell sources are required to deliver hepatocytes of adequate quality for clinical use. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from human bone marrow may have the potential to differentiate into hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo. Methods Isolated MSCs were selected by density gradient centrifugation and plastic adherence, differentiated in the presence of human hepatocyte growth medium and transplanted in immunodeficient Pfp/Rag2 mice. Results Here, we demonstrate that human MSCs gain in vitro the characteristic morphology and function of hepatocytes in response to specified growth factors. Specifically, preconditioned MSCs store glycogen, synthesise urea and feature the active hepatocyte?specific gene promoter of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1). After transplantation into livers of immunodeficient mice, preconditioned MSCs engraft predominantly in the periportal portion of the liver lobule. In situ, the cells continue to store glycogen and express PCK1, connexin32, albumin and the human hepatocyte?specific antigen HepPar1, indicating that the transplanted cells retain prominent qualities of hepatocytes after their regional integration. Conclusion MSCs derived from human bone marrow may serve as a novel source for the propagation of hepatocyte?like cells suitable for cell therapy in liver diseases. PMID:16928726

  5. Long Term Liver Engraftment of Functional Hepatocytes Obtained from Germline Cell-Derived Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fagoonee, Sharmila; Famulari, Elvira Smeralda; Silengo, Lorenzo; Tolosano, Emanuela; Altruda, Fiorella

    2015-01-01

    One of the major hurdles in liver gene and cell therapy is availability of ex vivo-expanded hepatocytes. Pluripotent stem cells are an attractive alternative. Here, we show that hepatocyte precursors can be isolated from male germline cell-derived pluripotent stem cells (GPSCs) using the hepatoblast marker, Liv2, and induced to differentiate into hepatocytes in vitro. These cells expressed hepatic-specific genes and were functional as demonstrated by their ability to secrete albumin and produce urea. When transplanted in the liver parenchyma of partially hepatectomised mice, Liv2-sorted cells showed regional and heterogeneous engraftment in the injected lobe. Moreover, approximately 50% of Y chromosome-positive, GPSC-derived cells were found in the female livers, in the region of engraftment, even one month after cell injection. This is the first study showing that Liv2-sorted GPSCs-derived hepatocytes can undergo long lasting engraftment in the mouse liver. Thus, GPSCs might offer promise for regenerative medicine. PMID:26323094

  6. [Investigation of renal function in liver transplant patients: MDRD or Cockroft-Gault?].

    PubMed

    Pájer, Petra; Fehérvári, Imre

    2009-01-25

    Both acute and chronic liver disease have an effect on renal function. After liver transplantation we have to pay attention to the further loss of function because of applied calcineurin inhibitor treatment. It has nephrotoxic side-effect, so the investigation of renal function is converted into an important mission in liver transplant patients. In our study we compared the results between formulas which use serum creatinine: MDRD, which use albumin, too, has effectively other values than the Cockroft-Gault. We compared the two formulas in a retrospective analysis, in 187 patients at a stated time (before operation, after operation, within 1 week, 1 month). We got higher GFR at each date with Cockroft-Gault; mean differences: 19.56%, 17.33%, 37.18% and 28.8%. In the range of 15-60 ml/min GFR, we found nearly twice as many patients by use of MDRD than by use of Cockroft-Gault. Median with MDRD: 79 ml/min, 65.1 ml/min, 52 ml/min, 49.5 ml/min; median with Cockroft-Gault: 93.8 ml/min, 78 ml/min, 70.1 ml/min, 69.4 ml/min, all are significant ( p < 0.001). Many previous studies have already compared the two formulas in end stage kidney disease. On the basis of these studies, MDRD is suitable also under 30 ml/min GFR, but Cockroft-Gault formula approached real GFR measured with isotope methods only above this value. We got the similar conclusion in the examined patient group. It can be stated that MDRD is more suitable to determine renal function in liver transplant patients. PMID:19144599

  7. Liver Immunology

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanos, Dimitrios P.; Gao, Bin; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2014-01-01

    The liver is the largest organ in the body and is generally regarded by non-immunologists as not having lymphoid function. However, such is far from accurate. This review highlights the importance of the liver as a lymphoid organ. Firstly, we discuss experimental data surrounding the role of liver as a lymphoid organ. The liver facilitates a tolerance rather than immunoreactivity, which protects the host from antigenic overload of dietary components and drugs derived from the gut and is also instrumental to fetal immune tolerance. Loss of liver tolerance leads to autoaggressive phenomena which if are not controlled by regulatory lymphoid populations may lead to the induction of autoimmune liver diseases. Liver-related lymphoid subpopulations also act as critical antigen-presenting cells. The study of the immunological properties of liver and delineation of the microenvironment of the intrahepatic milieu in normal and diseased livers provides a platform to understand the hierarchy of a series of detrimental events which lead to immune-mediated destruction of the liver and the rejection of liver allografts. The majority of emphasis within this review will be on the normal mononuclear cell composition of the liver. However, within this context, we will discus select, but not all, immune mediated liver disease and attempt to place these data in the context of human autoimmunity. PMID:23720323

  8. ?-Alanine supplementation for athletic performance: an update.

    PubMed

    Bellinger, Phillip M

    2014-06-01

    ?-alanine supplementation has become a common practice among competitive athletes participating in a range of different sports. Although the mechanism by which chronic ?-alanine supplementation could have an ergogenic effect is widely debated, the popular view is that ?-alanine supplementation augments intramuscular carnosine content, leading to an increase in muscle buffer capacity, a delay in the onset of muscular fatigue, and a facilitated recovery during repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise. ?-alanine supplementation appears to be most effective for exercise tasks that rely heavily on ATP synthesis from anaerobic glycolysis. However, research investigating its efficacy as an ergogenic aid remains equivocal, making it difficult to draw conclusions as to its effectiveness for training and competition. The aim of this review was to update, summarize, and critically evaluate the findings associated with ?-alanine supplementation and exercise performance with the most recent research available to allow the development of practical recommendations for coaches and athletes. A critical review of the literature reveals that when significant ergogenic effects have been found, they have been generally shown in untrained individuals performing exercise bouts under laboratory conditions. The body of scientific data available concerning highly trained athletes performing single competition-like exercise tasks indicates that this type of population receives modest but potentially worthwhile performance benefits from ?-alanine supplementation. Recent data indicate that athletes may not only be using ?-alanine supplementation to enhance sports performance but also as a training aid to augment bouts of high-intensity training. ?-alanine supplementation has also been shown to increase resistance training performance and training volume in team-sport athletes, which may allow for greater overload and superior adaptations compared with training alone. The ergogenic potential of ?-alanine supplementation for elite athletes performing repeated high-intensity exercise bouts, either during training or during competition in sports which require repeated maximal efforts (e.g., rugby and soccer), needs scientific confirmation. PMID:24276304

  9. Frostbite of the liver: an unrecognized cause of primary non-function?

    PubMed

    Potanos, Kristina; Kim, Heung Bae

    2014-02-01

    Appropriate hypothermic packaging techniques are an essential part of organ procurement. We present a case in which deviation from standard packaging practice may have caused sub-zero storage temperatures during transport, resulting in a clinical picture resembling PNF. An 18-month-old male with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency underwent liver transplant from a size-matched pediatric donor. Upon arrival at the recipient hospital, ice crystals were noted in the UW solution. The transplant proceeded uneventfully with short ischemia times. Surprisingly, transaminases, INR, and total bilirubin were markedly elevated in the postoperative period but returned to near normal by discharge. Follow-up of over five yr has demonstrated normal liver function. Upon review, it was discovered that organ packaging during recovery included storage in the first bag with only 400 mL of UW solution, and pure ice in the second bag instead of slush. This suggests that the postoperative delayed graft function was related to sub-zero storage of the graft during transport. This is the first report of sub-zero cold injury, or frostbite, following inappropriate packaging of an otherwise healthy donor liver. The clinical picture closely resembled PNF, perhaps implicating this mechanism in other unexpected cases of graft non-function. PMID:24384052

  10. Tissue-specific Function of Farnesoid X Receptor in Liver and Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yan; Li, Fei; Guo, Grace L.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand-activated transcriptional factors that are involved in various physiological, developmental, and toxicological processes. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a NR that belongs to the NR superfamily. The endogenous ligands of FXR are bile acids. FXR is essential in regulating a network of genes involved in maintaining bile acid and lipid homeostasis. It is clear that FXR is critical for liver and intestinal function. In mice FXR deficiency leads to the development of cholestasis, gallstone disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, liver tumor, and colon tumor. Using mouse models where FXR is deleted either in the whole-body, or selectively in hepatocytes or enterocytes, we start to reveal the importance of tissue-specific FXR function in regulating bile acid and lipid homeostasis. However, a great challenge exists for developing tissue-specific FXR modulators to prevent and treat diseases associated with bile acid or lipid disorders. With further understanding of FXR function in both rodents and humans, this nuclear receptor may emerge as a novel target to prevent and treat liver, gastrointestinal and systemic diseases. PMID:21211565

  11. Lactobacillus plantarum NCU116 improves liver function, oxidative stress and lipid metabolism in rats with high fat diet induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuan; Nie, Shao-Ping; Zhu, Ke-Xue; Ding, Qiao; Li, Chang; Xiong, Tao; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2014-12-01

    The effect of Lactobacillus plantarum NCU116 on liver function, oxidative stress and lipid metabolism in rats with high fat diet induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was studied. The rats were divided into four groups: the normal diet (ND) group; the high fat diet (HFD) group; and HFD plus L. plantarum NCU116 as two doses (NCU116-L, 10(8) CFU mL(-1); NCU116-H, 10(9) CFU mL(-1)) groups. Treatment of L. plantarum NCU116 for 5 weeks was found to restore liver function and oxidative stress in rats with NAFLD, and decrease the levels of fat accumulation in the liver. In addition, the bacterium significantly reduced endotoxin and proinflammatory cytokines, and regulated bacterial flora in the colon and the expression of lipid metabolism in the liver. These results suggest that possible underlying mechanisms for the beneficial effect of L. plantarum NCU116 on NAFLD may include two pathways of downregulating lipogenesis and upregulating lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation related gene expression. PMID:25317840

  12. In vitro gene regulatory networks predict in vivo function of liver

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Evolution of toxicity testing is predicated upon using in vitro cell based systems to rapidly screen and predict how a chemical might cause toxicity to an organ in vivo. However, the degree to which we can extend in vitro results to in vivo activity and possible mechanisms of action remains to be fully addressed. Results Here we use the nitroaromatic 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) as a model chemical to compare and determine how we might extrapolate from in vitro data to in vivo effects. We found 341 transcripts differentially expressed in common among in vitro and in vivo assays in response to TNT. The major functional term corresponding to these transcripts was cell cycle. Similarly modulated common pathways were identified between in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we uncovered the conserved common transcriptional gene regulatory networks between in vitro and in vivo cellular liver systems that responded to TNT exposure, which mainly contain 2 subnetwork modules: PTTG1 and PIR centered networks. Interestingly, all 7 genes in the PTTG1 module were involved in cell cycle and downregulated by TNT both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions The results of our investigation of TNT effects on gene expression in liver suggest that gene regulatory networks obtained from an in vitro system can predict in vivo function and mechanisms. Inhibiting PTTG1 and its targeted cell cyle related genes could be key machanism for TNT induced liver toxicity. PMID:21073692

  13. A case of Hodgkin’s lymphoma with severely impaired liver function treated successfully with gemcitabine followed by ABVD

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Rajshekhar; Mukkamalla, Shiva Kumar Reddy; Gutzmore, Garfield; Chan, Hon Cheung

    2015-01-01

    Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) originates from clonal B cells and is the most common malignancy in the second decade of life. Liver involvement is uncommon at presentation in patients with HL and there is a paucity of data for treatment of patients with severely impaired liver function. We present an unusual case of HL with severe hepatic impairment, splenomegaly and multiple chromosomal abnormalities that was treated initially with gemcitabine and steroids. Once liver function tests improved, six cycles of Adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine were administered. The patient remains in remission at 3.5 years of follow-up. PMID:25848330

  14. Liver functions in silica-exposed workers in Egypt: possible role of matrix remodeling and immunological factors

    PubMed Central

    Zawilla, Nermin; Taha, Fatma; Ibrahim, Yasser

    2014-01-01

    Background: Brick manufacturing constitutes an important industrial sector in Egypt with considerable exposure to silica. Objectives: We aimed for evaluating hepatic functions in silica-exposed workers in the clay brick industry, and the possible role of matrix remodeling and immunological factors. Methods: A case–control study, 87 workers as exposed and 45 as control subjects. Questionnaire, clinical examination, and laboratory investigations: liver functions, matrix metalloproteinase-9, immunoglobulins G and E, and anti-liver kidney microsomal antibody. Results: In the exposed workers, mean levels of liver functions, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and IgG and IgE were significantly higher. In the silicotic subgroup the mean level of GGT was almost twice the level in the non-silicotic subjects. Logistic regression showed that abnormal GGT and ALT were associated with production workers. Conclusion: Workers in the clay brick industry showed evidence of liver disease that could be related to matrix remodeling. PMID:24999850

  15. Association Between Pulmonary Function and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in the NHANES III Study

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Tao-Chun; Kao, Tung-Wei; Wu, Li-Wei; Chen, Ying-Jen; Chang, Yaw-Wen; Wang, Chung-Ching; Tsao, Yu-Tzu; Chen, Wei-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Emerging evidence indicates that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with a wide variety of extrahepatic complications. However, the potential association between impaired pulmonary function and NAFLD has been less investigated. This study examined the relationship between pulmonary function and hepatic steatosis in 9976 adults participating in a cross-sectional analysis of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). NAFLD was defined as hepatic steatosis presented on ultrasound examinations in the absence of other known liver diseases. The associations between predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)% or predicted forced vital capacity (FVC)% and NAFLD were examined using multivariable linear regression while controlling for confounders. The association between obstructive or restrictive spirometry patterns and NAFLD was also evaluated using multivariable logistic regression analysis. After adjustment for multiple covariates, predicted FEV1% and FVC% were significantly and inversely associated with the degree of hepatic steatosis (P for trend <0.001 for both). The restrictive lung pattern was significantly related to participants with moderate and severe hepatic steatosis as compared with those without steatosis (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.14–2.39 and OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.13–2.82), whereas the obstructive lung pattern was not associated with the presence of hepatic steatosis. Individuals with a greater degree of hepatic steatosis were at greater risk for poor pulmonary function, especially in restrictive pattern. These novel findings demonstrate that impaired pulmonary function is also an extrahepatic complication of NAFLD. PMID:26020401

  16. Liver Function Assessment Using Parenchyma-Specific Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Park, Jaehyung; Cho, Jinhan; Kwon, Heejin; Kang, Myongjin; Lee, Sangyun; Roh, Young-Hoon; Kim, Kwan Woo; Lee, Sung Wook

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess hepatic functional reserve by analyzing the hepatic parenchyma enhancement curve of parenchyma-specific contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS). Fifty-two patients with cirrhosis who underwent CEUS and indocyanine green tests (ICG) because of a focal liver lesion were enrolled. We evaluated the hemodynamic-related parameters of the time-intensity curve and compared these findings with the ICG retention rate at 15 min (ICG R15). The correlation between the time from peak to one half (s) and ICG R15 was statistically significant and was relatively proportional to the ICG R15. A cut-off value of 149 s was determined for the time from peak to one half for abnormal ICG R15 (>14). The sensitivity and specificity were 85.7% and 92.3%, respectively, for the detection of abnormal ICG R15. In conclusion, the time from peak to one half of the time-intensity curve of parenchyma-specific CEUS of the liver can be a useful parameter to predict the hepatic reserve in liver cirrhosis. PMID:26610713

  17. Formation of simple biomolecules from alanine in ocean by impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeda, Y.; Sekine, T.; Furukawa, Y.; Kakegawa, T.; Kobayashi, T.

    2013-12-01

    The biomolecules on the Earth are thought either to have originated from the extraterrestrial parts carried with flying meteorites or to have been formed from the inorganic materials on the Earth through given energy. From the standpoint to address the importance of impact energy, it is required to simulate experimentally the chemical reactions during impacts, because violent impacts may have occurred 3.8-4.0 Gyr ago to create biomolecules initially. It has been demonstrated that shock reactions among ocean (H2O), atmospheric nitrogen, and meteoritic constitution (Fe) can induce locally reduction environment to form simple bioorganic molecules such as ammonia and amino acid (Nakazawa et al., 2005; Furukawa et al., 2009). We need to know possible processes for alanine how chemical reactions proceed during repeated impacts and how complicated biomolecules are formed. Alanine can be formed from glycine (Umeda et al., in preparation). In this study, we carried out shock recovery experiments at pressures of 4.4-5.7 GPa to investigate the chemical reactions of alanine. Experiments were carried out with a propellant gun. Stainless steel containers (30 mm in diameter, 30 mm long) with 13C-labeled alanine aqueous solution immersed in olivine or hematite powders were used as targets. Air gap was present in the sample room (18 mm in diameter, 2 mm thick) behind the sample. The powder, solution, and air represent meteorite, ocean, and atmosphere on early Earth, respectively. Two powders of olivine and hematite help to keep the oxygen fugacity low and high during experiments, respectively in order to investigate the effect of oxygen fugacity on chemical processes of alanine. The recovered containers, after cleaned completely, were immersed into liquid nitrogen to freeze sample solution and then we drilled on the impact surface to extract water-soluble run products using pure water. Thus obtained products were analyzed by LC/MS for four amino acids (glycine, alanine, valine, and phenylalanine) and four amines (methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, and butylamine). The results in the presence of olivine have indicated the formation glycine, methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, and butylamine. However, the results in the presence of Fe2O3 detect little glycine, methylamine, and ethylamine but no formation of propylamine and butylamine. Valine, and phenylalanine were not detected. The survival alanine as a function of pressure has been affected significantly by the oxygen fugacity, and there seems to be a threshold pressure of around 5.2 GPa. On the other hand, the glycine in alanine solution was below 5% being little variation. We have checked the solid run products by XRD. Peaks for olivine did not change, but past of Fe2O3 changed to Fe3O4. Thermodynamic calculation gives oxygen fugacities for these assemblies. These experimental results on alanine suggest that simple amino acid may be affected by pressure, oxygen fugacity, and chemical environments during impact.

  18. The effect of anterograde persufflation on energy charge and hepatocyte function in donation after cardiac death livers unsuitable for transplant.

    PubMed

    Khorsandi, Shirin Elizabeth; Jitraruch, Suttiruk; Fairbanks, Lynette; Cotoi, Corina; Jassem, Wayel; Vilca-Melendez, Hector; Prachalias, Andreas; Dhawan, Anil; Heaton, Nigel; Srinivasan, Parthi

    2014-06-01

    Donation after cardiac death (DCD) livers are considered to be marginal organs for solid organ and cell transplantation. Low energy charge (EC) and low purine quantity within the liver parenchyma has been associated with poor outcome after liver transplantation. The aim of this work was to assess the effect of anterograde persufflation (A-PSF) using an electrochemical concentrator on DCD liver energy status and hepatocyte function. Organs utilized for research were DCD livers considered not suitable for transplant. Each liver was formally split, and the control non-persufflated (non-PSF) section was stored in University of Wisconsin (UW) solution at 4°C. The A-PSF liver section was immersed in UW solution on ice, and A-PSF was performed via the portal vein with 40% oxygen. Tissue samples were taken 2 hours after A-PSF from the A-PSF and control non-PSF liver sections for snap freezing. Purine analysis was performed with photodiode array detection. Hepatocytes were isolated from A-PSF and control non-PSF liver sections using a standard organs utilized for research were DCD livers considered not suitable for transplant collagenase perfusion technique. Hepatocyte function was assessed using mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity {3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-y1]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT)} and the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay for cell attachment. In DCD livers with <30% steatosis (n?=?6), A-PSF increased EC from 0.197?±?0.025 to 0.23?±?0.035 (P?=?0.04). In DCD livers with >30% steatosis (n?=?4), A-PSF had no beneficial effect. After isolation (n=4, <30% steatosis), A-PSF was found to increase MTT from 0.92?±?0.045 to 1.19?±?0.55 (P?function of isolated hepatocytes from DCD livers with <30% steatosis. PMID:24604782

  19. Suppression of intralysosomal proteolysis aggravates structural damage and functional impairment of liver lysosomes in rats with toxic hepatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Korolenko, T.A.; Gavrilova, N.I.; Kurysheva, N.G.; Malygin, A.E.; Pupyshev, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    This paper estimates the effect of lowering protein catabolism in the lysosomes on structural and functional properties of the latter during liver damage. For comparison, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), which is inert relative to intralysosomal proteolysis, and which also accumulates largely in lysosomes of the kupffer cells of the liver, was used. The uptake of labeled bovine serum albuman (C 14-BSA) by the liver is shown and the rate of intralysosomal proteolysis is given 24 hours after administration of suramin an CCl/sub 4/ to rats. It is suggested that it is risky to use drugs which inhibit intralysosomal proteolysis in the treatment of patients with acute hepatitis.

  20. Alanine Aminotransferase-Old Biomarker and New Concept: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhengtao; Que, Shuping; Xu, Jing; Peng, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is a common, readily available, and inexpensive laboratory assay in clinical practice. ALT activity is not only measured to detect liver disease, but also to monitor overall health. ALT activity is influenced by various factors, including viral hepatitis, alcohol consumption, and medication. Recently, the impact of metabolic abnormalities on ALT variation has raised concern due to the worldwide obesity epidemic. The normal ranges for ALT have been updated and validated considering the metabolic covariates in the various ethnic districts. The interaction between metabolic and demographic factors on ALT variation has also been discussed in previous studies. In addition, an extremely low ALT value might reflect the process of aging, and frailty in older adults has been raised as another clinically significant feature of this enzyme, to be followed with additional epidemiologic investigation. Timely updated, comprehensive, and systematic introduction of ALT activity is necessary to aid clinicians make better use of this enzyme. PMID:25013373

  1. Evaluation of Cardiac Systolic Function in Cirrhotic Patients Undergoing Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sattarzadeh-Badkoubeh, Roya; Geraiely, Babak; Nassiri-Toosi, Mohssen; Jafarian, Ali

    2015-08-01

    We assessed different systolic cardiac indices to detect left and right ventricular systolic dysfunction in cirrhotic patients before liver transplantation. Between 2010-2011, 81 consecutive individuals with confirmed hepatic cirrhosis who were a candidate for liver transplantation were enrolled in this study. A total of 32 age and sex matched healthy volunteers were also selected as the control group. A detailed two-dimensional, Color Flow Doppler, and Tissue Doppler echocardiography were performed in all patients and control participants. Left atrial diameter and area, right atrial area, left ventricular end diastolic volume, and basal right ventricular diameter were significantly higher in the cirrhotic group (P<0.05). Left ventricular ejection fraction, stroke volume, left ventricular outflow tract velocity time integral and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion were also higher in the cirrhotic group (P<0.05). Peak systolic velocities of tricuspid annulus, basal segment of RV free wall and basal segment of septal wall, peak strains of basal and mid portions of septal wall, mid portion of lateral wall and peak strain rates of basal and mid portions of septal and lateral walls were higher significantly in cirrhotic group, as well (P<0.05). Isovolumic contraction time, LV systolic time interval and Tei indexes of left and right ventricles which all are representatives of systolic dysfunction were higher in cirrhosis. Peak systolic velocity of a mid-segment of the lateral wall was lower in the cirrhotic group (P<0.05) as well. Most of the cirrhotic patients display signs of cardiovascular disturbances that become more manifest following exposure to stresses such as transplantation. Cardiac failure is an important cause of death following liver transplantation. Because of the load dependency we cannot use most of the cardiac systolic indices for evaluation of systolic function in cirrhotic patients. Thus, we suggest that LV systolic time interval and Tei indices of left and right ventricles might be useful indices in the evaluation of systolic function in cirrhotic patients. PMID:26545992

  2. Optical nanoscopy to reveal structural and functional properties of liver cells (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCourt, Peter; Huser, Thomas R.; Sørensen, Karen K.; Øie, Cristina I.; Mönkemöller, Viola; Ahluwalia, Balpreet S.

    2015-08-01

    The advent of optical nanoscopy has provided an opportunity to study fundamental properties of nanoscale biological functions, such as liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) and their fenestrations. The fenestrations are nano-pores (50-200 nm) on the LSEC plasma membrane that allow free passage of molecules through cells. The fenestrated LSEC also hase a voracious appetite for waste molecules, viruses and nanoparticles. LSEC daily remove huge amounts of waste, nanoparticles and virus from the blood. Pharmaceuticals also need to pass through these fenestrations to be activated (e.g. cholesterol reducing statins) or detoxified by hepatocytes. And, when we age, our LSEC fenestrations become smaller and fewer. Today, we study these cells and structures using either conventional light microscopy on living cells, or high-resolution (but static) methods such as transmission and scanning electron microscopy on fixed (i.e. dead) tissue. Such methods, while very powerful, yield no real time information about the uptake of virus or nanoparticles, nor any information about fenestration dynamics. Therefore, to study LS-SEC, we are now using optical nanoscopy methods, and developing our own, to map their functions in 4 dimensions. Attaining this goal will shed new light on the cell biology of the liver and how it keeps us alive. This paper describes the challenges of studying LS-SEC with light microscopy, as well as current and potential solutions to this challenge using optical nanoscopy.

  3. Efficacy of liver graft washout as a function of the perfusate, pressure, and temperature.

    PubMed

    Post, Ivo C J H; Dirkes, Marcel C; Heger, Michal; Verheij, Joanne; de Bruin, Kora M; de Korte, Dirk; Bennink, Roelof J; van Gulik, Thomas M

    2013-08-01

    Donor graft washout can be impaired by colloids in organ preservation solutions that increase the viscosity and agglutinative propensity of red blood cells (RBCs) and potentially decrease organ function. The colloid-induced agglutinative effects on RBCs and RBC retention after liver washout with Ringer's lactate (RL), histidine tryptophan ketoglutarate solution, University of Wisconsin solution, and Polysol were determined as a function of the washout pressure (15 or 100 mm Hg) and temperature (4 or 37°C) in a rat liver washout model with (99m) Tc-pertechnetate-labeled RBCs. Colloids (polyethylene glycol in Polysol and hydroxyethyl starch in University of Wisconsin) induced RBC agglutination, regardless of the solution's composition. RL was associated with the lowest degree of (99m) Tc-pertechnetate-labeled RBC retention after simultaneous arterial and portal washout at 37°C and 100 mm Hg. RL washout was also associated with the shortest washout time. A single portal washout with any of the solutions did not result in differences in the degree of RBC retention, regardless of the temperature or pressure. In conclusion, no differences were found in portal washout efficacy between colloidal solutions, histidine tryptophan ketoglutarate, and RL. Simultaneous arterial and portal washout with RL at 37°C and 100 mm Hg resulted in the least RBC retention and the shortest washout time. PMID:23696414

  4. Effects of high-salinity seawater acclimation on the levels of d-alanine in the muscle and hepatopancreas of kuruma prawn, Marsupenaeus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Naoko; Yokoyama, Masahumi

    2015-12-10

    Changes in d- and l-alanine contents were determined in the muscle and hepatopancreas of kuruma prawn Marsupenaeus japonicus, during acclimation from seawater containing 100% salinity to artificial seawater containing 150% salinity. In the hepatopancreas, contents of both amino acids increased by approximately threefold. The activity of alanine racemase, which catalyzes the interconversion of d- and l-alanine, also increased in the high-salinity seawater. In addition, the expression of the gene encoding alanine racemase increased in the hepatopancreas with an increase in the alanine racemase activity. These data indicate that the biosynthesis of d- and l-alanine is controlled by the gene expression level of alanine racemase, and d-alanine in the hepatopancreas functions as a major osmolyte for isosmotic regulation. In contrast, the content of d-alanine and alanine racemase activity did not change in the muscle during hyper-osmotic acclimation. Therefore, we suggest that d-alanine, which exists in the several tissues of M. japonicus, is considered to be utilized in some different physiological phenomena in different tissues. PMID:26025417

  5. From the Cover: Cell-replacement therapy for diabetes: Generating functional insulin-producing tissue from adult human liver cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapir, Tamar; Shternhall, Keren; Meivar-Levy, Irit; Blumenfeld, Tamar; Cohen, Hamutal; Skutelsky, Ehud; Eventov-Friedman, Smadar; Barshack, Iris; Goldberg, Iris; Pri-Chen, Sarah; Ben-Dor, Lya; Polak-Charcon, Sylvie; Karasik, Avraham; Shimon, Ilan; Mor, Eytan; Ferber, Sarah

    2005-05-01

    Shortage in tissue availability from cadaver donors and the need for life-long immunosuppression severely restrict the large-scale application of cell-replacement therapy for diabetic patients. This study suggests the potential use of adult human liver as alternate tissue for autologous beta-cell-replacement therapy. By using pancreatic and duodenal homeobox gene 1 (PDX-1) and soluble factors, we induced a comprehensive developmental shift of adult human liver cells into functional insulin-producing cells. PDX-1-treated human liver cells express insulin, store it in defined granules, and secrete the hormone in a glucose-regulated manner. When transplanted under the renal capsule of diabetic, immunodeficient mice, the cells ameliorated hyperglycemia for prolonged periods of time. Inducing developmental redirection of adult liver offers the potential of a cell-replacement therapy for diabetics by allowing the patient to be the donor of his own insulin-producing tissue. pancreas | transdifferentiation

  6. Contribution and Mobilization of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a mouse model of carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Yang, Xue; Jing, Yingying; Zhang, Shanshan; Zong, Chen; Jiang, Jinghua; Sun, Kai; Li, Rong; Gao, Lu; Zhao, Xue; Wu, Dong; Shi, Yufang; Han, Zhipeng; Wei, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is associated with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). In this study, we aimed to determine what role MSCs play in the process and how they mobilize from bone marrow (BM). We employed a mouse model of carbon tetrachloride(CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis. Frozen section was used to detect MSCs recruited to mice and human fibrotic liver. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was detected to assess liver function. It was found that MSCs of both exogenous and endogenous origin could aggravate liver fibrosis and attenuate liver damage as indicated by lower serum ALT and AST levels. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1?)/ CXCR4 was the most important chemotactic axis regulating MSCs migration from BM to fibrotic liver. Frozen section results showed that the migration did not start from the beginning of liver injury but occured when the expression balance of SDF-1? between liver and BM was disrupted, where SDF-1? expression in liver was higher than that in BM. Our findings provide further evidence to show the role of BM-MSCs in liver fibrosis and to elucidate the mechanism underlying MSCs mobilization in our early liver fibrosis mice model induced by CCl4. PMID:26643997

  7. Contribution and Mobilization of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a mouse model of carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Yang, Xue; Jing, Yingying; Zhang, Shanshan; Zong, Chen; Jiang, Jinghua; Sun, Kai; Li, Rong; Gao, Lu; Zhao, Xue; Wu, Dong; Shi, Yufang; Han, Zhipeng; Wei, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is associated with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). In this study, we aimed to determine what role MSCs play in the process and how they mobilize from bone marrow (BM). We employed a mouse model of carbon tetrachloride(CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis. Frozen section was used to detect MSCs recruited to mice and human fibrotic liver. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was detected to assess liver function. It was found that MSCs of both exogenous and endogenous origin could aggravate liver fibrosis and attenuate liver damage as indicated by lower serum ALT and AST levels. Stromal cell–derived factor-1 (SDF-1?)/ CXCR4 was the most important chemotactic axis regulating MSCs migration from BM to fibrotic liver. Frozen section results showed that the migration did not start from the beginning of liver injury but occured when the expression balance of SDF-1? between liver and BM was disrupted, where SDF-1? expression in liver was higher than that in BM. Our findings provide further evidence to show the role of BM-MSCs in liver fibrosis and to elucidate the mechanism underlying MSCs mobilization in our early liver fibrosis mice model induced by CCl4. PMID:26643997

  8. The standard amino acids alanine ala A

    E-print Network

    Guevara-Vasquez, Fernando

    that the amino-acid sequences of proteins must be specified by the sequence of nucleotide bases in the DNAThe standard amino acids alanine ala A cysteine cys C aspartic acid asp D glutamic acid glu E's the mapping from nucleotide triplets in DNA sequences (via messenger RNA) to individual amino acids

  9. 21 CFR 582.5118 - Alanine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alanine. 582.5118 Section 582.5118 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5118 - Alanine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alanine. 582.5118 Section 582.5118 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  11. Recent insights into the biological functions of liver fatty acid binding protein 1.

    PubMed

    Wang, GuQi; Bonkovsky, Herbert L; de Lemos, Andrew; Burczynski, Frank J

    2015-12-01

    Over four decades have passed since liver fatty acid binding protein (FABP)1 was first isolated. There are few protein families for which most of the complete tertiary structures, binding properties, and tissue occurrences are described in such detail and yet new functions are being uncovered for this protein. FABP1 is known to be critical for fatty acid uptake and intracellular transport and also has an important role in regulating lipid metabolism and cellular signaling pathways. FABP1 is an important endogenous cytoprotectant, minimizing hepatocyte oxidative damage and interfering with ischemia-reperfusion and other hepatic injuries. The protein may be targeted for metabolic activation through the cross-talk among many transcriptional factors and their activating ligands. Deficiency or malfunction of FABP1 has been reported in several diseases. FABP1 also influences cell proliferation during liver regeneration and may be considered as a prognostic factor for hepatic surgery. FABP1 binds and modulates the action of many molecules such as fatty acids, heme, and other metalloporphyrins. The ability to bind heme is another cytoprotective property and one that deserves closer investigation. The role of FABP1 in substrate availability and in protection from oxidative stress suggests that FABP1 plays a pivotal role during intracellular bacterial/viral infections by reducing inflammation and the adverse effects of starvation (energy deficiency). PMID:26443794

  12. Analysis of Common and Specific Mechanisms of Liver Function Affected by Nitrotoluene Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Youping; Meyer, Sharon A.; Guan, Xin; Escalon, Barbara Lynn; Ai, Junmei; Wilbanks, Mitchell S.; Welti, Ruth; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Perkins, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Nitrotoluenes are widely used chemical manufacturing and munitions applications. This group of chemicals has been shown to cause a range of effects from anemia and hypercholesterolemia to testicular atrophy. We have examined the molecular and functional effects of five different, but structurally related, nitrotoluenes on using an integrative systems biology approach to gain insight into common and disparate mechanisms underlying effects caused by these chemicals. Methodology/Principal Findings Sprague-Dawley female rats were exposed via gavage to one of five concentrations of one of five nitrotoluenes [2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2ADNT) 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoulene (4ADNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4DNT) and 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6DNT)] with necropsy and tissue collection at 24 or 48 h. Gene expression profile results correlated well with clinical data and liver histopathology that lead to the concept that hematotoxicity was followed by hepatotoxicity. Overall, 2,4DNT, 2,6DNT and TNT had stronger effects than 2ADNT and 4ADNT. Common functional terms, gene expression patterns, pathways and networks were regulated across all nitrotoluenes. These pathways included NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response, aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling, LPS/IL-1 mediated inhibition of RXR function, xenobiotic metabolism signaling and metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450. One biological process common to all compounds, lipid metabolism, was found to be impacted both at the transcriptional and lipid production level. Conclusions/Significance A systems biology strategy was used to identify biochemical pathways affected by five nitroaromatic compounds and to integrate data that tie biochemical alterations to pathological changes. An integrative graphical network model was constructed by combining genomic, gene pathway, lipidomic, and physiological endpoint results to better understand mechanisms of liver toxicity and physiological endpoints affected by these compounds. PMID:21346803

  13. Elevated ATF4 function in fibroblasts and liver of slow-aging mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiquan; Miller, Richard A

    2015-03-01

    Work in yeast has shown that longevity extension induced by nutrient deprivation, altered ribosomal function, or diminished target of rapamycin action requires the activity of GCN4. We hypothesized that increased activity of ATF4, the mammalian equivalent of yeast GCN4, might be characteristic of mutations that extend mouse life span. Fibroblasts from the skin of two such mutants (Snell dwarf and PAPP-A knockout) were found to have higher levels of ATF4 protein and expression of several ATF4 target genes in responses to amino acid withdrawal, cadmium, hydrogen peroxide, and tunicamycin. ATF4 pathways were also elevated in liver of both kinds of long-lived mutant mice. Thus, a connection between ATF4 pathways and longevity may have deep evolutionary roots, and further studies of ATF4 mechanisms may provide insights into the links between cellular stress resistance, protein translation control, and aging. PMID:24691093

  14. Functional and genetic deconstruction of the cellular origin in liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Marquardt, Jens U; Andersen, Jesper B; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S

    2015-10-23

    During the past decade, research on primary liver cancers has particularly highlighted the uncommon plasticity of differentiated parenchymal liver cells (that is, hepatocytes and cholangiocytes (also known as biliary epithelial cells)), the role of liver progenitor cells in malignant transformation, the importance of the tumour microenvironment and the molecular complexity of liver tumours. Whereas other reviews have focused on the landscape of genetic alterations that promote development and progression of primary liver cancers and the role of the tumour microenvironment, the crucial importance of the cellular origin of liver cancer has been much less explored. Therefore, in this Review, we emphasize the importance and complexity of the cellular origin in tumour initiation and progression, and attempt to integrate this aspect with recent discoveries in tumour genomics and the contribution of the disrupted hepatic microenvironment to liver carcinogenesis. PMID:26493646

  15. Prospective Randomized Trial Comparing Hepatic Venous Outflow and Renal Function after Conventional versus Piggyback Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Brescia, Marília D’Elboux Guimarães; Massarollo, Paulo Celso Bosco; Imakuma, Ernesto Sasaki; Mies, Sérgio

    2015-01-01

    Background This randomized prospective clinical trial compared the hepatic venous outflow drainage and renal function after conventional with venovenous bypass (n = 15) or piggyback (n = 17) liver transplantation. Methods Free hepatic vein pressure (FHVP) and central venous pressure (CVP) measurements were performed after graft reperfusion. Postoperative serum creatinine (Cr) was measured daily on the first week and on the 14th, 21st and 28th postoperative days (PO). The prevalence of acute renal failure (ARF) up to the 28th PO was analyzed by RIFLE-AKIN criteria. A Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) approach was used for comparison of longitudinal measurements of renal function. Results FHVP-CVP gradient > 3 mm Hg was observed in 26.7% (4/15) of the patients in the conventional group and in 17.6% (3/17) in the piggyback group (p = 0.68). Median FHVP-CVP gradient was 2 mm Hg (0–8 mmHg) vs. 3 mm Hg (0–7 mm Hg) in conventional and piggyback groups, respectively (p = 0.73). There is no statistically significant difference between the conventional (1/15) and the piggyback (2/17) groups regarding massive ascites development (p = 1.00). GEE estimated marginal mean for Cr was significantly higher in conventional than in piggyback group (2.14 ± 0.26 vs. 1.47 ± 0.15 mg/dL; p = 0.02). The conventional method presented a higher prevalence of severe ARF during the first 28 PO days (OR = 3.207; 95% CI, 1.010 to 10.179; p = 0.048). Conclusion Patients submitted to liver transplantation using conventional or piggyback methods present similar results regarding venous outflow drainage of the graft. Conventional with venovenous bypass technique significantly increases the harm of postoperative renal dysfunction. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01707810 PMID:26115520

  16. Effects of crystalloids and colloids on liver and intestine microcirculation and function in cecal ligation and puncture induced septic rodents

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Septic acute liver and intestinal failure is associated with a high mortality. We therefore investigated the influence of volume resuscitation with different crystalloid or colloid solutions on liver and intestine injury and microcirculation in septic rodents. Methods Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in 77 male rats. Animals were treated with different crystalloids (NaCl 0.9% (NaCl), Ringer’s acetate (RA)) or colloids (Gelafundin 4% (Gel), 6% HES 130/0.4 (HES)). After 24 h animals were re-anesthetized and intestinal (n?=?6/group) and liver microcirculation (n?=?6/group) were obtained using intravital microscopy, as well as macrohemodynamic parameters were measured. Blood assays and organs were harvested to determine organ function and injury. Results HES improved liver microcirculation, cardiac index and DO2-I, but significantly increased IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-? levels and resulted in a mortality rate of 33%. Gel infused animals revealed significant reduction of liver and intestine microcirculation with severe side effects on coagulation (significantly increased PTT and INR, decreased haemoglobin and platelet count). Furthermore Gel showed severe hypoglycemia, acidosis and significantly increased ALT and IL-6 with a lethality of 29%. RA exhibited no derangements in liver microcirculation when compared to sham and HES. RA showed no intestinal microcirculation disturbance compared to sham, but significantly improved the number of intestinal capillaries with flow compared to HES. All RA treated animals survided and showed no severe side effects on coagulation, liver, macrohemodynamic or metabolic state. Conclusions Gelatine 4% revealed devastated hepatic and intestinal microcirculation and severe side effects in CLP induced septic rats, whereas the balanced crystalloid solution showed stabilization of macro- and microhemodynamics with improved survival. HES improved liver microcirculation, but exhibited significantly increased pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Crystalloid infusion revealed best results in mortality and microcirculation, when compared with colloid infusion. PMID:23245375

  17. A GWAS Study on Liver Function Test Using eMERGE Network Participants

    PubMed Central

    Namjou, Bahram; Marsolo, Keith; Lingren, Todd; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Verma, Shefali S.; Cobb, Beth L.; Perry, Cassandra; Kitchner, Terrie E.; Brilliant, Murray H.; Peissig, Peggy L.; Borthwick, Kenneth M.; Williams, Marc S.; Grafton, Jane; Jarvik, Gail P.; Holm, Ingrid A.; Harley, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Liver enzyme levels and total serum bilirubin are under genetic control and in recent years genome-wide population-based association studies have identified different susceptibility loci for these traits. We conducted a genome-wide association study in European ancestry participants from the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network dataset of patient medical records with available genotyping data in order to identify genetic contributors to variability in serum bilirubin levels and other liver function tests and to compare the effects between adult and pediatric populations. Methods The process of whole genome imputation of eMERGE samples with standard quality control measures have been described previously. After removing missing data and outliers based on principal components (PC) analyses, 3294 samples from European ancestry were used for the GWAS study. The association between each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and total serum bilirubin and other liver function tests was tested using linear regression, adjusting for age, gender, site, platform and ancestry principal components (PC). Results Consistent with previous results, a strong association signal has been detected for UGT1A gene cluster (best SNP rs887829, beta = 0.15, p = 1.30x10-118) for total serum bilirubin level. Indeed, in this region more than 176 SNPs (or indels) had p<10?8 spanning 150Kb on the long arm of chromosome 2q37.1. In addition, we found a similar level of magnitude in a pediatric group (p = 8.26x10-47, beta = 0.17). Further imputation using sequencing data as a reference panel revealed association of other markers including known TA7 repeat indels (rs8175347) (p = 9.78x10-117) and rs111741722 (p = 5.41x10-119) which were in proxy (r2 = 0.99) with rs887829. Among rare variants, two Asian subjects homozygous for coding SNP rs4148323 (G71R) were identified. Additional known effects for total serum bilirubin were also confirmed including organic anion transporters SLCO1B1-SLCO1B3, TDRP and ZMYND8 at FDR<0.05 with no gene-gene interaction effects. Phenome-wide association studies (PheWAS) suggest a protective effect of TA7 repeat against cerebrovascular disease in an adult cohort (OR = 0.75, p = 0.0008). Among other liver function tests, we also confirmed the previous effect of the ABO blood group locus for variation in serum alkaline phosphatase (rs579459, p = 9.44x10-15). Conclusions Taken together, our data present interesting findings with strong confirmation of previous effects by simply using the eMERGE electronic health record phenotyping. In addition, our findings indicate that similar to the adult population, the UGT1A1 is the main locus responsible for normal variation of serum bilirubin in pediatric populations. PMID:26413716

  18. Safety and pharmacology of paclitaxel in patients with impaired liver function: a population pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic study

    PubMed Central

    Joerger, M; Huitema, A D R; Huizing, M T; Willemse, P H B; de Graeff, A; Rosing, H; Schellens, J H M; Beijnen, J H; Vermorken, J B

    2007-01-01

    What is already known about this subject There are few data about the safety of paclitaxel in patients with clinically significant liver impairment. A study by Venook and colleagues (J Clin Oncol 1998; 16: 1811–19) studied paclitaxel pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) in patients with liver impairment. The results were mainly descriptive, as detailed PK–PD data were available for only a subgroup of patients. Another study by Wilson and colleagues found a correlation between tumour involvement of the liver, aspartate aminotransferase and total bilirubin concentrations and reduced paclitaxel clearance in 48 patients with advanced breast cancer in an early combined Phase I/II study (J Clin Oncol 1994; 12: 1621–9). Finally, the study by Huizing and colleagues (Ann Oncol 1995; 6: 699–704) described two advanced breast cancer patients with liver impairment who experienced higher paclitaxel AUC concentrations and more severe neuropathywhen exposed to paclitaxel 250 mg m?2 as a 3-h infusion. Liver impairment has been studied as a covariate within population models of paclitaxel in patients with normal or mildly impaired liver function (Henningsson et al. Eur JCancer 2003; 39: 1105–14; Joerger et al. Clin Cancer Res 2006; 12: 2150–7). Both studies found a negative correlation between total bilirubin concentrations and paclitaxel elimination. What this study adds A direct relationship between liver impairment, paclitaxel elimination and susceptibility to neutropenia/thrombopenia. As a result of PK–PD simulations, suggestions could be made for (further) dose adaptations for patients with more severe liver impairment. Aims To assess quantitatively the safety and pharmacology of paclitaxel in patients with moderate to severe hepatic impairment. Methods Solid tumour patients were enrolled into five liver function cohorts as defined by liver transaminase and total bilirubin concentrations. Paclitaxel was administered as a 3-h intravenous infusion at doses ranging from 110 to 175 mg m?2, depending on liver impairment. Covariate and semimechanistic pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic (PK–PD) population modelling was used to describe the impact of liver impairment on the pharmacology and safety of paclitaxel. Results Thirty-five patients were included in the study, and PK data were assessed for 59 treatment courses. Most patients had advanced breast cancer (n = 22). Objective responses to paclitaxel were seen in four patients (11%). Patients in higher categories of liver impairment had a significantly lower paclitaxel elimination capacity (R2 = ?0.38, P = 0.05), and total bilirubin was a significant covariate to predict decreased elimination capacity with population modelling (P = 0.002). Total bilirubin was also a significant predictor of increased haematological toxicity within the integrated population PK–PD model (P < 10?4). Data simulations were used to calculate safe initial paclitaxel doses, which were lower than the administered doses for liver impairment cohorts III–V. Conclusions Total bilirubin is a good predictor of paclitaxel elimination capacity and of individual susceptibility to paclitaxel-related myelosuppression in cancer patients with moderate to severe liver impairment. The proposed, adapted paclitaxel doses need validation in prospective trials. PMID:17935602

  19. Cryo-chemical decellularization of the whole liver for mesenchymal stem cells-based functional hepatic tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei-Cheng; Cheng, Yu-Hao; Yen, Meng-Hua; Chang, Yin; Yang, Vincent W; Lee, Oscar K

    2014-04-01

    Liver transplantation is the ultimate treatment for severe hepatic failure to date. However, the limited supply of donor organs has severely hampered this treatment. So far, great potentials of using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to replenish the hepatic cell population have been shown; nevertheless, there still is a lack of an optimal three-dimensional scaffold for generation of well-transplantable hepatic tissues. In this study, we utilized a cryo-chemical decellularization method which combines physical and chemical approach to generate acellular liver scaffolds (ALS) from the whole liver. The produced ALS provides a biomimetic three-dimensional environment to support hepatic differentiation of MSCs, evidenced by expression of hepatic-associated genes and marker protein, glycogen storage, albumin secretion, and urea production. It is also found that hepatic differentiation of MSCs within the ALS is much more efficient than two-dimensional culture in vitro. Importantly, the hepatic-like tissues (HLT) generated by repopulating ALS with MSCs are able to act as functional grafts and rescue lethal hepatic failure after transplantation in vivo. In summary, the cryo-chemical method used in this study is suitable for decellularization of liver and create acellular scaffolds that can support hepatic differentiation of MSCs and be used to fabricate functional tissue-engineered liver constructs. PMID:24462361

  20. Cryo-chemical decellularization of the whole liver for mesenchymal stem cells-based functional hepatic tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei-Cheng; Cheng, Yu-Hao; Yen, Meng-Hua; Chang, Yin; Yang, Vincent W.; Lee, Oscar K.

    2015-01-01

    Liver transplantation is the ultimate treatment for severe hepatic failure to date. However, the limited supply of donor organs has severely hampered this treatment. So far, great potentials of using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to replenish the hepatic cell population have been shown; nevertheless, there still is a lack of an optimal three-dimensional scaffold for generation of well-transplantable hepatic tissues. In this study, we utilized a cryo-chemical decellularization method which combines physical and chemical approach to generate acellular liver scaffolds (ALS) from the whole liver. The produced ALS provides a biomimetic three-dimensional environment to support hepatic differentiation of MSCs, evidenced by expression of hepatic-associated genes and marker protein, glycogen storage, albumin secretion, and urea production. It is also found that hepatic differentiation of MSCs within the ALS is much more efficient than two-dimensional culture in vitro. Importantly, the hepatic-like tissues (HLT) generated by repopulating ALS with MSCs are able to act as functional grafts and rescue lethal hepatic failure after transplantation in vivo. In summary, the cryo-chemical method used in this study is suitable for decellularization of liver and create acellular scaffolds that can support hepatic differentiation of MSCs and be used to fabricate functional tissue-engineered liver constructs. PMID:24462361

  1. Functional Analysis of the Unique Cytochrome P450 of the Liver Fluke Opisthorchis felineus

    PubMed Central

    Pakharukova, Mariya Y.; Vavilin, Valentin A.; Sripa, Banchob; Laha, Thewarach; Brindley, Paul J.; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A.

    2015-01-01

    The basic metabolic cytochrome P450 (CYP) system is essential for biotransformation of sterols and xenobiotics including drugs, for synthesis and degradation of signaling molecules in all living organisms. Most eukaryotes including free-living flatworms have numerous paralogues of the CYP gene encoding heme monooxygenases with specific substrate range. Notably, by contrast, the parasitic flatworms have only one CYP gene. The role of this enzyme in the physiology and biochemistry of helminths is not known. The flukes and tapeworms are the etiologic agents of major neglected tropical diseases of humanity. Three helminth infections (Opisthorchis viverrini, Clonorchis sinensis and Schistosoma haematobium) are considered by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as definite causes of cancer. We focused our research on the human liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus, an emerging source of biliary tract disease including bile duct cancer in Russia and central Europe. The aims of this study were (i) to determine the significance of the CYP activity for the morphology and survival of the liver fluke, (ii) to assess CYP ability to metabolize xenobiotics, and (iii) to localize the CYP activity in O. felineus tissues. We observed high constitutive expression of CYP mRNA (Real-time PCR) in O. felineus. This enzyme metabolized xenobiotics selective for mammalian CYP2E1, CYP2B, CYP3A, but not CYP1A, as determined by liquid chromatography and imaging analyses. Tissue localization studies revealed the CYP activity in excretory channels, while suppression of CYP mRNA by RNA interference was accompanied by morphological changes of the excretory system and increased mortality rates of the worms. These results suggest that the CYP function is linked to worm metabolism and detoxification. The findings also suggest that the CYP enzyme is involved in vitally important processes in the organism of parasites and is a potential drug target. PMID:26625139

  2. Functional Analysis of the Unique Cytochrome P450 of the Liver Fluke Opisthorchis felineus.

    PubMed

    Pakharukova, Mariya Y; Vavilin, Valentin A; Sripa, Banchob; Laha, Thewarach; Brindley, Paul J; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A

    2015-12-01

    The basic metabolic cytochrome P450 (CYP) system is essential for biotransformation of sterols and xenobiotics including drugs, for synthesis and degradation of signaling molecules in all living organisms. Most eukaryotes including free-living flatworms have numerous paralogues of the CYP gene encoding heme monooxygenases with specific substrate range. Notably, by contrast, the parasitic flatworms have only one CYP gene. The role of this enzyme in the physiology and biochemistry of helminths is not known. The flukes and tapeworms are the etiologic agents of major neglected tropical diseases of humanity. Three helminth infections (Opisthorchis viverrini, Clonorchis sinensis and Schistosoma haematobium) are considered by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as definite causes of cancer. We focused our research on the human liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus, an emerging source of biliary tract disease including bile duct cancer in Russia and central Europe. The aims of this study were (i) to determine the significance of the CYP activity for the morphology and survival of the liver fluke, (ii) to assess CYP ability to metabolize xenobiotics, and (iii) to localize the CYP activity in O. felineus tissues. We observed high constitutive expression of CYP mRNA (Real-time PCR) in O. felineus. This enzyme metabolized xenobiotics selective for mammalian CYP2E1, CYP2B, CYP3A, but not CYP1A, as determined by liquid chromatography and imaging analyses. Tissue localization studies revealed the CYP activity in excretory channels, while suppression of CYP mRNA by RNA interference was accompanied by morphological changes of the excretory system and increased mortality rates of the worms. These results suggest that the CYP function is linked to worm metabolism and detoxification. The findings also suggest that the CYP enzyme is involved in vitally important processes in the organism of parasites and is a potential drug target. PMID:26625139

  3. The protective function of galectin-9 in liver ischemia and reperfusion injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Hirao, Hirofumi; Uchida, Yoichiro; Kadono, Kentaro; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Niki, Toshiro; Yamauchi, Akira; Hata, Koichiro; Watanabe, Takeshi; Terajima, Hiroaki; Uemoto, Shinji

    2015-07-01

    Galectin-9 (Gal-9) has gained attention as a multifaceted player in adaptive and innate immunity. To elucidate the role of Gal-9, we used a mouse model of partial liver ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) with wild type (WT) and Gal-9 knockout (KO) mice as well as a recombinant galectin-9 (reGal-9) protein. We found that the expression of Gal-9 was enhanced endogenously in the liver especially by hepatocytes and Kupffer cells during warm IRI for a mouse liver, which causes massive destruction of liver tissue. Gal-9 was released into the extracellular space in the liver and the highest levels in the plasma at 1 hour after reperfusion. The present study elucidates a novel role of Gal-9 signaling in mouse liver IRI, by using Gal-9-deficient mice and a stable form of reGal-9 protein. In the circumstance of Gal-9 absence, liver damage due to ischemia/reperfusion (IR) exacerbated the severity as compared with WT. On the other hand, exogenously administered reGal-9 significantly ameliorated hepatocellular damage. It decreased the local infiltration of the inflammatory cells such as T cells, neutrophils, and macrophages, and it reduced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines; then, it strongly suppressed the apoptosis of the liver cells. Interestingly, severe liver damage due to IR in Gal-9 KO mice was improved by the administration of reGal-9. In conclusion, Gal-9 engagement ameliorated local inflammation and liver damage induced by IR, and the present study suggests a significant role of Gal-9 in the maintenance of hepatic homeostasis. In conclusion, targeting Gal-9 represents a novel approach to protect from inflammation such as liver IRI. Exogenous Gal-9 treatment will be a new therapeutic strategy against innate immunity-dominated liver tissue damage. PMID:25931247

  4. Estradiol affects liver mitochondrial function in ovariectomized and tamoxifen-treated ovariectomized female rats

    SciTech Connect

    Moreira, Paula I.; Custodio, Jose B.A.; Nunes, Elsa; Moreno, Antonio; Seica, Raquel; Oliveira, Catarina R.; Santos, Maria S. . E-mail: mssantos@ci.uc.pt

    2007-05-15

    Given the tremendous importance of mitochondria to basic cellular functions as well as the critical role of mitochondrial impairment in a vast number of disorders, a compelling question is whether 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) modulates mitochondrial function. To answer this question we exposed isolated liver mitochondria to E2. Three groups of rat females were used: control, ovariectomized and ovariectomized treated with tamoxifen. Tamoxifen has antiestrogenic effects in the breast tissue and is the standard endocrine treatment for women with breast cancer. However, under certain circumstances and in certain tissues, tamoxifen can also exert estrogenic agonist properties. We observed that at basal conditions, ovariectomy and tamoxifen treatment do not induce any statistical alteration in oxidative phosphorylation system and respiratory chain parameters. Furthermore, tamoxifen treatment increases the capacity of mitochondria to accumulate Ca{sup 2+} delaying the opening of the permeability transition pore. The presence of 25 {mu}M E2 impairs respiration and oxidative phosphorylation system these effects being similar in all groups of animals studied. Curiously, E2 protects against lipid peroxidation and increases the production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in energized mitochondria of control females. Our results indicate that E2 has in general deleterious effects that lead to mitochondrial impairment. Since mitochondrial dysfunction is a triggering event of cell degeneration and death, the use of exogenous E2 must be carefully considered.

