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Sample records for liver support system

  1. Novel bioartificial liver support system: preclinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Patzer, J F; Mazariegos, G V; Lopez, R; Molmenti, E; Gerber, D; Riddervold, F; Khanna, A; Yin, W Y; Chen, Y; Scott, V L; Aggarwal, S; Kramer, D J; Wagner, R A; Zhu, Y; Fulmer, M L; Block, G D; Amiot, B P

    1999-06-18

    Preclinical safety and efficacy evaluation of a novel bioartificial liver support system (BLSS) was conducted using a D-galactosamine canine liver failure model. The BLSS houses a suspension of porcine hepatocytes in a hollow fiber cartridge with the hepatocytes on one side of the membrane and whole blood flowing on the other. Porcine hepatocytes harvested by a collagenase digestion technique were infused into the hollow fiber cartridge and incubated for 16 to 24 hours prior to use. Fifteen purpose-bred male hounds, 1-3 years old, 25-30 kg, were administered a lethal dose, 1.5 g/kg, of D-galactosamine. The animals were divided into three treatment groups: (1b) no BLSS treatment (n = 6); (2b) BLSS treatment starting at 24-26 h post D-galactosamine (n = 5); and (2c) BLSS treatment starting at 16-18 h post D-galactosamine (n = 4). While maintained under isoflurane anesthesia, canine supportive care was guided by electrolyte and invasive physiologic monitoring consisting of arterial pressure, central venous pressure, extradural intracranial pressure (ICP), pulmonary artery pressure, urinary catheter, and end-tidal CO2. All animals were treated until death or death-equivalent (inability to sustain systolic blood pressure > 80 mmHg for 20 minutes despite massive fluid resuscitation and/or dopamine administration), or euthanized at 60 hours. All animals developed evidence of liver failure at 12-24 hours as evidenced by blood pressure lability, elevated ICP, marked hepatocellular enzyme elevation with microscopic massive hepatocyte necrosis and cerebral edema, elevated prothrombin time, and metabolic acidosis. Groups 2b and 2c marginally prolong survival compared with Group 1b (pairwise log rank censored survival time analysis, p = 0.096 and p = 0.064, respectively). Since survival times for Groups 2b and 2c are not significantly different (p = 0.694), the groups were combined for further statistical analysis. Survival times for the combined active treatment Groups 2b and

  2. Cell Sources, Liver Support Systems and Liver Tissue Engineering: Alternatives to Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo Young; Kim, Han Joon; Choi, Dongho

    2015-01-01

    The liver is the largest organ in the body; it has a complex architecture, wide range of functions and unique regenerative capacity. The growing incidence of liver diseases worldwide requires increased numbers of liver transplant and leads to an ongoing shortage of donor livers. To meet the huge demand, various alternative approaches are being investigated including, hepatic cell transplantation, artificial devices and bioprinting of the organ itself. Adult hepatocytes are the preferred cell sources, but they have limited availability, are difficult to isolate, propagate poor and undergo rapid functional deterioration in vitro. There have been efforts to overcome these drawbacks; by improving culture condition for hepatocytes, providing adequate extracellular matrix, co-culturing with extra-parenchymal cells and identifying other cell sources. Differentiation of human stem cells to hepatocytes has become a major interest in the field of stem cell research and has progressed greatly. At the same time, use of decellularized organ matrices and 3 D printing are emerging cutting-edge technologies for tissue engineering, opening up new paths for liver regenerative medicine. This review provides a compact summary of the issues, and the locations of liver support systems and tissue engineering, with an emphasis on reproducible and useful sources of hepatocytes including various candidates formed by differentiation from stem cells. PMID:26019753

  3. Cell sources, liver support systems and liver tissue engineering: alternatives to liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Young; Kim, Han Joon; Choi, Dongho

    2015-05-01

    The liver is the largest organ in the body; it has a complex architecture, wide range of functions and unique regenerative capacity. The growing incidence of liver diseases worldwide requires increased numbers of liver transplant and leads to an ongoing shortage of donor livers. To meet the huge demand, various alternative approaches are being investigated including, hepatic cell transplantation, artificial devices and bioprinting of the organ itself. Adult hepatocytes are the preferred cell sources, but they have limited availability, are difficult to isolate, propagate poor and undergo rapid functional deterioration in vitro. There have been efforts to overcome these drawbacks; by improving culture condition for hepatocytes, providing adequate extracellular matrix, co-culturing with extra-parenchymal cells and identifying other cell sources. Differentiation of human stem cells to hepatocytes has become a major interest in the field of stem cell research and has progressed greatly. At the same time, use of decellularized organ matrices and 3 D printing are emerging cutting-edge technologies for tissue engineering, opening up new paths for liver regenerative medicine. This review provides a compact summary of the issues, and the locations of liver support systems and tissue engineering, with an emphasis on reproducible and useful sources of hepatocytes including various candidates formed by differentiation from stem cells. PMID:26019753

  4. Current Evidence for Extracorporeal Liver Support Systems in Acute Liver Failure and Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Karvellas, Constantine J; Subramanian, Ram M

    2016-07-01

    Artificial (nonbiological) extracorporeal liver support devices aim to remove albumin-bound and water-soluble toxins to restore and preserve hepatic function and mitigate or limit the progression of multiorgan failure while hepatic recovery or liver transplant occurs. The following beneficial effects have been documented: improvement of jaundice, amelioration of hemodynamic instability, reduction of portal hypertension, and improvement of hepatic encephalopathy. The only randomized prospective multicenter controlled trial to show an improvement in transplant-free survival was for high-volume plasmapheresis. Biological (cell-based) extracorporeal liver support systems aim to support the failing liver through detoxification and synthetic function and warrant further study for safety and benefit. PMID:27339682

  5. Review article: liver support systems in acute hepatic failure.

    PubMed

    Rahman, T M; Hodgson, H J

    1999-10-01

    The treatment of acute hepatic failure has developed rapidly over the last 40 years, reducing morbidity and mortality from this syndrome. Whilst this has been partly attributed to significant improvements in the specialist medical management of these patients, advances in surgical techniques and pharmaceutical developments have led to the establishment of successful liver transplantation programmes, which have improved mortality significantly. This review will examine the clinical impact of alternative methods that have been used to provide extra-corporeal hepatic support. Non-biological, bio- logical and hybrid hepatic extra-corporeal support will be explored, offering a comprehensive historical overview and an appraisal of present and future advances. PMID:10540040

  6. [Problems and prospects of creation of extracorporal systems for support of functional livers status].

    PubMed

    Ryabinin, V E

    2015-01-01

    The review considers features of efferent therapy employing extracorporeal systems, the devices known as "artificial liver" and "bioartificial liver" in the treatment of liver insufficiency. Analysis of literature data shows the need for further development of these biomedical studies and the search for optimal solutions in the selection of the source of hepatocytes, the development of bioreactors and biomaterials forming the basis of devices like "bioartificial liver". Taking into consideration certain advantages and disadvantages typical for various methods of extracorporeal support of the functional state of the liver one can evaluate prior experience in the treatment of liver diseases and approaches to the development of new, more effective medical technologies. PMID:26539863

  7. Overview of extracorporeal liver support systems and clinical results.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, B E; Tosone, C M; Custer, L M; Mullon, C

    1999-06-18

    Patients with acute liver failure (ALF) continue to have an almost 50% mortality rate despite improvements associated with the use of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Numerous ex vivo methods have been developed in attempts to improve patient survival. These methods can be divided into three groups: detoxification (e.g., dialysis, charcoal adsorption, plasma exchange), which only provides excretory function; ex vivo liver perfusion (e.g., whole organ or tissue perfusion), which provides some metabolic function; and bioartificial or cell-based systems, which combine elements of the first two methods. Clinical trials have shown minimal efficacy of the various detoxification methods in terms of ALF patient survival, while the relative success of OLT has shown the importance of providing metabolic as well as excretory functions. Attempts to provide those additional functions with ex vivo tissue perfusion have been fraught with complications such as clotting and acute tissue rejection, leading to the conceptual development of cell-based bioreactor systems. A number of these bioartificial systems have been clinically evaluated, and the preliminary patient survival rates have encouraged further work in this area. PMID:10415578

  8. Prognosis of acute-on-chronic liver failure patients treated with artificial liver support system

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Pi-Qi; Zheng, Shao-Ping; Yu, Min; He, Sheng-Song; Weng, Zhi-Hong

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To establish a new model for predicting survival in acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) patients treated with an artificial liver support system. METHODS: One hundred and eighty-one ACLF patients who were admitted to the hospital from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2014 and were treated with an artificial liver support system were enrolled in this retrospective study, including a derivation cohort (n = 113) and a validation cohort (n = 68). Laboratory parameters at baseline were analyzed and correlated with clinical outcome. In addition to standard medical therapy, ACLF patients underwent plasma exchange (PE) or plasma bilirubin adsorption (PBA) combined with plasma exchange. For the derivation cohort, Kaplan-Meier methods were used to estimate survival curves, and Cox regression was used in survival analysis to generate a prognostic model. The performance of the new model was tested in the validation cohort using a receiver-operator curve. RESULTS: The mean overall survival for the derivation cohort was 441 d (95%CI: 379-504 d), and the 90- and 270-d survival probabilities were 70.3% and 58.3%, respectively. The mean survival times of patients treated with PBA plus PE and patients treated with PE were 531 d (95%CI: 455-605 d) and 343 d (95%CI: 254-432 d), respectively, which were significantly different (P = 0.012). When variables with bivariate significance were selected for inclusion into the multivariate Cox regression model, number of complications, age, scores of the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) and type of artificial liver support system were defined as independent risk factors for survival in ACLF patients. This new prognostic model could accurately discriminate the outcome of patients with different scores in this cohort (P < 0.001). The model also had the ability to assign a predicted survival probability for individual patients. In the validation cohort, the new model remained better than the MELD. CONCLUSION: A novel model was

  9. Bioartificial liver support anno 2001.

    PubMed

    Chamuleau, Robert A F M

    2002-12-01

    Despite maximal intensive care, mortality of acute fulminant hepatic failure is high: 60%-75% in several studies. In addition patients with chronic liver insufficiency suffer from a bad quality of life: all patients suffer from fatigue; symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy, jaundice, and itching are often present. Analogous to artificial kidney treatment in patients with renal failure, an artificial liver assist device is needed not only to bridge patients with fulminant hepatic failure to liver transplantation or own liver regeneration, but also to improve the quality of life of patients with chronic liver insufficiency. Several modalities of artificial liver support are under investigation, like plasma exchange, haemodialysis, haemadsorption, albumin dialysis, liver cell transplantation, and the bioartificial liver. Artificial livers based on only supportive detoxification function do not show significant improvement of survival in controlled studies. Bioartificial liver support systems have also the potential to support hepatic synthetic functions. Bioreactors can be charged with freshly isolated or cryopreserved porcine hepatocytes, but also by human hepatoma cell lines. Several uncontrolled studies in humans show safety of such a treatment, even by using porcine cells. Transmission of porcine endogenous retrovirus to recipients has not been found. Furthermore, beneficial effects have been reported on symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy, on the height of intracranial pressure and on hemodynamic parameters. By using porcine cells immunological problems (e.g., serum sickness) can be expected during treatments longer than one week. However, "proof of the pudding" in the sense of improvement of survival is not yet available. The creation of a "liver dialysis unit" in the near future depends mainly on the development of well-differentiated immortalized human hepatocytes. Some progress in this field has already been obtained. PMID:12602524

  10. Porcine acute liver failure model established by two-phase surgery and treated with hollow fiber bioartificial liver support system

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yi; Mu, Ning; Xu, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Yan

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To establish a highly reproducible animal model of acute liver failure (ALF), for assessing the effect of bioartificial liver support system (BALSS). METHODS: A two-phase complete liver devascularization procedure was performed in eight loco-hybrid pigs. Blood biochemical index and liver biopsy were studied every 2 h after surgery, and survival time was recorded. The BALSS constructed with high volume recirculating technique was a hollow fiber circulating system consisting of a hepatocyte reactor-hollow fiber module inoculated with microcarrier-adhering hepatocytes, and a double pump, heparinized, thermostabilized, micro-capsulized activated carbon-adsorbing plasmapheresis system. Twelve pigs undergoing two-phase surgery were randomized into: control group (perfused without hepatocytes, n = 6) and treatment group (perfused with hepatocytes, n = 6). Intergroup liver biochemical indexes, survival time, and liver pathological changes were analyzed at regular intervals. RESULTS: Two-phase surgery was performed in all the experimental pigs, and there was no obvious difference between their biochemical indexes. After 3 h of phase II surgery, ammonia (Amm) increased to (269±37) μmol/L. After 5 h of the surgery, fibrinogen (Fib) decreased to (1.5±0.2) g/L. After 7 h of the surgery, ALT, AST, Tbil and PT were (7.6±1.8) nka/L, (40±5) nka/L, (55±8) μmol/L and (17.5±1.7) nka/L respectively. After 9 h of surgery, ALB and Cr were (27±4) g/L and (87±9) μmol/L. After 13 h of surgery, BUN was (3.5±0.9) μmol/L. All the above values were different from those determined before surgery. Survival time of pigs averaged 13.5±1.4 h. ALF pigs in the other group were treated with BALSS. The comparison analysis between the treated and control animals showed the changes of Tbil, PT, Alb, BUN, Cr, Fib, and Amm (P<0.01), but there was no change of ALT and AST. The survival time was statistically different (P<0.01), and there was no significant difference in histological

  11. Matrices for tissue engineering-scaffold structure for a bioartificial liver support system.

    PubMed

    Mayer, J; Karamuk, E; Akaike, T; Wintermantel, E

    2000-02-14

    This study proposes a new composite scaffold system. A woven polyethylenterephtalate (PET) fabric was coated on one side with a biodegradable PLGA film, in order to obtain a geometrically polarized scaffold structure for an bioartificial liver support system. The composite structure ensures the stability of the membrane during degradation of the membrane polymer. The mesh size of the composite does not significantly influence the degradation behavior. Hepatocyte culturing studies reveal that the formation of aggregates depends on the mesh size and on the pretreatment: The largest aggregates could be observed after 48 h when PVLA coating, large mesh size and EGF were combined. Thus, the combination of a geometrically structured, partially degradable scaffold with receptor-mediated cell attachment sites offers promising possibilities in liver tissue engineering. PMID:10640647

  12. Bioengineering the Liver: Scale-Up and Cool Chain Delivery of the Liver Cell Biomass for Clinical Targeting in a Bioartificial Liver Support System

    PubMed Central

    Erro, Eloy; Bundy, James; Massie, Isobel; Chalmers, Sherri-Ann; Gautier, Aude; Gerontas, Spyridon; Hoare, Mike; Sharratt, Peter; Choudhury, Sarah; Lubowiecki, Marcin; Llewellyn, Ian; Legallais, Cécile; Fuller, Barry; Hodgson, Humphrey

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Acute liver failure has a high mortality unless patients receive a liver transplant; however, there are insufficient donor organs to meet the clinical need. The liver may rapidly recover from acute injury by hepatic cell regeneration given time. A bioartificial liver machine can provide temporary liver support to enable such regeneration to occur. We developed a bioartificial liver machine using human-derived liver cells encapsulated in alginate, cultured in a fluidized bed bioreactor to a level of function suitable for clinical use (performance competence). HepG2 cells were encapsulated in alginate using a JetCutter to produce ∼500 μm spherical beads containing cells at ∼1.75 million cells/mL beads. Within the beads, encapsulated cells proliferated to form compact cell spheroids (AELS) with good cell-to-cell contact and cell function, that were analyzed functionally and by gene expression at mRNA and protein levels. We established a methodology to enable a ∼34-fold increase in cell density within the AELS over 11–13 days, maintaining cell viability. Optimized nutrient and oxygen provision were numerically modeled and tested experimentally, achieving a cell density at harvest of >45 million cells/mL beads; >5×1010 cells were produced in 1100 mL of beads. This process is scalable to human size ([0.7–1]×1011). A short-term storage protocol at ambient temperature was established, enabling transport from laboratory to bedside over 48 h, appropriate for clinical translation of a manufactured bioartificial liver machine. PMID:23514704

  13. Artificial liver support: a real step forward.

    PubMed

    Saliba, F; Samuel, D

    2015-02-01

    Since the early 1960s, several authors reported on the use of some experimental artificial liver devices in order to support patients with either acute liver failure (ALF) or end-stage chronic liver disease. In the 1980s, liver transplantation became an established real treatment replacing the whole liver with a major survival benefit. In the 1990s, the concept of albumin dialysis appeared as a new revolution in the concept of dialysis with the great capacity of removal of toxins, drugs and molecules strongly bound to albumin. Currently, three artificial liver support devices are available: The MARS®, the Prometheus® and the SPAD®. The most widely studied and used system is the MARS® that uses albumin dialysis to replace the detoxification function of the liver. MARS has shown in several uncontrolled studies and few randomized studies an improvement in the patient condition in terms of clinical symptoms (hepatic encephalopathy, pruritus, jaundice) and in liver and kidney biological parameters bringing these patients safely to liver transplantation. MARS® has shown for some patients with ALF (mainly paracetamol intoxication) an improvement of spontaneous or transplant free survival. The use of MARS in acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) require further studies based on strict definition of the syndrome. The use of albumin dialysis technique, require the performance of multiple sessions of treatment or even (in situations of ALF) a continuous treatment in order to improve spontaneous recovery or bridge these patients to liver transplantation. The performance of these systems would need further improvement. Large randomized trials are still needed in both patients with ALF and ACLF to establish the indications, the timing and the real place of liver support therapies. Meanwhile, early use of these devices in patients with ALF and ACLF could be considered as an additional tool among others in the management of these patients in specialized liver units. PMID

  14. Plasma exchange-based plasma recycling dialysis system as an artificial liver support.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kentaro; Umehara, Yutaka; Umehara, Minoru; Nishimura, Akimasa; Narumi, Shunji; Toyoki, Yoshikazu; Hakamada, Kenichi; Yoshihara, Syuichi; Sasaki, Mutsuo

    2008-08-01

    We developed a plasma recycling dialysis (PRD) system based on plasma exchange (PE). In this system, rapid reduction of toxic substances and restitution of deficient essential substances are performed by PE and subsequent blood purification is performed by dialysis between separated plasma recycled over a purification device and the patient's blood across the membrane of a plasma separator. To demonstrate the safety and efficacy of this system, we used a pig model of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) and anion exchange resin, activated charcoal and hemodialysis for the purification device. FHF was induced by intraportal administration of alpha-amanitine (0.1 mg/kg) and lipopolysaccharides (1 microg/kg) in pigs. Three groups of animals were studied: group 1, diseased controls (N = 4); group 2, PE group (N = 4), 16 h after drug infusion the pigs underwent PE of approximately 1.2 L for 2 h; and group 3, PE + PRD group (N = 4), the pigs underwent PE followed by PRD for 6 h. The hemodynamic status of all animals was stable during the procedure. In group 3, the values of ammonia, total bile acid and total bilirubin continuously decreased and were significantly lower than those of the animals in group 2 24 h after the induction of FHF. The Fischer ratio was significantly higher than in group 2 after 24 h. Group 3 pigs maintained a higher level of consciousness and survived longer than group 2 pigs. Safety of this PE-based PRD system was demonstrated and the removal of toxic substances was significant. This study confirmed the clinical utility of this system as an artificial liver support. PMID:18789112

  15. Molecular adsorbent recycling system (MARS): clinical results of a new membrane-based blood purification system for bioartificial liver support.

    PubMed

    Stange, J; Mitzner, S R; Risler, T; Erley, C M; Lauchart, W; Goehl, H; Klammt, S; Peszynski, P; Freytag, J; Hickstein, H; Löhr, M; Liebe, S; Schareck, W; Hopt, U T; Schmidt, R

    1999-04-01

    The use of xenogenic or genetically engineered cell types in bioartificial liver support systems requires separation methods between the patients' blood and the liver support bioreactors that guarantee the sufficient transfer of pathophysiologically relevant substances but prevent complications. The present paper describes a new membrane separation system that is nearly impermeable to proteins but enables the exchange of water soluble and protein bound toxins by a special membrane and a recycled protein containing dialysate. Because the full range of toxins in hepatic failure has still not been identified, the value of this membrane separation method was evaluated clinically. Thirteen patients suffering from life threatening hepatic failure who had not responded to state of the art therapy were treated with this device, the molecular adsorbent recycling system (MARS). The overall survival rate was 69%. All patients showed positive response to the therapy, indicating that the presented membrane separator combines therapeutic effectivity with the highest safety criteria for the patient by cutting the exchange of substances below the level of proteins. PMID:10226696

  16. Plasma exchange-based plasma recycling dialysis system as a potential platform for artificial liver support.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Akimasa; Umehara, Yutaka; Umehara, Minoru; Hakamada, Kenichi; Narumi, Shunji; Toyoki, Yoshikazu; Yoshihara, Shuichi; Sasaki, Mutsuo

    2006-08-01

    We developed a plasma recycling dialysis (PRD) system based on plasma exchange (PE). In this system, rapid reduction of toxic substances and restitution of deficient essential substances are performed by PE, and subsequent blood purification is performed by dialysis between separated plasma recycled over a purification device and the patient's blood across the membrane of the plasma separator. This study was performed to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of this system. Hyperbilirubinemia was induced by ligating the bile duct in pigs, and 7 days later, only PE for 2 h (group PE) or PE for 2 h followed by PRD for 6 h (group PE + PRD) was performed. The separated plasma was recycled over anion-exchange resin through the extra fiber space of the plasma separator. The safety and efficacy of this system were evaluated based on the values of hemodynamic and laboratory parameters. Transfer from PE to PRD was completed in a few minutes. The hemodynamic status and blood cells counts were stable and hemolysis was not observed during the procedure. In the PE + PRD group, the concentrations of total bile acids continuously decreased (pretreatment, 155.5 +/- 40.6 microM; 2 h [end of PE], 76.1 +/- 14.4 microM; 8 h [end of PRD], 25.8 +/- 9.1 microM) and the value was significantly lower than in the PE group after 6 h. The total bilirubin also continuously decreased during PRD (pretreatment, 55.3 +/- 11.5 microM; 2 h [end of PE], 33.8 +/- 8.4 microM; 8 h [end of PRD], 18.6 +/- 7.7 microM) and was significantly lower than in the PE group after 4 h. No significant change was observed in other laboratory values. This PE-based PRD system allowed a swift transfer from PE to sorbent-based blood purification. The safety of this system was demonstrated and the removal of toxic substances was significant. This study confirmed the clinical utility of this system as a platform for artificial liver support. PMID:16911318

  17. Trials and tribulations with artificial liver support.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, R

    1978-01-01

    This paper reviews the experience gained over the past few years in two techniques of liver support, charcoal haemoperfusion and polyacrylonitrile membrane haemodialysis. Problems with charcoal haemoperfusion have centred around platelet aggregation and hypertension, and new carbon preparations with a variety of different coatings to overcome these problems are described. Haemodialysis using the PAN membrane has caused fewer side-effects and current results show that 33% of patients so treated recover consciousness. The new techniques for liver support currently being developed, including combined dialysis/perfusion systems and those based on plasma separation, are also described. PMID:355070

  18. Extracorporeal liver support devices for listed patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Karla C L; Stadlbauer, Vanessa; Jalan, Rajiv

    2016-06-01

    An alternative to liver transplantation for patients with liver failure remains an unmet need. In acute liver failure, the ideal extracorporeal liver support device (ELSD) would replace the functions of the failing liver in order to permit spontaneous recovery, given the incredible regenerative potential of the liver, negating the need for transplantation. In acute-on-chronic liver failure, an ELSD would ideally support hepatic function until a recovery to liver function before acute decompensation or until liver transplantation. In decompensated cirrhosis, an ELSD could again be used to support hepatic function until transplant. In addition, ELSDs may have the potential to treat the multiorgan failure that accompanies liver failure including hepatic encephalopathy, renal failure, and immune dysfunction or indeed potential to promote liver regeneration. Creation of an extracorporeal bioartificial liver able to completely replace liver function remains an unmet need. This review will describe a number of technologies suitable for clinical trials in humans, which have resulted from decades of engineering and biological research to develop a bioreactor able to adequately sustain functional hepatocytes. In addition, this review will describe artificial liver support devices that are primarily designed to replace the detoxifying functions of the liver and will consider the current data available or studies required to support their use in liver failure patients on the transplant waiting list. Liver Transplantation 22 839-848 2016 AASLD. PMID:26785141

  19. Extracorporeal Liver Support and Liver Transplant for Patients with Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Li, Han; Chen, Harvey Shi-Hsien; Nyberg, Scott L

    2016-05-01

    Recognition of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) as a unique entity is slowly evolving, as are therapies to improve survival of affected patients. Further investigation into its disease process and proper treatments with critical timing are important for improving patient survival. At this time, liver transplant is the only treatment known to improve survival in liver-failure patients. However, liver transplantation has its own disadvantages, such as organ shortage and the need for lifelong immunotherapy. Bridging therapies such as extracorporeal liver-support systems are attractive options to stabilize patients until transplantation or spontaneous recovery. The goals of these liver-support systems are to remove detoxification products, reduce systemic inflammation, and enhance regeneration of the injured liver. These devices have been under development for the past decade; a few are in clinical trials. At this time, there is no proven clearcut survival benefit in these devices, but they may improve the outcome of challenging cases and potentially avoid or postpone liver transplantation in some cases. PMID:27172357

  20. Development of a Support Vector Machine - Based Image Analysis System for Focal Liver Lesions Classification in Magnetic Resonance Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatos, I.; Tsantis, S.; Karamesini, M.; Skouroliakou, A.; Kagadis, G.

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: The design and implementation of a computer-based image analysis system employing the support vector machine (SVM) classifier system for the classification of Focal Liver Lesions (FLLs) on routine non-enhanced, T2-weighted Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 92 patients; each one of them has undergone MRI performed on a Magnetom Concerto (Siemens). Typical signs on dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and biopsies were employed towards a three class categorization of the 92 cases: 40-benign FLLs, 25-Hepatocellular Carcinomas (HCC) within Cirrhotic liver parenchyma and 27-liver metastases from Non-Cirrhotic liver. Prior to FLLs classification an automated lesion segmentation algorithm based on Marcov Random Fields was employed in order to acquire each FLL Region of Interest. 42 texture features derived from the gray-level histogram, co-occurrence and run-length matrices and 12 morphological features were obtained from each lesion. Stepwise multi-linear regression analysis was utilized to avoid feature redundancy leading to a feature subset that fed the multiclass SVM classifier designed for lesion classification. SVM System evaluation was performed by means of leave-one-out method and ROC analysis. Results: Maximum accuracy for all three classes (90.0%) was obtained by means of the Radial Basis Kernel Function and three textural features (Inverse- Different-Moment, Sum-Variance and Long-Run-Emphasis) that describe lesion's contrast, variability and shape complexity. Sensitivity values for the three classes were 92.5%, 81.5% and 96.2% respectively, whereas specificity values were 94.2%, 95.3% and 95.5%. The AUC value achieved for the selected subset was 0.89 with 0.81 - 0.94 confidence interval. Conclusion: The proposed SVM system exhibit promising results that could be utilized as a second opinion tool to the radiologist in order to decrease the time/cost of diagnosis and the need for patients to undergo invasive examination.

  1. Nutritional support during liver failure.

    PubMed

    Gecelter, G R; Comer, G M

    1995-07-01

    Critically ill patients in varying degrees of liver failure are catabolic and consequently require expeditious caloric support. Unique problems in this group of patients essentially revolve around the diagnosis and management of hepatic encephalopathy. From the overview provided in this text, it can be concluded that, only in overt hepatic coma, should all nitrogen products be withheld while precipitating causes are evaluated. Protein should be reintroduced as rapidly as possible to avoid the consequences of protein deprivation. Once the acute intercurrent illness has resolved, the cirrhotic patient returns to baseline energy and protein requirements indistinguishable from the population at large. PMID:7552976

  2. Survival Benefits With Artificial Liver Support System for Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure: A Time Series-Based Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yi; Wang, Xu-Lin; Wang, Bin; Shao, Jian-Guo; Liu, Yan-Mei; Qin, Yan; Wang, Lu-Jun; Qin, Gang

    2016-01-01

    The artificial liver support system (ALSS) offers the potential to improve the prognosis of patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). However, the literature has been inconsistent on its survival benefits. We aimed to conduct a time series-based meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and observational studies which examined differences in mortality in ACLF patients treated with ALSS or not.MEDLINE, EMBASE, OVID, and COCHRANE library database were systemically searched up to December 2014. Quality of included studies was evaluated using the Jadad score. The outcome measure was mortality at different follow-up endpoints. Odds ratios (ORs) and survival curve data were pooled for analysis.Ten studies, 7 RCTs, and 3 controlled cohorts were enrolled, involving a total of 1682 ACLF patients, among whom 842 were treated with ALSS. ALSS was found to reduce the risk of short-term (1-month and 3-month) mortality for patients with ACLF by nearly 30%. Randomized trials and observational studies provided good internal and external validity respectively. The combined Kaplan-Meier curves showed a consistent pattern of findings. Meta-analysis also suggested that ALSS might reduce medium-term (6-month and 1-year) mortality risk by 30% and long-term (3-year) mortality risk by 50% in ACLF patients.ALSS therapy could reduce short-term mortality in patients with ACLF. Meanwhile, its impacts on medium- and long-term survival seem to be promising but remained inconclusive. Clinical utility of this system for survival benefit may be implied. PMID:26817889

  3. Liver involvement in systemic infection

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    The liver is often involved in systemic infections, resulting in various types of abnormal liver function test results. In particular, hyperbilirubinemia in the range of 2-10 mg/dL is often seen in patients with sepsis, and several mechanisms for this phenomenon have been proposed. In this review, we summarize how the liver is involved in various systemic infections that are not considered to be primarily hepatotropic. In most patients with systemic infections, treatment for the invading microbes is enough to normalize the liver function tests. However, some patients may show severe liver injury or fulminant hepatic failure, requiring intensive treatment of the liver. PMID:25276279

  4. Extracorporeal liver support in severe alcoholic hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Parés, Albert; Mas, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    The severity of alcoholic hepatitis (AH) which may coexist with cirrhosis varies greatly, from asymptomatic forms which are detected in alcoholic patients without any sign of liver disease, except laboratory abnormalities, to severe forms characterised by deep jaundice, ascites, hepatic encephalopathy and low prothrombin index. In hospitalized patients the mortality could be as high as 75%. The elevated number of therapeutic proposals reported for more than forty years reveals the lack of efficacy of a particular modality. Even in the most favorable trials, the survival is already very poor and in some cases related to the development of renal failure or hepatorenal syndrome. There are some motivating reports concerning albumin dialysis as a support treatment in patients with severe AH, either alone or in combination with other pharmacological therapies. The favorable effects of albumin dialysis in patients with severe AH suggest that the procedure used alone or in combination with other therapies may have a role in this clinical condition. This will be particularly relevant to offer an alternative therapy in these patients, thus being a potential bridge to recovery or to be listed for liver transplantation. PMID:25009371

  5. Extracorporeal support for patients with acute and acute on chronic liver failure.

    PubMed

    Aron, Jonathan; Agarwal, Banwari; Davenport, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The number of patients developing liver failure; acute on chronic liver failure and acute liver failure continues to increase, along with the demand for donor livers for transplantation. As such there is a clinical need to develop effective extracorporeal devices to support patients with acute liver failure or acute-on-chronic liver failure to allow time for hepatocyte regeneration, and so avoiding the need for liver transplantation, or to bridge the patient to liver transplantation, and also potentially to provide symptomatic relief for patients with cirrhosis not suitable for transplantation. Currently devices can be divided into those designed to remove toxins, including plasma exchange, high permeability dialyzers and adsorption columns or membranes, coupled with replacement of plasma proteins; albumin dialysis systems; and bioartificial devices which may provide some of the biological functions of the liver. In the future we expect combinations of these devices in clinical practice, due to the developments in bioartificial scaffolds. PMID:26894968

  6. [(Bio)artificial liver support: ready for the patient?].

    PubMed

    Chamuleau, R A F M

    2016-05-01

    In 2016, an intensive-care physician has at his disposal a number of artificial organs for the support of patients with organ failure. Examples are the artificial kidney and the heart-lung machine. Artificial livers are being developed for patients with severe liver failure whose lives can only be saved at the present time by a transplant with a donor liver. These artificial livers are based either on a device that removes toxic materials from the patient's blood with, for example, albumin dialysis, or make use of bio-reactors filled with functioning liver cells, the so-called bio-artificial liver. In theory, the bio-artificial liver has the greatest potential to increase life expectancy. The results of clinical studies are also very promising. They are not yet sufficient, however, to permit general clinical use. PMID:27166453

  7. Implementation of an interactive liver surgery planning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Luyao; Liu, Jingjing; Yuan, Rong; Gu, Shuguo; Yu, Long; Li, Zhitao; Li, Yanzhao; Li, Zhen; Xie, Qingguo; Hu, Daoyu

    2011-03-01

    Liver tumor, one of the most wide-spread diseases, has a very high mortality in China. To improve success rates of liver surgeries and life qualities of such patients, we implement an interactive liver surgery planning system based on contrastenhanced liver CT images. The system consists of five modules: pre-processing, segmentation, modeling, quantitative analysis and surgery simulation. The Graph Cuts method is utilized to automatically segment the liver based on an anatomical prior knowledge that liver is the biggest organ and has almost homogeneous gray value. The system supports users to build patient-specific liver segment and sub-segment models using interactive portal vein branch labeling, and to perform anatomical resection simulation. It also provides several tools to simulate atypical resection, including resection plane, sphere and curved surface. To match actual surgery resections well and simulate the process flexibly, we extend our work to develop a virtual scalpel model and simulate the scalpel movement in the hepatic tissue using multi-plane continuous resection. In addition, the quantitative analysis module makes it possible to assess the risk of a liver surgery. The preliminary results show that the system has the potential to offer an accurate 3D delineation of the liver anatomy, as well as the tumors' location in relation to vessels, and to facilitate liver resection surgeries. Furthermore, we are testing the system in a full-scale clinical trial.

  8. Reactor vessel support system

    DOEpatents

    Golden, Martin P.; Holley, John C.

    1982-01-01

    A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

  9. Vessel structural support system

    SciTech Connect

    Jenko, J.X.; Ott, H.L.; Wilson, R.M.; Wepfer, R.M.

    1992-10-06

    Vessel structural support system for laterally and vertically supporting a vessel, such as a nuclear steam generator having an exterior bottom surface and a side surface thereon is disclosed. The system includes a bracket connected to the bottom surface. A support column is pivotally connected to the bracket for vertically supporting the steam generator. The system also includes a base pad assembly connected pivotally to the support column for supporting the support column and the steam generator. The base pad assembly, which is capable of being brought to a level position by turning leveling nuts, is anchored to a floor. The system further includes a male key member attached to the side surface of the steam generator and a female stop member attached to an adjacent wall. The male key member and the female stop member coact to laterally support the steam generator. Moreover, the system includes a snubber assembly connected to the side surface of the steam generator and also attached to the adjacent wall for dampening lateral movement of the steam generator. In addition, the system includes a restraining member of flat'' attached to the side surface of the steam generator and a bumper attached to the adjacent wall. The flat and the bumper coact to further laterally support the steam generator. 19 figs.

  10. Vessel structural support system

    DOEpatents

    Jenko, James X.; Ott, Howard L.; Wilson, Robert M.; Wepfer, Robert M.

    1992-01-01

    Vessel structural support system for laterally and vertically supporting a vessel, such as a nuclear steam generator having an exterior bottom surface and a side surface thereon. The system includes a bracket connected to the bottom surface. A support column is pivotally connected to the bracket for vertically supporting the steam generator. The system also includes a base pad assembly connected pivotally to the support column for supporting the support column and the steam generator. The base pad assembly, which is capable of being brought to a level position by turning leveling nuts, is anchored to a floor. The system further includes a male key member attached to the side surface of the steam generator and a female stop member attached to an adjacent wall. The male key member and the female stop member coact to laterally support the steam generator. Moreover, the system includes a snubber assembly connected to the side surface of the steam generator and also attached to the adjacent wall for dampening lateral movement of the steam generator. In addition, the system includes a restraining member of "flat" attached to the side surface of the steam generator and a bumper attached to the adjacent wall. The flat and the bumper coact to further laterally support the steam generator.

  11. Experiment support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, A. V.

    1977-01-01

    The Experiment Support System is a switchboard system with displays and controls. It routes electrical power to experiments M092, M093, and M171 equipment; gaseous nitrogen to the Blood Pressure Measurement System; receives biomedical data from all related equipment; routes the conditioned data signals to the Airlock Module Telemetry System and also displays (in digital or analog from) portions of that data which the crewmen must see to complete the experiment successfully. The Experiment Support System is interfaced to the M131 control panel to transfer conditioned data to the Airlock Module Telemetry System.

  12. Cryogenic support system

    DOEpatents

    Nicol, T.H.; Niemann, R.C.; Gonczy, J.D.

    1988-11-01

    A support system is disclosed for restraining large masses at very low or cryogenic temperatures. The support system employs a tie bar that is pivotally connected at opposite ends to an anchoring support member and a sliding support member. The tie bar extends substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the cold mass assembly, and comprises a rod that lengthens when cooled and a pair of end attachments that contract when cooled. The rod and end attachments are sized so that when the tie bar is cooled to cryogenic temperature, the net change in tie bar length is approximately zero. Longitudinal force directed against the cold mass assembly is distributed by the tie bar between the anchoring support member and the sliding support member. 7 figs.

  13. Cryogenic support system

    DOEpatents

    Nicol, Thomas H.; Niemann, Ralph C.; Gonczy, John D.

    1988-01-01

    A support system is disclosed for restraining large masses at very low or cryogenic temperatures. The support system employs a tie bar that is pivotally connected at opposite ends to an anchoring support member and a sliding support member. The tie bar extends substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the cold mass assembly, and comprises a rod that lengthens when cooled and a pair of end attachments that contract when cooled. The rod and end attachments are sized so that when the tie bar is cooled to cryogenic temperature, the net change in tie bar length is approximately zero. Longitudinal force directed against the cold mass assembly is distributed by the tie bar between the anchoring support member and the sliding support member.

  14. Biological Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Session MP2 includes short reports on: (1) Crew Regenerative Life Support in Long Duration Space Missions; (2) Bioconversion Systems for Food and Water on Long Term Space Missions; (3) Novel Laboratory Approaches to Multi-purpose Aquatic Biogenerative Closed-Loop Food Production Systems; and (4) Artificial Neural Network Derived Plant Growth Models.

  15. Group Support Systems (GSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamel, Gary P.; Wijesinghe, R.

    1996-01-01

    Groupware is a term describing an emerging computer software technology enhancing the ability of people to work together as a group, (a software driven 'group support system'). This project originated at the beginning of 1992 and reports were issued describing the activity through May 1995. These reports stressed the need for process as well as technology. That is, while the technology represented a computer assisted method for groups to work together, the Group Support System (GSS) technology als required an understanding of the facilitation process electronic meetings demand. Even people trained in traditional facilitation techniques did not necessarily aimlessly adopt groupware techniques. The latest phase of this activity attempted to (1) improve the facilitation process by developing training support for a portable groupware computer system, and (2) to explore settings and uses for the portable groupware system using different software, such as Lotus Notes.

  16. Steam generator support system

    DOEpatents

    Moldenhauer, James E.

    1987-01-01

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances.

  17. Steam generator support system

    DOEpatents

    Moldenhauer, J.E.

    1987-08-25

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source is disclosed. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances. 4 figs.

  18. SAS Attitude Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, J. L.; Meyers, G. F.

    1972-01-01

    A unique ground control system was designed and implemented to support and meet the stringent mission requirements of the SAS-1. The important features of the system are described with emphasis on the software used to control the orientation of the spacecraft. A summary of the system's operation during the SAS-1 mission is given along with a discussion of the performance of the software subsystems relative to the mission requirements.