  5. Plasma proteolytic activity in liver transplant rejection.

    PubMed

    Scholz, T; Gallimore, M J; Bäckman, L; Mathisen, O; Bergan, A; Klintmalm, G B; Aasen, A O

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the role of proteolytic enzymes belonging to the coagulation, fibrinolytic, and plasma contact systems in the early postoperative phase after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Twenty-nine patients were studied at the time of OLT and during the first 2 postoperative weeks. Blood samples were collected daily after OLT and analyzed for kallikrein-like activity (KK), functional kallikrein inhibition (KKI), plasmin-like activity (PL), and alpha2-antiplasmin (AP). In addition, prekallikrein (PKK), prothrombin (PTH), antithrombin III (AT III), plasminogen (PLG), prothrombin/antithrombin III complexes (TAT), prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (F1 + 2), and plasmin/alpha2-antiplasmin complexes (PAP) were measured. Nineteen patients experienced biopsy-verified acute rejections (AR) and ten patients had uneventful courses and served as controls. Plasma analyses showed that the contact, coagulation, and fibrinolytic systems were activated during OLT. Following OLT, continuous thrombin and plasmin generation was observed, and these effects were more pronounced in the group having an uneventful course than in patients with AR. Factors that could possibly affect plasma proteolytic activity, such as blood product usage during and after OLT and cold ischemia time of the liver graft, did not differ between the groups, nor did the routine liver function tests, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). PMID:10363591

  6. Myofibroblastic Cells Function as Progenitors to Regenerate Murine Livers after Partial Hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Swiderska-Syn, M; Syn, WK; Xie, G; Krüger, L; Machado, MV; Karaca, G; Michelotti, GA; Choi, SS; Premont, RT; Diehl, AM

    2013-01-01

    Objective Smoothened (SMO), a co-receptor of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway, promotes fibrogenic repair of chronic liver injury. We investigated the roles of SMO+ myofibroblasts (MF) in liver regeneration by conditional deletion of SMO in ?SMA+ cells after partial hepatectomy (PH). Design ?SMA-Cre-ERT2×SMO/flox mice were treated with vehicle (Veh) or tamoxifen (TMX), and sacrificed 24 to 96 hrs post-PH. Regenerating livers were analyzed for proliferation, progenitors, and fibrosis by qRT-PCR and quantitative-IHC. Results were normalized to liver-segments resected at PH. For lineage-tracing studies, ?SMA-Cre-ERT2×ROSA-Stop-flox-YFP mice were treated with Veh or TMX; livers were stained for YFP, and hepatocytes isolated 48 and 72 hrs post-PH were analysed for YFP by FACS. Results Post-PH, Veh-?SMA-SMO mice increased expression of Hh-genes, transiently accumulated MF, fibrosis, and liver progenitors, and ultimately exhibited proliferation of hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. In contrast, TMX-?SMA-SMO mice showed loss of whole liver SMO expression, repression of Hh-genes, enhanced accumulation of quiescent HSC but reduced accumulation of MF, fibrosis, and progenitors, as well as inhibition of hepatocyte and cholangiocyte proliferation, and reduced recovery of liver weight. In TMX-?SMA-YFP mice, many progenitors, cholangiocytes, and up to 25% of hepatocytes were YFP+ by 48-72 h after PH, indicating that liver epithelial cells were derived from ?SMA-YFP+cells. Conclusion Hedgehog signaling promotes transition of quiescent hepatic stellate cells to fibrogenic MF, some of which become progenitors that regenerate the liver epithelial compartment after PH. Hence, scarring is a component of successful liver regeneration. PMID:24173292

  7. Alterations in Enzymatic Functions in Hepatocytes and Hepatocellular Carcinomas From Ras-Transduced Livers

    E-print Network

    Ponder, Katherine P.

    -Transduced Livers Resemble the Effects of Insulin RACHEL V. PEARLINE,1,2 YUE-ZHEN LIN,1,2 KATHERINE J. SHEN,1 AND KATHERINE PARKER PONDER 1,2 Neoplastic transformation of the liver is caused by the acti-An understanding

  8. Liver Failure in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bacak, Stephen J; Thornburg, Loralei L

    2016-01-01

    Acute liver failure is a rare but life-threatening medical emergency in pregnancy whose true incidence remains unknown. Many cases of acute liver failure are caused by pregnancy-related conditions such as acute fatty liver of pregnancy and HELLP syndrome. However, acute deterioration in liver function can also be caused by drug overdose, viral infections, and an exacerbation of underlying chronic liver disease. This article provides an overview of the normal liver changes that occur during pregnancy, and summarizes the most common conditions and general management strategies of liver failure during pregnancy. PMID:26600444

  9. Whole-liver radiotherapy for end-stage colorectal cancer patients with massive liver metastases and advanced hepatic dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To investigate whether whole-liver radiotherapy (RT) is beneficial in end-stage colorectal cancer with massive liver metastases and severe hepatic dysfunction. Methods Between June 2004 and July 2008, 10 colorectal cancer patients, who exhibited a replacement of over three quarters of their normal liver by metastatic tumors and were of Child-Pugh class B or C in liver function with progressive disease after undergoing chemotherapy, underwent whole-liver RT. RT was administered using computed tomography-based three-dimensional planning and the median dose was 21 Gy (range, 21-30) in seven fractions. Improvement in liver function tests, defined as a decrease in the levels within 1 month after RT, symptom palliation, toxicity, and overall survival were analyzed retrospectively. Results Levels of alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase improved in 8, 6, 9, and all 10 patients, respectively, and the median reduction rates were 42%, 68%, 50%, and 57%, respectively. Serum carcinoembryonic antigen level decreased after RT in three of four assessable patients. For all patients, pain levels decreased and acute toxicity consisted of nausea/vomiting of grade ? 2. Further chemotherapy became possible in four of 10 patients. Mean survival after RT was 80 ± 80 days (range, 20-289); mean survival for four patients who received post-RT chemotherapy was 143 ± 100 days (range, 65-289), versus 38 ± 16 days (range, 20-64) for the six patients who did not receive post-RT chemotherapy (p = 0.127). Conclusions Although limited by small case number, this study demonstrated a possible role of whole-liver RT in improving hepatic dysfunction and delaying mortality from hepatic failure for end-stage colorectal cancer patients with massive liver metastases. Further studies should be followed to confirm these findings. PMID:20977728

  10. Liver bioengineering

    PubMed Central

    Caralt, Mireia; Velasco, Enrique; Lanas, Angel; Baptista, Pedro M

    2014-01-01

    Liver bioengineering has been a field of intense research and popular excitement in the past decades. It experiences great interest since the introduction of whole liver acellular scaffolds generated by perfusion decellularization1–3. Nevertheless, the different strategies developed so far have failed to generate hepatic tissue in vitro bioequivalent to native liver tissue. Even notable novel strategies that rely on iPSC-derived liver progenitor cells potential to self-organize in association with endothelial cells in hepatic organoids are lacking critical components of the native tissue (e.g., bile ducts, functional vascular network, hepatic microarchitecture, etc)4. Hence, it is vital to understand the strengths and short comes of our current strategies in this quest to re-create liver organogenesis in vitro. To shed some light into these issues, this review describes the different actors that play crucial roles in liver organogenesis and highlights the steps still missing to successfully generate whole livers and hepatic organoids in vitro for multiple applications. PMID:25102189

  11. Induced pluripotent stem cell–derived hepatocytes have the functional and proliferative capabilities needed for liver regeneration in mice

    PubMed Central

    Espejel, Silvia; Roll, Garrett R.; McLaughlin, K. John; Lee, Andrew Y.; Zhang, Jenny Y.; Laird, Diana J.; Okita, Keisuke; Yamanaka, Shinya; Willenbring, Holger

    2010-01-01

    The ability to generate induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from a patient’s somatic cells has provided a foundation for organ regeneration without the need for immune suppression. However, it has not been established that the differentiated progeny of iPS cells can effectively reverse failure of a vital organ. Here, we examined whether iPS cell–derived hepatocytes have both the functional and proliferative capabilities needed for liver regeneration in mice with fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase deficiency. To avoid biases resulting from random genomic integration, we used iPS cells generated without viruses. To exclude compensation by hepatocytes not derived from iPS cells, we generated chimeric mice in which all hepatocytes were iPS cell derived. In vivo analyses showed that iPS cells were intrinsically able to differentiate into fully mature hepatocytes that provided full liver function. The iPS cell–derived hepatocytes also replicated the unique proliferative capabilities of normal hepatocytes and were able to regenerate the liver after transplantation and two-thirds partial hepatectomy. Thus, our results establish the feasibility of using iPS cells generated in a clinically acceptable fashion for rapid and stable liver regeneration. PMID:20739754

  12. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocytes have the functional and proliferative capabilities needed for liver regeneration in mice.

    PubMed

    Espejel, Silvia; Roll, Garrett R; McLaughlin, K John; Lee, Andrew Y; Zhang, Jenny Y; Laird, Diana J; Okita, Keisuke; Yamanaka, Shinya; Willenbring, Holger

    2010-09-01

    The ability to generate induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from a patient's somatic cells has provided a foundation for organ regeneration without the need for immune suppression. However, it has not been established that the differentiated progeny of iPS cells can effectively reverse failure of a vital organ. Here, we examined whether iPS cell-derived hepatocytes have both the functional and proliferative capabilities needed for liver regeneration in mice with fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase deficiency. To avoid biases resulting from random genomic integration, we used iPS cells generated without viruses. To exclude compensation by hepatocytes not derived from iPS cells, we generated chimeric mice in which all hepatocytes were iPS cell derived. In vivo analyses showed that iPS cells were intrinsically able to differentiate into fully mature hepatocytes that provided full liver function. The iPS cell-derived hepatocytes also replicated the unique proliferative capabilities of normal hepatocytes and were able to regenerate the liver after transplantation and two-thirds partial hepatectomy. Thus, our results establish the feasibility of using iPS cells generated in a clinically acceptable fashion for rapid and stable liver regeneration. PMID:20739754

  13. The effect of immunonutrition (glutamine, alanine) on fracture healing

    PubMed Central

    Küçükalp, Abdullah; Durak, Kemal; Bayyurt, Sarp; Sönmez, Gürsel; Bilgen, Muhammed S.

    2014-01-01

    Background There have been various studies related to fracture healing. Glutamine is an amino acid with an important role in many cell and organ functions. This study aimed to make a clinical, radiological, and histopathological evaluation of the effects of glutamine on fracture healing. Methods Twenty rabbits were randomly allocated into two groups of control and immunonutrition. A fracture of the fibula was made to the right hind leg. All rabbits received standard food and water. From post-operative first day for 30 days, the study group received an additional 2 ml/kg/day 20% L-alanine L-glutamine solution via a gastric catheter, and the control group received 2 ml/kg/day isotonic via gastric catheter. At the end of 30 days, the rabbits were sacrificed and the fractures were examined clinically, radiologically, and histopathologically in respect to the degree of union. Results Radiological evaluation of the control group determined a mean score of 2.5 according to the orthopaedists and 2.65 according to the radiologists. In the clinical evaluation, the mean score was 1.875 for the control group and 2.0 for the study group. Histopathological evaluation determined a mean score of 8.5 for the control group and 9.0 for the study group. Conclusion One month after orally administered glutamine–alanine, positive effects were observed on fracture healing radiologically, clinically, and histopathologically, although no statistically significant difference was determined.

  14. Effect of green tea extracts on liver functions in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Bun, S S; Bun, H; Guédon, D; Rosier, C; Ollivier, E

    2006-07-01

    An herbal medicinal product (Exolise) containing as active ingredient an hydro-alcoholic extract of green tea named AR25 (standardized to 25% catechins) has been implicated in hepatic failures, leading to the withdrawal of the marketing authorization. The active ingredient of Exolise being manufactured with 80% ethanol, the question to know whether the extraction solvent could introduce some toxic components was hypothesized. Two investigations were conducted in Wistar rats to determine if repeated oral administration of different green tea extracts could corroborate the reported hepatotoxicity in humans. In a preliminary 6 week-study, experimental groups (n=9/group) received either the vehicle or a methylene chloride extract (2500 mg/kg body weight) where potential non-polar hepatotoxin(s) could be concentrated. In a second experiment (12 week-study), rats were divided in three groups (n=10/group) and treated with either the vehicle, or an aqueous extract (1400 mg/kg) or AR25 green tea extract (2000 mg/kg). Rat liver functions were assessed by serum biochemistry of hepatotoxicity markers. No sign of evidence of characteristic hepatotoxicity was found in rats treated with very high amount of different green tea extracts in these two experiments (respectively a daily dosage, which was about 900 and 80 times higher to the therapeutic daily dosage of Exolise. PMID:16487645

  15. A dual-functionally modified chitosan derivative for efficient liver-targeted gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bo; Wang, Xiaoyu; Qiu, Zhiye; Ma, Jun; Zhou, Lei; Wan, Ying; Zhang, Shengmin

    2013-07-01

    Galactosylated chitosan-hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium (gal-HTCC) was synthesized by galactosylating and quaternizing chitosan to endue chitosan with targeting specificity for potential applications as gene vectors. The composition and physicochemical properties of gal-HTCC were characterized by FT-IR, (1) H NMR, elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction, and turbidity measurement. It was found that water-soluble gal-HTCC showed a more amorphous structure than chitosan, and it also had a much better plasmid condensation capability than galactosylated chitosan. Cytotoxicity measurements revealed that gal-HTCC showed significantly lower cytotoxicity in HepG2 and HeLa cell lines compared to branched polyethylenimine (bPEI, 25 kDa) which was used as a positive control. The nanoparticles (NPs) consisted of gal-HTCC and plasmid DNA had desirable particle size (around 250 nm) with a narrow size distribution. Confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed that NPs could be internalized and transported to the nucleus efficiently within 6 h. In vitro gene transfection results indicated that gal-HTCC had significantly higher transfection efficiency (7- to 32-fold) compared to chitosan and gal-chitosan for targetable delivery of pGL3 luciferase plasmid to HepG2, and its transfection efficiency was highly inhibited in the presence of galactose (20 mM). All these results suggest that gal-HTCC can function as a promising nonviral gene vector for efficient liver-targeted gene delivery. PMID:23203540

  16. Patterns and Predictors of Sexual Function After Liver Donation: the Adult to Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study (A2ALL)

    PubMed Central

    DiMartini, AF.; Dew, MA.; Butt, Z.; Simpson, MA.; Ladner, DP.; Smith, AR.; Hill-Callahan, P.; Gillespie, BW.

    2015-01-01

    Although sexual functioning is an important facet of living donor quality of life, it has not received extensive evaluation in this population. Using data from the Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study, we examined donor sexual functioning across the donation process from the predonation evaluation to 3 months and 1 year postdonation. Donors (n=208) and a comparison group of non-donors (n=155) completed self-reported surveys with specific questions on sexual desire, satisfaction, orgasm, and (for men) erectile function. Across the three time points, donor sexual functioning was lower at the evaluation phase and 3 months postdonation than at one year postdonation. In the early recovery period, abdominal pain was associated with difficulty reaching orgasm (OR = 3.98, 95% CI 1.30–12.16), concerns over appearance with lower sexual desire (OR = 4.14, 95% CI 1.02–16.79), and not feeling back to normal was associated with dissatisfaction with sexual life (OR 3.58, 95% CI 1.43–8.99). Efforts to educate donors before the surgery and prepare them for the early recovery phase may improve recovery and reduce distress regarding sexual functioning. PMID:25779554

  17. [Effect of mixed function oxidases on phthalophos transformation in rat liver].

    PubMed

    Voronina, V M; Popov, T A; Kagan, Iu S; Pis'mennaia, M V

    1981-01-01

    Phthalophos, organophosphoric pesticide, in the perfused isolated liver of rats transforms to water-soluble oxymethyl phthalimide and phthalimide. The induction of the liver hydroxylating enzymic system with milbex accelerates transformation of phthalophos: in 5 min only 14% of its initial amount is found in perfusate, while in the control--52%. The inhibition of the hydroxylating enzymic system with tetramethylthiuramdisulphide (dithiocarbamate pesticide) inhibits transformation of phthalophos: in 15 min perfusate contains 33% of its initial amount and the control--16%. Induction and inhibition of the hydroxylating enzymic system of the liver affect essentially the phthalophos toxicodynamics, decreasing the degree of the cholinesterase activity. PMID:7210220

  18. Zingiber officinale acts as a nutraceutical agent against liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background/objective Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger) (Zingiberaceae) has been cultivated for thousands of years both as a spice and for medicinal purposes. Ginger rhizomes successive extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol) were examined against liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. Results The evaluation was done through measuring antioxidant parameters; glutathione (GSH), total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Liver marker enzymes; succinate and lactate dehydrogenases (SDH and LDH), glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase), acid phosphatase (AP), 5'- nucleotidase (5'NT) and liver function enzymes; aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT) as well as cholestatic markers; alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), total bilirubin were estimated. Liver histopathological analysis and collagen content were also evaluated. Treatments with the selected extracts significantly increased GSH, SOD, SDH, LDH, G-6-Pase, AP and 5'NT. However, MDA, AST, ALT ALP, GGT and total bilirubin were significantly decreased. Conclusions Extracts of ginger, particularly the ethanol one resulted in an attractive candidate for the treatment of liver fibrosis induced by CCl4. Further studies are required in order to identify the molecules responsible of the pharmacological activity. PMID:21689445

  19. Differential proteomic analysis of STAT6 knockout mice reveals new regulatory function in liver lipid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Iff, Joël; Wang, Wei; Sajic, Tatjana; Oudry, Nathalie; Gueneau, Estelle; Hopfgartner, Gérard; Varesio, Emmanuel; Szanto, Ildiko

    2009-10-01

    Increased inflammatory signaling is a key feature of metabolic disorders. In this context, the role of increased pro-inflammatory signals has been extensively studied. By contrast, no efforts have been dedicated to study the contrasting scenario: the attenuation of anti-inflammatory signals and their role in metabolic homeostasis. IL-4 and IL-13 are anti-inflammatory cytokines signaling through the Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 6 (STAT6). Our study was aimed at evaluating the lack of STAT6 signaling on liver homeostasis. To this end we analyzed the liver proteome of wild type and STAT6 knock-out mice using 2D nanoscale LC-MS/MS with iTRAQ labeling technique. The coordinated changes in proteins identified by this quantitative proteome analysis indicated disturbed lipid homeostasis and a state of hepatocellular stress. Most significantly, the expression of the liver fatty acid binding protein (FABP1) was increased in the knock-out mice. In line with the elevated FABP1 expression we found latent liver lipid accumulation in the STAT6-deficient mice which was further aggravated when mice were challenged by a high fat diet. In conclusion, our study revealed a so far uncharacterized role for STAT6 in regulating liver lipid homeostasis and demonstrates the importance of anti-inflammatory signaling in the defense against the development of liver steatosis. PMID:19663508

  20. Liver enzymes, metabolomics and genome-wide association studies: From systems biology to the personalized medicine

    PubMed Central

    Sookoian, Silvia; Pirola, Carlos J

    2015-01-01

    For several decades, serum levels of alanine (ALT) and aspartate (AST) aminotransferases have been regarded as markers of liver injury, including a wide range of etiologies from viral hepatitis to fatty liver. The increasing worldwide prevalence of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease revealed that transaminases are strong predictors of type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, atherothrombotic risk profile, and overall risk of metabolic disease. Therefore, it is plausible to suggest that aminotransferases are surrogate biomarkers of “liver metabolic functioning” beyond the classical concept of liver cellular damage, as their enzymatic activity might actually reflect key aspects of the physiology and pathophysiology of the liver function. In this study, we summarize the background information and recent findings on the biological role of ALT and AST, and review the knowledge gained from the application of genome-wide approaches and “omics” technologies that uncovered new concepts on the role of aminotransferases in human diseases and systemic regulation of metabolic functions. Prediction of biomolecular interactions between the candidate genes recently discovered to be associated with plasma concentrations of liver enzymes showed interesting interconnectivity nodes, which suggest that regulation of aminotransferase activity is a complex and highly regulated trait. Finally, links between aminotransferase genes and metabolites are explored to understand the genetic contributions to the metabolic diversity. PMID:25624707

  1. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase interacting multi-functional protein 1 attenuates liver fibrosis by inhibiting TGF? signaling.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jongchan; Son, Mi Kwon; Jung, Kyung Hee; Kim, Kwangil; Kim, Gi Jin; Lee, Soo-Hong; Hong, Soon-Sun; Park, Sang Gyu

    2016-02-01

    The aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase interacting multi-functional protein 1 (AIMP1) participates in a variety of cellular processes, including translation, cell proliferation, inflammation and wound healing. Previously, we showed that the N-terminal peptide of AIMP1 (6-46 aa) induced ERK phosphorylation. Liver fibrosis is characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix, which is induced by TGF? signaling, and activated ERK is known to induce the phosphorylation of SMAD, thereby inhibiting TGF? signaling. We assessed whether the AIMP1 peptide can inhibit collagen synthesis in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) by activating ERK. The AIMP1 peptide induced phosphorylation of SMAD2 via ERK activation, and inhibited the nuclear translocation of SMAD, resulting in a reduction of the synthesis of type I collagen. The AIMP1 peptide attenuated liver fibrosis induced by CCl4, in a dose-dependent manner. Masson-Trichrome staining showed that the AIMP1 peptide reduced collagen deposition. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the levels of ?-SMA, TGF? and type I collagen were all reduced by the AIMP1 peptide. Liver toxicity analysis showed that the AIMP1 peptide improved the levels of relevant biological parameters in the blood. These results suggest that AIMP1 peptide may have potential for development as a therapeutic agent to treat liver fibrosis. PMID:26692190

  2. Using an immune functional assay to differentiate acute cellular rejection from recurrent hepatitis C in liver transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Roniel; Ararat, Miguel; Soldevila-Pico, Consuelo; Dixon, Lisa; Pan, Jen-Jung; Firpi, Roberto; Machicao, Victor; Levy, Cynthia; Nelson, David; Morelli, Giuseppe

    2009-02-01

    In transplant recipients transplanted for hepatitis C, presentation of abnormal transaminases can herald the presentation of recurrent hepatitis C, cellular rejection, or both. Given the sometimes ambiguous histology with these 2 entities, the ability to distinguish them is of great importance because misinterpretation can potentially affect graft survival. We used an immune functional assay to help assess the etiology of abnormal liver function test results in liver transplant recipients. Blood samples for the immune functional assay were taken from 42 recipients prospectively at various times post-transplant and compared with clinical and histologic findings. In patients whose liver biopsy showed evidence of cellular rejection, the immune response was noted to be very high, whereas in those with active recurrence of hepatitis C, the immune response was found to be very low. This finding was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.0001). In those patients in whom there was no predominant histologic features suggesting 1 entity over the other, the immune response was higher than in those with aggressive hepatitis C but lower than in those with cellular rejection. In conclusion, these data show the potential utility of the ImmuKnow assay as a means of distinguishing hepatitis C from cellular rejection and its potential usefulness as a marker for outlining the progression of hepatitis C. PMID:19177434

  3. Effects of Oral L-Carnitine on Liver Functions after Transarterial Chemoembolization in Intermediate-Stage HCC Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Abeer; Tsuda, Yasuhiro; Asai, Akira; Yokohama, Keisuke; Nakamura, Ken; Sujishi, Tetsuya; Ohama, Hideko; Tsuchimoto, Yusuke; Fukunishi, Shinya; Abdelaal, Usama M.; Arafa, Usama A.; Hassan, Ali T.; Kassem, Ali M.; Higuchi, Kazuhide

    2015-01-01

    Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is usually followed by hepatic dysfunction. We evaluated the effects of L-carnitine on post-TACE impaired liver functions. Methods. 53 cirrhotic hepatocellular carcinoma patients at Osaka Medical College were enrolled in this study and assigned into either L-carnitine group receiving 600?mg oral L-carnitine daily or control group. Liver functions were evaluated at pre-TACE and 1, 4, and 12 weeks after TACE. Results. The L-carnitine group maintained Child-Pugh (CP) score at 1 week after TACE and exhibited significant improvement at 4 weeks after TACE (P < 0.01). Conversely, the control group reported a significant CP score deterioration at 1 week (P < 0.05) and 12 weeks after TACE (P < 0.05). L-carnitine suppressed serum albumin deterioration at 1 week after TACE. There were significant differences between L-carnitine and control groups regarding mean serum albumin changes from baseline to 1 week (P < 0.05) and 4 weeks after TACE (P < 0.05). L-carnitine caused prothrombin time improvement from baseline to 1, 4 (P < 0.05), and 12 weeks after TACE. Total bilirubin mean changes from baseline to 1 week after TACE exhibited significant differences between L-carnitine and control groups (P < 0.05). The hepatoprotective effects of L-carnitine were enhanced by branched chain amino acids combination. Conclusion. L-carnitine maintained and improved liver functions after TACE. PMID:26664151

  4. Liver metastases

    MedlinePLUS

    Metastases to the liver; Metastatic liver cancer; Liver cancer - metastatic ... Almost any cancer can spread to the liver. Cancers that can spread to the liver include: Breast cancer Colorectal cancer Esophageal ...

  5. Liver Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. Primary liver cancer starts in the liver. Metastatic liver ... and spreads to your liver. Risk factors for primary liver cancer include Having hepatitis B or C ...

  6. International society of sports nutrition position stand: Beta-Alanine.

    PubMed

    Trexler, Eric T; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Stout, Jeffrey R; Hoffman, Jay R; Wilborn, Colin D; Sale, Craig; Kreider, Richard B; Jäger, Ralf; Earnest, Conrad P; Bannock, Laurent; Campbell, Bill; Kalman, Douglas; Ziegenfuss, Tim N; Antonio, Jose

    2015-01-01

    The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review of the mechanisms and use of beta-alanine supplementation. Based on the current available literature, the conclusions of the ISSN are as follows: 1) Four weeks of beta-alanine supplementation (4-6 g daily) significantly augments muscle carnosine concentrations, thereby acting as an intracellular pH buffer; 2) Beta-alanine supplementation currently appears to be safe in healthy populations at recommended doses; 3) The only reported side effect is paraesthesia (tingling), but studies indicate this can be attenuated by using divided lower doses (1.6 g) or using a sustained-release formula; 4) Daily supplementation with 4 to 6 g of beta-alanine for at least 2 to 4 weeks has been shown to improve exercise performance, with more pronounced effects in open end-point tasks/time trials lasting 1 to 4 min in duration; 5) Beta-alanine attenuates neuromuscular fatigue, particularly in older subjects, and preliminary evidence indicates that beta-alanine may improve tactical performance; 6) Combining beta-alanine with other single or multi-ingredient supplements may be advantageous when supplementation of beta-alanine is high enough (4-6 g daily) and long enough (minimum 4 weeks); 7) More research is needed to determine the effects of beta-alanine on strength, endurance performance beyond 25 min in duration, and other health-related benefits associated with carnosine. PMID:26175657

  7. Routine liver function tests and serum amylase determinations after biliary lithotripsy: are they necessary?

    PubMed

    Goodacre, B W; Malone, D E; Fache, J S; Rawat, B; Burhenne, H J

    1990-10-01

    Shock-wave-induced soft-tissue damage after biliary extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (BESWL) has been reported. Every patient treated in Vancouver has, therefore, had liver function tests and serum amylase levels measured before and within 6 days after BESWL. All patients had symptomatic cholecystolithiasis with normal pre-BESWL biochemistry. Analysis of 311 patients after treatment with the Siemens Lithostar unit showed elevation of one or more laboratory value in 19% (60/311). Serum aspartate transaminase level was most frequently abnormal (38 cases). The majority of abnormalities were mild, less than two times normal levels. Clinically significant complications occurred in five patients (three pancreatitis, one cholecystitis, one common bile duct obstruction); four of these occurred 1 week or more after treatment. The results of routine laboratory tests could not be used to predict complications. No correlation was seen between abnormal values and number of shock waves administered or peak shock-wave pressure. Of 112 patients surveyed at the time of post-BESWL enzyme measurement, 49 (44%) reported a degree of pain, which was severe in eight cases. Presence of severe pain correlated strongly (p less than .001) with abnormal laboratory findings, however not with the degree of abnormality. As results of these laboratory tests are nonspecific, have not been shown to correlate with the degree of severity of BESWL-induced tissue damage, and do not predict complications, the tests are of little value in the absence of clinical signs and symptoms. These conclusions, however, apply only to the Siemens Lithostar Plus with patients treated in the steep left posterior oblique position. Cost savings can be expected if routine post-BESWL biochemical tests are abandoned. PMID:1698018

  8. Adherence to risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) requirements for monthly testing of liver function

    PubMed Central

    Blanchette, Christopher M; Nunes, Anthony P; Lin, Nancy D; Mortimer, Kathleen M; Noone, Joshua; Tangirala, Krishna; Johnston, Stephen; Gutierrez, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS), as mandated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for medications with the potential for harm, are increasingly incorporating rigid protocols for patient evaluation, but little is known about compliance with these programs. Despite the inherent limitations, data on administrative claims may provide an opportunity to investigate adherence to these programs. Methods: We assessed adherence to liver function test (LFT) requirements included in the REMS program for bosentan through use of administrative claims. Patients observed in the Optum Research Database who were initiators of bosentan from November 20, 2001 to March 31, 2013 were included. Adherence to LFTs was calculated using pharmacy claims for bosentan dispensation and medical claims for laboratory services, and was assessed at the time of drug initiation and within specified time intervals throughout follow-up. Results: Of 742 patients, 523 (70.5%) had ?1 qualifying LFT. Among patients with ?12 dispensations, claims for LFTs at individual dispensations were 53.2–64.0%. Median proportion of dispensations with ?1 LFT was 0.8 among patients with ?6 (interquartile range, 0.7–1.0) or ?12 (0.7–0.9) dispensations. Adherence was 90–100% for 33.3% of all initiators, whereas 29.3% of initiators were non-adherent (defined as <50% of on-therapy LFTs). Conclusions: Analyses of administrative claims suggest that the REMS program for bosentan may not have adequately guaranteed adherence to the program’s monthly monitoring of LFTs. Such investigations of existing REMS programs may provide insight on how to accomplish more successful evaluation of REMS. PMID:25709706

  9. Loss of Survivin influences liver regeneration and is associated with impaired Aurora B function

    PubMed Central

    Hagemann, S; Wohlschlaeger, J; Bertram, S; Levkau, B; Musacchio, A; Conway, E M; Moellmann, D; Kneiseler, G; Pless-Petig, G; Lorenz, K; Sitek, B; Baba, H A

    2013-01-01

    The chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) acts as a key regulator of mitosis, preventing asymmetric segregation of chromosomal material into daughter cells. The CPC is composed of three non-enzymatic components termed Survivin, the inner centromere protein (INCENP) and Borealin, and an enzymatic component, Aurora B kinase. Survivin is necessary for the appropriate separation of sister chromatids during mitosis and is involved in liver regeneration, but its role in regenerative processes is incompletely elucidated. Whether Survivin, which is classified as an inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) based on domain composition, also has a role in apoptosis is controversial. The present study examined the in vivo effects of Survivin ablation in the liver and during liver regeneration after 70% hepatectomy in a hepatocyte-specific knockout mouse model. The absence of Survivin caused a reduction in the number of hepatocytes in the liver, together with an increase in cell volume, macronucleation and polyploidy, but no changes in apoptosis. During liver regeneration, mitosis of hepatocytes was associated with mislocalization of the members of the CPC, which were no longer detectable at the centromere despite an unchanged protein amount. Furthermore, the loss of survivin in regenerating hepatocytes was associated with reduced levels of phosphorylated Histone H3 at serine 28 and abolished phosphorylation of CENP-A and Hec1 at serine 55, which is a consequence of decreased Aurora B kinase activity. These data indicate that Survivin expression determines hepatocyte number during liver development and liver regeneration. Lack of Survivin causes mislocalization of the CPC members in combination with reduced Aurora B activity, leading to impaired phosphorylation of its centromeric target proteins and inappropriate cytokinesis. PMID:23519077

  10. Supplementation with branched-chain amino acids attenuates hepatic apoptosis in rats with chronic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Kuwahata, Masashi; Kubota, Hiroyo; Kanouchi, Hiroaki; Ito, Shunsuke; Ogawa, Aki; Kobayashi, Yukiko; Kido, Yasuhiro

    2012-07-01

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) can function as pharmacologic nutrients for patients with decompensated cirrhosis. However, the effects of BCAA at the early stage of chronic liver disease are not clear. We hypothesized that early BCAA supplementation would attenuate the progression of chronic liver disease. The present study examined the effects of BCAA supplementation on the progression of chronic liver disease in rats caused by injected carbon tetrachloride (CCl?). Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with a casein diet (control group) or the same diet supplemented with BCAA (BCAA group) for 11 weeks, and all rats were repeatedly injected with CCl?. Food intake did not significantly differ between control and BCAA groups during the experimental period. Plasma alanine aminotransferase activities gradually increased during the experimental period in both groups but peaked later in the BCAA group. Liver fibrosis was more evident in the control group. Levels of connective tissue growth factor messenger RNA were significantly lower in the livers of rats in the BCAA group than in the control group. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine 5-triphosphate nick end labeling assays found considerably more hepatic apoptosis in the control group. Liver cytosolic cytochrome c levels and expression of the proapoptotic Bax protein in the mitochondrial fraction were significantly lower in the BCAA group than in the control group. These results suggest that supplementation with BCAA delays the progression of chronic liver disease caused by CCl? in rats by attenuating hepatic apoptosis. PMID:22901560

  11. Effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on Kupffer cell phagosomal motility, bacterial clearance, and liver function

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Christa Y; Molina, Ramon M; Louzada, Andressa; Murdaugh, Kimberly M; Donaghey, Thomas C; Brain, Joseph D

    2015-01-01

    Background Zinc oxide engineered nanoparticles (ZnO ENPs) have potential as nanomedicines due to their inherent properties. Studies have described their pulmonary impact, but less is known about the consequences of ZnO ENP interactions with the liver. This study was designed to describe the effects of ZnO ENPs on the liver and Kupffer cells after intravenous (IV) administration. Materials and methods First, pharmacokinetic studies were conducted to determine the tissue distribution of neutron-activated 65ZnO ENPs post-IV injection in Wistar Han rats. Then, a noninvasive in vivo method to assess Kupffer cell phagosomal motility was employed using ferromagnetic iron particles and magnetometry. We also examined whether prior IV injection of ZnO ENPs altered Kupffer cell bactericidal activity on circulating Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Serum and liver tissues were collected to assess liver-injury biomarkers and histological changes, respectively. Results We found that the liver was the major site of initial uptake of 65ZnO ENPs. There was a time-dependent decrease in tissue levels of 65Zn in all organs examined, refecting particle dissolution. In vivo magnetometry showed a time-dependent and transient reduction in Kupffer cell phagosomal motility. Animals challenged with P. aeruginosa 24 hours post-ZnO ENP injection showed an initial (30 minutes) delay in vascular bacterial clearance. However, by 4 hours, IV-injected bacteria were cleared from the blood, liver, spleen, lungs, and kidneys. Seven days post-ZnO ENP injection, creatine phosphokinase and aspartate aminotransferase levels in serum were significantly increased. Histological evidence of hepatocyte damage and marginated neutrophils were observed in the liver. Conclusion Administration of ZnO ENPs transiently inhibited Kupffer cell phagosomal motility and later induced hepatocyte injury, but did not alter bacterial clearance from the blood or killing in the liver, spleen, lungs, or kidneys. Our data show that diminished Kupffer cell organelle motion correlated with ZnO ENP-induced liver injury. PMID:26170657

  12. Systemic vascular resistance and fluid status in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis with or without functional renal failure in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Barakat, Ashraf Abd El-Khalik; Nasr, Fatma Mohammad; Metwaly, Amna Ahmed; El-Ghannam, Maged

    2015-01-01

    Background: Functional renal failure and cardiovascular dysfunction are common complications of liver cirrhosis. This study aimed to evaluate cardiac performance, systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and fluid status in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis either with or without functional renal failure. Methods: Sixty patients diagnosed as having decompensated liver cirrhosis were divided into two groups. Group 1 included 30 patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis with ascites and with creatinine values ? 1.5 mg/dl. Group 2 included 30 azotemic decompensated cirrhotic patients with diagnostic criteria of hepatorenal syndrome (HRS). Also, 20 healthy subjects, of matched age and sex to the Group 1 and Group 2 patients, were included in the study as the control group. All patients and normal controls were subjected to clinical examination, laboratory evaluation, ECG, abdominal ultrasonography and echocardiographic studies. Results: The echocardiographic and ECG data showed significant increase in LAD (P<0.01, P<0.01), AoD (P<0.05, P<0.01), interventricular septum thickness (IVST) (P<0.01, P<0.01), posterior wall thickness (PWT) (P<0.01, P<0.01), EDD (P<0.01, P<0.01), ESD (P<0.05, P<0.01), left ventricular (LV) mass (P<0.01, P<0.01), and Corrected QT (QTc) (P<0.01, P<0.01) interval with significant decrease in SVR (P<0.01, P<0.01). Additionally, there was significant decrease in IVC diameter in both patients groups compared to the control group (P<0.01, P<0.01). Conclusion: Patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis have low SVR, and Doppler echocardiography provides an easy noninvasive tool to assess this finding. Also, these patients demonstrate small inferior vena cava (IVC) diameter with normal collapsibility, which indicates low effective plasma volume. Measuring IVC diameter and collapsibility are of value in the prediction of intravascular fluid status in liver cirrhosis. This is especially true with renal dysfunction. Early addition of oral vasoconstrictors in decompensated patients may correct the SVR and circulatory dysfunction and hinder HRS occurrence. PMID:26396731

  13. Modeling the microhydration of protonated alanine.

    PubMed

    Michaux, Catherine; Wouters, Johan; Perpète, Eric A; Jacquemin, Denis

    2008-08-14

    The microsolvation of protonated l-alanine with one, two, or three water molecules has been investigated using a MP2/6-311++G(d,p) approach fully accounting for the basis set superposition errors. A conformational analysis for unhydrated AlaH(+) reveals only three minima which have been characterized and compared to the neutral case. We have built a logical tree for the successive hydration stages. This tree shows that the most stable complexes in each step are related and that a systematic approach can be used to grasp the stepwise hydration process. The addition of extra water molecules to the first or second solvation shells leads to the opposite evolution of the hydrogen-bond stretching mode. Comparisons with experimental enthalpies, entropies, and Gibbs free energies clearly demonstrate the adequacy of the approach. Our results also strongly suggest that several di- and trihydrated complexes should coexist under the experimental conditions. PMID:18646810

  14. An investigation of the photon energy dependence of the EPR alanine dosimetry system.

    PubMed

    Bergstrand, Eva Stabell; Shortt, Ken R; Ross, Carl K; Hole, Eli Olaug

    2003-06-21

    The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) alanine dosimetry system is based on EPR measurements of radicals formed in alanine by ionizing radiation. The system has been studied to determine its energy dependence for photons in the 10-30 MV region relative to those of 60Co and to find out if the system would be suitable for dosimetry comparisons. The irradiations were carried out at the National Research Council, Ottawa, Canada and the doses ranged from 8 to 54 Gy. The EPR measurements were performed at the University of Oslo, Norway. The ratio of the slope of the alanine reading versus dose-to-water curve for a certain linac photon beam quality and the corresponding slope for a reference 60Co gamma-radiation gives an experimental measure of the relative dose-to-water response of the EPR alanine dosimetry system. For calculating the linear regression coefficients of these alanine reading versus dose curves, the method of weighted least squares was used. This method is assumed to produce more accurate regression coefficients when applied to EPR dosimetry than the common method of standard least squares. The overall uncertainty on the ratio of slopes was between 0.5 and 0.6% for all three linac energies. The relative response for all the linac beams compared to cobalt was less than unity: by about 0.5% for the 20 and 30 MV points but by more than 1% for the 10 MV point. The given standard uncertainties negate concluding that there is any significant internal variation in the measured response as a function of beam quality between the three linac energies. Thus, we calculated the average dose response for all three energies and found that the alanine response is 0.8% (+/-0.5%) lower for high energy x-rays than for 60Co gamma-rays. This result indicates a small energy dependence in the alanine response for the high-energy photons relative to 60Co which may be significant. This result is specific to our dosimetry system (alanine with 20% polyethylene binder pressed into a particular shape) including its waterproofing sleeve of PMMA (2 mm thick); however, we expect that this result may apply to other similar detectors. PMID:12870581

  15. Long-term day-and-night rotating shift work poses a barrier to the normalization of alanine transaminase.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Cheng; Hsieh, I-Chun; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the impact of day-and-night rotating shift work (RSW) on liver health, we performed a retrospective analysis of the association between long-term RSW exposure and the normalization of plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) levels over a five-year period. The data from physical examinations, blood tests, abdominal sonographic examinations, personal histories, and occupational records were collected from a cohort of workers in a semiconductor manufacturing company. The sample population was divided into three subgroups for analysis, according to self-reported shift work status over the five-year interval: persistent daytime workers, workers exposed intermittently to RSW (i-RSW), and workers exposed persistently to RSW (p-RSW). Records were analyzed for 1196 male workers with an initial mean age of 32.5 years (SD 6.0 years), of whom 821 (68.7%) were identified as rotating shift workers, including 374 i-RSW (31.3%) and 447 p-RSW workers (37.4%). At the beginning of the follow-up, 275 were found to have elevated ALT (e-ALT): 25.1% daytime workers, 23.0% i-RSW workers, and 21.3% p-RSW workers (p?=?0.098). Of those with e-ALT at the beginning, 101 workers showed normalized serum ALT levels at the end of five-year follow-up: 40 (10.7%) of 375 daytime workers, 32 (8.6%) of 374 i-RSW workers, and 29 (6.5%) of 447 p-RSW workers (p?=?0.016). Compared with the workers having persistent e-ALT at the end of follow-up, the workers normalized serum ALT levels had significantly lesser exposures to RSW during follow-up. By performing multivariate logistic regression analyses, and comparing with the persistent daytime co-workers, after controlling for confounding variables (age, occupational factors, educational levels, lifestyle factors, metabolic syndrome, hepatovirus infection, and fatty liver), analysis indicated that the workers exposed to p-RSW were 46% less likely (OR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.30-0.95; p?=?0.03) to attain normal ALT levels within a five-year interval. These observations demonstrate that persistent day-and-night RSW pose a vigorous obstacle to the normalization of e-ALT among workers with preexisting abnormal liver function. We suggest that workers and managers approach with caution the consideration of assigning or accepting long-term day-and-night RSW when an employee health screening shows evidence of abnormal liver function. PMID:24354767

  16. Postoperative Immunosuppression After Open and Laparoscopic Liver Resection: Assessment of Cellular Immune Function and Monocytic HLA-DR Expression

    PubMed Central

    Haacke, Nadine; Meisel, Christian; Unterwalder, Nadine; Fikatas, Panagiotis; Schmidt, Sven C.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Major abdominal procedures are strongly associated with postoperative immunosuppression and subsequent increased patient morbidity. It is believed that laparoscopic surgery causes less depletion of the systemic immune function because of the reduced tissue trauma. Various cytokines and monocytic HLA-DR expression have been successfully implemented to assess postoperative immune function. The aim of our study was to show the difference in immunologic profiles after minimally invasive versus conventional liver resection. Methods: Ten animals underwent either laparoscopic or conventional open left lateral liver resection. Flow cytometric characteristics of HLA-DR expression on monocytes and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cellular secretion of tumor necrosis factor ?, interferon ?, interleukin 6, and interleukin 8 were measured and analyzed in ex vivo whole blood samples. Intraoperative and postoperative clinical outcome parameters were also documented and evaluated. Results: All animals survived the procedures. Postoperative complications were fever (n = 3), wound infections (n = 2), and biloma (n = 1). Open surgery showed a morbidity rate of 80% compared with 40% after laparoscopic surgery. Laparoscopic liver resection showed no postoperative immunoparalysis. Major histocompatibility complex class II expression in this group was elevated, whereas the open surgery group showed decreased major histocompatibility complex class II expression on postoperative day 1. Postoperative secretion of tumor necrosis factor ?, interleukin 6, and interferon ? was lower in the open surgery group. Elevated transaminase levels after laparoscopy might have resulted from an ischemia/reperfusion injury caused by the capnoperitoneum. Conclusion: Major immunoparalysis depression was not observed in either group. Laparoscopic surgery shows a tendency to improve immunologic recovery after liver resection. PMID:24398205

  17. Postoperative Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Levels Reflect the Graft’s Function and Predict Survival after Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Mocchegiani, Federico; Coletta, Martina; Brugia, Marina; Montalti, Roberto; Fava, Giammarco; Taccaliti, Augusto; Risaliti, Andrea; Vivarelli, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background The reduction of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) plasma levels is associated with the degree of liver dysfunction and mortality in cirrhotic patients. However, little research is available on the recovery of the IGF-1 level and its prognostic role after liver transplantation (LT). Methods From April 2010 to May 2011, 31 patients were prospectively enrolled (25/6 M/F; mean age±SEM: 55.2±1.4 years), and IGF-1 serum levels were assessed preoperatively and at 15, 30, 90, 180 and 365 days after transplantation. The influence of the donor and recipient characteristics (age, use of extended criteria donor grafts, D-MELD and incidence of early allograft dysfunction) on hormonal concentration was analyzed. The prognostic role of IGF-1 level on patient survival and its correlation with routine liver function tests were also investigated. Results All patients showed low preoperative IGF-1 levels (mean±SEM: 29.5±2.1), and on postoperative day 15, a significant increase in the IGF-1 plasma level was observed (102.7±11.7 ng/ml; p<0.0001). During the first year after LT, the IGF-1 concentration remained significantly lower in recipients transplanted with older donors (>65 years) or extended criteria donor grafts. An inverse correlation between IGF-1 and bilirubin serum levels at day 15 (r = -0.3924, p = 0.0320) and 30 (r = -0.3894, p = 0.0368) was found. After multivariate analysis, early (within 15 days) IGF-1 normalization [Exp(b) = 3.913; p = 0.0484] was the only prognostic factor associated with an increased 3-year survival rate. Conclusion IGF-1 postoperative levels are correlated with the graft’s quality and reflect liver function. Early IGF-1 recovery is associated with a higher 3-year survival rate after LT. PMID:26186540

  18. Effects of horminone on liver mixed function mono-oxygenases and glutathione enzyme activities of Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, R; Candeias, F; Simões, F; Nascimento, J; Cruz Morais, J

    1997-09-01

    The present study reports on the effects of horminone on serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, on hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) and cytochrome b5 (cyt b5) contents and on the activities of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (NR), mixed function mono-oxygenases (MFO), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) of Wistar male rat. Horminone is a diterpenoid quinone (7,12-dihydroxyabiet-8,12-diene-11,14-dione) present in several species of the Labiatae family and used as medicinal plants in folk medicine. In this study, horminone was administered by the intraperitoneal route (i.p.) at a concentration of 1 or 10 mg/kg to each group of six mice, using water as a vehicle. On the one hand, results showed that horminone increased serum ALT and AST levels and cyt b5 content and induced the activities of ethylmorphine N-demethylase (EMD). On the other hand, horminone decreased P450 content and inhibited the activities of 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (ERD), 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (ECD), aniline 4-hydroxylase (AH) and NR. Based on these results, the possibility of toxic effects occurring after administration of plant extracts containing horminone must be considered. PMID:9324001

  19. 21 CFR 172.540 - DL-Alanine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DL-Alanine (a racemic mixture of D- and L-alanine; CAS Reg. No. 302-72-7) may be safely used as a flavor enhancer for sweeteners in pickling mixtures at a level not to exceed 1 percent of the pickling spice that is added to the...

  20. 21 CFR 172.540 - DL-Alanine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DL-Alanine (a racemic mixture of D- and L-alanine; CAS Reg. No. 302-72-7) may be safely used as a flavor enhancer for sweeteners in pickling mixtures at a level not to exceed 1 percent of the pickling spice that is added to the...

  1. 21 CFR 172.540 - DL-Alanine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DL-Alanine (a racemic mixture of D- and L-alanine; CAS Reg. No. 302-72-7) may be safely used as a flavor enhancer for sweeteners in pickling mixtures at a level not to exceed 1 percent of the pickling spice that is added to the...

  2. 21 CFR 172.540 - DL-Alanine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DL-Alanine (a racemic mixture of D- and L-alanine; CAS Reg. No. 302-72-7) may be safely used as a flavor enhancer for sweeteners in pickling mixtures at a level not to exceed 1 percent of the pickling spice that is added to the...

  3. 21 CFR 172.540 - DL-Alanine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DL-Alanine (a racemic mixture of D- and L-alanine; CAS Reg. No. 302-72-7) may be safely used as a flavor enhancer for sweeteners in pickling mixtures at a level not to exceed 1 percent of the pickling spice that is added to the...

  4. Effect of syrepar and oxaphenamide on liver function in experimental hypokinesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skakun, L. N.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments on albino rats showed that 30 day hypokinesia changes the reaction of the liver to cholagogues. The choleretic action of oxaphenamide as well as its inhibitory effect on synthesis of bile acids diminishes, while the influence of bilirubin secretion increases.

  5. EFFECTS OF DIPHENYLHYDATOIN AND CHLOROQUINE ON MONKEY LIVER MICROSOMAL MIXED-FUNCTION OXIDASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sixteen adult male squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) were randomly divided into three treatment groups and one control group. Each treatment group received 10 mg/kg oral doses of diphenylhydantoin and/or chloroquine. Following sacrifice, in vitro assays for activity of liver mi...

  6. Functional characterization of liver enhancers that regulate drug-associated transporters.

    PubMed

    Kim, M J; Skewes-Cox, P; Fukushima, H; Hesselson, S; Yee, S W; Ramsey, L B; Nguyen, L; Eshragh, J L; Castro, R A; Wen, C C; Stryke, D; Johns, S J; Ferrin, T E; Kwok, P-Y; Relling, M V; Giacomini, K M; Kroetz, D L; Ahituv, N

    2011-04-01

    Little is known about how genetic variations in enhancers influence drug response. In this study, we investigated whether nucleotide variations in enhancers that regulate drug transporters can alter their expression levels. Using comparative genomics and liver-specific transcription factor binding site (TFBS) analyses, we identified evolutionary conserved regions (ECRs) surrounding nine liver membrane transporters that interact with commonly used pharmaceuticals. The top 50 ECRs were screened for enhancer activity in vivo, of which five--located around ABCB11, SLC10A1, SLCO1B1, SLCO1A2, and SLC47A1--exhibited significant enhancer activity. Common variants identified in a large ethnically diverse cohort (n = 272) were assayed for differential enhancer activity, and three variants were found to have significant effects on reporter activity as compared with the reference allele. In addition, one variant was associated with reduced SLCO1A2 mRNA expression levels in human liver tissues, and another was associated with increased methotrexate (MTX) clearance in patients. This work provides a general model for the rapid characterization of liver enhancers and identifies associations between enhancer variants and drug response. PMID:21368754

  7. Cloning and expression of a cDNA encoding the transporter of taurine and beta-alanine in mouse brain.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Q R; López-Corcuera, B; Nelson, H; Mandiyan, S; Nelson, N

    1992-01-01

    A taurine/beta-alanine transporter was cloned from a mouse brain cDNA library by screening with a partial cDNA probe of the glycine transporter at low stringency. The deduced amino acid sequence predicts 590 amino acids with typical characteristics of the sodium-dependent neurotransmitter transporters such as sequence homology and membrane topography. However, the calculated isoelectric point of the taurine/beta-alanine transporter is more acidic (pI = 5.98) than those (pI > 8.0) of other cloned neurotransmitter transporters. Xenopus oocytes injected with cRNA of the cloned transporter expressed uptake activities with Km = 4.5 microM for taurine and Km = 56 microM for beta-alanine. Northern hybridization showed a single transcript of 7.5 kilobases that was highly enriched in kidney and distributed evenly in various parts of the brain. In situ hybridization showed the mRNA of the taurine/beta-alanine transporter to be localized in the corpus callosum, striatum, and anterior commisure. Specific localization of the taurine/beta-alanine transporter in mouse brain suggests a potential function for taurine and beta-alanine as neurotransmitters. Images PMID:1465453

  8. Efficacy of Hepatoprotective Agents With or Without Antiviral Drugs on Liver Function and Fibrosis in Patients With Hepatitis B: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Long, Li-Hui; Xue, Cai-Qin; Shi, Jun-Feng; Dong, Juan-Ni; Wang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Context: To systematically evaluate the effects of hepatoprotective agents, when delivered either alone or in combination with other antiviral or non-antiviral drugs in patients with hepatitis B and hepatic fibrosis. Objectives: The current randomized controlled clinical trials aimed to evaluate the efficacy of combinations of antiviral and non-antiviral hepatoprotective agents on indexes of liver function and liver fibrosis in patients with hepatitis B. Data Sources: Published literatures in Chinese and English on hepatoprotective treatment strategies for chronic hepatitis B and liver fibrosis were searched in three databases and randomized controlled clinical trials were selected. Study Selection: Data were extracted according to a variety of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Meta-analysis was employed to analyze the data. Results: A total of 22 randomized controlled trials encompassing 1,714 cases were considered in the meta-analysis. The obtained results indicated that the combination of antiviral drug and hepatoprotective agent was better than antiviral drug alone to improve liver function. Similarly, regarding liver fibrosis, using two different hepatoprotective agents was better than using one agent. The normalization rates of Aminotransferase (ALT) and total Bilirubin (TBil) were improved 25.7% by two hepatoprotective agents compared to the single agent. Acetylcysteine was superior to ursodeoxycholic acid or silibinin to reduce ALT. Ursodeoxycholic acid was superior to acetylcysteine or silibinin to reduce TBIL. Conclusions: Hepatoprotective agents combined with antiviral drugs can significantly improve liver function and liver fibrosis parameters in patients with hepatitis B. PMID:26300933

  9. Developmental changes of cytochrome P450 dependent monooxygenase functions after transplantation of fetal liver tissue suspension into spleens of adult syngenic rats.

    PubMed

    Lupp, A; Trautmann, A K; Krausse, T; Klinger, W

    1998-06-01

    Fetal liver tissue suspensions were transplanted into the spleens of adult male syngenic Fisher 344 inbred rats. Animals were sacrificed at 3 days, 1, 2, 4 weeks, and 2, 4 and 6 months after transplantation and cytochrome P450 (P450) dependent monooxygenase functions in spleen and liver 9000 g supernatants were assessed by measuring three model reactions for different P450 subtypes: ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (EROD; mainly 1A), ethoxycoumarin O-deethylation (ECOD; predominantly 1A, 2A, 2B) and ethylmorphine N-demethylation (END; mainly 3A). Values of transplant recipients were compared to those of sham operated and age matched control rats. Spleen weights were significantly higher in transplanted rats, compared to controls or sham operated animals, but there was no influence of the transplants within the spleens on liver weights. With fetal livers at the 21st day of gestation, the day of transplantation, a weak EROD and ECOD, but no END activity was seen. Spleens of controls or sham operated animals displayed nearly no P450 mediated monooxygenase functions. In the explant containing spleens a significant and increasing EROD activity was found from 4 weeks after surgery on and an ECOD activity already 2 weeks after transplantation. END was only slightly enhanced at 6 months after surgery. The livers of all three groups of rats displayed normal EROD, ECOD and END activities. Transplantation of fetal liver tissue suspensions into the spleens did not influence the P450 dependent monooxygenase functions within the livers of the animals. From these results it can be concluded that intrasplenically transplanted liver cells originating from syngenic fetal liver tissue suspensions proliferate and differentiate within the host organs. They display P450 dependent monooxygenase functions with some developmental changes during the observed time period of 6 months. PMID:9681655

  10. Hypoxic induction of vascular endothelial growth factor regulates erythropoiesis but not hematopoietic stem cell function in the fetal liver.

    PubMed

    Rehn, Matilda; Kertész, Zsuzsanna; Cammenga, Jörg

    2014-11-01

    Hypoxia is an important factor in the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche in the bone marrow, but whether it also plays a role in the regulation of fetal liver (FL) HSCs is unclear. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) is essential for adult HSC survival, and hypoxic induction of VEGFA in adult HSCs is required for proper function. Loss of hypoxia-regulated VEGFA expression increases the number of phenotypically defined hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in the FL, but whether stem cell function is affected in FL HSCs has not, to our knowledge, been assessed. We show that fetal erythropoiesis is severely impaired when hypoxic induction of VEGFA is lacking. FL HSCs deficient for hypoxia-induced VEGFA expression have normal HSC function, arguing against a hypoxic FL HSC niche. However, after adaptation of FL HSCs to the bone marrow microenvironment, FL HSCs lose their function, as measured by serial transplantation. PMID:25220588

  11. TU-F-12A-04: Differential Radiation Avoidance of Functional Liver Regions Defined by 99mTc-Sulfur Colloid SPECT/CT with Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, S; Miyaoka, R; Kinahan, P; Sandison, G; Vesselle, H; Nyflot, M; Apisarnthanarax, S; Saini, J; Wong, T

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma patients is conventionally planned without consideration of spatial heterogeneity in hepatic function, which may increase risk of radiation-induced liver disease. Pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton radiotherapy (pRT) plans were generated to differentially decrease dose to functional liver volumes (FLV) defined on [{sup 99m}Tc]sulfur colloid (SC) SPECT/CT images (functional avoidance plans) and compared against conventional pRT plans. Methods: Three HCC patients underwent SC SPECT/CT scans for pRT planning acquired 15 min post injection over 24 min. Images were reconstructed with OSEM following scatter, collimator, and exhale CT attenuation correction. Functional liver volumes (FLV) were defined by liver:spleen uptake ratio thresholds (43% to 90% maximum). Planning objectives to FLV were based on mean SC SPECT uptake ratio relative to GTV-subtracted liver and inversely scaled to mean liver dose of 20 Gy. PTV target coverage (V{sub 95}) was matched between conventional and functional avoidance plans. PBS pRT plans were optimized in RayStation for single field uniform dose (SFUD) and systematically perturbed to verify robustness to uncertainty in range, setup, and motion. Relative differences in FLV DVH and target dose heterogeneity (D{sub 2}-D{sub 98})/D50 were assessed. Results: For similar liver dose between functional avoidance and conventional PBS pRT plans (D{sub mean}?5% difference, V{sub 18Gy}?1% difference), dose to functional liver volumes were lower in avoidance plans but varied in magnitude across patients (FLV{sub 70%max} D{sub mean}?26% difference, V{sub 18Gy}?8% difference). Higher PTV dose heterogeneity in avoidance plans was associated with lower functional liver dose, particularly for the largest lesion [(D{sub 2}-D{sub 98})/D{sub 50}=13%, FLV{sub 90%max}=50% difference]. Conclusion: Differential avoidance of functional liver regions defined on sulfur colloid SPECT/CT is feasible with proton therapy. The magnitude of benefit appears to be patient specific and dependent on tumor location, size, and proximity to functional volumes. Further investigation in a larger cohort of patients may validate the clinical utility of functional avoidance planning of HCC radiotherapy.

  12. Essential function of PTP-PEST during mouse embryonic vascularization, mesenchyme formation, neurogenesis and early liver development

    PubMed Central

    Sirois, Jacinthe; Côté, Jean-François; Charest, Alain; Uetani, Noriko; Bourdeau, Annie; Duncan, Stephen A.; Daniels, Eugene; Tremblay, Michel L.

    2015-01-01

    PTP (protein-tyrosine phosphatase)-PEST is a ubiquitously expressed cellular regulator of integrin signalling. It has been shown to bind several molecules such as Shc, paxillin and Grb2, that are involved downstream of FAK (focal adhesion kinase) pathway. Through its specific association to p130cas and further dephosphorylation, PTP-PEST plays a critical role in cell-matrix interactions, which are essential during embryogenesis. We report here that ablation of the gene leads to early embryonic lethality, correlating well with the high expression of the protein during embryonic development. We observed an increased level of tyrosine phosphorylation of p130cas protein in E9.5 PTP-PEST?/? embryos, a first evidence of biochemical defect leading to abnormal growth and development. Analysis of null mutant embryos revealed that they reach gastrulation, initiate yolk sac formation, but fail to progress through normal subsequent developmental events. E9.5–10.5 PTP-PEST?/? embryos had morphological abnormalities such as defective embryo turning, improper somitogenesis and vasculogenesis, impaired liver development, accompanied by degeneration in both neuroepithelium and somatic epithelia. Moreover, in embryos surviving until E10.5, the caudal region was truncated, with severe mesenchyme deficiency and no successful liver formation. Defects in embryonic mesenchyme as well as subsequent failure of proper vascularization, liver development and somatogenesis, seemed likely to induce lethality at this stage of development, and these results confirm that PTP-PEST plays an essential function in early embryogenesis. PMID:17070019

  13. The adverse effects of long-term l-carnitine supplementation on liver and kidney function in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Zhang, D-M; Wang, M-X; Fan, C-Y; Zhou, F; Wang, S-J; Kong, L-D

    2015-11-01

    Levo-Carnitine (l-carnitine) is widely used in health and food. This study was to focus on the adverse effects of 8-week oral supplementation of l-carnitine (0.3 and 0.6 g/kg) in female and male Sprague Dawley rats. l-carnitine reduced body and fat weights, as well as serum, liver, and kidney lipid levels in rats. Simultaneously, hepatic fatty acid ?-oxidation and lipid synthesis were disturbed in l-carnitine-fed rats. Moreover, l-carnitine accelerated reactive oxygen species production in serum and liver, thereby triggering hepatic NOD-like receptor 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation to elevate serum interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-18 levels in rats. Alteration of serum alkaline phosphatase levels further confirmed liver dysfunction in l-carnitine-fed rats. Additionally, l-carnitine may potentially disturb kidney function by altering renal protein levels of rat organic ion transporters. These observations may provide the caution information for the safety of long-term l-carnitine supplementation. PMID:25669660

  14. A galactose-functionalized dendritic siRNA-nanovector to potentiate hepatitis C inhibition in liver cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshminarayanan, Abirami; Reddy, B. Uma; Raghav, Nallani; Ravi, Vijay Kumar; Kumar, Anuj; Maiti, Prabal K.; Sood, A. K.; Jayaraman, N.; Das, Saumitra

    2015-10-01

    A RNAi based antiviral strategy holds the promise to impede hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection overcoming the problem of emergence of drug resistant variants, usually encountered in the interferon free direct-acting antiviral therapy. Targeted delivery of siRNA helps minimize adverse `off-target' effects and maximize the efficacy of therapeutic response. Herein, we report the delivery of siRNA against the conserved 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of HCV RNA using a liver-targeted dendritic nano-vector functionalized with a galactopyranoside ligand (DG). Physico-chemical characterization revealed finer details of complexation of DG with siRNA, whereas molecular dynamic simulations demonstrated sugar moieties projecting ``out'' in the complex. Preferential delivery of siRNA to the liver was achieved through a highly specific ligand-receptor interaction between dendritic galactose and the asialoglycoprotein receptor. The siRNA-DG complex exhibited perinuclear localization in liver cells and co-localization with viral proteins. The histopathological studies showed the systemic tolerance and biocompatibility of DG. Further, whole body imaging and immunohistochemistry studies confirmed the preferential delivery of the nucleic acid to mice liver. Significant decrease in HCV RNA levels (up to 75%) was achieved in HCV subgenomic replicon and full length HCV-JFH1 infectious cell culture systems. The multidisciplinary approach provides the `proof of concept' for restricted delivery of therapeutic siRNAs using a target oriented dendritic nano-vector.A RNAi based antiviral strategy holds the promise to impede hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection overcoming the problem of emergence of drug resistant variants, usually encountered in the interferon free direct-acting antiviral therapy. Targeted delivery of siRNA helps minimize adverse `off-target' effects and maximize the efficacy of therapeutic response. Herein, we report the delivery of siRNA against the conserved 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of HCV RNA using a liver-targeted dendritic nano-vector functionalized with a galactopyranoside ligand (DG). Physico-chemical characterization revealed finer details of complexation of DG with siRNA, whereas molecular dynamic simulations demonstrated sugar moieties projecting ``out'' in the complex. Preferential delivery of siRNA to the liver was achieved through a highly specific ligand-receptor interaction between dendritic galactose and the asialoglycoprotein receptor. The siRNA-DG complex exhibited perinuclear localization in liver cells and co-localization with viral proteins. The histopathological studies showed the systemic tolerance and biocompatibility of DG. Further, whole body imaging and immunohistochemistry studies confirmed the preferential delivery of the nucleic acid to mice liver. Significant decrease in HCV RNA levels (up to 75%) was achieved in HCV subgenomic replicon and full length HCV-JFH1 infectious cell culture systems. The multidisciplinary approach provides the `proof of concept' for restricted delivery of therapeutic siRNAs using a target oriented dendritic nano-vector. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Spectral data and experimental details. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02898a

  15. Comparison of EPR response of alanine and Gd2O3-alanine dosimeters exposed to TRIGA Mainz reactor.

    PubMed

    Marrale, M; Schmitz, T; Gallo, S; Hampel, G; Longo, A; Panzeca, S; Tranchina, L

    2015-12-01

    In this work we report some preliminary results regarding the analysis of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) response of alanine pellets and alanine pellets added with gadolinium used for dosimetry at the TRIGA research reactor in Mainz, Germany. Two set-ups were evaluated: irradiation inside PMMA phantom and irradiation inside boric acid phantom. We observed that the presence of Gd2O3 inside alanine pellets increases the EPR signal by a factor of 3.45 and 1.24 in case of PMMA and boric acid phantoms, respectively. We can conclude that in the case of neutron beam with a predominant thermal neutron component the addition of gadolinium oxide can significantly improve neutron sensitivity of alanine pellets. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of both response of alanine and Gd-added alanine pellets with FLUKA code were performed and a good agreement was achieved for pure alanine dosimeters. For Gd2O3-alanine deviations between MC simulations and experimental data were observed and discussed. PMID:26315099

  16. High doses of olive leaf extract induce liver changes in mice.

    PubMed

    Arantes-Rodrigues, R; Henriques, A; Pires, M J; Colaço, B; Calado, A M; Rema, P; Colaço, A; Fernandes, T; De la Cruz, P L F; Lopes, C; Fidalgo-Gonçalves, L; Vilela, S; Pedrosa, T; Peixoto, F; Oliveira, P A

    2011-09-01

    Virtually ever since it was first commercialized in 1995, there have been several studies focusing on the use of olive leaf extract (OLE) as a natural therapy and its medical properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of three different concentrations of OLE on the function of mice livers over the course of 14 weeks. Female ICR mice were divided into four groups, depending on OLE concentration used: 0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 0.75%. Alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin and albumin serum concentrations were all measured. Histopathological changes of the liver were observed after haematoxylin and eosin, reticulin, and Masson's trichrome staining was carried out while liver mitochondrial bioenergetics were also evaluated. Alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase serum enzyme activities increased significantly in the groups in which 0.5% and 0.75% OLE concentrations were used. Histologically, all the groups exposed to OLE exhibited hyperplasia of the bile ducts, cholestasis, hepatocyte necrosis and inflammatory infiltrated. Hepatic fibrosis was observed in the groups featuring 0.5% and 0.75% OLE concentrations. The mitochondrial membrane potential, respiratory control ratio and ADP/O of samples from animals fed the higher OLE concentration was significantly decreased when compared to the control group. PMID:21609751

  17. Identification, replication, and functional fine-mapping of expression quantitative trait loci in primary human liver tissue.

    PubMed

    Innocenti, Federico; Cooper, Gregory M; Stanaway, Ian B; Gamazon, Eric R; Smith, Joshua D; Mirkov, Snezana; Ramirez, Jacqueline; Liu, Wanqing; Lin, Yvonne S; Moloney, Cliona; Aldred, Shelly Force; Trinklein, Nathan D; Schuetz, Erin; Nickerson, Deborah A; Thummel, Ken E; Rieder, Mark J; Rettie, Allan E; Ratain, Mark J; Cox, Nancy J; Brown, Christopher D

    2011-05-01

    The discovery of expression quantitative trait loci ("eQTLs") can help to unravel genetic contributions to complex traits. We identified genetic determinants of human liver gene expression variation using two independent collections of primary tissue profiled with Agilent (n?=?206) and Illumina (n?=?60) expression arrays and Illumina SNP genotyping (550K), and we also incorporated data from a published study (n?=?266). We found that ?30% of SNP-expression correlations in one study failed to replicate in either of the others, even at thresholds yielding high reproducibility in simulations, and we quantified numerous factors affecting reproducibility. Our data suggest that drug exposure, clinical descriptors, and unknown factors associated with tissue ascertainment and analysis have substantial effects on gene expression and that controlling for hidden confounding variables significantly increases replication rate. Furthermore, we found that reproducible eQTL SNPs were heavily enriched near gene starts and ends, and subsequently resequenced the promoters and 3'UTRs for 14 genes and tested the identified haplotypes using luciferase assays. For three genes, significant haplotype-specific in vitro functional differences correlated directly with expression levels, suggesting that many bona fide eQTLs result from functional variants that can be mechanistically isolated in a high-throughput fashion. Finally, given our study design, we were able to discover and validate hundreds of liver eQTLs. Many of these relate directly to complex traits for which liver-specific analyses are likely to be relevant, and we identified dozens of potential connections with disease-associated loci. These included previously characterized eQTL contributors to diabetes, drug response, and lipid levels, and they suggest novel candidates such as a role for NOD2 expression in leprosy risk and C2orf43 in prostate cancer. In general, the work presented here will be valuable for future efforts to precisely identify and functionally characterize genetic contributions to a variety of complex traits. PMID:21637794

  18. A case of elevated liver function tests after crown-of-thorns (Acanthaster planci) envenomation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Brian; Norris, Robert L; Auerbach, Paul S

    2008-01-01

    The crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster planci) inhabits coral reefs, largely throughout the Indo-Pacific region. Its dorsal surface is covered with stout thorn-like spines. When handled or stepped on by humans, the spines can puncture the skin, causing an immediate painful reaction, followed by inflammation and possible infection. Initial pain and swelling may last for days. Effects of envenomation on the liver have been demonstrated previously in animal models, but hepatic toxicity has not previously been described in humans. We describe elevated liver enzymes in a 19-year-old female associated with A planci spine puncture wounds. To our knowledge, this is the first documented report of transaminitis in a human after A planci envenomation. PMID:19099322

  19. Liver Biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    A liver biopsy is a medical procedure performed in order to obtain a small sample of the liver. This is ... small scar. The most common reasons for a liver biopsy include the evaluation of: ? Jaundice ? Liver inflammation (hepatitis) ? ...

  20. Bees' Honey Protects the Liver of Male Rats against Melamine Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    El Rabey, Haddad A.; Al-Seeni, Madeha N.; Al-Solamy, Suad M.

    2013-01-01

    The protective effect of natural bees' honey to the liver of male albino rats against melamine toxicity was studied. Melamine supplementation at a dose of 20000?ppm in the diet for 28 days induced adverse effects on the liver, decreased serum total protein and increased liver enzyme: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase. Histological changes of the melamine supplemented group showed necrosis in the hepatic tissues around the central veins of the liver and precipitation of melamine crystals. Treating the male albino rats (that were presupplemented regularly with 20000?ppm melamine) with natural bees' honey at a dose of 2.5?g/kg body weight for 28 days improved both liver functions and increased serum protein. In addition, a positive impact on the shape of the cells after treatment with honey compared to the positive melamine supplemented group was observed. In conclusion, the results of this study revealed that the use of natural bees' honey has the ability to protect the liver of rats against the toxic effects of melamine. PMID:23971045

  1. Increased differentiation properties in two- and three-dimensional coculture of hepatocytes and liver epithelial cells by a novel quantitative functional liver assay

    E-print Network

    Moritz, Joseph M. (Joseph Michael)

    2007-01-01

    Hepatic stem cells in adult rats are activated by chemical injury to the liver, causing hepatic progenitor cells to proliferate, integrate into the hepatic plates, and differentiate into hepatocytes. In an attempt to model ...

  2. Altered UDP-glucuronosyltransferase and sulfotransferase expression and function during progressive stages of human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Hardwick, Rhiannon N; Ferreira, Daniel W; More, Vijay R; Lake, April D; Lu, Zhenqiang; Manautou, Jose E; Slitt, Angela L; Cherrington, Nathan J

    2013-03-01

    The UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) and sulfotransferases (SULTs) represent major phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes that are also responsible for maintaining cellular homeostasis by metabolism of several endogenous molecules. Perturbations in the expression or function of these enzymes can lead to metabolic disorders and improper management of xenobiotics and endobiotics. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum of liver damage ranging from steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. Because the liver plays a central role in the metabolism of xenobiotics, the purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of human NAFLD progression on the expression and function of UGTs and SULTs in normal, steatosis, NASH (fatty), and NASH (not fatty/cirrhosis) samples. We identified upregulation of UGT1A9, 2B10, and 3A1 and SULT1C4 mRNA in both stages of NASH, whereas UGT2A3, 2B15, and 2B28 and SULT1A1, 2B1, and 4A1 as well as 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate synthase 1 were increased in NASH (not fatty/cirrhosis) only. UGT1A9 and 1A6 and SULT1A1 and 2A1 protein levels were decreased in NASH; however, SULT1C4 was increased. Measurement of the glucuronidation and sulfonation of acetaminophen (APAP) revealed no alterations in glucuronidation; however, SULT activity was increased in steatosis compared with normal samples, but then decreased in NASH compared with steatosis. In conclusion, the expression of specific UGT and SULT isoforms appears to be differentially regulated, whereas sulfonation of APAP is disrupted during progression of NAFLD. PMID:23223517

  3. FXR and liver carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiong-fei; Zhao, Wei-yu; Huang, Wen-dong

    2015-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor family and a ligand-modulated transcription factor. In the liver, FXR has been considered a multi-functional cell protector and a tumor suppressor. FXR can suppress liver carcinogenesis via different mechanisms: 1) FXR maintains the normal liver metabolism of bile acids, glucose and lipids; 2) FXR promotes liver regeneration and repair after injury; 3) FXR protects liver cells from death and enhances cell survival; 4) FXR suppresses hepatic inflammation, thereby preventing inflammatory damage; and 5) FXR can directly increase the expression of some tumor-suppressor genes and repress the transcription of several oncogenes. However, inflammation and epigenetic silencing are known to decrease FXR expression during tumorigenesis. The reactivation of FXR function in the liver may be a potential therapeutic approach for patients with liver cancer. PMID:25500874

  4. Serial changes in expression of functionally clustered genes in progression of liver fibrosis in hepatitis C patients

    PubMed Central

    Takahara, Yoshiyuki; Takahashi, Mitsuo; Zhang, Qing-Wei; Wagatsuma, Hirotaka; Mori, Maiko; Tamori, Akihiro; Shiomi, Susumu; Nishiguchi, Shuhei

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship of changes in expression of marker genes in functional categories or molecular networks comprising one functional category or multiple categories in progression of hepatic fibrosis in hepatitis C (HCV) patients. METHODS: Marker genes were initially identified using DNA microarray data from a rat liver fibrosis model. The expression level of each fibrosis associated marker gene was analyzed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in clinical biopsy specimens from HCV-positive patients (n = 61). Analysis of changes in expression patterns and interactions of marker genes in functional categories was used to assess the biological mechanism of fibrosis. RESULTS: The profile data showed several biological changes associated with progression of hepatic fibrosis. Clustered genes in functional categories showed sequential changes in expression. Several sets of clustered genes, including those related to the extracellular matrix (ECM), inflammation, lipid metabolism, steroid metabolism, and some transcription factors important for hepatic biology showed expression changes in the immediate early phase (F1/F2) of fibrosis. Genes associated with aromatic amino acid (AA) metabolism, sulfur-containing AA metabolism and insulin/Wnt signaling showed expression changes in the middle phase (F2/F3), and some genes related to glucose metabolism showed altered expression in the late phase of fibrosis (F3/F4). Therefore, molecular networks showing serial changes in gene expression are present in liver fibrosis progression in hepatitis C patients. CONCLUSION: Analysis of gene expression profiles from a perspective of functional categories or molecular networks provides an understanding of disease and suggests new diagnostic methods. Selected marker genes have potential utility for biological identification of advanced fibrosis. PMID:18395900

  5. Heap of stones: an unusual cause for biliary colic and elevated liver function tests.

    PubMed

    Wittenburg, Henning; Keim, Volker; Hoffmeister, Albrecht

    2013-01-01

    A 40-year old woman presented with symptomatic intrahepatic gallstones in one liver segment only four years after cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis. Multiple small, yellow and round calculi were completely removed from the intrahepatic bile ducts via ERCP. The young age of the patient, recurrence of gallstones after cholecystectomy and intrahepatic gallstones suggested a subtype of the low-phospholipid associated cholelithiasis syndrome, a monogenic form of cholesterol cholelithiasis due to variations of the ABCB4 gene that encodes the canalicular phospholipid transporter MDR3. PMID:23619268

  6. Recent Progress on Liver Kinase B1 (LKB1): Expression, Regulation, Downstream Signaling and Cancer Suppressive Function

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Ren-You; Li, Hua-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Liver kinase B1 (LKB1), known as a serine/threonine kinase, has been identified as a critical cancer suppressor in many cancer cells. It is a master upstream kinase of 13 AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-related protein kinases, and possesses versatile biological functions. LKB1 gene is mutated in many cancers, and its protein can form different protein complexes with different cellular localizations in various cell types. The expression of LKB1 can be regulated through epigenetic modification, transcriptional regulation and post-translational modification. LKB1 dowcnstream pathways mainly include AMPK, microtubule affinity regulating kinase (MARK), salt-inducible kinase (SIK), sucrose non-fermenting protein-related kinase (SNRK) and brain selective kinase (BRSK) signalings, etc. This review, therefore, mainly discusses recent studies about the expression, regulation, downstream signaling and cancer suppressive function of LKB1, which can be helpful for better understanding of this molecular and its significance in cancers. PMID:25244018

  7. Transplantation of fetal liver tissue suspension into the spleens of adult syngenic rats: effects of different cytotoxins on cytochrome P450 mediated monooxygenase functions and on oxidative state.

    PubMed

    Lupp, A; Tralls, M; Fuchs, U; Klinger, W

    2001-02-01

    Syngenic fetal liver tissue suspensions were transplanted into the spleens of adult male Fisher 344 inbred rats. Four months after surgery, transplant recipients and age matched control rats were treated with different cytotoxins (allyl alcohol [AAL], bromobenzene [BBZ], carbon tetrachloride [CCl4], or thioacetamide [TAA]) or the respective solvents 24 or 48 hours before sacrifice. Effects of the cytotoxins on P450 mediated monooxygenase functions in liver and spleen 9,000 g supernatants were assessed by measuring the model reactions ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (EROD), ethoxycoumarin O-deethylation (ECOD), pentoxyresorufin O-depentylation (PROD), and ethylmorphine N-demethylation (EMND). Additionally, the influence on the oxidative state was investigated by assessing the liver and spleen tissue content of lipid peroxidation (LPO) products and of reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH;GSSG). The livers of both solvent treated transplant recipients and control rats displayed regular EROD, ECOD, PROD and EMND activities. After AAL treatment EROD and EMND activities within the livers were not affected, but ECOD and PROD activities were increased. BBZ administration caused a decrease in EROD and EMND activities, ECOD activity remained unaffected, and PROD activity was even increased. CCl4 and TAA administration caused a strong reduction in the activity of all four model reactions. Spleens of control rats displayed almost no P450 mediated monooxygenase functions, independent whether the rats had been treated with the cytotoxins or not. In the transplant containing spleens, however, significant EROD and ECOD, but hardly any PROD or EMND activities were seen. After AAL administration EROD activity was not affected in the transplant containing spleens, but ECOD activity was increased. BBZ treatment led to a decrease in EROD and an elevation in ECOD activity. CCl4 and TAA strongly reduced the activity of both of these model reactions. The tissue content of LPO products within livers and transplant containing spleens was significantly increased after BBZ and CCl4 treatment. An elevation in LPO products was also seen in the spleens of the control rats due to CCl4 administration. Tissue GSH and GSSG content in both livers and transplant containing spleens were strongly reduced after BBZ treatment. After CCl4 administration only a significant decrease in liver GSSG contents was seen. TAA treatment caused a reduction in the GSH and GSSG content in the spleens of both transplant recipients and control rats, but not in the livers. From these results it can be concluded, that the effects of cytotoxins like AAL, BBZ, CCl4 or TAA on P450 dependent monooxygenase functions and on oxidative state are exerted in the ectopic intrasplenic liver cell transplants in a similar way as in normal orthotopic liver. PMID:11256755

  8. Intravenous and intrapulmonary administration of honey solution to healthy sheep: effects on blood sugar, renal and liver function tests, bone marrow function, lipid profile, and carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Al-Waili, Noori S

    2003-01-01

    Safety of intravenous (i.v.) or intrapulmonary administration of different concentrations of honey and their effects on blood sugar, renal and liver function tests, bone marrow function, lipid profile, and carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver damage were studied. Healthy sheep of either sex, 6-8 months old, were assigned randomly into the following groups: sheep received i.v. infusion of 5% honey in normal saline at 10-day intervals for 50 days and were compared with sheep that received 5% dextrose; sheep received higher doses of honey (50 g of honey) by i.v. infusion daily for 10 days; sheep received four higher doses of honey (80 g each dose) for 2 weeks; sheep received subcutaneous injection of CCl(4) after four doses of i.v. infusion of 80 g of honey, and estimations of serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (SGGT), serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) were performed daily for 10 days postinjection; sheep received i.v. infusion of 40 g of honey, and blood sugar estimation was performed for 3 h at 30-min intervals after infusion and compared with sheep that received 5% dextrose; sheep received rapid i.v. injection of 40% honey or 40% dextrose, and blood sugar was estimated before and after injection; sheep received various concentrations of honey in distilled water (0.5 mL/1.5 mL, 0.75 mL/1.75 mL and 1.2 mL/2.2 mL), and blood sugar estimation was performed before and after inhalation. Results showed that i.v. or intrapulmonary administration of honey did not cause any adverse effect. Intravenous delivery of honey by slow infusion caused improvement of renal and hepatic function, bone marrow function, and lipid profile. It reduced SGOT, SGPT, triglyceride, cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen, and blood sugar and elevated serum protein, serum albumin, hemoglobin, white blood cell, and neutrophil percentage. Similar results were obtained with the use of higher doses of honey. CCl(4) caused mild elevation of SGPT and SGGT and lowering of SGOT in sheep that received repeated i.v. administration of honey before administration of CCl(4), whereas in control sheep CCl(4) caused significant elevation of all the liver enzymes. Intravenous infusion of 40 g of honey caused elevation of blood sugar for 90 min postinfusion, whereas it decreased blood sugar at 2 and 3 h postinfusion as compared with fasting blood sugar. Dextrose caused significant elevation of blood sugar at all time intervals. Similar results were obtained with the use of 10% dextrose or 80 g of honey. Addition of honey to dextrose caused less hyperglycemia as compared with dextrose alone. Acute injection of 20 mL of 40% dextrose significantly elevated blood sugar for 3 h postinjection, whereas little elevation in blood sugar was obtained after injection of 40% honey; the difference between honey and dextrose was significant. Inhalation of honey caused significant lowering of blood sugar during and after inhalation as compared with fasting blood sugar and water inhalation. The effect was greater with a higher concentration of inhaled honey. It might be concluded that slow i.v. infusion or rapid i.v. injection of honey in different concentrations was safe and could lower blood sugar and improve renal, hepatic, and bone marrow functions and lipid profile. Intravenous honey had a hepatoprotective effect against CCl(4)-induced liver injury. Inhaled honey was safe and reduced blood sugar significantly. PMID:14585190

  9. Dose response of alanine detectors irradiated with carbon ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, Rochus; Jaekel, Oliver; Palmans, Hugo; Sharpe, Peter; Bassler, Niels

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: The dose response of the alanine detector shows a dependence on particle energy and type when irradiated with ion beams. The purpose of this study is to investigate the response behavior of the alanine detector in clinical carbon ion beams and compare the results to model predictions. Methods: Alanine detectors have been irradiated with carbon ions with an energy range of 89-400 MeV/u. The relative effectiveness of alanine has been measured in this regime. Pristine and spread out Bragg peak depth-dose curves have been measured with alanine dosimeters. The track structure based alanine response model developed by Hansen and Olsen has been implemented in the Monte Carlo code FLUKA and calculations were compared to experimental results. Results: Calculations of the relative effectiveness deviate less than 5% from the measured values for monoenergetic beams. Measured depth-dose curves deviate from predictions in the peak region, most pronounced at the distal edge of the peak. Conclusions: The used model and its implementation show a good overall agreement for quasimonoenergetic measurements. Deviations in depth-dose measurements are mainly attributed to uncertainties of the detector geometry implemented in the Monte Carlo simulations.

  10. SOD Mimetic Improves the Function, Growth, and Survival of Small-Size Liver Grafts After Transplantation in Rats.

    E-print Network

    2012-01-01

    Wakabayashi G, et al. Liver regeneration in donors and adultregeneration in porcine small- for-size transplantation. Liverregeneration by ischemic preconditioning in a rat model of small-for-size liver

  11. SOD mimetic improves the function, growth, and survival of small-size liver grafts after transplantation in rats.

    E-print Network

    2012-01-01

    Wakabayashi G, et al. Liver regeneration in donors and adultregeneration in porcine small- for-size transplantation. Liverregeneration by ischemic preconditioning in a rat model of small-for-size liver

  12. Protective effect of Tribulus terrestris linn on liver and kidney in cadmium intoxicated rats.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, G Dhana; Kumar, P Ravi; Bharavi, K; Annapurna, P; Rajendar, B; Patel, Pankaj T; Kumar, C S V Satish; Rao, G S

    2012-02-01

    Administration of cadmium (Cd) significantly increased the peroxidation markers such as malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls along with significant decrease in antioxidant markers such as super oxide dismutase and reduced glutathione in liver and kidney tissues. Cadmium also caused a significant alteration in hepatic and renal functional markers in serum viz. total protein, albumin, alanine transaminase, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. Prominent pathological changes observed in liver were severe vascular and sinusoidal congestion with diffuse degenerative changes and mononuclear infiltration into peripheral areas, while the kidney showed vascular and glomerular congestion, cloudy swelling of tubular epithelium. Coadministration of ethonolic extract of T. terrestris or vitamin E along with Cd significantly reversed the Cd induced changes along with significant reduction in Cd load. PMID:22670477

  13. Metabolism of benzene and phenol by a reconstituted purified phenobarbital induced rat liver mixed function oxidase system

    SciTech Connect

    Griffiths, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Cytochrome P-450 and the electron-donor, NADPH-cytochrome c reductase were isolated from phenobarbital induced rat liver microsomes. Both benzene and its primary metabolite phenol, were substrates for the reconstituted purified phenobarbital induced rat liver mixed function oxidase system. Benzene was metabolized to phenol and the polyhydroxylated metabolites; catechol, hydroquinone and 1,2,4 benzenetriol. Benzene elicited a Type I spectral change upon its interaction with the cytochrome P-450 while phenol's interaction with the cytochrome P-450 produced a reverse Type I spectra. The formation of phenol showed a pH optimum of 7.0 compared with 6.6-6.8 for the production of the polyhyrdoxylated metabolites. Cytochrome P-450 inhibitors, such as metyrapone and SKF 525A, diminished the production of phenol from benzene but not the production of the polyhydroxylated metabolites from phenol. The radical trapping agents, DMSO, KTBA and mannitol, decreased the recovery of polyhydroxylated metabolites, from /sup 14/C-labeled benzene and/or phenol. As KTBA and DMSO interacted with OH. There was a concomitant release of ethylene and methane, which was measured. Desferrioxamine, an iron-chelator and catalase also depressed the recovery of polyhydroxylated metabolites. In summary, benzene and phenol were both substrates for this reconstituted purified enzyme system, but they differed in binding to cytochrome P-450, pH optima and mode of hydroxylation.

  14. Clinical, biochemical, and histological studies of osteomalacia, osteoporosis, and parathyroid function in chronic liver disease.

    PubMed Central

    Long, R G; Meinhard, E; Skinner, R K; Varghese, Z; Wills, M R; Sherlock, S

    1978-01-01

    Twenty of 32 patients with either chronic cholestatic or hepatocellular liver disease had bone pain or recent fractures. On bone biopsy five patients had normal bone, 15 had osteomalacia, five had osteoporosis, and seven had a combination of osteomalacia and osteoporosis. In the presence of osteoporosis, osteomalacia was minimal or absent. There was no biochemical, radiological, or histological evidence of excess parathyroid activity. No significant correlations were demonstrated between the plasma and urinary biochemical findings and the presence of either osteoporosis or osteomalacia and bone biopsy was essential for correct diagnosis. There was no statistical relationship between low serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D values and the presence of osteomalacia. Bone disease was not prevented by regular intramuscular vitamin D2, although biochemical changes were improved. Drugs such as corticosteroids and cholestyramine may be important aetiological factors in hepatic osteodystrophy. PMID:305386

  15. Monopeptide versus Monopeptoid: Insights on Structure and Hydration of Aqueous Alanine and Sarcosine via X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Uejio, Janel S.; Schwartz, Craig P.; Duffin, Andrew M.; England, Alice; Prendergast, David; Saykally, Richard J.

    2009-11-19

    Despite the obvious significance, the aqueous interactions of peptides remain incompletely understood. Their synthetic analogues called peptoids (poly-N-substituted glycines), have recently emerged as a promising biomimetic material, particularly due to their robust secondary structure and resistance to denaturation. We describe comparative near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy studies of aqueous sarcosine, the simplest peptoid, and alanine, its peptide isomer, interpreted by density functional theory calculations. The sarcosine nitrogen K-edge spectrum is blue-shifted with respect to that of alanine, in agreement with our calculations; we conclude that this shift results primarily from the methyl group substitution on the nitrogen of sarcosine. Our calculations indicate that the nitrogen K-edge spectrum of alanine differs significantly between dehydrated and hydrated scenarios, while that of the sarcosine zwitterion is less affected by hydration. In contrast, the computed sarcosine spectrum is greatly impacted by conformational variations, while the alanine spectrum is not. This relates to a predicted solvent dependence for alanine, as compared to sarcosine. Additionally, we show the theoretical nitrogen K-edge spectra to be sensitive to the degree of hydration, indicating that experimental X-ray spectroscopy may be able to distinguish between bulk and partial hydration, such as found in confined environments near proteins and in reverse micelles.

  16. Rapid Crystallization of L-Alanine on Engineered Surfaces using Metal-Assisted and Microwave-Accelerated Evaporative Crystallization

    PubMed Central

    Alabanza, Anginelle M.; Pozharski, Edwin; Aslan, Kadir

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrates the application of metal-assisted and microwave-accelerated evaporative crystallization (MA-MAEC) technique to rapid crystallization of L-alanine on surface engineered silver nanostructures. In this regard, silver island films (SIFs) were modified with hexamethylenediamine (HMA), 1-undecanethiol (UDET), and 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUDA), which introduced -NH2, -CH3 and -COOH functional groups to SIFs, respectively. L-Alanine was crystallized on these engineered surfaces and blank SIFs at room temperature and using MA-MAEC technique. Significant improvements in crystal size, shape, and quality were observed on HMA-, MUDA- and UDET-modified SIFs at room temperature (crystallization time = 144, 40 and 147 min, respectively) as compared to those crystals grown on blank SIFs. Using the MA-MAEC technique, the crystallization time of L-alanine on engineered surfaces were reduced to 17 sec for microwave power level 10 (i.e., duty cycle 100%) and 7 min for microwave power level 1 (duty cycle 10%). Raman spectroscopy and powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements showed that L-Alanine crystals grown on engineered surfaces using MA-MAEC technique had identical characteristic peaks of L-alanine crystals grown using traditional evaporative crystallization. PMID:22267957

  17. Rapid Crystallization of L-Alanine on Engineered Surfaces using Metal-Assisted and Microwave-Accelerated Evaporative Crystallization.

    PubMed

    Alabanza, Anginelle M; Pozharski, Edwin; Aslan, Kadir

    2012-01-01

    This study demonstrates the application of metal-assisted and microwave-accelerated evaporative crystallization (MA-MAEC) technique to rapid crystallization of L-alanine on surface engineered silver nanostructures. In this regard, silver island films (SIFs) were modified with hexamethylenediamine (HMA), 1-undecanethiol (UDET), and 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUDA), which introduced -NH(2), -CH(3) and -COOH functional groups to SIFs, respectively. L-Alanine was crystallized on these engineered surfaces and blank SIFs at room temperature and using MA-MAEC technique. Significant improvements in crystal size, shape, and quality were observed on HMA-, MUDA- and UDET-modified SIFs at room temperature (crystallization time = 144, 40 and 147 min, respectively) as compared to those crystals grown on blank SIFs. Using the MA-MAEC technique, the crystallization time of L-alanine on engineered surfaces were reduced to 17 sec for microwave power level 10 (i.e., duty cycle 100%) and 7 min for microwave power level 1 (duty cycle 10%). Raman spectroscopy and powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements showed that L-Alanine crystals grown on engineered surfaces using MA-MAEC technique had identical characteristic peaks of L-alanine crystals grown using traditional evaporative crystallization. PMID:22267957

  18. Crystal growth, structure and characterizations of a new semiorganic nonlinear optical material-{beta}-Alanine zinc chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Anbuchezhiyan, M.; Ponnusamy, S.; Muthamizhchelvan, C.; Sivakumar, K.

    2010-08-15

    The title compound, {beta}-alanine zinc chloride-a new semiorganic nonlinear optical crystal was grown by slow evaporation technique. Single crystals of {beta}-alanine zinc chloride have been subjected to X-ray diffraction analysis to determine the crystal structure. The powder X-ray diffractogram of the crystal has also been recorded. The amount of carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen in the crystals was also estimated. Fourier Transform Infrared and Raman spectral measurements have been carried out on the grown crystals in order to identify the functional groups. The presence of hydrogen and carbon in the {beta}-alanine zinc chloride was confirmed by using proton and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance spectral analyses. The percentage of zinc in the crystal was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Optical behavior such as ultraviolet-vis-near infrared transmittance spectrum and second harmonic generation has been investigated. The mechanical strength and thermal behavior of the grown crystal have been analyzed.

  19. Liver involvement in systemic infection

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    The liver is often involved in systemic infections, resulting in various types of abnormal liver function test results. In particular, hyperbilirubinemia in the range of 2-10 mg/dL is often seen in patients with sepsis, and several mechanisms for this phenomenon have been proposed. In this review, we summarize how the liver is involved in various systemic infections that are not considered to be primarily hepatotropic. In most patients with systemic infections, treatment for the invading microbes is enough to normalize the liver function tests. However, some patients may show severe liver injury or fulminant hepatic failure, requiring intensive treatment of the liver. PMID:25276279

  20. Measuring Markers of Liver Function Using a Micro-Patterned Paper Device Designed for Blood from a Fingerstick

    PubMed Central

    Vella, Sarah J.; Beattie, Patrick; Cademartiri, Rebecca; Laromaine, Anna; Martinez, Andres W.; Phillips, Scott T.; Mirica, Katherine A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a paper-based microfluidic device that measures two enzymatic markers of liver function (alkaline phosphatase ALP, and aspartate aminotransferase AST) and total serum protein. A device consists of four components: i) a top plastic sheet, ii) a filter membrane, iii) a patterned paper chip containing the reagents necessary for analysis, and iv) a bottom plastic sheet. The device performs both the sample preparation (separating blood plasma from erythrocytes) and the assays; it also enables both qualitative and quantitative analysis of data. The data obtained from the paper-microfluidic devices show standard deviations in calibration runs and “spiked” standards that are acceptable for routine clinical use. This device illustrates a type of test useable for a range of assays in resource-poor settings. PMID:22390675

  1. Liver biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    Biopsy - liver; Percutaneous biopsy ... the biopsy needle to be inserted into the liver. This is often done by using ultrasound. The ... the chance of damage to the lung or liver. The needle is removed quickly. Pressure will be ...

  2. Liver Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... remove poisons. There are many kinds of liver diseases. Viruses cause some of them, like hepatitis A, ... the skin, can be one sign of liver disease. Cancer can affect the liver. You could also ...

  3. Low G preconditioning reduces liver injury induced by high +Gz exposure in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Bin; Feng, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Wen-Bing; Zhang, Hong-Yi

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of repeated lower +Gz exposure on liver injury induced by high +Gz exposure in rats. METHODS: Sixty male Wister rats were randomly divided into a blank control group, a low G preconditioning group (LG) (exposed to +4 Gz/5 min per day for 3 d before +10 Gz/5 min exposure), and a +10 Gz/5 min group (10G) (n = 20 in each group). Blood specimens and liver tissue were harvested at 0 h and 6 h after +10 Gz/5 min exposure. Liver function was analyzed by measuring serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, and liver injury was further assessed by histopathological observation. Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Na+-K+-ATPase were determined in hepatic tissue. RESULTS: The group LG had lower ALT, AST, and MDA values at 0 h after exposure than those in group 10G. SOD values and Na+-K+-ATPase activity in the LG group were higher than in group 10G 0 h post-exposure. Hepatocyte injury was significantly less in group LG than in group 10G on histopathological evaluation. CONCLUSION: It is suggested that repeated low +Gz exposure shows a protective effect on liver injury induced by high +Gz exposure in rats. PMID:26074692

  4. Death receptor and mitochondria-mediated hepatocyte apoptosis underlies liver dysfunction in rats exposed to organic pollutants from drinking water

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guanghong; Zhou, Zhiwei; Cen, Yanli; Gui, Xiaolin; Zeng, Qibing; Ao, Yunxia; Li, Qian; Wang, Shiran; Li, Jun; Zhang, Aihua

    2015-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants in drinking water impose a substantial risk to the health of human beings, but the evidence for liver toxic effect and the underlying mechanism is scarce. This study aimed to examine the liver toxicity and elucidate the molecular mechanism of organic pollutants in drinking water in normal human liver cell line L02 cells and rats. The data showed that organic extraction from drinking water remarkably impaired rat liver function, evident from the increase in the serum level of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and cholinesterase, and decrease in the serum level of total protein and albumin. Organic extraction dose-dependently induced apoptotic cell death in rat liver and L02 cells. Administration of rats with organic extraction promoted death receptor signaling pathway through the increase in gene and protein expression level of Fas and FasL. Treatment of rats with organic extraction also induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis via increasing the expression level of proapoptotic protein, Bax, but decreasing the expression level of antiapoptotic protein, Bcl-2, resulting in an upregulation of cytochrome c and activation of caspase cascade at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Moreover, organic extraction enhanced rat liver glutathione S-transferases activity and reactive oxygen species generation, and upregulated aryl hydrocarbon receptor and glutathione S-transferase A1 at both transcriptional and translational levels. Collectively, the results indicate that organic extraction from drinking water impairs liver function, with the involvement of death receptor and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in rats. The results provide evidence and molecular mechanisms for organic pollutants in drinking water-induced liver dysfunction, which may help prevent and treat organic extraction-induced liver injury. PMID:26316710

  5. Death receptor and mitochondria-mediated hepatocyte apoptosis underlies liver dysfunction in rats exposed to organic pollutants from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guanghong; Zhou, Zhiwei; Cen, Yanli; Gui, Xiaolin; Zeng, Qibing; Ao, Yunxia; Li, Qian; Wang, Shiran; Li, Jun; Zhang, Aihua

    2015-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants in drinking water impose a substantial risk to the health of human beings, but the evidence for liver toxic effect and the underlying mechanism is scarce. This study aimed to examine the liver toxicity and elucidate the molecular mechanism of organic pollutants in drinking water in normal human liver cell line L02 cells and rats. The data showed that organic extraction from drinking water remarkably impaired rat liver function, evident from the increase in the serum level of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and cholinesterase, and decrease in the serum level of total protein and albumin. Organic extraction dose-dependently induced apoptotic cell death in rat liver and L02 cells. Administration of rats with organic extraction promoted death receptor signaling pathway through the increase in gene and protein expression level of Fas and FasL. Treatment of rats with organic extraction also induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis via increasing the expression level of proapoptotic protein, Bax, but decreasing the expression level of antiapoptotic protein, Bcl-2, resulting in an upregulation of cytochrome c and activation of caspase cascade at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Moreover, organic extraction enhanced rat liver glutathione S-transferases activity and reactive oxygen species generation, and upregulated aryl hydrocarbon receptor and glutathione S-transferase A1 at both transcriptional and translational levels. Collectively, the results indicate that organic extraction from drinking water impairs liver function, with the involvement of death receptor and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in rats. The results provide evidence and molecular mechanisms for organic pollutants in drinking water-induced liver dysfunction, which may help prevent and treat organic extraction-induced liver injury. PMID:26316710

  6. Abnormal fecal microbiota community and functions in patients with hepatitis B liver cirrhosis as revealed by a metagenomic approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Assessment and characterization of human colon microbiota is now a major research area in human diseases, including in patients with hepatitis B liver cirrhosis (HBLC). Methods We recruited 120 patients with HBLC and 120 healthy controls. The fecal microbial community and functions in the two groups were analyzed using high-throughput Solexa sequencing of the complete metagenomic DNA and bioinformatics methods. Results Community and metabolism-wide changes of the fecal microbiota in 20 HBLC patients and 20 healthy controls were observed and compared. A negative correlation was observed between the Child-Turcotte-Pugh scores and Bacteroidetes (P?liver cirrhosis microbiota samples from normal ones. The functional diversity was significantly reduced in the fecal microbiota of cirrhotic patients compared with in the controls. At the module or pathway levels, the fecal microbiota of the HBLC patients showed enrichment in the metabolism of glutathione, gluconeogenesis, branched-chain amino acid, nitrogen, and lipid (P?

  7. Dimethylformamide-induced liver damage among synthetic leather workers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.D.; Lai, M.Y.; Chen, J.S.; Lin, J.M.; Chiang, J.R.; Shiau, S.J.; Chang, W.S. )

    1991-05-01

    Prevalence of liver injury associated with dimethylformamide (DMF) exposure was determined. Medical examinations, liver function tests, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) determinations were performed on 183 of 204 (76%) employees of a synthetic leather factory. Air concentrations of solvents were measured with personal samplers and gas chromatography. The concentration of DMF in air to which each worker was exposed was categorized. High exposure concentrations of DMF (i.e., 25-60 ppm) were significantly associated with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (ALT greater than or equal to 35 IU/l), a result that did not change even after stratification by hepatitis B carrier status. Modeling by logistic regression demonstrated that exposure to high concentrations of DMF was associated with an elevated ALT (p = .01), whereas hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was slightly but independently associated with an elevated ALT (p = .07). In those workers who had normal ALT values, there occurred still significantly higher mean ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, especially among those who were not HBsAg carriers. A significant association existed between elevated CPK levels and exposure to DMF. However, an analysis of the CPK isoenzyme among 143 workers did not reveal any specific damage to muscles. This outbreak of liver injury among synthetic leather workers is ascribed to DMF. It is recommended that the occupational standard for DMF and its toxicity among HBsAg carriers be evaluated further.

  8. Acute ?-N-Methylamino-L-alanine Toxicity in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sammak, Maitham Ahmed; Rogers, Douglas G.; Hoagland, Kyle D.