  19. Advances in liver transplantation allocation systems

    PubMed Central

    Schilsky, Michael L; Moini, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    With the growing number of patients in need of liver transplantation, there is a need for adopting new and modifying existing allocation policies that prioritize patients for liver transplantation. Policy should ensure fair allocation that is reproducible and strongly predictive of best pre and post transplant outcomes while taking into account the natural history of the potential recipients liver disease and its complications. There is wide acceptance for allocation policies based on urgency in which the sickest patients on the waiting list with the highest risk of mortality receive priority. Model for end-stage liver disease and Child-Turcotte-Pugh scoring system, the two most universally applicable systems are used in urgency-based prioritization. However, other factors must be considered to achieve optimal allocation. Factors affecting pre-transplant patient survival and the quality of the donor organ also affect outcome. The optimal system should have allocation prioritization that accounts for both urgency and transplant outcome. We reviewed past and current liver allocation systems with the aim of generating further discussion about improvement of current policies. PMID:26973389

  20. Advances in liver transplantation allocation systems.

    PubMed

    Schilsky, Michael L; Moini, Maryam

    2016-03-14

    With the growing number of patients in need of liver transplantation, there is a need for adopting new and modifying existing allocation policies that prioritize patients for liver transplantation. Policy should ensure fair allocation that is reproducible and strongly predictive of best pre and post transplant outcomes while taking into account the natural history of the potential recipients liver disease and its complications. There is wide acceptance for allocation policies based on urgency in which the sickest patients on the waiting list with the highest risk of mortality receive priority. Model for end-stage liver disease and Child-Turcotte-Pugh scoring system, the two most universally applicable systems are used in urgency-based prioritization. However, other factors must be considered to achieve optimal allocation. Factors affecting pre-transplant patient survival and the quality of the donor organ also affect outcome. The optimal system should have allocation prioritization that accounts for both urgency and transplant outcome. We reviewed past and current liver allocation systems with the aim of generating further discussion about improvement of current policies. PMID:26973389

  1. Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation is planned to be a 10-15 minute "catalytic" focused presentation to be scheduled during one of the working sessions at the TIM. This presentation will focus on Advanced Life Support technologies key to future human Space Exploration as outlined in the Vision, and will include basic requirements, assessment of the state-of-the-art and gaps, and include specific technology metrics. The presentation will be technical in character, lean heavily on data in published ALS documents (such as the Baseline Values and Assumptions Document) but not provide specific technical details or build to information on any technology mentioned (thus the presentation will be benign from an export control and a new technology perspective). The topics presented will be focused on the following elements of Advanced Life Support: air revitalization, water recovery, waste management, thermal control, habitation systems, food systems and bioregenerative life support.

  2. The Circulatory System in Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Hollenberg, Steven M; Waldman, Brett

    2016-07-01

    In the cirrhotic liver, distortion of the normal liver architecture is caused by structural and vascular changes. Portal hypertension is often associated with a hyperdynamic circulatory syndrome in which cardiac output and heart rate are increased and systemic vascular resistance is decreased. The release of several vasoactive substances is the primary factor involved in the reduction of mesenteric arterial resistance, resulting in sodium and water retention with eventual formation of ascites. Management of these patients with acute cardiac dysfunction often requires invasive hemodynamic monitoring in an intensive care unit setting to tailor decisions regarding use of fluids and vasopressors. PMID:27339674

  3. [Enteral Nutritional Support in Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases].

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Ran

    2015-06-01

    Nutritional support is important because malnutrition is a major contributor to increased morbidity and mortality, decreased quality of life, increased length of hospital stay, and higher healthcare costs. Patients with gastrointestinal disease are at an increased risk of nutritional deterioration due to therapeutic dietary restriction, fasting for the diagnostic tests, loss of appetite due to anorexia or altered nutritional requirement caused by the disease itself. Therefore, it is important that gastroenterologists are aware of the nutritional status of patients and plan a treatment strategy considering patient's nutritional status. Enteral nutrition is preferred to parenteral nutrition as it is more physiologic, has fewer complications, help to prevent mucosal atrophy and maintain gut barrier function, which decrease intestinal bacterial translocation. Hence, enteral nutrition has been considered to be the most effective route for nutritional support. In this article, we will review enteral nutrition (oral nutritional supplements, enteral tube feeding) as a treatment for the patients with gastrointestinal, liver and pancreatic disease at risk of malnutrition. PMID:26087690

  4. [The liver and the immune system].

    PubMed

    Jakab, Lajos

    2015-07-26

    The liver is known to be the metabolic centre of the organism and is under the control of the central nervous system. It has a peculiar tissue structure and its anatomic localisation defines it as part of the immune system having an individual role in the defence of the organism. The determinant of its particular tissue build-up is the sinusoid system. In addition to hepatocytes, one cell row "endothelium", stellate cells close to the external surface, Kupffer cells tightly to its inner surface, as well as dendritic cells and other cell types (T and B lymphocytes, natural killer and natural killer T-cells, mast cells, granulocytes) are present. The multitudes and variety of cells make it possible to carry out the tasks according to the assignment of the organism. The liver is a member of the immune system having immune cells largely in an activated state. Its principal tasks are the assurance of the peripheral immune tolerance of the organism with the help of the haemopoetic cells and transforming growth factor-β. The liver takes part in the determination of the manner of the non-specific immune response of the organism. In addition to acute phase reaction of the organism, the liver has a role in the adaptive/specific immune response. These functions include retardation of the T and B lymphocytes and the defence against harmful pathogens. With the collaboration of transforming growth factor-β, immunoglobulins and their subclasses are inhibited just as the response of the T lymphocytes. The only exception is the undisturbed immunoglobulin A production. Particularly important is the intensive participation of the liver in the acute phase reaction of the organism, which is organised and guided by the coordinated functions of the cortico-hypothalamo-hypophysis-adrenal axis. Beside cellular elements, hormones, adhesion molecules, chemokines and cytokines are also involved in the cooperation with the organs. Acute phase reactants play a central role in these processes

  5. Bioreactor Technologies to Support Liver Function In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimkhani, Mohammad R; Neiman, Jaclyn A Shepard; Raredon, Micah Sam B; Hughes, David J; Griffith, Linda G

    2014-01-01

    Liver is a central nexus integrating metabolic and immunologic homeostasis in the human body, and the direct or indirect target of most molecular therapeutics. A wide spectrum of therapeutic and technological needs drive efforts to capture liver physiology and pathophysiology in vitro, ranging from prediction of metabolism and toxicity of small molecule drugs, to understanding off-target effects of proteins, nucleic acid therapies, and targeted therapeutics, to serving as disease models for drug development. Here we provide perspective on the evolving landscape of bioreactor-based models to meet old and new challenges in drug discovery and development, emphasizing design challenges in maintaining long-term liver-specific function and how emerging technologies in biomaterials and microdevices are providing new experimental models. PMID:24607703

  6. The liver: conductor of systemic iron balance

    PubMed Central

    Meynard, Delphine; Babitt, Jodie L.

    2014-01-01

    Iron is a micronutrient essential for almost all organisms: bacteria, plants, and animals. It is a metal that exists in multiple redox states, including the divalent ferrous (Fe2+) and the trivalent ferric (Fe3+) species. The multiple oxidation states of iron make it excellent for electron transfer, allowing iron to be selected during evolution as a cofactor for many proteins involved in central cellular processes including oxygen transport, mitochondrial respiration, and DNA synthesis. However, the redox cycling of ferrous and ferric iron in the presence of H2O2, which is physiologically present in the cells, also leads to the production of free radicals (Fenton reaction) that can attack and damage lipids, proteins, DNA, and other cellular components. To meet the physiological needs of the body, but to prevent cellular damage by iron, the amount of iron in the body must be tightly regulated. Here we review how the liver is the central conductor of systemic iron balance and show that this central role is related to the secretion of a peptide hormone hepcidin by hepatocytes. We then review how the liver receives and integrates the many signals that report the body’s iron needs to orchestrate hepcidin production and maintain systemic iron homeostasis. PMID:24200681

  7. Biological life-support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepelev, Y. Y.

    1975-01-01

    The establishment of human living environments by biologic methods, utilizing the appropriate functions of autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms is examined. Natural biologic systems discussed in terms of modeling biologic life support systems (BLSS), the structure of biologic life support systems, and the development of individual functional links in biologic life support systems are among the factors considered. Experimental modeling of BLSS in order to determine functional characteristics, mechanisms by which stability is maintained, and principles underlying control and regulation is also discussed.

  8. Extended mission life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrone, P. D.

    1985-01-01

    Extended manned space missions which include interplanetary missions require regenerative life support systems. Manned mission life support considerations are placed in perspective and previous manned space life support system technology, activities and accomplishments in current supporting research and technology (SR&T) programs are reviewed. The life support subsystem/system technologies required for an enhanced duration orbiter (EDO) and a space operations center (SOC), regenerative life support functions and technology required for manned interplanetary flight vehicles, and future development requirements are outlined. The Space Shuttle Orbiters (space transportation system) is space cabin atmosphere is maintained at Earth ambient pressure of 14.7 psia (20% O2 and 80% N2). The early Shuttle flights will be seven-day flights, and the life support system flight hardware will still utilize expendables.

  9. Systematic review: unmet supportive care needs in people diagnosed with chronic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Valery, Patricia C; Powell, Elizabeth; Moses, Neta; Volk, Michael L; McPhail, Steven M; Clark, Paul J; Martin, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Objective People with chronic liver disease, particularly those with decompensated cirrhosis, experience several potentially debilitating complications that can have a significant impact on activities of daily living and quality of life. These impairments combined with the associated complex treatment mean that they are faced with specific and high levels of supportive care needs. We aimed to review reported perspectives, experiences and concerns of people with chronic liver disease worldwide. This information is necessary to guide development of policies around supportive needs screening tools and to enable prioritisation of support services for these patients. Design Systematic searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL and PsycINFO from the earliest records until 19 September 2014. Data were extracted using standardised forms. A qualitative, descriptive approach was utilised to analyse and synthesise data. Results The initial search yielded 2598 reports: 26 studies reporting supportive care needs among patients with chronic liver disease were included, but few of them were patient-reported needs, none used a validated liver disease-specific supportive care need assessment instrument, and only three included patients with cirrhosis. Five key domains of supportive care needs were identified: informational or educational (eg, educational material, educational sessions), practical (eg, daily living), physical (eg, controlling pruritus and fatigue), patient care and support (eg, support groups), and psychological (eg, anxiety, sadness). Conclusions While several key domains of supportive care needs were identified, most studies included hepatitis patients. There is a paucity of literature describing the supportive care needs of the chronic liver disease population likely to have the most needs—namely those with cirrhosis. Assessing the supportive care needs of people with chronic liver disease have potential utility in clinical practice for facilitating timely referrals

  10. Reactor vessel support system. [LMFBR

    DOEpatents

    Golden, M.P.; Holley, J.C.

    1980-05-09

    A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

  11. Support systems design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    The integration of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) ground support systems with the new launch processing system and new launch vehicle provided KSC with a unique challenge in system design and analysis for the Space Transportation System. Approximately 70 support systems are controlled and monitored by the launch processing system. Typical systems are main propulsion oxygen and hydrogen loading systems, environmental control life support system, hydraulics, etc. An End-to-End concept of documentation and analysis was chosen and applied to these systems. Unique problems were resolved in the areas of software analysis, safing under emergency conditions, sampling rates, and control loop analysis. New methods of performing End-to-End reliability analyses were implemented. The systems design approach selected and the resolution of major problem areas are discussed.

  12. Life Support Systems Microbial Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Monserrate C.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the current microbial challenges of environmental control and life support systems. The contents include: 1) Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) What is it?; 2) A Look Inside the International Space Station (ISS); 3) The Complexity of a Water Recycling System; 4) ISS Microbiology Acceptability Limits; 5) Overview of Current Microbial Challenges; 6) In a Perfect World What we Would like to Have; and 7) The Future.

  13. Ergonomically neutral arm support system

    DOEpatents

    Siminovitch, Michael J; Chung, Jeffrey Y; Dellinges, Steven; Lafever, Robin E

    2005-08-02

    An ergonomic arm support system maintains a neutral position for the forearm. A mechanical support structure attached to a chair or other mounting structure supports the arms of a sitting or standing person. The system includes moving elements and tensioning elements to provide a dynamic balancing force against the forearms. The support structure is not fixed or locked in a rigid position, but is an active dynamic system that is maintained in equipoise by the continuous operation of the opposing forces. The support structure includes an armrest connected to a flexible linkage or articulated or pivoting assembly, which includes a tensioning element such as a spring. The pivoting assembly moves up and down, with the tensioning element providing the upward force that balances the downward force of the arm.

  14. Supporting the Work Keys System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGintry, Louis

    1999-01-01

    Seeks faculty's understanding of and support for the Work Keys System, which is designed to determine the level of skill required for an occupation, assess the level of a skill of a prospective employee, and compare the skills requirements against the skills possessed. Describes how Work Keys supports various educational philosophies and Knowles'…

  15. Tumours of the liver and biliary system

    PubMed Central

    Ponomarkov, V.; Mackey, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    In this histological classification of liver and gall bladder tumours the tumour types largely correspond to those found in man. The most common tumours in this group are liver cell adenoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and cholangiocarcinoma. ImagesFig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12 PMID:1086149

  16. Rhode Island Model Evaluation & Support System: Support Professional. Edition II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Rhode Island educators believe that implementing a fair, accurate, and meaningful evaluation and support system for support professionals will help improve student outcomes. The primary purpose of the Rhode Island Model Support Professional Evaluation and Support System (Rhode Island Model) is to help all support professionals do their best work…

  17. Perioperative nutritional support and fluid therapy in patients with liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yongliang; Tan, Haidong

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of liver dysfunction and malnutrition is common among patients with obstructive jaundice or cirrhosis, the poor nutrition status in patients with indications for hepatic resection increases the risk of postoperative complications and/or mortality. Hepatic surgery significantly affects body’s metabolism and environment. Therefore, it is very important for patients with liver diseases undergoing hepatic surgery to receive essential nutritional support and fluid therapy during perioperative period. There are several principles in nutritional support and fluid therapy that surgeons need to pay attention to, for example, time, nutritional approach, fluid volume, choice of fat emulsions and amino acids. Some issues, such as albumin and plasma application, choice of crystalloid and colloid, liver protective therapy, also need further attention. PMID:25019075

  18. The Virtual Liver Network: systems understanding from bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Henney, Adriano; Coaker, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Adriano Henney speaks to Hannah Coaker, Commissioning Editor. After achieving a PhD in medicine and spending many years in academic research in the field of cardiovascular disease, Adriano Henney was recruited by Zeneca Pharmaceuticals from a British Heart Foundation Senior Fellowship, where he led the exploration of new therapeutic approaches in atherosclerosis, specifically focusing on his research interests in vascular biology. Following the merger with Astra to form AstraZeneca, Henney became responsible for exploring strategic improvements to the company's approaches to pharmaceutical target identification and the reduction of attrition in early development, directing projects across research sites and across functional project teams in the USA, Sweden and the UK. This resulted in the creation of a new multidisciplinary department that focused on pathway mapping, modeling and simulation and supporting projects across research and development, which evolved into the establishment of the practice of systems biology within the company. Here, projects prototyped the application of mechanistic disease-modeling approaches in order to support the discovery of innovative new medicines, such as Iressa®. Since leaving AstraZeneca, Henney has continued his interest in systems biology, synthetic biology and systems medicine through his company, Obsidian Biomedical Consulting Ltd. He now directs a major €50 million German national flagship program – the Virtual Liver Network – which is currently the largest systems biology program in Europe. PMID:25574529

  19. [Remote radiation planning support system].

    PubMed

    Atsumi, Kazushige; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Yoshidome, Satoshi; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Sasaki, Tomonari; Ohga, Saiji; Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Shinoto, Makoto; Asai, Kaori; Sakamoto, Katsumi; Hirakawa, Masakazu; Honda, Hiroshi

    2012-08-01

    We constructed a remote radiation planning support system between Kyushu University Hospital (KUH) in Fukuoka and Kyushu University Beppu Hospital (KBH) in Oita. Between two institutions, radiology information system for radiotherapy division (RT-RIS) and radiation planning system (RTPS) were connected by virtual private network (VPN). This system enables the radiation oncologists at KUH to perform radiotherapy planning for the patients at KBH. The detail of the remote radiation planning support system in our institutions is as follows: The radiation oncologist at KBH performs radiotherapy planning and the data of the patients are sent anonymously to the radiation oncologists at KUH. The radiation oncologists at KUH receive the patient's data, access to RTPS at KBH, verify or change the radiation planning at KBH: Radiation therapy is performed at KBH according to the confirmed plan by the radiation oncologists at KUH. Our remote radiation planning system is useful for providing radiation therapy with safety and accuracy. PMID:23157128

  20. Decellularized liver scaffolds effectively support the proliferation and differentiation of mouse fetal hepatic progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaojun; Cui, Jing; Zhang, Bing-Qiang; Zhang, Hongyu; Bi, Yang; Kang, Quan; Wang, Ning; Bie, Ping; Yang, Zhanyu; Wang, Huaizhi; Liu, Xiangde; Haydon, Rex C; Luu, Hue H; Tang, Ni; Dong, Jiahong; He, Tong-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Decellularized whole organs represent ideal scaffolds for engineering new organs and/or cell transplantation. Here, we investigate whether decellularized liver scaffolds provide cell-friendly biocompatible three-dimensional environment to support the proliferation and differentiation of hepatic progenitor cells. Mouse liver tissues are efficiently decellularized through portal vein perfusion. Using the reversibly immortalized mouse fetal hepatic progenitor cells (iHPCs), we are able to effectively recellularize the decellularized liver scaffolds. The perfused iHPCs survive and proliferate in the three-dimensional scaffolds in vitro for 2 weeks. When the recellularized scaffolds are implanted into the kidney capsule of athymic nude mice, cell survival and proliferation of the implanted scaffolds are readily detected by whole body imaging for 10 days. Furthermore, EGF is shown to significantly promote the proliferation and differentiation of the implanted iHPCs. Histologic and immunochemical analyses indicate that iHPCs are able to proliferate and differentiate to mature hepatocytes upon EGF stimulation in the scaffolds. The recellularization of the biomaterial scaffolds is accompanied with vascularization. Taken together, these results indicate that decullarized liver scaffolds effectively support the proliferation and differentiation of iHPCs, suggesting that decellularized liver matrix may be used as ideal biocompatible scaffolds for hepatocyte transplantation. PMID:23625886

  1. Decellularized liver scaffolds effectively support the proliferation and differentiation of mouse fetal hepatic progenitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojun; Cui, Jing; Zhang, Bing-Qiang; Zhang, Hongyu; Bi, Yang; Kang, Quan; Wang, Ning; Bie, Ping; Yang, Zhanyu; Wang, Huaizhi; Liu, Xiangde; Haydon, Rex C; Luu, Hue H; Tang, Ni; Dong, Jiahong; He, Tong-Chuan

    2014-04-01

    Decellularized whole organs represent ideal scaffolds for engineering new organs and/or cell transplantation. Here, we investigate whether decellularized liver scaffolds provide cell-friendly biocompatible three-dimensional (3-D) environment to support the proliferation and differentiation of hepatic progenitor cells. Mouse liver tissues are efficiently decellularized through portal vein perfusion. Using the reversibly immortalized mouse fetal hepatic progenitor cells (iHPCs), we are able to effectively recellularize the decellularized liver scaffolds. The perfused iHPCs survive and proliferate in the 3-D scaffolds in vitro for 2 weeks. When the recellularized scaffolds are implanted into the kidney capsule of athymic nude mice, cell survival and proliferation of the implanted scaffolds are readily detected by whole body imaging for 10 days. Furthermore, epidermal growth factor (EGF) is shown to significantly promote the proliferation and differentiation of the implanted iHPCs. Histologic and immunochemical analyzes indicate that iHPCs are able to proliferate and differentiate to mature hepatocytes upon EGF stimulation in the scaffolds. The recellularization of the biomaterial scaffolds is accompanied with vascularization. Taken together, these results indicate that decullarized liver scaffolds effectively support the proliferation and differentiation of iHPCs, suggesting that decellularized liver matrix may be used as ideal biocompatible scaffolds for hepatocyte transplantation. PMID:23625886

  2. Correlative imaging of the liver and hepatobiliary system.

    PubMed

    Davis, L P; McCarroll, K

    1994-07-01

    Many imaging techniques can be used to assess the liver and hepatobiliary system. Each modality has individual strengths and limitations, which usually vary depending on the specific clinical situation. This review discusses several specific common clinical situations where imaging of the liver and biliary system is necessary and describes the various imaging options. Space-occupying liver lesions are discussed, and particular attention is paid to the assessment of liver metastasis, hepatoma, and incidentally discovered liver lesions such as hemangioma, adenoma, and focal nodular hyperplasia. The value of ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and scintigraphic techniques in this patient population is described. Isolated sulfur colloid hepatic scintigraphy is not of great value in the evaluation of these patients. Therefore, this review describes in some detail the value of physiological liver scintigraphy, including gallium and iminodiacetic acid (IDA) scanning as well as dynamic flow imaging of the liver such as hepatic artery perfusion scintigraphy and tagged red cell scintigraphy. Imaging of the biliary tree also is described. The roles of ultrasound and scintigraphy are compared and contrasted as related to the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis, common duct obstruction, and postoperative complications. PMID:7973757

  3. ELECTRICAL SUPPORT SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    S. Roy

    2004-06-24

    The purpose of this revision of the System Design Description (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the electrical support system and their bases to allow the design effort to proceed to License Application. This SDD is a living document that will be revised at strategic points as the design matures over time. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design as they exist at this time, with emphasis on those attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD has been developed to be an engineering tool for design control. Accordingly, the primary audience/users are design engineers. This type of SDD both ''leads'' and ''trails'' the design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flow down of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential in performing the design process. The SDD trails the design with regard to the description of the system. The description provided in the SDD is a reflection of the results of the design process to date. Functional and operational requirements applicable to electrical support systems are obtained from the ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' (F&OR) (Siddoway 2003). Other requirements to support the design process have been taken from higher-level requirements documents such as the ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (PDC) (Doraswamy 2004), and fire hazards analyses. The above-mentioned low-level documents address ''Project Requirements Document'' (PRD) (Canon and Leitner 2003) requirements. This SDD contains several appendices that include supporting information. Appendix B lists key system charts, diagrams, drawings, and lists, and Appendix C includes a list of system procedures.

  4. Apollo Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    With its exterior removed, the Apollo portable life support system (PLSS) can be studied. The PLSS is worn as a backpack over the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), a multi-layered spacesuit used for outside the spacecraft activity. This is a close-up of the working parts of the PLSS.

  5. Apollo Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    With its exterior removed, the Apollo portable life support system (PLSS) can be studied. The PLSS is worn as a backpack over the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), a multi-layered spacesuit used for outside the spacecraft activity. This is a wider view of the exposed interior working parts of the PLSS and its removed cover.

  6. A proposed classification system for liver metastasis from colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Petrelli, N J; Bonnheim, D C; Herrera, L O; Mittelman, A

    1984-04-01

    A proposed classification system for liver metastasis from colorectal carcinoma is presented. This proposed system utilizes the prognostic factors of the extent of hepatic involvement by metastasis at the time of laparotomy, performance status, preoperative serum alkaline phosphatase level, and the presence or absence of extrahepatic intraabdominal disease at the time of laparotomy. Because of the several different modes of treatment for liver metastasis from colorectal carcinoma, it is necessary that a liver classification system be adopted so that different treatment groups will be comparable. The proposed system utilizes the extent of hepatic involvement by metastasis at laparotomy with a division into three subsets of patients described by a Roman numeral. Roman numeral I represents less than or equal to 25 per cent involvement of the liver by metastasis; Roman numeral II represents greater than 25 per cent but less than or equal to 50 per cent involvement by liver metastasis, and Roman numeral III represents greater than 50 per cent involvement by liver metastasis. An Arabic subscript number is used to describe the patients' performance status. Alkaline phosphatase levels are described by a subscript letter with a representing less than two times normal alkaline phosphatase, b representing greater than two times, but less than four times normal levels, and c representing greater than four times normal levels. At the time of laparotomy extrahepatic intra-abdominal disease is represented by the superscript letter E. PMID:6714032

  7. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease as a multi-systemic disease

    PubMed Central

    Fotbolcu, Hakan; Zorlu, Elçin

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease. NAFLD includes a wide spectrum of liver conditions ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and advanced hepatic fibrosis. NAFLD has been recognized as a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome linked with insulin resistance. NAFLD should be considered not only a liver specific disease but also an early mediator of systemic diseases. Therefore, NAFLD is usually associated with cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and dyslipidemia. NAFLD is highly prevalent in the general population and is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The underlying mechanisms and pathogenesis of NAFLD with regard to other medical disorders are not yet fully understood. This review focuses on pathogenesis of NAFLD and its relation with other systemic diseases. PMID:27122660

  8. Liver.

    PubMed

    Kim, W R; Lake, J R; Smith, J M; Skeans, M A; Schladt, D P; Edwards, E B; Harper, A M; Wainright, J L; Snyder, J J; Israni, A K; Kasiske, B L

    2016-01-01

    The median waiting time for patients with MELD ≥ 35 decreased from 18 days in 2012 to 9 days in 2014, after implementation of the Share 35 policy in June 2013. Similarly, mortality among candidates listed with MELD ≥ 35 decreased from 366 per 100 waitlist years in 2012 to 315 in 2014. The number of new active candidates added to the pediatric liver transplant waiting list in 2014 was 655, down from a peak of 826 in 2005. The number of prevalent candidates (on the list on December 31 of the given year) continued to decline, 401 active and 173 inactive. The number of deceased donor pediatric liver transplants peaked at 542 in 2008 and was 478 in 2014. The number of living donor liver pediatric transplants was 52 in 2014; most were from donors closely related to the recipients. Graft survival continued to improve among pediatric recipients of deceased donor and living donor livers. PMID:26755264

  9. Photobioreactors in Life Support Systems.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Ines; Braun, Markus; Slenzka, Klaus; Posten, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    Life support systems for long-term space missions or extraterrestrial installations have to fulfill major functions such as purification of water and regeneration of atmosphere as well as the generation of food and energy. For almost 60 years ideas for biological life support systems have been collected and various concepts have been developed and tested. Microalgae as photosynthetic organisms have played a major role in most of these concepts. This review deals with the potentials of using eukaryotic microalgae for life support systems and highlights special requirements and frame conditions for designing space photobioreactors especially regarding illumination and aeration. Mono- and dichromatic illumination based on LEDs is a promising alternative for conventional systems and preliminary results yielded higher photoconversion efficiencies (PCE) for dichromatic red/blue illumination than white illumination. Aeration for microgravity conditions should be realized in a bubble-free manner, for example, via membranes. Finally, a novel photobioreactor concept for space application is introduced being parameterized and tested with the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. This system has already been tested during two parabolic flight campaigns. PMID:26206570

  10. The Life Support Database system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Likens, William C.

    1991-01-01

    The design and implementation of the database system are described with specific reference to data available from the Build-1 version and techniques for its utilization. The review of the initial documents for the Life Support Database is described in terms of title format and sequencing, and the users are defined as participants in NASA-sponsored life-support research. The software and hardware selections are based respectively on referential integrity and compatibility, and the implementation of the user interface is achieved by means of an applications-programming tool. The current Beta-Test implementation of the system includes several thousand acronyms and bibliographic references as well as chemical properties and exposure limits, equipment, construction materials, and mission data. In spite of modifications in the database the system is found to be effective and a potentially significant resource for the aerospace community.

  11. Mobile mine roof support system

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.C.

    1981-12-29

    A description is given of a mobile self-propelled mine roof support system employing pairs of individually self-propelled roof support units movable along opposite ribs of a mine room to follow an advancing mine face. Each support unit comprises an elongated, wheel-mounted frame positioned along the adjacent rib. Pairs of vertical jacks are connected to opposite sides of the frame, being positioned loosely, and vertically movable, within oversize openings in brackets attached to the frame. A foot plate is universally pivotally attached to the lower ends of each pair of jacks and extends across the underside of the frame. A top-supporting canopy is universally pivotally attached across the upper ends of each pair of jacks and has an overhanging portion extending cantileverly into the room toward the opposite support unit. The jacks have external flanges engagable with the brackets. When the jacks fully retract the foot plate from the mine bottom upwardly against the underside of the frame, the entire assembly including the canopies is clamped rigidly between the brackets and the underside of the frame to lock the canopies to the frame for tramming. After the pairs of jacks press the foot plates downwardly against the bottom, the jacks shift upwardly to disengage their external flanges from the brackets and to press the canopies against the mine top. In an alternate embodiment, the ends of the canopies of the opposite roof support units are interconnected by wire ropes or chains and tensioned by hydraulic cylinders to support the top at the center of the room. A horizontally swingable inbye section of the frame has at least one canopy to continuously support the top when the mining operation changes direction, as when it makes a breakthrough from one room to another.

  12. Operator Performance Support System (OPSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conklin, Marlen Z.

    1993-01-01

    In the complex and fast reaction world of military operations, present technologies, combined with tactical situations, have flooded the operator with assorted information that he is expected to process instantly. As technologies progress, this flow of data and information have both guided and overwhelmed the operator. However, the technologies that have confounded many operators today can be used to assist him -- thus the Operator Performance Support Team. In this paper we propose an operator support station that incorporates the elements of Video and Image Databases, productivity Software, Interactive Computer Based Training, Hypertext/Hypermedia Databases, Expert Programs, and Human Factors Engineering. The Operator Performance Support System will provide the operator with an integrating on-line information/knowledge system that will guide expert or novice to correct systems operations. Although the OPSS is being developed for the Navy, the performance of the workforce in today's competitive industry is of major concern. The concepts presented in this paper which address ASW systems software design issues are also directly applicable to industry. the OPSS will propose practical applications in how to more closely align the relationships between technical knowledge and equipment operator performance.

  13. Modeling Advance Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Marvin; Sager, John; Loader, Coleen; Drysdale, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Activities this summer consisted of two projects that involved computer simulation of bioregenerative life support systems for space habitats. Students in the Space Life Science Training Program (SLSTP) used the simulation, space station, to learn about relationships between humans, fish, plants, and microorganisms in a closed environment. One student complete a six week project to modify the simulation by converting the microbes from anaerobic to aerobic, and then balancing the simulation's life support system. A detailed computer simulation of a closed lunar station using bioregenerative life support was attempted, but there was not enough known about system restraints and constants in plant growth, bioreactor design for space habitats and food preparation to develop an integrated model with any confidence. Instead of a completed detailed model with broad assumptions concerning the unknown system parameters, a framework for an integrated model was outlined and work begun on plant and bioreactor simulations. The NASA sponsors and the summer Fell were satisfied with the progress made during the 10 weeks, and we have planned future cooperative work.

  14. Satellite operations support expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Satellite Operations Support Expert System is an effort to identify aspects of satellite ground support activity which could profitably be automated with artificial intelligence (AI) and to develop a feasibility demonstration for the automation of one such area. The hydrazine propulsion subsystems (HPS) of the International Sun Earth Explorer (ISEE) and the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUS) were used as applications domains. A demonstration fault handling system was built. The system was written in Franz Lisp and is currently hosted on a VAX 11/750-11/780 family machine. The system allows the user to select which HPS (either from ISEE or IUE) is used. Then the user chooses the fault desired for the run. The demonstration system generates telemetry corresponding to the particular fault. The completely separate fault handling module then uses this telemetry to determine what and where the fault is and how to work around it. Graphics are used to depict the structure of the HPS, and the telemetry values displayed on the screen are continually updated. The capabilities of this system and its development cycle are described.

  15. Intelligence supportability in future systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, Brian; Watson, Mariah; Vayette, Corey; Fiduk, Francis

    2010-08-01

    Advanced weaponry is providing an exponential increase in intelligence data collection capabilities and the Intelligence Community (IC) is not properly positioned for the influx of intelligence supportabilitiy requirements the defense acquisition community is developing for it. The Air Force Material Command (AFMC) has initiated the Intelligence Supportability Analysis (ISA) process to allow the IC to triage programs for intelligence sensitivities as well as begin preparations within the IC for the transition of future programs to operational status. The ISA process is accomplished through system decomposition, allowing analysts to identify intelligence requirements and deficiencies. Early collaboration and engagement by program managers and intelligence analysts is crucial to the success of intelligence sensitive programs through the utilization of a repeatable analytical framework for evaluating and making cognizant trade-offs between cost, schedule and performance. Addressing intelligence supportability early in the acquisition process will also influence system design and provide the necessary lead time for intelligence community to react and resource new requirements.

  16. Liver failure, life support, family support, and palliation: an inside story.

    PubMed

    Guy, Victoria

    2006-09-01

    My sister was admitted to the intensive-care-unit (ICU) five months before she died. At the time of admission her life-support wishes were not discussed with her. During her time in the ICU, we, the family, were given hope that she may survive. As with most families, we wanted my sister to live. During her progression from ICU to step-down unit to ward unit, the plan of care was not discussed, and goals were not set. Many medical teams were involved in my sister's care, and many looked at individual body parts instead of the whole person. I am a Registered Nurse at the same hospital where my sister was being cared for. Through many family meetings I was regarded as a medical professional, not as a sister. Knowing the medical system yet going through this as a family member has given me the opportunity to gain insight into what should have happened. If code status had been discussed we would have known my sisters wishes. If relevant literature pertaining to her disease and her slim chance of recovery had been brought to our attention, my sister could have died at home as she wished, and perhaps could have lived her final days in comfort. PMID:16990092

  17. Regenerative life support system research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Sections on modeling, experimental activities during the grant period, and topics under consideration for the future are contained. The sessions contain discussions of: four concurrent modeling approaches that were being integrated near the end of the period (knowledge-based modeling support infrastructure and data base management, object-oriented steady state simulations for three concepts, steady state mass-balance engineering tradeoff studies, and object-oriented time-step, quasidynamic simulations of generic concepts); interdisciplinary research activities, beginning with a discussion of RECON lab development and use, and followed with discussions of waste processing research, algae studies and subsystem modeling, low pressure growth testing of plants, subsystem modeling of plants, control of plant growth using lighting and CO2 supply as variables, search for and development of lunar soil simulants, preliminary design parameters for a lunar base life support system, and research considerations for food processing in space; and appendix materials, including a discussion of the CELSS Conference, detailed analytical equations for mass-balance modeling, plant modeling equations, and parametric data on existing life support systems for use in modeling.

  18. Advanced support systems development and supporting technologies for Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, William E.; Li, Ku-Yen; Yaws, Carl L.; Mei, Harry T.; Nguyen, Vinh D.; Chu, Hsing-Wei

    1994-01-01

    A methyl acetate reactor was developed to perform a subscale kinetic investigation in the design and optimization of a full-scale metabolic simulator for long term testing of life support systems. Other tasks in support of the closed ecological life support system test program included: (1) heating, ventilation and air conditioning analysis of a variable pressure growth chamber, (2) experimental design for statistical analysis of plant crops, (3) resource recovery for closed life support systems, and (4) development of data acquisition software for automating an environmental growth chamber.

  19. Systems simulations supporting NASA telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, F. W., Jr.; Pennington, J. E.

    1987-01-01

    Two simulation and analysis environments have been developed to support telerobotics research at the Langley Research Center. One is a high-fidelity, nonreal-time, interactive model called ROBSIM, which combines user-generated models of workspace environment, robots, and loads into a working system and simulates the interaction among the system components. Models include user-specified actuator, sensor, and control parameters, as well as kinematic and dynamic characteristics. Kinematic, dynamic, and response analyses can be selected, with system configuration, task trajectories, and arm states displayed using computer graphics. The second environment is a real-time, manned Telerobotic Systems Simulation (TRSS) which uses the facilities of the Intelligent Systems Research Laboratory (ISRL). It utilizes a hierarchical structure of functionally distributed computers communicating over both parallel and high-speed serial data paths to enable studies of advanced telerobotic systems. Multiple processes perform motion planning, operator communications, forward and inverse kinematics, control/sensor fusion, and I/O processing while communicating via common memory. Both ROBSIM and TRSS, including their capability, status, and future plans are discussed. Also described is the architecture of ISRL and recent telerobotic system studies in ISRL.

  20. Systems proteomics of liver mitochondria function.

    PubMed

    Williams, Evan G; Wu, Yibo; Jha, Pooja; Dubuis, Sébastien; Blattmann, Peter; Argmann, Carmen A; Houten, Sander M; Amariuta, Tiffany; Wolski, Witold; Zamboni, Nicola; Aebersold, Ruedi; Auwerx, Johan

    2016-06-10

    Recent improvements in quantitative proteomics approaches, including Sequential Window Acquisition of all Theoretical Mass Spectra (SWATH-MS), permit reproducible large-scale protein measurements across diverse cohorts. Together with genomics, transcriptomics, and other technologies, transomic data sets can be generated that permit detailed analyses across broad molecular interaction networks. Here, we examine mitochondrial links to liver metabolism through the genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome of 386 individuals in the BXD mouse reference population. Several links were validated between genetic variants toward transcripts, proteins, metabolites, and phenotypes. Among these, sequence variants in Cox7a2l alter its protein's activity, which in turn leads to downstream differences in mitochondrial supercomplex formation. This data set demonstrates that the proteome can now be quantified comprehensively, serving as a key complement to transcriptomics, genomics, and metabolomics--a combination moving us forward in complex trait analysis. PMID:27284200

  1. System Support for Forensic Inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehani, Ashish; Kirchner, Florent; Shankar, Natarajan

    Digital evidence is playing an increasingly important role in prosecuting crimes. The reasons are manifold: financially lucrative targets are now connected online, systems are so complex that vulnerabilities abound and strong digital identities are being adopted, making audit trails more useful. If the discoveries of forensic analysts are to hold up to scrutiny in court, they must meet the standard for scientific evidence. Software systems are currently developed without consideration of this fact. This paper argues for the development of a formal framework for constructing “digital artifacts” that can serve as proxies for physical evidence; a system so imbued would facilitate sound digital forensic inference. A case study involving a filesystem augmentation that provides transparent support for forensic inference is described.

  2. Lunar lander ground support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This year's project, like the previous Aerospace Group's project, involves a lunar transportation system. The basic time line will be the years 2010-2030 and will be referred to as a second generation system, as lunar bases would be present. The project design completed this year is referred to as the Lunar Lander Ground Support System (LLGSS). The area chosen for analysis encompasses a great number of vehicles and personnel. The design of certain elements of the overall lunar mission are complete projects in themselves. For this reason the project chosen for the Senior Aerospace Design is the design of specific servicing vehicles and additions or modifications to existing vehicles for the area of concern involving servicing and maintenance of the lunar lander while on the surface.

  3. Skylab food system laboratory support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanford, D.

    1974-01-01

    A summary of support activities performed to ensure the quality and reliability of the Skylab food system design is reported. The qualification test program was conducted to verify crew compartment compatibility, and to certify compliance of the food system with nutrition, preparation, and container requirements. Preflight storage requirements and handling procedures were also determined. Information on Skylab food items was compiled including matters pertaining to serving size, preparation information, and mineral, calorie, and protein content. Accessory hardware and the engraving of food utensils were also considered, and a stowage and orientation list was constructed which takes into account menu use sequences, menu items, and hardware stowage restrictions. A food inventory system was established and food thermal storage tests were conducted. Problems and comments pertaining to specific food items carried onboard the Skylab Workshop were compiled.