    2015-01-01

    The cyanobacterial neurotoxin ?-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is considered to be an “excitotoxin,” and its suggested mechanism of action is killing neurons. Long-term exposure to L-BMAA is believed to lead to neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease). Objectives of this study were to determine the presumptive median lethal dose (LD50), the Lowest-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level (LOAEL), and histopathologic lesions caused by the naturally occurring BMAA isomer, L-BMAA, in mice. Seventy NIH Swiss Outbred mice (35 male and 35 female) were used. Treatment group mice were injected intraperitoneally with 0.03, 0.3, 1, 2, and 3?mg/g body weight L-BMAA, respectively, and control mice were sham-injected. The presumptive LD50 of L-BMAA was 3?mg/g BW and the LOAEL was 2?mg/g BW. There were no histopathologic lesions in brain, liver, heart, kidney, lung, or spleen in any of the mice during the 14-day study. L-BMAA was detected in brains and livers in all of treated mice but not in control mice. Males injected with 0.03?mg/g BW, 0.3?mg/g BW, and 3.0?mg/g BW L-BMAA showed consistently higher concentrations (P < 0.01) in brain and liver samples as compared to females in those respective groups. PMID:26604922

  9. Upper Limits of Normal for Serum Alanine Aminotransferase Levels in Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ming-Hua; Shi, Ke-Qing; Fan, Yu-Chen; Liu, Wen-Yue; Lin, Xian-Feng; Li, Ling-Fei; Chen, Yong-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity is the most common tool for the assessment of liver diseases. However, it is not clear whether the current normal ALT range really discriminate patients with or without liver diseases. The present study was to establish a new normal range of ALT and examine its ability to identify patients with hepatitis B or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Chinese Han population. Methods 53037 adults were included in this study from January 1st 2008 to August 31st 2010. The 95th percentile of ALT in population with relative low risk factors for liver diseases was set as the new upper limits of normal ALT in gender-specific manner. Results The 95th percentile levels at low risk factors for liver diseases were achieved at 35 U/L for men and 23 U/L for women. The concordance statistics for detection were 0.873 (95%CI: 0.865–0.881) for HBV and 0.932 (95%CI: 0.927–0.937) for NAFLD in men while 0.857 (95%CI: 0.850–0.864) for HBV and 0.909 (95%CI: 0.903–0.915) for NAFLD in women. The median sensitivity of the current used ALT upper limit (40 U/L) was 6.6% for HBV and 29.7% for NAFLD and median specificity was 98.7% for men and 99.4% for women. Using our new-derived thresholds, the sensitivities ranged from 35.3% to 61.1% and the specificities were 94.8% for men and 94.6% for women. Conclusions Our results suggest that upper limits of ALT 35 U/L for men and 23 U/L for women in Chinese Han population. Re-consideration of normal limits of ALT should be recommended. Trial Registration ChiCTR.org ChiCTR-OCS-11001173 PMID:22962588

  10. Alanine and aspartate aminotransferase and glutamine-cycling pathway: Their roles in pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sookoian, Silvia; Pirola, Carlos J

    2012-01-01

    Although new research technologies are constantly used to look either for genes or biomarkers in the prediction of metabolic syndrome (MS), the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of this complex disease remains a major challenge. Interestingly, Cheng et al recently investigated possible pathways underlying MS by high-throughput metabolite profiling in two large and well characterized community-based cohorts. The authors explored by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry the plasma concentrations of 45 distinct metabolites and examined their relation to cardiometabolic risk, and observed that metabolic risk factors such as obesity, insulin resistance (IR), high blood pressure, and dyslipidemia were associated with several metabolites, including branched-chain amino acids, other hydrophobic amino acids, tryptophan breakdown products, and nucleotide metabolites. In addition, the authors found a significant association of IR traits with glutamine, glutamate and the glutamine-to-glutamate ratio. These data provide new insight into the pathogenesis of MS-associated phenotypes and introduce a crucial role of glutamine-cycling pathway as prominently involved in the development of metabolic risk. We consider that the hypothesis about the role of abnormal glutamate metabolism in the pathogenesis of the MS is certainly challenging and suggests the critical role of the liver in the global metabolic modulation as glutamate metabolism is linked with aminotransferase reactions. We discuss here the critical role of the “liver metabolism” in the pathogenesis of the MS and IR, and postulate that before fatty liver develops, abnormal levels of liver enzymes, such as alanine and aspartate aminotransferases might reflect high levels of hepatic transamination of amino acids in the liver. PMID:22876026

  11. Inflammatory Monocytes Recruited to the Liver within 24 Hours after Virus-Induced Inflammation Resemble Kupffer Cells but Are Functionally Distinct

    PubMed Central

    Movita, Dowty; Biesta, Paula; Kreefft, Kim; Haagmans, Bart; Zuniga, Elina; Herschke, Florence; De Jonghe, Sandra; Janssen, Harry L. A.; Gama, Lucio; Boonstra, Andre

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Due to a scarcity of immunocompetent animal models for viral hepatitis, little is known about the early innate immune responses in the liver. In various hepatotoxic models, both pro- and anti-inflammatory activities of recruited monocytes have been described. In this study, we compared the effect of liver inflammation induced by the Toll-like receptor 4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with that of a persistent virus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) clone 13, on early innate intrahepatic immune responses in mice. LCMV infection induces a remarkable influx of inflammatory monocytes in the liver within 24 h, accompanied by increased transcript levels of several proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in whole liver. Importantly, while a single LPS injection results in similar recruitment of inflammatory monocytes to the liver, the functional properties of the infiltrating cells are dramatically different in response to LPS versus LCMV infection. In fact, intrahepatic inflammatory monocytes are skewed toward a secretory phenotype with impaired phagocytosis in LCMV-induced liver inflammation but exhibit increased endocytic capacity after LPS challenge. In contrast, F4/80high-Kupffer cells retain their steady-state endocytic functions upon LCMV infection. Strikingly, the gene expression levels of inflammatory monocytes dramatically change upon LCMV exposure and resemble those of Kupffer cells. Since inflammatory monocytes outnumber Kupffer cells 24 h after LCMV infection, it is highly likely that inflammatory monocytes contribute to the intrahepatic inflammatory response during the early phase of infection. Our findings are instrumental in understanding the early immunological events during virus-induced liver disease and point toward inflammatory monocytes as potential target cells for future treatment options in viral hepatitis. IMPORTANCE Insights into how the immune system deals with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HCV are scarce due to the lack of adequate animal model systems. This knowledge is, however, crucial to developing new antiviral strategies aimed at eradicating these chronic infections. We model virus-host interactions during the initial phase of liver inflammation 24 h after inoculating mice with LCMV. We show that infected Kupffer cells are rapidly outnumbered by infiltrating inflammatory monocytes, which secrete proinflammatory cytokines but are less phagocytic. Nevertheless, these recruited inflammatory monocytes start to resemble Kupffer cells on a transcript level. The specificity of these cellular changes for virus-induced liver inflammation is corroborated by demonstrating opposite functions of monocytes after LPS challenge. Overall, this demonstrates the enormous functional and genetic plasticity of infiltrating monocytes and identifies them as an important target cell for future treatment regimens. PMID:25673700

  12. How useful are clinical liver function tests in in vitro human hepatotoxicity assays?

    PubMed

    Borlak, Jürgen; Chougule, Anil; Singh, Prafull Kumar

    2014-08-01

    In preclinical hepatotoxicity testing cell based assays are frequently employed. However, prediction of clinical drug induced liver injury (DILI) remains a major challenge. Here we examined the usefulness of frequently employed markers of hepatocellular injury in cultures of primary human hepatocytes (PHH) in response to treatment with either paracetamol, rifampicin, petadolex and/or amiodarone. The changes in the metabolic competency (urea and albumin) and cellular injury (AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, ?GT and succinate dehydrogenase) were determined at therapeutic and above drug concentrations as to evaluate the utility of these markers in in vitro systems. Initially, treatment of PHH with any of the drugs caused a statistically significant reduction in enzyme activities to suggest a switch from basic amino acid metabolism towards induced detoxification. However, treatment for prolonged periods of time caused cytolysis, as evidenced by the significant rise in extracellular LDH and the concomitant increase in ALT and AST activity. Notably, amongst the various endpoints studied, urea was best to demonstrate dose dependent metabolic stress, while other markers of hepatocellular injury were highly variable. Taken collectively, urea measurement proofed to be robust in predicting hepatocellular stress; therefore it should be included in preclinical testing strategies for an improved prediction of DILI. PMID:24685772

  13. Quercetin protects against perfluorooctanoic acid-induced liver injury by attenuating oxidative stress and inflammatory response in mice.

    PubMed

    Zou, Weiying; Liu, Wenwen; Yang, Bei; Wu, Lei; Yang, Jianhua; Zou, Ting; Liu, Fangming; Xia, Liping; Zhang, Dalei

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of quercetin (Que) against perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)-induced liver injury in mice and its possible mechanisms of action. Mice were intragastrically administered PFOA (10mg/kg/day) alone or in combination with Que (75 mg/kg/day) for 14 consecutive days. The hepatic injury was evaluated by measuring morphological changes, liver function, oxidative stress, inflammatory response and hepatocellular apoptosis. Compared with mice treated with PFOA alone, simultaneous supplementation of Que significantly decreased serum levels of liver injury indicators alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and total bile acids. Moreover, Que treatment inhibited the production of oxidative stress biomarkers malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, reduced the levels of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 6, cyclooxygenase-2 and C-reactive protein, and decreased the number of TUNEL-positive cells in the liver of PFOA-treated mice. These results combined with liver histopathology demonstrated that Que exhibited a potential protective effect against PFOA-induced liver damage via mechanisms involving the attenuation of oxidative stress, alleviation of inflammation and inhibition of hepatocellular apoptosis. PMID:26054880

  14. Extracorporeal Bioartificial Liver for Treating Acute Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashok; Tripathi, Anuj; Jain, Shivali

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Liver is a vital organ of the human body performing myriad of essential functions. Liver-related ailments are often life-threatening and dramatically deteriorate the quality of life of patients. Management of acute liver diseases requires adequate support of various hepatic functions. Thus far, liver transplantation has been proven as the only effective solution for acute liver diseases. However, broader application of liver transplantation is limited by demand for lifelong immunosuppression, shortage of organ donors, relative high morbidity, and high cost. Therefore, research has been focused on attempting to develop alternative support systems to treat liver diseases. Earlier attempts have been made to use nonbiological therapies based on the use of conventional detoxification procedures such as filtration and dialysis. However, the absence of liver cells in such techniques reduced the overall survival rate of the patients and led to inadequate essential liver-specific functions. As a result, there has been growing interest in the development of biological therapy-based extracorporeal liver support systems as a bridge to liver transplantation or to support the ailing liver. A bioartificial liver support is an extracorporeal device through which plasma is circulated over living and functionally active hepatocytes packed in a bioreactor with the aim to aid the diseased liver until it regenerates or until a suitable graft for transplantation is available. This review article gives a brief overview of efficacy of various liver support systems that are currently available. Also, the development of advanced liver support systems, which has been analyzed for improving the important system component such as cell source and other culture and circulation conditions for the maintenance of the liver-specific functions, have been described. PMID:22416599

  15. Inhibition of Mycobacterial Alanine Racemase Activity and Growth by Thiadiazolidinones

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yashang; Mootien, Sara; Shoen, Carolyn; Destefano, Michelle; Cirillo, Pier; Asojo, Oluwatoyin A.; Yeung, Kacheong R.; Ledizet, Michel; Cynamon, Michael H.; Aristoff, Paul A.; Koski, Raymond A.; Kaplan, Paul A.; Anthony, Karen G.

    2013-01-01

    The genus Mycobacterium includes non-pathogenic species such as M. smegmatis, and pathogenic species such as M. tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB). Treatment of TB requires a lengthy regimen of several antibiotics, whose effectiveness has been compromised by the emergence of resistant strains. New antibiotics that can shorten the treatment course and those that have not been compromised by bacterial resistance are needed. In this study, we report that thiadiazolidinones, a relatively little-studied heterocyclic class, inhibit the activity of mycobacterial alanine racemase, an essential enzyme that converts L-alanine to D-alanine for peptidoglycan synthesis. Twelve members of the thiadiazolidinone family were evaluated for inhibition of M. tuberculosis and M. smegmatis alanine racemase activity and bacterial growth. Thiadiazolidinones inhibited M. tuberculosis and M. smegmatis alanine racemases to different extents with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) ranging from <0.03 to 28 µM and 23 to >150 µM, respectively. The compounds also inhibited the growth of these bacteria, including multidrug resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for drug-susceptible M. tuberculosis and M. smegmatis ranged from 6.25 µg/ml to 100 µg/ml, and from 1.56 to 6.25 µg/ml for drug-resistant M. tuberculosis. The in vitro activities of thiadiazolidinones suggest that this family of compounds might represent starting points for medicinal chemistry efforts aimed at developing novel antimycobacterial agents. PMID:23680030

  16. Efficient in vitro refolding and functional characterization of recombinant human liver carboxylesterase (CES1) expressed in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Boonyuen, Usa; Promnares, Kamoltip; Junkree, Suwapat; Day, Nichloas P.J.; Imwong, Mallika

    2015-01-01

    Human liver carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) plays a critical role in the hydrolysis of various ester- and amide-containing molecules, including active metabolites, drugs and prodrugs. However, it has been problematic to express recombinant CES1 in bacterial expression systems due to low solubility, with the CES1 protein being mainly expressed in inclusion bodies, accompanied by insufficient purity issues. In this study, we report an efficient in vitro method for refolding recombinant CES1 from inclusion bodies. A one-step purification with an immobilized-metal affinity column was utilized to purify His-tagged recombinant CES1. Conveniently, both denaturant and imidazole can be removed while the enzyme is refolded via buffer exchange, a dilution method. We show that the refolding of recombinant CES1 was successful in Tris–HCl at pH 7.5 containing a combination of 1% glycerol and 2 mM ?-mercaptoethanol, whereas a mixture of other additives (trehalose, sorbitol and sucrose) and ?-mercaptoethanol failed to recover a functional protein. His-tagged recombinant CES1 retains its biological activity after refolding and can be used directly without removing the fusion tag. Altogether, our results provide an alternative method for obtaining a substantial amount of functionally active protein, which is advantageous for further investigations such as structural and functional studies. PMID:25462813

  17. Recombinant rat liver guanidinoacetate methyltransferase: Reactivity and function of sulfhydryl groups

    SciTech Connect

    Fujioka, Motoji; Konishi, Kiyoshi; Takata, Yoshimi )

    1988-10-04

    Rat liver guanidinoacetate methyltransferase, produced in Escherichia coli by recombinant DNA technique, possesses five cysteine residues per molecule. No disulfide bond is present. Analysis of the chymotryptic peptides derived from the iodo({sup 14}C)acetate-modified enzyme shows that Cys-90, Cys-15, Cys-219, and Cys-207 are alkylated by the reagent in order of decreasing reactivity. Incubation of the enzyme with excess 5,5{prime}-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoate) (DTNB) in the absence and presence of cystamine (2,2{prime}-dithiobis(ethylamine)) causes the appearance of 4 and 5 mol of 2-nitro-5-mercaptobenzoate/mol of enzyme, respectively. Reaction of the methyltransferase with an equimolar amount of DTNB results in an almost quantitative disulfide cross-linking of Cys-15 and Cys-90 with loss of a large portion of the activity. The methyltransferase is completely inactivated by iodoacetate following nonlinear kinetics. Comparison of the extent of inactivation with that of modification of cysteine residues and the experiment with the enzyme whose Cys-15 and Cys-90 are cross-linked suggest that alkylation of Cys-15 and Cys-90 results in a partially active enzyme and that carboxymethylation of Cys-219 completely eliminates enzyme activity. The inactivation of guanidinoacetate methyltransferase by iodoacetate or DTNB is not protected by substrates. Furthermore, disulfide cross-linking of Cys-15 and Cys-90 or carboxymethylation of Cys-219 does not impair the enzyme's capacity to bind S-adenosylmethionine. Thus, these cysteine residues appear to occur outside the active-site region, but their integrity is crucial for the expression of enzyme activity.

  18. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a rainbow trout liver Oatp

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Konstanze; Hagenbuch, Bruno; Dietrich, Daniel R.

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms have an impact on the aquatic ecosystem due to the production of toxins (e.g. microcystins, MCs), which constrains fish health or even cause fish death. However the toxicokinetics of the most abundant toxin, microcystin-LR (MC-LR), are not yet fully understood. To investigate the uptake mechanism, the novel Oatp1d1 in rainbow trout (rtOatp1d1) was cloned, identified and characterized. The cDNA isolated from a clone library consisted of 2772 bp containing a 2115 bp open reading frame coding for a 705 aa protein with an approximate molecular mass of 80 kDa. This fish specific transporter belongs to the OATP1 family and has most likely evolved from a common ancestor of OATP1C1. Real time PCR analysis showed that rtOatp1d1 is predominantly expressed in the liver, followed by the brain while expression in other organs was not detectable. Transient transfection in HEK293 cells was used for further characterization. Like its human homologs OATP1A1, OATP1B1 and OATP1B3, rtOatp1d1 displayed multi-specific transport including endogenous and xenobiotic substrates. Kinetic analyses revealed a Km value of 13.9 ?M and 13.4 ?M for estrone-3-sulfate and methotrexate, respectively and a rather low affinity for taurocholate with a Km value of 103 ?M. Furthermore, it was confirmed that rtOatp1d1 is a MC-LR transporter and therefore most likely plays a key role in the susceptibility of rainbow trout to MC intoxications. PMID:25218291

  19. Evaluation of Conformation and Association Behavior of Multivalent Alanine-Rich Polypeptides

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Robin S.; Top, Ayben; Argust, Lindsey M.; Liu, Shuang; Kiick, Kristi L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Helical alanine-rich polypeptides with functional groups displayed along the backbone can display desired molecules such as saccharides or therapeutic molecules at a prescribed spacing. Because these polypeptides have promise for application as biomaterials, the conformation and association of these molecules have been investigated under biologically relevant conditions. Methods Three polypeptide sequences, 17-H-3, 17-H-6, and 35-H-6, have been produced through recombinant techniques. Circular dichroic (CD) spectroscopy was used to monitor the secondary structure of the polypeptides in PBS (phosphate buffered saline, pH 7.4). The aggregation behavior in PBS was monitored via analytical ultracentrifugation and non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results The three polypeptides adopt a highly helical structure at low and ambient temperatures, and when heated, undergo a helix-to-coil transition, typical of other alanine-rich peptide sequences. The melting temperatures and van’t Hoff enthalpies, extracted from the CD data, suggest similar stability of the sequences. Although alanine-rich sequences can be prone to aggregation, there is no indication of aggregation for the three polypeptides at a range of concentrations relevant for possible biological applications. Conclusions The helical polypeptides are monomeric under biologically relevant conditions enabling application of these polypeptides as useful scaffolds for ligand or drug display. PMID:17674161

  20. Efficacy of herbomineral compounds and pathya (Ayurvedic dietary regime and physical exercise) in the management of Yak?t Roga (Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease)

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Pragya; Nesari, Tanuja; Gupta, Girja Shankar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) also called as hepatic steatosis is a manifestation of excessive triglyceride accumulation in the liver. NAFLD has been described by histological features ranging from simple fatty liver, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, progressive fibrosis, and liver failure. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the effect of herbomineral drugs and pathya (Ayurvedic dietary regime and physical exercise) in the management of NAFLD. Materials and Methods: It is a randomized, retrospective, open-ended study. A total of 32 patients presenting with raised alanine transaminase (>1.5 times normal levels) combined with sonological evidence of fatty liver in the absence of any other detectable cause of liver disease were included in the study. The recruited patients were randomly divided into two groups - The patients in Group-A (n = 21) were given a combination of herbomineral drugs ?rogyavardhin? va?i and Triphal? Guggulu along with prescription of pathya (Ayurvedic dietary regime and physical exercise); the patients in Group-B (n = 11) were advised only pathya. Results: Group-A (combined therapy group) showed statistically significant improvement in clinical symptoms, biochemical parameters-liver function test, lipid profile, fasting blood sugar, and body mass index (P < 0.001) in comparison to Group-B (pathya group). Conclusion: Combination of herbomineral drugs along with pathya has shown promising results toward the effective management of this metabolic disorder. PMID:26283807

  1. A case of moderate liver enzyme elevation after acute acetaminophen overdose despite undetectable acetaminophen level and normal initial liver enzymes.

    PubMed

    Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Shiner, Drew C; Varney, Shawn M

    2014-01-01

    Liver function test (LFT) increase is an early sign of acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity. Typically, when an acute overdose patient is evaluated and has an initial undetectable APAP level and normal liver enzymes, the patient is not treated with N-acetylcysteine, and liver enzymes are not expected to increase later. We report a case of moderate LFT increase despite normal LFTs and an undetectable APAP level after delayed presentation of an APAP ingestion. A 22-year-old male with no medical history ingested 15-25 hydrocodone/APAP tablets (5 mg/500 mg). His suicide note and his bunkmate corroborated the overdose time. He arrived at the emergency department 16 hours after ingestion. At that time, his APAP level was <10 ?g/mL, and his liver enzymes were normal [aspartate transaminase (AST) 31 U/L and alanine transaminase (ALT) 34 U/L]. Twenty-nine hours after ingestion, the psychiatry team obtained LFTs (AST 45, ALT 61). He had persistent nausea and diffuse abdominal pain. On repeat analysis, the APAP level at 36 hours was found to be <10 ?g/mL, AST 150, and ALT 204. After 2 more days of increasing LFTs and persistent abdominal pain and nausea, the toxicology department was consulted, the patient was transferred to the medicine department, and intravenous N-acetylcysteine was started 66 hours after ingestion. He was treated for 16 hours and had a significant decline in LFTs and symptom resolution. His prothrombin time, bilirubin, lactate, creatinine, and mental status were normal throughout the admission. Other cases of LFT increase were excluded. Our case report illustrates that a moderate increase in liver transaminase may occur despite an initial undetectable APAP level and normal transaminases after a delayed presentation. In our case, no serious clinical effects were reported. PMID:23011168

  2. Post-Irradiation Study of the Alanine Dosimeter

    PubMed Central

    Desrosiers, Marc F.

    2014-01-01

    Post-irradiation stability of high-dose dosimeters has traditionally been an important measurement influence quantity. Though the exceptional stability of the alanine dosimeter response with time has rendered this factor a non-issue for routine work, the archival quality of the alanine dosimeter has not been characterized. Here the alanine pellet dosimeter response is measured up to seven years post-irradiation for a range of absorbed doses. This long-term study is accompanied by an examination of the environmental influence quantities (e.g., ambient light) on the relatively short-term (3–4 month) stability of both pellet and film commercial dosimeters. Both dosimeter types demonstrated exceptional stability in the short term and proved to be relatively insensitive to common influence quantities. The long-term data revealed a complex dose-dependent response trend.

  3. Direct targeting of risk factors significantly increases the detection of liver cirrhosis in primary care: a cross-sectional diagnostic study utilising transient elastography

    PubMed Central

    Harman, David J; Ryder, Stephen D; James, Martin W; Jelpke, Matthew; Ottey, Dominic S; Wilkes, Emilie A; Card, Timothy R; Aithal, Guruprasad P; Guha, Indra Neil

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the feasibility of a novel diagnostic algorithm targeting patients with risk factors for chronic liver disease in a community setting. Design Prospective cross-sectional study. Setting Two primary care practices (adult patient population 10?479) in Nottingham, UK. Participants Adult patients (aged 18?years or over) fulfilling one or more selected risk factors for developing chronic liver disease: (1) hazardous alcohol use, (2) type 2 diabetes or (3) persistently elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) liver function enzyme with negative serology. Interventions A serial biomarker algorithm, using a simple blood-based marker (aspartate aminotransferase:ALT ratio for hazardous alcohol users, BARD score for other risk groups) and subsequently liver stiffness measurement using transient elastography (TE). Main outcome measures Diagnosis of clinically significant liver disease (defined as liver stiffness ?8?kPa); definitive diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. Results We identified 920 patients with the defined risk factors of whom 504 patients agreed to undergo investigation. A normal blood biomarker was found in 62 patients (12.3%) who required no further investigation. Subsequently, 378 patients agreed to undergo TE, of whom 98 (26.8% of valid scans) had elevated liver stiffness. Importantly, 71/98 (72.4%) patients with elevated liver stiffness had normal liver enzymes and would be missed by traditional investigation algorithms. We identified 11 new patients with definite cirrhosis, representing a 140% increase in the number of diagnosed cases in this population. Conclusions A non-invasive liver investigation algorithm based in a community setting is feasible to implement. Targeting risk factors using a non-invasive biomarker approach identified a substantial number of patients with previously undetected cirrhosis. Trial registration number The diagnostic algorithm utilised for this study can be found on clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02037867), and is part of a continuing longitudinal cohort study. PMID:25941185

  4. [Acute liver failure].

    PubMed

    Alberto, Sara Folgado; Pires, S Sousa; Figueiredo, A; Deus, J Ramos de

    2009-01-01

    Acute liver failure refers to the rapid development of severe acute liver injury with impaired synthetic function in a patient who previously had a normal liver or a well compensated liver disease. Its aetiology is diversified and it provides one of the best indicators of prognosis thus being crucial its quick identification. Because it can progress to multiple organ failure syndrome these patients should be managed in an Intensive Care Unit. The first therapeutic approach consists of intensive care support until treatment for specific aetiologies can be started. Besides encephalopathy, many other complications can develop causing the high rates of morbidity and mortality of acute liver failure and so they need tight surveillance and treatment. Liver support systems are therapeutic options still in study and without proven success in a long term period which makes hepatic transplantation the final therapeutic. Given the wide limitations of hepatic transplantation the final decision is based on a correct diagnosis and prognostic scoring systems. PMID:20350465

  5. Effect of Non-speckle Echo Signals on Tissue Characteristics for Liver Fibrosis using Probability Density Function of Ultrasonic B-mode image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Shohei; Hirata, Shinnosuke; Yamaguchi, Tadashi; Hachiya, Hiroyuki

    To develop a quantitative diagnostic method for liver fibrosis using an ultrasound B-mode image, a probability imaging method of tissue characteristics based on a multi-Rayleigh model, which expresses a probability density function of echo signals from liver fibrosis, has been proposed. In this paper, an effect of non-speckle echo signals on tissue characteristics estimated from the multi-Rayleigh model was evaluated. Non-speckle signals were determined and removed using the modeling error of the multi-Rayleigh model. The correct tissue characteristics of fibrotic tissue could be estimated with the removal of non-speckle signals.

  6. Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? ligand, prevents abnormal liver function induced by a fasting–refeeding process

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Joon No; Dutta, Raghbendra Kumar; Kim, Seul-Gi; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Se-Jin; Choe, Seong-Kyu; Yoo, Kyeong-Won; Immune-network Pioneer Research Center, Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan ; Song, Seung Ryel; Park, Do-Sim; Department of Laboratory of Medicine, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan ; So, Hong-Seob; Park, Raekil

    2013-12-06

    Highlights: •A fasting–refeeding high fat diet (HDF) model mimics irregular eating habit. •A fasting–refeeding HFD induces liver ballooning injury. •A fasting–refeeding HDF process elicits hepatic triglyceride accumulation. •Fenofibrate, PPAR? ligand, prevents liver damage induced by refeeding HFD. -- Abstract: Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) agonist, is an anti-hyperlipidemic agent that has been widely used in the treatment of dyslipidemia. In this study, we examined the effect of fenofibrate on liver damage caused by refeeding a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice after 24 h fasting. Here, we showed that refeeding HFD after fasting causes liver damage in mice determined by liver morphology and liver cell death. A detailed analysis revealed that hepatic lipid droplet formation is enhanced and triglyceride levels in liver are increased by refeeding HFD after starvation for 24 h. Also, NF-?B is activated and consequently induces the expression of TNF-?, IL1-?, COX-2, and NOS2. However, treating with fenofibrate attenuates the liver damage and triglyceride accumulation caused by the fasting–refeeding HFD process. Fenofibrate reduces the expression of NF-?B target genes but induces genes for peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, peroxisome biogenesis and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. These results strongly suggest that the treatment of fenofibrate ameliorates the liver damage induced by fasting–refeeding HFD, possibly through the activation of fatty acid oxidation.

  7. Liver Transplant

    MedlinePLUS

    ... list depends on his or her blood type, body size, stage of liver disease, overall health, and the availability of a matching liver. In the United States, there are more people who need a liver transplant than ... are the body rejecting the liver and infections. Rejection occurs when ...

  8. ATF4 plays a pivotal role in the development of functional hematopoietic stem cells in mouse fetal liver

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yunze; Zhou, Jie; Liu, Dan; Dong, Fang; Cheng, Hui; Wang, Weili; Pang, Yakun; Wang, Yajie; Mu, Xiaohuan; Ni, Yanli; Li, Zhuan; Xu, Huiyu; Hao, Sha; Wang, Xiaochen; Ma, Shihui; Wang, Qian-fei; Xiao, Guozhi; Yuan, Weiping; Liu, Bing

    2015-01-01

    The fetal liver (FL) serves as a predominant site for expansion of functional hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) during mouse embryogenesis. However, the mechanisms for HSC development in FL remain poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that deletion of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) significantly impaired hematopoietic development and reduced HSC self-renewal in FL. In contrast, generation of the first HSC population in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros region was not affected. The migration activity of ATF4?/? HSCs was moderately reduced. Interestingly, the HSC-supporting ability of both endothelial and stromal cells in FL was significantly compromised in the absence of ATF4. Gene profiling using RNA-seq revealed downregulated expression of a panel of cytokines in ATF4?/? stromal cells, including angiopoietin-like protein 3 (Angptl3) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA). Addition of Angptl3, but not VEGFA, partially rescued the repopulating defect of ATF4?/? HSCs in the culture. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay in conjunction with silencing RNA-mediated silencing and complementary DNA overexpression showed transcriptional control of Angptl3 by ATF4. To summarize, ATF4 plays a pivotal role in functional expansion and repopulating efficiency of HSCs in developing FL, and it acts through upregulating transcription of cytokines such as Angptl3 in the microenvironment. PMID:26384355

  9. Epicardial Fat in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Properties and Relationships With Metabolic Factors, Cardiac Structure, and Cardiac Function.

    PubMed

    Psychari, Stavroula N; Rekleiti, Nectaria; Papaioannou, Nikolaos; Varhalama, Evangelia; Drakoulis, Christos; Apostolou, Thomas S; Iliodromitis, Efstathios K

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is closely related to insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome and might be an important cardiovascular (CV) risk factor. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity-related CV disease. In an NAFLD population, we investigated EAT thickness and its possible relations to NAFLD and cardiac structure and function. This was an observational study of 57 patients with NAFLD and 48 age-matched controls. Patients with NAFLD had significantly higher body mass index (P < .0001), waist circumference (P < .0001), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (P = .005), whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = .01) and adiponectin (P = .005) levels were significantly lower. The EAT was not thicker in NAFLD but was positively related to indices of impaired glucose tolerance and inflammation, with diabetes being an independent predictor of EAT thickness (b* = 0.29, P = .04). No relations were found between EAT and cardiac structure and function. In conclusion, this study confirms a pathologic phenotype of NAFLD. Epicardial fat was not significantly related to NAFLD per se, but diabetes, glucose metabolism, and inflammation were closely related to its thickness. PMID:25818101

  10. ATF4 plays a pivotal role in the development of functional hematopoietic stem cells in mouse fetal liver.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunze; Zhou, Jie; Liu, Dan; Dong, Fang; Cheng, Hui; Wang, Weili; Pang, Yakun; Wang, Yajie; Mu, Xiaohuan; Ni, Yanli; Li, Zhuan; Xu, Huiyu; Hao, Sha; Wang, Xiaochen; Ma, Shihui; Wang, Qian-Fei; Xiao, Guozhi; Yuan, Weiping; Liu, Bing; Cheng, Tao

    2015-11-19

    The fetal liver (FL) serves as a predominant site for expansion of functional hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) during mouse embryogenesis. However, the mechanisms for HSC development in FL remain poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that deletion of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) significantly impaired hematopoietic development and reduced HSC self-renewal in FL. In contrast, generation of the first HSC population in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros region was not affected. The migration activity of ATF4(-/-) HSCs was moderately reduced. Interestingly, the HSC-supporting ability of both endothelial and stromal cells in FL was significantly compromised in the absence of ATF4. Gene profiling using RNA-seq revealed downregulated expression of a panel of cytokines in ATF4(-/-) stromal cells, including angiopoietin-like protein 3 (Angptl3) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA). Addition of Angptl3, but not VEGFA, partially rescued the repopulating defect of ATF4(-/-) HSCs in the culture. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay in conjunction with silencing RNA-mediated silencing and complementary DNA overexpression showed transcriptional control of Angptl3 by ATF4. To summarize, ATF4 plays a pivotal role in functional expansion and repopulating efficiency of HSCs in developing FL, and it acts through upregulating transcription of cytokines such as Angptl3 in the microenvironment. PMID:26384355

  11. Transplantation of fetal liver tissue suspension into the spleens of adult syngenic rats: inducibility of cytochrome P450 dependent monooxygenase functions by beta-naphthoflavone, phenobarbital and dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Lupp, A; Lau, K; Trautmann, A K; Krausse, T; Klinger, W

    1999-01-01

    In the present study the effects of beta-naphthoflavone (BNF), phenobarbital (PB) and dexamethasone (DEX) on cytochrome P450 (P450) dependent monooxygenase functions were investigated in intrasplenic liver cell explants in comparison to adult liver. Fetal liver tissue suspensions were transplanted into the spleens of 60-90 days old adult male syngenic Fisher 344 inbred rats. 2, 4 or 6 months after surgery, transplant recipients and age matched controls were orally treated with BNF (1x50 mg/kg body weight (b.wt.)), PB (1x50 mg/kg b.wt.), DEX (for 3 days 4 mg/kg b.wt. per day), or the respective solvents (dimethylsulfoxide or 0.9% NaCl). The animals were sacrificed 24 (BNF, DEX) or 48 (PB) hours after the last treatment. P450 mediated monooxygenase functions were measured in spleen and liver 9000 g supernatants by three model reactions for different P450 subtypes: ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (EROD; 1A), ethoxycoumarin O-deethylation (ECOD; 1A, 2A, 2B), and ethylmorphine N-demethylation (END; 3A). Spleen weights were significantly higher in transplanted rats, compared to controls, at all three time points after surgery. Induction with PB or DEX, and in some cases also with BNF, lead to a significant increase in liver weights of transplant recipients and control rats independent of the time after transplantation. In contrast, there was no influence on spleen weights due to BNF or PB. At all time points after surgery, with DEX a marked decrease in body weights, weights of adrenal glands and of lymphatic organs like thymus glands and spleens was observed, with the weights of the transplant containing spleens being still higher in comparison to control organs. Spleens of control animals displayed nearly no P450 mediated monooxygenase functions neither without nor with induction. After transplantation, however, significant EROD and ECOD, but hardly any END activities were seen in the host organs at all three time points after surgery. In transplant containing spleens EROD and ECOD were significantly increased after BNF or PB treatment at all three time points after surgery, and ECOD after DEX administration, but at 4 and 6 months after transplantation only. END was only induced after DEX treatment at 6 months after transplantation. With the livers of both transplant recipients and control rats EROD and ECOD were increased after BNF induction and EROD, ECOD, and END after PB treatment at all three time points after transplantation. After DEX administration END was significantly enhanced only at 2 and 4 months after transplantation, ECOD was decreased at 2 and 4 months, and EROD was diminished at all three time points after surgery. Transplantation of fetal liver tissue suspensions into the spleens did not influence monooxygenase functions and their inducibility within the respective livers of the animals. These results demonstrate that transplanted liver cells originating from syngenic fetal liver tissue suspensions display P450 dependent monooxygenase functions which are, simi lar to normal adult liver, inducible by BNF, PB and DEX. Both monooxygenase functions and their inducibility within the transplant containing spleens display quantitative and qualitative developmental changes. PMID:10048716

  12. Liver Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Karen Kristine; Simon-Santamaria, Jaione; McCuskey, Robert S; Smedsrød, Bård

    2015-01-01

    The liver sinusoidal endothelial cell (LSEC) forms the fenestrated wall of the hepatic sinusoid and functions as a control post regulating and surveying the trafficking of molecules and cells between the liver parenchyma and the blood. The cell acts as a scavenger cell responsible for removal of potential dangerous macromolecules from blood, and is increasingly acknowledged as an important player in liver immunity. This review provides an update of the major functions of the LSEC, including its role in plasma ultrafiltration and regulation of the hepatic microcirculation, scavenger functions, immune functions, and role in liver aging, as well as issues that are either undercommunicated or confusingly dealt with in the literature. These include metabolic functions, including energy metabolic interplay between the LSEC and the hepatocyte, and adequate ways of identifying and distinguishing the cells. © 2015 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 5:1751-1774, 2015. PMID:26426467

  13. Stereoselective aminoacylation of a dinucleoside monophosphate by the imidazolides of DL-alanine and N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-DL-alanine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Profy, A. T.; Usher, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The aminoacylation of diinosine monophosphate was studied experimentally. When the acylating agent was the imidazolide of N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-DL-alanine, a 40 percent enantiomeric excess of the isomer was incorporated at the 2' site and the positions of equilibrium for the reversible 2'-3' migration reaction differed for the D and L enantiomers. The reactivity of the nucleoside hydroxyl groups was found to decrease on the order 2'(3') less than internal 2' and less than 5', and the extent of the reaction was affected by the concentration of the imidazole buffer. Reaction of IpI with imidazolide of unprotected DL-alanine, by contrast, led to an excess of the D isomer at the internal 2' site. Finally, reaction with the N-carboxy anhydride of DL-alanine occurred without stereoselection. These results are found to be relevant to the study of the evolution of optical chemical activity and the origin of genetically directed protein synthesis.

  14. Use of IGL-1 preservation solution in liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wiederkehr, J C; Igreja, M R; Nogara, M S; Goncalves, N; Montemezzo, G P; Wiederkehr, H A; Wassen, M P; Nobrega, H A; Zenatti, K B; Mori, L Y; Tudisco, M S

    2014-01-01

    University of Wisconsin (UW) solution has been known as the standard solution for liver graft preservation. Alternative preservation solutions have been used in liver transplantation, such as histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK) and Celsior solution. Institut Georges Lopez-1 (IGL-1) is a new preservation solution with lower potassium and lower viscosity than UW solution that has recently been used in liver transplant. Data from 178 patients who received transplants from August 2008 to June 2013 at Hospital Santa Isabel, Blumenau, Brazil, were analyzed. All patients received grafts from brain death donors. In November 2011 we started to use IGL-1 as an alternate preservation solution. Therefore, 53 patients using IGL-1 preserved grafts were compared to 125 using HTK solution. The donor age in the HTK group ranged from 11-77 years, with a mean of 43.4 ± 4.8. In the IGL-1 group donor age ranged from 9-62 years, with a mean of 35.8 ± 4.5. Cold ischemia time in the HTK group ranged from 85-1145 minutes, mean 443.5 ± 183.5 minutes. In the IGL-1 group, cold ischemia time ranged from 85-670 minutes, mean 329.3 ± 134.8 minutes. The overall operative mortality rate was 14% (25 patients); in the HTK group, 14.4% (18 patients); and in the IGL-1 group, 13.4% (7 patients). One graft in the HTK group presented with primary non-function (PNF), 0.7%; there were none in the IGL-1 group. In our study, IGL-1 has been shown to be safe to use as a preservation solution for liver transplantation. Early post-transplant graft function was comparable to that observed with HTK solution, although a tendency for lower alanine aminotransferase levels was noticed. IGL-1 has been shown to be safe, cost efficient, and an effective preservation solution. PMID:25131043

  15. Plants Consumption and Liver Health

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Yong-Song; He, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The liver is a very important organ with a lot of functions for the host to survive. Dietary components are essential for and can be beneficial or detrimental to the healthy or diseased liver. Plants food is an essential part of the human diet and comprises various compounds which are closely related to liver health. Selected food plants can provide nutritional and medicinal support for liver disease. At the present, the knowledge of the effects of plants on the liver is still incomplete. The most urgent task at the present time is to find the best dietary and medicinal plants for liver health in an endless list of candidates. This review article updates the knowledge about the effects of plants consumption on the health of the liver, putting particular emphasis on the potential beneficial and harmful impact of dietary and medicinal plants on liver function. PMID:26221179

  16. 21 CFR 172.540 - DL-Alanine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false DL-Alanine. 172.540 Section 172.540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances §...

  17. Effects of chronic arsenic exposure on hematopoietic function in adult mammalian liver

    PubMed Central

    Woods, James S.; Fowler, Bruce A.

    1977-01-01

    In these studies the effects of ingested arsenic (As+5) on hepatic heme biosynthetic capability and hemoprotein function in adult male rats were investigated. Animals exposed for 6 weeks to 0, 20, 40, or 85 ppm sodium arsenate in the drinking water suffered depression of hepatic ?-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) synthetase and heme synthetase (ferrochelatase) activities, with maximal decreases to 67 and 55% of control levels, respectively, at 85 ppm. Concomitantly, urinary uroporphyrin levels were elevated by as much as 12 times, and coproporphyrin by as much as 9 times, control values. The rate of incorporation of 3H-ALA into mitochondrial and microsomal hemes was depressed by 40–50% at 20 ppm but was increased with regard to controls by as much as 150% at the higher treatment levels. A similar biphasic pattern was observed in regard to 14C-leucine incorporation into cellular membranal proteins. In contrast, the levels of ALA dehydratase, uroporphyrinogen I synthetase, aminopyrine demethylase, and cytochrome P-450 were not significantly changed in As+5-treated rats. These results support the hypothesis that chronic, low level, arsenic exposure results in selective inhibition of mitochondrial-bound heme biosynthetic pathway enzymes (ALA synthetase and heme synthetase) resulting in a substantial increase in urinary porphyrins, uniquely characterized by a greater increase in uroporphyrin than coproporphyrin levels. These changes occur independent of, or prior to, alterations in hepatic hemoprotein-dependent functions and may thus serve in the clinical analysis of pretoxic exposure to arsenic compounds in human populations. PMID:908300

  18. Tumor Compression–Induced Portal Obstruction and Selective Transarterial Chemoembolization Increase Functional Liver Volume in the Unobstructed Area, Facilitating Successful Resection of a Large HCC

    PubMed Central

    Tokunaga, Ryuma; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Masuda, Toshiro; Mima, Kosuke; Chikamoto, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Horino, Kei; Ishiko, Takatoshi; Takamori, Hiroshi; Beppu, Toru; Baba, Hideo

    2013-01-01

    A 62-year-old man with hepatitis B was admitted for treatment of a large hepatocellular carcinoma. The right portal vein was completely obstructed by tumor compression. Although we initially planned a right trisectionectomy as curative hepatectomy, the percentage of future remnant liver volume (%RLV) and the percentage of functional liver volume (%RFLV) were 31.2% and 41.3%, respectively. Because %RFLV showed marginal tolerability for curative hepatectomy and %RLV was very low, we opted for transarterial chemoembolization of segment IV and the right lobe containing the tumor as an approach to selectively reduce liver volume and abolish liver function. One month later, %RLV and %RFLV had dramatically increased to 46.6% and 67.2%, resulting in curative hepatectomy. Our results suggest that tumor compression–induced portal obstruction and selective transarterial chemoembolization increase %RFLV much more than %RLV. This may represent a useful approach in preoperative management in patients with large hepatocellular carcinomas to improve %RFLV for hepatic resection. PMID:24229029

  19. Hybrid compounds with chain and layered structures formed by ?-alanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Anupama; Dan, Meenakshi; Rao, C. N. R.

    2008-08-01

    Inorganic-organic hybrid compounds of the amino acid alanine have been prepared and characterized for the first time. Thus by the reaction of ?-alanine with copper salts, one-dimensional hybrid chain compounds of the formulae [Cu(CO 2CH 2CH 2NH 3)Cl 2], I, and [Cu(H 2O) 2(NH 3CH 2CH 2CO 2)][SO 4]·H 2O, II, and a two-dimensional layered compound [NH 4] 0.33[Cu 0.5(CO 2CH 2CH 2NH 2)Cl 0.33]·H 2O, III, have been obtained and their structures established by X-ray crystallography and other techniques. Hybrid chain alaninates of lead and strontium of the formulae [Pb(CO 2CH 2CH 2NH 3) 2(NO 3) 2], IV and [Sr(CO 2CH 2CH 2NH 3) 2(NO 3) 2], V have also been obtained by the reaction of the corresponding metal salts with alanine. The linear chain compounds, I, II, IV and V contain extended metal-X-metal (X = Cl or O) bonds and have the I 1O 0 type inorganic (I) and organic (O) connectivities. The layered compound III also has metal-X-metal bonds with I 2O 0 type connectivity. Interestingly, the zero-dimensional copper alaninate dimer of the composition [Cu 2(CO 2CH 2CH 2NH 3) 4Cl 2]·2Cl·H 2O can be transformed to the linear chain structure I or the layered structure III under mild conditions.

  20. Model for end-stage liver disease-Na score or Maddrey discrimination function index, which score is best?

    PubMed Central

    Amieva-Balmori, Mercedes; Mejia-Loza, Scherezada María Isabel; Ramos-González, Roberto; Zamarripa-Dorsey, Felipe; García-Ruiz, Eli; Pérez y López, Nuria; Juárez-Valdés, Eumir I; López-Luria, Adriana; Remes-Troche, José María

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the ability of model for end-stage liver disease (MELD)-Na and Maddrey discrimination function index (DFI) to predict mortality at 30 and 90 d in patients with alcoholic hepatitis (AH). METHODS: We prospectively assessed 52 patients with AH. Demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters were obtained. MELD-Na and Maddrey DFI were calculated on admission. Short-term mortality was assessed at 30 and 90 d. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed. RESULTS: Thirty-day and 90-d mortality was 44% and 58%, respectively. In the univariate analysis, sodium levels was associated with mortality at 30 and 90 d (P = 0.001 and P = 0.03). Child stage, encephalopathy, ascites, or types of treatment were not associated with mortality. MELD-Na was the only predictive factor for mortality at 90 d. For 30-d mortality area under the curve (AUC) was 0.763 (95%CI: 0.63-0.89) for Maddrey DFI and 0.784 for MELD-Na (95%CI: 0.65-0.91, P = 0.82). For 90-d mortality AUC was 0.685 (95%CI: 0.54-0.83) for Maddrey DFI and 0.8710 for MELD-Na (95%CI: 0.76-0.97, P = 0.041). CONCLUSION: AH is associated with high short-term mortality. Our results show that MELD-Na is a more valuable model than DFI to predict short-term mortality. PMID:26301054

  1. Transferrin-targeted magnetic/fluorescence micelles as a specific bi-functional nanoprobe for imaging liver tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Hui; Li, Zhengzheng; Du, Kai; Mu, Ketao; Zhou, Qing; Liang, Shuyan; Zhu, Wenzhen; Yang, Xiangliang; Zhu, Yanhong

    2014-10-01

    In order to delineate the location of the tumor both before and during operation, we developed targeted bi-functional polymeric micelles for magnetic resonance (MR) and fluorescence imaging in liver tumors. Hydrophobic superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) were loaded into the polymeric micelles through self-assembly of an amphiphilic block copolymer poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(?-caprolactone). After, transferrin (Tf) and near-infrared fluorescence molecule Cy5.5 were conjugated onto the surface of the polymeric micelles to obtain the nanosized probe SPIO@PEG- b-PCL-Tf/Cy5.5 (SPPTC). Imaging capabilities of this nanoprobe were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. The accumulation of SPPTC in HepG2 cells increased over SPIO@PEG- b-PCL-Cy5.5 (SPPC) by confocal microscopy. The targeted nanoprobe SPPTC possessed favorable properties on the MR and fluorescence imaging both in vitro and in vivo. The MTT results showed that the nanoprobes were well tolerated. SPPTC had the potential for pre-operation evaluation and intra-operation navigation of tumors in clinic.

  2. Hypoxia and fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tomohiro; Shinjo, Satoko; Arai, Takatomo; Kanai, Mai; Goda, Nobuhito

    2014-11-01

    The liver is a central organ that metabolizes excessive nutrients for storage in the form of glycogen and lipids and supplies energy-producing substrates to the peripheral tissues to maintain their function, even under starved conditions. These processes require a considerable amount of oxygen, which causes a steep oxygen gradient throughout the hepatic lobules. Alcohol consumption and/or excessive food intake can alter the hepatic metabolic balance drastically, which can precipitate fatty liver disease, a major cause of chronic liver diseases worldwide, ranging from simple steatosis, through steatohepatitis and hepatic fibrosis, to liver cirrhosis. Altered hepatic metabolism and tissue remodeling in fatty liver disease further disrupt hepatic oxygen homeostasis, resulting in severe liver hypoxia. As master regulators of adaptive responses to hypoxic stress, hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) modulate various cellular and organ functions, including erythropoiesis, angiogenesis, metabolic demand, and cell survival, by activating their target genes during fetal development and also in many disease conditions such as cancer, heart failure, and diabetes. In the past decade, it has become clear that HIFs serve as key factors in the regulation of lipid metabolism and fatty liver formation. This review discusses the molecular mechanisms by which hypoxia and HIFs regulate lipid metabolism in the development and progression of fatty liver disease. PMID:25386057

  3. Endogenous carbon monoxide downregulates hepatic cystathionine-?-lyase in rats with liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    GUO, SHI-BIN; DUAN, ZHI-JUN; WANG, QIU-MING; ZHOU, QIN; LI, QING; SUN, XIAO-YU

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of endogenous carbon monoxide (CO) on the hydrogen sulfide/cystathionine-?-lyase (H2S/CSE) pathway in cirrhotic rat livers. The rats were allocated at random into four groups: Sham, cirrhosis, cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) and zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP). The expression of hepatic CSE mRNA was evaluated using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction, while CSE protein expression was determined using immunohistochemical analysis. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed for the histological evaluation of liver fibrosis. The levels of H2S, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TBIL) and carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in the arterial blood were determined, in addition to the portal vein pressure. The mRNA and protein expression levels of hepatic CSE and the serum levels of H2S were significantly decreased in the cirrhosis group compared with those in the sham group (P<0.05). Compared with the cirrhosis group, rats in the ZnPP group had significantly lower levels of serum ALT, AST and TBIL, arterial COHb and hepatic fibrosis, while hepatic CSE expression and the production of H2S were significantly increased (P<0.05). The CoPP group exhibited decreased hepatic CSE expression and H2S production, but aggravated hepatic function and fibrosis (P<0.05). In conclusion, the H2S/CSE pathway is involved in the formation of liver cirrhosis and serves a crucial function in protecting liver cells against the progression of liver fibrosis. Endogenous CO downregulates hepatic CSE mRNA and protein expression and the production of H2S in rats with liver cirrhosis. PMID:26668593

  4. The Effect of Helicobacter Pylori Eradication on Liver Fat Content in Subjects With Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Randomized Open-Label Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jamali, Raika; Mofid, Alireza; Vahedi, Homayoon; Farzaneh, Rojin; Dowlatshahi, Shahab

    2013-01-01

    Background The role of Helicobacter pylori (HP) in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is unclear. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of HP eradication on liver fat content (LFC), liver function tests (LFT), lipid profile, and homeostasis model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR) index in NAFLD. Patients and Methods Dyspeptic patients with increased serum aminotransferase levels were enrolled in the study. The exclusion criteria were factors affecting serum aminotransferase or HP treatment strategy. Participants with persistent elevated serum aminotransferase level and ultrasound criteria for identification of fatty liver were presumed to have NAFLD. “NAFLD liver fat score” was used to classify NAFLD. Those with “NAFLD liver fat score” greater than -0.64 and positive results for urea breath test (UBT), were included. Lifestyle modification was provided to all participants. HP eradication was performed in intervention arm. LFC, fasting serum glucose (FSG), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (CHOL), high and low-density lipoprotein (HDL, LDL), and HOMA-IR were checked at baseline and after that, at intervals of eight weeks and twenty four weeks. Results One hundred (49 males) patients with the mean age of 43.46 (± 11.52) were studied. Repeated measure ANOVA showed a significant reduction in LFC, anthropometric measurements, and laboratory parameters (except for HDL) in the both groups during the study; however, no significant difference was observed between the groups. Conclusions It seems that HP eradication per se might not affect LFC, LFT, lipid profile, and insulin resistance in dyspeptic NAFLD patients. PMID:24358044

  5. Effects of combined dietary supplementation with fenofibrate and Schisandrae Fructus pulp on lipid and glucose levels and liver function in normal and hypercholesterolemic mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Pei-Li; Pan, Si-Yuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Nan; Chu, Zhu-Sheng; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background Currently, combined therapy using herbs and synthetic drugs has become a feasible therapeutic intervention against some diseases. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of supplementation with fenofibrate (FF), a chemical drug used for the treatment of hyperlipidemia, and the aqueous extract of Schisandrae Fructus (SF, a Chinese herb) pulp (AqSF-P) or an SF-related synthetic analog, bicyclol (BY), on serum/hepatic lipid levels and liver status in normal and hypercholesterolemic (HCL) mice. Methods Male mice obtained from the Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) were fed on a normal diet (ND) or high cholesterol/bile salt (0.5%/0.15%, w/w) diet (HCBD) containing FF (0.03% or 0.1%, w/w) with or without AqSF-P (0.3%?9.0%, based on crude herbal material, w/w) or BY (0.025%, w/w) for 10 days. Then serum lipid levels and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, as well as hepatic triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and glucose levels, were measured. Results Oral supplementation with FF significantly reduced serum and hepatic TG, TC, and hepatic glucose levels (approximately 79%) in mice fed with ND or HCBD. FF supplementation combined with AqSF-P or BY increased FF-induced reduction in hepatic TC and TG contents in ND-fed mice (up to 67%) and in HCBD-fed mice (up to 54%), when compared with FF supplementation alone. Hepatic glucose-lowering effect of FF was enhanced (up to 19%) by AqSF-P cosupplementation in both normal and HCL mice. FF supplementation enhanced the excretion of fecal TC (by 75%) in mice fed with HCBD. Fecal TC contents were increased by 14%/9% in the combination therapy with FF and AqSF-P in ND-/HCBD-fed mice. Serum ALT activity was elevated by 45% in HCBD-fed mice. FF caused a significant increase in ALT activity by 198% and 120% in normal and HCL mice, respectively. BY markedly attenuated the ALT activity by 54% in mice fed with ND supplemented with 0.1% FF and by 42% in mice fed with HCBD supplemented with 0.03% FF. Conclusion AqSF-P cosupplementation augmented the hepatic lipid-/glucose-lowering effects of FF. BY ameliorated FF-induced liver injury in normal and HCL mice. PMID:25733812

  6. Arsenic exposure through drinking water increases the risk of liver and cardiovascular diseases in the population of West Bengal, India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Arsenic is a natural drinking water contaminant affecting 26 million people in West Bengal, India. Chronic arsenic exposure causes cancer, cardiovascular disease, liver disease, neuropathies and ocular diseases. The aims of the present study were to assess bioindicators of hepatocellular injury as indicated by the levels of liver enzymes, to determine the auto immune status, as indicated by the amounts of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) and anti-dsDNA antibodies in their serum, and to predict cardiovascular risk in the arsenic exposed population. Methods Effect of chronic arsenic exposure on liver was determined by liver function tests. Autoimmune status was measured by measuring ANA and anti-dsDNA in serum. Inflammatory cytokines associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, IL6, IL8 and MCP-1 were determined. Results Our results indicated that serum levels of bilirubin, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and ANA were increased in the arsenic exposed population. Serum levels of IL6 and IL8 also increased in the arsenic exposed group. Conclusions Chronic arsenic exposure causes liver injury, increases the serum levels of autoimmune markers and imparts increased cardiovascular risk. PMID:22883023

  7. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme alanine amino transferase (ALT) (also known as a serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase or SGPT)...