  4. Hepatic nervous system and neurobiology of the liver.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kendal Jay; Alpini, Gianfranco; Glaser, Shannon

    2013-04-01

    The liver has a nervous system containing both afferent and efferent neurons that are involved in a number of processes. The afferent arm includes the sensation of lipids, glucose, and metabolites (after eating and drinking) and triggers the nervous system to make appropriate physiological changes. The efferent arm is essential for metabolic regulation, modulation of fibrosis and biliary function and the control of a number of other processes. Experimental models have helped us to establish how: (i) the liver is innervated by the autonomic nervous system; and (ii) the cell types that are involved in these processes. Thus, the liver acts as both a sensor and effector that is influenced by neurological signals and ablation. Understanding these processes hold significant implications in disease processes such as diabetes and obesity, which are influenced by appetite and hormonal signals. PMID:23720325

  5. Guidelines for specialized nutritional and metabolic support in the critically-ill patient: update. Consensus SEMICYUC-SENPE: liver failure and liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Montejo González, J C; Mesejo, A; Bonet Saris, A

    2011-11-01

    Patients with liver failure have a high prevalence of malnutrition, which is related to metabolic abnormalities due to the liver disease, reduced nutrient intake and alterations in digestive function, among other factors. In general, in patients with liver failure, metabolic and nutritional support should aim to provide adequate nutrient intake and, at the same time, to contribute to patients' recovery through control or reversal of metabolic alterations. In critically-ill patients with liver failure, current knowledge indicates that the organ failure is not the main factor to be considered when choosing the nutritional regimen. As in other critically-ill patients, the enteral route should be used whenever possible. The composition of the nutritional formula should be adapted to the patient's metabolic stress. Despite the physiopathological basis classically described by some authors who consider amino acid imbalance to be a triggering factor and key element in maintaining encephalopathy, there are insufficient data to recommend "specific" solutions (branched-chain amino acid-enriched with low aromatic amino acids) as part of nutritional support in patients with acute liver failure. In patients undergoing liver transplantation, nutrient intake should be started early in the postoperative period through transpyloric access. Prevention of the hepatic alterations associated with nutritional support should also be considered in distinct clinical scenarios. PMID:22411515

  6. Lunar lander ground support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The design of the Lunar Lander Ground Support System (LLGSS) is examined. The basic design time line is around 2010 to 2030 and is referred to as a second generation system, as lunar bases and equipment would have been present. Present plans for lunar colonization call for a phased return of personnel and materials to the moons's surface. During settlement of lunar bases, the lunar lander is stationary in a very hostile environment and would have to be in a state of readiness for use in case of an emergency. Cargo and personnel would have to be removed from the lander and transported to a safe environment at the lunar base. An integrated system is required to perform these functions. These needs are addressed which center around the design of a lunar lander servicing system. The servicing system could perform several servicing functions to the lander in addition to cargo servicing. The following were considered: (1) reliquify hydrogen boiloff; (2) supply power; and (3) remove or add heat as necessary. The final design incorporates both original designs and existing vehicles and equipment on the surface of the moon at the time considered. The importance of commonality is foremost in the design of any lunar machinery.

  7. Systems engineering considerations for operational support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aller, Robert O.

    1993-01-01

    Operations support as considered here is the infrastructure of people, procedures, facilities and systems that provide NASA with the capability to conduct space missions. This infrastructure involves most of the Centers but is concentrated principally at the Johnson Space Center, the Kennedy Space Center, the Goddard Space Flight Center, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. It includes mission training and planning, launch and recovery, mission control, tracking, communications, data retrieval and data processing.

  8. LiverCancerMarkerRIF: a liver cancer biomarker interactive curation system combining text mining and expert annotations

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Hong-Jie; Wu, Johnny Chi-Yang; Lin, Wei-San; Reyes, Aaron James F.; dela Rosa, Mira Anne C.; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han; Hsu, Wen-Lian

    2014-01-01

    Biomarkers are biomolecules in the human body that can indicate disease states and abnormal biological processes. Biomarkers are often used during clinical trials to identify patients with cancers. Although biomedical research related to biomarkers has increased over the years and substantial effort has been expended to obtain results in these studies, the specific results obtained often contain ambiguities, and the results might contradict each other. Therefore, the information gathered from these studies must be appropriately integrated and organized to facilitate experimentation on biomarkers. In this study, we used liver cancer as the target and developed a text-mining–based curation system named LiverCancerMarkerRIF, which allows users to retrieve biomarker-related narrations and curators to curate supporting evidence on liver cancer biomarkers directly while browsing PubMed. In contrast to most of the other curation tools that require curators to navigate away from PubMed and accommodate distinct user interfaces or Web sites to complete the curation process, our system provides a user-friendly method for accessing text-mining–aided information and a concise interface to assist curators while they remain at the PubMed Web site. Biomedical text-mining techniques are applied to automatically recognize biomedical concepts such as genes, microRNA, diseases and investigative technologies, which can be used to evaluate the potential of a certain gene as a biomarker. Through the participation in the BioCreative IV user-interactive task, we examined the feasibility of using this novel type of augmented browsing-based curation method, and collaborated with curators to curate biomarker evidential sentences related to liver cancer. The positive feedback received from curators indicates that the proposed method can be effectively used for curation. A publicly available online database containing all the aforementioned information has been constructed at http

  9. Bioregenerative life-support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. A.

    1994-01-01

    Long-duration future habitation of space involving great distances from Earth and/or large crew sizes (eg, lunar outpost, Mars base) will require a controlled ecological life-support system (CELSS) to simultaneously revitalize atmosphere (liberate oxygen and fix carbon dioxide), purify water (via transpiration), and generate human food (for a vegetarian diet). Photosynthetic higher plants and algae will provide the essential functions of biomass productivity in a CELSS, and a combination of physicochemical and bioregenerative processes will be used to regenerate renewable resources from waste materials. Crop selection criteria for a CELSS include nutritional use characteristics as well as horticultural characteristics. Cereals, legumes, and oilseed crops are used to provide the major macronutrients for the CELSS diet. A National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Specialized Center of Research and Training (NSCORT) was established at Purdue University to establish proof of the concept of the sustainability of a CELSS. The Biosphere 2 project in Arizona is providing a model for predicted and unpredicted situations that arise as a result of closure in a complex natural ecosystem.

  10. 49 CFR 193.2609 - Support systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Support systems. 193.2609 Section 193.2609 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2609 Support systems. Each support system or foundation of...

  11. Characterization of primary human hepatocyte spheroids as a model system for drug-induced liver injury, liver function and disease.

    PubMed

    Bell, Catherine C; Hendriks, Delilah F G; Moro, Sabrina M L; Ellis, Ewa; Walsh, Joanne; Renblom, Anna; Fredriksson Puigvert, Lisa; Dankers, Anita C A; Jacobs, Frank; Snoeys, Jan; Sison-Young, Rowena L; Jenkins, Rosalind E; Nordling, Åsa; Mkrtchian, Souren; Park, B Kevin; Kitteringham, Neil R; Goldring, Christopher E P; Lauschke, Volker M; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Liver biology and function, drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and liver diseases are difficult to study using current in vitro models such as primary human hepatocyte (PHH) monolayer cultures, as their rapid de-differentiation restricts their usefulness substantially. Thus, we have developed and extensively characterized an easily scalable 3D PHH spheroid system in chemically-defined, serum-free conditions. Using whole proteome analyses, we found that PHH spheroids cultured this way were similar to the liver in vivo and even retained their inter-individual variability. Furthermore, PHH spheroids remained phenotypically stable and retained morphology, viability, and hepatocyte-specific functions for culture periods of at least 5 weeks. We show that under chronic exposure, the sensitivity of the hepatocytes drastically increased and toxicity of a set of hepatotoxins was detected at clinically relevant concentrations. An interesting example was the chronic toxicity of fialuridine for which hepatotoxicity was mimicked after repeated-dosing in the PHH spheroid model, not possible to detect using previous in vitro systems. Additionally, we provide proof-of-principle that PHH spheroids can reflect liver pathologies such as cholestasis, steatosis and viral hepatitis. Combined, our results demonstrate that the PHH spheroid system presented here constitutes a versatile and promising in vitro system to study liver function, liver diseases, drug targets and long-term DILI. PMID:27143246

  12. Characterization of primary human hepatocyte spheroids as a model system for drug-induced liver injury, liver function and disease

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Catherine C.; Hendriks, Delilah F. G.; Moro, Sabrina M. L.; Ellis, Ewa; Walsh, Joanne; Renblom, Anna; Fredriksson Puigvert, Lisa; Dankers, Anita C. A.; Jacobs, Frank; Snoeys, Jan; Sison-Young, Rowena L.; Jenkins, Rosalind E.; Nordling, Åsa; Mkrtchian, Souren; Park, B. Kevin; Kitteringham, Neil R.; Goldring, Christopher E. P.; Lauschke, Volker M.; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Liver biology and function, drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and liver diseases are difficult to study using current in vitro models such as primary human hepatocyte (PHH) monolayer cultures, as their rapid de-differentiation restricts their usefulness substantially. Thus, we have developed and extensively characterized an easily scalable 3D PHH spheroid system in chemically-defined, serum-free conditions. Using whole proteome analyses, we found that PHH spheroids cultured this way were similar to the liver in vivo and even retained their inter-individual variability. Furthermore, PHH spheroids remained phenotypically stable and retained morphology, viability, and hepatocyte-specific functions for culture periods of at least 5 weeks. We show that under chronic exposure, the sensitivity of the hepatocytes drastically increased and toxicity of a set of hepatotoxins was detected at clinically relevant concentrations. An interesting example was the chronic toxicity of fialuridine for which hepatotoxicity was mimicked after repeated-dosing in the PHH spheroid model, not possible to detect using previous in vitro systems. Additionally, we provide proof-of-principle that PHH spheroids can reflect liver pathologies such as cholestasis, steatosis and viral hepatitis. Combined, our results demonstrate that the PHH spheroid system presented here constitutes a versatile and promising in vitro system to study liver function, liver diseases, drug targets and long-term DILI. PMID:27143246

  13. Facility Systems, Ground Support Systems, and Ground Support Equipment General Design Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaxton, Eric A.; Mathews, Roger E.

    2014-01-01

    This standard establishes requirements and guidance for design and fabrication of ground systems (GS) that includes: ground support equipment (GSE), ground support systems (GSS), and facility ground support systems (F GSS) to provide uniform methods and processes for design and development of robust, safe, reliable, maintainable, supportable, and cost-effective GS in support of space flight and institutional programs and projects.

  14. DECISION-SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR DIAGNOSTICS RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Phase 1 of this research, we will identify existing tools, methods, and models available to support establishment of cause-effect relationships. In Phase 2, we will investigate existing decision support systems and produce an appropriate decision support system design. Based ...

  15. Professional Growth & Support System Self-Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resource Strategies, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The "Professional Growth & Support System Self-Assessment" is designed to help school systems evaluate their current Professional Growth & Support strategy. The self-assessment is organized around the "Eight Principles of Strategic Professional Growth & Support." Each section allows school leaders to identify the…

  16. Controlled Ecological Life Support System - CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sager, John C.

    1992-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Program, a NASA effort to develop bioregenerative systems which provide required life support elements for crews on long duration space missions or extraterrestrial planetary colonizations, is briefly discussed. The CELSS analytical requirements are defined in relation to the life support objectives and priorities of a CELSS. The first phase of the CELSS Breadboard Concept is shown.

  17. The Effectiveness of a Novel Cartridge-Based Bioreactor Design in Supporting Liver Cells

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Mei; Hammond, Paul

    2009-01-01

    There are a number of applications—ranging from temporary strategies for organ failure to pharmaceutical testing—that rely on effective bioreactor designs. The significance of these devices is that they provide an environment for maintaining cells in a way that allows them to perform key cellular and tissue functions. In the current study, a novel cartridge-based bioreactor was developed and evaluated. Its unique features include its capacity for cell support and the adaptable design of its cellular space. Specifically, it is able to accommodate functional and reasonably sized tissue (>2.0 × 108 cells), and can be easily modified to support a range of anchorage-dependent cells. To evaluate its efficacy, it was applied to liver support in the current study. This involved evaluating the performance of rat primary hepatocytes within the unique cartridges in culture—sans bioreactor—and after being loaded within the novel bioreactor. Compared to collagen sandwich culture functional controls, hepatocytes within the unique cartridge design demonstrated significantly higher albumin production and urea secretion rates when cultured under dynamic flow conditions—reaching peak values of 170 ± 22 μg/106 cells/day and 195 ± 18 μg/106 cells/day, respectively. The bioreactor's effectiveness in supporting live and functioning primary hepatocytes is also presented. Cell viability at the end of 15 days of culture in the new bioreactor was 84 ± 18%, suggesting that the new design is effective in maintaining primary hepatocytes for at least 2 weeks in culture. Liver-specific functions of urea secretion, albumin synthesis, and cytochrome P450 activity were also assessed. The results indicate that hepatocytes are able to achieve good functional performance when cultured within the novel bioreactor. This is especially true in the case of cytochrome P450 activity, where by day 15 of culture, hepatocytes within the bioreactor reached values that were 56

  18. Supportive therapies for prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence and preservation of liver function.

    PubMed

    Takami, Taro; Yamasaki, Takahiro; Saeki, Issei; Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Suehiro, Yutaka; Sakaida, Isao

    2016-08-28

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the deadliest cancers in the world and is associated with a high risk of recurrence. The development of a wide range of new therapies is therefore essential. In this study, from the perspective of supportive therapy for the prevention of HCC recurrence and preservation of liver function in HCC patients, we surveyed a variety of different therapeutic agents. We show that branched chain amino acids (BCAA) supplementation and late evening snack with BCAA, strategies that address issues of protein-energy malnutrition, are important for liver cirrhotic patients with HCC. For chemoprevention of HCC recurrence, we show that viral control after radical treatment is important. We also reviewed the therapeutic potential of antiviral drugs, sorafenib, peretinoin, iron chelators. Sorafenib is a kinase inhibitor and a standard therapy in the treatment of advanced HCC. Peretinoin is a vitamin A-like molecule that targets the retinoid nuclear receptor to induce apoptosis and inhibit tumor growth in HCC cells. Iron chelators, such as deferoxamine and deferasirox, act to prevent cancer cell growth. These chelators may have potential as combination therapies in conjunction with peretinoin. Finally, we review the potential inhibitory effect of bone marrow cells on hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:27621572

  19. Supportive therapies for prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence and preservation of liver function

    PubMed Central

    Takami, Taro; Yamasaki, Takahiro; Saeki, Issei; Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Suehiro, Yutaka; Sakaida, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the deadliest cancers in the world and is associated with a high risk of recurrence. The development of a wide range of new therapies is therefore essential. In this study, from the perspective of supportive therapy for the prevention of HCC recurrence and preservation of liver function in HCC patients, we surveyed a variety of different therapeutic agents. We show that branched chain amino acids (BCAA) supplementation and late evening snack with BCAA, strategies that address issues of protein-energy malnutrition, are important for liver cirrhotic patients with HCC. For chemoprevention of HCC recurrence, we show that viral control after radical treatment is important. We also reviewed the therapeutic potential of antiviral drugs, sorafenib, peretinoin, iron chelators. Sorafenib is a kinase inhibitor and a standard therapy in the treatment of advanced HCC. Peretinoin is a vitamin A-like molecule that targets the retinoid nuclear receptor to induce apoptosis and inhibit tumor growth in HCC cells. Iron chelators, such as deferoxamine and deferasirox, act to prevent cancer cell growth. These chelators may have potential as combination therapies in conjunction with peretinoin. Finally, we review the potential inhibitory effect of bone marrow cells on hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:27621572

  20. Support Systems for Treatment Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goense, Pauline Brigitta; Boendermaker, Leonieke; van Yperen, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This systematic review evaluates the content of effective support provided to practitioners of evidence-based interventions in order to establish and maintain treatment integrity. Method: Four articles covering six outcome studies are included in this review, these studies (1) adequately operationalized treatment integrity procedures…

  1. Developing Information Systems for Competitive Intelligence Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohhof, Bonnie

    1994-01-01

    Discusses issues connected with developing information systems for competitive intelligence support; defines the elements of an effective competitive information system; and summarizes issues affecting system design and implementation. Highlights include intelligence information; information needs; information sources; decision making; and…

  2. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... to run events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community ... Liver > Liver Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn ...

  3. Development of a New Diagnostic System for Human Liver Diseases Based on Conventional Ultrasonic Diagnostic Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Tsuneo; Nakazawa, Toshihiro; Harada, Akimitsu; Sato, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Yukio; Sato, Sojun

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, the authors present the experimental results of using a quantitative ultrasonic diagnosis technique for human liver diseases using the fractal dimension (FD) of the shape of the power spectra (PS) of RF signals. We have developed an experimental system based on a conventional ultrasonic diagnostic system. As a result, we show that normal livers, fatty livers and liver cirrhosis can be identified using the FD values.

  4. Academic Support Systems: A Networked Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingenstein, Kenneth

    1984-01-01

    Academic support systems are characterized as those activities that center around a dean's office--office automation/information systems, institutional research and electronic communication. The basic and design and implementation issues that are encountered in providing these support systems are examined. (Author/MLW)

  5. Academic Support Systems: A Networked Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingenstein, Kenneth J.

    Basic design and implementation issues encountered in providing academic support systems are examined. "Academic support systems" describes the growing class of university computing that is being developed to integrate administrative computing environments. These systems may be typically characterized by the activities that center around a dean's…

  6. Assessment of Readiness for Clinical Decision Support to Aid Laboratory Monitoring of Immunosuppressive Care at U.S. Liver Transplant Centers

    PubMed Central

    Weir, C.; Evans, R. S.; Staes, C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Following liver transplantation, patients require lifelong immunosuppressive care and monitoring. Computerized clinical decision support (CDS) has been shown to improve post-transplant immunosuppressive care processes and outcomes. The readiness of transplant information systems to implement computerized CDS to support post-transplant care is unknown. Objectives a) Describe the current clinical information system functionality and manual and automated processes for laboratory monitoring of immunosuppressive care, b) describe the use of guidelines that may be used to produce computable logic and the use of computerized alerts to support guideline adherence, and c) explore barriers to implementation of CDS in U.S. liver transplant centers. Methods We developed a web-based survey using cognitive interviewing techniques. We surveyed 119 U.S. transplant programs that performed at least five liver transplantations per year during 2010–2012. Responses were summarized using descriptive analyses; barriers were identified using qualitative methods. Results Respondents from 80 programs (67% response rate) completed the survey. While 98% of programs reported having an electronic health record (EHR), all programs used paper-based manual processes to receive or track immunosuppressive laboratory results. Most programs (85%) reported that 30% or more of their patients used external laboratories for routine testing. Few programs (19%) received most external laboratory results as discrete data via electronic interfaces while most (80%) manually entered laboratory results into the EHR; less than half (42%) could integrate internal and external laboratory results. Nearly all programs had guidelines regarding pre-specified target ranges (92%) or testing schedules (97%) for managing immunosuppressive care. Few programs used computerized alerting to notify transplant coordinators of out-of-range (27%) or overdue laboratory results (20%). Conclusions Use of EHRs is

  7. Unmanned systems win unexpected support

    SciTech Connect

    Schneiderman, R.

    1991-09-01

    A review of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is presented in which emphasis is given to recent mission accomplishments and current directions of research. Existing and new military UAV programs are listed with reference to funding, the type of vehicle, and level of development. Several trends are established including the reliance of UVAs on global positioning satellites and advanced electronics and the growth of the UVA industry. UVAs that are in advanced stages of development or have been deployed include short-range UAV such as the Pioneer, the Pointer, the Sky Owl, and the Hunter. Key UAV systems are described such as the Advanced Tactical Airborne Reconnaissance System, the Maritime Vertical Takeoff and Landing, and other VTOL systems. Very small UVAs and Exdrones are also discussed, and a weather reconnaissance system and surveillance systems are mentioned.

  8. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems and Power Systems ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Environmental Control and Life Support Systems and Power Systems - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  9. In vitro evidence in rainbow trout supporting glucosensing mediated by sweet taste receptor, LXR, and mitochondrial activity in Brockmann bodies, and sweet taste receptor in liver.

    PubMed

    Otero-Rodiño, Cristina; Velasco, Cristina; Álvarez-Otero, Rosa; López-Patiño, Marcos A; Míguez, Jesús M; Soengas, José L

    2016-10-01

    We previously obtained evidence in rainbow trout peripheral tissues such as liver and Brockmann bodies (BB) for the presence and response to changes in circulating levels of glucose (induced by intraperitoneal hypoglycaemic and hyperglycaemic treatments) of glucosensing mechanisms others than that mediated by glucokinase (GK). There were based on mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to increased expression of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), and sweet taste receptor in liver and BB, and on liver X receptor (LXR) and sodium/glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT-1) in BB. We aimed in the present study to obtain further in vitro evidence for the presence and functioning of these systems. In a first experiment, pools of sliced liver and BB were incubated for 6h at 15°C in modified Hanks' medium containing 2, 4, or 8mM d-glucose, and we assessed the response of parameters related to these glucosensing mechanisms. In a second experiment, pools of sliced liver and BB were incubated for 6h at 15°C in modified Hanks' medium with 8mM d-glucose alone (control) or containing 1mM phloridzin (SGLT-1 antagonist), 20μM genipin (UCP2 inhibitor), 1μM trolox (ROS scavenger), 100μM bezafibrate (T1R3 inhibitor), and 50μM geranyl-geranyl pyrophosphate (LXR inhibitor). The results obtained in both experiments support the presence and functioning of glucosensor mechanisms in liver based on sweet taste receptor whereas in BB the evidence support those based on LXR, mitochondrial activity and sweet taste receptor. PMID:27139261

  10. Controlled Ecological Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Averner, Maurice M.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA CELLS program is based upon the integration of biological and physiochemical processes in order to produce a system that will produce food, a breathable atmosphere, and potable water from metabolic and other wastes. The CELSS concept is described and a schematic system diagram is provided. Central to the CELSS concept is the Plant Growth Chamber, where green plant photosynthesis produces food, and aids in the production of oxygen and water. Progress to date at the Breadboard Facility at the Kennedy Space Center is summarized. The Breadboard Facility will implement the basic techniques and processes required for a CELSS based on photosynthetic plant growth in a ground-based system of practical size and results will be extrapolated to predict the performance of a full-sized system. Current available technology and near-future forecasts for plant growth techniques (focusing on maximum productivity), food sources (to select optimal CELSS plants), and waste management and contaminant control are discussed.

  11. Supporting Multiple Cognitive Processing Styles Using Tailored Support Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tuan Q. Tran; Karen M. Feigh; Amy R. Pritchett

    2007-08-01

    According to theories of cognitive processing style or cognitive control mode, human performance is more effective when an individual’s cognitive state (e.g., intuition/scramble vs. deliberate/strategic) matches his/her ecological constraints or context (e.g., utilize intuition to strive for a "good-enough" response instead of deliberating for the "best" response under high time pressure). Ill-mapping between cognitive state and ecological constraints are believed to lead to degraded task performance. Consequently, incorporating support systems which are designed to specifically address multiple cognitive and functional states e.g., high workload, stress, boredom, and initiate appropriate mitigation strategies (e.g., reduce information load) is essential to reduce plant risk. Utilizing the concept of Cognitive Control Models, this paper will discuss the importance of tailoring support systems to match an operator's cognitive state, and will further discuss the importance of these ecological constraints in selecting and implementing mitigation strategies for safe and effective system performance. An example from the nuclear power plant industry illustrating how a support system might be tailored to support different cognitive states is included.

  12. Integrated support systems for electric utility operations

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, H.W.; Imparato, C.F.; Becker, D.L.; Malinowski, J.H. )

    1992-01-01

    Power system dispatch, the real-time monitoring and coordination of transmission and generation facilities, is the focal point of power system operations. However, dispatch is just one of the many duties of the typical power system operations department. Many computer-based tools and systems are used in support of these duties. Energy management systems (EMS), the centralized, mainframe-, or mini-computer-based systems that support dispatch, have been widely publicized, but few of the other support systems have been given much notice. This article provides an overview of these support tools and systems, frames the major issues faced in systems integration, and describes the path taken to integrate EMS, workstations, desktop computers, networks and applications. Network architecture enables the distribution of real-time operations data throughout the company, from EMS to power plants to district offices, on an unprecedented scale.

  13. Controlled Ecological Life Support System. Life Support Systems in Space Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, R. D. (Editor); Smernoff, D. T. (Editor); Klein, H. P. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Life support systems in space travel, in closed ecological systems were studied. Topics discussed include: (1) problems of life support and the fundamental concepts of bioregeneration; (2) technology associated with physical/chemical regenerative life support; (3) projection of the break even points for various life support techniques; (4) problems of controlling a bioregenerative life support system; (5) data on the operation of an experimental algal/mouse life support system; (6) industrial concepts of bioregenerative life support; and (7) Japanese concepts of bioregenerative life support and associated biological experiments to be conducted in the space station.

  14. Liver lipid content of twenty varieties of laying hens from three confinement systems.

    PubMed

    Garlich, J D; Olson, J D; Huff, W E; Hamilton, P B

    1975-05-01

    Average liver lipid values were determined for 20 varieties of 71-week old laying hens managed in 3 confinement systems of the 1972-73 North Carolina Random Sample Laying Test. There were highly significant differences in liver lipid atrributable to variety, to confinement system, and a significant variety X system interaction. Four varieties had consistently high and five had consistently low liver lipid values in all 3 confinement systems. Varietymeans ranged from 25.8 to 49.0% liver lipid on a dry weight basis. Hens confined 2/cage had slight but significantly higher liver lipid than hens 7/cage or in floor pens. Liver lipid was positively correlated with body weight in hens 2/cage and in floor pens. There were no significant correlations of liver lipid with egg production or mortality. A frequency distribution of individual liver lipid values revealed a continuous distribution from 15.4 to 65.4with a pronounced skew to the right of the mean of 38.2%. Neither a fatty liver syndrome nor liver hemorrhage syndrome was reported for any of the flocks during the laying year. The normal range of liver lipid values for hens 71 weeks of age appears to be between 25 and 49 g. of lipid per 100 g. of dry liver weight. PMID:1153379

  15. Beyond the Pediatric end-stage liver disease system: solutions for infants with biliary atresia requiring liver transplant.

    PubMed

    Tessier, Mary Elizabeth M; Harpavat, Sanjiv; Shepherd, Ross W; Hiremath, Girish S; Brandt, Mary L; Fisher, Amy; Goss, John A

    2014-08-28

    Biliary atresia (BA), a chronic progressive cholestatic disease of infants, is the leading cause for liver transplant in children, especially in patients under two years of age. BA can be successfully treated with the Kasai portoenterostomy; however most patients still require a liver transplant, with up to one half of BA children needing a transplant by age two. In the current pediatric end-stage liver disease system, children with BA face the risk of not receiving a liver in a safe and timely manner. In this review, we discuss a number of possible solutions to help these children. We focus on two general approaches: (1) preventing/delaying need for transplantation, by optimizing the success of the Kasai operation; and (2) expediting transplantation when needed, by performing techniques other than the standard deceased-donor, whole, ABO-matched organ transplant. PMID:25170195

  16. Developing Sustainable Life Support System Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Evan A.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable spacecraft life support concepts may allow the development of more reliable technologies for long duration space missions. Currently, life support technologies at different levels of development are not well evaluated against each other, and evaluation methods do not account for long term reliability and sustainability of the hardware. This paper presents point-of-departure sustainability evaluation criteria for life support systems, that may allow more robust technology development, testing and comparison. An example sustainable water recovery system concept is presented.

  17. Instructional Support Software System. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Co. - East, St. Louis, MO.

    This report describes the development of the Instructional Support System (ISS), a large-scale, computer-based training system that supports both computer-assisted instruction and computer-managed instruction. Written in the Ada programming language, the ISS software package is designed to be machine independent. It is also grouped into functional…

  18. Business Management System Support Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parikh, Jay

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to develop a searchable database compiled with internal and external audit findings/observations. The data will correspond to the findings and observations from the date of Center-wide implementation of the ISO 9001-2000 standard to the present (2003-2008). It was derived and extracted from several sources and was in multiple formats. Once extracted, categorization of the findings/observations would be possible. The final data was mapped to the ISO 9001-2000 standard with the understanding that it will be displayed graphically. The data will be used to verify trends, associate risks, and establish timelines to identify strengths and weaknesses to determine areas of improvement in the Kennedy Space Center Business Management System Internal Audit Program.

  19. Advanced Group Support Systems and Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Malone, John B. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    The document contains the proceedings of the Workshop on Advanced Group Support Systems and Facilities held at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, July 19-20, 1999. The workshop was jointly sponsored by the University of Virginia Center for Advanced Computational Technology and NASA. Workshop attendees came from NASA, other government agencies, industry, and universities. The objectives of the workshop were to assess the status of advanced group support systems and to identify the potential of these systems for use in future collaborative distributed design and synthesis environments. The presentations covered the current status and effectiveness of different group support systems.

  20. Innovative secondary support systems for gate roads

    SciTech Connect

    Barczak, T.; Molinda, G.M.; Zelanko, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    With the development of the shield support, the primary requirement for successful ground control in longwall mining is to provide stable gate road and bleeder entries. Wood cribbing has been the dominant form of secondary and supplemental support. However, the cost and limited availability of timber, along with the poor performance of softwood crib supports, has forced western U.S. mines to explore the utilization of support systems other than conventional wood cribbing. The recent success of cable bolts has engendered much interest from western operators. Eastern U.S. coal operators are also now experimenting with various intrinsic and freestanding alternative support systems that provide effective ground control while reducing material handling costs and injuries. These innovative freestanding support systems include (1) {open_quotes}The Can{close_quotes} support by Burrell Mining Products International, Inc., (2) Hercules and Link-N-Lock wood cribs and Propsetter supports by Strata Products (USA) Inc., (3) Variable Yielding Crib and Power Crib supports by Mountainland Support Systems, (4) the Confined Core Crib developed by Southern Utah Fuels Corporation; and (5) the MEGA prop by MBK Hydraulik. This paper assesses design considerations and compares the performance and application of these alternative secondary support systems. Support performance in the form of load-displacement behavior is compared to conventional wood cribbing. Much of the data was developed through full-scale tests conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) at the Strategic Structures Testing Laboratory in the unique Mine Roof Simulator load frame at the Pittsburgh Research Center. A summary of current mine experience with these innovative supports is also documented.

  1. Liver disease - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - liver disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on liver disease : American Liver Foundation -- www.liverfoundation.org Children's Liver Association for Support Services -- www.classkids.org Hepatitis ...

  2. Life Support Systems Microbial Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Monsi C.

    2010-01-01

    Many microbiological studies were performed during the development of the Space Station Water Recovery and Management System from1990-2009. Studies include assessments of: (1) bulk phase (planktonic) microbial population (2) biofilms, (3) microbially influenced corrosion (4) biofouling treatments. This slide presentation summarizes the studies performed to assess the bulk phase microbial community during the Space Station Water Recovery Tests (WRT) from 1990 to 1998. This report provides an overview of some of the microbiological analyses performed during the Space Station WRT program. These tests not only integrated several technologies with the goal of producing water that met NASA s potable water specifications, but also integrated humans, and therefore human flora into the protocols. At the time these tests were performed, not much was known (or published) about the microbial composition of these types of wastewater. It is important to note that design changes to the WRS have been implemented over the years and results discussed in this report might be directly related to test configurations that were not chosen for the final flight configuration. Results microbiological analyses performed Conclusion from the during the WRT showed that it was possible to recycle water from different sources, including urine, and produce water that can exceed the quality of municipally produced water.

  3. Automated CPX support system preliminary design phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bordeaux, T. A.; Carson, E. T.; Hepburn, C. D.; Shinnick, F. M.

    1984-01-01

    The development of the Distributed Command and Control System (DCCS) is discussed. The development of an automated C2 system stimulated the development of an automated command post exercise (CPX) support system to provide a more realistic stimulus to DCCS than could be achieved with the existing manual system. An automated CPX system to support corps-level exercise was designed. The effort comprised four tasks: (1) collecting and documenting user requirements; (2) developing a preliminary system design; (3) defining a program plan; and (4) evaluating the suitability of the TRASANA FOURCE computer model.

  4. Thermodynamic Considerations in Solid Adsorption of Bound Solutes for Patient Support in Liver Failure

    PubMed Central

    Patzer, John F.

    2008-01-01

    New detoxification modes of treatment for liver failure that use solid adsorbents to remove toxins bound to albumin in the patient bloodstream are entering clinical evaluations, frequently in head-to-head competition. While generally effective in reducing toxin concentration beyond that obtainable by conventional dialysis procedures, the solid adsorbent processes are largely the result of heuristic development. Understanding the principles and limitations inherent in competitive toxin binding, albumin versus solid adsorbent, will enhance the design process and, possibly, improve detoxification performance. An equilibrium thermodynamic analysis is presented for both the Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS) and Fractionated Plasma Separation, Adsorption, and Dialysis System (Prometheus), two advanced systems with distinctly different operating modes but with similar equilibrium limitations. The Prometheus analysis also applies to two newer approaches: sorbent suspension reactor (SSR) and microspheres-based detoxification system (MDS). Primary results from the thermodynamic analysis are that: (1) the solute-albumin binding constant is of minor importance to equilibrium once it exceeds about 105 L mol−1; (2) the Prometheus approach requires larger solid adsorbent columns than calculated by adsorbent solute capacity alone; and (3) the albumin-containing recycle stream in the MARS approach is a major reservoir of removed toxin. A survey of published results indicates that MARS is operating under mass transfer control dictated by solute-albumin equilibrium in the recycle stream and Prometheus is approaching equilibrium limits under current clinical protocols. PMID:18638303

  5. Development of a decision support tool to facilitate primary care management of patients with abnormal liver function tests without clinically apparent liver disease [HTA03/38/02]. Abnormal Liver Function Investigations Evaluation (ALFIE)

    PubMed Central

    Donnan, Peter T; McLernon, David; Steinke, Douglas; Ryder, Stephen; Roderick, Paul; Sullivan, Frank M; Rosenberg, William; Dillon, John F

    2007-01-01

    Background Liver function tests (LFTs) are routinely performed in primary care, and are often the gateway to further invasive and/or expensive investigations. Little is known of the consequences in people with an initial abnormal liver function (ALF) test in primary care and with no obvious liver disease. Further investigations may be dangerous for the patient and expensive for Health Services. The aims of this study are to determine the natural history of abnormalities in LFTs before overt liver disease presents in the population and identify those who require minimal further investigations with the potential for reduction in NHS costs. Methods/Design A population-based retrospective cohort study will follow up all those who have had an incident liver function test (LFT) in primary care to subsequent liver disease or mortality over a period of 15 years (approx. 2.3 million tests in 99,000 people). The study is set in Primary Care in the region of Tayside, Scotland (pop approx. 429,000) between 1989 and 2003. The target population consists of patients with no recorded clinical signs or symptoms of liver disease and registered with a GP. The health technologies being assessed are LFTs, viral and auto-antibody tests, ultrasound, CT, MRI and liver biopsy. The study will utilise the Epidemiology of Liver Disease In Tayside (ELDIT) database to determine the outcomes of liver disease. These are based on hospital admission data (Scottish Morbidity Record 1), dispensed medication records, death certificates, and examination of medical records from Tayside hospitals. A sample of patients (n = 150) with recent initial ALF tests or invitation to biopsy will complete questionnaires to obtain quality of life data and anxiety measures. Cost-effectiveness and cost utility Markov model analyses will be performed from health service and patient perspectives using standard NHS costs. The findings will also be used to develop a computerised clinical decision support tool. Discussion

  6. Network support for system initiated checkpoints

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip

    2013-01-29

    A system, method and computer program product for supporting system initiated checkpoints in parallel computing systems. The system and method generates selective control signals to perform checkpointing of system related data in presence of messaging activity associated with a user application running at the node. The checkpointing is initiated by the system such that checkpoint data of a plurality of network nodes may be obtained even in the presence of user applications running on highly parallel computers that include ongoing user messaging activity.

  7. Mathematical Modeling Of Life-Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshan, Panchalam K.; Ganapathi, Balasubramanian; Jan, Darrell L.; Ferrall, Joseph F.; Rohatgi, Naresh K.

    1994-01-01

    Generic hierarchical model of life-support system developed to facilitate comparisons of options in design of system. Model represents combinations of interdependent subsystems supporting microbes, plants, fish, and land animals (including humans). Generic model enables rapid configuration of variety of specific life support component models for tradeoff studies culminating in single system design. Enables rapid evaluation of effects of substituting alternate technologies and even entire groups of technologies and subsystems. Used to synthesize and analyze life-support systems ranging from relatively simple, nonregenerative units like aquariums to complex closed-loop systems aboard submarines or spacecraft. Model, called Generic Modular Flow Schematic (GMFS), coded in such chemical-process-simulation languages as Aspen Plus and expressed as three-dimensional spreadsheet.

  8. Design Rules for Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2002-01-01

    This paper considers some of the common assumptions and engineering rules of thumb used in life support system design. One general design rule is that the longer the mission, the more the life support system should use recycling and regenerable technologies. A more specific rule is that, if the system grows more than half the food, the food plants will supply all the oxygen needed for the crew life support. There are many such design rules that help in planning the analysis of life support systems and in checking results. These rules are typically if-then statements describing the results of steady-state, "back of the envelope," mass flow calculations. They are useful in identifying plausible candidate life support system designs and in rough allocations between resupply and resource recovery. Life support system designers should always review the design rules and make quick steady state calculations before doing detailed design and dynamic simulation. This paper develops the basis for the different assumptions and design rules and discusses how they should be used. We start top-down, with the highest level requirement to sustain human beings in a closed environment off Earth. We consider the crew needs for air, water, and food. We then discuss atmosphere leakage and recycling losses. The needs to support the crew and to make up losses define the fundamental life support system requirements. We consider the trade-offs between resupplying and recycling oxygen, water, and food. The specific choices between resupply and recycling are determined by mission duration, presence of in-situ resources, etc., and are defining parameters of life support system design.

  9. Chip-based human liver-intestine and liver-skin co-cultures--A first step toward systemic repeated dose substance testing in vitro.

    PubMed

    Maschmeyer, Ilka; Hasenberg, Tobias; Jaenicke, Annika; Lindner, Marcus; Lorenz, Alexandra Katharina; Zech, Julie; Garbe, Leif-Alexander; Sonntag, Frank; Hayden, Patrick; Ayehunie, Seyoum; Lauster, Roland; Marx, Uwe; Materne, Eva-Maria

    2015-09-01

    Systemic repeated dose safety assessment and systemic efficacy evaluation of substances are currently carried out on laboratory animals and in humans due to the lack of predictive alternatives. Relevant international regulations, such as OECD and ICH guidelines, demand long-term testing and oral, dermal, inhalation, and systemic exposure routes for such evaluations. So-called "human-on-a-chip" concepts are aiming to replace respective animals and humans in substance evaluation with miniaturized functional human organisms. The major technical hurdle toward success in this field is the life-like combination of human barrier organ models, such as intestine, lung or skin, with parenchymal organ equivalents, such as liver, at the smallest biologically acceptable scale. Here, we report on a reproducible homeostatic long-term co-culture of human liver equivalents with either a reconstructed human intestinal barrier model or a human skin biopsy applying a microphysiological system. We used a multi-organ chip (MOC) platform, which provides pulsatile fluid flow within physiological ranges at low media-to-tissue ratios. The MOC supports submerse cultivation of an intact intestinal barrier model and an air-liquid interface for the skin model during their co-culture with the liver equivalents respectively at (1)/100.000 the scale of their human counterparts in vivo. To increase the degree of organismal emulation, microfluidic channels of the liver-skin co-culture could be successfully covered with human endothelial cells, thus mimicking human vasculature, for the first time. Finally, exposure routes emulating oral and systemic administration in humans have been qualified by applying a repeated dose administration of a model substance - troglitazone - to the chip-based co-cultures. PMID:25857839

  10. HIF-1{alpha} is necessary to support gluconeogenesis during liver regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Tajima, Toshihide; Goda, Nobuhito; Fujiki, Natsuko; Hishiki, Takako; Nishiyama, Yasumasa; Senoo-Matsuda, Nanami; Shimazu, Motohide; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Yoshimura, Yasunori; Johnson, Randall S.; Suematsu, Makoto

    2009-10-02

    Coordinated recovery of hepatic glucose metabolism is prerequisite for normal liver regeneration. To examine roles of hypoxia inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) for hepatic glucose homeostasis during the reparative process, we inactivated the gene in hepatocytes in vivo. Following partial hepatectomy (PH), recovery of residual liver weight was initially retarded in the mutant mice by down-regulation of hepatocyte proliferation, but occurred comparably between the mutant and control mice at 72 h after PH. At this time point, the mutant mice showed lowered blood glucose levels with enhanced accumulation of glycogen in the liver. The mutant mice exhibited impairment of hepatic gluconeogenesis as assessed by alanine tolerance test. This appeared to result from reduced expression of PGK-1 and PEPCK since 3-PG, PEP and malate were accumulated to greater extents in the regenerated liver. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence for roles of HIF-1{alpha} in the regulation of gluconeogenesis under liver regeneration.