  8. Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin: A New Marker of Renal Function in C-Related End Stage Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Alhaddad, Omkolsoum Mohamed; Alsebaey, Ayman; Amer, Mohamed Omar; El-Said, Hala Hany; Salman, Tary Abdel Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims. Renal impairment is a common complication of cirrhosis. Serum creatinine is less sensitive in these patients. Measurement of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the gold standard but time consuming. The aim is to validate plasma NGAL (pNGAL) and urinary NGAL (uNGAL) as markers of renal function in patients with HCV related cirrhosis. Patient and Methods. One hundred HCV related end stage liver cirrhosis patients were randomized into two groups: Group I (n = 35), patients with GFR < 60?mL/m measured by isotope scanning of the kidney (Renogram), and Group II (n = 65), patients with GFR ? 60?mL/m. The pNGAL and uNGAL were measured within 2 days of the Renogram. Results. Both groups were matched with age, sex, and Child Pugh score. There was statistically significant difference between both groups regarding serum creatinine (1.98 ± 1.04 versus 1.38 ± 0.88?mg/dL; p = 0.003) and pNGAL level (5.79 ± 2.06 versus 7.25 ± 3.30?ng/dL; p = 0.019). Both groups were comparable (p > 0.05) for the uNGAL (6.00 ± 0.78 versus 6.03 ± 0.96?ng/mL). Unlike uNGAL, the pNGAL positively correlated with total GFR by Renogram (r = 0.3; p = 0.001). With a cutoff ?4?ng/mL, pNGAL had 94.3% sensitivity and 1.5% specificity and PPV = 34, NPV = 33.3, LR+ = ?175.1, and LR? = ?60.6. Conclusion. The pNGAL is a promising marker of the renal function in patients with cirrhosis. PMID:26221137

  9. Renal function improvement in liver transplant recipients after early everolimus conversion: A clinical practice cohort study in Spain.

    PubMed

    Bilbao, Itxarone; Salcedo, Magdalena; Gómez, Miguel Angel; Jimenez, Carlos; Castroagudín, Javier; Fabregat, Joan; Almohalla, Carolina; Herrero, Ignacio; Cuervas-Mons, Valentín; Otero, Alejandra; Rubín, Angel; Miras, Manuel; Rodrigo, Juan; Serrano, Trinidad; Crespo, Gonzalo; De la Mata, Manuel; Bustamante, Javier; Gonzalez-Dieguez, M Luisa; Moreno, Antonia; Narvaez, Isidoro; Guilera, Magda

    2015-08-01

    A national, multicenter, retrospective study was conducted to assess the results obtained for liver transplant recipients with conversion to everolimus in daily practice. The study included 477 recipients (481 transplantations). Indications for conversion to everolimus were renal dysfunction (32.6% of cases), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; 30.2%; prophylactic treatment for 68.9%), and de novo malignancy (29.7%). The median time from transplantation to conversion to everolimus was 68.7 months for de novo malignancy, 23.8 months for renal dysfunction, and 7.1 months for HCC and other indications. During the first year of treatment, mean everolimus trough levels were 5.4 (standard deviation [SD], 2.7) ng/mL and doses remained stable (1.5 mg/day) from the first month after conversion. An everolimus monotherapy regimen was followed by 28.5% of patients at 12 months. Patients with renal dysfunction showed a glomerular filtration rate (4-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease) increase of 10.9 mL (baseline mean, 45.8 [SD, 25.3] versus 57.6 [SD, 27.6] mL/minute/1.73 m(2) ) at 3 months after everolimus initiation (P < 0.001), and 6.8 mL at 12 months. Improvement in renal function was higher in patients with early conversion (<1 year). Adverse events were the primary reason for discontinuation in 11.2% of cases. The probability of survival at 3 years after conversion to everolimus was 83.0%, 71.1%, and 59.5% for the renal dysfunction, de novo malignancy, and HCC groups, respectively. Everolimus is a viable option for the treatment of renal dysfunction, and earlier conversion is associated with better recovery of renal function. Prospective studies are needed to confirm advantages in patients with malignancy. PMID:25990257

  10. Circadian clock-dependent and -independent rhythmic proteomes implement distinct diurnal functions in mouse liver

    PubMed Central

    Mauvoisin, Daniel; Wang, Jingkui; Jouffe, Céline; Martin, Eva; Atger, Florian; Waridel, Patrice; Quadroni, Manfredo; Gachon, Frédéric; Naef, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Diurnal oscillations of gene expression controlled by the circadian clock underlie rhythmic physiology across most living organisms. Although such rhythms have been extensively studied at the level of transcription and mRNA accumulation, little is known about the accumulation patterns of proteins. Here, we quantified temporal profiles in the murine hepatic proteome under physiological light–dark conditions using stable isotope labeling by amino acids quantitative MS. Our analysis identified over 5,000 proteins, of which several hundred showed robust diurnal oscillations with peak phases enriched in the morning and during the night and related to core hepatic physiological functions. Combined mathematical modeling of temporal protein and mRNA profiles indicated that proteins accumulate with reduced amplitudes and significant delays, consistent with protein half-life data. Moreover, a group comprising about one-half of the rhythmic proteins showed no corresponding rhythmic mRNAs, indicating significant translational or posttranslational diurnal control. Such rhythms were highly enriched in secreted proteins accumulating tightly during the night. Also, these rhythms persisted in clock-deficient animals subjected to rhythmic feeding, suggesting that food-related entrainment signals influence rhythms in circulating plasma factors. PMID:24344304

  11. Structure of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis D-Alanine:D-Alanine Ligase, a Target of the Antituberculosis Drug D-Cycloserine

    SciTech Connect

    Bruning, John B.; Murillo, Ana C.; Chacon, Ofelia; Barletta, Raúl G.; Sacchettini, James C.

    2011-09-28

    D-Alanine:D-alanine ligase (EC 6.3.2.4; Ddl) catalyzes the ATP-driven ligation of two D-alanine (D-Ala) molecules to form the D-alanyl:D-alanine dipeptide. This molecule is a key building block in peptidoglycan biosynthesis, making Ddl an attractive target for drug development. D-Cycloserine (DCS), an analog of D-Ala and a prototype Ddl inhibitor, has shown promise for the treatment of tuberculosis. Here, we report the crystal structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ddl at a resolution of 2.1 {angstrom}. This structure indicates that Ddl is a dimer and consists of three discrete domains; the ligand binding cavity is at the intersection of all three domains and conjoined by several loop regions. The M. tuberculosis apo Ddl structure shows a novel conformation that has not yet been observed in Ddl enzymes from other species. The nucleotide and D-alanine binding pockets are flexible, requiring significant structural rearrangement of the bordering regions for entry and binding of both ATP and D-Ala molecules. Solution affinity and kinetic studies showed that DCS interacts with Ddl in a manner similar to that observed for D-Ala. Each ligand binds to two binding sites that have significant differences in affinity, with the first binding site exhibiting high affinity. DCS inhibits the enzyme, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC{sub 50}) of 0.37 mM under standard assay conditions, implicating a preferential and weak inhibition at the second, lower-affinity binding site. Moreover, DCS binding is tighter at higher ATP concentrations. The crystal structure illustrates potential drugable sites that may result in the development of more-effective Ddl inhibitors.

  12. Liver scan

    MedlinePLUS

    ... technetium sulfur colloid scan; Liver-spleen radionuclide scan; Nuclear scan - technetium; Nuclear scan - liver or spleen ... Radiation from any scan is always a slight concern. The level of radiation in this procedure is ...

  13. Liver transplant

    MedlinePLUS

    ... end up with fully working livers after a successful transplant. The donor liver is transported in a ... and the likelihood that a transplant will be successful. The amount of time you spend on a ...

  14. Discovery That Theonellasterol a Marine Sponge Sterol Is a Highly Selective FXR Antagonist That Protects against Liver Injury in Cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    Renga, Barbara; Mencarelli, Andrea; D'Amore, Claudio; Cipriani, Sabrina; D'Auria, Maria Valeria; Sepe, Valentina; Chini, Maria Giovanna; Monti, Maria Chiara; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Zampella, Angela; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Background The farnesoid-x-receptor (FXR) is a bile acid sensor expressed in the liver and gastrointestinal tract. Despite FXR ligands are under investigation for treatment of cholestasis, a biochemical condition occurring in a number of liver diseases for which available therapies are poorly effective, mice harboring a disrupted FXR are protected against liver injury caused by bile acid overload in rodent models of cholestasis. Theonellasterol is a 4-methylene-24-ethylsteroid isolated from the marine sponge Theonella swinhoei. Here, we have characterized the activity of this theonellasterol on FXR-regulated genes and biological functions. Principal Findings Interrogation of HepG2 cells, a human hepatocyte cell line, by microarray analysis and transactivation assay shows that theonellasterol is a selective FXR antagonist, devoid of any agonistic or antagonistic activity on a number of human nuclear receptors including the vitamin D receptor, PPARs, PXR, LXRs, progesterone, estrogen, glucorticoid and thyroid receptors, among others. Exposure of HepG2 cells to theonellasterol antagonizes the effect of natural and synthetic FXR agonists on FXR-regulated genes, including SHP, OST?, BSEP and MRP4. A proof-of-concept study carried out to investigate whether FXR antagonism rescues mice from liver injury caused by the ligation of the common bile duct, a model of obstructive cholestasis, demonstrated that theonellasterol attenuates injury caused by bile duct ligation as measured by assessing serum alanine aminostrasferase levels and extent of liver necrosis at histopathology. Analysis of genes involved in bile acid uptake and excretion by hepatocytes revealed that theonellasterol increases the liver expression of MRP4, a basolateral transporter that is negatively regulated by FXR. Administering bile duct ligated mice with an FXR agonist failed to rescue from liver injury and downregulated the expression of MRP4. Conclusions FXR antagonism in vivo results in a positive modulation of MRP4 expression in the liver and is a feasible strategy to target obstructive cholestasis. PMID:22291955

  15. Establishment of a mouse model for amiodarone-induced liver injury and analyses of its hepatotoxic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Takai, Shohei; Oda, Shingo; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Fukami, Tatsuki; Nakajima, Miki; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is the most frequent cause of post-marketing warnings and withdrawals. Amiodarone (AMD), an antiarrhythmic, presents a risk of liver injury in humans, and its metabolites, formed by cytochrome P450 3A4, are likely more toxic to hepatocytes than AMD is. However, it remains to be clarified whether the metabolic activation of AMD is involved in liver injury in vivo. In this study, to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of AMD-induced liver injury, mice were administered AMD [1000?mg?kg(-1) , per os (p.o.)] after pretreatment with dexamethasone [DEX, 60?mg?kg(-1) , intraperitoneal (i.p.)], which induces P450 expression, once daily for 3?days. The plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were significantly increased by AMD administration in the DEX-pretreated mice, and the liver concentrations of desethylamiodarone (DEA), a major metabolite of AMD, were correlated with the changes in the plasma ALT levels. Cytochrome c release into the hepatic cytosol and triglyceride levels in the plasma were increased in DEX plus AMD-administered mice. Furthermore, the ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione disulfide in the liver significantly decreased in the DEX plus AMD-administered mice. The increase of ALT levels was suppressed by treatment with gadolinium chloride (GdCl3 ), which is an inhibitor of Kupffer cell function. From these results, it is suggested that AMD and/or DEA contribute to the pathogenesis of AMD-induced liver injury by producing mitochondrial and oxidative stress and Kupffer cell activation. This study proposes the mechanisms of AMD-induced liver injury using an in vivo mouse model. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25900201

  16. Liver disease.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    Essential facts Liver disease is the fifth biggest killer in the UK and, according to the British Liver Trust, the only major cause of death still increasing year on year. NHS Choices says there are more than 100 different types of liver disease affecting at least two million people in the UK at any one time. PMID:26530565

  17. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Test Systems § 862.1030 Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. (a) Identification. An alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme alanine amino transferase (ALT) (also known as a serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase or SGPT)...

  18. Supplementation of Eurycoma longifolia Jack Extract for 6 Weeks Does Not Affect Urinary Testosterone: Epitestosterone Ratio, Liver and Renal Functions in Male Recreational Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chee Keong; Mohamad, Wan Mohd Zahiruddin Wan; Ooi, Foong Kiew; Ismail, Shaiful Bahari; Abdullah, Mohamad Rusli; George, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Eurycoma longifolia Jack (ElJ) has been shown to elevate serum testosterone and increased muscle strength in humans. This study investigated the effects of Physta® a standardized water extract of ElJ (400 mg/day for 6 weeks) on testosterone: epitestosterone (T:E) ratio, liver and renal functions in male recreational athletes. Methods: A total of 13 healthy male recreational athletes were recruited in this double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. The participants were required to consume either 400 mg of ElJ or placebo daily for 6 weeks in the first supplementation regimen. Following a 3 week wash-out period, the participants were requested to consume the other supplement for another 6 weeks. Mid-stream urine samples and blood samples were collected prior to and after 6 weeks of supplementation with either ElJ or placebo. The urine samples were subsequently analyzed for T:E ratio while the blood samples were analyzed for liver and renal functions. Results: T:E ratio was not significantly different following 6 weeks supplementation of either ElJ or placebo compared with their respective baseline values. Similarly, there were no significant changes in both the liver and renal functions tests following the supplementation of ElJ. Conclusions: Supplementation of ElJ i.e. Physta® at a dosage of 400 mg/day for 6 weeks did not affect the urinary T:E ratio and hence will not breach any doping policies of the International Olympic Committee for administration of exogenous testosterone or its precursor. In addition, the supplementation of ElJ at this dosage and duration was safe as it did adversely affect the liver and renal functions. PMID:25013692

  19. Threshold Doses for Focal Liver Reaction After Stereotactic Ablative Body Radiation Therapy for Small Hepatocellular Carcinoma Depend on Liver Function: Evaluation on Magnetic Resonance Imaging With Gd-EOB-DTPA

    SciTech Connect

    Sanuki, Naoko; Takeda, Atsuya; Oku, Yohei; Eriguchi, Takahisa; Nishimura, Shuichi; Aoki, Yosuke; Mizuno, Tomikazu; Iwabuchi, Shogo; Kunieda, Etsuo

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: Focal liver reaction (FLR) appears on radiographic images after stereotactic ablative body radiation therapy (SABR) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and chronic liver disease. We investigated the threshold dose (TD) of FLR and possible factors affecting the TD on gadoxetate acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods and Materials: In 50 patients who were treated with SABR for small HCC and followed up by MRI for >6 months, FLR, seen as a hypointense area, was evaluated on the hepatobiliary phase of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI. The follow-up MRI with the largest extent of FLR was fused to the planning computed tomography (CT) image, and patients with good image fusion concordance were eligible. After delineating the border of the FLR manually, a dose–volume histogram was used to identify the TD for the FLR. Clinical and volumetric factors were analyzed for correlation with the TD. Results: A total of 45 patients were eligible for analysis with a median image fusion concordance of 84.9% (range, 71.6-95.4%). The median duration between SABR and subsequent hepatobiliary phase MRI with the largest extent of FLR was 3 months (range, 1-6 months). The median TD for FLR was 28.0 Gy (range, 22.3-36.4 Gy). On univariate analysis, pre-treatment Child-Pugh (CP) score and platelet count were significantly correlated with the TD. On multiple linear regression analysis, CP score was the only parameter that predicted TD. Median TDs were 30.5 Gy (range, 26.2.3-36.4 Gy) and 25.2 Gy (range, 22.3-27.5 Gy) for patients with CP-A and CP-B disease, respectively. Conclusion: The TD was significantly correlated with baseline liver function. We propose 30 Gy for CP-A disease and 25 Gy for CP-B disease in 5 fractions as TDs for FLR after SABR for patients with HCC and chronic liver disease. Use of these TDs will help to predict potential loss of liver tissue after SABR.

  20. Lipids changes in liver cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jing-ting; Xu, Ning; Zhang, Xiao-ying; Wu, Chang-ping

    2007-01-01

    Liver is one of the most important organs in energy metabolism. Most plasma apolipoproteins and endogenous lipids and lipoproteins are synthesized in the liver. It depends on the integrity of liver cellular function, which ensures homeostasis of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. When liver cancer occurs, these processes are impaired and the plasma lipid and lipoprotein patterns may be changed. Liver cancer is the fifth common malignant tumor worldwide, and is closely related to the infections of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). HBV and HCV infections are quite common in China and other Southeast Asian countries. In addition, liver cancer is often followed by a procession of chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis, so that hepatic function is damaged obviously on these bases, which may significantly influence lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in vivo. In this review we summarize the clinical significance of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism under liver cancer. PMID:17565510

  1. Alleviation of Dimethylnitrosamine-Induced Liver Injury and Fibrosis by Supplementation of Anabasis articulata Extract in Rats.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Azza M; Abdalla, Mohga S; Rizk, Maha Z; Mahdy, El-Sayed M E; Farrag, Abdel-Razik H; El-Sharabasy, Fatma S; Aly, Hanan F; Mohamed, Mohamed R

    2014-10-01

    Anabasis articulata (Forssk) Moq. (Chenopodiaceae) is an herb, grows in Egypt, and used in folk medicine to treat diabetes, fever, and kidney infections. The protective and therapeutic effects of the ethanol extract of A. articulata aerial parts were evaluated against dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced liver fibrosis, compared with the standard drug, silymarin. Hepatic hydroxyproline content, serum transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1), interleukin 10 (IL-10) and fructosamine were measured as liver fibrosis markers. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione content (GSH) were measured as oxidant/antioxidant markers. Parallel histopathological investigations were also performed. Protective and therapeutic administration of A. articulata (100 mg/kg daily for 4 weeks), markedly prevented DMN-induced loss in body and liver weights. The extract significantly inhibited the elevation of hepatic hydroxyproline, NO and MDA (P < 0.05), as well as serum fructosamine, and TGF-?1 (P < 0.05) induced by DMN while it restored IL-10 to normal level in both protective and therapeutic groups. Furthermore, A. articulata prevented the depletion in CAT, GR, and GSH levels (P ? 0.05). In addition, oral administration of A. articulata extract and silymarin to both protective and therapeutic groups reduced the increase in liver function enzyme activities; alanine and aspartate amintransferases, gamma-glutamyl transferase in addition to alkaline phosphatase, and caused significant increase in serum albumin concentration as compared to DMN group. These data corresponded closely with those obtained for the drug silymarin. Histopathological studies confirmed the biochemical data and revealed remarkable improvement in liver architecture. Thus, it could be concluded that, A. articulata extract exhibited in vivo hepatoprotective and therapeutic effects against DMN-induced liver injury and may act as a useful agent in controlling the progression of hepatic fibrosis through reduction of oxidative stress and improving liver function. PMID:25298623

  2. S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine for the Treatment of Chronic Liver Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yusha; Liu, Quanyan

    2015-01-01

    It has been well established that S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) is the principal methyl donor in methyltransferase reactions and that SAMe supplementation restores hepatic glutathione (GSH) deposits and attenuates liver injury. However, the effectiveness of SAMe therapy in chronic liver disease has not been adequately addressed. We searched globally recognized electronic databases, including PubMed, the Cochrane Database and EMBASE, to retrieve relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of chronic liver disease published in the past 20 years. We then performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the enrolled trials that met the inclusion criteria.The results showed that twelve RCTs from 11 studies, which examined 705 patients, were included in this research. For liver function, certain results obtained from data synthesis and independent comparisons demonstrated significant differences between the levels of total bilirubin (TBIL) and aspartate transaminase (AST). However, no studies identified significant differences regarding alanine transaminase (ALT) levels. An analysis of the adverse events and long-term prognosis also indicated no significant differences between the SAMe and the placebo groups. In a subgroup analysis of gravidas and children, several of the included data indicated that there was a significant difference in the pruritus score. Furthermore, the results regarding ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and stronger neo-minophagen C (SNMC) indicated that both treatments were more effective than SAMe was in certain chronic liver diseases. These findings suggest that SAMe could be used as the basis of a medication regimen for liver function improvement because of its safety. However, SAMe also demonstrated limited clinical value in the treatment of certain chronic liver diseases. PMID:25774783

  3. Effects of dose fractionation on the response of alanine dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundahl, Brad; Logar, John; Desrosiers, Marc; Puhl, James

    2014-12-01

    Alanine dosimetry is well established as a transfer standard and is becoming more prevalently used in routine dosimetry systems for radiation processing. Many routine measurement applications in radiation processing involve absorbed dose measurements resulting from fractioned exposures to ionizing radiation. Fractioning of absorbed dose is identified as an influence quantity (ISO/ASTM, 2013). This paper reports on study results of absorbed dose fractioning characteristics of alanine for gamma and high energy electron beam radiation sources. The results of this study indicate a radiation response difference due to absorbed dose fractioning in response can be observed after four fractionations for high-energy electron beams and no difference up to seven fractions for gamma rays using an ANOVA evaluation method.

  4. Pt(II) and Pd(II) Complexes with ?-Alanine

    PubMed Central

    Krylova, L. F.; Kovtunova, L. M.; Romanenko, G. V.

    2008-01-01

    A sequence of stages in the syntheses of isomeric bisamino acid complexes of Pt(II) with ?-aminopropionic acid (?-alanine = ?-AlaH) has been studied by the 195Pt NMR spectroscopy. The techniques have been developed of the synthesis of the cis- and trans-bischelates of Pt(II) and Pd(II) with ?-alanine as well as of the halide complexes of trans-[M(?-AlaH)2Cl2] (M = Pt, Pd) and trans-K2[Pt(?-Ala)2I2] types. The NMR spectroscopy and IR spectroscopy (in the nuclei of 195Pt,13C,1H) and X-ray diffraction analysis have been used to examine the structures of the synthesized compounds. PMID:18528519

  5. Acyl ghrelin acts in the brain to control liver function and peripheral glucose homeostasis in male mice.

    PubMed

    Stark, Romana; Reichenbach, Alex; Lockie, Sarah H; Pracht, Corinna; Wu, Qunli; Tups, Alexander; Andrews, Zane B

    2015-03-01

    Recent evidence suggests that peripheral ghrelin regulates glucose metabolism. Here, we designed experiments to examine how central acyl ghrelin infusion affects peripheral glucose metabolism under pair-fed or ad libitum feeding conditions. Mice received intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF), ghrelin, and allowed to eat ad libitum (icv ghrelin ad lib) or ghrelin and pair-fed to the aCSF group (icv ghrelin pf). Minipumps delivered acyl ghrelin at a dose of 0.25 ?g/h at 0.5 ?L/h for 7 days. There was no difference in daily blood glucose, insulin, glucagon, triglycerides, or nonesterified fatty acids. Body weight gain and food intake was significantly higher in icv ghrelin ad lib mice. However, both icv ghrelin ad lib and icv ghrelin pf groups exhibited heavier white adipose mass. Icv ghrelin pf mice exhibited better glucose tolerance than aCSF or icv ghrelin ad lib mice during a glucose tolerance test, although both icv ghrelin ad lib and icv ghrelin pf increased insulin release during the glucose tolerance test. Central acyl ghrelin infusion and pair feeding also increased breakdown of liver glycogen and triglyceride, and regulated genes involved in hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism. Icv ghrelin pf mice had an increase in plasma blood glucose during a pyruvate tolerance test relative to icv ghrelin ad lib or aCSF mice. Our results suggest that under conditions of negative energy (icv ghrelin pf), central acyl ghrelin engages a neural circuit that influences hepatic glucose function. Metabolic status affects the ability of central acyl ghrelin to regulate peripheral glucose homeostasis. PMID:25535832

  6. Identification of the Functions of Liver X Receptor-? in Sertoli Cells Using a Targeted Expression-Rescue Model.

    PubMed

    Maqdasy, Salwan; El Hajjaji, Fatim-Zohra; Baptissart, Marine; Viennois, Emilie; Oumeddour, Abdelkader; Brugnon, Florence; Trousson, Amalia; Tauveron, Igor; Volle, David; Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A; Baron, Silvère

    2015-12-01

    Liver X receptors (LXRs) are key regulators of lipid homeostasis and are involved in multiple testicular functions. The Lxr?(-/-);Lxr?(-/-) mice have illuminated the roles of both isoforms in maintenance of the epithelium in the seminiferous tubules, spermatogenesis, and T production. The requirement for LXR? in Sertoli cells have been emphasized by early abnormal cholesteryl ester accumulation in the Lxr?(-/-) and Lxr?(-/-);Lxr?(-/-) mice. Other phenotypes, such as germ cell loss and hypogonadism, occur later in life in the Lxr?(-/-);Lxr?(-/-) mice. Thus, LXR? expression in Sertoli cells seems to be essential for normal testicular physiology. To decipher the roles of LXR? within the Sertoli cells, we generated Lxr?(-/-);Lxr?(-/-):AMH-Lxr? transgenic mice, which reexpress Lxr? in Sertoli cells in the context of Lxr?(-/-);Lxr?(-/-) mice. In addition to lipid homeostasis, LXR? is necessary for maintaining the blood-testis barrier and the integrity of the germ cell epithelium. LXR? is also implicated in the paracrine action of Sertoli cells on Leydig cells to modulate T synthesis. The Lxr?(-/-);Lxr?(-/-) and Lxr?(-/-);Lxr?(-/-):AMH-Lxr? mice exhibit lipid accumulation in germ cells after the Abcg8 down-regulation, suggesting an intricate LXR?-dependent cooperation between the Sertoli cells and germ cells to ensure spermiogenesis. Further analysis revealed also peritubular smooth muscle defects (abnormal lipid accumulation and disorganized smooth muscle actin) and spermatozoa stagnation in the seminiferous tubules. Together the present work elucidates specific roles of LXR? in Sertoli cell physiology in vivo beyond lipid homeostasis. PMID:26402841

  7. Long-Term Renal Function in Liver Transplant Recipients After Conversion From Calcineurin Inhibitors to mTOR Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hüsing, Anna; Schmidt, Martina; Beckebaum, Susanne; Cicinnati, Vito R; Koch, Raphael; Thölking, Gerold; Stella, Jaqueline; Heinzow, Hauke; Schmidt, Hartmut H; Kabar, Iyad

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Renal dysfunction often occurs in liver transplant (LT) recipients receiving calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-based immunosuppressive regimens, increasing morbidity and mortality rates. Replacement of CNIs by mTOR inhibitor-based immunosuppressive protocols may prevent renal impairment in LT recipients. MATERIAL AND METHODS Outcomes in patients who underwent LT between 1996 and 2010 at our center and who were switched from CNI-based to mTOR inhibitor-based immunosuppression were retrospectively analyzed. Renal course, hyperlipidemia, and graft rejection were assessed in patients maintained on this CNI-free regimen for at least 24 months. RESULTS Of the 85 patients switched from CNI-based to mTOR inhibitor-based, CNI-free immunosuppression, 78 met the inclusion criteria. Within the first 6 weeks after switching, the covariable adjusted estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) increased 5.6 mL/min [95% confidence interval 2.6-8.7 mL/min, p<0.001], but there were no further statistically noticeable changes in eGFR. Concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides increased statistically, noticeable within the first 12 months after drug conversion. Histologically proven graft rejection was observed in 4 patients (5.1%) after conversion. CONCLUSIONS Conversion from CNI-based to CNI-free, mTOR inhibitor-based immunosuppression after LT is safe and can result in significant renal recovery. CNI-free, mTOR inhibitor-based immunosuppression is a potential option for patients with contraindications for CNIs and for LT recipients with rapid reduction in kidney function due to CNIs. PMID:26608590

  8. Enzyme activities in plasma, liver, and kidney of black ducks and mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    Activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured in plasma, liver, and kidney, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) was measured in liver and kidney of black ducks (Anas rubripes). Activities of ALT, AST, GGT, and ornithine carbamyl transferase (OCT) were assayed in plasma, liver, and kidney of game-farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Appreciable OCT and AST activity occurred in both liver and kidney. Activities of ALT, CPK, ALP and GGT were higher in kidney, while LDH was higher in liver, GGT was detected in plasma from one of four mallards.

  9. Computational alanine scanning mutagenesis--an improved methodological approach.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Irina S; Fernandes, Pedro A; Ramos, Maria J

    2007-02-01

    Alanine scanning mutagenesis of protein-protein interfacial residues can be applied to a wide variety of protein complexes to understand the structural and energetic characteristics of the hot-spots. Binding free energies have been estimated with reasonable accuracy with empirical methods, such as Molecular Mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA), and with more rigorous computational approaches like Free Energy Perturbation (FEP) and Thermodynamic Integration (TI). The main objective of this work is the development of an improved methodological approach, with less computational cost, that predicts accurately differences in binding free energies between the wild-type and alanine mutated complexes (DeltaDeltaG(binding)). The method was applied to three complexes, and a mean unsigned error of 0.80 kcal/mol was obtained in a set of 46 mutations. The computational method presented here achieved an overall success rate of 80% and an 82% success rate in residues for which alanine mutation causes an increase in the binding free energy > 2.0 kcal/mol (warm- and hot-spots). This fully atomistic computational methodological approach consists in a computational Molecular Dynamics simulation protocol performed in a continuum medium using the Generalized Born model. A set of three different internal dielectric constants, to mimic the different degree of relaxation of the interface when different types of amino acids are mutated for alanine, have to be used for the proteins, depending on the type of amino acid that is mutated. This method permits a systematic scanning mutagenesis of protein-protein interfaces and it is capable of anticipating the experimental results of mutagenesis, thus guiding new experimental investigations. PMID:17195156

  10. Crystal Structures of Aedes Aegypt Alanine Glyoxylate Aminotransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Han,Q.; Robinson, H.; Gao, Y.; Vogelaar, N.; Wilson, S.; Rizzi, M.; Li, J.

    2006-01-01

    Mosquitoes are unique in having evolved two alanine glyoxylate aminotransferases (AGTs). One is 3-hydroxykynurenine transaminase (HKT), which is primarily responsible for catalyzing the transamination of 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) to xanthurenic acid (XA). Interestingly, XA is used by malaria parasites as a chemical trigger for their development within the mosquito. This 3-HK to XA conversion is considered the major mechanism mosquitoes use to detoxify the chemically reactive and potentially toxic 3-HK. The other AGT is a typical dipteran insect AGT and is specific for converting glyoxylic acid to glycine. Here we report the 1.75{angstrom} high-resolution three-dimensional crystal structure of AGT from the mosquito Aedes aegypti (AeAGT) and structures of its complexes with reactants glyoxylic acid and alanine at 1.75 and 2.1{angstrom} resolution, respectively. This is the first time that the three-dimensional crystal structures of an AGT with its amino acceptor, glyoxylic acid, and amino donor, alanine, have been determined. The protein is dimeric and adopts the type I-fold of pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-dependent aminotransferases. The PLP co-factor is covalently bound to the active site in the crystal structure, and its binding site is similar to those of other AGTs. The comparison of the AeAGT-glyoxylic acid structure with other AGT structures revealed that these glyoxylic acid binding residues are conserved in most AGTs. Comparison of the AeAGT-alanine structure with that of the Anopheles HKT-inhibitor complex suggests that a Ser-Asn-Phe motif in the latter may be responsible for the substrate specificity of HKT enzymes for 3-HK.

  11. Liver regeneration following repeat SBRT

    PubMed Central

    Farach, Andrew; Quesada, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is an emerging treatment option for oligometastases and may confer a survival benefit in select patients. Herein, we document the first case of liver regeneration (LR) following repeat right hepatic lobe SBRT in a woman with breast cancer metastases. Retraction of the treated lobe was significant with a near 50% volume reduction. Compensatory contralateral lobe hypertrophy was noted with a 320% volume increase. The overall liver volume remained stable, within ±5% of baseline. This case indicates that repeat liver SBRT can be delivered safely to individual patients and that compensatory contralateral lobe hypertrophy is observed to maintain a functional liver volume. PMID:25830045

  12. Liver transplantation?

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, M.; Mennini, G.; Lai, Q.; Ginanni Corradini, S.; Drudi, F.M.; Pugliese, F.; Berloco, P.B.

    2007-01-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) involves the substitution of a diseased native liver with a normal liver (or part of one) taken from a deceased or living donor. Considered an experimental procedure through the 1980s, OLT is now regarded as the treatment of choice for a number of otherwise irreversible forms of acute and chronic liver disease. The first human liver transplantation was performed in the United States in 1963 by Prof. T.E. Starzl of the University of Colorado. The first OLT to be performed in Italy was done in 1982 by Prof. R. Cortesini. The procedure was successfully performed at the Policlinico Umberto I of the University of Rome (La Sapienza). The paper reports the indications for liver transplantation, donor selection and organ allocation in our experience, surgical technique, immunosuppression, complications and results of liver transplantation in our center. PMID:23396075

  13. The microRNA Expression Profile in Donation after Cardiac Death (DCD) Livers and Its Ability to Identify Primary Non Function.

    PubMed

    Khorsandi, Shirin Elizabeth; Quaglia, Alberto; Salehi, Siamak; Jassem, Wayel; Vilca-Melendez, Hector; Prachalias, Andreas; Srinivasan, Parthi; Heaton, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    Donation after cardiac death (DCD) livers are marginal organs for transplant and their use is associated with a higher risk of primary non function (PNF) or early graft dysfunction (EGD). The aim was to determine if microRNA (miRNA) was able to discriminate between DCD livers of varying clinical outcome. DCD groups were categorized as PNF retransplanted within a week (n=7), good functional outcome (n=7) peak aspartate transaminase (AST) ? 1000 IU/L and EGD (n=9) peak AST ? 2500 IU/L. miRNA was extracted from archival formalin fixed post-perfusion tru-cut liver biopsies. High throughput expression analysis was performed using miRNA arrays. Bioinformatics for expression data analysis was performed and validated with real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The function of miRNA of interest was investigated using computational biology prediction algorithms. From the array analysis 16 miRNAs were identified as significantly different (p<0.05). On RT-qPCR miR-155 and miR-940 had the highest expression across all three DCD clinical groups. Only one miRNA, miR-22, was validated with marginal significance, to have differential expression between the three groups (p=0.049). From computational biology miR-22 was predicted to affect signalling pathways that impact protein turnover, metabolism and apoptosis/cell cycle. In conclusion, microRNA expression patterns have a low diagnostic potential clinically in discriminating DCD liver quality and outcome. PMID:25978529

  14. The microRNA Expression Profile in Donation after Cardiac Death (DCD) Livers and Its Ability to Identify Primary Non Function

    PubMed Central

    Jassem, Wayel; Vilca-Melendez, Hector; Prachalias, Andreas; Srinivasan, Parthi

    2015-01-01

    Donation after cardiac death (DCD) livers are marginal organs for transplant and their use is associated with a higher risk of primary non function (PNF) or early graft dysfunction (EGD). The aim was to determine if microRNA (miRNA) was able to discriminate between DCD livers of varying clinical outcome. DCD groups were categorized as PNF retransplanted within a week (n=7), good functional outcome (n=7) peak aspartate transaminase (AST) ? 1000 IU/L and EGD (n=9) peak AST ? 2500 IU/L. miRNA was extracted from archival formalin fixed post-perfusion tru-cut liver biopsies. High throughput expression analysis was performed using miRNA arrays. Bioinformatics for expression data analysis was performed and validated with real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The function of miRNA of interest was investigated using computational biology prediction algorithms. From the array analysis 16 miRNAs were identified as significantly different (p<0.05). On RT-qPCR miR-155 and miR-940 had the highest expression across all three DCD clinical groups. Only one miRNA, miR-22, was validated with marginal significance, to have differential expression between the three groups (p=0.049). From computational biology miR-22 was predicted to affect signalling pathways that impact protein turnover, metabolism and apoptosis/cell cycle. In conclusion, microRNA expression patterns have a low diagnostic potential clinically in discriminating DCD liver quality and outcome. PMID:25978529

  15. Protective effects of C-phycocyanin on alcohol-induced acute liver injury in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Dong; Liu, Bing; Luan, Xiying; Sun, Junyan; Liu, Nana; Qin, Song; Du, Zhenning

    2015-08-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption leads to liver disease. Extensive evidence suggests that C-phycocyanin (C-PC), a chromophore phycocyanobilin derived from Spirulina platensis, exerts protective effects against chemical-induced organ damage. In this study, we investigated whether C-PC could protect against ethanol-induced acute liver injury. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (CHOL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), liver homogenate malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) content were measured, and pathological examination of liver sections were examined. C-PC showed obvious inhibitory effects on serum ALT, AST, TG, CHOL, LDL and MDA, and SOD content significantly increased in the liver. The structure of hepatic lobules was clear, liver sinus returned to normal, and liver cell cords were arranged in neat rows. Cloudiness, swelling, inflammatory cell infiltration and spotty necrosis of liver cells were significantly reduced. Therefore, C-PC can significantly protect against ethanol-induced acute liver injury.

  16. Inhibitory effects of deferasirox on the structure and function of bovine liver catalase: a spectroscopic and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Moradi, M; Divsalar, A; Saboury, A A; Ghalandari, B; Harifi, A R

    2015-01-01

    Deferasirox (DFX), as an oral chelator, is used for treatment of transfusional iron overload. In this study, we have investigated the effects of DFX as an iron chelator, on the function and structure of bovine liver catalase (BLC) by different spectroscopic methods of UV-visible, fluorescence, and circular dichroism (CD) at two temperatures of 25 and 37 °C. In vitro kinetic studies showed that DFX can inhibit the enzymatic activity in a competitive manner. KI value was calculated 39 nM according to the Lineweaver-Burk plot indicating a high rate of inhibition of the enzyme. Intrinsic fluorescence data showed that increasing the drug concentrations leads to a significant decrease in the intrinsic emission of the enzyme indicating a significant change in the three-dimensional environment around the chromophores of the enzyme structure. By analyzing the fluorescence quenching data, it was found that the BLC has two binding sites for DFX and the values of binding constant at 25 and 37 °C were calculated 1.7 × 10(7) and 3 × 10(7) M(-1), respectively. The static type of quenching mechanism is involved in the quenching of intrinsic emission of enzyme. The thermodynamic data suggest that hydrophobic interactions play a major role in the binding reaction. UV-vis spectroscopy results represented the changes in tryptophan (Trp) absorption and Soret band spectra, which indicated changes in Trp and heme group position caused by the drug binding. Also, CD data represented that high concentrations of DFX lead to a significant decreasing in the content of ?-sheet and random coil accompanied an increasing in ?-helical content of the protein. The molecular docking results indicate that docking may be an appropriate method for prediction and confirmation of experimental results and also useful for determining the binding mechanism of proteins and drugs. According to above results, it can be concluded that the DFX can chelate the Fe(III) on the enzyme active site leading to changes in the function and structure of catalase which can be considered as a side effect of this drug and consequently has an important role in hepatic complications and fibrosis. PMID:25586906

  17. What Is Liver Cancer?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... How many people get liver cancer? What is liver cancer? Liver cancer starts in the liver. To understand ... have. Cancers that start in the liver (primary liver cancers) The place where a cancer starts is called ...

  18. MicroRNA-31 functions as a tumor suppressor by regulating cell cycle and epithelial-mesenchymal transition regulatory proteins in liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Hyun Jin; Eun, Jung Woo; Shen, Qingyu; Park, Se Jin; Shin, Woo Chan; Yang, Hee Doo; Park, Mijung; Park, Won Sang; Kang, Yong-Koo; Nam, Suk Woo

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA-31 (miR-31) is among the most frequently altered microRNAs in human cancers and altered expression of miR-31 has been detected in a large variety of tumor types, but the functional role of miR-31 still hold both tumor suppressive and oncogenic roles in different tumor types. MiR-31 expression was down-regulated in a large cohort of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients, and low expression of miR-31 was significantly associated with poor prognosis of HCC patients. Ectopic expression of miR-31 mimics suppressed HCC cell growth by transcriptional deregulation of cell cycle proteins. Additional study evidenced miR-31 directly to suppress HDAC2 and CDK2 expression by inhibiting mRNA translation in HCC cells. We also found that ectopic expression of miR-31 mimics reduced metastatic potential of HCC cells by selectively regulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulatory proteins such as N-cadherin, E-cadherin, vimentin and fibronectin. HCC tissues derived from chemical-induced rat liver cancer models validated that miR-31 expression is significantly down-regulated, and that those cell cycle- and EMT-regulatory proteins are deregulated in rat liver cancer. Overall, we suggest that miR-31 functions as a tumor suppressor by selectively regulating cell cycle and EMT regulatory proteins in human hepatocarcinogenesis providing a novel target for the molecular treatment of liver malignancies. PMID:25797269

  19. Cell and Tissue Engineering for Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Sangeeta N.; Underhill, Gregory H.; Zaret, Kenneth S.; Fox, Ira J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the tremendous hurdles presented by the complexity of the liver’s structure and function, advances in liver physiology, stem cell biology and reprogramming, and the engineering of tissues and devices are accelerating the development of cell-based therapies for treating liver disease and liver failure. This State of the Art Review discusses both the near and long-term prospects for such cell-based therapies and the unique challenges for clinical translation. PMID:25031271

  20. Diets rich in fructose, fat or fructose and fat alter intestinal barrier function and lead to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease over time.

    PubMed

    Sellmann, Cathrin; Priebs, Josephine; Landmann, Marianne; Degen, Christian; Engstler, Anna Janina; Jin, Cheng Jun; Gärttner, Stefanie; Spruss, Astrid; Huber, Otmar; Bergheim, Ina

    2015-11-01

    General overnutrition but also a diet rich in certain macronutrients, age, insulin resistance and an impaired intestinal barrier function may be critical factors in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Here the effect of chronic intake of diets rich in different macronutrients, i.e. fructose and/or fat on liver status in mice, was studied over time. C57BL/6J mice were fed plain water, 30% fructose solution, a high-fat diet or a combination of both for 8 and 16 weeks. Indices of liver damage, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) signaling cascade, macrophage polarization and insulin resistance in the liver and intestinal barrier function were analyzed. Chronic exposure to a diet rich in fructose and/or fat was associated with the development of hepatic steatosis that progressed with time to steatohepatitis in mice fed a combination of macronutrients. The development of NAFLD was also associated with a marked reduction of the mRNA expression of insulin receptor, whereas hepatic expressions of TLR-4, myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 and markers of M1 polarization of macrophages were induced in comparison to controls. Bacterial endotoxin levels in portal plasma were found to be increased while levels of the tight junction protein occludin and zonula occludens 1 were found to be significantly lower in the duodenum of all treated groups after 8 and 16 weeks. Our data suggest that chronic intake of fructose and/or fat may lead to the development of NAFLD over time and that this is associated with an increased translocation of bacterial endotoxin. PMID:26168700

  1. Protective effects of dietary avocado oil on impaired electron transport chain function and exacerbated oxidative stress in liver mitochondria from diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Avila, Omar; Gallegos-Corona, Marco Alonso; Sánchez-Briones, Luis Alberto; Calderón-Cortés, Elizabeth; Montoya-Pérez, Rocío; Rodriguez-Orozco, Alain R; Campos-García, Jesús; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Mejía-Zepeda, Ricardo; Cortés-Rojo, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Electron transport chain (ETC) dysfunction, excessive ROS generation and lipid peroxidation are hallmarks of mitochondrial injury in the diabetic liver, with these alterations also playing a role in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Enhanced mitochondrial sensitivity to lipid peroxidation during diabetes has been also associated to augmented content of C22:6 in membrane phospholipids. Thus, we aimed to test whether avocado oil, a rich source of C18:1 and antioxidants, attenuates the deleterious effects of diabetes on oxidative status of liver mitochondria by decreasing unsaturation of acyl chains of membrane lipids and/or by improving ETC functionality and decreasing ROS generation. Streptozocin-induced diabetes elicited a noticeable increase in the content of C22:6, leading to augmented mitochondrial peroxidizability index and higher levels of lipid peroxidation. Mitochondrial respiration and complex I activity were impaired in diabetic rats with a concomitant increase in ROS generation using a complex I substrate. This was associated to a more oxidized state of glutathione, All these alterations were prevented by avocado oil except by the changes in mitochondrial fatty acid composition. Avocado oil did not prevented hyperglycemia and polyphagia although did normalized hyperlipidemia. Neither diabetes nor avocado oil induced steatosis. These results suggest that avocado oil improves mitochondrial ETC function by attenuating the deleterious effects of oxidative stress in the liver of diabetic rats independently of a hypoglycemic effect or by modifying the fatty acid composition of mitochondrial membranes. These findings might have also significant implications in the progression of NAFLD in experimental models of steatosis. PMID:26060181

  2. Diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Torruellas, Cara; French, Samuel W; Medici, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a hepatotoxin that is commonly consumed worldwide and is associated with a spectrum of liver injury including simple steatosis or fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a general term used to refer to this spectrum of alcohol-related liver injuries. Excessive or harmful alcohol use is ranked as one of the top five risk factors for death and disability globally and results in 2.5 million deaths and 69.4 million annual disability adjusted life years. All patients who present with clinical features of hepatitis or chronic liver disease or who have elevated serum elevated transaminase levels should be screened for an alcohol use disorder. The diagnosis of ALD can generally be made based on history, clinical and laboratory findings. However, the diagnosis of ALD can be clinically challenging as there is no single diagnostic test that confirms the diagnosis and patients may not be forthcoming about their degree of alcohol consumption. In addition, clinical findings may be absent or minimal in early ALD characterized by hepatic steatosis. Typical laboratory findings in ALD include transaminase levels with aspartate aminotransferase greater than alanine aminotransferase as well as increased mean corpuscular volume, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, and IgA to IgG ratio. In unclear cases, the diagnosis can be supported by imaging and liver biopsy. The histological features of ALD can ultimately define the diagnosis according to the typical presence and distribution of hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and Mallory-Denk bodies. Because of the potential reversible nature of ALD with sobriety, regular screening of the general population and early diagnosis are essential. PMID:25206273

  3. Short- and Long-Term Soy Diet Versus Casein Protects Liver Steatosis Independent of the Arginine Content.

    PubMed

    Hakkak, Reza; Zeng, Huawei; Dhakal, Ishwori B; Korourian, Soheila

    2015-11-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, a major cause of abnormal liver function, is often associated with obesity. Arginine (ARG) plays a role in modulating body weight/fat, but limited data exist as to the role of ARG in soy protein's ability to protect from liver steatosis. We investigated the role of native ARG in the soy protein isolate (SPI) in reducing liver steatosis in male obese Zucker rats. Rats (N=48; 6 weeks old) were randomly assigned to one of three diets for 8 or 16 weeks: the casein (CAS) diet as control (0.6% ARG), CAS diet supplemented to contain 1.3% ARG, or an SPI diet containing isoflavones (1.3% ARG). SPI and ARG rats gained significantly more weight (P<.05) than CAS rats after 16 weeks only. The SPI rats had lower liver steatosis scores after 8 and 16 weeks (P<.05 and P<.001, respectively) compared to CAS and ARG rats. SPI rats had lower serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels (P<.05) compared to CAS after 16 weeks, and AST was lower (P<.05) compared to ARG rats. After 16 weeks, the SPI rats had lower (P<.05) serum ALT and AST levels than at 8 weeks. Our results suggest that a longer period of SPI feeding results in lower liver steatosis and serum ALT and AST levels, while the ARG diet had no effect on steatosis or ALT and AST levels. We found that the SPI diet reduced (P<.001) serum tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) compared to CAS and ARG diets after 8 and 16 weeks. The SPI diet significantly reduced (P<.001) interleukin-6 (IL-6) when compared to the CAS diet at 8 weeks, but there was no significant difference at 16 weeks. Based on the findings of our study, the protective effect of SPI in reducing liver steatosis is not modulated by its native arginine content. PMID:26186426

  4. Liver mitochondrial respiratory function and coenzyme Q content in rats on a hypercholesterolemic diet treated with atorvastatin.

    PubMed

    Uli?ná, O; Van?ová, O; Waczulíková, I; Božek, P; Šikurová, L; Bada, V; Kucharská, J

    2012-01-01

    Statins, inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, are effective drugs in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, however, their undesirable actions are not fully known. We investigated the effects of atorvastatin on the oxidative phosphorylation and membrane fluidity in liver mitochondria, and also on the coenzyme Q (CoQ) content in the mitochondria, liver tissue, and plasma of rats on a standard (C) and hypercholesterolemic (HCh) diet. Atorvastatin was administered at either low (10 mg kg(-1)) or high dose (80 mg kg(-1)) for four weeks. The high dose of the drug decreased the concentrations of total cholesterol and triacylglycerols in the plasma and liver of rats on a HCh diet. Administration of atorvastatin was associated with decreased oxygen uptake (state 3), and oxidative phosphorylation rate in the mitochondria of both C and HCh rats. Further, the drug influenced mitochondrial membrane fluidity and dose-dependently reduced concentrations of oxidized and reduced forms of CoQ in the mitochondria. Our findings point to an association between in vivo administration of atorvastatin and impaired bioenergetics in the liver mitochondria of rats, regardless of diet, in conjunction with simultaneous depletion of oxidized and reduced CoQ forms from the mitochondria. This fact may play a significant role in the development of statin-induced hepatopathy. PMID:22292717

  5. Expression and function of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 9 in hepatic stellate cells and its role in toxic liver injury

    SciTech Connect

    Antoine, Marianne; Wirz, Werner; Tag, Carmen G.; Gressner, Axel M.; Marvituna, Meltem; Wycislo, Mathias; Hellerbrand, Claus; Kiefer, Paul . E-mail: paul.kiefer@klinik.uni-regensburg.de

    2007-09-21

    Hepatic injury and regeneration of the liver are associated with activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC). Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors are important regulators of repair in various tissues. HSC express FGFR3IIIc as well as FGFGR4 and different spliced FGFR1IIIc and FGFR2IIIc isoforms which differ in the presence or absence of the acid box and of the first Ig-like domain. Expression of FGF9, known to be capable to activate the HSC FGFR2/3-isoforms, was increased in HSC in liver slice cultures after exposition to carbon tetrachloride, as an acute liver injury model. FGF9 significantly stimulated 3-H thymidine incorporation of hepatocytes, but failed to induce DNA synthesis in HSC despite the fact that FGF9 induced a sustained activation of extracellular signal-related kinases (ERK) 1/2. FGF9 induced an increased phosphorylation of Tyr436 of the fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate (FRS) 2, while phosphorylation of Tyr196 which is required for efficient Grb2 recruitment remained unchanged. Our findings suggest that HSC FGF9 provide a paracrine mitogenic signal to hepatocytes during acute liver injury, while the autocrine FGF9 signaling appears to be not sufficient to induce cell proliferation.

  6. Experimental study of bioartificial liver with cultured human liver cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying-Jie; Li, Meng-Dong; Wang, Yu-Ming; Nie, Qing-He; Chen, Guo-Zheng

    1999-01-01

    AIM To establish an extracorporeal bioartificial liver support system (EBLSS) using cultured human liver cells and to study its support effect for fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). METHODS The liver support experiment of EBLSS consisting of aggregates cultured human liver cells, hollow fiber bioreactor, and circulation unit was carried out in dizhepatic dogs. RESULTS The viability of isolated hepatocytes and nonparenchymal liver cells reached 96%. These cells were successfully cultured as multicellular spheroids with synthetic technique. The typical morphological appearance was retained up to the end of the artificial liver experiment. Compared with the control dogs treated with EBLSS without liver cells, the survival time of artificial liver support dogs was significantly prolonged. The changes of blood pressure, heart rate and ECG were slow. Both serum ammonia and lactate levels were significantly lowered at the 3rdh and 5thh. In addition, a good viability of human liver cells was noted after 5h experiment. CONCLUSION EBLSS playing a metabolic role of cultured human hepatocytes, is capable of compensating the function of the liver, and could provide effective artificial liver support and therapy for patients with FHF. PMID:11819412

  7. Engineering liver

    E-print Network

    Griffith, Linda G.

    Interest in “engineering liver” arises from multiple communities: therapeutic replacement; mechanistic models of human processes; and drug safety and efficacy studies. An explosion of micro- and nanofabrication, biomaterials, ...

  8. An application of coupled reference interaction site model/molecular dynamics to the conformational analysis of the alanine dipeptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Holly; Truong, Thanh N.

    2004-12-01

    We present an application of our recently proposed coupled reference interaction site model (RISM) molecular dynamics (MD) solvation free energy methodology [Freedman and Truong, Chem. Phys. Lett. 381, 362 (2003); J. Chem. Phys. 121, 2187 (2004)] to study the comformational stability of alanine dipeptide in aqueous solution. In this methodology, radial distribution functions obtained from a single MD simulation are substituted into a RISM expression for solvation free energy. Consequently, iterative solution of the RISM equation is not needed. The relative solvation free energies of seven different conformations of the alanine dipeptide in aqueous solution are calculated. Results from the coupled RISM/MD methodology are in good agreement with those from earlier simulations using the accurate free energy perturbation approach, showing that the ?R conformation is most stabilized by solution. This study establishes a framework for applying this coupled RISM/MD method to larger biological systems.

  9. Inelastic neutron scattering, Raman, vibrational analysis with anharmonic corrections, and scaled quantum mechanical force field for polycrystalline L-alanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Robert W.; Schlücker, Sebastian; Hudson, Bruce S.

    2008-01-01

    A scaled quantum mechanical harmonic force field (SQMFF) corrected for anharmonicity is obtained for the 23 K L-alanine crystal structure using van der Waals corrected periodic boundary condition density functional theory (DFT) calculations with the PBE functional. Scale factors are obtained with comparisons to inelastic neutron scattering (INS), Raman, and FT-IR spectra of polycrystalline L-alanine at 15-23 K. Calculated frequencies for all 153 normal modes differ from observed frequencies with a standard deviation of 6 wavenumbers. Non-bonded external k = 0 lattice modes are included, but assignments to these modes are presently ambiguous. The extension of SQMFF methodology to lattice modes is new, as are the procedures used here for providing corrections for anharmonicity and van der Waals interactions in DFT calculations on crystals. First principles Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (BOMD) calculations are performed on the L-alanine crystal structure at a series of classical temperatures ranging from 23 K to 600 K. Corrections for zero-point energy (ZPE) are estimated by finding the classical temperature that reproduces the mean square displacements (MSDs) measured from the diffraction data at 23 K. External k = 0 lattice motions are weakly coupled to bonded internal modes.