  11. Macrophage-secreted granulin supports pancreatic cancer metastasis by inducing liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Sebastian R; Quaranta, Valeria; Linford, Andrea; Emeagi, Perpetua; Rainer, Carolyn; Santos, Almudena; Ireland, Lucy; Sakai, Takao; Sakai, Keiko; Kim, Yong-Sam; Engle, Dannielle; Campbell, Fiona; Palmer, Daniel; Ko, Jeong Heon; Tuveson, David A; Hirsch, Emilio; Mielgo, Ainhoa; Schmid, Michael C

    2016-05-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a devastating metastatic disease for which better therapies are urgently needed. Macrophages enhance metastasis in many cancer types; however, the role of macrophages in PDAC liver metastasis remains poorly understood. Here we found that PDAC liver metastasis critically depends on the early recruitment of granulin-secreting inflammatory monocytes to the liver. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that granulin secretion by metastasis-associated macrophages (MAMs) activates resident hepatic stellate cells (hStCs) into myofibroblasts that secrete periostin, resulting in a fibrotic microenvironment that sustains metastatic tumour growth. Disruption of MAM recruitment or genetic depletion of granulin reduced hStC activation and liver metastasis. Interestingly, we found that circulating monocytes and hepatic MAMs in PDAC patients express high levels of granulin. These findings suggest that recruitment of granulin-expressing inflammatory monocytes plays a key role in PDAC metastasis and may serve as a potential therapeutic target for PDAC liver metastasis. PMID:27088855

  12. Closed-Loop Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, John W.

    2003-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Advanced life support requirements document-high level: (a) high level requirements and standards, (b) advanced life support requirements documents-air, food, water. 2. Example technologies that satisfy requrements: air system-carbon dioxide removal. 3. Air-sabatter. 4. International Space Station water treatment subsystem.5. Direct osmotic concentrator. 6. Mass, volume and power estimates.

  13. Developing Electronic Performance Support Systems for Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Michael P.; And Others

    This paper discusses a variety of development strategies and issues involved in the development of electronic performance support systems (EPSS) for professionals. The topics of front-end analysis, development, and evaluation are explored in the context of a case study involving the development of an EPSS to support teachers in the use of…

  14. Perspectives on Electronic Performance Support Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, Glenda Rose; Yang, Chia-Shing

    The complexity of the modern workplace means that decision makers are entertaining the idea of providing employees with software applications that are designed to provide true support and on-the-job training from the employee's desktop computer. An electronic performance support system (EPSS) is the tool that can make such training a reality when…

  15. 14 CFR 417.307 - Support systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... subsystem, component, and part that can affect the reliability of the support system must have written... recording system required by paragraph (e) of this section. (d) Communications network. A flight safety system must include a communications network that connects all flight safety functions with all...

  16. QA CLASSIFICATION ANALYSIS OF GROUND SUPPORT SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    D. W. Gwyn

    1996-10-29

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to determine if the permanent function Ground Support Systems (CI: BABEEOOOO) are quality-affecting items and if so, to establish the appropriate Quality Assurance (QA) classification.

  17. Controlled Ecological Life-Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, Robert D.

    1992-01-01

    Document contains proceedings of February, 1989 meeting of Scientists of NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) program. Includes 25 scientific papers and bibliography of CELSS documents published as NASA reports.

  18. STEP-AIRSEDS System Engineering Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowell, Tom; Taliaferro, Lanny

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes and highlights the activities in support of the Space Transportation using Electrodynamic Propulsion Atmospheric Ionospheric Research Small Expendable Deployer Satellite (STEP-AIRSEDS) Project for the period of May 16, 2000 through September 28, 2001. The Alpha Technology, Inc. was tasked to provide support to the MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) in requirements development and in verification activities. Specifically, the Alpha Technology, Inc. task was to: (1) develop and maintain the STEP-AIRSEDS Project System Requirements Database; (2) develop and maintain the STEP-AIRSEDS requirements verification definition and planning support database; (3) perform requirements flow down analysis of STEP-AIRSEDS Project System Requirements to TMTC (The Michigan Technic Corporation) Level IV Requirements; (4) provide system engineering guidance to the Project as needed; (5) provide guidance to TMTC in preparation of Level IV Requirements; and (6) provide support to STEP-AIRSEDS meetings, reviews, and telecons as needed.

  19. Life support systems for Mars transit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, R. D.; Kliss, M.; Straight, C.

    1992-01-01

    The structural elements of life-support systems are reviewed in order to assess the suitability of specific features for use during a Mars mission. Life-support requirements are estimated by means of an approximate input/output analysis, and the advantages are listed relating to the use of recycling and regeneration techniques. The technological options for regeneration are presented in categories such as CO2 reduction, organics removal, polishing, food production, and organics oxidation. These data form the basis of proposed mission requirements and constraints as well as the definition of what constitutes an adequate reserve. Regenerative physical/chemical life-support systems are championed based exclusively on the mass savings inherent in the technology. The resiliency and 'soft' failure modes of bioregenerative life-support systems are identified as areas of investigation.

  20. Learning to Control Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramanian, Devika

    2004-01-01

    Advanced life support systems have many interacting processes and limited resources. Controlling and optimizing advanced life support systems presents unique challenges. In particular, advanced life support systems are nonlinear coupled dynamical systems and it is difficult for humans to take all interactions into account to design an effective control strategy. In this project. we developed several reinforcement learning controllers that actively explore the space of possible control strategies, guided by rewards from a user specified long term objective function. We evaluated these controllers using a discrete event simulation of an advanced life support system. This simulation, called BioSim, designed by Nasa scientists David Kortenkamp and Scott Bell has multiple, interacting life support modules including crew, food production, air revitalization, water recovery, solid waste incineration and power. They are implemented in a consumer/producer relationship in which certain modules produce resources that are consumed by other modules. Stores hold resources between modules. Control of this simulation is via adjusting flows of resources between modules and into/out of stores. We developed adaptive algorithms that control the flow of resources in BioSim. Our learning algorithms discovered several ingenious strategies for maximizing mission length by controlling the air and water recycling systems as well as crop planting schedules. By exploiting non-linearities in the overall system dynamics, the learned controllers easily out- performed controllers written by human experts. In sum, we accomplished three goals. We (1) developed foundations for learning models of coupled dynamical systems by active exploration of the state space, (2) developed and tested algorithms that learn to efficiently control air and water recycling processes as well as crop scheduling in Biosim, and (3) developed an understanding of the role machine learning in designing control systems for

  1. Defensive And Supportive Communications In Family Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, James F.

    1973-01-01

    An evaluation of the application of Systems Theory concepts to family functioning involving 21 families provides data which demonstrates that normal families behave as adaptive systems, both in generating and reciprocating high rates of supportiveness. Information is also obtained concerning a possible cause of aggressive behavior. (RP)

  2. Decision support system for nursing management control

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    A knowledge representation approach for expert systems supporting decision processes in business is proposed. A description of a knowledge representation schema using a logic programming metalanguage is described, then the role of such a schema in a management expert system is demonstrated through the problem of nursing management control in hospitals. 18 references.

  3. Systemic Thinking To Support Dine Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rude, Harvey; Gorman, Roxanne

    This paper describes systemic thinking in support of the recently established Navajo Nation Rural Systemic Initiative (RSI). The RSI aims to create a standards-based student-centered teaching and learning environment in mathematics, science, and technology in the 173 elementary and secondary schools on or near the Navajo Nation, including public,…

  4. Building Bridges: Supporting Families across Service Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Kathy, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This double issue of the journal "Report" focuses on the collaboration among seven social service systems that support and serve children and families. Each of the sections discusses one of the seven systems, presents an overview essay, and profiles programs that execute the service. The first section, on education, emphasizes linkages between…

  5. 1991 NASA Life Support Systems Analysis workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evanich, Peggy L.; Crabb, Thomas M.; Gartrell, Charles F.

    1992-01-01

    The 1991 Life Support Systems Analysis Workshop was sponsored by NASA Headquarters' Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) to foster communication among NASA, industrial, and academic specialists, and to integrate their inputs and disseminate information to them. The overall objective of systems analysis within the Life Support Technology Program of OAST is to identify, guide the development of, and verify designs which will increase the performance of the life support systems on component, subsystem, and system levels for future human space missions. The specific goals of this workshop were to report on the status of systems analysis capabilities, to integrate the chemical processing industry technologies, and to integrate recommendations for future technology developments related to systems analysis for life support systems. The workshop included technical presentations, discussions, and interactive planning, with time allocated for discussion of both technology status and time-phased technology development recommendations. Key personnel from NASA, industry, and academia delivered inputs and presentations on the status and priorities of current and future systems analysis methods and requirements.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF A TOXICITY TEST SYSTEM USING PRIMARY RAT LIVER CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A model in vitro rat liver parenchymal cellular toxicity system employing cells obtained by the in situ collagenase perfusion technique has been developed to detect potential liver toxicants. The initial evaluation of this test system was accomplished using cadmium chloride, chro...

  7. Support systems for mineral mining installations

    SciTech Connect

    Tengler, J.; Von Viebahn, H.E.

    1980-03-11

    A mineral mining installation has a longwall scraper-chain conveyor with a machine, such as a plough, guided for movement back and forth alongside the conveyor to win mineral from a longwall face. A roof support system which may be arranged at the ends of the longwall working, i.e., at the so-called stable zones , is composed of several units each with hydraulic props protected within cylindrical telescopic casings. Each support unit may be displaceable as a whole to follow the working progress or else each support unit may be constructed with front and rear frame assemblies which are relatively displaceable. Each support unit has at least five narrow elongate roof bars disposed closely side-by-side in parallelism. The roof bars are guided for longitudinal advancement and hydraulic rams serve to advance the roof bars individually or in groups. A similar arrangement may also be employed as the floor structure of each support unit.

  8. Support systems of the orbiting quarantine facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The physical support systems, the personnel management structure, and the contingency systems necessary to permit the Orbiting Quarantine Facility (OQF) to function as an integrated system are described. The interactions between the subsystems within the preassembled modules are illustrated. The Power Module generates and distributes electrical power throughout each of the four modules, stabilizes the OQF's attitude, and dissipates heat generated throughout the system. The Habitation Module is a multifunctional structure designed to monitor and control all aspects of the system's activities. The Logistics Module stores the supplies needed for 30 days of operation and provides storage for waste materials generated during the mission. The Laboratory Module contains the equipment necessary for executing the protocol, as well as an independent life support system.

  9. Support systems of the orbiting quarantine facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The physical support systems, the personnel management structure, and the contingency systems necessary to permit the Orbiting Quarantine Facility (OQF) to function as an integrated system are described. The interactions between the subsystems within the preassembled modules are illustrated. The Power Module generates and distributes electrical power throughout each of the four modules, stabilizes the OQF's attitude, and dissipates heat generated throughout the system. The Habitation Module is a multifunctional structure designed to monitor and control all aspects of the system's activities. The Logistics Module stores the supplies needed for 30 days of operation and provides storage for waste materials generated during the mission. The Laboratory Module contains the equipment necessary for executing the protocol, as well as an independent life support system.

  10. Controlled ecological life support system: Transportation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustan, E.; Vinopal, T.

    1982-01-01

    This report discusses a study utilizing a systems analysis approach to determine which NASA missions would benefit from controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) technology. The study focuses on manned missions selected from NASA planning forecasts covering the next half century. Comparison of various life support scenarios for the selected missions and characteristics of projected transportation systems provided data for cost evaluations. This approach identified missions that derived benefits from a CELSS, showed the magnitude of the potential cost savings, and indicated which system or combination of systems would apply. This report outlines the analytical approach used in the evaluation, describes the missions and systems considered, and sets forth the benefits derived from CELSS when applicable.

  11. Systematic review building a preceptor support system.

    PubMed

    Goss, Carol R

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review identifies the significance of the preceptor role in affecting new graduate nurse retention. Findings from 20 research studies provide support that nurse preceptors receiving continuing education and perceiving reward and recognition from the preceptor position positively affect new graduate nurse retention. Hospital administration, nurse managers, nurse educators, preceptors, and new graduate nurses each play a role in the successful implementation of a preceptor support system. PMID:25325297

  12. Mission Requirements and Data Systems Support Forecast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This document was developed by the Flight Mission Support Office and prepared by the Forecast Analysis Section of the Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (BFEC) to provide NASA management with detailed mission information. It is one of a number of sources used in planning Mission Operations and Data Systems resource commitments in support of mission requirements. All mission dates are based on information available as of May 28, 1993.

  13. Control problems in Autonomous Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombano, S. P.; Schwartzkopf, S. H.; Macelroy, R. D.

    1981-01-01

    Autonomous Life Support Systems (ALSS) are envisioned for long range permanence in space. ALSS would require little or no input of matter for extended periods of time. The design of such a system involves an understanding of both ecological principles and control theory of nonlinear, ill-defined systems. A distinction is drawn between ecosystem survival strategies and the aims of control theory. Experimental work is under way to help combine the two approaches.

  14. Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Technology Development Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Struk, Peter M.; Green, Jennifer L.; Chau, Savio N.; Curell, Philip C.; Dempsey, Cathy A.; Patterson, Linda P.; Robbins, William; Steele, Michael A.; DAnnunzio, Anthony; Meseroll, Robert; Quiter, John; Shannon, Russell; Easton, John W.; Madaras, Eric I.; BrownTaminger, Karen M.; Tabera, John T.; Tellado, Joseph; Williams, Marth K.; Zeitlin, Nancy P.

    2011-01-01

    The Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Technology Development Roadmap is a guide for developing the technologies needed to enable the supportable, sustainable, and affordable exploration of the Moon and other destinations beyond Earth. Supportability is defined in terms of space maintenance, repair, and related logistics. This report considers the supportability lessons learned from NASA and the Department of Defense. Lunar Outpost supportability needs are summarized, and a supportability technology strategy is established to make the transition from high logistics dependence to logistics independence. This strategy will enable flight crews to act effectively to respond to problems and exploit opportunities in an environment of extreme resource scarcity and isolation. The supportability roadmap defines the general technology selection criteria. Technologies are organized into three categories: diagnostics, test, and verification; maintenance and repair; and scavenge and recycle. Furthermore, "embedded technologies" and "process technologies" are used to designate distinct technology types with different development cycles. The roadmap examines the current technology readiness level and lays out a four-phase incremental development schedule with selection decision gates. The supportability technology roadmap is intended to develop technologies with the widest possible capability and utility while minimizing the impact on crew time and training and remaining within the time and cost constraints of the program.

  15. Cost analysis of life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yakut, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    A methodology was developed to predict realistic relative cost of Life Support Systems (LSS) and to define areas of major cost impacts in the development cycle. Emphasis was given to tailoring the cost data for usage by program planners and designers. The equipment classifications used based on the degree of refinement were as follows: (1) Working model; (2) low-fidelity prototype; (3) high-fidelity prototype; and (4) flight-qualified system. The major advanced LSS evaluated included the following: (1) Carbon dioxide removal; (2) oxygen recovery systems; (3) water recovery systems; (4) atmosphere analysis system.

  16. Using Visualization in Cockpit Decision Support Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Aragon, Cecilia R.

    2005-07-01

    In order to safely operate their aircraft, pilots must makerapid decisions based on integrating and processing large amounts ofheterogeneous information. Visual displays are often the most efficientmethod of presenting safety-critical data to pilots in real time.However, care must be taken to ensure the pilot is provided with theappropriate amount of information to make effective decisions and notbecome cognitively overloaded. The results of two usability studies of aprototype airflow hazard visualization cockpit decision support systemare summarized. The studies demonstrate that such a system significantlyimproves the performance of helicopter pilots landing under turbulentconditions. Based on these results, design principles and implicationsfor cockpit decision support systems using visualization arepresented.

  17. Advanced Life Support System Value Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have led to the following approach. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are considered to be exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is defined after many trade-offs. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, SVM/[ESM + function (TRL)], with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is given by SVM. Cost is represented by higher ESM and lower TRL. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of a suggested System Value Metric and an overall ALS system metric.

  18. Reducing Social Disparity in Liver Transplantation Utilization through Governmental Financial Support

    PubMed Central

    Lankarani, Kamran B.; Mahmoodi, Mojtaba; Gholami, Siavash; Mehravar, Soheila; Malekhosseini, Seyed Ali; Heydari, Sayed Taghi; Zarei, Elham; Salahi, Heshmatollah; Nikeghbalian, Saman; Taghavi, Seyed Alireza; Janghorban, Parisa; Ghaffarpasand, Fariborz

    2012-01-01

    Background A high proportion of patients suffering from end stage liver disease are from low socioeconomic classes , which limits their access to liver transplantation as the most effctive treatment of this condition because of cost barrier. Objectives one of the most challenging aspects of liver transplantation is its affordability and utilization by those who need it the most. Patients and Methods Since November 2005, Iran Ministry of Health had covered 100% of the costs of in-patient liver transplantation care. To determine the effects of this policy, patterns of utilization of liver transplantation were compared before and after implementation of the policy. Group one included 112 and group two included 120 individuals who received transplantation before (from early January 2003 to November 2005) and after (from November 2005 to the end of December 2007) the legislation entered into the effect, respectively. Socioeconomic characteristics of these patients were evaluated by data collected about house and car ownership, education level, employment status, and place of residence. Results Coverage of the costs allowed more illiterate and semiliterate people (P = 0.032) as well as more unemployed or unskilled workers to receive transplantation (P = 0.021). The number of transplantations also increased in children and geriatric age group. This legislation also led to greater countrywide regional coverage of indigent patients. Conclusions This survey provides evidence that coverage of the costs by Ministry of Health was effective in reducing social discrimination in utilization of liver transplantation, and narrowed the gap between low and high socioeconomic classes in Iranian society. PMID:23300495

  19. Ion Thruster Support and Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haag, Thomas W. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A system for supporting and selectively positioning an ion thruster relative to a surface of a spacecraft includes three angularly spaced thruster support assemblies. Each thruster support assembly includes a frame which has a rotary actuator mounted thereon. The rotary actuator is connected to an actuator member which is rotatably connected to a thruster attachment member connected to a body of the thruster. A stabilizer member is rotatably mounted to the frame and to the thruster attachment member. The thruster is selectively movable in the pitch and yaw directions responsive to movement of the actuator members by the actuators on the thruster support assemblies. A failure of any one actuator on a thruster support assembly will generally still enable limited thruster positioning capability in two directions. In a retracted position the thruster attachment members are held in nested relation in saddles supported on the frames of the thruster support assemblies. The thruster is securely held in the retracted position during periods of high loading such as during launch of the spacecraft.

  20. Birds of a Feather: Supporting Secure Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Braswell III, H V

    2006-04-24

    Over the past few years Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has begun the process of moving to a diskless environment in the Secure Computer Support realm. This movement has included many moving targets and increasing support complexity. We would like to set up a forum for Security and Support professionals to get together from across the Complex and discuss current deployments, lessons learned, and next steps. This would include what hardware, software, and hard copy based solutions are being used to manage Secure Computing. The topics to be discussed include but are not limited to: Diskless computing, port locking and management, PC, Mac, and Linux/UNIX support and setup, system imaging, security setup documentation and templates, security documentation and management, customer tracking, ticket tracking, software download and management, log management, backup/disaster recovery, and mixed media environments.

  1. Liver-inherent immune system: its role in blood-stage malaria

    PubMed Central

    Wunderlich, Frank; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Dkhil, Mohamed A.

    2014-01-01

    The liver is well known as that organ which is obligately required for the intrahepatocyte development of the pre-erythrocytic stages of the malaria-causative agent Plasmodium. However, largely neglected is the fact that the liver is also a central player of the host defense against the morbidity- and mortality-causing blood stages of the malaria parasites. Indeed, the liver is equipped with a unique immune system that acts locally, however, with systemic impact. Its main “antipodal” functions are to recognize and to generate effective immunoreactivity against pathogens on the one hand, and to generate tolerance to avoid immunoreactivity with “self” and harmless substances as dietary compounds on the other hand. This review provides an introductory survey of the liver-inherent immune system: its pathogen recognition receptors including Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and its major cell constituents with their different facilities to fight and eliminate pathogens. Then, evidence is presented that the liver is also an essential organ to overcome blood-stage malaria. Finally, we discuss effector responses of the liver-inherent immune system directed against blood-stage malaria: activation of TLRs, acute phase response, phagocytic activity, cytokine-mediated pro- and anti-inflammatory responses, generation of “protective” autoimmunity by extrathymic T cells and B-1 cells, and T cell-mediated repair of liver injuries mainly produced by malaria-induced overreactions of the liver-inherent immune system. PMID:25408684

  2. Liver-inherent immune system: its role in blood-stage malaria.

    PubMed

    Wunderlich, Frank; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Dkhil, Mohamed A

    2014-01-01

    The liver is well known as that organ which is obligately required for the intrahepatocyte development of the pre-erythrocytic stages of the malaria-causative agent Plasmodium. However, largely neglected is the fact that the liver is also a central player of the host defense against the morbidity- and mortality-causing blood stages of the malaria parasites. Indeed, the liver is equipped with a unique immune system that acts locally, however, with systemic impact. Its main "antipodal" functions are to recognize and to generate effective immunoreactivity against pathogens on the one hand, and to generate tolerance to avoid immunoreactivity with "self" and harmless substances as dietary compounds on the other hand. This review provides an introductory survey of the liver-inherent immune system: its pathogen recognition receptors including Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and its major cell constituents with their different facilities to fight and eliminate pathogens. Then, evidence is presented that the liver is also an essential organ to overcome blood-stage malaria. Finally, we discuss effector responses of the liver-inherent immune system directed against blood-stage malaria: activation of TLRs, acute phase response, phagocytic activity, cytokine-mediated pro- and anti-inflammatory responses, generation of "protective" autoimmunity by extrathymic T cells and B-1 cells, and T cell-mediated repair of liver injuries mainly produced by malaria-induced overreactions of the liver-inherent immune system. PMID:25408684

  3. Regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes by local and systemic liver injuries

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yan; Hu, Bingfang; Xie, Yang; Billiar, Timothy R.; Sperry, Jason L.; Huang, Min; Xie, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Drug metabolism and disposition are critical in maintaining the chemical and functional homeostasis of xenobiotics/drugs and endobiotics. The liver plays an essential role in drug metabolism and disposition due to its abundant expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) and transporters. There is growing evidence to suggest that many hepatic and systemic diseases can affect drug metabolism and disposition by regulating the expression and/or activity of DMEs and transporters in the liver. Areas covered This review focuses on the recent progress on the regulation of DMEs by local and systemic liver injuries. Liver ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) and sepsis are used as examples of local and systemic injury, respectively. The reciprocal effect of the expression and activity of DMEs on animals' sensitivity to local and systemic liver injuries is also discussed. Expert opinion Local and systemic liver injuries have a major effect on the expression and activity of DMEs in the liver. Understanding the disease effect on DMEs is clinically important due to the concern of disease-drug interactions. Future studies are necessary to understand the mechanism by which liver injury regulates DMEs. Human studies are also urgently needed in order to determine whether the results in animals can be replicated in human patients. PMID:26751558

  4. Support for User Interfaces for Distributed Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eychaner, Glenn; Niessner, Albert

    2005-01-01

    An extensible Java(TradeMark) software framework supports the construction and operation of graphical user interfaces (GUIs) for distributed computing systems typified by ground control systems that send commands to, and receive telemetric data from, spacecraft. Heretofore, such GUIs have been custom built for each new system at considerable expense. In contrast, the present framework affords generic capabilities that can be shared by different distributed systems. Dynamic class loading, reflection, and other run-time capabilities of the Java language and JavaBeans component architecture enable the creation of a GUI for each new distributed computing system with a minimum of custom effort. By use of this framework, GUI components in control panels and menus can send commands to a particular distributed system with a minimum of system-specific code. The framework receives, decodes, processes, and displays telemetry data; custom telemetry data handling can be added for a particular system. The framework supports saving and later restoration of users configurations of control panels and telemetry displays with a minimum of effort in writing system-specific code. GUIs constructed within this framework can be deployed in any operating system with a Java run-time environment, without recompilation or code changes.

  5. Advanced Life Support System Value Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have reached a consensus. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is then set accordingly. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, [SVM + TRL]/ESM, with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is the sum of SVM and TRL. Cost is represented by ESM. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of the suggested System Value Metric.

  6. Alisse : Advanced life support system evaluator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, Jean; Gerbi, Olivier; André, Philippe; Davin, Elisabeth; Avezuela Rodriguez, Raul; Carbonero, Fernando; Soumalainen, Emilia; Lasseur, Christophe

    Long duration missions, such as the establishment of permanent bases on the lunar surface or the travel to Mars, require such an amount of life support consumables (e.g. food, water and oxygen) that direct supply or re-supply from Earth is not an option anymore. Regenerative Life Support Systems are therefore necessary to sustain long-term manned space mission to increase recycling rates and so reduce the launched mass. The architecture of an Environmental Controlled Life Support System widely depends on the mission scenario. Even for a given mission scenario, different architectures could be envisaged which need to be evaluated and compared with appropriate tools. As these evaluation and comparison, based on the single criterion of Equivalent System Mass, was not considered com-prehensive enough, ESA is developing a multi-criteria evaluation tool: ALISSE (Advanced Life Support System Evaluator). The main objective of ALISSE, and of the work presented here, is the definition and implemen-tation of a metrics system, addressing the complexity of any ECLSS along its Life Cycle phases. A multi-dimensional and multi-criteria (i.e. mass, energy, efficiency, risk to human, reliability, crew time, sustainability, life cycle cost) approach is proposed through the development of a computing support platform. Each criterion being interrelated with the others, a model based system approach is used. ALISSE is expected to provide significant inputs to the ESA Concurrent Design Facility and, as a consequence, to be a highly valuable tool for decision process linked to any manned space mission. Full contact detail for the contact author : Jean Brunet Sherpa Engineering General Manager Phone : 0033(0)608097480 j.brunet@sherpa-eng.com

  7. Environmental Control and Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Charles; Adams, Alan

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) for the space station are presented. The ECLSS is divided into six subsystems: temperature and humidity control (THC), atmosphere control and supply (ACS), atmosphere revitalization (AR), fire detection and suppression (FDS), water recovery management (WRM), and waste management (WM). Topics covered include: ECLSS subsystem functions; ECLSS distributed system; ECLSS functional distribution; CO2 removal; CO2 reduction; oxygen generation; urine processor; and potable water recovery.

  8. Pressure vessel sliding support unit and system using the sliding support unit

    SciTech Connect

    Breach, Michael R.; Keck, David J.; Deaver, Gerald A.

    2013-01-15

    Provided is a sliding support and a system using the sliding support unit. The sliding support unit may include a fulcrum capture configured to attach to a support flange, a fulcrum support configured to attach to the fulcrum capture, and a baseplate block configured to support the fulcrum support. The system using the sliding support unit may include a pressure vessel, a pedestal bracket, and a plurality of sliding support units.

  9. Virtual Tutoring and Student Support Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geary, Jennifer Lee

    2005-01-01

    Virtual tutoring and student support systems may be pivotal in developing opportunities of equality and of outcome for students who study at a distance. Cookson (2002) mentions that it is important to assist students to have access to study programs. Cookson (2002) elaborates upon this and states, "If access is to be equitable, once they are…

  10. Environmental control and life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Charles D.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: crew generated wastes processing and reclamation; water reclamation - pre- and post-treatment; simplified waste water processing; improved trace contaminant removal; and real time microbial analysis.

  11. Life support system development in West Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoog, A. Ingemar

    The delivery of fully qualified Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLS) flight hardware for the Spacelab Flight Unit was completed in 1979, and the first Spacelab flight is scheduled for mid 1983. With Spacelab approaching its operational stage, ESA has initiated the Follow-on Development Programme. The future evolution of Spacelab elements in a continued U.S./European cooperation is obviously linked to the U.S. STS evolution and leads from the sortie-mode improvements (Initial Step) towards pallet systems and module applications in unmanned and manned space platforms (Medium and Far Term Alternatives). Extensive studies and design work have been accomplished on life support systems for Life Sciences Laboratories (Biorack) in Spacelab (incubators and holding units for low vertebrates). Future long term missions require the implementation of closed loop life support systems and in order to meet the long range development cycle feasibility studies have been performed. Terrestrial applications of the life support technologies developed for space have been successfully implemented.

  12. A Personal Multimedia System for Instructional Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Robin M.

    This paper presents a specific bottom-up implementation method for getting started with multimedia for instructional support at the personal level. Some minimal top-down design considerations for an institutional multimedia system include: (1) the instructor should be able to take work from/to the desktop to/from the classroom; (2) the capability…

  13. A Design of Electronic Performance Support Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheu, Feng-Ru

    The project described in this paper, representing the initial phases of a one-year on-going project, was organized to build a supportive environment for Instructional Systems Technology (IST) doctoral students at Indiana University-Bloomington to help them prepare for the Qualifying exams. An overview is provided of steps taken to create an…

  14. Life support system development in West Germany.

    PubMed

    Skoog, A I

    1982-12-01

    The delivery of fully qualified Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLS) flight hardware for the Spacelab Flight Unit was completed in 1979, and the first Spacelab flight is scheduled for mid 1983. With Spacelab approaching its operational stage, ESA has initiated the Follow-on Development Programme. The future evolution of Spacelab elements in a continued U.S./European cooperation is obviously linked to the U.S. STS evolution and leads from the sortie-mode improvements (Initial Step) towards pallet systems and module applications in unmanned and manned space platforms (Medium and Far Term Alternatives). Extensive studies and design work have been accomplished on life support systems for Life Sciences Laboratories (Biorack) in Spacelab (incubators and holding units for low vertebrates). Future long term missions require the implementation of closed loop life support systems and in order to meet the long range development cycle feasibility studies have been performed. Terrestrial applications of the life support technologies developed for space have been successfully implemented. PMID:11541695

  15. Control Problems in Autonomous Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombano, S.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of constructing life support systems which require little or no input of matter (food and gases) for long, or even indefinite, periods of time is addressed. Natural control in ecosystems, a control theory for ecosystems, and an approach to the design of an ALSS are addressed.

  16. Electronic Performance Support Systems and Technological Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maughan, George R.

    2005-01-01

    Electronic performance support systems (EPSS) can provide alternative learning opportunities to supplement traditional classroom or training strategies. Today's students may benefit from educational settings and strategies that they will use in the future. In using EPSS to nurture the development of technological literacy, workers and students can…

  17. ROI Calculations for Electronic Performance Support Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altalib, Hasan

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the importance of calculating the return on investment (ROI) for electronic performance support systems, beginning with the practical issues of identifying what will be measured and then assigning costs and benefits to each variable in monetary terms. Suggests the challenge is in defining and quantifying the real business benefits.…

  18. Supporting Classroom Activities with the BSUL System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogata, Hiroaki; Saito, Nobuji A.; Paredes J., Rosa G.; San Martin, Gerardo Ayala; Yano, Yoneo

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the integration of ubiquitous computing systems into classroom settings, in order to provide basic support for classrooms and field activities. We have developed web application components using Java technology and configured a classroom with wireless network access and a web camera for our purposes. In this classroom, the…

  19. Regenerative life support system research and concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Life support systems that involve recycling of atmospheres, water, food and waste are so complex that models incorporating all the interactions and relationships are vital to design, development, simulations, and ultimately to control of space qualified systems. During early modeling studies, FORTRAN and BASIC programs were used to obtain numerical comparisons of the performance of different regenerative concepts. Recently, models were made by combining existing capabilities with expert systems to establish an Intelligent Design Support Environment for simpliflying user interfaces and to address the need for the engineering aspects. Progress was also made toward modeling and evaluating the operational aspects of closed loop life support systems using Time-step and Dynamic simulations over a period of time. Example models are presented which show the status and potential of developed modeling techniques. For instance, closed loop systems involving algae systeMs for atmospheric purification and food supply augmentation, plus models employing high plants and solid waste electrolysis are described and results of initial evaluations are presented.

  20. Strategy for accurate liver intervention by an optical tracking system

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qinyong; Yang, Rongqian; Cai, Ken; Guan, Peifeng; Xiao, Weihu; Wu, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Image-guided navigation for radiofrequency ablation of liver tumors requires the accurate guidance of needle insertion into a tumor target. The main challenge of image-guided navigation for radiofrequency ablation of liver tumors is the occurrence of liver deformations caused by respiratory motion. This study reports a strategy of real-time automatic registration to track custom fiducial markers glued onto the surface of a patient’s abdomen to find the respiratory phase, in which the static preoperative CT is performed. Custom fiducial markers are designed. Real-time automatic registration method consists of the automatic localization of custom fiducial markers in the patient and image spaces. The fiducial registration error is calculated in real time and indicates if the current respiratory phase corresponds to the phase of the static preoperative CT. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed strategy, a liver simulator is constructed and two volunteers are involved in the preliminary experiments. An ex-vivo porcine liver model is employed to further verify the strategy for liver intervention. Experimental results demonstrate that real-time automatic registration method is rapid, accurate, and feasible for capturing the respiratory phase from which the static preoperative CT anatomical model is generated by tracking the movement of the skin-adhered custom fiducial markers. PMID:26417501

  1. 1992 NASA Life Support Systems Analysis workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evanich, Peggy L.; Crabb, Thomas M.; Gartrell, Charles F.

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 Life Support Systems Analysis Workshop was sponsored by NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) to integrate the inputs from, disseminate information to, and foster communication among NASA, industry, and academic specialists. The workshop continued discussion and definition of key issues identified in the 1991 workshop, including: (1) modeling and experimental validation; (2) definition of systems analysis evaluation criteria; (3) integration of modeling at multiple levels; and (4) assessment of process control modeling approaches. Through both the 1991 and 1992 workshops, NASA has continued to seek input from industry and university chemical process modeling and analysis experts, and to introduce and apply new systems analysis approaches to life support systems. The workshop included technical presentations, discussions, and interactive planning, with sufficient time allocated for discussion of both technology status and technology development recommendations. Key personnel currently involved with life support technology developments from NASA, industry, and academia provided input to the status and priorities of current and future systems analysis methods and requirements.

  2. Using Visualization in Cockpit Decision Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aragon, Cecilia R.

    2005-01-01

    In order to safely operate their aircraft, pilots must make rapid decisions based on integrating and processing large amounts of heterogeneous information. Visual displays are often the most efficient method of presenting safety-critical data to pilots in real time. However, care must be taken to ensure the pilot is provided with the appropriate amount of information to make effective decisions and not become cognitively overloaded. The results of two usability studies of a prototype airflow hazard visualization cockpit decision support system are summarized. The studies demonstrate that such a system significantly improves the performance of helicopter pilots landing under turbulent conditions. Based on these results, design principles and implications for cockpit decision support systems using visualization are presented.

  3. Web-Based Learning Support System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Lisa

    Web-based learning support system offers many benefits over traditional learning environments and has become very popular. The Web is a powerful environment for distributing information and delivering knowledge to an increasingly wide and diverse audience. Typical Web-based learning environments, such as Web-CT, Blackboard, include course content delivery tools, quiz modules, grade reporting systems, assignment submission components, etc. They are powerful integrated learning management systems (LMS) that support a number of activities performed by teachers and students during the learning process [1]. However, students who study a course on the Internet tend to be more heterogeneously distributed than those found in a traditional classroom situation. In order to achieve optimal efficiency in a learning process, an individual learner needs his or her own personalized assistance. For a web-based open and dynamic learning environment, personalized support for learners becomes more important. This chapter demonstrates how to realize personalized learning support in dynamic and heterogeneous learning environments by utilizing Adaptive Web technologies. It focuses on course personalization in terms of contents and teaching materials that is according to each student's needs and capabilities. An example of using Rough Set to analyze student personal information to assist students with effective learning and predict student performance is presented.

  4. Situational adapting system supporting team situation awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helldin, Tove; Erlandsson, Tina; Niklasson, Lars; Falkman, Göran

    2010-10-01

    Military fighter pilots have to make suitable decisions fast in an environment where continuously increasing flows of information from sensors, team members and databases are provided. Not only do the huge amounts of data aggravate the pilots' decision making process: time-pressure, presence of uncertain data and high workload are factors that can worsen the performance of pilot decision making. In this paper, initial ideas of how to support the pilots accomplishing their tasks are presented. Results from interviews with two fighter pilots are described as well as a discussion about how these results can guide the design of a military fighter pilot decision support system, with focus on team cooperation.

  5. In-flight medical support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chassay, C.; Rose, S. A.

    1977-01-01

    The In-flight Medical Support System for Skylab was designed to provide the onboard Crew Physician or Scientist Pilot (or other crewmember if the Scientist Pilot was unable to act) with information adequate to make diagnostic assessment of those injuries or illnesses most likely to occur in the Skylab environment. The necessary diagnostic, therapeutic, and laboratory equipment needed to diagnose and to render first aid, resuscitative or supportive measures was stored in the Skylab Orbital Workshop. The resupply kit containing refrigerated laboratory and drug resupply items was stored in the Command Module.

  6. Apollo 14 flight support and system performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. R.

    1971-01-01

    The Apollo 13 incident and subsequent oxygen tank redesign for Apollo 14 placed unique requirements on the flight support activity. A major part of this activity was the integration of the various analytical efforts into a single team function. Additionally, the first flight of the redesigned system without an orbital test required an extensive analytical base. The support team philosophy, objectives, and organization are presented. Various analytical tools that were used during the flight are discussed. Investigations made during the postflight period are considered and their impact upon subsequent flights shown.

  7. Supporting multiple control systems at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Nicklaus, Dennis J.; /Fermilab

    2009-10-01

    The Fermilab control system, ACNET, is used for controlling the Tevatron and all of its pre-accelerators. However, other smaller experiments at Fermilab have been using different controls systems, in particular DOOCS and EPICS. This paper reports some of the steps taken at Fermilab to integrate support for these outside systems. We will describe specific tools that we have built or adapted to facilitate interaction between the architectures. We also examine some of the difficulties that arise from managing this heterogeneous environment. Incompatibilities as well as common elements will be described.

  8. Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majumdar, M.

    1985-01-01

    One of the major problems facing researchers in the design of a life support system is to construct it so that it will be capable of regulating waste materials and gases, while at the same time supporting the inhabitants with adequate food and oxygen. The basis of any gaseous life supporting cycle is autotrophs (plants that photosynthesize). The major problem is to get the respiratory quotient (RQ) of the animals to be equivalent to the assimilatory quotient (AQ) of the plants. A technique is being developed to control the gas exchange. The goal is to determine the feasibility of manipulating the plant's AQ by altering the plants environment in order to eliminate the mismatch between the plant's AQ and the animal's RQ.

  9. Life Support Systems for Lunar Landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly

    2008-01-01

    Engineers designing life support systems for NASA s next Lunar Landers face unique challenges. As with any vehicle that enables human spaceflight, the needs of the crew drive most of the lander requirements. The lander is also a key element of the architecture NASA will implement in the Constellation program. Many requirements, constraints, or optimization goals will be driven by interfaces with other projects, like the Crew Exploration Vehicle, the Lunar Surface Systems, and the Extravehicular Activity project. Other challenges in the life support system will be driven by the unique location of the vehicle in the environments encountered throughout the mission. This paper examines several topics that may be major design drivers for the lunar lander life support system. There are several functional requirements for the lander that may be different from previous vehicles or programs and recent experience. Some of the requirements or design drivers will change depending on the overall Lander configuration. While the configuration for a lander design is not fixed, designers can examine how these issues would impact their design and be prepared for the quick design iterations required to optimize a spacecraft.

  10. Nuclear reactor pressure vessel support system

    DOEpatents

    Sepelak, George R.

    1978-01-01

    A support system for nuclear reactor pressure vessels which can withstand all possible combinations of stresses caused by a postulated core disrupting accident during reactor operation. The nuclear reactor pressure vessel is provided with a flange around the upper periphery thereof, and the flange includes an annular vertical extension formed integral therewith. A support ring is positioned atop of the support ledge and the flange vertical extension, and is bolted to both members. The plug riser is secured to the flange vertical extension and to the top of a radially outwardly extension of the rotatable plug. This system eliminates one joint through which fluids contained in the vessel could escape by making the fluid flow path through the joint between the flange and the support ring follow the same path through which fluid could escape through the plug risers. In this manner, the sealing means to prohibit the escape of contained fluids through the plug risers can also prohibit the escape of contained fluid through the securing joint.

  11. Decision support system for theater missile defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonsalves, Paul; Burge, Janet; Popp, Ben

    2003-08-01

    Military services require C4I systems that support a full spectrum of operations. This is specifically relevant to the theatre missile defense (TMD) mission planning and analysis community where there have been several recent concept changes; advancements in information technology, sensors, and weapons; and expansion in the diversity and capabilities of potential adversaries. To fully support campaign development and analysis in this new environment, there is a need for systems and tools that enhance understanding of adversarial behavior, assess potential threat capabilities and vulnerabilities, perform C4I system trades, and provide methods to identify macro-level novel or emergent combat tactics and behavior derived from simpler micro-level rules. Such systems must also be interactive, collaborative, and semi-autonomous, providing the INTEL analyst with the means for exploration and potential exploitation of novel enemy behavior patterns. To address these issues we have developed an Intelligent Threat Assessment Processor (ITAP) to provide prediction and interpretation of enemy courses of actions (eCOAs) for the TMD domain. This system uses a combination of genetic algorithm-based optimization in tandem with the spatial analysis and visualization capabilities of a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) geographic information system to generate and evaluate potential eCOAs.

  12. Impact of model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scoring system on pathological findings at and after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Khettry, Urmila; Azabdaftari, Gissou; Simpson, Mary Ann; Pomfret, Elizabeth A; Pomposelli, James J; Lewis, W David; Jenkins, Roger L; Gordon, Fredric D

    2006-06-01

    The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scoring system, a validated objective liver disease severity scale, was adopted in February 2002 to allocate cadaveric organs for liver transplantation (LT). To improve transplantability before succumbing to advanced disease, patients with low-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are given extra points in this system commensurate with their predicted mortality. Our aims were to determine 1) any change in the pathological findings at LT following the implementation of this system and 2) the impact of scoring advantage given to early-stage HCC. Clinicopathologic findings were compared before (pre-MELD, n = 87) and after (MELD, n = 58) the introduction of the MELD system. The findings in the pre-MELD vs. MELD groups were as follows: HCC, 27.5% vs. 48.3% (P = 0.001); portal vein thrombosis (PVT), 13.7% vs. 25.9% (P = 0.08); cholestasis, 16.1% vs. 32.7% (P = 0.026); inflammation grade of 2 or more, 43.7% vs. 48.3% (P = not significant); hepatitis C (HCV), 45.9% vs. 51.7% (P = not significant); HCV with lymphoid aggregates, 25% vs. 60% (P = 0.003); HCV with hyperplastic hilar nodes, 15.0% vs. 36.6% (P = 0.001); and post-LT HCC recurrence, 4.1% vs. 3.4% (P = not significant). Non-HCC-related findings were further compared in the 2 subgroups of pre-MELD (n = 57) and MELD (n = 31) after exclusion of HCC and fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) cases, and only cholestasis was significantly increased in the subgroup MELD. In conclusion, increased incidence of native liver cholestasis in the MELD era may be the histologic correlate of clinically severe liver disease. The scoring advantage given to low-stage HCC did result in a significantly increased incidence of HCC in the MELD group, but it did not adversely affect the post-LT recurrence rate. PMID:16598742

  13. Light Machines Operator Performance Support System

    SciTech Connect

    Bohley, M.C.

    1998-06-15

    The objective of this project was to create a multimedia operator performance support system (OPSS) shell that would provide a framework for delivering appropriate information to the student/novice machine tool user just when needed and in the most appropriate form. In addition, the program was designed so that it could be expanded and further developed by Light Machines personnel. The expertise of AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (ASFM and T) in the areas of performance support system design and multimedia creation was employed to create the most user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) while providing access to key topical areas. Light Machines provided a subject matter expert from their technical services group in order to provide the needed information for structuring the OPSS shell. They also provided a Benchman VMC 4000 machine tool at the ASFM and T New Mexico location as well as specific instruction on the safe and effective use of that machine tool.

  14. ESRP2 controls an adult splicing programme in hepatocytes to support postnatal liver maturation.

    PubMed

    Bhate, Amruta; Parker, Darren J; Bebee, Thomas W; Ahn, Jaegyoon; Arif, Waqar; Rashan, Edrees H; Chorghade, Sandip; Chau, Anthony; Lee, Jae-Hyung; Anakk, Sayeepriyadarshini; Carstens, Russ P; Xiao, Xinshu; Kalsotra, Auinash

    2015-01-01

    Although major genetic networks controlling early liver specification and morphogenesis are known, the mechanisms responsible for postnatal hepatic maturation are poorly understood. Here we employ global analyses of the mouse liver transcriptome to demonstrate that postnatal remodelling of the liver is accompanied by large-scale transcriptional and post-transcriptional transitions that are cell-type-specific and temporally coordinated. Combining detailed expression analyses with gain- and loss-of-function studies, we identify epithelial splicing regulatory protein 2 (ESRP2) as a conserved regulatory factor that controls the neonatal-to-adult switch of ∼20% of splice isoforms in mouse and human hepatocytes. The normal shift in splicing coincides tightly with dramatic postnatal induction of ESRP2 in hepatocytes. We further demonstrate that forced expression of ESRP2 in immature mouse and human hepatocytes is sufficient to drive a reciprocal shift in splicing and causes various physiological abnormalities. These findings define a direct role for ESRP2 in the generation of conserved repertoires of adult splice isoforms that facilitate terminal differentiation and maturation of hepatocytes. PMID:26531099

  15. The Controlled Ecological Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, K.

    1985-01-01

    A Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) is needed which would convert waste water to usable water, waste products to food, and CO2 to O2 to permit long duration space flight. Algae, representing the autotroph, and mice, representing the heterotroph are placed together in a controlled, gas closed environment to examine the gas exchange rate of O2 and CO2. The eventual goal is to develop biological controls that can stabilize atmospheres.

  16. Computer systems to support census geography.

    PubMed

    Deecker, G; Cunningham, R; Kidd, K

    1986-01-01

    The development of computer systems that support the geography of the census in Canada is described. The authors "present proposals for the 1991 Census that increase the level of automation, whether the geography changes or not. In addition, opportunities for change and improvement, should the geography change, are outlined. To minimize the risks involved, it is important to give these different proposals serious consideration early in the planning of a census." PMID:12341362

  17. Clinical Decision Support Systems for Ambulatory Care

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Stephen C.

    1984-01-01

    This conference serves to further the state of the art in the application of computers to medical care via a forum for the intercommunication of ideas. Papers discuss the experiences of diverse research projects. It is the purpose of this article to review the major developments in ambulatory care decision support. From this vantage point, the major impediments to broad applicability of information systems are discussed. The DUCHESS Medical Information Management System is then described as a step towards overcoming these obstacles. Two distinct but often overlapping issues are the representation of the data and its subsequent manipulation: records vs. knowledge. The complexity of the medical record requires state-of-the-art computer science. Clinical decision support requires flexible means for representing medical knowledge and the ability to input “rules.” Artificial intelligence has provided tools for simulating the decision making processes. A sample of the major systems are contrasted and compared. In the realm of medical records COSTAR, TMR, SCAMP, HELP, and STOR are considered. In clinical decision support CADEUCUS, REGENSTRIEF, PKC, and DUCHESS are reviewed.

  18. Telescience Support Center Data System Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Hasan

    2010-01-01

    The Telescience Support Center (TSC) team has developed a databasedriven, increment-specific Data Require - ment Document (DRD) generation tool that automates much of the work required for generating and formatting the DRD. It creates a database to load the required changes to configure the TSC data system, thus eliminating a substantial amount of labor in database entry and formatting. The TSC database contains the TSC systems configuration, along with the experimental data, in which human physiological data must be de-commutated in real time. The data for each experiment also must be cataloged and archived for future retrieval. TSC software provides tools and resources for ground operation and data distribution to remote users consisting of PIs (principal investigators), bio-medical engineers, scientists, engineers, payload specialists, and computer scientists. Operations support is provided for computer systems access, detailed networking, and mathematical and computational problems of the International Space Station telemetry data. User training is provided for on-site staff and biomedical researchers and other remote personnel in the usage of the space-bound services via the Internet, which enables significant resource savings for the physical facility along with the time savings versus traveling to NASA sites. The software used in support of the TSC could easily be adapted to other Control Center applications. This would include not only other NASA payload monitoring facilities, but also other types of control activities, such as monitoring and control of the electric grid, chemical, or nuclear plant processes, air traffic control, and the like.

  19. The VST secondary mirror support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schipani, P.; Perrotta, F.; Molfese, C.; Caputi, O.; Ferragina, L.; Marty, L.; Capaccioli, M.; Gallieni, D.; Fumi, P.; Anaclerio, E.; Lazzarini, P.; De Paris, G.

    2008-07-01

    The VST telescope is equipped with an active optics system based on a wavefront sensor, a set of axial actuators to change the primary mirror shape and a secondary mirror positioner stage. The secondary mirror positioning capability allows the correction of defocus and coma optical aberrations, mainly caused by incorrect relative positions of the optics. The secondary mirror positioner is a 6-6 Stewart platform (also called "hexapod"). It is a parallel robot with a mobile platform moved by 6 linear actuators acting simultaneously. This paper describes the secondary mirror support system and the current status of the work.

  20. Apollo portable life support system performance report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    The performance of the Apollo portable life support system (PLSS) on actual lunar missions is discussed. Both subjective comments by the crewmen and recorded telemetry data are evaluated although emphasis is on the telemetry data. Because the most important information yielded by the PLSS deals with determination of crewman metabolic rates, these data and their interpretation are explained in detail. System requirements are compared with actual performance, and the effect of performance margins on mission planning are described. Mission preparation testing is described to demonstrate how the mission readiness of the PLSS and the crewmen in verified, and to show how the PLSS and the crewmen are calibrated for mission evaluation.

  1. Facility Systems, Ground Support Systems, and Ground Support Equipment General Design Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaxton, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    KSC-DE-512-SM establishes overall requirements and best design practices to be used at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for the development of ground systems (GS) in support of operations at launch, landing, and retrieval sites. These requirements apply to the design and development of hardware and software for ground support equipment (GSE), ground support systems (GSS), and facility ground support systems (F-GSS) used to support the KSC mission for transportation, receiving, handling, assembly, test, checkout, servicing, and launch of space vehicles and payloads and selected flight hardware items for retrieval. This standards manual supplements NASA-STD-5005 by including KSC-site-specific and local environment requirements. These requirements and practices are optional for equipment used at manufacturing, development, and test sites.

  2. Thermal control extravehicular life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive study which defined an Extravehicular Life Support System Thermal Control System (TCS) are presented. The design of the prototype hardware and a detail summary of the prototype TCS fabrication and test effort are given. Several heat rejection subsystems, water management subsystems, humidity control subsystems, pressure control schemes and temperature control schemes were evaluated. Alternative integrated TCS systems were studied, and an optimum system was selected based on quantitative weighing of weight, volume, cost, complexity and other factors. The selected subsystem contains a sublimator for heat rejection, bubble expansion tank for water management, a slurper and rotary separator for humidity control, and a pump, a temperature control valve, a gas separator and a vehicle umbilical connector for water transport. The prototype hardware complied with program objectives.

  3. A COMPUTERIZED OPERATOR SUPPORT SYSTEM PROTOTYPE

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas A. Ulrich; Roger Lew; Ronald L. Boring; Ken Thomas

    2015-03-01

    A computerized operator support system (COSS) is proposed for use in nuclear power plants to assist control room operators in addressing time-critical plant upsets. A COSS is a collection of technologies to assist operators in monitoring overall plant performance and making timely, informed decisions on appropriate control actions for the projected plant condition. A prototype COSS was developed in order to demonstrate the concept and provide a test bed for further research. The prototype is based on four underlying elements consisting of a digital alarm system, computer-based procedures, piping and instrumentation diagram system representations, and a recommender module for mitigation actions. The initial version of the prototype is now operational at the Idaho National Laboratory using the Human System Simulation Laboratory.

  4. Bioregenerative life support systems for microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nevill, Gail E., Jr.; Hessel, Michael I., Jr.; Rodriguez, Jose; Morgan, Steve (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) project centers on growing plants and recycling wastes in space. The current version of the biomass production chamber (BPC) uses a hydroponic system for nutrient delivery. To optimize plant growth and conserve system resources, the content of the nutrient solution which feeds the plants must be constantly monitored. The macro-nutrients (greater than ten ppm) in the solution include nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulphur; the micro-nutrients (less than ten ppm) include iron, copper, manganese, zinc, and boron. The goal of this project is to construct a computer-controlled system of ion detectors that will accurately measure the concentrations of several necessary ions in solution. The project focuses on the use of a sensor array to eliminate problems of interference and temperature dependence.

  5. JPSS Common Ground System Multimission Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamilkowski, M. L.; Miller, S. W.; Grant, K. D.

    2013-12-01

    NOAA & NASA jointly acquire the next-generation civilian operational weather satellite: Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS contributes the afternoon orbit & restructured NPOESS ground system (GS) to replace the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) system run by NOAA. JPSS sensors will collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological & solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere & space. The JPSS GS is the Common Ground System (CGS), consisting of Command, Control, & Communications (C3S) and Interface Data Processing (IDPS) segments, both developed by Raytheon Intelligence, Information & Services (IIS). CGS now flies the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite, transfers its mission data between ground facilities and processes its data into Environmental Data Records for NOAA & Defense (DoD) weather centers. CGS will expand to support JPSS-1 in 2017. The JPSS CGS currently does data processing (DP) for S-NPP, creating multiple TBs/day across over two dozen environmental data products (EDPs). The workload doubles after JPSS-1 launch. But CGS goes well beyond S-NPP & JPSS mission management & DP by providing data routing support to operational centers & missions worldwide. The CGS supports several other missions: It also provides raw data acquisition, routing & some DP for GCOM-W1. The CGS does data routing for numerous other missions & systems, including USN's Coriolis/Windsat, NASA's SCaN network (including EOS), NSF's McMurdo Station communications, Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP), and NOAA's POES & EUMETSAT's MetOp satellites. Each of these satellite systems orbits the Earth 14 times/day, downlinking data once or twice/orbit at up to 100s of MBs/second, to support the creation of 10s of TBs of data/day across 100s of EDPs. Raytheon and the US government invested much in Raytheon's mission-management, command & control and data-processing products & capabilities. CGS's flexible

  6. Power Management in Regenerative Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Sekou; Pawlowski, Christopher; Finn, Cory; Mead, Susan C. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Effective management of power can reduce the cost of launch and operation of regenerative life support systems. Variations in power may be quite severe and may manifest as surges or spikes, While the power plant may have some ability to deal with these variations, with batteries for example, over-capacity is expensive and does nothing to address the fundamental issue of excessive demand. Because the power unit must be sized to accommodate the largest demand, avoiding power spikes has the potential to reduce the required size of the power plant while at the same time increasing the dependability of the system. Scheduling of processors can help to reduce potential power spikes. However, not all power-consuming equipment is easily scheduled. Therefore, active power management is needed to further decrease the risk of surges or spikes. We investigate the use of a hierarchical scheme to actively manage power for a model of a regenerative life support system. Local level controllers individually determine subsystem power usage. A higher level controller monitors overall system power and detects surges or spikes. When a surge condition is detected, the higher level controller conducts an 'auction' and describes subsystem power usage to re-allocate power. The result is an overall reduction in total power during a power surge. The auction involves each subsystem making a 'bid' to buy or sell power based on local needs. However, this re-allocation cannot come at the expense of life support function. To this end, participation in the auction is restricted to those processes meeting certain tolerance constraints. These tolerances represent acceptable limits within which system processes can be operated. We present a simulation model and discuss some of our results.

  7. Environmental Control and Life Support System Mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. This photograph shows the mockup of the the ECLSS to be installed in the Node 3 module of the ISS. From left to right, shower rack, waste management rack, Water Recovery System (WRS) Rack #2, WRS Rack #1, and Oxygen Generation System (OGS) rack are shown. The WRS provides clean water through the reclamation of wastewaters and is comprised of a Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) and a Water Processor Assembly (WPA). The UPA accepts and processes pretreated crewmember urine to allow it to be processed along with other wastewaters in the WPA. The WPA removes free gas, organic, and nonorganic constituents before the water goes through a series of multifiltration beds for further purification. The OGS produces oxygen for breathing air for the crew and laboratory animals, as well as for replacing oxygen loss. The OGS is comprised of a cell stack, which electrolyzes (breaks apart the hydrogen and oxygen molecules) some of the clean water provided by the WRS, and the separators that remove the gases from the water after electrolysis.

  8. IGENPRO knowledge-based operator support system.

    SciTech Connect

    Morman, J. A.

    1998-07-01

    Research and development is being performed on the knowledge-based IGENPRO operator support package for plant transient diagnostics and management to provide operator assistance during off-normal plant transient conditions. A generic thermal-hydraulic (T-H) first-principles approach is being implemented using automated reasoning, artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic to produce a generic T-H system-independent/plant-independent package. The IGENPRO package has a modular structure composed of three modules: the transient trend analysis module PROTREN, the process diagnostics module PRODIAG and the process management module PROMANA. Cooperative research and development work has focused on the PRODIAG diagnostic module of the IGENPRO package and the operator training matrix of transients used at the Braidwood Pressurized Water Reactor station. Promising simulator testing results with PRODIAG have been obtained for the Braidwood Chemical and Volume Control System (CVCS), and the Component Cooling Water System. Initial CVCS test results have also been obtained for the PROTREN module. The PROMANA effort also involves the CVCS. Future work will be focused on the long-term, slow and mild degradation transients where diagnoses of incipient T-H component failure prior to forced outage events is required. This will enhance the capability of the IGENPRO system as a predictive maintenance tool for plant staff and operator support.

  9. Hail Disrometer Array for Launch Systems Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, John E.; Sharp, David W.; Kasparis, Takis C.; Doesken, Nolan J.

    2008-01-01

    Prior to launch, the space shuttle might be described as a very large thermos bottle containing substantial quantities of cryogenic fuels. Because thermal insulation is a critical design requirement, the external wall of the launch vehicle fuel tank is covered with an insulating foam layer. This foam is fragile and can be damaged by very minor impacts, such as that from small- to medium-size hail, which may go unnoticed. In May 1999, hail damage to the top of the External Tank (ET) of STS-96 required a rollback from the launch pad to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) for repair of the insulating foam. Because of the potential for hail damage to the ET while exposed to the weather, a vigilant hail sentry system using impact transducers was developed as a hail damage warning system and to record and quantify hail events. The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Hail Monitor System, a joint effort of the NASA and University Affiliated Spaceport Technology Development Contract (USTDC) Physics Labs, was first deployed for operational testing in the fall of 2006. Volunteers from the Community Collaborative Rain. Hail, and Snow Network (CoCoRaHS) in conjunction with Colorado State University were and continue to be active in testing duplicate hail monitor systems at sites in the hail prone high plains of Colorado. The KSC Hail Monitor System (HMS), consisting of three stations positioned approximately 500 ft from the launch pad and forming an approximate equilateral triangle (see Figure 1), was deployed to Pad 39B for support of STS-115. Two months later, the HMS was deployed to Pad 39A for support of STS-116. During support of STS-117 in late February 2007, an unusual hail event occurred in the immediate vicinity of the exposed space shuttle and launch pad. Hail data of this event was collected by the HMS and analyzed. Support of STS-118 revealed another important application of the hail monitor system. Ground Instrumentation personnel check the hail monitors daily when a

  10. Cellular Manufacturing Internet Performance Support System

    SciTech Connect

    Bohley, M.C.; Schwartz, M.E.

    1998-03-04

    The objective of this project was to develop an Internet-based electronic performance support system (EPSS) for cellular manufacturing providing hardware/software specifications, process descriptions, estimated cost savings, manufacturing simulations, training information, and service resources for government and industry users of Cincinnati Milacron machine tools and products. AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (ASFM and T) used expertise in the areas of Internet design and multimedia creation to develop a performance support system (PSS) for the Internet with assistance from CM's subject matter experts from engineering, manufacturing, and technical support. Reference information was both created and re-purposed from other existing formats, then made available on the Internet. On-line references on cellular manufacturing operations include: definitions of cells and cellular manufacturing; illustrations on how cellular manufacturing improves part throughput, resource utilization, part quality, and manufacturing flexibility; illustrations on how cellular manufacturing reduces labor and overhead costs; identification of critical factors driving decisions toward cellular manufacturing; a method for identifying process improvement areas using cellular manufacturing; a method for customizing the size of cells for a specific site; a simulation for making a part using cellular manufacturing technology; and a glossary of terms and concepts.

  11. A web-based computer aided system for liver surgery planning: initial implementation on RayPlus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ming; Yuan, Rong; Sun, Zhi; Li, Tianhong; Xie, Qingguo

    2016-03-01

    At present, computer aided systems for liver surgery design and risk evaluation are widely used in clinical all over the world. However, most systems are local applications that run on high-performance workstations, and the images have to processed offline. Compared with local applications, a web-based system is accessible anywhere and for a range of regardless of relative processing power or operating system. RayPlus (http://rayplus.life.hust.edu.cn), a B/S platform for medical image processing, was developed to give a jump start on web-based medical image processing. In this paper, we implement a computer aided system for liver surgery planning on the architecture of RayPlus. The system consists of a series of processing to CT images including filtering, segmentation, visualization and analyzing. Each processing is packaged into an executable program and runs on the server side. CT images in DICOM format are processed step by to interactive modeling on browser with zero-installation and server-side computing. The system supports users to semi-automatically segment the liver, intrahepatic vessel and tumor from the pre-processed images. Then, surface and volume models are built to analyze the vessel structure and the relative position between adjacent organs. The results show that the initial implementation meets satisfactorily its first-order objectives and provide an accurate 3D delineation of the liver anatomy. Vessel labeling and resection simulation are planned to add in the future. The system is available on Internet at the link mentioned above and an open username for testing is offered.

  12. Visual Support System for Report Distinctiveness Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunayama, Wataru; Kawaguchi, Toshiaki

    In recent years, as the Internet has grown, electronic reports have come to be used in educational organizations such as universities. Though reports written by hand must be evaluated by hand except for stereotype descriptions or numerical answers, electronic reports can be rated by computer. There are two major criteria in rating reports, correctness and distinctiveness. Correctness is rated by absolute criteria and distinctiveness is rated by relative criteria. Relative evaluation is difficult because raters should memorize all contents of submitted reports to provide objective rates. In addition, electronic data are easily copied or exchanged by students. This paper presents a report evaluation support system with which raters can compare each report and give objective rates for distinctiveness. This system evaluates each report by objective similarity criteria and visualizes them in a two-dimensional interface as the calculated distinctiveness order. Experimental results show the system is valid and effective for estimating associations between reports.

  13. Repulsive force support system feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boom, R. W.; Abdelsalam, M. K.; Eyssa, Y. M.; Mcintosh, G. E.

    1987-01-01

    A new concept in magnetic levitation and control is introduced for levitation above a plane. A set of five vertical solenoid magnets mounted flush below the plane supports and controls the model in five degrees of freedom. The compact system of levitation coils is contained in a space 2.4 m (96 in) diameter by 1 m (40 in) deep with the top of the levitation system 0.9 m (36 in) below the center line of the suspended model. The levitated model has a permanent magnet core held in position by the five parallel superconductive solenoids symmetrically located in a circle. The control and positioning system continuously corrects for model position in five dimensions using computer current pulses superimposed on the levitation coil base currents. The conceptual designs include: superconductive and Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet model cores and levitation solenoids of either superconductive, cryoresistive, or room temperature windings.

  14. An intelligent ground operator support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goerlach, Thomas; Ohlendorf, Gerhard; Plassmeier, Frank; Bruege, Uwe

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents first results of the project 'Technologien fuer die intelligente Kontrolle von Raumfahrzeugen' (TIKON). The TIKON objective was the demonstration of feasibility and profit of the application of artificial intelligence in the space business. For that purpose a prototype system has been developed and implemented for the operation support of the Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT), a scientific spacecraft designed to perform the first all-sky survey with a high-resolution X-ray telescope and to investigate the emission of specific celestial sources. The prototype integrates a scheduler and a diagnosis tool both based on artificial intelligence techniques. The user interface is menu driven and provides synoptic displays for the visualization of the system status. The prototype has been used and tested in parallel to an already existing operational system.

  15. File System Support for Digital Evidence Bags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Golden; Roussev, Vassil

    Digital Evidence Bags (DEBs) are a mechanism for bundling digital evidence, associated metadata and audit logs into a single structure. DEB-compliant applications can update a DEB's audit log as evidence is introduced into the bag and as data in the bag is processed. This paper investigates native file system support for DEBs, which has a number of benefits over ad hoc modification of digital evidence bags. The paper also describes an API for DEB-enabled applications and methods for providing DEB access to legacy applications through a DEB-aware file system. The paper addresses an urgent need for digital-forensics-aware operating system components that can enhance the consistency, security and performance of investigations.

  16. Rho-kinase inhibitor targeting the liver prevents ischemia/reperfusion injury in the steatotic liver without major systemic adversity in rats.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Shintaro; Tashiro, Hirotaka; Kimura, Yasuhiro; Hirata, Kaori; Tsutada, Misaki; Mikuriya, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi; Amano, Hironobu; Tanaka, Yuka; Ohdan, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Rho-kinase (ROCK) inhibitors improve liver blood flow after ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury, especially in the setting of steatosis, by decreasing the resistance of intrahepatic microcirculation through hepatic stellate cell (HSC) relaxation. However, the systemic administration of ROCK inhibitors causes severe hypotension; therefore, liver-specific ROCK inhibition is required. Here, we tested vitamin A (VA)-coupled liposomes carrying the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 for targeted HSCs in steatotic rats. Rat livers with steatosis induced by a choline-deficient diet were subjected to IR injury. The delivery site and effect of the ROCK inhibitor were investigated. After liposomal Y-27632 injection, the survival rate after IR, the liver blood flow, the portal perfused pressure, and the hemodynamics were investigated. Immunohistochemical studies showed VA-coupled liposome accumulation in livers. Liposomal Y-27632 was 100-fold more effective in inhibiting HSC activation than free Y-27632. Liposomal Y-27632 improved the survival rate after IR injury, the liver blood flow, and the portal perfusion pressure without severe hypotension. In contrast, untargeted Y-27632 elicited severe systemic hypotension. We conclude that VA-coupled liposomes carrying the ROCK inhibitor yield enhanced drug accumulation in the liver and thus mitigate IR injury in the steatotic liver and reduce major systemic adversity. PMID:25307969

  17. Support system for pathologists and researchers

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Takumi; Takahashi, Junko; Kasai, Mai; Shiina, Takayuki; Iijima, Yuka; Takemura, Hiroshi; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi; Kuwata, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Aims: In Japan, cancer is the most prevalent cause of death; the number of patients suffering from cancer is increasing. Hence, there is an increased burden on pathologists to make diagnoses. To reduce pathologists’ burden, researchers have developed methods of auto-pathological diagnosis. However, virtual slides, which are created when glass slides are digitally scanned, saved in a unique format, and it is difficult for researchers to work on the virtual slides for developing their own image processing method. This paper presents the support system for pathologists and researchers who use auto-pathological diagnosis (P-SSD). Main purpose of P-SSD was to support both of pathologists and researchers. P-SSD consists of several sub-functions that make it easy not only for pathologists to screen pathological images, double-check their diagnoses, and reduce unimportant image data but also for researchers to develop and apply their original image-processing techniques to pathological images. Methods: We originally developed P-SSD to support both pathologists and researchers developing auto-pathological diagnoses systems. Current version of P-SSD consists of five main functions as follows: (i) Loading virtual slides, (ii) making a supervised database, (iii) learning image features, (iv) detecting cancerous areas, (v) displaying results of detection. Results: P-SSD reduces computer memory size random access memory utilization and the processing time required to divide the virtual slides into the smaller-size images compared with other similar software. The maximum observed reduction in computer memory size and reduction in processing time is 97% and 99.94%, respectively. Conclusions: Unlike other vendor-developed software, P-SSD has interoperability and is capable of handling virtual slides in several formats. Therefore, P-SSD can support both of pathologists and researchers, and has many potential applications in both pathological diagnosis and research area. PMID

  18. A "systems medicine" approach to the study of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Petta, Salvatore; Valenti, Luca; Bugianesi, Elisabetta; Targher, Giovanni; Bellentani, Stefano; Bonino, Ferruccio

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of fatty liver (steatosis) in the general population is rapidly increasing worldwide. The progress of knowledge in the physiopathology of fatty liver is based on the systems biology approach to studying the complex interactions among different physiological systems. Similarly, translational and clinical research should address the complex interplay between these systems impacting on fatty liver. The clinical needs drive the applications of systems medicine to re-define clinical phenotypes, assessing the multiple nature of disease susceptibility and progression (e.g. the definition of risk, prognosis, diagnosis criteria, and new endpoints of clinical trials). Based on this premise and in light of recent findings, the complex mechanisms involved in the pathology of fatty liver and their impact on the short- and long-term clinical outcomes of cardiovascular, metabolic liver diseases associated with steatosis are presented in this review using a new "systems medicine" approach. A new data set is proposed for studying the impairments of different physiological systems that have an impact on fatty liver in different subsets of subjects and patients. PMID:26698409

  19. Advanced integrated life support system update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitley, Phillip E.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Integrated Life Support System Program (AILSS) is an advanced development effort to integrate the life support and protection requirements using the U.S. Navy's fighter/attack mission as a starting point. The goal of AILSS is to optimally mate protection from altitude, acceleration, chemical/biological agent, thermal environment (hot, cold, and cold water immersion) stress as well as mission enhancement through improved restraint, night vision, and head-mounted reticules and displays to ensure mission capability. The primary emphasis to date has been to establish garment design requirements and tradeoffs for protection. Here the garment and the human interface are treated as a system. Twelve state-off-the-art concepts from government and industry were evaluated for design versus performance. On the basis of a combination of centrifuge, thermal manikin data, thermal modeling, and mobility studies, some key design parameters have been determined. Future efforts will concentrate on the integration of protection through garment design and the use of a single layer, multiple function concept to streamline the garment system.

  20. Machine Maintenance Integrated Performance Support System

    SciTech Connect

    Bohley, M.C.; Schwartz, M.E.

    1998-03-11

    The objectives of this partnership project were to develop a preventive maintenance checklist program, a troubleshooting system for the Vertical Turning Center (VTC)-5, an on-line manual, and to integrate these components with a custom browser that would run on the VTC-5 machine's controller and would support future internet/intranet delivery. Kingsbury provided subject matter experts from engineering, manufacturing, and technical support. They also provided photographs, schematics, and CAD drawings, which AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (ASFM and T) digitized for use in the final program. Information from The Kingsbury troubleshooting experts were interviewed regarding symptoms and root causes of system malfunctions This knowledge was captured and from it, fault trees were developed. These trees were then incorporated into the EPSS as a troubleshooting tool. The troubleshooting portion of the system presents simple questions to the machine operator in order to determine the likely cause or causes of malfunctions and then recommends systematic corrective actions. The on-line reference manual, covering operations and maintenance, provides text and illustrations to the machine operator in a traditional structure, but additionally offers the capability to search voluminous amounts of technical data and retrieve specific information on request. The maintenance portion of the EPSS includes checklists that are displayed daily, weekly, monthly, and annually, as appropriate, on the VTC-5 controller screen. The controller software is unavailable for machining parts until the machine tool operator goes through and checks off all of the checklist items. This project provided the team with a detailed understanding of the knowledge and information required to produce and support advanced machine tools. In addition, it resulted in the design and construction of a prototype VTC-5 EPSS containing all the logic and interfaces necessary to integrate operations

  1. Controlled Ecological Life Support System: Regenerative Life Support Systems in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, Robert D.; Smernoff, David T.

    1987-01-01

    A wide range of topics related to the extended support of humans in space are covered. Overviews of research conducted in Japan, Europe, and the U.S. are presented. The methods and technologies required to recycle materials, especially respiratory gases, within a closed system are examined. Also presented are issues related to plant and algal productivity, efficiency, and processing methods. Computer simulation of closed systems, discussions of radiation effects on systems stability, and modeling of a computer bioregenerative system are also covered.

  2. Space transportation system biomedical operations support study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, S. C.

    1983-01-01

    The shift of the Space Transportation System (STS) flight tests of the orbiter vehicle to the preparation and flight of the payloads is discussed. Part of this change is the transition of the medical and life sciences aspects of the STS flight operations to reflect the new state. The medical operations, the life sciences flight experiments support requirements and the intramural research program expected to be at KSC during the operational flight period of the STS and a future space station are analyzed. The adequacy of available facilities, plans, and resources against these future needs are compared; revisions and/or alternatives where appropriate are proposed.

  3. Long-term maintenance of liver-specific functions in three-dimensional culture of adult rat hepatocytes with a porous gelatin sponge support.

    PubMed

    Lin, K H; Maeda, S; Saito, T

    1995-02-01

    The three-dimensional culture of adult rat hepatocytes with a porous gelatin sponge (gelfoam) support was investigated. Hepatocytes were immobilized on the surface as well as within the pores of the support. The morphology of the hepatocytes immobilized on the support was close to that observed in vivo. In some parts of the support the spheroids of hepatocytes could be observed. To examine the liver-specific functions of the hepatocytes in the culture, the levels of serum albumin and bile acids secreted into the medium were assessed. The secretion of albumin and bile acids was stable over the course of 12 days, longer than that in collagen-gel culture. To elucidate further the function of hepatocytes immobilized on gelfoam, the metabolic activities of the hepatocytes, as measured by the competency of removal of NH4+ and the synthesis of urea nitrogen, were determined. The rates of ammonium removal and urea nitrogen synthesis were comparable with those in conventional monolayer culture. Albumin secretion was enhanced by the treatment of gelfoam with either heparin or acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF), the gelfoam having a high affinity for these substances. DNA synthesis was also enhanced by aFGF. These results demonstrate that gelfoam is a suitable support for the in vitro culture of hepatocytes. Combined with its easy manipulation, it is suggested that the culture system described could be used for both basic and applied studies. PMID:7536008

  4. Matched-Pair Comparison of Radioembolization Plus Best Supportive Care Versus Best Supportive Care Alone for Chemotherapy Refractory Liver-Dominant Colorectal Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Seidensticker, Ricarda; Denecke, Timm; Kraus, Patrick; Seidensticker, Max; Mohnike, Konrad; Fahlke, Joerg; Kettner, Erika; Dudeck, Oliver; Pech, Maciej; Amthauer, Holger; Ricke, Jens

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate overall survival after radioembolization or best supportive care (BSC) in patients with chemotherapy-refractory liver-dominant metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Methods: This was a matched-pair comparison of patients who received radioembolization plus BSC or BSC alone for extensive liver disease. Twenty-nine patients who received radioembolization were retrospectively matched with a contemporary cohort of >500 patients who received BSC from 3 centers in Germany. Using clinical databases, patients were initially matched for prior treatments and tumor burden and then 29 patients were consecutively identified with two or more of four matching criteria: synchronous/metachronous metastases, tumor burden, increased ALP, and/or CEA >200 U/ml. Survival was calculated from date of progression before radioembolization or BSC by using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results: Of 29 patients in each study arm, 16 pairs (55.2%) matched for all four criteria, and 11 pairs (37.9%) matched three criteria. Patients in both groups had a similar performance status (Karnofsky index, median 80% [range, 60-100%]). Compared with BSC alone, radioembolization prolonged survival (median, 8.3 vs. 3.5 months; P < 0.001) with a hazard ratio of 0.3 (95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.55; P < 0.001) in a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model. Treatment-related adverse events following radioembolization included: grade 1-2 fatigue (n = 20, 69%), grade 1 abdominal pain/nausea (n = 14, 48.3%), and grade 2 gastrointestinal ulceration (n = 3, 10.3%). Three cases of grade 3 radiation-induced liver disease were symptomatically managed. Conclusions: Radioembolization offers a promising addition to BSC in treatment-refractory patients for whom there are limited options. Survival was prolonged and adverse events were generally mild-to-moderate in nature and manageable.

  5. Liver Support With Albumin Dialysis Reduces Hepatitis C Virus Viremia and Facilitates Antiviral Treatment of Severe Hepatitis C Virus Recurrence After Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez-Samaniego, Luis; Catalina, María-Vega; Rincón, Diego; Lo Iacono, Oreste; Fernández, Ainhoa; Clemente, Gerardo; Bañares, Rafael; Vaquero, Javier; Salcedo, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    Patients with severe hepatitis C virus (HCV) recurrence after liver transplantation (LT) present an ominous prognosis, rarely achieving sustained virological response (SVR). Dialysis procedures may transiently decrease the HCV viral load, but the effect of albumin dialysis is currently unknown. Here, we evaluated the impact of albumin dialysis using the Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS) used as a co-adjuvant antiviral treatment for severe HCV recurrence after LT. Thirteen patients (11 males, median age 48 years) with fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis or METAVIR fibrosis score ≥ F3 with severe portal hypertension underwent three consecutive MARS sessions. Antiviral therapy was initiated in 11 patients within 24 h after the MARS sessions. A contemporary cohort of seven patients who did not follow the MARS protocol is shown for comparison. MARS treatment resulted in consistent decreases of viral load from 7.59 log10 IU/mL [6.15-8.90] to 6.79 log10 IU/mL [5.18-7.84] (P = 0.003) as well as in decreases of serum bilirubin, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (all P < 0.05). The overall rate of SVR was 0% in the Control group and 54.6% in patients initiating antiviral therapy within 24 h after MARS. Survival at 1 and 3 years was, respectively, 93% and 70% in patients undergoing MARS, compared with 29% and 14% in the Control group (P = 0.001). No major adverse events related to MARS treatment were observed. In conclusion, the use of MARS may facilitate the achievement of SVR and improve the prognosis of patients with severe HCV-recurrence after LT by reducing viral load and improving liver function prior to antiviral therapy. PMID:26929255

  6. Differences in Redox Regulatory Systems in Human Lung and Liver Tumors Suggest Different Avenues for Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tobe, Ryuta; Carlson, Bradley A.; Tsuji, Petra A.; Lee, Byeong Jae; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Hatfield, Dolph L.

    2015-01-01

    A common characteristic of many cancer cells is that they suffer from oxidative stress. They, therefore, require effective redox regulatory systems to combat the higher levels of reactive oxygen species that accompany accelerated growth compared to the normal cells of origin. An elevated dependence on these systems in cancers suggests that targeting these systems may provide an avenue for retarding the malignancy process. Herein, we examined the redox regulatory systems in human liver and lung cancers by comparing human lung adenocarcinoma and liver carcinoma to their respective surrounding normal tissues. Significant differences were found in the two major redox systems, the thioredoxin and glutathione systems. Thioredoxin reductase 1 levels were elevated in both malignancies, but thioredoxin was highly upregulated in lung tumor and only slightly upregulated in liver tumor, while peroxiredoxin 1 was highly elevated in lung tumor, but downregulated in liver tumor. There were also major differences within the glutathione system between the malignancies and their normal tissues. The data suggest a greater dependence of liver on either the thioredoxin or glutathione system to drive the malignancy, while lung cancer appeared to depend primarily on the thioredoxin system. PMID:26569310

  7. Semantic technologies in a decision support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasielewska, K.; Ganzha, M.; Paprzycki, M.; Bǎdicǎ, C.; Ivanovic, M.; Lirkov, I.

    2015-10-01

    The aim of our work is to design a decision support system based on ontological representation of domain(s) and semantic technologies. Specifically, we consider the case when Grid / Cloud user describes his/her requirements regarding a "resource" as a class expression from an ontology, while the instances of (the same) ontology represent available resources. The goal is to help the user to find the best option with respect to his/her requirements, while remembering that user's knowledge may be "limited." In this context, we discuss multiple approaches based on semantic data processing, which involve different "forms" of user interaction with the system. Specifically, we consider: (a) ontological matchmaking based on SPARQL queries and class expression, (b) graph-based semantic closeness of instances representing user requirements (constructed from the class expression) and available resources, and (c) multicriterial analysis based on the AHP method, which utilizes expert domain knowledge (also ontologically represented).