  10. Ergogenic Effects of ?-Alanine and Carnosine: Proposed Future Research to Quantify Their Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, John; Charles, Jessica; Unruh, Kayla; Giebel, Rachel; Learmonth, Lexis; Potter, William

    2012-01-01

    ?-alanine is an amino acid that, when combined with histidine, forms the dipeptide carnosine within skeletal muscle. Carnosine and ?-alanine each have multiple purposes within the human body; this review focuses on their roles as ergogenic aids to exercise performance and suggests how to best quantify the former’s merits as a buffer. Carnosine normally makes a small contribution to a cell’s total buffer capacity; yet ?-alanine supplementation raises intracellular carnosine concentrations that in turn improve a muscle’s ability to buffer protons. Numerous studies assessed the impact of oral ?-alanine intake on muscle carnosine levels and exercise performance. ?-alanine may best act as an ergogenic aid when metabolic acidosis is the primary factor for compromised exercise performance. Blood lactate kinetics, whereby the concentration of the metabolite is measured as it enters and leaves the vasculature over time, affords the best opportunity to assess the merits of ?-alanine supplementation’s ergogenic effect. Optimal ?-alanine dosages have not been determined for persons of different ages, genders and nutritional/health conditions. Doses as high as 6.4 g day?1, for ten weeks have been administered to healthy subjects. Paraesthesia is to date the only side effect from oral ?-alanine ingestion. The severity and duration of paraesthesia episodes are dose-dependent. It may be unwise for persons with a history of paraesthesia to ingest ?-alanine. As for any supplement, caution should be exercised with ?-alanine supplementation. PMID:22852051

  11. Experience of Treatments of Amanita phalloides-Induced Fulminant Liver Failure with Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System and Therapeutic Plasma Exchange.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jicheng; Zhang, Ying; Peng, Zhiyong; Maberry, Donald; Feng, Xueqiang; Bian, Pengfei; Ma, Wenjuan; Wang, Chunting; Qin, Chengyong

    2014-01-01

    Ingestion of the mushroom containing Amanita phalloides can induce fulminant liver failure and death. There are no specific antidotes. Blood purifications, such as molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS) and therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), are potential therapies. However, the extent to which these technologies avert the deleterious effects of amatoxins remains controversial; the optimal intensity, duration, and initiation criteria have not been determined yet. This study aimed to retrospectively observe the effects of MARS and TPE on nine patients with A. phalloides-induced fulminant liver failure. The survival rate for the nine patients was 66.7%. Both TPE and MARS might remove toxins and improve liver functions. However, a single session of TPE produced immediately greater improvements in alanine aminotransferase (-60% vs. -16.3%), aspartate aminotransferase (-47.6% vs. -15.4%), and total bilirubin (-37.3% vs. -17.1%) (compared with the values of pretreatment, all p < 0.05) than MARS compared with MARS. Early intervention may be more effective than delayed therapy. Additionally, the presence of severe liver failure and renal failure indicated worse outcome. Although these findings are promising, additional case-controlled, randomized studies are required to confirm our results. PMID:24727538

  12. Precision and sensitivity of the measurement of 15N enrichment in D-alanine from bacterial cell walls using positive/negative ion mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tunlid, A.; Odham, G.; Findlay, R. H.; White, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Sensitive detection of cellular components from specific groups of microbes can be utilized as 'signatures' in the examination of microbial consortia from soils, sediments or biofilms. Utilizing capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and stereospecific derivatizing agents, D-alanine, a component localized in the prokaryotic (bacterial) cell wall, can be detected reproducibly. Enrichments of D-[15N]alanine determined in E. coli grown with [15N]ammonia can be determined with precision at 1.0 atom%. Chemical ionization with methane gas and the detection of negative ions (M - HF)- and (M - F or M + H - HF)- formed from the heptafluorobutyryl D-2 butanol ester of D-alanine allowed as little as 8 pg (90 fmol) to be detected reproducibly. This method can be utilized to define the metabolic activity in terms of 15N incorporation at the level of 10(3)-10(4) cells, as a function of the 15N-14N ratio.

  13. Oral Administration of P. gingivalis Induces Dysbiosis of Gut Microbiota and Impaired Barrier Function Leading to Dissemination of Enterobacteria to the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Mayuka; Arimatsu, Kei; Kato, Tamotsu; Matsuda, Yumi; Minagawa, Takayoshi; Takahashi, Naoki; Ohno, Hiroshi; Yamazaki, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    Although periodontitis has been implicated as a risk factor for various systemic diseases, the precise mechanisms by which periodontitis induces systemic disease remain to be elucidated. We have previously revealed that repeated oral administration of Porphyromonas gingivalis elicits endotoxemia via changes in the gut microbiota of the ileum, and thereby induces systemic inflammation and insulin resistance. However, it is not clear to what extent a single administration of P. gingivalis could affect gut microbiota composition, gut barrier function, and subsequent influx of gut microbiota into the liver. Therefore, in the present study, C57BL/6 mice were orally administered P. gingivalis (strain W83) once and compared to sham-inoculated mice. The phylogenetic structure and diversity of microbial communities in the gut and liver were analyzed by pyrosequencing the 16S ribosomal RNA genes. Serum endotoxin activity was determined by a Limulus amebocyte lysate test. Gene expression in the intestine and expression of 16S rRNA genes in the blood and liver were examined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Administration of P. gingivalis significantly altered gut microbiota, with an increased proportion of phylum Bacteroidetes, a decreased proportion of phylum Firmicutes, and increased serum endotoxin levels. In the intestinal tissues, gene expression of tjp-1 and occludin, which are involved in intestinal permeability, were downregulated. Higher amounts of bacterial DNA were detected in the liver of infected mice. Importantly, changes in gut microbiota preceded systemic inflammatory changes. These results further support the idea that disturbance of the gut microbiota composition by orally derived periodontopathic bacteria may be a causal mechanism linking periodontitis and systemic disease. PMID:26218067

  14. The prognostic value of functional and anatomical parameters for the selection of patients receiving yttrium-90 microspheres for the treatment of liver cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesoloras, Geraldine

    Yttrium-90 (90Y) microsphere therapy is being utilized as a treatment option for patients with primary and metastatic liver cancer due to its ability to target tumors within the liver. The success of this treatment is dependent on many factors, including the extent and type of disease and the nature of prior treatments received. Metabolic activity, as determined by PET imaging, may correlate with the number of viable cancer cells and reflect changes in viable cancer cell volume. However, contouring of PET images by hand is labor intensive and introduces an element of irreproducibility into the determination of functional target/tumor volume (FTV). A computer-assisted method to aid in the automatic contouring of FTV has the potential to substantially improve treatment individualization and outcome assessment. Commercial software to determine FTV in FDG-avid primary and metastatic liver tumors has been evaluated and optimized. Volumes determined using the automated technique were compared to those from manually drawn contours identified using the same cutoff in the standard uptake value (SUV). The reproducibility of FTV is improved through the introduction of an optimal threshold value determined from phantom experiments. Application of the optimal threshold value from the phantom experiments to patient scans was in good agreement with hand-drawn determinations of the FTV. It is concluded that computer-assisted contouring of the FTV for primary and metastatic liver tumors improves reproducibility and increases accuracy, especially when combined with the selection of an optimal SUV threshold determined from phantom experiments. A method to link the pre-treatment assessment of functional (PET based) and anatomical (CT based) parameters to post-treatment survival and time to progression was evaluated in 22 patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases treated using 90Y microspheres and chemotherapy. The values for pre-treatment parameters that were the best predictors of response were determined for FTV, anatomical tumor volume, total lesion glycolysis, and the tumor marker, CEA. Of the parameters considered, the best predictors of response were found to be pre-treatment FTV ?153 cm3, ATV ?163 cm3, TLG ?144 g in the chemo-SIRT treated field, and CEA ?11.6 ng/mL.

  15. Liver spots

    MedlinePLUS

    Sun-induced skin changes - liver spots; Senile or solar lentigines; Skin spots - aging; Age spots ... Liver spots are changes in skin color that occur in older skin. The coloring may be due to aging, exposure to the sun or other sources of ...

  16. Liver Transplantation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... adults is cirrhosis. This is scarring of the liver, caused by injury or long-term disease. The most common reason in children is biliary atresia, a disease of the bile ducts. If you have a ... the new liver. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and ...

  17. Liver Biopsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for a liver biopsy by talking with a health care provider having blood tests arranging for a ride home fasting before the ... for a liver biopsy by talking with a health care provider having blood tests arranging for a ride home fasting before the ...

  18. Radiation-Associated Liver Injury

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Charlie C.; Kavanagh, Brian D.; Dawson, Laura A.; Li, X. Allen; Das, Shiva K.; Miften, Moyed; Ten Haken, Randall K.

    2010-03-01

    The liver is a critically important organ that has numerous functions including the production of bile, metabolism of ingested nutrients, elimination of many waste products, glycogen storage, and plasma protein synthesis. The liver is often incidentally irradiated during radiation therapy (RT) for tumors in the upper- abdomen, right lower lung, distal esophagus, or during whole abdomen or whole body RT. This article describes the endpoints, time-course, and dose-volume effect of radiation on the liver.

  19. Liver status in congenital, untreated, isolated GH deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Diniz, Rachel D C A; Souza, Renata M; Salvatori, Roberto; Franca, Alex; Gomes-Santos, Elenilde; Ferrão, Thiago O; Oliveira, Carla R P; Santana, João A M; Pereira, Francisco A; Barbosa, Rita A A; Souza, Anita H O; Pereira, Rossana M C; Oliveira-Santos, Alécia A; Silva, Allysson M P; Santana-Júnior, Francisco J; Valença, Eugênia H O; Campos, Viviane C; Aguiar-Oliveira, Manuel H

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is known to be associated with insulin resistance, atherosclerosis, and low serum IGF1 levels. We have described a large cohort of patients with isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) due to the c.57+1G?A mutation in the GHRH receptor gene. These subjects have increased insulin sensitivity (IS), delayed atherosclerosis, and normal longevity. We hypothesized that, despite visceral obesity, NAFLD would be absent or mild due to the increased IS. To assess the prevalence and severity of NAFLD in adult subjects with lifetime, congenital, untreated IGHD, we studied 22 IGHD adults and 25 controls (COs) matched for age and sex. NAFLD was assessed by a comprehensive liver function panel, and ultrasonographic pattern (hyperechogenic pattern, HP) coded as follows: 0, absent; 1, mild; 2, moderate; and 3, severe. Compared with COs, IGHD individual had lower serum IGF1 (P<0.0001), higher total cholesterol (P=0.027), lower prothrombin time (P=0.017), and similar activated partial thromboplastin time and fibrinogen values. Alanine transaminase (ALT) values were similar in the two groups, but aspartate transaminase was higher in IGHD (P=0.013). However, more IGHD subjects (7/22) than COs (3/23) had ALT above the upper limit of normal (P=0.044). The prevalence of NAFLD was higher in IGHD than COs (61 vs 29%, P=0.032), and the HP score was higher in IGHD than COs (P=0.041), but severe NAFLD was not observed in any IGHD (or CO) individual. Liver HP score is increased in lifetime, untreated, congenital IGHD, but the increase in transaminases is mild, suggesting a lack of advanced forms of NAFLD. PMID:25117570

  20. Direct and indirect effects of kisspeptin on liver oxidant and antioxidant systems in young male rats.

    PubMed

    Aydin, M; Oktar, S; Yonden, Z; Ozturk, O H; Yilmaz, B

    2010-06-01

    Kisspeptin is a recently discovered hypothalamic peptide which plays an important role in the central control of reproductive functions. We have investigated direct and indirect effects of kisspeptin on the liver oxidative stress in young male rats. Twenty-four rats were divided into four groups (n = 6/group). First group served as control and received saline. Kisspeptin-10 was administered to the animals in the second group (20 nmol/rat/day), for a period of 7 days. Rats were given only one dose gosereline (0.9 mg/rat), a GnRH agonist in the third group. The last group received kisspeptin-10 with gosereline. The activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), xanthine oxidase (XO), adenosine deaminase (AD) and level of malondialdehyde were studied in liver tissue. Serum samples were separated for total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), colesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglyceride. Kisspeptin increased the activities of SOD and catalase (p < 0.05). When compared to the control group, the levels of malondialdehyde, TOS and AST were lower, but levels of BUN, cholesterole, HDL and AD were higher in the other three groups (p < 0.05). In conclusion, our findings suggest that kisspeptin may have antioxidant and thus protective effects on the liver tissue. PMID:20517893

  1. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells inhibits hepatocyte apoptosis after acute liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yijing; Zou, Zhuolin; Liu, Liyuan; Chen, Si; Chen, Yi; Lin, Zhuo; Shi, Keqing; Xu, Lanman; Chen, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the protective effect of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transplantation on acute liver injury (ALI) rats. Material and Methods: BMSCs were extracted from rat bone marrow, cultured and expansion in vitro, and identified by flow cytometer. Rat model with acute liver injury was established by employing D-galactosamine and Lipopolysaccharide. Male rats were randomly divided into ALI model group and BMSCs transplantation group. Rats were sacrificed 24 h, 72 h and 120 h after BMSCs injection to determine alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in serum. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry staining and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of ?-fetoprotein (AFP) and glypican-3 (GPC3) were performed to analysis proliferation. Terminal deoxynucleontidyl Transferase Biotin-dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) assays were used to analyze apoptosis and mitochondria-dependent-pathway related factors Bax and Bcl-2 were examined by Western blot. Results: Compared with the ALI model group, the BMSCs transplantation group presented the lower levels of ALT, AST, decreased Bax proteins expression, and increased Bcl-2 expression. The mRNA levels of AFP and GPC3 and expression of PCNA were significantly higher in BMSCs transplantation group. Conclusions: BMSCs transplantation could significantly restore liver function. These effects were supposed to be mediated by suppressing hepatocyte apoptosis as well as promoting proliferation. Reduction of apoptosis seemed to correlate with mitochondria-dependent-pathway. PMID:25755697

  2. Healthy ranges of serum alanine aminotransferase levels in Iranian blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Mohamadnejad, Mehdi; Pourshams, Akram; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mohamadkhani, Ashraf; Rajabiani, Afsaneh; Asgari, Ali Ali; Alimohamadi, Seyed Meysam; Razjooyan, Hadi; Mamar-Abadi, Mansooreh

    2003-01-01

    AIM: The healthy ranges for serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels are less well studied. The aim of this study was to define the upper limit of normal (ULN) for serum ALT levels, and to assess factors associated with serum ALT activity in apparently healthy blood donors. METHODS: A total of 1939 blood donors were included. ALT measurements were performed for all cases using the same laboratory method. Healthy ranges for ALT levels were computed from the population at the lowest risk for liver disease. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate associations between clinical factors and ALT levels. RESULTS: Serum ALT activity was independently associated with body mass index (BMI) and male gender, but not associated with age. Association of ALT with BMI was more prominent in males than in females. Upper limit of normal for non-overweight women (BMI of less than 25) was 34 U/L, and for non-overweight men was 40 U/L. CONCLUSION: Serum ALT is strongly associated with sex and BMI. The normal range of ALT should be defined for male and female separately. PMID:14562401

  3. PPAR{alpha} regulates the hepatotoxic biomarker alanine aminotransferase (ALT1) gene expression in human hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Thulin, Petra; Rafter, Ingalill; Stockling, Kenneth; Tomkiewicz, Celine; Norjavaara, Ensio; Aggerbeck, Martine; Hellmold, Heike; Ehrenborg, Ewa; Andersson, Ulf; Cotgreave, Ian; Glinghammar, Bjoern

    2008-08-15

    In this work, we investigated a potential mechanism behind the observation of increased aminotransferase levels in a phase I clinical trial using a lipid-lowering drug, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) {alpha} agonist, AZD4619. In healthy volunteers treated with AZD4619, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were elevated without an increase in other markers for liver injury. These increases in serum aminotransferases have previously been reported in some patients receiving another PPAR{alpha} agonist, fenofibrate. In subsequent in vitro studies, we observed increased expression of ALT1 protein and mRNA in human hepatocytes after treatment with fenofibric acid. The PPAR effect on ALT1 expression was shown to act through a direct transcriptional mechanism involving at least one PPAR response element (PPRE) in the proximal ALT1 promoter, while no effect of fenofibrate and AZD4619 was observed on the ALT2 promoter. Binding of PPARs to the PPRE located at - 574 bp from the transcriptional start site was confirmed on both synthetic oligonucleotides and DNA in hepatocytes. These data show that intracellular ALT expression is regulated by PPAR agonists and that this mechanism might contribute to increased ALT activity in serum.

  4. Vitamin E reduces liver stiffness in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, Aiko; Kawabe, Naoto; Hashimoto, Senju; Murao, Michihito; Nakano, Takuji; Shimazaki, Hiroaki; Kan, Toshiki; Nakaoka, Kazunori; Ohki, Masashi; Takagawa, Yuka; Takamura, Tomoki; Kamei, Hiroyuki; Yoshioka, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of vitamin E treatment on liver stiffness in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Thirty-eight NAFLD patients were administered vitamin E for > 1 year. The doses of vitamin E were 150, 300, or 600 mg; three times per day after each meal. Responses were assessed by liver enzyme levels [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotranferease (ALT), and ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (?-GTP)], noninvasive scoring systems of hepatic fibrosis-4 [FIB-4 index and aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet index (APRI)], and liver stiffness [velocity of shear wave (Vs)] measured by acoustic radiation force impulse elastography. Vs measurements were performed at baseline and 12 mo after baseline. The patients were genotyped for the patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3) polymorphisms and then divided into either the CC/CG or GG group to examine each group’s responses to vitamin E treatment. RESULTS: We found marked differences in the platelet count, serum albumin levels, alkaline phosphatase levels, FIB-4 index, APRI, and Vs at baseline depending on the PNPLA3 polymorphism. AST, ALT, and ?-GTP levels (all P < 0.001); FIB-4 index (P = 0.035); APRI (P < 0.001); and Vs (P < 0.001) significantly decreased from baseline to 12 mo in the analysis of all patients. In the subset analyses of PNPLA3 genotypes, AST levels (P = 0.011), ALT levels (P < 0.001), ?-GTP levels (P = 0.005), APRI (P = 0.036), and Vs (P = 0.029) in genotype GG patients significantly improved, and AST and ALT levels (both P < 0.001), ?-GTP levels (P = 0.003), FIB-4 index (P = 0.017), and APRI (P < 0.001) in genotype CC/CG patients. CONCLUSION: One year of vitamin E treatment improved noninvasive fibrosis scores and liver stiffness in NAFLD patients. The responses were similar between different PNPLA3 genotypes. PMID:26644818

  5. Medical Status of 219 Children with Biliary Atresia Surviving Long-Term with their Native Livers: Results from a North American Multicenter Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Vicky Lee; Haber, Barbara H.; Magee, John C.; Miethke, Alexander; Murray, Karen F.; Michail, Sonia; Karpen, Saul J.; Kerkar, Nanda; Molleston, JeanP.; Romero, Rene; Rosenthal, Philip; Schwarz, Kathleen B.; Shneider, Benjamin L.; P.Turmelle, Yumirle; Alonso, Estella M.; Sherker, Averell H.; Sokol, Ronald J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the medical status of children with biliary atresia (BA) with their native livers after hepatic portoenterostomy (HPE) surgery. Study design The Childhood Liver Disease Research and Education Network (ChiLDREN) database was utilized to examine subjects with BA living with their native livers 5 or more years after HPE and to describe the prevalence of subjects with BA with an “ideal” outcome, defined as no clinical evidence of chronic liver disease, normal liver biochemical indices (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, platelet count, total bilirubin, International Normalized Ratio, and albumin) and normal Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) 5 or more years after HPE. Results Children with BA (n=219; 43% male) with median age 9.7 years were studied. Median age at HPE was 56 (range 7-125) days. Median age- and sex-adjusted height and weight Z-scores at 5 year follow-up were 0.487 (interquartile range [IQR]: -0.27 to 1.02) and 0.00 (IQR: -0.74 to 0.70), respectively. During the 12 preceding months, cholangitis and bone fractures occurred in 17% and 5.5%, respectively. HRQOL was reported normal by 53% of patients. However, only 1.8% met the study definition of “ideal” outcome. Individual tests of liver synthetic function (TB, Alb, and INR) were normal in 75%, 85% and 73% of the study cohort. Conclusion Cholangitis and fractures in long-term survivors underscore the importance of ongoing medical surveillance. Over 98% of this North American cohort of subjects with BA living with native livers 5 or more years after HPE have clinical or biochemical evidence of chronic liver disease. PMID:25015575

  6. Blocking of G1/S transition and cell death in the regenerating liver of Hepatitis B virus X protein transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, B.-K.; Li, C.-C.; Chen, H.-J.; Chang, J.-L.; Jeng, K.-S.; Chou, C.-K.; Hsu, M.-T.; Tsai, T.-F. . E-mail: tftsai@ym.edu.tw

    2006-02-17

    The Hepatitis B virus X (HBx) protein has been strongly implicated in the carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, effects of the HBx protein on cell proliferation and cell death are controversial. This study investigates the effects of the HBx protein on liver regeneration in two independent lines of HBx transgenic mice, which developed HCC at around 14 to 16 months of age. High mortality, lower liver mass restoration, and impaired liver regeneration were found in the HBx transgenic mice post-hepatectomy. The levels of alanine aminotransferase and {alpha}-fetoprotein detected post-hepatectomy increased significantly in the HBx transgenic livers, indicating that they were more susceptible to damage during the regenerative process. Prolonged activation of the immediate-early genes in the HBx transgenic livers suggested that the HBx protein creates a strong effect by promoting the transition of the quiescent hepatocytes from G0 to G1 phase. However, impaired DNA synthesis and mitosis, as well as inhibited activation of G1, S, and G2/M markers, were detected. These results indicated that HBx protein exerted strong growth arrest on hepatocytes and imbalanced cell-cycle progression resulting in the abnormal cell death; this was accompanied by severe fat accumulation and impaired glycogen storage in the HBx transgenic livers. In conclusion, this study provides First physiological evidence that HBx protein blocks G1/S transition of the hepatocyte cell-cycle progression and causes both a failure of liver functionality and cell death in the regenerating liver of the HBx transgenic mice.

  7. Progression of Liver Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Handouts Education Resources Support Services Helpful Links For Liver Health Information Call 1-800-GO-LIVER (1- ... The Progression of Liver Disease The Progression of Liver Disease There are many different types of liver ...

  8. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®) What is prevention? Cancer ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Key Points Liver cancer is a ...

  9. Radiation-Induced Liver Injury in Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy (3D-CRT) for Postoperative or Locoregional Recurrent Gastric Cancer: Risk Factors and Dose Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guichao; Wang, Jiazhou; Hu, Weigang; Zhang, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the status of radiation-induced liver injury in adjuvant or palliative gastric cancer radiation therapy (RT), identified risk factors of radiation-induced liver injury in gastric cancer RT, analysed the dose-volume effects of liver injury, and developed a liver dose limitation reference for gastric cancer RT. Methods and Materials Data for 56 post-operative gastric cancer patients and 6 locoregional recurrent gastric cancer patients treated with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) from Sep 2007 to Sep 2009 were analysed. Forty patients (65%) were administered concurrent chemotherapy. Pre- and post-radiation chemotherapy were given to 61 patients and 43 patients, respectively. The radiation dose was 45–50.4 Gy in 25–28 fractions. Clinical parameters, including gender, age, hepatic B virus status, concurrent chemotherapy, and the total number of chemotherapy cycles, were included in the analysis. Univariate analyses with a non-parametric rank test (Mann–Whitney test) and logistic regression test and a multivariate analysis using a logistic regression test were completed. We also analysed the correlation between RT and the changes in serum chemistry parameters [including total bilirubin, (TB), direct bilirubin (D-TB), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and serum albumin (ALB)] after RT. Results The Child-Pugh grade progressed from grade A to grade B after radiotherapy in 10 patients. A total of 16 cases of classic radiation-induced liver disease (RILD) were observed, and 2 patients had both Child-Pugh grade progression and classic RILD. No cases of non-classic radiation liver injury occurred in the study population. Among the tested clinical parameters, the total number of chemotherapy cycles correlated with liver function injury. V35 and ALP levels were significant predictive factors for radiation liver injury. Conclusions In 3D-CRT for gastric cancer patients, radiation-induced liver injury may occur and affect the overall treatment plan. The total number of chemotherapy cycles correlated with liver function injury, and V35 and ALP are significant predictive factors for radiation-induced liver injury. Our dose limitation reference for liver protection is feasible. PMID:26291715

  10. DCE-MRI of the Liver: Reconstruction of the Arterial Input Function Using a Low Dose Pre-Bolus Contrast Injection

    PubMed Central

    Jajamovich, Guido H.; Calcagno, Claudia; Dyvorne, Hadrien A.; Rusinek, Henry; Taouli, Bachir

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess the quality of the arterial input function (AIF) reconstructed using a dedicated pre-bolus low-dose contrast material injection imaged with a high temporal resolution and the resulting estimated liver perfusion parameters. Materials and Methods In this IRB–approved prospective study, 24 DCE-MRI examinations were performed in 21 patients with liver disease (M/F 17/4, mean age 56 y). The examination consisted of 1.3 mL and 0.05 mmol/kg of gadobenate dimeglumine for pre-bolus and main bolus acquisitions, respectively. The concentration-curve of the abdominal aorta in the pre-bolus acquisition was used to reconstruct the AIF. AIF quality and shape parameters obtained with pre-bolus and main bolus acquisitions and the resulting estimated hepatic perfusion parameters obtained with a dual-input single compartment model were compared between the 2 methods. Test–retest reproducibility of perfusion parameters were assessed in three patients. Results The quality of the pre-bolus AIF curve was significantly better than that of main bolus AIF. Shape parameters peak concentration, area under the time activity curve of gadolinium contrast at 60 s and upslope of pre-bolus AIF were all significantly higher, while full width at half maximum was significantly lower than shape parameters of main bolus AIF. Improved liver perfusion parameter reproducibility was observed using pre-bolus acquisition [coefficient of variation (CV) of 4.2%–38.7% for pre-bolus vs. 12.1–71.4% for main bolus] with the exception of distribution volume (CV of 23.6% for pre-bolus vs. 15.8% for main bolus). The CVs between pre-bolus and main bolus for the perfusion parameters were lower than 14%. Conclusion The AIF reconstructed with pre-bolus low dose contrast injection displays better quality and shape parameters and enables improved liver perfusion parameter reproducibility, although the resulting liver perfusion parameters demonstrated no clinically significant differences between pre-bolus and main bolus acquisitions. PMID:25546176

  11. STEM CELLS, CELL TRANSPLANTATION AND LIVER REPOPULATION

    PubMed Central

    Oertel, Michael; Shafritz, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Liver transplantation is currently the only therapeutic option for patients with end-stage chronic liver disease and for severe acute liver failure. Because of limited donor availability, attention has been focused on the possibility to restore liver mass and function through cell transplantation. Stem cells are a promising source for liver repopulation after cell transplantation, but whether or not the adult mammalian liver contains hepatic stem cells is highly controversial. Part of the problem is that proliferation of mature adult hepatocytes is sufficient to regenerate the liver after two-thirds partial hepatectomy or acute toxic liver injury and participation of stem cells is not required. However, under conditions in which hepatocyte proliferation is blocked, undifferentiated epithelial cells in the periportal areas, called “oval cells”, proliferate, differentiate into hepatocytes and restore liver mass. These cells are referred to as facultative liver stem cells, but they do not repopulate the normal liver after their transplantation. In contrast, epithelial cells isolated from the early fetal liver can effectively repopulate the normal liver, but they are already traversing the hepatic lineage and may not be true stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells and embryonic stem cells can be induced to differentiate along the hepatic lineage in culture, but at present these cells are inefficient in repopulating the liver. This review will characterize these various cell types and compare the properties of these cells and the conditions under which they do or do not repopulate the liver following their transplantation. PMID:18187050

  12. Iron homeostasis in the liver

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Erik R; Shah, Yatrik M

    2014-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient that is tightly regulated. A principal function of the liver is the regulation of iron homeostasis. The liver senses changes in systemic iron requirements and can regulate iron concentrations in a robust and rapid manner. The last 10 years have led to the discovery of several regulatory mechanisms in the liver which control the production of iron regulatory genes, storage capacity, and iron mobilization. Dysregulation of these functions leads to an imbalance of iron, which is the primary causes of iron-related disorders. Anemia and iron overload are two of the most prevalent disorders worldwide and affect over a billion people. Several mutations in liver-derived genes have been identified, demonstrating the central role of the liver in iron homeostasis. During conditions of excess iron, the liver increases iron storage and protects other tissues, namely the heart and pancreas from iron-induced cellular damage. However, a chronic increase in liver iron stores results in excess reactive oxygen species production and liver injury. Excess liver iron is one of the major mechanisms leading to increased steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:23720289

  13. 3D liver models on a microplatform: well-defined culture, engineering of liver tissue and liver-on-a-chip.

    PubMed

    Yoon No, Da; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Lee, Jaeseo; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2015-10-01

    The liver, the largest organ in the human body, is a multi-functional organ with diverse metabolic activities that plays a critical role in maintaining the body and sustaining life. Although the liver has excellent regenerative and recuperative properties, damages caused by chronic liver diseases or viral infection may lead to permanent loss of liver functions. Studies of liver disease mechanism have focused on drug screening and liver tissue engineering techniques, including strategies based on in vitro models. However, conventional liver models are plagued by a number of limitations, which have motivated the development of 'liver-on-a-chip' and microplatform-based bioreactors that can provide well-defined microenvironments. Microtechnology is a promising tool for liver tissue engineering and liver system development, as it can mimic the complex in vivo microenvironment and microlevel ultrastructure, by using a small number of human cells under two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) culture conditions. These systems provided by microtechnology allow improved liver-specific functions and can be expanded to encompass diverse 3D culture methods, which are critical for the maintenance of liver functions and recapitulation of the features of the native liver. In this review, we provide an overview of microtechnologies that have been used for liver studies, describe biomimetic technologies for constructing microscale 2D and 3D liver models as well as liver-on-a-chip systems and microscale bioreactors, and introduce applications of liver microtechnology and future trends in the field. PMID:26279012

  14. Neurologic Manifestations of Chronic Liver Disease and Liver Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Sureka, Binit; Bansal, Kalpana; Patidar, Yashwant; Rajesh, S; Mukund, Amar; Arora, Ankur

    2015-01-01

    The normal functioning of brain is intimately as well as intricately interrelated with normal functioning of the liver. Liver plays a critical role of not only providing vital nutrients to the brain but also of detoxifying the splanchnic blood. Compromised liver function leads to insufficient detoxification thus allowing neurotoxins (such as ammonia, manganese, and other chemicals) to enter the cerebral circulation. In addition, portosystemic shunts, which are common accompaniments of advanced liver disease, facilitate free passage of neurotoxins into the cerebral circulation. The problem is compounded further by additional variables such as gastrointestinal tract bleeding, malnutrition, and concurrent renal failure, which are often associated with liver cirrhosis. Neurologic damage in chronic liver disease and liver cirrhosis seems to be multifactorial primarily attributable to the following: brain accumulation of ammonia, manganese, and lactate; altered permeability of the blood-brain barrier; recruitment of monocytes after microglial activation; and neuroinflammation, that is, direct effects of circulating systemic proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor, IL-1?, and IL-6. Radiologist should be aware of the conundrum of neurologic complications that can be encountered in liver disease, which include hepatic encephalopathy, hepatocerebral degeneration, hepatic myelopathy, cirrhosis-related parkinsonism, cerebral infections, hemorrhage, and osmotic demyelination. In addition, neurologic complications can be exclusive to certain disorders, for example, Wilson disease, alcoholism (Wernicke encephalopathy, alcoholic cerebellar degeneration, Marchiafava-Bignami disease, etc). Radiologist should be aware of their varied clinical presentation and radiological appearances as the diagnosis is not always straightforward. PMID:25908229

  15. D-Galactosamine Intoxication in Experimental Animals: Is it Only an Experimental Model of Acute Liver Failure?

    PubMed Central

    Saracyn, Marek; Zdanowski, Robert; Brytan, Marek; Kade, Grzegorz; Nowak, Zbigniew; Patera, Janusz; Dyrla, Przemys?aw; Gil, Jerzy; Wa?kowicz, Zofia

    2015-01-01

    Background Short-term administration of Galactosamine to experimental animals causes liver damage and acute liver failure (ALF), as well as acute renal failure in some cases. The aim of our study was to describe kidney disorders that developed in the course of galactosamine-induced liver failure. Material/Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: a study group administered galactosamine intraperitoneally and a control group administered saline. Results All the animals in the study group developed liver damage and failure within 48 h, with significant increase of alanine (p<0.001), aspartate aminotransferases (p<0.0001), bilirubin (p<0.004), and ammonia (p<0.005) and decrease of albumin (p<0.001) concentrations. Acute renal failure was observed in all test animals, with a significant increase in creatinine (p<0.001) and urea (p<0.001) concentrations and a decrease in creatinine clearance (p<0.0012). Moreover, osmotic clearance (p<0.001), daily natriuresis (p<0.003), and fractional sodium excretion (p<0.016) decreased significantly in this group of animals. The ratio of urine osmolality to serum osmolality did not change. Histopathology of the liver revealed massive necrosis of hepatocytes, whereas renal histopathology showed no changes. Conclusions Acute renal failure that developed in the course of galactosamine-induced ALF was of a functional nature, with the kidneys retaining the ability to concentrate urine and retain sodium, and there were no renal changes in the histopathological examination. It seems that the experimental model of ALF induced by galactosamine can be viewed as a model of hepatorenal syndrome that occurs in the course of acute damage and liver failure. PMID:26009004

  16. Hydrogen gas inhalation protects against liver ischemia/reperfusion injury by activating the NF-?B signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, CHAO-BIN; TANG, YI-CHEN; XU, XUE-JUN; GUO, SHI-XIANG; WANG, HUAI-ZHI

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen has been demonstrated to function as a novel antioxidant and exert therapeutic antioxidant activity in a number of diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of hydrogen inhalation on liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. The portal triad to the left lobe and the left middle lobe of the liver were completely occluded for 90 min. This was followed by reperfusion for 180 min. The rats subsequently underwent syngeneic orthotopic liver transplantation. Inhalation of various concentrations (1, 2 and 3%) of hydrogen gas and its administration for different durations (1, 3 and 6 h) immediately prior to the I/R injury allowed the optimal dose and duration of administration to be determined. Liver injury was evaluated through biochemical and histopathological examinations. The expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-6, were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Liver nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) was detected by qPCR and western blot analysis. Inhalation of hydrogen gas at 2% concentration for 1 h significantly reduced the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, the expression of cytokines, including IL-6, TNF-?, early growth response protein 1 (Egr-1) and IL-1?, and morphological damage. In addition, the mRNA and protein expression levels of NF-?B, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and zinc finger protein A20 (A20) in rats where only the donors received hydrogen were significantly increased compared with those in rats where both the donor and recipient, or only the recipient received hydrogen. The results indicate that hydrogen inhalation at 2% concentration for 1 h prior to liver transplantation protected the rats from ischemia/reperfusion injury by activation of the NF-?B signaling pathway. PMID:26136944

  17. Fluoride-induced oxidative stress is involved in the morphological damage and dysfunction of liver in female mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bian-hua; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Jeffrey; Zhang, Ji-liang; Li, Jian; Wang, Hong-wei

    2015-11-01

    Fluoride (F), one of the most toxic environmental and industrial pollutants, is known to exert hepatotoxicity. The contribution of oxidative stress to the F tolerance of liver remains largely unknown. In this study, the morphological and ultrastructural characteristics of liver were observed using hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. Oxidative-stress participations was analysed and the mRNA expression levels of catalase (Cat), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GSH-Px1), nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2), and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) were investigated by real-time PCR. Changes in liver-function parameters were also detected. Results showed that the reactive content of reactive oxygen species increased significantly, whereas SOD and GSH-Px activities, as well as total anti-oxidising capability (T-AOC), decreased significantly, with increased nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in liver and serum after 70days of F treatment. The mRNA expression levels of Cat, GSH-Px1, and SOD were significantly downregulated, whereas NOS2 mRNA expression level was up upregulated, after F treatment for 70days. Light microscopy also revealed that hepatocytes were fused into pieces; cell boundaries were unclear, and nuclei were lightly stained. TEM further showed that hepatocytes were characterised by vague nuclear and mitochondrial membranes, dilated endoplasmic reticulum, and aggravated vacuolar degeneration. Activities of alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase, as well as the level of total bilirubin in serum increased. Overall, these results indicated that F interfered with the balance of antioxidase activity and morphological changes in liver, which were involved in mouse liver dysfunction. PMID:26295688

  18. (1)H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Based Plasma Metabolic Profiling of Dairy Cows with Fatty Liver.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chuang; Sun, Ling-Wei; Xia, Cheng; Zhang, Hong-You; Zheng, Jia-San; Wang, Jun-Song

    2016-02-01

    Fatty liver is a common metabolic disorder of dairy cows during the transition period. Historically, the diagnosis of fatty liver has involved liver biopsy, biochemical or histological examination of liver specimens, and ultrasonographic imaging of the liver. However, more convenient and noninvasive methods would be beneficial for the diagnosis of fatty liver in dairy cows. The plasma metabolic profiles of dairy cows with fatty liver and normal (control) cows were investigated to identify new biomarkers using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance. Compared with the control group, the primary differences in the fatty liver group included increases in ?-hydroxybutyric acid, acetone, glycine, valine, trimethylamine-N-oxide, citrulline, and isobutyrate, and decreases in alanine, asparagine, glucose, ?-aminobutyric acid glycerol, and creatinine. This analysis revealed a global profile of endogenous metabolites, which may present potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of fatty liver in dairy cows. PMID:26732447

  19. Misfolding caused by the pathogenic mutation G47R on the minor allele of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase and chaperoning activity of pyridoxine.

    PubMed

    Montioli, Riccardo; Oppici, Elisa; Dindo, Mirco; Roncador, Alessandro; Gotte, Giovanni; Cellini, Barbara; Borri Voltattorni, Carla

    2015-10-01

    Liver peroxisomal alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT), a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) enzyme, exists as two polymorphic forms, the major (AGT-Ma) and the minor (AGT-Mi) haplotype. Deficit of AGT causes Primary Hyperoxaluria Type 1 (PH1), an autosomal recessive rare disease. Although ~one-third of the 79 disease-causing missense mutations segregates on AGT-Mi, only few of them are well characterized. Here for the first time the molecular and cellular defects of G47R-Mi are reported. When expressed in Escherichia coli, the recombinant purified G47R-Mi variant exhibits only a 2.5-fold reduction of its kcat, and its apo form displays a remarkably decreased PLP binding affinity, increased dimer-monomer equilibrium dissociation constant value, susceptibility to thermal denaturation and to N-terminal region proteolytic cleavage, and aggregation propensity. When stably expressed in a mammalian cell line, we found ~95% of the intact form of the variant in the insoluble fraction, and proteolyzed (within the N-terminal region) and aggregated forms both in the soluble and insoluble fractions. Moreover, the intact and nicked forms have a peroxisomal and a mitochondrial localization, respectively. Unlike what already seen for G41R-Mi, exposure of G47R-Mi expressing cells to pyridoxine (PN) remarkably increases the expression level and the specific activity in a dose-dependent manner, reroutes all the protein to peroxisomes, and rescues its functionality. Although the mechanism of the different effect of PN on the variants G47R-Mi and G41R-Mi remains elusive, the chaperoning activity of PN may be of value in the therapy of patients bearing the G47R mutation. PMID:26149463

  20. Octreotide attenuates liver fibrosis by inhibiting hepatic heme oxygenase-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shi-Bin; Li, Qing; Duan, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Qiu-Ming; Zhou, Qin; Sun, Xiao-Yu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of octreotide treatment on hepatic heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, together with the influence of altered hepatic HO-1 expression levels on hepatic function and fibrosis in bile duct-ligated rats. The rats were divided randomly into sham, cirrhotic, cobalt protoporphyrin and octreotide treatment groups. The expression levels of hepatic HO-1 mRNA were measured by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, while the protein expression was determined by western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis. Hematoxylin and eosin, and Van Gieson's staining, along with determination of the hydroxyproline content in the liver, were performed to determine the degree of liver fibrosis. The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TBIL) and carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in arterial blood, and the mean arterial pressure and portal vein pressure were also measured. As compared with the sham group, hepatic HO-1 mRNA and protein expression levels, serum levels of ALT, AST and TBIL, COHb in arterial blood, hydroxyproline and collagen type I content were all significantly increased in the cirrhotic group. As compared with the cirrhotic group, the octreotide-treated group exhibited significantly reduced hepatic HO-1 expression levels, serum levels of ALT, AST and TBIL, COHb in arterial blood and the extent of hepatic fibrosis, whereas the cobalt protoporphyrin group exhibited significantly increased hepatic HO-1 expression levels, as well as aggravated hepatic function and fibrosis (P<0.05). In conclusion, octreotide inhibited hepatic HO-1 overexpression in cirrhotic rats, reduced hepatic HO-1 expression levels to relieve liver injury and attenuated liver fibrosis. PMID:25338529

  1. Bisphenol A Impairs Mitochondrial Function in the Liver at Doses below the No Observed Adverse Effect Level

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Min Kyong; Kim, Min Joo; Jung, In Kyung; Koo, Young Do; Ann, Hwa Young; Lee, Kwan Jae; Kim, Soon Hee; Yoon, Yeo Cho; Cho, Bong-Jun; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak C.

    2012-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) has been reported to possess hepatic toxicity. We investigated the hypothesis that BPA, below the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL), can induce hepatic damage and mitochondrial dysfunction by increasing oxidative stress in the liver. Two doses of BPA, 0.05 and 1.2 mg/kg body weight/day, were administered intraperitoneally for 5 days to mice. Both treatments impaired the structure of the hepatic mitochondria, although oxygen consumption rate and expression of the respiratory complex decreased only at the higher dose. The hepatic levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), a naturally occurring product of lipid peroxidation, increased, while the expression of glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3) decreased, after BPA treatment. The expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) also increased. In HepG2 cells, 10 or 100 nM of BPA also decreased the oxygen consumption rate, ATP production, and the mitochondrial membrane potential. In conclusion, doses of BPA below the NOAEL induce mitochondrial dysfunction in the liver, and this is associated with an increase in oxidative stress and inflammation. PMID:22690096

  2. Diethyl phthalate exposure is associated with embryonic toxicity, fatty liver changes, and hypolipidemia via impairment of lipoprotein functions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Min; Yoo, Jeong-Ah; Baek, Ji-Mi; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2015-12-25

    Diethyl phthalates (DEPs) are notorious for their high potential toxicity in endocrinological and reproduction systems in humans and animals. In this study, we investigated the toxic effects of DEP on human lipoproteins, macrophages, and zebrafish embryos. Treatment of human high-density lipoprotein (HDL) with DEP caused oxidation, aggregation, and degradation of lipoproteins. DEP treatment promoted foam cell formation via accelerated phagocytosis of LDL by macrophages as well as exacerbated cellular senescence in human dermal fibroblasts. Injection of DEP (final 5?M and 10?M) into zebrafish embryos caused severe embryo death and slower developmental speed. Exposure of zebrafish embryos to water containing DEP (final 11 and 22ppm) caused early embryonic death along with the increased oxidized products and impairment of skeletal development. Adult zebrafish exposed to water containing DEP (final 11 and 22ppm) for 4weeks showed severe loss of body weight under both normal diet (ND) and high cholesterol diet (HCD) conditions. ND and HCD groups showed 59% and 49% reduction of plasma total cholesterol (TC), respectively. Serum levels of hepatic inflammation enzymes along with fatty liver changes were significantly elevated by DEP exposure. In conclusion, DEP showed strong pro-atherogenic and pro-senescence effects via severe lipoprotein modification in human cells. DEP caused impairment of embryonic development and severe loss of body weight, hypolipidemia, and fatty liver changes in zebrafish. PMID:26423653

  3. Radiolysis of alanine adsorbed in a clay mineral

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Ovando, Ellen Y.; Negron-Mendoza, Alicia

    2013-07-03

    Optical activity in molecules is a chemical characteristic of living beings. In this work, we examine the hypothesis of the influence of different mineral surfaces on the development of a specific chirality in organic molecules when subjected to conditions simulating the primitive Earth during the period of chemical evolution. By using X-ray diffraction techniques and HPLC/ELSD to analyze aqueous suspensions of amino acids adsorbed on minerals irradiated in different doses with a cobalt-60 gamma source, the experiments attempt to prove the hypothesis that some solid surfaces (like clays and meteorite rocks) may have a concentration capacity and protective role against external sources of ionizing radiation (specifically {gamma}-ray) for some organic compounds (like some amino acids) adsorbed on them. Preliminary results show a slight difference in the adsorption and radiolysis of the D-and L-alanine.

  4. Alanine aminotransferase variants conferring diverse NUE phenotypes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Chandra H; Good, Allen G

    2015-01-01

    Alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT, E.C. 2.6.1.2), is a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent (PLP) enzyme that catalyzes the reversible transfer of an amino group from alanine to 2-oxoglutarate to produce glutamate and pyruvate, or vice versa. It has been well documented in both greenhouse and field studies that tissue-specific over-expression of AlaAT from barley (Hordeum vulgare, HvAlaAT) results in a significant increase in plant NUE in both canola and rice. While the physical phenotypes associated with over-expression of HvAlaAT have been well characterized, the role this enzyme plays in vivo to create a more N efficient plant remains unknown. Furthermore, the importance of HvAlaAT, in contrast to other AlaAT enzyme homologues in creating this phenotype has not yet been explored. To address the role of AlaAT in NUE, AlaAT variants from diverse sources and different subcellular locations, were expressed in the wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 background and alaat1;2 (alaat1-1;alaat2-1) knockout background in various N environments. The analysis and comparison of both the physical and physiological properties of AlaAT over-expressing transgenic plants demonstrated significant differences between plants expressing the different AlaAT enzymes under different external conditions. This analysis indicates that the over-expression of AlaAT variants other than HvAlaAT in crop plants could further increase the NUE phenotype(s) previously observed. PMID:25830496

  5. Alanine Aminotransferase Variants Conferring Diverse NUE Phenotypes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, Chandra H.; Good, Allen G.

    2015-01-01

    Alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT, E.C. 2.6.1.2), is a pyridoxal-5’-phosphate-dependent (PLP) enzyme that catalyzes the reversible transfer of an amino group from alanine to 2-oxoglutarate to produce glutamate and pyruvate, or vice versa. It has been well documented in both greenhouse and field studies that tissue-specific over-expression of AlaAT from barley (Hordeum vulgare, HvAlaAT) results in a significant increase in plant NUE in both canola and rice. While the physical phenotypes associated with over-expression of HvAlaAT have been well characterized, the role this enzyme plays in vivo to create a more N efficient plant remains unknown. Furthermore, the importance of HvAlaAT, in contrast to other AlaAT enzyme homologues in creating this phenotype has not yet been explored. To address the role of AlaAT in NUE, AlaAT variants from diverse sources and different subcellular locations, were expressed in the wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 background and alaat1;2 (alaat1-1;alaat2-1) knockout background in various N environments. The analysis and comparison of both the physical and physiological properties of AlaAT over-expressing transgenic plants demonstrated significant differences between plants expressing the different AlaAT enzymes under different external conditions. This analysis indicates that the over-expression of AlaAT variants other than HvAlaAT in crop plants could further increase the NUE phenotype(s) previously observed. PMID:25830496

  6. Rat liver mitochondrial damage under acute or chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced intoxication: Protection by melatonin and cranberry flavonoids

    SciTech Connect

    Cheshchevik, V.T.; Department of Biochemistry, Yanka Kupala Grodno State University, Len. Kom. Blvd. - 50, 230017 Grodno ; Lapshina, E.A.; Dremza, I.K.; Zabrodskaya, S.V.; Reiter, R.J.; Prokopchik, N.I.; Zavodnik, I.B.

    2012-06-15

    In current societies, the risk of toxic liver damage has markedly increased. The aim of the present work was to carry out further research into the mechanism(s) of liver mitochondrial damage induced by acute (0.8 g/kg body weight, single injection) or chronic (1.6 g/ kg body weight, 30 days, biweekly injections) carbon tetrachloride – induced intoxication and to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of the antioxidant, melatonin, as well as succinate and cranberry flavonoids in rats. Acute intoxication resulted in considerable impairment of mitochondrial respiratory parameters in the liver. The activity of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) decreased (by 25%, p < 0.05). Short-term melatonin treatment (10 mg/kg, three times) of rats did not reduce the degree of toxic mitochondrial dysfunction but decreased the enhanced NO production. After 30-day chronic intoxication, no significant change in the respiratory activity of liver mitochondria was observed, despite marked changes in the redox-balance of mitochondria. The activities of the mitochondrial enzymes, succinate dehydrogenase and glutathione peroxidase, as well as that of cytoplasmic catalase in liver cells were inhibited significantly. Mitochondria isolated from the livers of the rats chronically treated with CCl{sub 4} displayed obvious irreversible impairments. Long-term melatonin administration (10 mg/kg, 30 days, daily) to chronically intoxicated rats diminished the toxic effects of CCl{sub 4}, reducing elevated plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin concentration, prevented accumulation of membrane lipid peroxidation products in rat liver and resulted in apparent preservation of the mitochondrial ultrastructure. The treatment of the animals by the complex of melatonin (10 mg/kg) plus succinate (50 mg/kg) plus cranberry flavonoids (7 mg/kg) was even more effective in prevention of toxic liver injury and liver mitochondria damage. Highlights: ? After 30-day chronic CCl{sub 4} intoxication mitochondria displayed considerable changes. ? The functional parameters of mitochondria were similar to the control values. ? Melatonin + succinate + flavonoids prevented mitochondrial ultrastructure damage. ? The above complex enhanced regenerative processes in the liver.

  7. Bone mesenchymal stem cell transplantation via four routes for the treatment of acute liver failure in rats

    PubMed Central

    SUN, LIHUA; FAN, XIAOTANG; ZHANG, LIJUAN; SHI, GUIXIU; AILI, MAIMAITI; LU, XIAOBO; JIANG, TAO; ZHANG, YUEXIN

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we assessed the efficiency of four BMSC transplantation methods as a therapy for liver failure. A rat model (80 Sprague-Dawley rats) of D-galactosamine (D-gal)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute liver failure (ALF) was established and the rats were divided into 5 groups: a hepatic artery injection group, a portal vein injection group, a vena caudalis injection group, an intraperitoneal injection group and a control group (16 per group). Following transplantation, the liver tissue and blood samples were collected on days 1, 3 and 7, we detected the EdU (5-ethynyl-2?-deoxyuridine)-labeled cells homing to the liver tissue and assessed the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cysteine-containing aspartate-specific protease (caspase)-3 expression in the liver tissue and detected the levels of stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in the liver tissues. Compared with the control group, the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and damage to the liver tissue in the hepatic artery group, the portal vein group and the vena caudalis group improved in vivo. The expression of PCNA and HGF in the liver was higher and caspase-3 expression was lower in the hepatic artery injection group, the portal vein injection group and the vena caudalis injection group than that in the intraperitoneal injection and control groups. The EdU-labeled BMSCs were only observed homing to the liver tissue in these three groups. However, no significant differences were observed between these three groups. Liver function in the rats with ALF was improved following BMSC transplantation via 3 endovascular implantation methods (through the hepatic artery, portal vein and vena caudalis). These 3 methods were effective in transplanting BMSCs for the treatment of ALF. However, the selection of blood vessel in the implantation pathway does not affect the transplantation outcome. Transplantation via intraperitoneal injection showed no therapeutic effect in our animal experiments. PMID:25110277

  8. Effect of Dietary Advanced Glycation End Products on Mouse Liver

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Raza; Baker, Susan S.; Liu, Wensheng; Desai, Sonal; Alkhouri, Razan; Kozielski, Rafal; Mastrandrea, Lucy; Sarfraz, Adil; Cai, Weijing; Vlassara, Helen; Patel, Mulchand S.; Baker, Robert D.; Zhu, Lixin

    2012-01-01

    The exact pathophysiology of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is not known. Previous studies suggest that dietary advanced glycation end products (AGEs) can cause oxidative stress in liver. We aim to study the effects of dietary AGEs on liver health and their possible role in the pathogenesis of NASH. METHODS: Two groups of mice were fed the same diet except the AGE content varied. One group was fed a high AGE diet and the second group was fed a regular AGE diet. Liver histology, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, insulin resistance and glucose tolerance were assessed. RESULTS: Histology revealed that neutrophil infiltration occurred in the livers of the high AGE group at week 26; steatosis did not accompany liver inflammation. At week 39 livers from both groups exhibited macro- or micro-steatosis, yet no inflammation was detected. Higher insulin levels were detected in the regular AGE group at week 26 (P?=?0.034), compared to the high AGE group. At week 39, the regular AGE group showed higher levels of alanine aminotransferase (P<0.01) and aspartate aminotransferase (P?=?0.02) than those of the high AGE group. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that a high AGE diet can cause liver inflammation in the absence of steatosis. Our results show that dietary AGEs could play a role in initiating liver inflammation contributing to the disease progression of NASH. Our observation that the inflammation caused by high AGE alone did not persist suggests interesting future directions to investigate how AGEs contribute to pro-oxidative and anti-oxidative pathways in the liver. PMID:22496902

  9. Improvement of liver function by the administration of oyster extract as a dietary supplement to habitual alcohol drinkers: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    OSAKI, KENJI; SHIMIZU, YOSHIO; YAMAMOTO, TETSURO; MIYAKE, FUMIHARU; KONDO, SUMIO; YAMAGUCHI, HIDEYO

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is characterized by elevated serum ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activity with hepatic steatosis, hepatitis or occasionally fibrosis that may progress to cirrhosis. The potential therapeutic role of oyster extract (OE) or OE-containing dietary supplements (OE supplement) in ALD has seldom been evaluated. In the present study, 84 adults who had an alcohol-drinking habit and marginally high serum GGT levels were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled feeding trial to study the effect on alcohol-impaired liver function as reflected by an increased serum level of GGT, as well as the safety, of an OE supplement. The subjects were randomized to receive either an OE supplement (OE group) or placebo (placebo group). There were 42 subjects (31 males and 11 females) in each group, and all the enrolled subjects entered the study. Four individuals (5%) dropped out for reasons unassociated with the study and 6 other subjects were excluded from the efficacy analysis because they did not maintain the required frequency of alcohol intake. As a result, 38 subjects in the placebo group and 36 in the OE group underwent efficacy assessment. Assays of GGT and other liver enzymes were performed at baseline (week 0) and at weeks 4, 8 and 12 of the intervention period. The mean serum levels of GGT in the placebo group gradually increased, while those in the OE group tended to decrease, although no significant within-group differences were observed for either group. A significant between-group difference in the change of mean GGT from baseline was, however, found at week 12 (P=0.049). No OE supplement-associated untoward side-effects nor any abnormal changes in routine laboratory tests and anthropometric parameters were observed throughout the 12-week intervention. An OE supplement shows promise in reducing risk factors associated with ALD in adults with an alcohol intake habit. PMID:26622379

  10. Nanostructured self-assembling peptides as a defined extracellular matrix for long-term functional maintenance of primary hepatocytes in a bioartificial liver modular device.