  8. Comprehensive review of post-liver resection surgical complications and a new universal classification and grading system.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Masayuki; Mizuguchi, Toru; Harada, Kohei; Ota, Shigenori; Meguro, Makoto; Ueki, Tomomi; Nishidate, Toshihiko; Okita, Kenji; Hirata, Koichi

    2014-10-27

    Liver resection is the gold standard treatment for certain liver tumors such as hepatocellular carcinoma and metastatic liver tumors. Some patients with such tumors already have reduced liver function due to chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, or chemotherapy-associated steatohepatitis before surgery. Therefore, complications due to poor liver function are inevitable after liver resection. Although the mortality rate of liver resection has been reduced to a few percent in recent case series, its overall morbidity rate is reported to range from 4.1% to 47.7%. The large degree of variation in the post-liver resection morbidity rates reported in previous studies might be due to the lack of consensus regarding the definitions and classification of post-liver resection complications. The Clavien-Dindo (CD) classification of post-operative complications is widely accepted internationally. However, it is hard to apply to some major post-liver resection complications because the consensus definitions and grading systems for post-hepatectomy liver failure and bile leakage established by the International Study Group of Liver Surgery are incompatible with the CD classification. Therefore, a unified classification of post-liver resection complications has to be established to allow comparisons between academic reports. PMID:25349645

  9. Comprehensive review of post-liver resection surgical complications and a new universal classification and grading system

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Masayuki; Mizuguchi, Toru; Harada, Kohei; Ota, Shigenori; Meguro, Makoto; Ueki, Tomomi; Nishidate, Toshihiko; Okita, Kenji; Hirata, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Liver resection is the gold standard treatment for certain liver tumors such as hepatocellular carcinoma and metastatic liver tumors. Some patients with such tumors already have reduced liver function due to chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, or chemotherapy-associated steatohepatitis before surgery. Therefore, complications due to poor liver function are inevitable after liver resection. Although the mortality rate of liver resection has been reduced to a few percent in recent case series, its overall morbidity rate is reported to range from 4.1% to 47.7%. The large degree of variation in the post-liver resection morbidity rates reported in previous studies might be due to the lack of consensus regarding the definitions and classification of post-liver resection complications. The Clavien-Dindo (CD) classification of post-operative complications is widely accepted internationally. However, it is hard to apply to some major post-liver resection complications because the consensus definitions and grading systems for post-hepatectomy liver failure and bile leakage established by the International Study Group of Liver Surgery are incompatible with the CD classification. Therefore, a unified classification of post-liver resection complications has to be established to allow comparisons between academic reports. PMID:25349645

  10. Hollow fiber membrane systems for advanced life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roebelen, G. J., Jr.; Lysaght, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    The practicability of utilizing hollow fiber membranes in vehicular and portable life support system applications is described. A preliminary screening of potential advanced life support applications resulted in the selection of five applications for feasibility study and testing. As a result of the feasibility study and testing, three applications, heat rejection, deaeration, and bacteria filtration, were chosen for breadboard development testing; breadboard hardware was manufactured and tested, and the physical properties of the hollow fiber membrane assemblies are characterized.

  11. Accuracy validation of an image guided laparoscopy system for liver resection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Stephen; Totz, Johannes; Song, Yi; Johnsen, Stian; Stoyanov, Danail; Ourselin, Sébastien; Gurusamy, Kurinchi; Schneider, Crispin; Davidson, Brian; Hawkes, David; Clarkson, Matthew J.

    2015-03-01

    We present an analysis of the registration component of a proposed image guidance system for image guided liver surgery, using contrast enhanced CT. The analysis is performed on a visually realistic liver phantom and in-vivo porcine data. A robust registration process that can be deployed clinically is a key component of any image guided surgery system. It is also essential that the accuracy of the registration can be quantified and communicated to the surgeon. We summarise the proposed guidance system and discuss its clinical feasibility. The registration combines an intuitive manual alignment stage, surface reconstruction from a tracked stereo laparoscope and a rigid iterative closest point registration to register the intra-operative liver surface to the liver surface derived from CT. Testing of the system on a liver phantom shows that subsurface landmarks can be localised to an accuracy of 2.9 mm RMS. Testing during five porcine liver surgeries demonstrated that registration can be performed during surgery, with an error of less than 10 mm RMS for multiple surface landmarks.

  12. Superstoichiometric Ca2+ uptake supported by hydrolysis of endogenous ATP in rat liver mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Brand, M D; Lehninger, A L

    1975-10-10

    The nature of the energy store causing rapid superstoichiometric leads to H+/2e minus ejection and leads to Ca2+/2e minus uptake ratios in rat liver mitochondria pulsed with Ca2+ has been investigated. The extent and the rate of the initial fast superstoichiometric phase of H plus ejection were greatly reduced by oligomycin and other ATPase inhibitors; the subsequent shoichiometric phase was unaffected. No such inhibition was seen with atractyloside. Similarly, the initial fast phase of Ca2+ uptake was reduced in extent by oligomycin, whereas the slower stoichiometric phase was unaffected. Moreover, the ATP content of mitochondria previously incubated with succinate decreased by about 80% within 5 s after pulsing with Ca2+. The energy store for superstoichiometric Ca2+ uptake and H plus injection is thus identified as endogenous ATP. PMID:1176454

  13. Immune-protected xenogeneic bioartificial livers with liver-specific microarchitecture and hydrogel-encapsulated cells.

    PubMed

    No, Da Yoon; Jeong, Gi Seok; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2014-10-01

    Development of a xenogeneic biological liver support is important in providing a bridge to transplantation or liver regeneration, thus helping to overcome the chronic shortage of liver donors. Among the critical factors in developing biological liver support are the creation of in vivo mimetic micro liver tissue (mLT), especially mLTs containing liver-specific ultrastructure, and an encapsulation method that can package massive numbers of cells while providing immune-protection from the host immune system. We describe here the development of mLTs that include liver microarchitecture and their in situ encapsulation in hydrogel composites. Concave microwells and the tri-culture of three types of primary liver cells were applied for the construction of mLTs showing excellent liver functions and long-term (>1 month) viability in vitro. Large quantities of rat mLTs were encapsulated in collagen-alginate composites, implanted into hepatic failure mice and sustained their survival during regeneration of the remaining liver. The proposed liver support system offers xenogeneic hepatic assistance by mimicking native liver microarchitecture and providing immune-protection without the need for complicated devices or processes, and as such represents a promising system for recovery of organ function. PMID:25088727

  14. Minnesota's Child Support System Fails To Meet Children's Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Kids Count, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This newsletter issue provides an evaluation of child support systems and services of the 87 counties in Minnesota. No county in the state collects enough to support children, child support is often late or not paid in full, children whose parents never married are especially dependent on the child support systems, and child support services vary…

  15. Creation of closed life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitelson, I.

    The 40-year-long experience in devising ecological systems with a significantly closed material cycling (CES), which are intended for human life support outside the Earth's biosphere, allows us to state that this problem has been largely solved technically. To test the terrestrial prototypes of these systems: Bios in Krasnoyarsk, the Terrestrial Ecological System (TES) in Moscow, and Bioplex in Houston, crews of humans stayed inside them over long periods of time. In Bios-3 humans could be fully (100%) provided with regenerated air and water and with a vegetable part (80%) of their diet. One human requires 4.5 kW of light energy, which is equal to the light energy incident on an 8-m2 surface perpendicular to solar rays in the Earth's orbit. The regeneration of air and water can be alternatively performed by a 17-L2 microalgal cultivator with a light-receiving surface of 8 m at 2 kW of light energy or by a conveyer culture of agricultural plants. To regenerate the vegetable part of2 the diet to the full, the area must increase to 31.5 m per person. Similar values have been obtained in the TES and in Bioplex. It can be concluded that the system is ready to be implemented in the engineering-technical designs of specific versions: for orbital flights, for missions to Mars and other planets, and for stations on the Moon and Mars. To improve the CES further, a number of new key problems should be resolved. The first of them are: to robotize the technological processes and to establish an optimized system of the internal control of the CES by the crew working in it; to develop a hybrid physicochemical-biological technology for returning the dead-end products of biosynthesis into the system's cycling; to solve the fundamental problem of regenerating the human ration completely inside the CES by the autotrophic chemo - and photosynthesis. Once this problem is solved, the energy requirements for life support in space will be significantly reduced. This will also considerably

  16. 45 CFR 307.5 - Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.5 Mandatory computerized support... operational computerized support enforcement system, which meets Federal requirements under § 302.85(a)(1)...

  17. 45 CFR 307.5 - Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.5 Mandatory computerized support... operational computerized support enforcement system, which meets Federal requirements under § 302.85(a)(1)...

  18. 45 CFR 307.5 - Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.5 Mandatory computerized support... operational computerized support enforcement system, which meets Federal requirements under § 302.85(a)(1)...

  19. [Alterations of prooxidant-antioxidant system of rat liver at ethanol and tetracycline action].

    PubMed

    Nedoshytko, Kh Iu

    2013-01-01

    The state of antioxidant system and fatty acid composition of lipids in the liver tissues of rats of different sex at the ethanol and tetracycline action and at the influence of biologically active additives (BAA) "Alpha + Omega" at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg b.w. per os was investigated. It was found that the contet of lipid peroxidation products in the liver was increased at the action of 40% ethanol at a dose of 7 ml/kg b.w. per os and tetracycline--500 mg/kg and more profound at their joint using. However, the content of diene conjugates was stronger increased in the liver of females at the action of ethanol, while in the liver of males at the action of tetracycline (P < 0.05). It was shown that the application of the investigated compounds led to the reduction of an antioxidant defense system activity of males and females liver, as evidenced by the decrease of superoxide dismutase activity by 46 and 43% and reduction of glutathione content by 39 and 38% (P < 0.05). The activity of alanineaminotransferase, aspartateaminotransferase and alkalinephosphatase was increased in the liver of males and females under the influence of ethanol and tetracycline and more profound at their joint usage (P < 0.05). It was established that ethanol and tetracycline unidirectionally changed fatty acid composition of total lipids of rat liver, but at the ethanol action the changes were more expressed in females while at the tetracycline action in males. The application during 14 days of BAA "Alpha + Omega" to male and female rats with an acute tetracycline damage at subacute ethanol action led to partial normalization of prooxidant-antioxidant system and the relative content of total lipids fatty acids of the liver of both sexes animals. PMID:24479333

  20. Diagnostic efficiency of Mueller-matrix polarization reconstruction system of the phase structure of liver tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabolotna, Natalia I.; Pavlov, Sergii V.; Radchenko, Kostiantyn O.; Stasenko, Vladyslav A.; Wójcik, Waldemar; Kussambayeva, Nazym

    2015-12-01

    The application field of using the Mueller-matrix polarizing reconstruction system of phase structure of biological layer for optical-anisotropic parameters differentiation of histological sections of healthy and rat's liver with hepatitis were investigated. Comparison of system informativity with known systems on indexes of sensitivity, specificity and balanced accuracy were performed.

  1. A new melanoma diagnosis active support system.

    PubMed

    Fiorini, R A; Dacquino, G; Laguteta, G

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the operational performance of a new MDASS (Melanoma Diagnosis Active Support System) prototype able to distil optimal knowledge from acquired data to automatically capture and reliably discriminate and quantify the stage of disease evolution. Automated classification dermatoscopical parameters can be divided into two main classes: Size Descriptor (point size, local, and global) and Intrinsic Descriptor (morphological, geometrical, chromatic, others). Usually elementary geometric shape robust and effective characterization, invariant to environment and optical geometry transformations, on a rigorous mathematical level is a key and computational intensive problem. MDASS uses GEOGINE (GEOmetrical enGINE), a state-of-the-art OMG (Ontological Model Generator) based on n-D Tensor Moment Invariants for shape/texture effective description. MDASS main results show robust disease classification procedure with distillation of minimal reference grids for pathological cases and they ultimately achieve effective early diagnosis of melanocytic lesion. System results are validated by carefully designed experiments with certified clinical reference database. Overall system operational performance is presented. Finally, MDASS error analysis and computational complexity are addressed and discussed. PMID:17270962

  2. Embedded systems for supporting computer accessibility.

    PubMed

    Mulfari, Davide; Celesti, Antonio; Fazio, Maria; Villari, Massimo; Puliafito, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, customized AT software solutions allow their users to interact with various kinds of computer systems. Such tools are generally available on personal devices (e.g., smartphones, laptops and so on) commonly used by a person with a disability. In this paper, we investigate a way of using the aforementioned AT equipments in order to access many different devices without assistive preferences. The solution takes advantage of open source hardware and its core component consists of an affordable Linux embedded system: it grabs data coming from the assistive software, which runs on the user's personal device, then, after processing, it generates native keyboard and mouse HID commands for the target computing device controlled by the end user. This process supports any operating system available on the target machine and it requires no specialized software installation; therefore the user with a disability can rely on a single assistive tool to control a wide range of computing platforms, including conventional computers and many kinds of mobile devices, which receive input commands through the USB HID protocol. PMID:26294501

  3. Suspension system for gimbal supported scanning payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, Michael E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Gimballed scanning devices or instruments are the subject of this invention. Scanning is an important aspect of space science. To achieve a scan pattern some means must be provided which impart to the payload an oscillatory motion. Various forms of machines have been employed for controllably conferring on scanning instruments predetermined scan patterns. They include control moment gyroscopes, reaction wheels, torque motors, reaction control systems, and the like. But rotating unbalanced mass (RUM) devices are a new and efficient way to generate scans in gimballed payloads. RUM devices are superior to previous scanning apparatus, but they require power consuming and frequently complex auxiliary control systems to position and reposition the particular scan pattern relative to a target or a number of targets. Herein the control system is simplified. The most frequently employed method for achieving the various scan patterns is to gimbal the scanning device. Gimbals are suspended in such a way that they can be activated to generate the scan pattern. The suspension means described is for payloads supported in gimbals wherein the payload rotation is restricted by a flex pivot so that the payload oscillates, thereby moving in a scan pattern.

  4. Knowledge-based systems and NASA's software support environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, Tim; Carmody, Cora; Lennington, Kent; Nelson, Bob

    1990-01-01

    A proposed role for knowledge-based systems within NASA's Software Support Environment (SSE) is described. The SSE is chartered to support all software development for the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP). This includes support for development of knowledge-based systems and the integration of these systems with conventional software systems. In addition to the support of development of knowledge-based systems, various software development functions provided by the SSE will utilize knowledge-based systems technology.

  5. Technological Support for Logistics Transportation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bujak, Andrzej; Śliwa, Zdzisław; Gębczyńska, Alicja

    The modern world is changing introducing robots, remotely controlled vehicles and other crewless means of transportation to reduce people's mistakes, as the main cause of incidents and crashes during traffic. New technologies are supporting operators and drivers, and according to some studies they can even replace them. Such programs as: AHS, UAH, IVBSS or MTVR are under development to improve traffic flow and its safety, to reduce traffic hazards and crashes. It is necessary to analyze such concepts and implement them boldly, including Polish logistics' companies, new programs, highways' system etc., as they will be applied in the future, so it is necessary to prepare logistics infrastructure ahead of time in order to capitalize on these improvements. The problem is quite urgent as transportation in the country must not be outdated to meet clients' expectations and to keep pace with competing foreign companies.

  6. Composting in advanced life support systems.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, C F; Sager, J C; Alazraki, M; Loader, C

    1998-01-01

    Space missions of extended duration are currently hampered by the prohibitive costs of external resupply. To reduce the need for resupply, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently testing methods to recycle solid wastes, water, and air. Composting can be an integral part of a biologically based waste treatment/recycling system. Results indicate that leachate from composted plant wastes is not inhibitory to seed germination and contains sufficient inorganic minerals to support plant growth. Other solid wastes, for example kitchen (food) wastes and human solid wastes, can be composted with inedible plant residues to safely reduce the volume of the wastes and levels of microorganisms potentially pathogenic to humans. Finished compost could serve as a medium for plant growth or mushroom production. PMID:11541773

  7. Composting in advanced life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, C. F.; Sager, J. C.; Alazraki, M.; Loader, C.

    1998-01-01

    Space missions of extended duration are currently hampered by the prohibitive costs of external resupply. To reduce the need for resupply, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently testing methods to recycle solid wastes, water, and air. Composting can be an integral part of a biologically based waste treatment/recycling system. Results indicate that leachate from composted plant wastes is not inhibitory to seed germination and contains sufficient inorganic minerals to support plant growth. Other solid wastes, for example kitchen (food) wastes and human solid wastes, can be composted with inedible plant residues to safely reduce the volume of the wastes and levels of microorganisms potentially pathogenic to humans. Finished compost could serve as a medium for plant growth or mushroom production.

  8. NASA Advanced Explorations Systems: Advancements in Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, Sarah A.; Schneider, Walter F.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems (LSS) project strives to develop reliable, energy-efficient, and low-mass spacecraft systems to provide environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) critical to enabling long duration human missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Highly reliable, closed-loop life support systems are among the capabilities required for the longer duration human space exploration missions assessed by NASA's Habitability Architecture Team (HAT). The LSS project is focused on four areas: architecture and systems engineering for life support systems, environmental monitoring, air revitalization, and wastewater processing and water management. Starting with the international space station (ISS) LSS systems as a point of departure (where applicable), the mission of the LSS project is three-fold: 1. Address discrete LSS technology gaps 2. Improve the reliability of LSS systems 3. Advance LSS systems towards integrated testing on the ISS. This paper summarized the work being done in the four areas listed above to meet these objectives. Details will be given on the following focus areas: Systems Engineering and Architecture- With so many complex systems comprising life support in space, it is important to understand the overall system requirements to define life support system architectures for different space mission classes, ensure that all the components integrate well together and verify that testing is as representative of destination environments as possible. Environmental Monitoring- In an enclosed spacecraft that is constantly operating complex machinery for its own basic functionality as well as science experiments and technology demonstrations, it's possible for the environment to become compromised. While current environmental monitors aboard the ISS will alert crew members and mission control if there is an emergency, long-duration environmental monitoring cannot be done in-orbit as current methodologies

  9. [Role of the endocrine system in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease].

    PubMed

    Hagymási, Krisztina; Reismann, Péter; Rácz, Károly; Tulassay, Zsolt

    2009-11-29

    The most frequent liver disorder in metabolic syndrome is the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Its pathogenesis is a complex, multifactorial process, characterized by insulin resistance and involvement of the endocrine system. Hypothyroidism may lead to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis via hyperlipidemia and obesity. Adult patients with growth hormone deficiency have a metabolic syndrome-like phenotype with obesity and many characteristic metabolic alterations. The chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis results in metabolic syndrome as well. Cushing's syndrome has also features of metabolic syndrome. Mild elevation of transaminase activities is commonly seen in patients with adrenal failure. Non-alcoholic steatosis is twice as common in postmenopusal as in premenopausal women and hormonal replacement therapy decreases the risk of steatosis. Insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus type 2, sleeping apnoe syndrome, cardiovascular disorders and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are more frequent in polycystic ovary syndrome. Hypoandrogenism in males and hyperandrogenism in females may lead to fatty liver via obesity and insulin resistance. Adipokines (leptin, acylation stimulating protein, adiponectin) have a potential role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver. The alterations of endocrine system must be considered in the background of cryptogenic liver diseases. The endocrine perspective may help the therapeutic approaches in the future. PMID:19923096

  10. Optimization of life support systems and their systems reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, L. T.; Hwang, C. L.; Erickson, L. E.

    1971-01-01

    The identification, analysis, and optimization of life support systems and subsystems have been investigated. For each system or subsystem that has been considered, the procedure involves the establishment of a set of system equations (or mathematical model) based on theory and experimental evidences; the analysis and simulation of the model; the optimization of the operation, control, and reliability; analysis of sensitivity of the system based on the model; and, if possible, experimental verification of the theoretical and computational results. Research activities include: (1) modeling of air flow in a confined space; (2) review of several different gas-liquid contactors utilizing centrifugal force: (3) review of carbon dioxide reduction contactors in space vehicles and other enclosed structures: (4) application of modern optimal control theory to environmental control of confined spaces; (5) optimal control of class of nonlinear diffusional distributed parameter systems: (6) optimization of system reliability of life support systems and sub-systems: (7) modeling, simulation and optimal control of the human thermal system: and (8) analysis and optimization of the water-vapor eletrolysis cell.

  11. Liver Stiffness Measurement-Based Scoring System for Significant Inflammation Related to Chronic Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Mei-Zhu; Zhang, Ru-Mian; Chen, Guo-Liang; Huang, Wen-Qi; Min, Feng; Chen, Tian; Xu, Jin-Chao; Pan, Jin-Shui

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Liver biopsy is indispensable because liver stiffness measurement alone cannot provide information on intrahepatic inflammation. However, the presence of fibrosis highly correlates with inflammation. We constructed a noninvasive model to determine significant inflammation in chronic hepatitis B patients by using liver stiffness measurement and serum markers. Methods The training set included chronic hepatitis B patients (n = 327), and the validation set included 106 patients; liver biopsies were performed, liver histology was scored, and serum markers were investigated. All patients underwent liver stiffness measurement. Results An inflammation activity scoring system for significant inflammation was constructed. In the training set, the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of the fibrosis-based activity score were 0.964, 91.9%, and 90.8% in the HBeAg(+) patients and 0.978, 85.0%, and 94.0% in the HBeAg(−) patients, respectively. In the validation set, the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of the fibrosis-based activity score were 0.971, 90.5%, and 92.5% in the HBeAg(+) patients and 0.977, 95.2%, and 95.8% in the HBeAg(−) patients. The liver stiffness measurement-based activity score was comparable to that of the fibrosis-based activity score in both HBeAg(+) and HBeAg(−) patients for recognizing significant inflammation (G ≥3). Conclusions Significant inflammation can be accurately predicted by this novel method. The liver stiffness measurement-based scoring system can be used without the aid of computers and provides a noninvasive alternative for the prediction of chronic hepatitis B-related significant inflammation. PMID:25360742

  12. Liver metastases

    MedlinePlus

    Metastases to the liver; Metastatic liver cancer; Liver cancer - metastatic; Colorectal cancer - liver metastases; Colon cancer - liver metastases; Esophageal cancer - liver metastases; Lung cancer - liver metastases; Melanoma - liver metastases

  13. [THE MODERN CONCEPTS OF HEMOSTASIS SYSTEM UNDER CHRONIC DISEASES OF LIVER: THE PUBLICATIONS REVIEW].

    PubMed

    Batirova, A S; Bakanov, M I; Surkov, A N

    2015-08-01

    The disorder of system of hemostasis under chronic diseases of liver results in coagulation imbalance affecting both primary and secondary hemostasis. The shifting of hemostasis balance beyond the limits of physiological standards in such patients can result either in bleeding or thrombosis. For a long time already it is considered that in patients with chronic diseases of liver alterations in hemostasis system and occurrence of bleeding are very often interrelated. However results of such screening coagulation tests as prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time poorly correlate with onset and duration of bleeding, for example after liver biopsy and also with occurrence of gastro-intestinal bleeding in patients with terminal stage of diseases of liver The foreign publications of last decade contest concept of cause and effect relationship between changes of indicators of screening coagulation tests and risk of development of bleeding in patients with chronic diseases of liver The publications also dispute both usefulness of the given tests in evaluation of hemorrhages and expediency of therapeutic strategies in the case of correction of anomalous results of mentioned tests. This issue in patients with rare diseases is factually unexplored. For example, there are single publications concerning patients with glycogenous disease type. The bleeding in such patients begin in early childhood They are related to dysfunction of thrombocytes and decreasing of particular oligomers of von Willebrand factor Hence, disorders in various chains of hemostasis system in patients with chronic diseases of liver are characterized by many unresolved issues that hinder furthering of development of diagnostic biomarkers. At that, diagnostic of coagulopathies and correction of pathological conditions in such patients the new tests are to be developed to monitor states of hemostasis system in patients with chronic diseases of liver, rare nosologic forms included. PMID

  14. Decision Support Systems in Diuresis Renography

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Andrew; Manatunga, Amita; Garcia, Ernest V.

    2013-01-01

    The volume of diagnostic imaging studies performed in the United States is rapidly increasing resulting from an increase in the number of patients as well as an increase in the volume of studies per patient. Concurrently, the number and complexity of images in each patient data set are also increasing. Nuclear medicine physicians and radiologists are required to master an ever-expanding knowledge base whereas the hours available to master this knowledge base and apply it to specific tasks are steadily shrinking. The convergence of an expanding knowledge base and escalating time constraints increases the likelihood of physician errors. The problem is particularly acute for low-volume studies such as MAG3 diuresis renography where many imagers may have had limited training or experience. To address this problem, renal decision support systems (DSS) are being developed to assist physicians evaluate suspected obstruction in patients referred for diuresis renography. Categories of DSS include neural networks, case-based reasoning, expert systems and statistical systems; RENEX and CART are examples of renal DSS currently in development. RENEX (renal expert) uses a set of rules obtained from human experts to analyze a knowledge base of expanded quantitative parameters obtained from diuresis MAG3 scintigraphy whereas CART (classification and regression tree analysis) is a statistical method that grows and prunes a decision tree based on an analysis of these quantitative parameters in a training data set. RENEX can be queried to provide the reasons for its conclusions. Initial data show that the interpretations provided by RENEX and CART are comparable to the interpretations of a panel of experts blinded to clinical information. This project should serve as a benchmark for the scientific comparison and collaboration of these 2 fields of medical decision-making. Moreover, we anticipate that these DSS will better define the essential interpretative criteria, foster

  15. Paracrine renal endothelin system in rats with liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed Central

    Hocher, B.; Zart, R.; Diekmann, F.; Rohmeiss, P.; Distler, A.; Neumayer, H. H.; Bauer, C.; Gross, P.

    1996-01-01

    1. Liver cirrhosis was induced in rats by CCl4 administration. We analysed the expression of endothelin receptor subtypes in the renal cortex and medulla using Scatchard analysis and receptor autoradiography, and measured plasma as well as renal-tissue endothelin-1 concentrations using a specific radioimmunoassay. Furthermore, we analysed the effects of the non-selective (A/B) endothelin receptor antagonist, bosentan (6 and 100 mg kg-1 day-1) on mean arterial blood pressure, water and sodium excretion and glomerular filtration rate. 2. Our study revealed an overexpression of the endothelin B receptor (ETB) in the renal medulla of rats with liver cirrhosis (Cir: 2775 +/- 299 fmol mg-1; Con: 1695 +/- 255 fmol mg-1; n = 8; means +/- s.d., P < 0.01), whereas the density of ETB in the cortex and the endothelin A receptor (ETA) in the cortex and medulla were similar in both cirrhotic and control rats. Receptor autoradiography showed that the upregulation of medullary ETB in cirrhotic rats was due to an upregulation of ETB in the inner medullary collecting duct cells. 3. The tissue endothelin-1 concentrations were increased in the renal medulla of cirrhotic rats (Cir: 271 +/- 68 pg g-1wet wt.; Con: 153 +/- 36 pg g-1 wet wt., n = 8; means +/- s.d., P < 0.01). 4. The glomerular filtration rate was slightly decreased in cirrhotic rats but not altered after bosentan treatment in either cirrhotic or control rats. Bosentan decreased sodium excretion to a similar extent in both cirrhotic and control rats, whereas water excretion was significantly reduced by both dosages of bosentan in cirrhotic rats only (Cir + vehicle: 12.5 +/- 0.62 m day-1, Cir + 6 mg kg-1 day-1 bosentan: 8.6 +/- 1.0 ml day-1; Cir + 100 mg kg-1 day-1 bosentan: 7.4 +/- 0.6 ml day-1; n = 10; means +/- s.e.mean). 5. We therefore suggest that the upregulation of the medullary ETB in cirrhotic rats is involved in the regulation of water excretion in rats with CCl4-induced liver cirrhosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 5

  16. A Support Database System for Integrated System Health Management (ISHM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalzel, John; Figueroa, Jorge F.; Turowski, Mark; Morris, John

    2007-01-01

    The development, deployment, operation and maintenance of Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) applications require the storage and processing of tremendous amounts of low-level data. This data must be shared in a secure and cost-effective manner between developers, and processed within several heterogeneous architectures. Modern database technology allows this data to be organized efficiently, while ensuring the integrity and security of the data. The extensibility and interoperability of the current database technologies also allows for the creation of an associated support database system. A support database system provides additional capabilities by building applications on top of the database structure. These applications can then be used to support the various technologies in an ISHM architecture. This presentation and paper propose a detailed structure and application description for a support database system, called the Health Assessment Database System (HADS). The HADS provides a shared context for organizing and distributing data as well as a definition of the applications that provide the required data-driven support to ISHM. This approach provides another powerful tool for ISHM developers, while also enabling novel functionality. This functionality includes: automated firmware updating and deployment, algorithm development assistance and electronic datasheet generation. The architecture for the HADS has been developed as part of the ISHM toolset at Stennis Space Center for rocket engine testing. A detailed implementation has begun for the Methane Thruster Testbed Project (MTTP) in order to assist in developing health assessment and anomaly detection algorithms for ISHM. The structure of this implementation is shown in Figure 1. The database structure consists of three primary components: the system hierarchy model, the historical data archive and the firmware codebase. The system hierarchy model replicates the physical relationships between

  17. Support System for Mental Health Professionals*

    PubMed Central

    Dandekar, Ajit

    2015-01-01

    This paper talks of support systems for mental health professionals wherein the Bombay Psychiatric Society (BPS) should devote some meetings exclusively to problems pertaining to the profession, e.g., long and odd working hours leading to potentially hazardous practice schedules, unhealthy competitive attitudes and culture. A crash course in self-defence against potentially psychotic patients and drug addicts is advocated as also awareness of the potential hazards in dealing with the litigious paranoid patients, erotomaniacs and some of the difficult hysterical patients. Potential medicolegal problems arise in treating an uncooperative patient without his knowledge and consent on an outpatient department basis, admitting such an uncooperative patient to a nursing home or a hospital, administering electroconvulsive therapies, maintaining detailed clinical records of patients, and legal issues involving smaller psychiatric private nursing homes. This paper stresses on the use of Yoga as a recognised psycho-physiological therapy. Furthermore, it suggests on the need for BPS, as a professional body, to have a cell to guide and help aspiring young professionals in setting up private practice. It points out the need to evolve some concrete programmes that in the long run should help alleviate stresses and strains and promote positive comprehensive health amongst mental health professionals. PMID:25838730

  18. Support system for mental health professionals.

    PubMed

    Dandekar, Ajit

    2015-01-01

    This paper talks of support systems for mental health professionals wherein the Bombay Psychiatric Society (BPS) should devote some meetings exclusively to problems pertaining to the profession, e.g., long and odd working hours leading to potentially hazardous practice schedules, unhealthy competitive attitudes and culture. A crash course in self-defence against potentially psychotic patients and drug addicts is advocated as also awareness of the potential hazards in dealing with the litigious paranoid patients, erotomaniacs and some of the difficult hysterical patients. Potential medicolegal problems arise in treating an uncooperative patient without his knowledge and consent on an outpatient department basis, admitting such an uncooperative patient to a nursing home or a hospital, administering electroconvulsive therapies, maintaining detailed clinical records of patients, and legal issues involving smaller psychiatric private nursing homes. This paper stresses on the use of Yoga as a recognised psycho-physiological therapy. Furthermore, it suggests on the need for BPS, as a professional body, to have a cell to guide and help aspiring young professionals in setting up private practice. It points out the need to evolve some concrete programmes that in the long run should help alleviate stresses and strains and promote positive comprehensive health amongst mental health professionals. PMID:25838730

  19. [Extracorporeal therapy of patients with liver disease in the intensive care unit].

    PubMed

    Fuhrmann, V; Horvatits, T; Drolz, A; Rutter, K

    2014-05-01

    Acute and acute-on-chronic liver failure are often associated with development of organ failure. Its occurrence is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Extracorporeal replacement therapies are frequently necessary in these patient populations. Replacement therapies can be divided into renal replacement therapies and liver support therapies. These therapies consist of artificial liver support systems (i.e., MARS(®) system, Prometheus(®)), which are able to remove water-soluble and albumin-bound toxins, and of bioartifical liver support systems. This manuscript provides a review of current practice in the extracorporeal support of patients with liver diseases in the intensive care unit. PMID:24770889

  20. Liver dialysis in acute-on-chronic liver failure: current and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Maiwall, Rakhi; Maras, Jaswinder Singh; Nayak, Suman Lata; Sarin, Shiv Kumar

    2014-09-01

    Patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) are known to have a very high mortality rate as the majority of these patients succumb to multiorgan failure. Liver transplant remains the only option for these patients; however, there are problems with its availability, cost and also the complications and side effects associated with immunosuppression. Unlike advanced decompensated liver disease, there is a potential for hepatic regeneration and recovery in patients with ACLF. A liver support system, cell or non-cell based, logically is likely to provide temporary functional support until the donor liver becomes available or the failing liver survives the onslaught of the acute insult and spontaneously regenerates. Understanding the pathogenesis of liver failure and regeneration is essential to define the needs for a support system. Removal of hepatotoxic metabolites and inhibitors of hepatic regeneration by liver dialysis, a non-cell-based hepatic support, could help to provide a suitable microenvironment and support the failing liver. The current systems, i.e., MARS and Prometheus, have failed to show survival benefits in patients with ACLF based on which newer devices with improved functionality are currently under development. However, larger randomized trials are needed to prove whether these devices can enable restoration of the complex dysregulated immune system and impact organ failure and mortality in these patients. PMID:26201332

  1. The Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) research program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, Robert D.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) program is to develop systems composed of biological, chemical and physical components for purposes of human life support in space. The research activities supported by the program are diverse, but are focused on the growth of higher plants, food and waste processing, and systems control. Current concepts associated with the development and operation of a bioregenerative life support system will be discussed in this paper.

  2. A Computuerized Operator Support System Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Thomas; Ronald Boring; Roger Lew; Tom Ulrich; Richard Villim

    2013-11-01

    A report was published by the Idaho National Laboratory in September of 2012, entitled Design to Achieve Fault Tolerance and Resilience, which described the benefits of automating operator actions for transients. The report identified situations in which providing additional automation in lieu of operator actions would be advantageous. It recognized that managing certain plant upsets is sometimes limited by the operator’s ability to quickly diagnose the fault and to take the needed actions in the time available. Undoubtedly, technology is underutilized in the nuclear power industry for operator assistance during plant faults and operating transients. In contrast, other industry sectors have amply demonstrated that various forms of operator advisory systems can enhance operator performance while maintaining the role and responsibility of the operator as the independent and ultimate decision-maker. A computerized operator support system (COSS) is proposed for use in nuclear power plants to assist control room operators in addressing time-critical plant upsets. A COSS is a collection of technologies to assist operators in monitoring overall plant performance and making timely, informed decisions on appropriate control actions for the projected plant condition. The COSS does not supplant the role of the operator, but rather provides rapid assessments, computations, and recommendations to reduce workload and augment operator judgment and decision-making during fast-moving, complex events. This project proposes a general model for a control room COSS that addresses a sequence of general tasks required to manage any plant upset: detection, validation, diagnosis, recommendation, monitoring, and recovery. The model serves as a framework for assembling a set of technologies that can be interrelated to assist with each of these tasks. A prototype COSS has been developed in order to demonstrate the concept and provide a test bed for further research. The prototype is based

  3. A Computuerized Operator Support System Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Thomas; Ronald Boring; Roger Lew; Tom Ulrich; Richard Villim

    2013-08-01

    A report was published by the Idaho National Laboratory in September of 2012, entitled Design to Achieve Fault Tolerance and Resilience, which described the benefits of automating operator actions for transients. The report identified situations in which providing additional automation in lieu of operator actions would be advantageous. It recognized that managing certain plant upsets is sometimes limited by the operator’s ability to quickly diagnose the fault and to take the needed actions in the time available. Undoubtedly, technology is underutilized in the nuclear power industry for operator assistance during plant faults and operating transients. In contrast, other industry sectors have amply demonstrated that various forms of operator advisory systems can enhance operator performance while maintaining the role and responsibility of the operator as the independent and ultimate decision-maker. A computerized operator support system (COSS) is proposed for use in nuclear power plants to assist control room operators in addressing time-critical plant upsets. A COSS is a collection of technologies to assist operators in monitoring overall plant performance and making timely, informed decisions on appropriate control actions for the projected plant condition. The COSS does not supplant the role of the operator, but rather provides rapid assessments, computations, and recommendations to reduce workload and augment operator judgment and decision-making during fast-moving, complex events. This project proposes a general model for a control room COSS that addresses a sequence of general tasks required to manage any plant upset: detection, validation, diagnosis, recommendation, monitoring, and recovery. The model serves as a framework for assembling a set of technologies that can be interrelated to assist with each of these tasks. A prototype COSS has been developed in order to demonstrate the concept and provide a test bed for further research. The prototype is based

  4. 30 CFR 75.817 - Cable handling and support systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cable handling and support systems. 75.817... High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.817 Cable handling and support systems. Longwall mining equipment must be provided with cable-handling and support systems that are constructed, installed and maintained to...

  5. 30 CFR 75.817 - Cable handling and support systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cable handling and support systems. 75.817... High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.817 Cable handling and support systems. Longwall mining equipment must be provided with cable-handling and support systems that are constructed, installed and maintained to...

  6. 30 CFR 75.817 - Cable handling and support systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cable handling and support systems. 75.817... High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.817 Cable handling and support systems. Longwall mining equipment must be provided with cable-handling and support systems that are constructed, installed and maintained to...

  7. 30 CFR 75.817 - Cable handling and support systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cable handling and support systems. 75.817... High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.817 Cable handling and support systems. Longwall mining equipment must be provided with cable-handling and support systems that are constructed, installed and maintained to...

  8. Cell Therapies for Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yue; Fisher, James E.; Lillegard, Joseph B.; Rodysill, Brian; Amiot, Bruce; Nyberg, Scott L.

    2011-01-01

    Cell therapies, which include bioartificial liver support and hepatocyte transplantation, have emerged as potential treatments for a variety of liver diseases. Acute liver failure (ALF), acute-on-chronic liver failure, and inherited metabolic liver diseases are examples of liver diseases that have been successfully treated with cell therapies at centers around the world. Cell therapies also have the potential for wide application in other liver diseases, including non-inherited liver diseases and liver cancer, and in improving the success of liver transplantation. Here we briefly summarize current concepts of cell therapy for liver diseases. PMID:22140063

  9. Environmental Control and Life Support System, Oxygen Generation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. This is a close-up view of ECLSS Oxygen Generation System (OGS) rack. The ECLSS Group at the MSFC oversees the development of the OGS, which produces oxygen for breathing air for the crew and laboratory animals, as well as for replacing oxygen lost due to experiment use, airlock depressurization, module leakage, and carbon dioxide venting. The OGS consists primarily of the Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA), provided by the prime contractor, the Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems, International (HSSSI) in Windsor Locks, Cornecticut and a Power Supply Module (PSM), supplied by the MSFC. The OGA is comprised of a cell stack that electrolyzes (breaks apart the hydrogen and oxygen molecules) some of the clean water provided by the Water Recovery System and the separators that remove the gases from water after electrolysis. The PSM provides the high power to the OGA needed to electrolyze the water.

  10. Update on the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System: What the Pathologist Needs to Know.

    PubMed

    Tang, An; Valasek, Mark A; Sirlin, Claude B

    2015-09-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is frequently diagnosed noninvasively with imaging techniques. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging play critical roles in the detection, diagnosis, and staging of HCC. Standardization in the interpretation and reporting of imaging modalities has not existed until recently. In 2008, the American College of Radiology supported the development of the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) for standardized terminology, interpretation, and reporting of imaging examinations for the diagnosis of HCC inpatients at risk for HCC. This article reviews the basic concepts of LI-RADS, emphasizing aspects that are most relevant to pathologists, including the categories, diagnostic algorithm, major features, and ancillary features for the diagnosis of HCC. The similarities and differences between LI-RADS and other major radiology-based diagnostic systems in terms of target population, intended users, categorization of observations, and imaging methods are addressed. Importantly, LI-RADS and other systems are designed to diagnose progressed HCC with high specificity and modest sensitivity. LI-RADS and other systems are not designed to detect early HCC and so have limited sensitivity for such lesions. Moreover, despite continuous advances in imaging technology, imaging detection and characterization of small (<1 cm) nodules remains limited; in addition, colocalization of small nodules and pathology is difficult. For these reasons LI-RADS and most other systems require lesions to be 1 cm or greater for the noninvasive diagnosis of HCC. As LI-RADS evolves, it is critical that stakeholders, including pathologists, provide expert input to help standardize and enhance reporting of radiologic findings. PMID:26262514

  11. Operating Systems Support for Advanced Programming Languages

    SciTech Connect

    Kubiatowicz, John

    2012-10-29

    As machines grow in scale and complexity, techniques to make the most effective use of network, memory, and processor resources will also become increasingly important. Programming models that rely on one-sided communication or global address space support have demonstrated advantages for productivity and performance, but they are most effective when used with proper OS support. We propose to develop OS and runtime support for programming models like UPC, GA, Charm++, and HPCS languages, which rely on one-sided communication. Rather than a full OS model, we envision applications bundled with only the necessary OS functions linked in to the application in user space -- relying on the hypervisor for protaction, resource sharing, and mangagement of Quality of Service guarantees. Our services will include support for remote reads and writes to memory, along with remote active message handlers, which are essential for support of fast noncontiguous memory operations, atomic operations, and event-driven applications.