    PubMed

    Giri, Shibashish; Braumann, Ulf-Dietrich; Giri, Priya; Acikgöz, Ali; Scheibe, Patrick; Nieber, Karen; Bader, Augustinus

    2013-01-01

    Much effort has been directed towards the optimization of the capture of in vivo hepatocytes from their microenvironment. Some methods of capture include an ex vivo cellular model in a bioreactor based liver module, a micropatterned module, a microfluidic 3D chip, coated plates, and other innovative approaches for the functional maintenance of primary hepatocytes. However, none of the above methods meet US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines, which recommend and encourage that the duration of a toxicity assay of a drug should be a minimum of 14 days, to a maximum of 90 days for a general toxicity assay. Existing innovative reports have used undefined extracellular matrices like matrigel, rigid collagen, or serum supplementations, which are often problematic, unacceptable in preclinical and clinical applications, and can even interfere with experimental outcomes. We have overcome these challenges by using integrated nanostructured self-assembling peptides and a special combination of growth factors and cytokines to establish a proof of concept to mimic the in vivo hepatocyte microenvironment pattern in vitro for predicting the in vivo drug hepatotoxicity in a scalable bioartificial liver module. Hepatocyte functionality (albumin, urea) was measured at days 10, 30, 60, and 90 and we observed stable albumin secretion and urea function throughout the culture period. In parallel, drug metabolizing enzyme biomarkers such as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, the methylthiazol tetrazolium test, and the lactate dehydrogenase test were carried out at days 10, 30, 60, and 90. We noticed excellent mitochondrial status and membrane stability at 90 days of culture. Since alpha glutathione S-transferase (GST) is highly sensitive and a specific marker of hepatocyte injury, we observed significantly low alpha GST levels on all measured days (10, 30, 60, and 90). Finally, we performed the image analysis of mitochondria-cultured hepatocytes at day 90 in different biophysical parameters using confocal microscopy. We applied an automatic algorithm-based method for 3D visualization to show the classic representation of the mitochondrial distribution in double hepatocytes. An automated morphological measurement was conducted on the mitochondrial distribution in the cultured hepatocytes. Our proof of concept of a scalable bioartificial liver modular device meets FDA guidelines and may function as an alternative model of animal experimentation for pharmacological and toxicological studies involving drug metabolism, enzyme induction, transplantation, viral hepatitis, hepatocyte regeneration, and can also be used in other existing bioreactor modules for long-term culture for up to 90 days or more. PMID:23626466

  11. The multi-kinase inhibitor pazopanib targets hepatic stellate cell activation and apoptosis alleviating progression of liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Elshal, Mahmoud; Abu-Elsaad, Nashwa; El-Karef, Amr; Ibrahim, Tarek Mostafa

    2015-12-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been emerged recently as an effective therapy against liver fibrosis. The current study was designed to test a potential anti-fibrotic effect of the multi-targeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor pazopanib. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4; 1 mL/kg) was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) twice/week for 8 weeks. Pazopanib (10 and 30 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered three times/week at the beginning of week 5. Levels of liver function biomarkers (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin, and total bilirubin), malondialdehyde, transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1), caspase-3, factor-related apoptosis (FAS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-1, and pigment endothelial derived factor (PEDF) were measured. The tissue level of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) were assigned. Fibrotic area was measured by morphometry and expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), caspase-3, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor-?, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) was scored immunohistochemically. Hepatic expression of collagen-1-alpha-1 (Col1A1) and tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) mRNA were assigned by RT-qPCR. Injection of CCl4 resulted in marked collagen deposition, necroinflammation, and fibrosis (2.67 %). Pazopanib in a dose of 30 mg/kg improved liver function, reduced fibrosis (1.48 %), and decreased significantly (P < 0.01) liver expression of malondialdehyde, TGF-?1, IL-6, TNF-?, Col1A1, TIMP-1, ?-SMA, MMP-2, PDGF receptor-?, and VEGF receptor-1. Additionally, the apoptotic markers (caspase-3, FAS) and the anti-angiogenic factor PEDF were upregulated significantly (P < 0.05). Pazopanib at a certain dose level can halt liver fibrosis progression through modulating inflammatory cytokines, suppressing stellate cell activity, inducing apoptosis, and potentially regulating angiogenesis. PMID:26269412

  12. Aging Liver. A review.

    PubMed

    Anantharaju, Abhinandana; Feller, Axel; Chedid, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Aging is characterized by a progressive decline of cellular functions. The aging liver appears to preserve its function relatively well. Aging is associated in human liver with morphological changes such as decrease in size attributable to decreased hepatic blood flow. Ultrastructural analysis of the human liver has revealed that the integrity of mitochondria and enzymatic activity remain mostly unchanged with aging. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the aging process and result mainly from nonenzymatic processes in the liver. Endogenous free radicals are generated within mitochondria and suspected to cause severe injury to mitochondrial DNA. This damaged DNA accumulates with aging. In addition, polyunsaturated fatty acids, highly sensitive to ROS, decrease in liver mitochondria from human centenarians, a feature acquired during evolution as a protective mechanism to favor longevity. Diet is considered the main environmental factor having effect on lifespan. It has a major impact on aging liver, the central metabolic organ of the body. The ubiquitin proteolytic pathway in the liver serves to destroy many proteins, among them p21 which is encoded by abundant mRNA in senescent cells, can inhibit cell proliferation and favors DNA repair. Drug therapy in the elderly may be complicated by several factors such as decline in body weight, renal function, liver mass and hepatic blood flow, making adverse drug reactions more frequent. Hepatic drug metabolism is mainly mediated by the cytochrome P(450 )system and drug interactions in the elderly are likely related to the progressive decline of this system after the fifth decade of life and another decrease in individuals aged >70. Antihypertensive therapy in the elderly depends upon either hepatic or renal function and should be adjusted accordingly. Finally, telomerases are the biological clocks of replicative lifespan. Shortening of telomeric ends of chromosomes correlates with aging and decline in the replicative potential of the cell: replicative senescence. Telomere DNA of human somatic cells shortens during each cell division thus leading to a finite proliferation. Transfection of the telomerase reverse transcriptase gene results in elongation of telomeres and extension of lifespan. This also applies to humans. Replicative senescence in human cells evolved as a mechanism to protect them from continuous divisions leading to multiple mutations. Longer-lived species such as humans had to develop replicative senescence to ensure that they would have the increased protection that their longevity necessitates. PMID:12393949

  13. 40 CFR 721.520 - Alanine, N-(2-carboxyethyl)-N-alkyl-, salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alanine, N-(2-carboxyethyl)-N-alkyl-, salt. 721.520 Section 721.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.520 Alanine,...

  14. Integrated expression profiles of mRNA and microRNA in the liver of Fructus Meliae Toosendan water extract injured mice

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jie; Ji, Cai; Lu, Xiaoyan; Tong, Wei; Fan, Xiaohui; Gao, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Liver toxicity is a severe problem associated with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Fructus Meliae Toosendan (FMT) is a known hepatotoxic TCM, however, the toxicological mechanisms of liver injury caused by FMT treatment still remain largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to reveal possible mechanisms of FMT water extract-induced liver injury using a systemic approach. After three consecutive daily dosing of FMT water extract, significant increases of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase activities, along with elevated total bilirubin and total cholesterol levels and a decrease of triglyceride level, were detected in mice serum. Moreover, hydropic degeneration was observed in hepatocytes, suggesting the presence of FMT-induced liver injury. mRNA and microRNA expression profiles of liver samples from injured mice were analyzed and revealed 8 miRNAs and 1,723 mRNAs were significantly changed after FMT water extract treatment. For the eight differentially expressed miRNAs, their predicted target genes were collected and a final set of 125 genes and 4 miRNAs (miR-139-5p, miR-199a-5p, miR-2861, and miR-3960) was selected to investigate important processes involved in FMT hepatotoxicity. Our results demonstrated several cellular functions were disordered after FMT treatment, such as cellular growth and proliferation, gene expression and cellular development. We hypothesized that liver cell necrosis was the main liver toxicity of FMT water extract, which was possibly caused by oxidative stress responses. PMID:26539117

  15. THEMES OF LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    PubMed Central

    Starzl, Thomas E.; Fung, John J.

    2010-01-01

    Liver transplantation was the product of 5 interlocking themes. These began in 1958-59 with canine studies of then theoretical hepatotrophic molecules in portal venous blood (Theme I) and with the contemporaneous parallel development of liver and multivisceral transplant models (Theme II). Further Theme I investigations showed that insulin was the principal, although not the only, portal hepatotrophic factor. In addition to resolving long-standing controversies about the pathophysiology of portacaval shunt, the hepatotrophic studies blazed new trails in the regulation of liver size, function, and regeneration. They also targeted inborn metabolic errors (e.g. familial hyperlipoproteinemia) whose palliation by portal diversion presaged definitive correction with liver replacement. Clinical use of the Theme II transplant models depended on multiple drug immunosuppression (Theme III, Immunology), guided by an empirical algorithm of pattern recognition and therapeutic response. Successful liver replacement was first accomplished in 1967 with azathioprine, prednisone, and ALG. With this regimen, the world’s longest surviving liver recipient is now 40 years postoperative. Incremental improvements in survival outcome occurred (Theme IV) when azathioprine was replaced by cyclosporine (1979) which was replaced in turn by tacrolimus (1989). However, the biologic meaning of alloengraftment remained enigmatic until multilineage donor leukocyte microchimerism was discovered in 1992 in long surviving organ recipients. Seminal mechanisms were then identified (clonal exhaustion-deletion and immune ignorance) that linked organ engraftment and the acquired tolerance of bone marrow transplantation and eventually clarified the relationship of transplantation immunology to the immunology of infections, neoplasms, and autoimmune disorders. With this insight, better strategies of immunosuppression have evolved. As liver and other kinds of organ transplantation became accepted as healthcare standards, the ethical, legal, equity, and the other humanism issues of Theme V have been resolved less conclusively than the medical-scientific problems of Themes I–IV. PMID:20235333

  16. Neuropilins and liver

    PubMed Central

    Elpek, Gülsüm Özlem

    2015-01-01

    Neuropilins (NRPs) are highly conserved transmembrane glycoproteins that possess pleiotropic functions. Neuropilin-1 (NRP1) and its homologue neuropilin-2 interact as coreceptors with both class 3 semaphorins and vascular endothelial growth factor and are involved in neuronal guidance and angiogenesis, respectively. The contribution of NRPs to tumor angiogenesis has been highlighted in previous studies, leading to the development of NRP antagonists as novel anti-angiogenesis therapies. However, more recent studies have demonstrated that NRPs have a much broader spectrum of activity in the integration of different pathways in physiological and pathological conditions. A few studies investigated the role of NRPs in both malignant and non-neoplastic liver diseases. In normal liver, NRP1 is expressed in hepatic stellate cells and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. NRP1 expression in hepatocytes has been associated with malignant transformation and may play an important role in tumor behavior. A contribution of NRPs in sinusoidal remodeling during liver regeneration has been also noted. Studies in chronic liver diseases have indicated that, besides its influence on angiogenesis, NRP1 might contribute to the progression of liver fibrosis owing to its effects on other growth factors, including transforming growth factor ?1. As a result, NRP1 has been identified as a promising therapeutic target for future antifibrotic therapies based on the simultaneous blockade of multiple growth factor signaling pathways. In this review, the structure of NRPs and their interactions with various ligands and associated cell surface receptors are described briefly. The current understanding of the roles of the NRPs in liver diseases including tumors, regeneration and fibrogenesis, are also summarized. PMID:26109793

  17. American Liver Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources Liver Disease Information Select Info Center Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Autoimmune Hepatitis Benign Liver Tumors Biliary Atresia Cirrhosis ...

  18. Structural and functional interaction of fatty acids with human liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) T94A variant.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huan; McIntosh, Avery L; Martin, Gregory G; Landrock, Kerstin K; Landrock, Danilo; Gupta, Shipra; Atshaves, Barbara P; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2014-05-01

    The human liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) T94A variant, the most common in the FABP family, has been associated with elevated liver triglyceride levels. How this amino acid substitution elicits these effects is not known. This issue was addressed using human recombinant wild-type (WT) and T94A variant L-FABP proteins as well as cultured primary human hepatocytes expressing the respective proteins (genotyped as TT, TC and CC). The T94A substitution did not alter or only slightly altered L-FABP binding affinities for saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated long chain fatty acids, nor did it change the affinity for intermediates of triglyceride synthesis. Nevertheless, the T94A substitution markedly altered the secondary structural response of L-FABP induced by binding long chain fatty acids or intermediates of triglyceride synthesis. Finally, the T94A substitution markedly decreased the levels of induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?-regulated proteins such as L-FABP, fatty acid transport protein 5 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? itself meditated by the polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in cultured primary human hepatocytes. Thus, although the T94A substitution did not alter the affinity of human L-FABP for long chain fatty acids, it significantly altered human L-FABP structure and stability, as well as the conformational and functional response to these ligands. PMID:24628888

  19. Alanine screening mutagenesis establishes the critical inactivating damage of irradiated E. coli lactose repressor.

    PubMed

    Goffinont, Stephane; Villette, Sandrine; Spotheim-Maurizot, Melanie

    2012-06-01

    The function of the E. coli lactose operon requires the binding of lactose repressor to operator DNA. We have previously shown that ? rradiation destabilizes the repressor-operator complex because the repressor loses its DNA-binding ability. It was suggested that the observed oxidation of the four tyrosines (Y7, Y12, Y17, Y47) and the concomitant structural changes of the irradiated DNA-binding domains (headpieces) could be responsible for the inactivation. To pinpoint the tyrosine whose oxidation has the strongest effect, four headpieces containing the product of tyrosine oxidation, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), were simulated by molecular dynamics. We have observed that replacing Y47 by DOPA triggers the largest change of structure and stability of the headpiece and have concluded that Y47 oxidation is the greatest contributor to the decrease of repressor binding to DNA. To experimentally verify this conclusion, we applied the alanine screening mutagenesis approach. Tetrameric mutated repressors bearing an alanine instead of each one of the tyrosines were prepared and their binding to operator DNA was checked. Their binding ability is quite similar to that of the wild-type repressor, except for the Y47A mutant whose binding is strongly reduced. Circular dichroism determinations revealed small reductions of the proportion of ? helices and of the melting temperature for Y7A, Y12A and Y17A headpieces, but much larger ones were revealed for Y47A headpiece. These results established the critical role of Y47 oxidation in modifying the structure and stability of the headpiece, and in reduction of the binding ability of the whole lactose repressor. PMID:22551504

  20. Thermal decomposition behavior of potassium and sodium jarosite synthesized in the presence of methylamine and alanine

    SciTech Connect

    J. Michelle Kotler; Nancy W. Hinman; C. Doc Richardson; Jill R. Scott

    2010-10-01

    Biomolecules, methylamine and alanine, found associated with natural jarosite samples peaked the interest of astrobiologists and planetary geologists. How the biomolecules are associated with jarosite remains unclear although the mechanism could be important for detecting biosignatures in the rock record on Earth and other planets. A series of thermal gravimetric experiments using synthetic K-jarosite and Na-jarosite were conducted to determine if thermal analysis could differentiate physical mixtures of alanine and methylamine with jarosite from samples where the methylamine or alanine was incorporated into the synthesis procedure. Physical mixtures and synthetic experiments with methylamine and alanine could be differentiated from one another and from the standards by thermal analysis for both the K-jarosite and Na-jarosite end-member suites. Changes included shifts in on-set temperatures, total temperature changes from on-set to final, and the presence of indicator peaks for methylamine and alanine in the physical mixture experiments.

  1. Detection of Cyanotoxins, ?-N-methylamino-l-alanine and Microcystins, from a Lake Surrounded by Cases of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Banack, Sandra Anne; Caller, Tracie; Henegan, Patricia; Haney, James; Murby, Amanda; Metcalf, James S.; Powell, James; Cox, Paul Alan; Stommel, Elijah

    2015-01-01

    A cluster of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has been previously described to border Lake Mascoma in Enfield, NH, with an incidence of ALS approximating 25 times expected. We hypothesize a possible association with cyanobacterial blooms that can produce ?-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), a neurotoxic amino acid implicated as a possible cause of ALS/PDC in Guam. Muscle, liver, and brain tissue samples from a Lake Mascoma carp, as well as filtered aerosol samples, were analyzed for microcystins (MC), free and protein-bound BMAA, and the BMAA isomers 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB) and N-(2-aminoethyl)glycine (AEG). In carp brain, BMAA and DAB concentrations were 0.043 ?g/g ± 0.02 SD and 0.01 ?g/g ± 0.002 SD respectively. In carp liver and muscle, the BMAA concentrations were 1.28 ?g/g and 1.27 ?g/g respectively, and DAB was not detected. BMAA was detected in the air filters, as were the isomers DAB and AEG. These results demonstrate that a putative cause for ALS, BMAA, exists in an environment that has a documented cluster of ALS. Although cause and effect have not been demonstrated, our observations and measurements strengthen the association. PMID:25643180

  2. Effects of Metformin and Weight Loss on Serum Alanine Aminotransferase Activity in the Diabetes Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Krakoff, Jonathan; Clark, Jeanne M.; Crandall, Jill P.; Wilson, Charlton; Molitch, Mark E.; Brancati, Frederick L.; Edelstein, Sharon L.; Knowler, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and impaired glucose tolerance. We investigated whether metformin or changes in metabolic measurements (weight, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), or fasting insulin (FI)) improved serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, as a marker for NAFLD, in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). From 1996 to 1999, 2,153 participants without marked elevations of serum ALT at baseline were randomized (1,081 to placebo, 1,072 to metformin) and treated for an average of 3.2 years. ALT increased during the first 2 years of the study, and was slightly but significantly lower in the participants randomized to metformin. In regression models adjusted for sex, baseline age, FPG, and FI, these differences remained significant, but disappeared after adjustment for weight, FPG, and FI changes at each examination. The 3-year cumulative incidence for development of abnormal ALT concentrations was not significantly different ((mean ± s.e.) 21.4 ± 1.4% and 24.6 ± 1.4%, P = 0.11) in the metformin vs. placebo groups but was lower in individuals in both groups that lost more weight by the end of year 1 (metformin: 19.4 ± 2.4% vs. 27.5 ± 3.7%, for highest vs. lowest quartile of weight loss; placebo: 18.7 ± 3.4% vs. 28.8 ± 2.6%). Over 3 years of follow-up in persons at high risk for development of diabetes, serum ALT was consistently lower in those treated with metformin compared with placebo. This effect was mediated by weight loss, indicating that the effects of metformin therapy on ALT is via its effects on weight. PMID:20186137

  3. Irritable Bowel Syndrome May Be Associated with Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase and Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Hwa; Kim, Kwang-Min; Joo, Nam-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies have revealed close relationships between hepatic injury, metabolic pathways, and gut microbiota. The microorganisms in the intestine also cause irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The aim of this study was to examine whether IBS was associated with elevated hepatic enzyme [alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)], gamma-glutamyl transferase (?-GT) levels, and metabolic syndrome (MS). Materials and Methods This was a retrospective, cross-sectional, case-control study. The case and control groups comprised subjects who visited our health promotion center for general check-ups from June 2010 to December 2010. Of the 1127 initially screened subjects, 83 had IBS according to the Rome III criteria. The control group consisted of 260 age- and sex-matched subjects without IBS who visited our health promotion center during the same period. Results Compared to control subjects, patients with IBS showed significantly higher values of anthropometric parameters (body mass index, waist circumference), liver enzymes, ?-GT, and lipid levels. The prevalences of elevated ALT (16.9% vs. 7.7%; p=0.015) and ?-GT (24.1% vs. 11.5%; p=0.037) levels were significantly higher in patients with IBS than in control subjects. A statistically significant difference was observed in the prevalence of MS between controls and IBS patients (12.7% vs. 32.5%; p<0.001). The relationships between elevated ALT levels, MS, and IBS remained statistically significant after controlling for potential confounding factors. Conclusion On the basis of our study results, IBS may be an important condition in certain patients with elevated ALT levels and MS. PMID:26632395

  4. Effects of maternal ethanol ingestion on uptake of glucose alanine analogs in fetal rats

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, A.K.; Singh, S.P.; Pullen, G.L.

    1986-05-01

    The distribution of maternally-derived glucose and alanine has been studied in selected tissues of fetuses from ethanol-fed (EF) rats (30% of caloric intake throughout gestation). Controls received diet without ethanol by pair-feeding (PF) or ad libitum (AF). On the 22nd day of gestation, 2 ..mu..Ci /sup 3/H 2-deoxyglucose (DG) and 1 ..mu..Ci /sup 14/C ..cap alpha..-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) were administered i.v. to each rat. One hour later, maternal blood, placenta, and fetal blood, liver, lung and brain were sampled for /sup 3/H and /sup 14/C activities. When compared to either control group, the mean /sup 14/C AIB activities of tissues from EF animals were reduced from 19 to 46%, with the greatest effect seen in the brain (3.7 +/- 0.1, 7.2 +/- 0.3 and 6.9 +/- 1.3 dpm/mg in EF, PF and AF fetuses respectively). In addition, the ratios of tissue:plasma /sup 14/C were reduced (p < 0.01 or lower) in the EF fetal tissues and placenta. Maternal ethanol ingestion reduced the /sup 3/H 2-DG content of placenta (p < 0.05) and of brain (38.6 + 1.2, 48.1 +/- 1.2 and 47.2 +/- 1.2 in EF, PF and AF, p < 0.001). Brain weight showed significant positive correlations with AIB content (r = 0.466, p < 0.001) and with 2-DG content (r = 0.267, p < 0.01). Impaired uptake of maternally-derived nutrients may play a significant role in the effects of ethanol in utero.

  5. Calibration of helical tomotherapy machine using EPR/alanine dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Perichon, Nicolas; Garcia, Tristan; Francois, Pascal; Lourenco, Valerie; Lesven, Caroline; Bordy, Jean-Marc

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: Current codes of practice for clinical reference dosimetry of high-energy photon beams in conventional radiotherapy recommend using a 10x10 cm{sup 2} square field, with the detector at a reference depth of 10 cm in water and 100 cm source to surface distance (SSD) (AAPM TG-51) or 100 cm source-to-axis distance (SAD) (IAEA TRS-398). However, the maximum field size of a helical tomotherapy (HT) machine is 40x5 cm{sup 2} defined at 85 cm SAD. These nonstandard conditions prevent a direct implementation of these protocols. The purpose of this study is twofold: To check the absorbed dose in water and dose rate calibration of a tomotherapy unit as well as the accuracy of the tomotherapy treatment planning system (TPS) calculations for a specific test case. Method: Both topics are based on the use of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) using alanine as transfer dosimeter between the Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNHB) {sup 60}Co-{gamma}-ray reference beam and the Institut Curie's HT beam. Irradiations performed in the LNHB reference {sup 60}Co-{gamma}-ray beam allowed setting up the calibration method, which was then implemented and tested at the LNHB 6 MV linac x-ray beam, resulting in a deviation of 1.6% (at a 1% standard uncertainty) relative to the reference value determined with the standard IAEA TRS-398 protocol. Results: HT beam dose rate estimation shows a difference of 2% with the value stated by the manufacturer at a 2% standard uncertainty. A 4% deviation between measured dose and the calculation from the tomotherapy TPS was found. The latter was originated by an inadequate representation of the phantom CT-scan values and, consequently, mass densities within the phantom. This difference has been explained by the mass density values given by the CT-scan and used by the TPS which were not the true ones. Once corrected using Monte Carlo N-Particle simulations to validate the accuracy of this process, the difference between corrected TPS calculations and alanine measured dose values was then found to be around 2% (with 2% standard uncertainty on TPS doses and 1.5% standard uncertainty on EPR measurements). Conclusion: Beam dose rate estimation results were found to be in good agreement with the reference value given by the manufacturer at 2% standard uncertainty. Moreover, the dose determination method was set up with a deviation around 2% (at a 2% standard uncertainty).

  6. High-Content Functional Screening of AEG-1 and AKR1C2 for the Promotion of Metastasis in Liver Cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Cong; Wu, Xia; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jia; Liu, Huawei; Hao, Ming; Wang, Junsong; Zhang, Honghai; Yang, Gengxia; Hao, Meijun; Sheng, Shoupeng; Sun, Yu; Long, Jiang; Li, Juan; Zhuang, Fengfeng; Hu, Caixia; Li, Li; Zheng, Jiasheng

    2016-01-01

    Liver cancer is one of the most lethal cancer types in humans, but our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying this process remains insufficient. Here, we conducted high-content screening of the potential genes involved in liver cancer metastasis, which we selected from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway database, based on the SAMcell method and RNA interference technology. We identified two powerful genes in the liver cancer metastasis process, AEG-1 and AKR1C2, both of which proved to be positive regulators in promoting metastasis in liver cancer. Further clinical results verified their roles in liver cancer. In summary, these findings could provide new insight into the liver cancer mechanism and potentially therapeutic novel targets for liver cancer therapies in the future. PMID:26318406

  7. Liver cancer - Hepatocellular carcinoma

    MedlinePLUS

    Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Cancer - liver; Hepatoma ... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually seen in people age 50 or older. Hepatocellular ...

  8. Liver disease - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - liver disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on liver disease : American Liver Foundation - www.liverfoundation.org Children's Liver Association for Support Services - www.classkids.org Hepatitis ...

  9. Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Home Cancers Selected for Study Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma Last Updated: May 14, 2013 What is liver cancer?Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common form of liver cancer in the United States, making up more than

  10. A randomized controlled trial of late conversion from calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-based to sirolimus-based immunosuppression in liver transplant recipients with impaired renal function.

    PubMed

    Watson, Christopher J E; Gimson, Alexander E S; Alexander, Graeme J; Allison, Michael E D; Gibbs, Paul; Smith, Jane C; Palmer, Christopher R; Bradley, J Andrew

    2007-12-01

    Renal impairment is common in patients after liver transplantation and is attributable in large part to the use of calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-based immunosuppression. We sought to determine whether conversion to sirolimus-based immunosuppression was associated with improved renal function. In a single-center, randomized, controlled trial, 30 patients at least 6 months post liver transplantation were randomized to remain on CNI-based immunosuppression or to switch to sirolimus-based immunosuppression. The primary outcome measure was change in measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR) between baseline and 12 months. Of 30 patients randomized, 3 were withdrawn at randomization, leaving 14 patients on CNI and 13 on sirolimus. There was a significant improvement in delta GFR following conversion to sirolimus at 3 months (7.7 mL/minute/1.73 m2; 95% confidence interval, 3.5-11.9) and 1 yr (6.1 mL/minute/1.73 m2; 95% confidence interval, 0.9-11.4). The difference in absolute GFR between the 2 study groups was significant at 3 months (P=0.02), but not at 12 months (P=0.07). The principal adverse events following conversion were the development of skin rash (9 of 13 patients, 69%) and mouth ulcers (5 of 13 patients, 38%). Two patients developed acute rejection at 2 and 3 months following conversion, 1 in association with low sirolimus levels and 1 having stopped the drug inadvertently. In conclusion, overall, this study suggests that conversion to sirolimus immunosuppression is associated with a modest improvement in renal function. Side effects were common, but tolerable in most patients and controlled with dose reduction. PMID:18044728

  11. Function and regulation of the Cyp2a5/CYP2A6 genes in response to toxic insults in the liver.

    PubMed

    Abu-Bakar, A'edah; Hakkola, Jukka; Juvonen, Risto; Rahnasto-Rilla, Minna; Raunio, Hannu; Lang, Matti A

    2013-01-01

    The mouse hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2A5 and its human orthologue CYP2A6 catalyse the metabolism of a number of drugs and toxins, such as halothane and aflatoxin B1. The enzymes are named "Coumarin 7-hydroxylase" and "Nicotine Hydroxylase", respectively, by virtue of their high affinity and specific activity towards these compounds. Bilirubin, the breakdown product of haem, has been suggested to be the endogenous substrate for both enzymes. Uniquely, CYP2A5 and CYP2A6 are induced during pathological conditions associated with liver injury when the function of most other CYP enzymes is compromised, which suggests an exceptional mode of regulation of the corresponding genes. Regulation of these genes is indeed complex where the promoters interact with multiple stress-activated transcription factors. The Cyp2a5 promoter contains a "stress-responding" cluster of binding motifs, which interact with major mediators of toxic insults including nuclear factor-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). These interactions are crucial in the up-regulation of the genes under stress conditions. Additionally, elevated transcription is also achieved through mRNA stabilisation mediated by interaction of the stress activated heterogenous ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1) with the 3'UTR of the CYP2A5/CYP2A6 mRNA. The up-regulation via enhanced transcription combined with mRNA stabilisation, as seen in some of the stress situations, leads to a particularly strong, fast and persistent response. This review brings together knowledge obtained from studies in our laboratories and others' on regulation of Cyp2a5/CYP2A6 genes in response to toxic insults and toxicological significance of their catalytic activities that may provide clues to a functional role of the enzymes in relation to liver toxicity. PMID:22497566

  12. Heritability of liver enzyme levels estimated from genome-wide SNP data.

    PubMed

    van Beek, Jenny H D A; Lubke, Gitta H; de Moor, Marleen H M; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Geus, Eco J C; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Walters, Raymond K; Smit, Jan H; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2015-09-01

    Variation in the liver enzyme levels in humans is moderately heritable, as indicated by twin-family studies. At present, genome-wide association studies have traced <2% of the variance back to genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We estimated the SNP-based heritability of levels of three liver enzymes (gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT); alanine aminotransferase (ALT); and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)) using genome-wide SNP data in a sample of 5421 unrelated Dutch individuals. Two estimation methods for SNP-based heritability were compared, one based on the distant genetic relatedness among all subjects as summarized in a Genetic Relatedness Matrix (GRM), and the other one based on density estimation (DE). The DE method was also applied to meta-analysis results on GGT and ALT. GRM-derived SNP-based heritability estimates were significant for GGT (16%) and AST (11%), but not for ALT (6%). DE estimates in the same sample varied as a function of pruning and were around 23% for all liver enzymes. Application of the DE approach to meta-analysis results for GGT and ALT gave SNP-based heritability estimates of 6 and 3%. The significant results in the Dutch sample indicate that genome-wide SNP platforms contain substantial information regarding the underlying genetic variation in the liver enzyme levels. A major part of this genetic variation remains however undetected. SNP-based heritability estimates, based on meta-analysis results, may point at substantial heterogeneity among cohorts contributing to the meta-analysis. This type of analysis may provide useful information to guide future gene searches. PMID:25424715

  13. Curative Effects of Fuzheng Huayu on Liver Fibrosis and Cirrhosis: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Shu; Chen, Qi-Long; Su, Shi-Bing

    2015-01-01

    The Fuzheng Huayu (FZHY) formula is being used in antiliver fibrosis treatment in China. For systemic evaluation of the curative effects of FZHY on liver fibrosis and cirrhosis progress, a total of 1392 subjects (714 cases and 678 controls) were found to be eligible for meta-analysis in this study. Standard mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated for changes between FZHY groups and controls by employing fixed effects or random effects model. In the overall analysis, alanine transaminase (ALT) (P = 0.003, SMD = ?0.87, 95% CI: ?1.46 to ?0.29), total bilirubin (TBil) (P = 0.001, SMD = ?1.30, 95% CI: ?2.10 to ?0.50), hyaluronic acid (HA) (P = 0.000, SMD = ?0.94, 95% CI: ?1.30 to ?0.58), laminin (LN) (P = 0.000, SMD = ?0.80, 95% CI: ?1.20 to ?0.41), type III procollagen (PC-III) (P = 0.000, SMD = ?1.27, 95% CI: ?1.93 to ?0.60), and type IV procollagen (IV-C) (P = 0.000, SMD = ?0.78, 95% CI: ?1.05 to ?0.51) were decreased after FZHY treatment; however, albumin (ALB) was increased (P = 0.037, SMD = 1.10, 95% CI: 0.07 to 2.12) significantly. Furthermore, the Child-Pugh score was reduced significantly and the life quality was improved after FZHY treatment in cirrhosis patients. The results of this meta-analysis indicated that FZHY effectively improves the liver function, alleviates hepatic fibrosis, decreases Child-Pugh score, and relieves TCM symptoms caused by liver dysfunction, indicating that FZHY may contribute to the alleviation of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. PMID:26221168

  14. Dietary supplementation with glutamate precursor ?-ketoglutarate attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury in young pigs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Hou, Yongqing; Yi, Dan; Li, Yongtang; Ding, Binying; Zhu, Huiling; Liu, Jian; Xiao, Hang; Wu, Guoyao

    2015-07-01

    There is growing interest in glutamate as a functional amino acid in nutrition and health. This study was conducted to determine whether glutamate precursor ?-ketoglutarate (AKG) could alleviate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury in young pigs. Twenty-four piglets were randomly assigned to the control, LPS, or LPS + AKG group. Piglets in the control and LPS groups were fed a basal diet, whereas piglets in the NAC group were fed the basal diet supplemented with 1 % AKG. On days 10, 12, 14, and 16 of the trial, piglets in the LPS and LPS + AKG groups received intraperitoneal administration of LPS (80 ?g/kg BW), whereas piglets in the control group received the same volume of saline. On day 16 of the trial, blood samples were collected 3 h after LPS or saline injection. Twenty-four hours post-administration of LPS or saline (on day 17 of the trial), piglets were killed to obtain liver for analysis. Dietary AKG supplementation alleviated LPS-induced histomorphological abnormalities and mitigated LPS-induced increases in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity and AST/ALT ratio (P < 0.05). Compared with the LPS group, dietary supplementation with AKG decreased plasma glutamate concentration, while increasing hepatic concentrations of glutamate, glutamine, leucine, asparagine, lysine, alanine, serine, threonine, valine, and phenylalanine (P < 0.05). LPS challenge dramatically increased concentrations of malondialdehyde and decreased glutathione peroxidase activity in the liver. Additionally, LPS challenge enhanced concentrations of AMP and total protein, as well as RNA/DNA and total protein/DNA ratios, while decreasing hepatic ADP concentrations. These adverse effects of LPS challenge were ameliorated by AKG supplementation. Collectively, dietary AKG supplementation provides a new means to ameliorate LPS-induced liver injury by increasing anti-oxidative capacity and improving energy metabolism in young pigs. PMID:25795418

  15. www.yalecancercenter.org Living with Liver Cancer

    E-print Network

    O'Hern, Corey S.

    www.yalecancercenter.org Living with Liver Cancer Guest Expert: Wasif Saif, MD Associate Professor and research of liver cancer. Here is Ed Chu. Chu Why don't we start off by defining what liver cancer is? Saif The liver is one of the biggest and largest organs present in our body and there are different functions

  16. Alanine-EPR as a transfer standard dosimetry system for low energy X radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoury, H. J.; da Silva, E. J.; Mehta, K.; de Barros, V. S.; Asfora, V. K.; Guzzo, P. L.; Parker, A. G.

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the use of alanine-EPR as a transfer standard dosimetry system for low energy X radiation, such as that in RS-2400, which operates in the range from 25 to 150 kV and 2 to 45 mA. Two types of alanine dosimeters were investigated. One is a commercial alanine pellets from Aérial-Centre de Ressources Technologiques, France and one was prepared in our laboratory (LMRI-DEN/UFPE). The EPR spectra of the irradiated dosimeters were recorded in the Nuclear Energy Department of UFPE, using a Bruker EMX10 EPR spectrometer operating in the X-band. The alanine-EPR dosimetry system was calibrated in the range of 20-220 Gy in this X-ray field, against an ionization chamber calibrated at the relevant X-ray energy with traceability to PTB. The results showed that both alanine dosimeters presented a linear dose response the same sensitivity, when the EPR signal was normalized to alanine mass. The total uncertainty in the measured dose was estimated to be about 3%. The results indicate that it is possible to use the alanine-EPR dosimetry system for validation of a low-energy X ray irradiator, such as RS-2400.

  17. Alanine synthesis from glyceraldehyde and ammonium ion in aqueous solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, A. L.

    1985-01-01

    The formation of alanine (ala) form C(14)-glyceraldehyde and ammonium phosphate in the presence or absence of a thiol is reported. At ambient temperature, ala synthesis was six times more rapid in the presence of 3-mercaptopropionic acid than in its absence (0.6 and 0.1 percent, respectively, after 60 days). Similarly, the presence of another thiol, N-acetylcysteinate, increased the production of ala, as well as of lactate. The reaction pathway of thiol-catalyzed synthesis of ala, with the lactic acid formed in a bypath, is suggested. In this, dehydration of glyceraldehyde is followed by the formation of hemithioacetal. In the presence of ammonia, an imine is formed, which eventually yields ala. This pathway is consistent with the observation that the rate ratio of ala/lactate remains constant throughout the process. The fact that the reaction takes place under anaerobic conditions in the presence of H2O and with the low concentrations of simple substrates and catalysts makes it an attractive model prebiotic reaction in the process of molecular evolution.

  18. Folding simulations of alanine-based peptides with lysine residues.

    PubMed Central

    Sung, S S

    1995-01-01

    The folding of short alanine-based peptides with different numbers of lysine residues is simulated at constant temperature (274 K) using the rigid-element Monte Carlo method. The solvent-referenced potential has prevented the multiple-minima problem in helix folding. From various initial structures, the peptides with three lysine residues fold into helix-dominated conformations with the calculated average helicity in the range of 60-80%. The peptide with six lysine residues shows only 8-14% helicity. These results agree well with experimental observations. The intramolecular electrostatic interaction of the charged lysine side chains and their electrostatic hydration destabilize the helical conformations of the peptide with six lysine residues, whereas these effects on the peptides with three lysine residues are small. The simulations provide insight into the helix-folding mechanism, including the beta-bend intermediate in helix initiation, the (i, i + 3) hydrogen bonds, the asymmetrical helix propagation, and the asymmetrical helicities in the N- and C-terminal regions. These findings are consistent with previous studies. PMID:7756550

  19. Serum acute phase reactants hallmark healthy individuals at risk for acetaminophen-induced liver injury

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Acetaminophen (APAP) is a commonly used analgesic. However, its use is associated with drug-induced liver injury (DILI). It is a prominent cause of acute liver failure, with APAP hepatotoxicity far exceeding other causes of acute liver failure in the United States. In order to improve its safe use this study aimed to identify individuals at risk for DILI prior to drug treatment by searching for non-genetic serum markers in healthy subjects susceptible to APAP-induced liver injury (AILI). Methods Healthy volunteers (n?=?36) received either placebo or acetaminophen at the maximum daily dose of 4 g for 7 days. Blood samples were taken prior to and after APAP treatment. Serum proteomic profiling was done by 2D SDS-PAGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry. Additionally, the proteins C-reactive protein, haptoglobin and hemopexin were studied by quantitative immunoassays. Results One-third of study subjects presented more than four-fold increased alanine transaminase activity to evidence liver injury, while serum proteomics informed on 20 proteins as significantly regulated. These function primarily in acute phase and immune response. Pre-treatment associations included C-reactive protein, haptoglobin isoforms and retinol binding protein being up to six-fold higher in AILI susceptible individuals, whereas alpha1-antitrypsin, serum amyloid A, kininogen and transtyretin were regulated by nearly five-fold in AILI responders. When compared with published findings for steatohepatitis and cases of hepatocellular, cholestatic and mixed DILI, 10 proteins were identified as uniquely associated with risk for AILI, including plasminogen. Notably, this zymogen facilitates macrophage chemotactic migration and inflammatory response as reported for plasminogen-deficient mice shown to be resistant to APAP hepatotoxicity. Finally, analysis of a publicly available database of gene expression profiles of cultures of human hepatocytes treated with drugs labeled as no- (n?=?8), low- (n?=?45) or most-DILI-concern (n?=?39) confirmed regulation of the identified biomarkers to demonstrate utility in predicting risk for liver injury. Conclusions The significant regulation of acute phase reactants points to an important link between AILI and the immune system. Monitoring of serum acute phase reactants prior to drug treatment may contribute to prevention and management of AILI, and may also be of utility for other drugs with known liver liabilities. PMID:24070255

  20. Decellularized human liver as a natural 3D-scaffold for liver bioengineering and transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Mazza, Giuseppe; Rombouts, Krista; Rennie Hall, Andrew; Urbani, Luca; Vinh Luong, Tu; Al-Akkad, Walid; Longato, Lisa; Brown, David; Maghsoudlou, Panagiotis; Dhillon, Amar P.; Fuller, Barry; Davidson, Brian; Moore, Kevin; Dhar, Dipok; De Coppi, Paolo; Malago, Massimo; Pinzani, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Liver synthetic and metabolic function can only be optimised by the growth of cells within a supportive liver matrix. This can be achieved by the utilisation of decellularised human liver tissue. Here we demonstrate complete decellularization of whole human liver and lobes to form an extracellular matrix scaffold with a preserved architecture. Decellularized human liver cubic scaffolds were repopulated for up to 21 days using human cell lines hepatic stellate cells (LX2), hepatocellular carcinoma (Sk-Hep-1) and hepatoblastoma (HepG2), with excellent viability, motility and proliferation and remodelling of the extracellular matrix. Biocompatibility was demonstrated by either omental or subcutaneous xenotransplantation of liver scaffold cubes (5?×?5?×?5?mm) into immune competent mice resulting in absent foreign body responses. We demonstrate decellularization of human liver and repopulation with derived human liver cells. This is a key advance in bioartificial liver development. PMID:26248878

  1. Estrogen reduces CCL4- induced liver fibrosis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun-Wang; Gong, Jun; Chang, Xin-Ming; Luo, Jin-Yan; Dong, Lei; Hao, Zhi-Ming; Jia, Ai; Xu, Gui-Ping

    2002-01-01

    AIM: Chronic liver diseases, such as fibrosis or cirrhosis, are more common in men than in women. This gender difference may be related to the effects of sex hormones on the liver. The aim of the present work was to investigate the effects of estrogen on CCL4-induced fibrosis of the liver in rats. METHODS: Liver fibrosis was induced in male, female and ovariectomized rats by CCL4 administration. All the groups were treated with estradiol (1 mg/kg) twice weekly. And tamoxifen was given to male fibrosis model. At the end of 8 wk, all the rats were killed to study serum indicators and the livers. RESULTS: Estradiol treatment reduced aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), hyaluronic acid (HA) and type IV collagen (CIV) in sera, suppressed hepatic collagen content, decreased the areas of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) positive for ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), and lowered the synthesis of hepatic type I collagen significantly in both sexes and ovariectomy fibrotic rats induced by CCL4 administration. Whereas, tamoxifen had the opposite effect. The fibrotic response of the female liver to CCL4 treatment was significantly weaker than that of male liver. CONCLUSION: Estradiol reduces CCL4-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats. The antifibrogenic role of estrogen in the liver may be one reason for the sex associated differences in the progression from hepatic fibrosis to cirrhosis. PMID:12378635

  2. Serum liver-type fatty acid-binding protein predicts recovery of graft function after kidney transplantation from donors after cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Akihiro; Kusaka, Mamoru; Kitagawa, Fumihiko; Ishii, Junichi; Fukami, Naohiko; Maruyama, Takahiro; Sasaki, Hitomi; Shiroki, Ryoichi; Kurahashi, Hiroki; Hoshinaga, Kiyotaka

    2014-06-01

    Kidneys procured by donation after cardiac death (DCD) may increase the donor pool but are associated with high incidence of delayed graft function (DGF). Urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) level is an early biomarker of renal injury after kidney transplantation (KTx); however, its utility is limited in DGF cases owing to urine sample unavailability. We examined whether serum L-FABP level predicts functional recovery of transplanted DCD kidneys. Consecutive patients undergoing KTx from living related donors (LD), brain-dead donors (BD), or DCD were retrospectively enrolled. Serum L-FABP levels were measured from samples collected before and after KTx. Serum L-FABP decreased rapidly in patients with immediate function, slowly in DGF patients, and somewhat increased in DGF patients requiring hemodialysis (HD) for >1 wk. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that DGF was predicted with 84% sensitivity (SE) and 86% specificity (SP) at cutoff of 9.0 ng/mL on post-operative day (POD) 1 and 68% SE and 90% SP at 6.0 on POD 2. DGF >7 d was predicted with 83% SE and 78% SP at 11.0 on POD 1 and 67% SE and 78% SP at 6.5 on POD 2. Serum L-FABP levels may predict graft recovery and need for HD after DCD KTx. PMID:24750195

  3. Interactions of L-alanine with alumina as studied by vibrational spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Ana R; de Barros, Ricardo Brito; Fidalgo, Alexandra; Ilharco, Laura M

    2007-09-25

    The interactions of L-alanine with gamma- and alpha-alumina have been investigated by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). L-alanine/alumina samples were dried from aqueous suspensions, at 36.5 degrees C, with two amino acid concentrations (0.4 and 0.8 mmol g-1) and at different pH values (1, 6, and 13). The vibrational spectra proved that the nature of L-alanine interactions with both aluminas is the same (hydrogen bonding), although the groups involved depend on the L-alanine form and on alumina surface groups, both controlled by the pH. For samples prepared at pH 1, cationic L-alanine [CH3CH(NH3+)COOH] displaces physisorbed water from alumina, and strong hydrogen bonds are established between the carbonyl groups of alanine, as electron donors, and the surface Al-OH2+ groups of alumina. This occurs at the expense of alanine dimer dissociation and breaking of intramolecular bonds. When samples are prepared at pH 6, the interacting groups are Al-OH2+ and the carboxylate groups of zwitterionic L-alanine [CH3CH(NH3+)COO-]. The affinity of L-alanine toward alumina decreases, as the strong NH3+...-OOC intermolecular hydrogen bonds prevail over the interactions with alumina. Thus, for a load of 0.8 mmol g-1, phase segregation is observed. On alpha-alumina, crystal deposition is even observed for a load of 0.4 mmol g-1. At pH 13, the carboxylate groups of anionic L-alanine [CH3CH(NH2)COO-] are not affected by alumina. Instead, hydrogen bond interactions occur between NH2 and the Al-OH surface groups of the substrate. Complementary N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms showed that adsorption of L-alanine occurs onto the alumina pore network for samples prepared at pH 1 and 13, whereas at pH 6 the amino acid/alumina interactions are not strong enough to promote adsorption. The mesoporous structure and the high specific surface area of gamma-alumina make it a more efficient substrate for adsorption of L-alanine. For each alumina, however, it is the nature of the specific interactions and not the porosity of the substrate that determines the adsorption process. PMID:17713935

  4. Human hepatocarcinoma functional liver cell-4 cell line exhibits high expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes in three-dimensional culture.

    PubMed

    Kato, Ryuji; Shigemoto, Kota; Akiyama, Hiromasa; Ieda, Asaka; Ijiri, Yoshio; Hayashi, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    The expression levels of CYP and uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT) are lower in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines than in human primary hepatocytes. However, a functional liver cell (FLC)-4 cell line that has a greater capacity to secrete liver-specific proteins than other hepatocellular carcinoma cells has recently been established. A three-dimensional culture using Engelbreth-Holm-Swan (EHS) gel induces the secretion of liver-specific proteins via the induction of hepatocyte nuclear factor-4? (HNF-4?). The aim of this study was to evaluate the mRNA expression of the enzymes CYP and UGT in FLC-4 and HepG2 cells in monolayer and three-dimensional cultures using EHS gel. The mRNA levels of HNF-4?, albumin, pregnane X receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), CYPs (1A2, 2E1, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4) and UGTs (1A1, 1A6, 1A9, and 2B7) were determined using real-time reverse transcription (RT) PCR. In a monolayer culture, the mRNA expression levels of HNF-4?, albumin, PXR, CAR, CYPs (2E1, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4) and UGTs (1A1, 1A6, and 1A9) were higher in FLC-4 cells than in HepG2 cells. In FLC-4 cells, the mRNA expression levels of HNF-4?, albumin, PXR, CAR, CYPs (2E1, 2C8, 2C19, and 3A4) and UGTs (1A1, 1A6, 1A9, and 2B7) significantly increased in three-dimensional culture. FLC-4 cells cultured in EHS gel showed significantly increased expression levels of CYPs and UGTs. The results of this study suggest that human hepatocellular carcinoma FLC-4 cells cultured in EHS gel show potential for use in studying in vitro drug metabolism. PMID:25366484

  5. Prophylactic effects of humic acid-glucan combination against experimental liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Vetvicka, Vaclav; Garcia-Mina, Jose Maria; Yvin, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Despite intensive research, liver diseases represent a significant health problem and current medicine does not offer a substance able to significantly inhibit the hepatotoxicity leading to various stages of liver disease. Based on our previously published studies showing the protective effects of a glucan-humic acid (HA) combination, we focused on the hypothesis that the combination of these two natural molecules can offer prophylactic protection against experimentally induced hepatotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Lipopolysaccharide, carbon tetrachloride, and ethanol were used to experimentally damage the liver. Levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and malondialdehyde, known to correspond to the liver damage, were assayed. Results: Using three different hepatotoxins, we found that in all cases, some samples of HA and most of all the glucan-HA combination, offer strong protection against liver damage. Conclusion: Glucan-HA combination is a promising agent for use in liver protection. PMID:26401416

  6. Arrhythmia risk in liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Mozos, Ioana

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between the functioning of the heart and the liver have been described, with heart diseases affecting the liver, liver diseases affecting the heart, and conditions that simultaneously affect both. The heart is one of the most adversely affected organs in patients with liver cirrhosis. For example, arrhythmias and electrocardiographic changes are observed in patients with liver cirrhosis. The risk for arrhythmia is influenced by factors such as cirrhotic cardiomyopathy, cardiac ion channel remodeling, electrolyte imbalances, impaired autonomic function, hepatorenal syndrome, metabolic abnormalities, advanced age, inflammatory syndrome, stressful events, impaired drug metabolism and comorbidities. Close monitoring of cirrhotic patients is needed for arrhythmias, particularly when QT interval-prolonging drugs are given, or if electrolyte imbalances or hepatorenal syndrome appear. Arrhythmia risk may persist after liver transplantation due to possible QT interval prolongation, persistence of the parasympathetic impairment, post-transplant reperfusion and chronic immunosuppression, as well as consideration of the fact that the transplant itself is a stressful event for the cardiovascular system. The aims of the present article were to provide a review of the most important data regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and biomarkers of arrhythmia risk in patients with liver cirrhosis, to elucidate the association with long-term outcome, and to propose future research directions. PMID:25866603

  7. Fibrates and their newly synthesized glycinate or glycinate-methylester derivatives: comparison of the interactions with liver cytochrome P450 dependent monooxygenase- and oxidase-functions in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lupp, Amelie; Karge, Elke; Hopf, Heiner; Machts, Heike; Oelschläger, Herbert; Fleck, Christian

    2003-06-01

    Different fibrates (bezafibrate, ciprofibrate, clofibrate, fenofibrate, gemfibrozil) were investigated in comparison with their newly synthesized glycinate and glycinate-methylester derivatives. Interactions with the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system were studied by assessing binding to CYP and effects on CYP mediated monooxygenase functions in rat liver 9000 g supernatants, as measured by six model reactions for different CYP isoforms (ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation, ethoxycoumarin O-deethylation, pentoxyresorufin O-depentylation, p-nitrophenol-hydroxylation, ethylmorphine N-demethylation, lauric acid 11- or 12-hydroxylation). Possible prooxidant or antioxidant properties were investigated by the stimulated lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide production, and lucigenin and luminol amplified chemiluminescence using rat liver microsomes. Additionally, the influence on luminol amplified rat whole blood chemiluminescence was examined. All substances tested displayed binding to CYP. Effects on the monooxygenase model reactions were in general more distinct with the glycinates than with the parent compounds and most pronounced with the glycinate-methylester derivatives. The slightest effects on all model reactions were seen with clofibrate and its derivatives. On the whole, low antioxidative rather than prooxidative effects were observed. In general and with most model reactions, the antioxidative capacity of the glycinate and glycinate-methylester derivatives slightly exceeded that of the respective parent compounds. Summarizing the results it can be concluded that with respect to possible interactions with the CYP system in vivo and thus with the biotransformation of other concomitantly administered compounds no advantages of the glycinate or glycinate methylester derivatives over their parent fibrates are to be expected. Only the antioxidative capacity of the derivatives was somewhat higher than that of the parent substances, though most probably only of minor therapeutical relevance. PMID:12877356

  8. Post-hepatectomy liver failure.

    PubMed

    Kauffmann, Rondi; Fong, Yuman

    2014-10-01

    Hepatectomies are among some of the most complex operative interventions performed. Mortality rates after major hepatectomy are as high as 30%, with post-hepatic liver failure (PHLF) representing the major source of morbidity and mortality. We present a review of PHLF, including the current definition, predictive factors, pre-operative risk assessment, techniques to prevent PHLF, identification and management. Despite great improvements in morbidity and mortality, liver surgery continues to demand excellent clinical judgement in selecting patients for surgery. Appropriate choice of pre-operative techniques to improve the functional liver remnant (FLR), fastidious surgical technique, and excellent post-operative management are essential to optimize patient outcomes. PMID:25392835

  9. A role for transforming growth factor-{beta} apoptotic signaling pathway in liver injury induced by ingestion of water contaminated with high levels of Cr(VI)

    SciTech Connect

    Rafael, A.I.; Almeida, A.; Santos, P.; Parreira, I.; Madeira, V.M.S.; Alves, R.; Cabrita, A.M.S.; Alpoim, M.C.