  12. Decision Technology Systems: A Vehicle to Consolidate Decision Making Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgionne, Guisseppi A.

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of management decision making and the support needed to manage successfully highlights a Decision Technology System (DTS) that integrates other information systems. Topics discussed include computer information systems (CISs); knowledge gateways; the decision-making process; decision support systems (DSS); expert systems; and facility…

  13. A liver-enriched long non-coding RNA, lncLSTR, regulates systemic lipid metabolism in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping; Ruan, Xiangbo; Yang, Ling; Kiesewetter, Kurtis; Zhao, Yi; Luo, Haitao; Chen, Yong; Gucek, Marjan; Zhu, Jun; Cao, Haiming

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) constitute a significant portion of mammalian genome, yet the physiological importance of lncRNAs is largely unknown. Here, we identify a liver-enriched lncRNA in mouse we term liver-specific triglyceride regulator (lncLSTR). Mice with a liver-specific depletion of lncLSTR exhibit a marked reduction in plasma triglyceride levels. We show that lncLSTR depletion enhances apoC2 expression, leading to robust lipoprotein lipase activation and increased plasma triglyceride clearance. We further demonstrate that the regulation of apoC2 expression occurs through an FXR-mediated pathway. LncLSTR forms a molecular complex with TDP-43 to regulate expression of Cyp8b1, a key enzyme in the bile acid synthesis pathway, and engenders an in vivo bile pool that induces apoC2 expression through FXR. Finally, we demonstrate that lncLSTR depletion can reduce triglyceride levels in a hyperlipidemia mouse model. Taken together, these data support a model where lncLSTR regulates a TDP-43/FXR/apoC2 dependent pathway to maintain systemic lipid homeostasis. PMID:25738460

  14. Precision targeting of liver lesions with a needle-based soft tissue navigation system.

    PubMed

    Maier-Hein, L; Pianka, F; Seitel, A; Müller, S A; Tekbas, A; Seitel, M; Wolf, I; Schmied, B M; Meinzer, H P

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we assessed the targeting precision of a previously reported needle-based soft tissue navigation system. For this purpose, we implanted 10 2-ml agar nodules into three pig livers as tumor models, and two of the authors used the navigation system to target the center of gravity of each nodule. In order to obtain a realistic setting, we mounted the livers onto a respiratory liver motion simulator that models the human body. For each targeting procedure, we simulated the liver biopsy workflow, consisting of four steps: preparation, trajectory planning, registration, and navigation. The lesions were successfully hit in all 20 trials. The final distance between the applicator tip and the center of gravity of the lesion was determined from control computed tomography (CT) scans and was 3.5 +/- 1.1 mm on average. Robust targeting precision of this order of magnitude would significantly improve the clinical treatment standard for various CT-guided minimally invasive interventions in the liver. PMID:18044551

  15. Automated support for pharmacovigilance: a proposed system.

    PubMed

    Bright, Roselie A; Nelson, Robert C

    2002-03-01

    Governments, manufacturers, and other entities are interested in adverse event surveillance of marketed medical products. FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research redesigned the post-marketing adverse reaction surveillance process to use the advantages of new technology. As part of this effort, a 'Pharmacovigilance Working Group' designed a new strategy for the review and analyses of adverse event reports received by FDA. It created requirements which divided signal detection into five tiers: (1) Single 'urgent' reports would be sent to reviewers' workstations nightly for immediate attention. Reviewers would be able to customize definitions of 'urgent' (events that should not wait for aggregate review). (2) Single urgent reports would be placed in a context matrix containing historical counts of similar events to aid in initial interpretation. (3) In this first level of aggregate review, graphical displays would highlight patterns within all the reports, both urgent and non-urgent, and (4) periodic drug-specific tabled-based reports would display the newly received reports across a pre-defined variety of displays. These four tiers would produce passive and criteria-based results which would be presented to safety reviewers' electronic workstations. (5) Active query capabilities (routine, such as age, sex, and year distributions, as well as ad hoc) would be available for exploring alerted issues. The historical database would be migrated into the new format. All historical and new reaction data would be coded with the new MedDRA (Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities) scheme. The strategy was to design a full data capture system which effectively exploits current computing advances and technical performance to automate many aspects of initial adverse event review, supporting more efficient and effective clinical assessment of safety signals. PMID:11998536

  16. Development of a Liver-specific Tet-On Inducible System for AAV Vectors and Its Application in the Treatment of Liver Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vanrell, Lucia; Di Scala, Marianna; Blanco, Laura; Otano, Itziar; Gil-Farina, Irene; Baldim, Victor; Paneda, Astrid; Berraondo, Pedro; Beattie, Stuart G; Chtarto, Abdelwahed; Tenenbaum, Lilianne; Prieto, Jesús; Gonzalez-Aseguinolaza, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) are effective gene delivery vehicles that can mediate long-lasting transgene expression. However, tight regulation and tissue-specific transgene expression is required for certain therapeutic applications. For regulatable expression from the liver we designed a hepatospecific bidirectional and autoregulatory tetracycline (Tet)-On system (TetbidirAlb) flanked by AAV inverted terminal repeats (ITRs). We characterized the inducible hepatospecific system in comparison with an inducible ubiquitous expression system (TetbidirCMV) using luciferase (luc). Although the ubiquitous system led to luc expression throughout the mouse, luc expression derived from the hepatospecific system was restricted to the liver. Interestingly, the induction rate of the TetbidirAlb was significantly higher than that of TetbidirCMV, whereas leakage of TetbidirAlb was significantly lower. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of this vector, an AAV-Tetbidir-Alb-expressing interleukin-12 (IL-12) was tested in a murine model for hepatic colorectal metastasis. The vector induced dose-dependent levels of IL-12 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), showing no significant toxicity. AAV-Tetbidir-Alb-IL-12 was highly efficient in preventing establishment of metastasis in the liver and induced an efficient T-cell memory response to tumor cells. Thus, we have demonstrated persistent, and inducible in vivo expression of a gene from a liver-specific Tet-On inducible construct delivered via an AAV vector and proved to be an efficient tool for treating liver cancer. PMID:21364542

  17. Environmental Control and Life Support System, Water Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. This is a close-up view of ECLSS Water Recovery System (WRS) racks. The MSFC's ECLSS Group overseas much of the development of the hardware that will allow a constant supply of clean water for four to six crewmembers aboard the ISS. The WRS provides clean water through the reclamation of wastewaters, including water obtained from the Space Shuttle's fuel cells, crewmember urine, used shower, handwash and oral hygiene water cabin humidity condensate, and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) wastes. The WRS is comprised of a Urine Processor Assembly (UPA), and a Water Processor Assembly (WPA). The UPA accepts and processes pretreated crewmember urine to allow it to be processed along with other wastewaters in the WPA, which removes free gas, organic, and nonorganic constituents before the water goes through a series of multifiltration beds for further purification. Product water quality is monitored primarily through conductivity measurements. Unacceptable water is sent back through the WPA for reprocessing. Clean water is sent to a storage tank. The water must meet stringent purity standards before consumption by the crew. The UPA provided by the MSFC and the WRA is provided by the prime contractor, Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems, International (HSSSI) from Cornecticut.

  18. Using systems thinking to support clinical system transformation.

    PubMed

    Best, Allan; Berland, Alex; Herbert, Carol; Bitz, Jennifer; van Dijk, Marlies W; Krause, Christina; Cochrane, Douglas; Noel, Kevin; Marsden, Julian; McKeown, Shari; Millar, John

    2016-05-16

    Purpose - The British Columbia Ministry of Health's Clinical Care Management initiative was used as a case study to better understand large-scale change (LSC) within BC's health system. Using a complex system framework, the purpose of this paper is to examine mechanisms that enable and constrain the implementation of clinical guidelines across various clinical settings. Design/methodology/approach - Researchers applied a general model of complex adaptive systems plus two specific conceptual frameworks (realist evaluation and system dynamics mapping) to define and study enablers and constraints. Focus group sessions and interviews with clinicians, executives, managers and board members were validated through an online survey. Findings - The functional themes for managing large-scale clinical change included: creating a context to prepare clinicians for health system transformation initiatives; promoting shared clinical leadership; strengthening knowledge management, strategic communications and opportunities for networking; and clearing pathways through the complexity of a multilevel, dynamic system. Research limitations/implications - The action research methodology was designed to guide continuing improvement of implementation. A sample of initiatives was selected; it was not intended to compare and contrast facilitators and barriers across all initiatives and regions. Similarly, evaluating the results or process of guideline implementation was outside the scope; the methods were designed to enable conversations at multiple levels - policy, management and practice - about how to improve implementation. The study is best seen as a case study of LSC, offering a possible model for replication by others and a tool to shape further dialogue. Practical implications - Recommended action-oriented strategies included engaging local champions; supporting local adaptation for implementation of clinical guidelines; strengthening local teams to guide implementation; reducing

  19. The renin angiotensin system regulates Kupffer cells in colorectal liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Wen, Shu Wen; Ager, Eleanor I; Neo, Jaclyn; Christophi, Christopher

    2013-08-01

    Blockade of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) can inhibit tumor growth and this may be mediated via undefined immunomodulatory actions. This study investigated the effects of RAS blockade on liver macrophages (Kupffer cells; KCs) in an orthotopic murine model of colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastases. Here we showed that pharmacological targeting of the RAS [ANG II (31.25 µg/kg/h i.p.), ANG-(1-7) (24 µg/kg/h i.p.) or the ACE inhibitor; captopril (750 mg/kg/d i.p.)] altered endogenous KC numbers in the tumor-bearing liver throughout metastatic growth. Captopril, and to a lesser extent ANG-(1-7), increased KC numbers in the liver but not tumor. KCs were found to express the key RAS components: ACE and AT1R. Treatment with captopril and ANG II increased the number of AT1R-expressing KCs, although total KC numbers were not affected by ANG II. Captopril (0.1 µM) also increased macrophage invasion in vitro. Additionally, captopril was administered with KC depletion before tumor induction (day 0) or at established metastatic growth (day 18) using gadolinium chloride (GdCl 3; 20 mg/kg). Livers were collected at day 21 and quantitative stereology used as a measure of tumor burden. Captopril reduced growth of CRC liver metastases. However, when captopril was combined with early KC depletion (day 0) tumor growth was significantly increased compared with captopril alone. In contrast, late KC depletion (day 18) failed to influence the anti-tumor effects of captopril. The result of these studies suggests that manipulation of the RAS can alter KC numbers and may subsequently influence progression of CRC liver metastases. PMID:23792575

  20. Nuclear reactor heat transport system component low friction support system

    DOEpatents

    Wade, Elman E.

    1980-01-01

    A support column for a heavy component of a liquid metal fast breeder reactor heat transport system which will deflect when the pipes leading coolant to and from the heavy component expand or contract due to temperature changes includes a vertically disposed pipe, the pipe being connected to the heavy component by two longitudinally spaced cycloidal dovetail joints wherein the distal end of each of the dovetails constitutes a part of the surface of a large diameter cylinder and the centerlines of these large diameter cylinders intersect at right angles and the pipe being supported through two longitudinally spaced cycloidal dovetail joints wherein the distal end of each of the dovetails constitutes a part of the surface of a large diameter cylinder and the centerlines of these large diameter cylinders intersect at right angles, each of the cylindrical surfaces bearing on a flat and horizontal surface.

  1. Metal ions affecting the gastrointestinal system including the liver.

    PubMed

    Naughton, Declan P; Nepusz, Tamás; Petroczi, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    In the present context, metal ions can be categorized into several classes including those that are essential for life and those that have no known biological function and thus can be considered only as potentially hazardous. Many complexities arise with regard to metal toxicity and there is a paucity of studies relating to many metals which are frequent components of the diet. For many people ingestion of mineral supplements is considered a risk-free health choice despite growing evidence to the contrary. Numerous approaches have been developed to assess risk associated with ingestion of metal ions. These include straightforward estimation of safe limits such as oral reference dose which are often based on data derived from animal experiments. More convoluted approaches such as the Target Hazard Quotient involve assessment of hazard with frequent exposure over long durations such as a lifetime. The latter calculation also affords facile consideration of the effects of many metals together. In many cases, rigorous data are unavailable, hence, large factors of uncertainty are employed to relate risk to humans. Owing to the nature of metal toxicity, data pertaining to the gastrointestinal tract and liver are often acquired from diseases of metal homeostasis or episodes of considerable metal overload. Whilst these studies provide evidence for mechanisms of metal-induced toxicity such as enhancing oxidative stress, extrapolation of these results to healthy individuals or patients with chronic inflammatory diseases is not straightforward. In summary, the diverse nature of metals and their effects on human tissues along with a paucity of studies on the full range of their effects, warrant further in-depth studies on the association of metals to ageing, chronic inflammatory diseases, and cancer. PMID:21473378

  2. A Study on Support System for Distributed Simulation System of Manufacturing Systems Using HLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibino, Hironori; Fukuda, Yoshiro

    In this paper, we firstly describe outlines of the developed distributed simulation system using HLA and the developed synchronization method in the past. We clarify requirement contrivances of the user support system. We explain requirement functions of the user support system that is premised on using the developed distributed simulation system and the developed synchronization method. We propose and develop the user support system. The case study was then carried out to evaluate the performance of the cooperative work.

  3. Liver Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Michalopoulos, George K.

    2009-01-01

    Liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy is a very complex and well-orchestrated phenomenon. It is carried out by the participation of all mature liver cell types. The process is associated with signaling cascades involving growth factors, cytokines, matrix remodeling, and several feedbacks of stimulation and inhibition of growth related signals. Liver manages to restore any lost mass and adjust its size to that of the organism, while at the same time providing full support for body homeostasis during the entire regenerative process. In situations when hepatocytes or biliary cells are blocked from regeneration, these cell types can function as facultative stem cells for each other. PMID:17559071

  4. Dual-row needle arrays under an electromagnetic thermotherapy system for bloodless liver resection surgery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheng Chieh; Chang, Yi Yuan; Chao, Ying Jui; Shan, Yan Shen; Lin, Xi Zhang; Lee, Gwo Bin

    2012-03-01

    Electromagnetic thermotherapy has been extensively investigated recently and may become a new surgical modality for a variety of medical applications. It applies a high-frequency alternating magnetic field to heat up magnetic materials inserted within the human body to generate tissue coagulation or cell apoptosis. Using a new procedure with dual-row needle arrays under an electromagnetic thermotherapy system with a feedback temperature control system, this study demonstrates bloodless porcine liver resection, which is challenging using existing methods. In vitro experiments showed that hollowed, stainless-steel needles could be heated up to more than 300 °C within 30 s when centered under the induction coils of the electromagnetic thermotherapy system. In order to generate a wide ablation zone and to prevent the dual-row needle arrays from sticking to the tissue after heating, a constant temperature of 120 °C was applied using a specific treatment protocol. The temperature distribution in the porcine livers was also measured to explore the effective coagulation area. Liver resection was then performed in Lan-Yu pigs. Experimental results showed that seven pigs underwent liver resection without bleeding during surgery and no complications afterward. The dual-row needle arrays combined with the electromagnetic thermotherapy system are thus shown to be promising for bloodless tissue resection. PMID:22194233

  5. Influence of G-forces and hypodynamia on the portal system of the liver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drozdova, A. V.

    1975-01-01

    Longitudinally and transversely applied g-forces as intolerable levels cause damage to the interlobular veins of the liver, with maximum damage caused by dorso-ventral g-force application. The portal vein system is more resilient with respect to g-forces at the limit of tolerance.

  6. Meta-analysis of survival with the molecular adsorbent recirculating system for liver failure.

    PubMed

    He, Guo-Lin; Feng, Lei; Duan, Chong-Yang; Hu, Xiang; Zhou, Chen-Jie; Cheng, Yuan; Pan, Ming-Xin; Gao, Yi

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to assess the treatment effects of the molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS) in patients with acute and acute-on-chronic liver failure. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Registry database between January 1966 and January 2014. We included randomized controlled trials, which compared the treatment effects of MARS with standard medical treatment. Study quality assessed according to Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) criteria. The risk ratio was used as the effect-size measure according to a fixed-effects model. The search strategy revealed 72 clinical studies, 10 of which were randomized controlled trials that met the criteria and were included. Four addressed ALF (93 patients) and six addressed AOCLF (453 patients). The mean CONSORT score was 15 (range 10-20). By meta-analysis, MARS significantly improved survival in ALF (risk ratio 0.61; 95% CI 0.38, 0.97; P = 0.04). There was no significant survival benefit in AOCLF (risk ratio 0.88; 95% CI 0.74, 1.06; P = 0.16). MARS significantly improved survival in patients with acute liver failure, however, there is no evidence that it improved survival in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure. In conclusion, the present meta-analysis indicates that MARS therapy can improve survival in patients with ALF. It is necessary to develop MARS treatment because of the increasing demand for liver transplantation and the risk of liver failure. PMID:26770295

  7. Space Launch System Vibration Analysis Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Katie

    2016-01-01

    The ultimate goal for my efforts during this internship was to help prepare for the Space Launch System (SLS) integrated modal test (IMT) with Rodney Rocha. In 2018, the Structural Engineering Loads and Dynamics Team will have 10 days to perform the IMT on the SLS Integrated Launch Vehicle. After that 10 day period, we will have about two months to analyze the test data and determine whether the integrated vehicle modes/frequencies are adequate for launching the vehicle. Because of the time constraints, NASA must have newly developed post-test analysis methods proven well and with technical confidence before testing. NASA civil servants along with help from rotational interns are working with novel techniques developed and applied external to Johnson Space Center (JSC) to uncover issues in applying this technique to much larger scales than ever before. We intend to use modal decoupling methods to separate the entangled vibrations coming from the SLS and its support structure during the IMT. This new approach is still under development. The primary goal of my internship was to learn the basics of structural dynamics and physical vibrations. I was able to accomplish this by working on two experimental test set ups, the Simple Beam and TAURUS-T, and by doing some light analytical and post-processing work. Within the Simple Beam project, my role involves changing the data acquisition system, reconfiguration of the test set up, transducer calibration, data collection, data file recovery, and post-processing analysis. Within the TAURUS-T project, my duties included cataloging and removing the 30+ triaxial accelerometers, coordinating the removal of the structure from the current rolling cart to a sturdy billet for further testing, preparing the accelerometers for remounting, accurately calibrating, mounting, and mapping of all accelerometer channels, and some testing. Hammer and shaker tests will be performed to easily visualize mode shapes at low frequencies. Short

  8. Desicion Support System For Natural Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyazilov, E.

    2009-04-01

    recommendations should be reasonable. To resolve the above problems or to make them less significant it is necessary to develop decision support systems (DSS). DMs need not tables with initial data, analytical, forecasting and climatic information, but messages containing warnings on critical value accidence, information on probability of hazards, information on potential losses, and information on hazardous impacts and recommendations on decision making. DSS can do the following: take into account impacts on specific points and on the total area under consideration; allow for the effects of the environment on economic entities (objects) in any geographical region to be analyzed; distinguish impacts and changes caused both by different phenomena and by their combination; signal when objects are or can be in adverse environmental conditions, e.g. in the area affected by fog, storm, tropical cyclone or in the area where the probability of hazardous ice events is very high, etc. The main component of DSS is a knowledge base based on the following concept: if we know environmental conditions it is possible to predict potential impacts on the economy; if we know impacts it is possible to give a set of recommendations on how to prevent (reduce) losses or how to use natural resources most efficiently. Decision making criteria are safety of people and property, reduction of losses, increase of profit, materials saving, etc. Knowledge base is a set of rules formulated in a formalized way using if, that, else. If "Water level in S.-Petersburg >150 cm" that "To give out warning information "Hazards for building on coastal river Neva is possible" and recommendations "The valuable goods carry out in second floor" else "To switch another rule". To have a knowledge base in place it is necessary to: develop tools of identifying and getting knowledge from experts; arrange the information flow from available information systems (operational data, analyses, forecasts, climatic information) through

  9. A portable life support system for use in mines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeller, S. S.

    1972-01-01

    The portable life support system described in this paper represents a potential increase in the probability of survival for miners who are trapped underground by a fire or explosion. The habitability and life support capability of the prototype shelter have proved excellent. Development of survival chamber life support systems for wide use in coal mines is definitely within the capabilities of current technology.

  10. Electronic Performance Support Systems (EPSS): Making the Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Des Jardins, Susan; Davis, Harry, Jr.

    An electronic performance support system (EPSS) is a computerized system designed to increase productivity by supporting the performance of the worker on demand at the time of need. This way, workers are allowed to perform with a minimum of intervention from others. Popular examples of performance support tools, or partially implemented EPSSs,…

  11. Analysis of a Ubiquitous Performance Support System for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chao-Hsiu; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Yang, Tzu-Chi; Chen, Shih-Hsuan; Huang, Shen-Yu

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a Ubiquitous Performance Support System for Teachers (UPSST) and its implementation model. Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) were used as the platform to support high-school teachers. Based on concepts of Electronic Performance Support Systems and design-based research, the authors conducted an iterative process of analysis,…

  12. Special Issue: Decision Support and Knowledge-Based Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stohr, Edward A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Six papers dealing with decision support and knowledge based systems are presented. Five of the papers are concerned in some way with the use of artificial intelligence techniques in individual or group decision support. The sixth paper presents empirical results from the use of a group decision support system. (CLB)

  13. Support Afferentation as the System of Proprioreception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlovskaya, I.; Grigoriev, A.; Shenkman, B.

    2008-06-01

    Results of studies of phenomenology and nature of the hypogravitational motor syndrome, provided at the Institute of Biomedical Problems of the RAS, point out to important role in its development of the withdrawal of the support and, accordingly the decrease of the intensity of the support afferentation activities that provokes a decline of the muscle tone in the first phase and the development of atrophic processes in slow fibers of antigravitational muscles in the second one. The subjects exposed to the pure dry immersion (DI) environment revealed after exposition a significant decline of the transverse stiffness and of the maximal isokinetic force of the leg postural muscles, a significant decrease of the absolute force of m.soleus single skinned fibers evoked by Ca++, and an obvious decline of their transverse cross-sectional areas. Mechanical stimulation of the soles support zones eliminated all the above effects.

  14. Enhanced gene expression of systemically administered plasmid DNA in the liver with therapeutic ultrasound and microbubbles.

    PubMed

    Raju, Balasundar I; Leyvi, Evgeniy; Seip, Ralf; Sethuraman, Shriram; Luo, Xiaoyan; Bird, Andrew; Li, Songtao; Koeberl, Dwight

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound-mediated delivery (USMD) of novel therapeutic agents in the presence of microbubbles is a potentially safe and effective method for gene therapy offering many desired characteristics, such as low toxicity, potential for repeated treatment, and organ specificity. In this study, we tested the capability of USMD to improve gene expression in mice livers using glycogen storage disease Type Ia as a model disease under systemic administration of naked plasmid DNA. Image-guided therapeutic ultrasound was used in two studies to provide therapeutic ultrasound to mice livers. In the first study, involving wild-type mice, control animals received naked plasmid DNA (pG6Pase 150 μg) via the tail vein, followed by an infusion of microbubbles; the treated animals additionally received therapeutic ultrasound (1 MHz). Following the procedure, the animals were left to recover and were subsequently euthanized after 2 d and liver samples were extracted. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays were performed on the samples to quantify mRNA expression. In addition, Western blot assays of FLAG-tagged glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) were performed to evaluate protein expression. Ultrasound-exposed animals showed a 4-fold increase in G6Pase RNA in the liver, in comparison with control animals. Furthermore, results from Western blot analysis demonstrated a 2-fold increased protein expression in ultrasound-exposed animals after two days ( p < 0.05). A second pilot study was performed with G6Pase knockout mice, and the animals were monitored for correction of hypoglycemia over a period of 3 weeks before tissue analysis. The RT-PCR assays of samples from these animals demonstrated increased G6Pase RNA in the liver following ultrasound treatment. These results demonstrate that USMD can increase gene expression of systemically injected naked pDNA in the liver and also provide insight into the development of realistic approaches that can be translated into

  15. Emodin attenuates systemic and liver inflammation in hyperlipidemic mice administrated with lipopolysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xuemei; Iwanowycz, Stephen; Wang, Junfeng; Saaoud, Fatma; Yu, Fang; Wang, Yuzhen; Hu, Jun; Chatterjee, Saurabh; Wang, Qian; Fan, Daping

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major epidemics of the modern societies and has an inflammatory component in the pathogenesis. However, approved anti-inflammatory therapies are not currently available for the prevention of the transition from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We aimed to test if a Chinese herb-derived compound, emodin could halt the simple steatosis to NASH transition. LDLR−/− mice were fed a western-type diet for 10 weeks; and during the last four weeks, the mice were intra-peritoneally injected daily with LPS with or without emodin. Systemic inflammation was evaluated by measurement of serum levels of cytokines and chemokines and flow cytometric analysis of spleen leukocytes. Liver inflammation was determined by histology, immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot were performed to examine the effects of emodin on LPS-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages. Our data showed that emodin ameliorated systemic inflammation, reduced inflammatory cell infiltration in the liver, and attenuated liver function impairment. In vitro experiments showed emodin inhibited LPS-induced expression of proinflammatory cytokines in macrophages through suppressing Erk1/2 and p38 signaling. In conclusion, emodin inhibited the transition from simple steatosis to NASH in hyperlipidemic mice challenged with LPS through suppressing systemic and macrophage inflammation. Emodin may be developed as a therapy for NAFLD by the virtue of its anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:24740873

  16. Support Systems and Women of the Diaspora

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojo, Elizabeth D.

    2009-01-01

    Humans are social beings endowed with intrinsic and extrinsic capabilities and a desire to seek and receive social support from one another. The extent to which this action takes place varies as people move farther away from their familiar environment to new locations. Many immigrant women have traveled far and wide in search of "better…

  17. An Intergenerational Support System for Child Welfare Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnett, Joan

    1989-01-01

    Describes a program developed by the Children's Aid Society of Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, called Intergenerational Support System (ISS), in which senior volunteers serve as support persons for problem families. (SAK)

  18. Human CD34(lo)CD133(lo) fetal liver cells support the expansion of human CD34(hi)CD133(hi) hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yong, Kylie Su Mei; Keng, Choong Tat; Tan, Shu Qi; Loh, Eva; Chang, Kenneth Te; Tan, Thiam Chye; Hong, Wanjin; Chen, Qingfeng

    2016-09-01

    We have recently discovered a unique CD34(lo)CD133(lo) cell population in the human fetal liver (FL) that gives rise to cells in the hepatic lineage. In this study, we further characterized the biological functions of FL CD34(lo)CD133(lo) cells. Our findings show that these CD34(lo)CD133(lo) cells express markers of both endodermal and mesodermal lineages and have the capability to differentiate into hepatocyte and mesenchymal lineage cells by ex vivo differentiation assays. Furthermore, we show that CD34(lo)CD133(lo) cells express growth factors that are important for human hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) expansion: stem cell factor (SCF), insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), C-X-C motif chemokine 12 (CXCL12), and factors in the angiopoietin-like protein family. Co-culture of autologous FL HSCs and allogenic HSCs derived from cord blood with CD34(lo)CD133(lo) cells supports and expands both types of HSCs.These findings are not only essential for extending our understanding of the HSC niche during the development of embryonic and fetal hematopoiesis but will also potentially benefit adult stem cell transplantations in clinics because expanded HSCs demonstrate the same capacity as primary cells to reconstitute the human immune system and mediate long-term hematopoiesis in vivo. Together, CD34(lo)CD133(lo) cells not only serve as stem/progenitor cells for liver development but are also an essential component of the HSC niche in the human FL. PMID:27593483

  19. Development of a normothermic extracorporeal liver perfusion system toward improving viability and function of human extended criteria donor livers.

    PubMed

    Banan, Babak; Watson, Rao; Xu, Min; Lin, Yiing; Chapman, William

    2016-07-01

    Donor organ shortages have led to an increased interest in finding new approaches to recover organs from extended criteria donors (ECD). Normothermic extracorporeal liver perfusion (NELP) has been proposed as a superior preservation method to reduce ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI), precondition suboptimal grafts, and treat ECD livers so that they can be successfully used for transplantation. The aim of this study was to investigate the beneficial effects of a modified NELP circuit on discarded human livers. Seven human livers that were rejected for transplantation were placed on a modified NELP circuit for 8 hours. Perfusate samples and needle core biopsies were obtained at hourly intervals. A defatting solution that contained exendin-4 (50 nM) and L-carnitine (10 mM) was added to the perfusate for 2 steatotic livers. NELP provided normal temperature, electrolytes, and pH and glucose levels in the perfusate along with physiological vascular flows and pressures. Functional, biochemical, and microscopic evaluation revealed no additional injuries to the grafts during NELP with an improved oxygen extraction ratio (>0.5) and stabilized markers of hepatic injury. All livers synthesized adequate amounts of bile and coagulation factors. We also demonstrated a mild reduction (10%) of macroglobular steatosis with the use of the defatting solution. Histology demonstrated normal parenchymal architecture and a minimal to complete lack of IRI at the end of NELP. In conclusion, a modified NELP circuit preserved hepatocyte architecture, recovered synthetic functions, and hepatobiliary parameters of ECD livers without additional injuries to the grafts. This approach has the potential to increase the donor pool for clinical transplantation. Liver Transplantation 22 979-993 2016 AASLD. PMID:27027254

  20. Structural analysis of FAST reflector supporting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Y. F.; Deng, C. G.; Li, G. Q.; He, Y. M.

    According to the deformation and movement requirements of the FAST reflector, a multi-purpose analysis, including the load-bearing behavior, deformation, construction costs of the reflector supporting structure and its model, is presented in this paper. The advantages and disadvantages of steel and aluminum alloy structures are also discussed and compared through detailed design calculations under load-bearing capacity and normal working conditions.

  1. 46 CFR 56.50-110 - Diving support systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Diving support systems. 56.50-110 Section 56.50-110... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-110 Diving support systems. (a) In addition to the requirements of this part, piping for diving installations which is permanently...

  2. 46 CFR 56.50-110 - Diving support systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diving support systems. 56.50-110 Section 56.50-110... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-110 Diving support systems. (a) In addition to the requirements of this part, piping for diving installations which is permanently...

  3. 45 CFR 307.5 - Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... operational computerized support enforcement system, which meets Federal requirements under § 302.85(a)(1) of... October 1, 2000, each State must have in effect an operational computerized support enforcement system... plans to use and how they will interface with the base system; (3) Provide documentation that...

  4. 46 CFR 56.50-110 - Diving support systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Diving support systems. 56.50-110 Section 56.50-110... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-110 Diving support systems. (a) In addition to the requirements of this part, piping for diving installations which is permanently...

  5. 46 CFR 56.50-110 - Diving support systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Diving support systems. 56.50-110 Section 56.50-110... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-110 Diving support systems. (a) In addition to the requirements of this part, piping for diving installations which is permanently...

  6. 46 CFR 56.50-110 - Diving support systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Diving support systems. 56.50-110 Section 56.50-110... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-110 Diving support systems. (a) In addition to the requirements of this part, piping for diving installations which is permanently...

  7. Systems Biology Elucidates Common Pathogenic Mechanisms between Nonalcoholic and Alcoholic-Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sookoian, Silvia; Pirola, Carlos J.

    2013-01-01

    The abnormal accumulation of fat in the liver is often related either to metabolic risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome in the absence of alcohol consumption (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, NAFLD) or to chronic alcohol consumption (alcoholic fatty liver disease, AFLD). Clinical and histological studies suggest that NAFLD and AFLD share pathogenic mechanisms. Nevertheless, current data are still inconclusive as to whether the underlying biological process and disease pathways of NAFLD and AFLD are alike. Our primary aim was to integrate omics and physiological data to answer the question of whether NAFLD and AFLD share molecular processes that lead to disease development. We also explored the extent to which insulin resistance (IR) is a distinctive feature of NAFLD. To answer these questions, we used systems biology approaches, such as gene enrichment analysis, protein–protein interaction networks, and gene prioritization, based on multi-level data extracted by computational data mining. We observed that the leading disease pathways associated with NAFLD did not significantly differ from those of AFLD. However, systems biology revealed the importance of each molecular process behind each of the two diseases, and dissected distinctive molecular NAFLD and AFLD-signatures. Comparative co-analysis of NAFLD and AFLD clarified the participation of NAFLD, but not AFLD, in cardiovascular disease, and showed that insulin signaling is impaired in fatty liver regardless of the noxa, but the putative regulatory mechanisms associated with NAFLD seem to encompass a complex network of genes and proteins, plausible of epigenetic modifications. Gene prioritization showed a cancer-related functional map that suggests that the fatty transformation of the liver tissue is regardless of the cause, an emerging mechanism of ubiquitous oncogenic activation. In conclusion, similar underlying disease mechanisms lead to NAFLD and AFLD, but specific ones depict a particular

  8. 7. VIEW NORTHWEST, DETAIL VERTICAL SUPPORT SYSTEM, STRINGER, CONNECTIONS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW NORTHWEST, DETAIL VERTICAL SUPPORT SYSTEM, STRINGER, CONNECTIONS AND TRAFFIC DECK - Hagerstown Road Bridge, Spanning Little Cotoctin Creek at Old Hagerstown Road, Middletown, Frederick County, MD

  9. Information systems support for OR product standardization.

    PubMed

    Faetanini, C

    1994-02-01

    A critical reason why many healthcare institutions cannot effectively standardize OR products is that they cannot access necessary information. An OR information system that manages, tracks and generates documentation on OR inventory is an important answer to implementing change. At least four key areas any information system should address in order to make standardization a reality are 1) clinical preference, 2) supplying a changing case mix, 3) product usage data and 4) vendor performance. OR information systems operate on various hardware platforms. Users have more software choices than ever before, because connectivity issues have been effectively solved through the development of standard electronic transaction sets. PMID:10131895

  10. Database system support for simulation data

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, M.C.

    1989-07-01

    This report addresses database system issues arising in the design, implementation and execution of queuing simulation experiments. The primary goal is to identify new features for inclusion in a custom database system implemented using an extensible database system. Simulation data is first identified as a distinct subset of scientific data. An overview of the experimental process is then presented along with a survey of related simulation environments. A queuing simulation paradigm is described in detail in order to identify the distinguishing characteristics of queuing simulation data and the modes of manipulation. This is the basis for a traditional ER/Relational implementation, which in turn serves as the focus of a complete simulation environment. Difficulties encountered in the use of traditional implementation tools motivate the custom database system extensions. 37 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Control Systems Cyber Security Standards Support Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Evans

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security’s Control Systems Security Program (CSSP) is working with industry to secure critical infrastructure sectors from cyber intrusions that could compromise control systems. This document describes CSSP’s current activities with industry organizations in developing cyber security standards for control systems. In addition, it summarizes the standards work being conducted by organizations within the sector and provides a brief listing of sector meetings and conferences that might be of interest for each sector. Control systems cyber security standards are part of a rapidly changing environment. The participation of CSSP in the development effort for these standards has provided consistency in the technical content of the standards while ensuring that information developed by CSSP is included.

  12. 14 CFR 417.307 - Support systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and prevent inadvertent activation. (11) The system must include a digital countdown for use in... initiator; (2) Monitor the firing circuit output current, voltage, or energy, and indicate whether...

  13. 14 CFR 417.307 - Support systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and prevent inadvertent activation. (11) The system must include a digital countdown for use in... initiator; (2) Monitor the firing circuit output current, voltage, or energy, and indicate whether...

  14. 14 CFR 417.307 - Support systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and prevent inadvertent activation. (11) The system must include a digital countdown for use in... initiator; (2) Monitor the firing circuit output current, voltage, or energy, and indicate whether...

  15. 14 CFR 417.307 - Support systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and prevent inadvertent activation. (11) The system must include a digital countdown for use in... initiator; (2) Monitor the firing circuit output current, voltage, or energy, and indicate whether...

  16. Global positioning system supported pilot's display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Marshall M., Jr.; Erdogan, Temel; Schwalb, Andrew P.; Curley, Charles H.

    1991-01-01

    The hardware, software, and operation of the Microwave Scanning Beam Landing System (MSBLS) Flight Inspection System Pilot's Display is discussed. The Pilot's Display is used in conjunction with flight inspection tests that certify the Microwave Scanning Beam Landing System used at Space Shuttle landing facilities throughout the world. The Pilot's Display was developed for the pilot of test aircraft to set up and fly a given test flight path determined by the flight inspection test engineers. This display also aids the aircraft pilot when hazy or cloud cover conditions exist that limit the pilot's visibility of the Shuttle runway during the flight inspection. The aircraft position is calculated using the Global Positioning System and displayed in the cockpit on a graphical display.

  17. Long term perfusion system supporting adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Rosalyn D.; Raja, Waseem K.; Wang, Rebecca Y.; Stinson, Jordan A.; Glettig, Dean L.; Burke, Kelly A.; Kaplan, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue engineered models are needed to enhance our understanding of disease mechanisms and for soft tissue regenerative strategies. Perfusion systems generate more physiologically relevant and sustainable adipose tissue models, however adipocytes have unique properties that make culturing them in a perfusion environment challenging. In this paper we describe the methods involved in the development of two perfusion culture systems (2D and 3D) to test their applicability for long term in vitro adipogenic cultures. It was hypothesized that a silk protein biomaterial scaffold would provide a 3D framework, in combination with perfusion flow, to generate a more physiologically relevant sustainable adipose tissue engineered model than 2D cell culture. Consistent with other studies evaluating 2D and 3D culture systems for adipogenesis we found that both systems successfully model adipogensis, however 3D culture systems were more robust, providing the mechanical structure required to contain the large, fragile adipocytes that were lost in 2D perfused culture systems. 3D perfusion also stimulated greater lipogenesis and lipolysis and resulted in decreased secretion of LDH compared to 2D perfusion. Regardless of culture configuration (2D or 3D) greater glycerol was secreted with the increased nutritional supply provided by perfusion of fresh media. These results are promising for adipose tissue engineering applications including long term cultures for studying disease mechanisms and regenerative approaches, where both acute (days to weeks) and chronic (weeks to months) cultivation are critical for useful insight. PMID:25843606

  18. A survey of life support system automation and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finn, Cory K.

    1993-01-01

    The level of automation and control necessary to support advanced life support systems for use in the manned space program is steadily increasing. As the length and complexity of manned missions increase, life support systems must be able to meet new space challenges. Longer, more complex missions create new demands for increased automation, improved sensors, and improved control systems. It is imperative that research in these key areas keep pace with current and future developments in regenerative life support technology. This paper provides an overview of past and present research in the areas of sensor development, automation, and control of life support systems for the manned space program, and it discusses the impact continued research in several key areas will have on the feasibility, operation, and design of future life support systems.