    2007-10-15

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] exposure is commonly associated with lung cancer. Although other adverse health effects have been reported, some authors, on assuming that orally ingested Cr(VI) is efficiently detoxified upon reduction by body fluids, believe that Cr(VI) do not target cells other than respiratory tract cells. In rodents, ingested Cr(VI)-contaminated water was reported to induce, in the liver, increases in TGF-{beta} transcripts. As TGF-{beta} dependent signaling pathways are closely associated with hepatic injury, the present study was undertaken addressing two specific issues: the effects of ingestion of water contaminated with high levels of Cr(VI) in rat liver structure and function; and the role of the TGF-{beta} pathway in Cr(VI)-induced liver injury. Examination of Wistar rats exposed to 20 ppm Cr(VI)-contaminated water for 10 weeks showed increased serum glucose and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. Liver histological examination revealed hepatocellular apoptosis, further confirmed by immunohystochemical study of Caspase 3 expression. Liver gene expression analysis revealed increased expression of Smad2/Smad4 and Dapk, suggesting the involvement of the TGF-{beta} pathway in the apoptotic process. Since no changes in Smad3 expression were observed it appears apoptosis is using a Smad3-independent pathway. Increased expression of both Caspase 8 and Daxx genes suggests also the involvement of the Fas pathway. Gene expression analysis also revealed that a p160{sup ROCK}-Rho-independent pathway operates, leading to cell contraction and membrane blebbing, characteristic apoptotic features. These findings suggest that either the amount of Cr(VI) ingested overwhelmed the body fluids reductive capacity or some Cr(VI) escapes the reductive protection barrier, thus targeting the liver and inducing apoptosis.

  10. Topology of AspT, the aspartate:alanine antiporter of Tetragenococcus halophilus, determined by site-directed fluorescence labeling.

    PubMed

    Nanatani, Kei; Fujiki, Takashi; Kanou, Kazuhiko; Takeda-Shitaka, Mayuko; Umeyama, Hideaki; Ye, Liwen; Wang, Xicheng; Nakajima, Tasuku; Uchida, Takafumi; Maloney, Peter C; Abe, Keietsu

    2007-10-01

    The gram-positive lactic acid bacterium Tetragenococcus halophilus catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-aspartate (Asp) with release of L-alanine (Ala) and CO(2). The decarboxylation reaction consists of two steps: electrogenic exchange of Asp for Ala catalyzed by an aspartate:alanine antiporter (AspT) and intracellular decarboxylation of the transported Asp catalyzed by an L-aspartate-beta-decarboxylase (AspD). AspT belongs to the newly classified aspartate:alanine exchanger family (transporter classification no. 2.A.81) of transporters. In this study, we were interested in the relationship between the structure and function of AspT and thus analyzed the topology by means of the substituted-cysteine accessibility method using the impermeant, fluorescent, thiol-specific probe Oregon Green 488 maleimide (OGM) and the impermeant, nonfluorescent, thiol-specific probe [2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl]methanethiosulfonate bromide. We generated 23 single-cysteine variants from a six-histidine-tagged cysteineless AspT template. A cysteine position was assigned an external location if the corresponding single-cysteine variant reacted with OGM added to intact cells, and a position was assigned an internal location if OGM labeling required cell lysis. The topology analyses revealed that AspT has a unique topology; the protein has 10 transmembrane helices (TMs), a large hydrophilic cytoplasmic loop (about 180 amino acids) between TM5 and TM6, N and C termini that face the periplasm, and a positively charged residue (arginine 76) within TM3. Moreover, the three-dimensional structure constructed by means of the full automatic modeling system indicates that the large hydrophilic cytoplasmic loop of AspT possesses a TrkA_C domain and a TrkA_C-like domain and that the three-dimensional structures of these domains are similar to each other even though their amino acid sequences show low similarity. PMID:17660287

  11. Determination of the carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen contents of alanine and their uncertainties using the certified reference material L-alanine (NMIJ CRM 6011-a).

    PubMed

    Itoh, Nobuyasu; Sato, Ayako; Yamazaki, Taichi; Numata, Masahiko; Takatsu, Akiko

    2013-01-01

    The carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen (CHN) contents of alanine and their uncertainties were estimated using a CHN analyzer and the certified reference material (CRM) L-alanine. The CHN contents and their uncertainties, as measured using the single-point calibration method, were 40.36 ± 0.20% for C, 7.86 ± 0.13% for H, and 15.66 ± 0.09% for N; the results obtained using the bracket calibration method were also comparable. The method described in this study is reasonable, convenient, and meets the general requirement of having uncertainties ? 0.4%. PMID:24334989

  12. Solvation Free Energies of Alanine Peptides: The Effect of Flexibility

    SciTech Connect

    Kokubo, Hironori; Harris, Robert C.; Asthagiri, Dilip; Pettitt, Bernard M.

    2013-12-03

    The electrostatic (?Gel), cavity-formation (?Gvdw), and total (?G) solvation free energies for 10 alanine peptides ranging in length (n) from 1 to 10 monomers were calculated. The free energies were computed both with xed, extended conformations of the peptides and again for some of the peptides without constraints. The solvation free energies, ?Gel, ?Gvdw, and ?G, were found to be linear in n, with the slopes of the best-fit lines being gamma_el, gamma_vdw, and gamma, respectively. Both gamma_el and gamma were negative for fixed and flexible peptides, and gamma_vdw was negative for fixed peptides. That gamma_vdw was negative was surprising, as experimental data on alkanes, theoretical models, and MD computations on small molecules and model systems generally suggest that gamma_vdw should be positive. A negative gamma_vdw seemingly contradicts the notion that ?Gvdw drives the initial collapse of the protein when it folds by favoring conformations with small surface areas, but when we computed ?Gvdw for the flexible peptides, thereby allowing the peptides to assume natural ensembles of more compact conformations, gamma-vdw was positive. Because most proteins do not assume extended conformations, a ?Gvdw that increases with increasing surface area may be typical for globular proteins. An alternative hypothesis is that the collapse is driven by intramolecular interactions. We show that the intramolecular van der Waal's interaction energy is more favorable for the flexible than for the extended peptides, seemingly favoring this hypothesis, but the large fluctuations in this energy may make attributing the collapse of the peptide to this intramolecular energy difficult.

  13. Engineering Liver

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Linda G.; Wells, Alan; Stolz, Donna Beer

    2014-01-01

    Interest in “engineering liver” arises from multiple communities: therapeutic replacement; mechanistic models of human processes; and drug safety and efficacy studies. An explosion of micro- and nano-fabrication, biomaterials, microfluidic, and other technologies potentially afford unprecedented opportunity to create microphysiological models of human liver, but engineering design principles for how to deploy these tools effectively towards specific applications, including how to define the essential constraints of any given application (including available sources of cells, acceptable cost, and user-friendliness) are still emerging. Arguably less appreciated is the parallel growth in computational systems biology approaches towards these same problems – particularly, in parsing complex disease processes from clinical material, building models of response networks, and in how to interpret the growing compendium of data on drug efficacy and toxicology in patient populations. Here, we provide insight into how the complementary paths of “engineering liver” – experimental and computational – are beginning to interplay towards greater illumination of human disease states and technologies for drug development. PMID:24668880

  14. Functional Cross-Talking between Differentially Expressed and Alternatively Spliced Genes in Human Liver Cancer Cells Treated with Berberine

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Zhen; Sun, Yi; Zhu, Ruixin; Jiao, Na; Tang, Kailin; Cao, Zhiwei; Ma, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Berberine has been identified with anti-proliferative effects on various cancer cells. Many researchers have been trying to elucidate the anti-cancer mechanisms of berberine based on differentially expressed genes. However, differentially alternative splicing genes induced by berberine might also contribute to its pharmacological actions and have not been reported yet. Moreover, the potential functional cross-talking between the two sets of genes deserves further exploration. In this study, RNA-seq technology was used to detect the differentially expressed genes and differentially alternative spliced genes in BEL-7402 cancer cells induced by berberine. Functional enrichment analysis indicated that these genes were mainly enriched in the p53 and cell cycle signalling pathway. In addition, it was statistically proven that the two sets of genes were locally co-enriched along chromosomes, closely connected to each other based on protein-protein interaction and functionally similar on Gene Ontology tree. These results suggested that the two sets of genes regulated by berberine might be functionally cross-talked and jointly contribute to its cell cycle arresting effect. It has provided new clues for further researches on the pharmacological mechanisms of berberine as well as the other botanical drugs. PMID:26606055

  15. Orthotopic liver transplantation for giant liver haemangioma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Undine G; Bucher, Julian N; Schoenberg, Markus B; Benzing, Christian; Schmelzle, Moritz; Gradistanac, Tanja; Strocka, Steffen; Hau, Hans-Michael; Bartels, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In liver haemangiomas, the risk of complication rises with increasing size, and treatment can be obligatory. Here we present a case of a 46-year-old female who suffered from a giant haemangioma causing severe portal hypertension and vena cava compression, leading to therapy refractory ascites, hyponatremia and venostasis-associated thrombosis with pulmonary embolism. The patients did not experience tumour rupture or consumptive coagulopathy. Surgical resection was impossible because of steatosis of the non-affected liver. Orthotopic liver transplantation was identified as the only treatment option. The patient’s renal function remained stable even though progressive morbidity and organ allocation were improbable according to the patient’s lab model for end-stage liver disease (labMELD) score. Therefore, non-standard exception status was approved by the European organ allocation network “Eurotransplant”. The patient underwent successful orthotopic liver transplantation 16 mo after admission to our centre. Our case report indicates the underrepresentation of morbidity associated with refractory ascites in the labMELD-based transplant allocation system, and it indicates the necessity of promptly applying for non-standard exception status to enable transplantation in patients with a severe clinical condition but low labMELD score. Our case highlights the fact that liver transplantation should be considered early in patients with non-resectable, symptomatic benign liver tumours. PMID:26722664

  16. An Evaluation of Interindividual Responses to the Orally Administered Neurotransmitter ?-Alanine

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Ian N.; Weaver, Donald F.

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we have identified ?-alanine as a potential endogenous anticonvulsant molecule. ?-Alanine occurs within the human central nervous system and has been identified as both an inhibitory neuromodulator and neurotransmitter that is bioavailable to brain after oral administration. During preliminary compounding trials to ascertain dosing strategies for ?-alanine, we noted pronounced differences in the side effect profile experienced by individuals of Asian and Caucasian descent. To investigate whether ethnicity affects ?-alanine-induced side effects, we administered 3?g of ?-alanine in 200?mL of fruit drink to ten people of each ethnic background and observed them for 30 minutes. Data collected included basic physical statistics (height, age, and weight) and descriptions of all side effects, as reported by participants. We found that participants of Asian descent experienced paraesthesia, but significantly different in time of onset, intensity, and anatomical localization, as compared to the effects experienced by Caucasian participants. Since ?-alanine is an endogenous neurotransmitter substance within human brain, these side effect differences were unexpected. PMID:23864937

  17. Identification of dietary alanine toxicity and trafficking dysfunction in a Drosophila model of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 1

    PubMed Central

    Oswald, Matthew C. W.; West, Ryan J. H.; Lloyd-Evans, Emyr; Sweeney, Sean T.

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 1 (HSAN1) is characterized by a loss of distal peripheral sensory and motorneuronal function, neuropathic pain and tissue necrosis. The most common cause of HSAN1 is due to dominant mutations in serine palmitoyl-transferase subunit 1 (SPT1). SPT catalyses the condensation of serine with palmitoyl-CoA, the initial step in sphingolipid biogenesis. Identified mutations in SPT1 are known to both reduce sphingolipid synthesis and generate catalytic promiscuity, incorporating alanine or glycine into the precursor sphingolipid to generate a deoxysphingoid base (DSB). Why either loss of function in SPT1, or generation of DSBs should generate deficits in distal sensory function remains unclear. To address these questions, we generated a Drosophila model of HSAN1. Expression of dSpt1 bearing a disease-related mutation induced morphological deficits in synapse growth at the larval neuromuscular junction consistent with a dominant-negative action. Expression of mutant dSpt1 globally was found to be mildly toxic, but was completely toxic when the diet was supplemented with alanine, when DSBs were observed in abundance. Expression of mutant dSpt1 in sensory neurons generated developmental deficits in dendritic arborization with concomitant sensory deficits. A membrane trafficking defect was observed in soma of sensory neurons expressing mutant dSpt1, consistent with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi block. We found that we could rescue sensory function in neurons expressing mutant dSpt1 by co-expressing an effector of ER–Golgi function, Rab1 suggesting compromised ER function in HSAN1 affected dendritic neurons. Our Drosophila model identifies a novel strategy to explore the pathological mechanisms of HSAN1. PMID:26395456

  18. Identification of dietary alanine toxicity and trafficking dysfunction in a Drosophila model of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 1.

    PubMed

    Oswald, Matthew C W; West, Ryan J H; Lloyd-Evans, Emyr; Sweeney, Sean T

    2015-12-15

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 1 (HSAN1) is characterized by a loss of distal peripheral sensory and motorneuronal function, neuropathic pain and tissue necrosis. The most common cause of HSAN1 is due to dominant mutations in serine palmitoyl-transferase subunit 1 (SPT1). SPT catalyses the condensation of serine with palmitoyl-CoA, the initial step in sphingolipid biogenesis. Identified mutations in SPT1 are known to both reduce sphingolipid synthesis and generate catalytic promiscuity, incorporating alanine or glycine into the precursor sphingolipid to generate a deoxysphingoid base (DSB). Why either loss of function in SPT1, or generation of DSBs should generate deficits in distal sensory function remains unclear. To address these questions, we generated a Drosophila model of HSAN1. Expression of dSpt1 bearing a disease-related mutation induced morphological deficits in synapse growth at the larval neuromuscular junction consistent with a dominant-negative action. Expression of mutant dSpt1 globally was found to be mildly toxic, but was completely toxic when the diet was supplemented with alanine, when DSBs were observed in abundance. Expression of mutant dSpt1 in sensory neurons generated developmental deficits in dendritic arborization with concomitant sensory deficits. A membrane trafficking defect was observed in soma of sensory neurons expressing mutant dSpt1, consistent with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi block. We found that we could rescue sensory function in neurons expressing mutant dSpt1 by co-expressing an effector of ER-Golgi function, Rab1 suggesting compromised ER function in HSAN1 affected dendritic neurons. Our Drosophila model identifies a novel strategy to explore the pathological mechanisms of HSAN1. PMID:26395456

  19. Functional characterization of estrogen receptor subtypes, ER{alpha} and ER{beta}, mediating vitellogenin production in the liver of rainbow trout

    SciTech Connect

    Leanos-Castaneda, Olga Kraak, Glen van der

    2007-10-15

    The estrogen-dependent process of vitellogenesis is a key function on oviparous fish reproduction and it has been widely used as an indicator of xenoestrogen exposure. The two estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ER{alpha} and ER{beta}, are often co-expressed in the liver of fish. The relative contribution of each ER subtype to modulate vitellogenin production by hepatocytes was studied using selected compounds known to preferentially interact with specific ER subtypes: propyl-pyrazole-triol (PPT) an ER{alpha} selective agonist, methyl-piperidino-pyrazole (MPP) an ER{alpha} selective antagonist, and diarylpropionitrile (DPN) an ER{beta} selective agonist. First, the relative binding affinity of the test compounds to estradiol for rainbow trout hepatic nuclear ER was determined using a competitive ligand binding assay. All the test ligands achieved complete displacement of specific [{sup 3}H]-estradiol binding from the nuclear ER extract. This indicates that the test ligands have the potential to modify the ER function in the rainbow trout liver. Secondly, the ability of the test compounds to induce or inhibit vitellogenin production by primary cultures of rainbow trout hepatocytes was studied. Estradiol and DPN were the only compounds that induced a dose-dependent increase on vitellogenin synthesis. The lack of vitellogenin induction by PPT indicates that ER{alpha} could not have a role on this reproductive process whereas the ability of DPN to induce vitellogenin production supports the participation of ER{beta}. In addition, this hypothesis is reinforced by the results obtained from MPP plus estradiol. On one hand, the absence of suppressive activity of MPP in the estradiol-induced vitellogenin production does not support the participation of ER{alpha}. On the other hand, once blocked ER{alpha} with MPP, the only manifestation of agonist activity of estradiol would be achieved via ER{beta}. In conclusion, the present results indicate that vitellogenin production is mainly mediated through ER{beta}, implying, furthermore that compounds which only exhibit ER{alpha} selectivity are not detected by vitellogenin bioassay.

  20. The liver in haemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    Ulvik, Rune J

    2015-07-01

    The review deals with genetic, regulatory and clinical aspects of iron homeostasis and hereditary haemochromatosis. Haemochromatosis was first described in the second half of the 19th century as a clinical entity characterized by excessive iron overload in the liver. Later, increased absorption of iron from the diet was identified as the pathophysiological hallmark. In the 1970s genetic evidence emerged supporting the apparent inheritable feature of the disease. And finally in 1996 a new "haemochromatosis gene" called HFE was described which was mutated in about 85% of the patients. From the year 2000 onward remarkable progress was made in revealing the complex molecular regulation of iron trafficking in the human body and its disturbance in haemochromatosis. The discovery of hepcidin and ferroportin and their interaction in regulating the release of iron from enterocytes and macrophages to plasma were important milestones. The discovery of new, rare variants of non-HFE-haemochromatosis was explained by mutations in the multicomponent signal transduction pathway controlling hepcidin transcription. Inhibited transcription induced by the altered function of mutated gene products, results in low plasma levels of hepcidin which facilitate entry of iron from enterocytes into plasma. In time this leads to progressive accumulation of iron and subsequently development of disease in the liver and other parenchymatous organs. Being the major site of excess iron storage and hepcidin synthesis the liver is a cornerstone in maintaining normal systemic iron homeostasis. Its central pathophysiological role in HFE-haemochromatosis with downgraded hepcidin synthesis, was recently shown by the finding that liver transplantation normalized the hepcidin levels in plasma and there was no sign of iron accumulation in the new liver. PMID:25204225

  1. Detection and characterization of rat hepatic stellate cells in a 3-dimensional, perfused, liver bioreactor

    E-print Network

    Wack, Kathryn E. (Kathryn Eilleen), 1978-

    2004-01-01

    One of the major challenges in liver research today lay in the understanding of the complex relationship between liver structure and function. The highly orchestrated events that take place in the liver to maintain homeostasis ...

  2. Defining the mechanisms in lineage specification of progenitor cells in the regenerating adult liver 

    E-print Network

    Boulter, Luke

    2011-07-05

    During hepatic disease the liver has the unrivalled ability to regenerate, by activating mature hepatocytes which can divide and thereby reconstitute the functional liver mass. However in the context of chronic hepatocellular disease the liver can...

  3. Immune-protected xenogeneic bioartificial livers with liver-specific microarchitecture and hydrogel-encapsulated cells.

    PubMed

    No, Da Yoon; Jeong, Gi Seok; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2014-10-01

    Development of a xenogeneic biological liver support is important in providing a bridge to transplantation or liver regeneration, thus helping to overcome the chronic shortage of liver donors. Among the critical factors in developing biological liver support are the creation of in vivo mimetic micro liver tissue (mLT), especially mLTs containing liver-specific ultrastructure, and an encapsulation method that can package massive numbers of cells while providing immune-protection from the host immune system. We describe here the development of mLTs that include liver microarchitecture and their in situ encapsulation in hydrogel composites. Concave microwells and the tri-culture of three types of primary liver cells were applied for the construction of mLTs showing excellent liver functions and long-term (>1 month) viability in vitro. Large quantities of rat mLTs were encapsulated in collagen-alginate composites, implanted into hepatic failure mice and sustained their survival during regeneration of the remaining liver. The proposed liver support system offers xenogeneic hepatic assistance by mimicking native liver microarchitecture and providing immune-protection without the need for complicated devices or processes, and as such represents a promising system for recovery of organ function. PMID:25088727

  4. Lipopolysaccharide Results in a Marked Decrease in Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4 in Rat Liver

    E-print Network

    Ponder, Katherine P.

    Lipopolysaccharide Results in a Marked Decrease in Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4 in Rat Liver BIN-phase response can result in decreased liver- specific functions and death as a result of liver failure. We show ), in livers of rats. HNF-4 is a nuclear receptor that is critical for the expres- sion of several liver

  5. Body mass, age, and reproductive influences on liver mass of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    E-print Network

    Upchurch, Gary - Department of Biology, Texas State University

    body mass and liver mass and the influences of age, sex, body condition (back fat), and lactationARTICLE Body mass, age, and reproductive influences on liver mass of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus: Previous research into the liver has mainly examined liver function and liver response to energy

  6. Anisotropy-Guided Enantiomeric Enhancement in AlanineUsing Far-UV Circularly Polarized Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinert, Cornelia; Cassam-Chenaï, Patrick; Jones, Nykola C.; Nahon, Laurent; Hoffmann, Søren V.; Meierhenrich, Uwe J.

    2015-06-01

    All life on Earth is characterized by its asymmetry - both the genetic material and proteins are composed of homochiral monomers. Understanding how this molecular asymmetry initially arose is a key question related to the origins of life. Cometary ice simulations, l-enantiomeric enriched amino acids in meteorites and the detection of circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation in star-forming regions point to a possible interstellar/protostellar generation of stereochemical asymmetry. Based upon our recently recorded anisotropy spectra g( ?) of amino acids in the vacuum-UV range, we subjected amorphous films of racemic 13C-alanine to far-UV circularly polarized synchrotron radiation to probe the asymmetric photon-molecule interaction under interstellar conditions. Optical purities of up to 4 % were reached, which correlate with our theoretical predictions. Importantly, we show that chiral symmetry breaking using circularly polarized light is dependent on both the helicity and the wavelength of incident light. In order to predict such stereocontrol, time-dependent density functional theory was used to calculate anisotropy spectra. The calculated anisotropy spectra show good agreement with the experimental ones. The European Space Agency's Rosetta mission, which successfully landed Philae on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko on 12 November 2014, will investigate the configuration of chiral compounds and thereby obtain data that are to be interpreted in the context of the results presented here.

  7. The cyanobacterial amino acid ?-N-methylamino-l-alanine perturbs the intermediary metabolism in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Engskog, Mikael K R; Karlsson, Oskar; Haglöf, Jakob; Elmsjö, Albert; Brittebo, Eva; Arvidsson, Torbjörn; Pettersson, Curt

    2013-10-01

    The neurotoxic amino acid ?-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) is produced by most cyanobacteria. BMAA is considered as a potential health threat because of its putative role in neurodegenerative diseases. We have previously observed cognitive disturbances and morphological brain changes in adult rodents exposed to BMAA during the development. The aim of this study was to characterize changes of major intermediary metabolites in serum following neonatal exposure to BMAA using a non-targeted metabolomic approach. NMR spectroscopy was used to obtain serum metabolic profiles from neonatal rats exposed to BMAA (40, 150, 460mg/kg) or vehicle on postnatal days 9-10. Multivariate data analysis of binned NMR data indicated metabolic pattern differences between the different treatment groups. In particular five metabolites, d-glucose, lactate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, creatine and acetate, were changed in serum of BMAA-treated neonatal rats. These metabolites are associated with changes in energy metabolism and amino acid metabolism. Further statistical analysis disclosed that all the identified serum metabolites in the lowest dose group were significantly (p<0.05) decreased. The neonatal rat model used in this study is so far the only animal model that displays significant biochemical and behavioral effects after a low short-term dose of BMAA. The demonstrated perturbation of intermediary metabolism may contribute to BMAA-induced developmental changes that result in long-term effects on adult brain function. PMID:23886855

  8. Interaction of occupational manganese exposure and alcohol drinking aggravates the increase of liver enzyme concentrations from a cross-sectional study in China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Over exposure to manganese (Mn) can damage the human central nervous system and potentially cause liver toxicity. Alcohol drinking is also one of the well-known harmful factors to hepatic organism. The interaction between Mn exposure and alcohol consumption to liver function was investigated in this study. Methods A total of 1112 on-the-spot workers were included in the cross-sectional survey from a large scale of manganese exposed workers healthy cohort (MEWHC) in a ferro-manganese refinery company. A questionnaire was used to collect the demographic information, occupational history, and alcohol drinking habits. Occupational health examination was carried out for each worker. The five key serum indices, including total bilirubin (TBILI), direct bilirubin (DBILI), indirect bilirubin (IBILI), alanine transaminase (ALT), and aspartate transaminase (AST), were determined to evaluate the liver function of each subject. Results Workers exposed to high levels of Mn had significantly elevated serum concentrations of liver enzymes (DBILI: 3.84±1.20 ?mol/L, ALT: 27.04±19.12 IU/L, and AST: 29.96±16.68 IU/L), when compared to those in the low-exposure group (DBIL: 3.54±0.85 ?mol/L, ALT: 20.38±10.97 IU/L, and AST: 26.39±8.07 IU/L), all P<0.01. These serum indices had a significantly increasing trend with the elevation of Mn exposure level (Ptrend <0.01). In addition, the workers with alcohol drinking also showed higher concentrations of liver enzymes than those non-drinkers, especially, and there was significant interaction between Mn exposure and alcohol consumption in terms of these three indices (P<0.001). Conclusions Occupational exposure to Mn can lead to a dose-dependent increase of liver enzyme concentrations, and interact with alcohol drinking to potentially aggravate the liver damage. It will be important for Mn exposed workers to control drinking and also assess liver function in the occupational health examination. PMID:23587294

  9. Anabolic androgenic steroids abuse and liver toxicity.

    PubMed

    Neri, M; Bello, S; Bonsignore, A; Cantatore, S; Riezzo, I; Turillazzi, E; Fineschi, V

    2011-05-01

    In the athletes the wide use of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) cause series damage in various organs, in particular, analyzing the liver, elevation on the levels of liver enzymes, cholestatic jaundice, liver tumors, both benign and malignant, and peliosis hepatis are described. A prolonged AAS administration provokes an increase in the activities of liver lysosomal hydrolases and a decrease in some components of the microsomal drug-metabolizing system and in the activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes without modifying classical serum indicators of hepatic function. Liver is a key organ actively involved in numerous metabolic and detoxifying functions. As a consequence, it is continuously exposed to high levels of endogenous and exogenous oxidants that are by-products of many biochemical pathways and, in fact, it has been demonstrated that intracellular oxidant production is more active in liver than in tissues, like the increase of inflammatory cytokines, apoptosis and the inhibitors of apoptosis NF- ?B and Heat Shock Proteins. PMID:21443508

  10. Absence of Symptom and Intact Liver Function Are Positive Prognosticators for Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy for Lymph Node Metastasis From Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyubo; Chie, Eui Kyu; Kim, Won; Kim, Yoon Jun; Yoon, Jung Hwan; Lee, Hyo-Suk; Ha, Sung W.

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: The positive role of radiotherapy for patients with lymph node (LN) metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma has recently been reported. The outcome and prognostic factors for these patients were analyzed. Methods and Materials: Between May 2004 and October 2007, 38 patients with LN metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma underwent radiotherapy. The median age was 59 years (range, 42-81). The radiation dose was 35-56 Gy with a fraction size of 1.8-3 Gy, for a biologically effective dose of 43.75-67.2 Gy{sub 10} (median, 59.0). The median follow-up period was 8 months. Results: The median survival time was 10 months. On univariate analysis, Child-Pugh class B (p = .0006), distant metastasis (p = .0095), symptoms related to metastatic LNs (p <.0001), and a biologically effective dose <60 Gy{sub 10} (p = .0042) were significant prognostic factors predicting for poor overall survival. On multivariate analysis after adjustment using the Benjamini and Hochberg (false discovery rate) method, Child-Pugh class B (p = .04095) and the presence of symptoms (p = .04095) were associated with inferior overall survival. When patients were divided into three groups according to these two risk factors, the median survival for patients with no, either, or both risk factors was 20, 7, and 4 months, respectively (p <.0001). Conclusion: Patients with intact liver function and without related symptoms had the best prognosis when undergoing radiotherapy for LN metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma.

  11. The distribution of the components of mixed-function oxidase between the rough and the smooth endoplasmic reticulum of liver cells

    PubMed Central

    Holtzman, J. L.; Gram, T. E.; Gigon, P. L.; Gillette, J. R.

    1968-01-01

    Mixed-function oxidase activity, when measured by the N-demethylation of ethylmorphine or the hydroxylation of aniline, is significantly higher in the smooth hepatic endoplasmic reticulum than in the rough. In the rabbit the smooth membrane/rough membrane activity ratios are significantly greater than 1 whether the activities are expressed per g. of liver (ratio 5), per mg. of protein (ratio 3–5), per ?g. of phospholipid phosphorus (ratio 2), per unit of cytochrome P-450 (ratio 1·7) or per unit of NADPH–cytochrome c reductase activity (ratio 2). On the other hand, if the activities are normalized to the NADPH–cytochrome P-450 reductase, there is no significant difference between the rough and smooth membranes. These results suggest that, in the rabbit, the rate-limiting step is the reduction of cytochrome P-450. In contrast, in the rat the difference in activities can be explained by differences in the concentration of cytochrome P-450. PMID:5705490

  12. Cholestatic Liver Disease in Children

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Jorge L.; Choquette, Monique

    2010-01-01

    Inherited syndromes of intrahepatic cholestasis and biliary atresia are the most common causes of chronic liver disease and the prime indication for liver transplantation in children. Our understanding of the pathogenesis of these diseases has increased substantially by the discovery of genetic mutations in children with intrahepatic cholestasis and the findings that inflammatory circuits are operative at the time of diagnosis of biliary atresia. Building on this solid foundation, recent studies provide new insight into genotype-phenotype relationships and how mutations produce altered bile composition and cholestasis. New evidence exists that although liver transplantation is curative for patients with end-stage liver disease owing to cholestasis, some patients may develop recurrence of cholestasis because of the emergence of autoantibodies that disrupt canalicular function in the new graft. Progress is also evident in biliary atresia, with recent studies identifying candidate modifier genes and directly implicating lymphocytes and inflammatory signals in the pathogenesis of bile duct injury and obstruction. PMID:20425482

  13. Antioxidant effects of maslinic acid in livers, hearts and kidneys of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: effects on kidney function.

    PubMed

    Mkhwanazi, Blessing N; Serumula, Metse R; Myburg, Rene B; Van Heerden, Fanie R; Musabayane, Cephas T

    2014-04-01

    Studies indicate that hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress triggers the development of microvascular and macrovascular complications in diabetes. Accordingly, we hypothesized that maslinic acid (MA) prevents these complications due to its antioxidant properties. We, therefore, investigated the effects of 5-week MA treatment of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats on anti-oxidative status of cardiac, hepatic and renal tissues as well as on kidney function. Proximal tubular effects of MA were studied in anesthetized rats challenged with hypotonic saline after a 3.5?h equilibration for 4 h of 1 h control, 1.5?h treatment and 1.5?h recovery periods using lithium clearance. MA was added to the infusate during the treatment period. Oral glucose tolerance responses to MA were monitored in rats given a glucose load after an 18?h fast. Compared with untreated diabetic rats, MA-treated diabetic animals exhibited significantly low malondialdehyde (MDA, a marker of lipid peroxidation) and increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in hepatic, cardiac and renal tissues. The expressions of gastrocnemius muscle GLUT4 and kidney GLUT1 and GLUT2 were assessed to elucidate the mechanism of the hypoglycemic effects of MA. MA-treatment diminished the expression of GLUT1 and GLUT2 in diabetic kidney and reduced glycemia values of diabetic rats. MA administration increased urinary Na+ outputs and additionally the FENa indicating that at least part of the overall reduction in Na+ reabsorption occurred in the proximal tubules. These results suggest antioxidant effects of MA can ameliorate oxidative stress and improve kidney function in diabetes mellitus. PMID:24344651

  14. The value of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in cardiovascular disease risk assessment

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Stephen F; Kai, Joe; Guha, Indra Neil; Qureshi, Nadeem

    2015-01-01

    Objective Aspartate aminotransferase to alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) ratio, reflecting liver disease severity, has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the AST/ALT ratio improves established risk prediction tools in a primary care population. Methods Data were analysed from a prospective cohort of 29?316 UK primary care patients, aged 25–84?years with no history of CVD at baseline. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to derive 10-year multivariate risk models for the first occurrence of CVD based on two established risk prediction tools (Framingham and QRISK2), with and without including the AST/ALT ratio. Overall, model performance was assessed by discriminatory accuracy (AUC c-statistic). Results During a total follow-up of 120?462 person-years, 782 patients (59% men) experienced their first CVD event. Multivariate models showed that elevated AST/ALT ratios were significantly associated with CVD in men (Framingham: HR 1.37, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.79; QRISK2: HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.89) but not in women (Framingham: HR 1.06, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.43; QRISK2: HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.35). Including the AST/ALT ratio with all Framingham risk factors (AUC c-statistic: 0.72, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.74) or QRISK2 risk factors (AUC c-statistic: 0.73, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.74) resulted in no change in discrimination from the established risk prediction tools. Limiting analysis to those individuals with raised ALT showed that discrimination could improve by 5% and 4% with Framingham and QRISK2 risk factors, respectively. Conclusions Elevated AST/ALT ratio is significantly associated with increased risk of developing CVD in men but not women. However, the ratio does not confer any additional benefits over established CVD risk prediction tools in the general population, but may have clinical utility in certain subgroups. PMID:26322236

  15. Vibrational spectral characterization, NLO studies and charge transfer analysis of the organometallic material L-Alanine cadmium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arun Sasi, B. S.; Bright, K. C.; James, C.

    2016-01-01

    An organometallic nonlinear crystal, L-Alanine Cadmium Chloride (LACC) was synthesized by slow evaporation technique. The effects of hydrogen bonding on the structure, binding of ligand to metal ion, natural orbital occupancies, and vibrational frequencies were investigated using density functional theory (DFT) with the combined B3LYP and LANL2DZ basis set. Vibrational assignments were made on the basis of calculated potential energy distribution values from MOLVIB program. The topological analysis of electron localization function (ELF) provides basin population N (integrated density over the attractor basin), standard deviation (?), and their relative fluctuation, defined as ? = ?2/N, which are sensitive criteria of delocalization. The molecular stability, electronic exchange interaction, and bond strength of the molecule were studied by natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency was determined using Kurtz and Perry method. Natural bond orbital analysis was carried out to study various intramolecular interactions that are responsible for the stabilization of the molecule.

  16. Intramolecular vibrations in low-frequency normal modes of amino acids: L-alanine in the neat solid state.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Wang, Houng-Wei; Tominaga, Keisuke; Hayashi, Michitoshi

    2015-03-26

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the low-frequency phonons of L-alanine by using the solid-state density functional theory at the ? point. We are particularly interested in the intramolecular vibrations accessing low-frequency phonons via harmonic coupling with intermolecular vibrations. A new mode-analysis method is introduced to quantify the vibrational characteristics of such intramolecular vibrations. We find that the torsional motions of COO(-) are involved in low-frequency phonons, although COO(-) is conventionally assumed to undergo localized torsion. We also find the broad distributions of intramolecular vibrations relevant to important functional groups of amino acids, e.g., the COO(-) and NH3(+) torsions, in the low-frequency phonons. The latter finding is illustrated by the concept of frequency distribution of vibrations. These findings may lead to immediate implications in other amino acid systems. PMID:25723274

  17. Roles of Spheroid Formation of Hepatocytes in Liver Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hu-Lin; Kim, You-Kyoung; Cho, Ki-Hyun; Jang, Young-Chul; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Chung, Jong-Hoon; Cho, Chong-Su

    2010-01-01

    The liver plays an important role in a broad spectrum of physiological functions and detoxifies endogenous and exogenous substances. The liver failure is associated with a high risk of mortality because it is one of important organs in our body. Various bioartificial liver (BAL) systems have been used for clinical trials as a bridge for liver transplantations in patients with liver failure. Long term and stable liver-specific functions of hepatocytes in the development of BAL support systems should be considered. Spheroid formation of hepatocytes enhances liver-specific functions. In this review, hepatocyte spheroid formation methods such as galactose density, topology of extracellular matrix, micro-molding technique, hanging-drop culture, non-adhesive surface, positive charged surface, spinner culture, rocked technique, medium component, external forces, coculture system and polymeric nanospheres are explained for enhancing liver-specific functions. PMID:24855543

  18. Combining Systemic Therapies for Patients with Advanced Liver Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    In this phase III trial, patients with unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic primary liver cancer who have good liver function will receive sorafenib and be randomly assigned to also receive either doxorubicin or no additional therapy.

  19. Pyogenic liver abscess

    MedlinePLUS

    Liver abscess; Bacterial liver abscess ... There are many potential causes of liver abscesses, including: Abdominal infection, such as appendicitis , diverticulitis , or a perforated bowel Infection in the blood Infection of the bile draining tubes ...

  20. Hepatoprotective Evaluation of Ganoderma lucidum Pharmacopuncture: In vivo Studies of Ethanol-induced Acute Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sun-Hee; Cho, Sung-woo; Yoon, Hyun-Min; Jang, Kyung-Jeon; Song, Chun-Ho; Kim, Cheol-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Alcohol abuse is a public issue and one of the major causes of liver disease worldwide. This study was aimed at investigating the protective effect of Ganoderma lucidum pharmacopuncture (GLP) against hepatotoxicity induced by acute ethanol (EtOH) intoxication in rats. Methods: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into 4 groups of 8 animals each: normal, control, normal saline pharmacopuncture (NP) and GLP groups. The control, NP and GLP groups received ethanol orally. The NP and the GLP groups were treated daily with injections of normal saline and Ganoderma lucidum extract, respectively. The control group received no treatment. The rats in all groups, except the normal group, were intoxicated for 6 hours by oral administration of EtOH (6 g/kg BW). The same volume of distilled water was administered to the rats in the normal group. Two local acupoints were used: Qimen (LR14) and Taechung (LR3). A histopathological analysis was performed, and the liver function and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were assessed. Results: GLP treatment reduced the histological changes due to acute liver injury induced by EtOH and significantly reduced the increase in the alanine aminotransferase (ALT) enzyme; however, it had an insignificant effect in reducing the increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) enzyme. It also significantly ameliorated the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the catalase (CAT) activities. Conclusion: The present study suggests that GLP treatment is effective in protecting against ethanol-induced acute hepatic injury in SD rats by modulating the activities of ethanol-metabolizing enzymes and by attenuating oxidative stress. PMID:25780705

  1. Immunological effect induced by mesenchymal stem cells in a rat liver transplantation model

    PubMed Central

    SUN, ZHENQIANG; LI, TAO; WEN, HAO; WANG, HAIJIANG; JI, WEIZHENG; MA, YAN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the immunological effect induced by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in rats that had undergone an orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). MSCs were isolated and cultured from the bone marrow tissue of Lewis rats. In total, 42 rat OLT models were established and equally distributed into three groups. Group A received an OLT only, group B were also intramuscularly injected with tacrolimus (FK506), while group C were not only administered FK506, but also received MSCs. On day 7 post-surgery, the blood levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and total bilirubin (TBIL) were measured. In addition, pathological changes were observed in the liver, levels of immune cytokines, including transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1, interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-12, were determined using immunohistochemistry, MSC homing was assessed and the survival times of the patients were recorded. Liver function, as assessed by the levels of ALT, AST and TBIL, was shown to improve in group C when compared with groups B and A (both P<0.01). In addition, survival analysis revealed that the survival times in groups B (median, 44 days) and C (median, 63 days) were significantly longer compared with group A (median, 11 days; both P<0.01). The survival rate of group C was also higher compared with group B (P<0.01). Pathological examination demonstrated strong acute rejection in group A, a mild acute rejection in group B and the mildest reaction in group C. In addition, immunohistochemistry revealed that TGF-?1 and IL-10 expression was stronger in groups C and B, with group C exhibiting more significant expression than group B. By contrast, expression levels of IL-12 in groups A, B and C were positive, weak-positive and negative, respectively. Therefore, postoperative immunosuppression induced by MSCs is important for the alleviation of immune rejection from recipient-to-graft, and may induce immune tolerance in rat OLT models.

  2. Cell Sources, Liver Support Systems and Liver Tissue Engineering: Alternatives to Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo Young; Kim, Han Joon; Choi, Dongho

    2015-01-01

    The liver is the largest organ in the body; it has a complex architecture, wide range of functions and unique regenerative capacity. The growing incidence of liver diseases worldwide requires increased numbers of liver transplant and leads to an ongoing shortage of donor livers. To meet the huge demand, various alternative approaches are being investigated including, hepatic cell transplantation, artificial devices and bioprinting of the organ itself. Adult hepatocytes are the preferred cell sources, but they have limited availability, are difficult to isolate, propagate poor and undergo rapid functional deterioration in vitro. There have been efforts to overcome these drawbacks; by improving culture condition for hepatocytes, providing adequate extracellular matrix, co-culturing with extra-parenchymal cells and identifying other cell sources. Differentiation of human stem cells to hepatocytes has become a major interest in the field of stem cell research and has progressed greatly. At the same time, use of decellularized organ matrices and 3 D printing are emerging cutting-edge technologies for tissue engineering, opening up new paths for liver regenerative medicine. This review provides a compact summary of the issues, and the locations of liver support systems and tissue engineering, with an emphasis on reproducible and useful sources of hepatocytes including various candidates formed by differentiation from stem cells. PMID:26019753

  3. Effects of the injectable contraceptive depot medroxyprogesterone acetate in Thai women with liver fluke infestation: results after six months

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, Richard A.; Assawasena, Vinich; Chalpati, Sopon; Taewtong, Dilok

    1977-01-01

    The effect of the three-monthly injectable contraceptive depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) on liver and lipid function was assessed in Thai women with liver fluke (Opisthorchis viverrini) infestation, DMPA administration being started in the immediate postpartum period. Immediate postpartum IUD and sterilization acceptors with fluke infestation were recruited as a comparison (control) group for the fluke-positiv DMPA acceptors. Comparable groups of fluke-negative acceptors were recruited in an area of Thailand free of liver fluke transmission. Results are presented for the first 6 follow-up months for 170 DMPA and 177 control fluke-positive subjects and for 153 DMPA and 150 control fluke-negative subjects. Small and similar increases occurred in each of the four groups for alanine amino transferase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and total bilirubin levels while aspartate amino transferase levels changed less in the DMPA groups than in their respective control groups. None of the subjects in either DMPA group had clearly abnormal results in these tests at 6 months. Alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol, and triglycerides levels were markedly lower in each group at 6 months than in the puerperal specimens. There was a greater decrease in triglycerides levels in both DMPA groups than in their respective control groups. However, the decrease in the alkaline phosphatase and cholesterol levels was greater only in the fluke-positive DMPA group than in the fluke-positive control group. None of these biochemical results were related to differences in age, parity, or lactation status between the groups. The results indicate that DMPA did not cause any early deleterious effects in the metabolic factors studied in women with liver fluke infestation. PMID:302157

  4. Amebic liver abscess

    MedlinePLUS

    Hepatic amebiasis; Extraintestinal amebiasis; Abscess - amebic liver ... Amebic liver abscess is caused by Entamoeba histolytica. This is the same parasite that causes amebiasis , an intestinal infection ...

  5. Environmental neurotoxin interaction with proteins: Dose-dependent increase of free and protein-associated BMAA (?-N-methylamino-L-alanine) in neonatal rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Oskar; Jiang, Liying; Ersson, Lisa; Malmström, Tim; Ilag, Leopold L.; Brittebo, Eva B.

    2015-01-01

    ?-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is implicated in the aetiology of neurodegenerative disorders. Neonatal exposure to BMAA induces cognitive impairments and progressive neurodegenerative changes including intracellular fibril formation in the hippocampus of adult rats. It is unclear why the neonatal hippocampus is especially vulnerable and the critical cellular perturbations preceding BMAA-induced toxicity remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to compare the level of free and protein-associated BMAA in neonatal rat brain and peripheral tissues after different exposures to BMAA. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis revealed that BMAA passed the neonatal blood-brain barrier and was distributed to all studied brain areas. BMAA was also associated to proteins in the brain, especially in the hippocampus. The level in the brain was, however, considerably lower compared to the liver that is not a target organ for BMAA. In contrast to the liver there was a significantly increased level of protein-association of BMAA in the hippocampus and other brain areas following repeated administration suggesting that the degradation of BMAA-associated proteins may be lower in neonatal brain than in the liver. Additional evidence is needed in support of a role for protein misincorporation in the neonatal hippocampus for long-term effects of BMAA. PMID:26498001

  6. Clinical Features of Drug-induced Liver Injury According to Etiology

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byoung Moo; Lee, Woong Cheul; Ahn, Pyoung; Kim, Jin Nyoung; Jeong, Soung Won; Park, Eui Ju; Lee, Sae Hwan; Kim, Sang Gyune; Cha, Sang-Woo; Kim, Young Seok; Cho, Young Deok; Kim, Hong Soo; Kim, Boo Sung

    2015-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an increasingly common cause of acute hepatitis. We examined clinical features and types of liver injury of 65 affected patients who underwent liver biopsy according DILI etiology. The major causes of DILI were the use of herbal medications (43.2%), prescribed medications (21.6%), and traditional therapeutic preparations and dietary supplements (35%). DILI from herbal medications, traditional therapeutic preparations, and dietary supplements was associated with higher elevations in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels than was DILI from prescription medications. The types of liver injury based on the R ratio were hepatocellular (67.7%), mixed (10.8%), and cholestatic (21.5%). Herbal medications and traditional therapeutic preparations were more commonly associated with hepatocellular liver injury than were prescription medications (P = 0.002). Herbal medications and traditional therapeutic preparations induce more hepatocellular DILI and increased elevations in AST and ALT than prescribed medications. PMID:26713057

  7. HIF-1{alpha} is necessary to support gluconeogenesis during liver regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Tajima, Toshihide; Goda, Nobuhito; Fujiki, Natsuko; Hishiki, Takako; Nishiyama, Yasumasa; Senoo-Matsuda, Nanami; Shimazu, Motohide; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Yoshimura, Yasunori; Johnson, Randall S.; Suematsu, Makoto

    2009-10-02

    Coordinated recovery of hepatic glucose metabolism is prerequisite for normal liver regeneration. To examine roles of hypoxia inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) for hepatic glucose homeostasis during the reparative process, we inactivated the gene in hepatocytes in vivo. Following partial hepatectomy (PH), recovery of residual liver weight was initially retarded in the mutant mice by down-regulation of hepatocyte proliferation, but occurred comparably between the mutant and control mice at 72 h after PH. At this time point, the mutant mice showed lowered blood glucose levels with enhanced accumulation of glycogen in the liver. The mutant mice exhibited impairment of hepatic gluconeogenesis as assessed by alanine tolerance test. This appeared to result from reduced expression of PGK-1 and PEPCK since 3-PG, PEP and malate were accumulated to greater extents in the regenerated liver. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence for roles of HIF-1{alpha} in the regulation of gluconeogenesis under liver regeneration.

  8. Novel function of glutathione transferase in rat liver mitochondrial membrane: Role for cytochrome c release from mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kang Kwang; Shimoji, Manami; Hossain, Quazi Sohel; Sunakawa, Hajime; Aniya, Yoko

    2008-10-01

    Microsomal glutathione transferase (MGST1) is activated by oxidative stress. Although MGST1 is found in mitochondrial membranes (mtMGST1), there is no information about the oxidative activation of mtMGST1. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether mtMGST1 also undergoes activation and about its function. When rats were treated with galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide (GalN/LPS), mtMGST1 activity was significantly increased, and the increased activity was reduced by the disulfide reducing agent dithiothreitol. In mitochondria from GalN/LPS-treated rats, disulfide-linked mtMGST1 dimer and mixed protein glutathione disulfides (glutathionylation) were detected. In addition, cytochrome c release from mitochondria isolated from GalN/LPS-treated rats was observed, and the release was inhibited by anti-MGST1 antibodies. Incubation of mitochondria from control rats with diamide and diamide plus GSH in vitro resulted in dimer- and mixed disulfide bond-mediated activation of mtMGST1, respectively. The activation of mtMGST1 by diamide plus GSH caused cytochrome c release from the mitochondria, and the release was prevented by treatment with anti-MGST1 antibodies. In addition, diamide plus GSH treatment caused mitochondrial swelling accompanied by cytochrome c release, which was inhibited by cyclosporin A (CsA) and bongkrekic acid (BKA), inhibitors of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore. Furthermore, mtMGST1 activity was also inhibited by CsA and BKA. These results indicate that mtMGST1 is activated through mixed disulfide bond formation that contributes to cytochrome c release from mitochondria through the MPT pore.

  9. Evaluation of fatty liver by using in-phase and opposed-phase MR images and in-vivo proton MR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Seung; Im, In-Chul; Goo, Eun-Hoe; Park, Hyong-Hu; Kwak, Byung-Joon

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the necessity of in-phase and opposed-phase MR images and their correlations with weight, the aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) value, and age. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used as a reference in this study. We selected 68 people as subjects, among which 14 were volunteers with normal AST/ALT values ( <40/35 U/L) on a liver function study and 54 were non-alcoholic fatty liver patients for whom ultrasonic images had been obtained within 3 months of the study. In this study, the liver was more enhanced than the spleen or kidney. When the Eq. (3) formula was applied to normal volunteers, the difference between the in-phase and the opposed-phase images was -3.54 ± 12.56. The MRS study result showed a high sensitivity of 96.6% and a specificity of 100% ( p = 0.000) when the cutoff value was 20%. Furthermore, this result showed a high sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 80% with a similar cutoff when the Eq. (2) formula was applied to non-alcoholic fatty liver patients ( p = 0.000). The MRS study revealed a strong correlation between normal volunteers and non-alcoholic fatty liver patients (r = 0.59, p = 0.04). The correlations between AST/ALT and Eq. (3) (r = 0.45, p = 0.004), age and Eq. (3) (r = 0.73, p = 0.03), and weight and Eq. (3) (r = 0.77, p = 0.000) values were all statistically significant. In the case of non-alcoholic liver disease, MRS was found to be significantly correlated with Eq. (1) (r = 0.39, p = 0.002), Eq. (2) (r = 0.68, p = 0.04), Eq. (3) (r = 0.67, p = 0.04), and AST/ALT (r = 0.77, p = 0.000). In conclusion, in-phase and opposed-phase images can help to distinguish a normal liver from a fatty liver in order to identify non-alcoholic fatty liver patients. The intensity difference between the in-phase and opposed-phase MR signals showed valuable correlations with respect to weight, AST/ALT value, and age, with all values being above the mild lipid value (r = 0.3).

  10. In vivo effects of the anesthetic, benzocaine, on liver microsomal cytochrome P450 and mixed-function oxidase activities of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata).

    PubMed

    Arinç, E; Sen, A

    1994-03-01

    Gilthead seabreams were exposed to benzocaine, 4-aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester, 57 mg/l in sea water for 3 min, daily, for 2 or 3 consecutive days. The fish were killed 20 hr after the last treatment. Benzocaine treatment for 2 or 3 days resulted in 57% and 67% inhibition of liver microsomal aniline 4-hydroxylase and ethylmorphine N-demethylase activities, respectively. The total cytochrome P450 content of fish liver microsomes was unaltered following the 2-day benzocaine treatment. However, additional 3 min benzocaine treatment on day 3 reduced cytochrome P450 level by 50%. Benzocaine produced type II difference spectra with rabbit liver microsomes. Difference spectra of fish liver microsomes elicited by benzocaine were complex. The position of peak and intensity were greatly influenced by the concentration of benzocaine. PMID:8061946

  11. Sensitivity comparison of two L-alanine doped blends to different photon energies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Felipe; Ramirez, José Vega; Nicolucci, Patrícia; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2010-02-01

    Blends of L-alanine (85% weight proportion) with KI (10%) and with PbI2 (10%), these last two compounds acting as dopants, and with PVA (5%) acting as binder, were prepared in water at 80 degrees C. A blend of pure L-alanine (95%) with PVA (5%) was also prepared. The three blends were irradiated with photon beams of different energies (120 kV, Co, and 10 MV) to a unique dose of 30 Gy to compare their sensitivities for those three energies. EPR spectra of the three irradiated blends were recorded in a K-Band spectrometer (24 GHz) taking aliquots of about 4 mg for each blend. The energy sensitivity of a blend was defined as the peak-to-peak amplitude of its EPR spectrum central line. For the Co energy (1.25 MeV) the blends presented practically the same sensitivity, indicating that the presence of the dopants does not affect the sensitivity of L-alanine. For 10 MV x-rays, there was an increment (around 10%-20%) in sensitivity for the two L-alanine doped blends compared with the pure L-alanine blend (not doped). In the case of 120 kV x-rays, the blends ala+KI and ala+PbI showed increments of 10 and 20 times more sensitivity than the pure L-alanine blend. It is concluded that the dopants KI and PbI2 produce a great enhancement of the L-alanine sensitivity to low-energy photons. For the same dopant's content (10%) in the blend, PbI2 showed a better performance. Increasing the PbI2 proportion (30%) in the blend allows the detection of radiation dose as low as 10 mGy for 120 kV x-rays. These results encourage the authors to try to enhance the sensitivity of L-alanine even more by increasing the dopant's content in the blend and diminishing the lower limit detection. Application of these L-alanine doped blends in the dosime