  19. Dairy fat intake is associated with glucose tolerance, hepatic and systemic insulin sensitivity, and liver fat but not β-cell function in humans123

    PubMed Central

    Marcovina, Santica; Nelson, James E; Yeh, Matthew M; Kowdley, Kris V; Callahan, Holly S; Song, Xiaoling; Di, Chongzhi; Utzschneider, Kristina M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Plasma phospholipid concentrations of trans-palmitoleic acid (trans-16:1n−7), a biomarker of dairy fat intake, are inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes in 2 US cohorts. Objective: The objective was to investigate whether the intake of trans-16:1n−7 in particular, or dairy fat in general, is associated with glucose tolerance and key factors determining glucose tolerance. Design: A cross-sectional investigation was undertaken in 17 men and women with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and 15 body mass index (BMI)- and age-matched controls. The concentrations of trans-16:1n−7 and 2 other biomarkers of dairy fat intake, 15:0 and 17:0, were measured in plasma phospholipids and free fatty acids (FFAs). Liver fat was estimated by computed tomography–derived liver-spleen ratio. Intravenous-glucose-tolerance tests and oral-glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps were performed to assess β-cell function and hepatic and systemic insulin sensitivity. Results: In multivariate analyses adjusted for age, sex, and BMI, phospholipid 17:0, phospholipid trans-16:1n−7, FFA 15:0, and FFA 17:0 were inversely associated with fasting plasma glucose, the area under the curve for glucose during an OGTT, and liver fat. Phospholipid trans-16:1n−7 was also positively associated with hepatic and systemic insulin sensitivity. None of the biomarkers were associated with β-cell function. The associations between dairy fat intake and glucose tolerance were attenuated by adjusting for insulin sensitivity or liver fat, but strengthened by adjusting for β-cell function. Conclusion: Although we cannot rule out reverse causation, these data support the hypothesis that dairy fat improves glucose tolerance, possibly through a mechanism involving improved hepatic and systemic insulin sensitivity and reduced liver fat. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01289639. PMID:24740208

  20. Development of a portable life support system and emergency life support pack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The design, development, and fabrication of a feasibility model of a breathing bag life support system for extravehicular activity are discussed. The breathing vest and back pack portable life support system contains connectors which allow external water and gas supply. At a metabolic rate of 2000 BTU per hour, the two low pressure bottles provide 27 minutes of breathing gas for a total filled system weight of 30.5 pounds.

  1. Support for Quality Assurance in End-User Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klepper, Robert; McKenna, Edward G.

    1989-01-01

    Suggests an approach that organizations can take to provide centralized support services for quality assurance in end-user information systems, based on the experiences of a support group at Citicorp Mortgage, Inc. The functions of the support group include user education, software selection, and assistance in testing, implementation, and support…

  2. 45 CFR 302.85 - Mandatory computerized support enforcement system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mandatory computerized support enforcement system. 302.85 Section 302.85 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT (CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT PROGRAM), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES STATE...

  3. Using Collaborative Authoring To Develop a Hypermedia Performance Support System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tjahjono, Benny; Greenough, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Considers the need of factory workers for support in rapidly changing tasks and suggests that electronic performance support systems can reduce training time, can be updated many times as procedures change, and can allow those with relevant manufacturing expertise to create electronic procedures that support shop floor workers more effectively.…

  4. Evaluating Detection and Diagnostic Decision Support Systems for Bioterrorism Response

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Vandana; McDonald, Kathryn M.; Smith, Wendy M.; Szeto, Herbert; Schleinitz, Mark D.; Owens, Douglas K.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of detection systems and diagnostic decision support systems for bioterrorism response. We performed a systematic review by searching relevant databases (e.g., MEDLINE) and Web sites for reports of detection systems and diagnostic decision support systems that could be used during bioterrorism responses. We reviewed over 24,000 citations and identified 55 detection systems and 23 diagnostic decision support systems. Only 35 systems have been evaluated: 4 reported both sensitivity and specificity, 13 were compared to a reference standard, and 31 were evaluated for their timeliness. Most evaluations of detection systems and some evaluations of diagnostic systems for bioterrorism responses are critically deficient. Because false-positive and false-negative rates are unknown for most systems, decision making on the basis of these systems is seriously compromised. We describe a framework for the design of future evaluations of such systems. PMID:15078604

  5. Advanced systems engineering and network planning support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, David H.; Barrett, Larry K.; Boyd, Ronald; Bazaj, Suresh; Mitchell, Lionel; Brosi, Fred

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this task was to take a fresh look at the NASA Space Network Control (SNC) element for the Advanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (ATDRSS) such that it can be made more efficient and responsive to the user by introducing new concepts and technologies appropriate for the 1997 timeframe. In particular, it was desired to investigate the technologies and concepts employed in similar systems that may be applicable to the SNC. The recommendations resulting from this study include resource partitioning, on-line access to subsets of the SN schedule, fluid scheduling, increased use of demand access on the MA service, automating Inter-System Control functions using monitor by exception, increase automation for distributed data management and distributed work management, viewing SN operational control in terms of the OSI Management framework, and the introduction of automated interface management.

  6. PILOT: An intelligent distributed operations support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, Arthur N.

    1993-01-01

    The Real-Time Data System (RTDS) project is exploring the application of advanced technologies to the real-time flight operations environment of the Mission Control Centers at NASA's Johnson Space Center. The system, based on a network of engineering workstations, provides services such as delivery of real time telemetry data to flight control applications. To automate the operation of this complex distributed environment, a facility called PILOT (Process Integrity Level and Operation Tracker) is being developed. PILOT comprises a set of distributed agents cooperating with a rule-based expert system; together they monitor process operation and data flows throughout the RTDS network. The goal of PILOT is to provide unattended management and automated operation under user control.

  7. Recovery of liver motion and deformation due to respiration using laparoscopic freehand 3D ultrasound system.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Masahiko; Hirayama, Hiroaki; Sato, Yoshinobu; Konishi, Kozo; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Hashizume, Makoto; Tamura, Shinichi

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a rapid method for intraoperative recovery of liver motion and deformation due to respiration by using a laparoscopic freehand 3D ultrasound (US) system. Using the proposed method, 3D US images of the liver can be extended to 4D US images by acquiring additional several sequences of 2D US images during a couple of respiration cycles. Time-varying 2D US images are acquired on several sagittal image planes and their 3D positions and orientations are measured using a laparoscopic ultrasound probe to which a miniature magnetic 3D position sensor is attached. During the acquisition, the probe is assumed to move together with the liver surface. In-plane 2D deformation fields and respiratory phase are estimated from the time-varying 2D US images, and then the time-varying 3D deformation fields on the sagittal image planes are obtained by combining 3D positions and orientations of the image planes. The time-varying 3D deformation field of the volume is obtained by interpolating the 3D deformation fields estimated on several planes. The proposed method was evaluated by in vivo experiments using a pig liver. PMID:17354794

  8. Crop Simulation Models and Decision Support Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first computer simulation models for agricultural systems were developed in the 1970s. These early models simulated potential production for major crops as a function of weather conditions, especially temperature and solar radiation. At a later stage, the water component was added to be able to ...

  9. Mars Rover system loopwheel definition support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trautwein, W.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of the loopwheel suspension system for use on a Mars roving vehicle was analyzed. Various steering concepts were evaluated and an optimum concept was identified on the basis of maximum probability of mission success. In the structural analysis of the loopwheel core and tread as the major fatigue critical components, important technology areas were identified.

  10. Air Systems Provide Life Support to Miners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    Through a Space Act Agreement with Johnson Space Center, Paragon Space Development Corporation, of Tucson, Arizona, developed the Commercial Crew Transport-Air Revitalization System, designed to provide clean air for crewmembers on short-duration space flights. The technology is now being used to help save miners' lives in the event of an underground disaster.

  11. 42 CFR 441.555 - Support system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... reporting critical events. (xiv) Information about an advocate or advocacy systems available in the State... an individual before enrollment. (b) Provides appropriate information, counseling, training, and... information must be communicated to the individual in a manner and language understandable by the...

  12. 42 CFR 441.555 - Support system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... reporting critical events. (xiv) Information about an advocate or advocacy systems available in the State... an individual before enrollment. (b) Provides appropriate information, counseling, training, and... information must be communicated to the individual in a manner and language understandable by the...

  13. 42 CFR 441.555 - Support system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... reporting critical events. (xiv) Information about an advocate or advocacy systems available in the State... an individual before enrollment. (b) Provides appropriate information, counseling, training, and... information must be communicated to the individual in a manner and language understandable by the...

  14. Supporting Continuous Improvement in California's Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling-Hammond, Linda; Plank, David N.

    2015-01-01

    California's new accountability system originated in the radical decentralization of power and authority from Sacramento to local schools and their communities brought about by the Legislature's adoption of the Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF) in 2013. Under California's previous accountability policies and the federal "No Child Left…

  15. Laparoscopic microwave ablation of human liver tumours using a novel three-dimensional magnetic guidance system

    PubMed Central

    Sindram, David; Simo, Kerri A; Swan, Ryan Z; Razzaque, Sharif; Niemeyer, David J; Seshadri, Ramanathan M; Hanna, Erin; McKillop, Iain H; Iannitti, David A; Martinie, John B

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurate antenna placement is essential for effective microwave ablation (MWA) of lesions. Laparoscopic targeting is made particularly challenging in liver tumours by the needle's trajectory as it passes through the abdominal wall into the liver. Previous optical three-dimensional guidance systems employing infrared technology have been limited by interference with the line of sight during procedures. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate a newly developed magnetic guidance system for laparoscopic MWA of liver tumours in a pilot study. Methods Thirteen patients undergoing laparoscopic MWA of liver tumours gave consent to their participation in the study and were enrolled. Lesion targeting was performed using the InnerOptic AIM™ 3-D guidance system to track the real-time position and orientation of the antenna and ultrasound probe. Results A total of 45 ablations were performed on 34 lesions. The median number of lesions per patient was two. The mean ± standard deviation lesion diameter was 18.0 ± 9.2 mm and the mean time to target acquisition was 3.5 min. The first-attempt success rate was 93%. There were no intraoperative or immediate postoperative complications. Over an average follow-up of 7.8 months, one patient was noted to have had an incomplete ablation, seven suffered regional recurrences, and five patients remained disease-free. Conclusions The AIM™ guidance system is an effective adjunct for laparoscopic ablation. It facilitates a high degree of accuracy and a good first-attempt success rate, and avoids the line of site interference associated with infrared systems. PMID:25231167

  16. A support architecture for reliable distributed computing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasgupta, Partha; Leblanc, Richard J., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The Clouds project is well underway to its goal of building a unified distributed operating system supporting the object model. The operating system design uses the object concept of structuring software at all levels of the system. The basic operating system was developed and work is under progress to build a usable system.

  17. Controlled ecological life-support system - Use of plants for human life-support in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberland, D.; Knott, W. M.; Sager, J. C.; Wheeler, R.

    1992-01-01

    Scientists and engineers within NASA are conducting research which will lead to development of advanced life-support systems that utilize higher plants in a unique approach to solving long-term life-support problems in space. This biological solution to life-support, Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS), is a complex, extensively controlled, bioengineered system that relies on plants to provide the principal elements from gas exchange and food production to potable water reclamation. Research at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is proceeding with a comprehensive investigation of the individual parts of the CELSS system at a one-person scale in an approach called the Breadboard Project. Concurrently a relatively new NASA sponsored research effort is investigating plant growth and metabolism in microgravity, innovative hydroponic nutrient delivery systems, and use of highly efficient light emitting diodes for artificial plant illumination.

  18. Balancing viral replication in spleen and liver determines the outcome of systemic virus infection.

    PubMed

    Lang, K S; Lang, P A

    2015-12-01

    The innate immune system limits virus replication during systemic infection by producing type I interferons (IFN-I) but still has to allow viral replication to achieve maximal innate and adaptive immune activation. Some spleen and lymph node resident antigen presenting cells (APCs) show limited response to IFN-I due to expression of the endogenous inhibitor of IFN-I signaling, Usp18. Therefore, virus in this spleen niche replicates despite high levels of IFN-I. This enforced viral replication leads to an exorbitant propagation of viral antigens and viral RNA. Viral antigen leads to massive activation of the adaptive immune system, while viral RNA to activated innate immunity. In contrast to these APCs, liver resident Kupffer cells, take up most of the systemic virus and suppress its replication in response to IFN-I. In addition, virus specific CD8 + T cells which are primed in the spleen migrate to the liver and kill virus infected cells. In this review we discuss the different mechanisms, which influence immune activation in spleen and antiviral mechanisms in the liver and how they determine the outcome of virus infection. PMID:26666281

  19. [Moving Mirror Scanning System Based on the Flexible Hinge Support].

    PubMed

    Xie, Fei; Feng, Fei; Wang, Fu-bei; Wu, Qiong-shui; Zeng, Li-bo

    2015-08-01

    In order to improve moving mirror drive of Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, we design a dynamic scanning system based on flexible hinge support. Using the flexible hinge support way and the voice coil motor drive mode. Specifically, Using right Angle with high accuracy high stability type flexible hinge support mechanism support moving mirror, dynamic mirror can be moved forward and backward driven by voice coil motor reciprocating motion, DSP control system to control the moving mirror at a constant speed. The experimental results show that the designed of moving mirror scanning system has advantages of stability direction, speed stability, superior seismic performance. PMID:26672322

  20. Licensing Support Network: An Electronic Discovery System

    SciTech Connect

    Gil, A. V.; Jensen, D.; McKinnon, B.

    2002-02-26

    The necessary authorization for the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) to submit a License Application (LA) is contingent upon the policy process defined in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, as amended (NWPA), with some steps yet to occur. In spite of this uncertainty, the DOE must take prudent and appropriate action now, and over the next several years, to prepare for submittal of an application and to facilitate the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) review of this application, if the Yucca Mountain site is recommended and approved for repository development. One of these steps the DOE has taken involves working with the NRC's Advisory Review Panel to develop Licensing Support Network (LSN) requirements and guidelines. The NRC has made a prototype of the LSN web page available at www.LSNNET.gov. The OCRWM part of the LSN currently has an indefinite life cycle and may need to remain in existence until the repository is closed, which could be as long as 325 years.

  1. Cable support systems for longwall gate road stability

    SciTech Connect

    Tadolini, S.C.; Trackemas, J.D.; Jensen, K.L.

    1995-11-01

    The US Bureau of Mines, in cooperation with the Cyprus-Plateau Mining Company, has conducted research to provide an alternative to traditional secondary support systems in a two-entry, yield pillar gate road. As recent as two years ago, it was impossible to imagine a gate road supported solely with internal high-strength resin-grouted cable supports that would virtually eliminate the necessity for crib or concrete external supports. The support system evaluated consisted of 1.6-m (5-ft) full-column resin-grouted bolts and 4.8-m (16-ft) long cable supports installed in conjunction with wire mesh and ``monster-mats.`` Cable loading and roof deformations were monitored to evaluate the behavior of the immediate and main roofs during first and second panel extractions. The stress and loading histories for the panels and yield pillar were monitored to evaluate the stress transfer and pillar performance in conjunction with the roof and floor behavior. The test results indicated that the designed support system successfully maintained the roof during the extraction of two longwall panels and dramatically reduced the cost of secondary support. This paper will describe the theory of a cribless support system, the advantages of cable supports, and present the pillar, roof, and floor measurements made to assess the support performance during longwall retreat mining.

  2. Reliability Growth in Space Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2014-01-01

    A hardware system's failure rate often increases over time due to wear and aging, but not always. Some systems instead show reliability growth, a decreasing failure rate with time, due to effective failure analysis and remedial hardware upgrades. Reliability grows when failure causes are removed by improved design. A mathematical reliability growth model allows the reliability growth rate to be computed from the failure data. The space shuttle was extensively maintained, refurbished, and upgraded after each flight and it experienced significant reliability growth during its operational life. In contrast, the International Space Station (ISS) is much more difficult to maintain and upgrade and its failure rate has been constant over time. The ISS Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) reliability has slightly decreased. Failures on ISS and with the ISS CDRA continue to be a challenge.

  3. Status of frequency and time support for NASA systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhnle, Paul F.; Kushmeider, Paul J.; Wardrip, S. Clark

    1994-01-01

    NASA has frequency and timing systems at many facilities and centers. Timing systems with specifications tighter than several microseconds are covered. These ground based systems support scientific experiments and spacecraft tracking for the following programs; NASA Satellite Laser Ranging (NSLR); Network Mission Operations Support (NMOS); Kennedy Space Center (KSC); Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI); Tracking Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Ground Terminal Network; and the Deep Space Network (DSN). Major equipment assemblies, specifications, performance, and requirements, both present and future, are presented.

  4. System Administration Support/SWORDS G2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dito, Scott Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The Soldier-Warfighter Operationally Responsive Deployer for Space (SWORDS) rocket is a dedicated small satellite launcher that will minimize danger and complexity in order to allow soldiers in the field to put payloads of up to 25kg into orbit from the field. The SWORDSG2 project is the development of a model, simulation, and ultimately a working application that will control and monitor the cryogenic fluid delivery to the SWORDS rocket for testing purposes. To accomplish this, the project is using the programming language environment Gensym G2. The environment is an all-inclusive application that allows development, testing, modeling, and finally operation of the unique application through graphical and programmatic methods. In addition, observation of the current cryogenic fluid delivery system in the Kennedy Space Center Cry Lab has allowed me to gain valuable experience of fluid systems and propelant delivery that is valuable to our team when developing amd modeling our own system.The ultimate goal of having a test-ready application to show to the heads of the project, and demonstrating G2's capabilities, by late 2014 will require hard work and intense study and understanding of not only the programming aspect but also the physical phenomena we want to model, observe, and control.

  5. Rhode Island Model Evaluation & Support System: Teacher. Edition III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Rhode Island educators believe that implementing a fair, accurate, and meaningful educator evaluation and support system will help improve teaching and learning. The primary purpose of the Rhode Island Model Teacher Evaluation and Support System (Rhode Island Model) is to help all teachers improve. Through the Model, the goal is to help create a…

  6. PEGASUS: Designing a System for Supporting Group Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyprianidou, Maria; Demetriadis, Stavros; Pombortsis, Andreas; Karatasios, George

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the design and first results of the integration of a web-based system person-centred group-activity support system (PEGASUS) in university instruction, as a means for advancing person-centred learning by supporting group activity. The PEGASUS is expected to help students and teachers in two distinct…

  7. Rhode Island Model Evaluation & Support System: Building Administrator. Edition III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Rhode Island educators believe that implementing a fair, accurate, and meaningful educator evaluation and support system will help improve teaching, learning, and school leadership. The primary purpose of the Rhode Island Model Building Administrator Evaluation and Support System (Rhode Island Model) is to help all building administrators improve.…

  8. Automation and Accountability in Decision Support System Interface Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Mary L.

    2006-01-01

    When the human element is introduced into decision support system design, entirely new layers of social and ethical issues emerge but are not always recognized as such. This paper discusses those ethical and social impact issues specific to decision support systems and highlights areas that interface designers should consider during design with an…

  9. A Performance Evaluation System for Professional Support Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronge, James H.; Helm, Virginia M.

    1992-01-01

    Provides a conceptual framework for a professional support personnel (e.g., counselors, deans, librarians) performance evaluation system. Outlines steps in evaluating support personnel (identifying system needs, relating program expectations to job responsibilities, selecting performance indicators, setting job performance standards, documenting…

  10. Clouds: A support architecture for fault tolerant, distributed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasgupta, P.; Leblanco, R. J., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Clouds is a distributed operating system providing support for fault tolerance, location independence, reconfiguration, and transactions. The implementation paradigm uses objects and nested actions as building blocks. Subsystems and applications that can be supported by Clouds to further enhance the performance and utility of the system are also discussed.

  11. A Comparative Study of Electronic Performance Support Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Frank; Klein, James D.; Sullivan, Howard

    2005-01-01

    Electronic performance support systems (EPSS) deliver relevant support information to users while they are performing tasks. The present study examined the effect of different types of EPSS on user performance, attitudes, system use and time on task. Employees at a manufacturing company were asked to complete a procedural software task and…

  12. Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drysdale, Alan; Thomas, Mark; Fresa, Mark; Wheeler, Ray

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to CELSS, a critical technology for the Space Exploration Initiative. OCAM (object-oriented CELSS analysis and modeling) models carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen recycling. Multiple crops and plant types can be simulated. Resource recovery options from inedible biomass include leaching, enzyme treatment, aerobic digestion, and mushroom and fish growth. The benefit of using many small crops overlapping in time, instead of a single large crop, is demonstrated. Unanticipated results include startup transients which reduce the benefit of multiple small crops. The relative contributions of mass, energy, and manpower to system cost are analyzed in order to determine appropriate research directions.

  13. GCS support/development system configuration document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, Douglas S.

    1990-01-01

    The software programming environment used in the development of Guidance and Control Software (GCS) implementations used in a software error studies experiment conducted by the Research Triangle Institute (RTI) and the NASA-Langley is described. The Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics RTCA/DO-178A guidelines are fulfilled, and requirements for document number 9 in which the hardware, software, and processes used to develop and maintain the software for the GCS project are described. The software programming environment for GCS largely consists of tools that are included in Digital Equipment Corporations software layered product library or are a part of the VAX/VMS baseline system.

  14. Infrastructure support for Clinical Information Systems

    SciTech Connect

    McGovern, Greg, A.

    2007-06-15

    Executive Summary: For the past 5 years, Adventist Health has been implementing a clinical information system, titled Project IntelliCare, throughout its 19 hospitals. To successfully do this, a commitment was made to ensure continuous availability of vital patient health information to the local hospitals. This commitment required a centralized data center with sufficient capacity and a backup data center to be used in case of technical software or natural disaster where interruptions could occur. The DOE grant provided financial assistance to purchase equipment to increase the capacity of an existing data center, along with purchase of more sophisticated software for the data center thus providing a reduction in time that information is unavailable to the local hospitals when hardware or software problems occur. Relative to public good, this translates into increased safety and convenience for the patients we serve because their electronic medical records are current and available a higher percentage of the time.

  15. The oxygen consuming systems of the liver of mice exposed to simulated high altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, K.; Aguilar, R.; Burgos, C.; Alvarez, J.

    1981-12-01

    Altitude hypoxia does not induce any changes in the enzymatic systems related to oxygen consumption in guinea pigs native of the Peruvian high altitudes. The biochemical changes frequently found in high altitude animals are the result of exposure to the low temperature of this environment rather than to hypoxia. In the present work, mice were chronically exposed to hypobaric hypoxia and maintained at equal temperature as the sea level control group, and measurements of enzymatic activities of the three major oxygen consuming systems of the liver were carried out, i.e., mitochondria, microsomes and peroxisomes. The results obtained have confirmed that hypoxia has no apparent influence on these enzymatic systems.

  16. Risk Interfaces to Support Integrated Systems Analysis and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mindock, Jennifer; Lumpkins, Sarah; Shelhamer, Mark; Anton, Wilma; Havenhill, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives for systems analysis capability: Develop integrated understanding of how a complex human physiological-socio-technical mission system behaves in spaceflight. Why? Support development of integrated solutions that prevent unwanted outcomes (Implementable approaches to minimize mission resources(mass, power, crew time, etc.)); Support development of tools for autonomy (need for exploration) (Assess and maintain resilience -individuals, teams, integrated system). Output of this exercise: -Representation of interfaces based on Human System Risk Board (HSRB) Risk Summary information and simple status based on Human Research Roadmap; Consolidated HSRB information applied to support communication; Point-of-Departure for HRP Element planning; Ability to track and communicate status of collaborations. 4

  17. Constructivist Uses of Expert Systems to Support Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David H.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discusses constructivist uses of production rule expert systems that may be used to support learning for secondary and higher education. Highlights include locus of control; and objectivist and constructivist applications of expert systems as intelligent tutoring systems, as feedback systems, as personal knowledge representation tools, and for…

  18. Life Support System Technologies for NASA Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewert, Michael K.

    2007-01-01

    The Lunar Mars Life Support Test series successfully demonstrated integration and operation of advanced technologies for closed-loop life support systems, including physicochemical and biological subsystems. Increased closure was obtained when targeted technologies, such as brine dewatering subsystems, were added to further process life support system byproducts to recover resources. Physicochemical and biological systems can be integrated satisfactorily to achieve desired levels of closure. Imbalances between system components, such as differences in metabolic quotients between human crews and plants, must be addressed. Each subsystem or component that is added to increase closure will likely have added costs, ranging from initial launch mass, power, thermal, crew time, byproducts, etc., that must be factored into break even analysis. Achieving life support system closure while maintaining control of total mass and system complexity will be a challenge.

  19. Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver in a middle-aged adult with systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Adult primary undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver (UESL) is a rare disease. While the etiology of UESL remains largely unknown, association with systemic inflammatory disorders has been observed. Here, we report a case of UESL in a 46-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and without chronic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis. Systematic review of the publicly available English language medical literature identified only 27 cases of UESL in patients aged >45 years and none with SLE. Our patient presented with abdominal pain and had a 2-year history of SLE. Abdominal ultrasonography and enhanced computed tomography revealed a solid mass in the right lobe of the liver. Presumptive diagnosis of atypical hepatocellular carcinoma was made and the patient was treated with segmentectomy of S5 and S4a and cholecystectomy. The final diagnosis of UESL was made according to the pathology results. Since SLE patients may be at increased risk of malignancy, it is possible that the SLE pathogenesis may have contributed to the development of UESL in our patient. According to this case, UESL should be considered when SLE patients present with hepatic space-occupying lesions. PMID:24073982

  20. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and the renin-angiotensin system: Implications for treatment

    PubMed Central

    Paschos, Paschalis; Tziomalos, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the commonest liver disease in Western countries. Treatment of NAFLD is currently based on lifestyle measures and no effective pharmacologic treatment is available so far. Emerging evidence, mainly from animal studies, suggests that the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system may be of major importance in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and indicates that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) as a potentially useful therapeutic approach. However, data from human studies are limited and contradictory. In addition, there are few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effects of ACE-I or ARB in patients with NAFLD and most data are from retrospective studies, pilot prospective studies and post hoc analyses of clinical trials. Accordingly, more and larger RCTs are needed to directly assess the effectiveness of ACE-I and ARBs in NAFLD. PMID:23355909

  1. An alternating current superconductor susceptometric system to evaluate liver iron overload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carneiro, A. A. O.; Fernandes, J. P.; Zago, M. A.; Covas, D. T.; Ángulo, I. L.; Baffa, O.

    2003-06-01

    An ac susceptometric system to quantify liver iron overload composed of a second order axial gradiometer coil coupled to a rf superconducting quantum interference device detector and a large field coil array is presented. A homogeneous ac magnetizing field with low frequency (7.7 Hz) and low intensity (114 μT) is used. Preliminary measurements over a group of 34 normal individuals and 20 patients with iron overload show the ability of the instrument to perform the measurement and to distinguish normal and pathological individuals. The diamagnetic signature of the surrounding tissues is minimized using a special water bag on the torso. In summary it was shown that with a relatively simple instrumentation it was possible to build a superconducting susceptometer dedicated to quantify in vivo iron concentrations, which is clinically important information in the assessment and management of patients with liver iron overload, mainly those who regularly receive blood transfusion.

  2. Integration of a satellite ground support system based on analysis of the satellite ground support domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendley, R. D.; Scheidker, E. J.; Levitt, D. S.; Myers, C. R.; Werking, R. D.

    1994-01-01

    This analysis defines a complete set of ground support functions based on those practiced in real space flight operations during the on-orbit phase of a mission. These functions are mapped against ground support functions currently in use by NASA and DOD. Software components to provide these functions can be hosted on RISC-based work stations and integrated to provide a modular, integrated ground support system. Such modular systems can be configured to provide as much ground support functionality as desired. This approach to ground systems has been widely proposed and prototyped both by government institutions and commercial vendors. The combined set of ground support functions we describe can be used as a standard to evaluate candidate ground systems. This approach has also been used to develop a prototype of a modular, loosely-integrated ground support system, which is discussed briefly. A crucial benefit to a potential user is that all the components are flight-qualified, thus giving high confidence in their accuracy and reliability.

  3. Toxicogenomics-based prediction of acetaminophen-induced liver injury using human hepatic cell systems.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Robim M; Heymans, Anja; De Boe, Veerle; Sachinidis, Agapios; Chaudhari, Umesh; Govaere, Olivier; Roskams, Tania; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera; De Kock, Joery

    2016-01-01

    Primary human hepatocytes (hHEP), human HepaRG and HepG2 cell lines are the most used human liver-based in vitro models for hepatotoxicity testing, including screening of drug-induced liver injury (DILI)-inducing compounds. hHEP are the reference hepatic in vitro system, but their availability is limited and the cells available for toxicology studies are often of poor quality. Hepatic cell lines on the other hand are highly proliferative and represent an inexhaustible hepatic cell source. However, these hepatoma-derived cells do not represent the population diversity and display reduced hepatic metabolism. Alternatively, stem cell-derived hepatic cells, which can be produced in high numbers and can differentiate into multiple cell lineages, are also being evaluated as a cell source for in vitro hepatotoxicity studies. Human skin-derived precursors (hSKP) are post-natal stem cells that, after conversion towards hepatic cells (hSKP-HPC), respond to hepatotoxic compounds in a comparable way as hHEP. In the current study, four different human hepatic cell systems (hSKP-HPC, hHEP, HepaRG and HepG2) are evaluated for their capacity to predict hepatic toxicity. Their hepatotoxic response to acetaminophen (APAP) exposure is compared to data obtained from patients suffering from APAP-induced acute liver failure (ALF). The results indicate that hHEP, HepaRG and hSKP-HPC identify comparable APAP-induced hepatotoxic functions and that HepG2 cells show the slightest hepatotoxic response. Pathway analyses further points out that HepaRG cells show the highest predicted activation of the functional genes related to 'damage of liver', followed by hSKP-HPC and hHEP cells that generated similar results. HepG2 did not show any activation of this function. PMID:26497421

  4. Liver Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. Primary liver cancer starts in the liver. Metastatic liver ... and spreads to your liver. Risk factors for primary liver cancer include Having hepatitis B or C ...

  5. Liver scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyperplasia or adenoma of the liver Abscess Budd-Chiari syndrome Infection Liver disease (such as cirrhosis or ... Amebic liver abscess Cirrhosis Hepatic vein obstruction (Budd-Chiari) Hepatitis Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma Liver disease Splenic ...

  6. Design Evolution and Analysis of the ITER Cryostat Support System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Han; Song, Yuntao; Wang, Songke

    2015-12-01

    The cryostat is a vacuum tight container enveloping the entire basic systems of the ITER tokamak machine, including a vacuum vessel, a superconducting magnet and thermal shield etc. It is evacuated to a pressure of 10-4 Pa to limit the heat transfer via gas conduction and convection to the cryogenically cooled components. Another important function of cryostat is to support all the loads from the tokamak to the concrete floor of the pit by its support system during different operational regimes and accident scenarios. This paper briefly presents the design evolution and associated analysis of the cryostat support system and the structural interface with the building.

  7. A prototype knowledge-based simulation support system

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, T.R.; Roberts, S.D.

    1987-04-01

    As a preliminary step toward the goal of an intelligent automated system for simulation modeling support, we explore the feasibility of the overall concept by generating and testing a prototypical framework. A prototype knowledge-based computer system was developed to support a senior level course in industrial engineering so that the overall feasibility of an expert simulation support system could be studied in a controlled and observable setting. The system behavior mimics the diagnostic (intelligent) process performed by the course instructor and teaching assistants, finding logical errors in INSIGHT simulation models and recommending appropriate corrective measures. The system was programmed in a non-procedural language (PROLOG) and designed to run interactively with students working on course homework and projects. The knowledge-based structure supports intelligent behavior, providing its users with access to an evolving accumulation of expert diagnostic knowledge. The non-procedural approach facilitates the maintenance of the system and helps merge the roles of expert and knowledge engineer by allowing new knowledge to be easily incorporated without regard to the existing flow of control. The background, features and design of the system are describe and preliminary results are reported. Initial success is judged to demonstrate the utility of the reported approach and support the ultimate goal of an intelligent modeling system which can support simulation modelers outside the classroom environment. Finally, future extensions are suggested.

  8. Decision Support Systems for Research and Management in Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Luis F.

    2004-01-01

    Decision support systems have been implemented in many applications including strategic planning for battlefield scenarios, corporate decision making for business planning, production planning and control systems, and recommendation generators like those on Amazon.com(Registered TradeMark). Such tools are reviewed for developing a similar tool for NASA's ALS Program. DSS are considered concurrently with the development of the OPIS system, a database designed for chronicling of research and development in ALS. By utilizing the OPIS database, it is anticipated that decision support can be provided to increase the quality of decisions by ALS managers and researchers.

  9. On the heuristic nature of medical decision-support systems.

    PubMed

    Aliferis, C F; Miller, R A

    1995-03-01

    In the realm of medical decision-support systems, the term "heuristic systems" is often considered to be synonymous with "medical artificial intelligence systems" or with "systems employing informal model(s) of problem solving". Such a view may be inaccurate and possibly impede the conceptual development of future systems. This article examines the nature of heuristics and the levels at which heuristic solutions are introduced during system design and implementation. The authors discuss why heuristics are ubiquitous in all medical decision-support systems operating at non-trivial domains, and propose a unifying definition of heuristics that encompasses formal and ad hoc systems. System developers should be aware of the heuristic nature of all problem solving done in complex real world domains, and characterize their own use of heuristics in describing system development and implementation. PMID:9082138

  10. Developing a Decision Support System: The Software and Hardware Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Phillip M.

    1989-01-01

    Describes some of the available software and hardware tools that can be used to develop a decision support system implemented on microcomputers. Activities that should be supported by software are discussed, including data entry, data coding, finding and combining data, and data compatibility. Hardware considerations include speed, storage…

  11. Use of a Group Support System for Collaborative Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwok, Ron C. W.; Ma, Jian

    1999-01-01

    Reports on the use of an Internet-based Group Support System (GSS) for the collaborative assessment of student projects. Results of an empirical study that was conducted on undergraduate students show that GSS-supported collaborative assessment encourages students to take a deep approach to learning, which leads to better project performance.…

  12. A System for Supporting Cross-Lingual Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capstick, Joanne; Diagne, Abdel Kader; Erbach, Gregor; Uszkoreit, Hans; Leisenberg, Anne; Leisenberg, Manfred

    2000-01-01

    Describes the MULINEX system that supports cross-lingual searching of the World Wide Web. Users can formulate queries, filter the search results and read documents by using their native language. Discusses dictionary-based query translation, multilingual document categorization, and automatic translation that supports French, German, and English.…

  13. Automate Your Meetings: Computer-Based Group Support Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiken, Milam W.

    1995-01-01

    A Group Support System (GSS) is a network of microcomputers with software for the support of meetings and other group work. Using a GSS, meeting participants are able to brainstorm by submitting comments over the network, ranking and rating items in a list, and performing collaborative work. GSS provides anonymity, parallel communication, and…

  14. Human Health and Support Systems Capability Roadmap Progress Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grounds, Dennis; Boehm, Al

    2005-01-01

    The Human Health and Support Systems Capability Roadmap focuses on research and technology development and demonstration required to ensure the health, habitation, safety, and effectiveness of crews in and beyond low Earth orbit. It contains three distinct sub-capabilities: Human Health and Performance. Life Support and Habitats. Extra-Vehicular Activity.

  15. Scaffolding Strategies in Electronic Performance Support Systems: Types and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cagiltay, Kursat

    2006-01-01

    In the study described in this paper, the major components of an electronic performance support system are described and the use of scaffolding techniques within such electronic environments is explored. Four different types of scaffolding are discussed: "conceptual" (supportive) scaffolding, "metacognitive" (reflective) scaffolding, "procedural"…

  16. On Two Roles Decision Support Systems Can Play in Negotiations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersten, Gregory E.

    1987-01-01

    Focuses on the role of the computer system in group decision making. Two systems used in solving negotiating problems--NEGO and MEDIATOR--and three procedures that can be utilized to develop group decision support systems are analyzed, based on multicriteria decision analysis and mathematical programming models. (Author/LRW)

  17. Large space telescope, phase A. Volume 5: Support systems module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development and characteristics of the support systems module for the Large Space Telescope are discussed. The following systems and described: (1) thermal control, (2) electrical, (3) communication and data landing, (4) attitude control system, and (5) structural features. Analyses of maintainability and reliability considerations are included.

  18. Bendiocarb effect on liver and central nervous system in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Petrovova, Eva; Sedmera, David; Lesnik, Frantisek; Luptakova, Lenka

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate toxicity of bendiocarb (2, 3-isopropyledene-dioxyphenyl methylcarbamate) to organs of chicken embryo. The toxic action of bendiocarb was observed on liver and central nervous system (CNS). Bendiocarb was administered to chicken embryos at embryonic day (ED) 3 in a dose 500 microg/egg and 10 ED (800 microg/egg). The observations showed no macroscopic or microscopic changes in the liver and CNS with either dose or day of incubation when the bendiocarb was administered. The liver and CNS were also investigated for caspase activity in relation to application of bendiocarb and no differences in the number of cells with caspase immunopositivity were observed in comparison with the control. The results obtained indicate that bendiocarb administered in the respective doses showed no toxicity to investigated organs. Furthermore, both at the early (3 ED) and the later (10 ED) stages of development no increase in numbers of apoptotic cells in chicken embryos was observed. PMID:19365755

  19. Hong Kong Liver Cancer Staging System Is Associated With Better Performance for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Po-Hong; Hsu, Chia-Yang; Lee, Yun-Hsuan; Su, Chien-Wei; Hsia, Cheng-Yuan; Huang, Yi-Hsiang; Chiou, Yi-You; Lin, Han-Chieh; Huo, Teh-Ia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Hong Kong Liver Cancer (HKLC) staging system was developed for prognostic and treatment evaluation for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) but is not externally validated. We aimed to evaluate and compare HKLC system with Barcelona Clínic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system. The prognostic performance, discriminatory ability, and efficacy of treatment recommendations were compared between the BCLC and HKLC systems. Significant differences in survival were found across all stages of BCLC and across stages I to IV of HKLC systems (P < 0.01). HKLC system was associated with higher homogeneity in prognostic accuracy. The survival was similar between patients treated according to the HKLC or BCLC system (P = 0.07). However, more patients were treated according to HKLC recommendations than to BCLC recommendations (57% vs. 47%, P < 0.001). In a hypothetical cohort created by random sampling, patients treated according to the HKLC scheme had better survival compared with patients treated according to the BCLC system (P < 0.001). Subgroup analyses between hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related HCC were performed. More HCV-related HCC were at earlier BCLC or HKLC stages (both P < 0.001). The HKLC system was more informative with greater homogeneity in predicting survival in both HBV and HCV cohorts. However, HKLC treatment recommendations were associated with better long-term survival only in HBV-related HCC but not in HCV-related HCC (P < 0.001 and P = 0.79, respectively). In conclusion, we provided external validation of the HKLC system. Compared with the BCLC system, the HKLC system has better prognostic accuracy and therapeutic efficacy in the entire cohort and in HBV-related HCC but not in HCV-related HCC. Due to high heterogeneity among patients of various etiologies, staging and treatment strategies tailored to specific HCC etiology are required. PMID:26469917

  20. Johnson Space Center's Regenerative Life Support Systems Test Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, D. J.; Henninger, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    The Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) Test Bed at NASA's Johnson Space Center is an atmospherically closed, controlled environment facility for human testing of regenerative life support systems using higher plants in conjunction with physicochemical life support systems. The facility supports NASA's Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. The facility is comprised of two large scale plant growth chambers, each with approximately 11 m2 growing area. The root zone in each chamber is configurable for hydroponic or solid media plant culture systems. One of the two chambers, the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC), is capable of operating at lower atmospheric pressures to evaluate a range of environments that may be used in a planetary surface habitat; the other chamber, the Ambient Pressure Growth Chamber (APGC) operates at ambient atmospheric pressure. The air lock of the VPGC is currently being outfitted for short duration (1 to 15 day) human habitation at ambient pressures. Testing with and without human subjects will focus on 1) integration of biological and physicochemical air and water revitalization systems; 2) effect of atmospheric pressure on system performance; 3) planetary resource utilization for ALS systems, in which solid substrates (simulated planetary soils or manufactured soils) are used in selected crop growth studies; 4) environmental microbiology and toxicology; 5) monitoring and control strategies; and 6) plant growth systems design. Included are descriptions of the overall design of the test facility, including discussions of the atmospheric conditioning, thermal control, lighting, and nutrient delivery systems.

  1. NASA Now: Life Science: Portable Life Support System

    NASA Video Gallery

    Spacesuit engineer Antja Chambers discusses the Portable Life Support System, a backpack the astronauts wear during spacewalks. It provides oxygen for the astronauts, protects them from the harsh c...

  2. Guiding the development of a controlled ecological life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, R. M. (Editor); Carden, J. L. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The workshop is reported which was held to establish guidelines for future development of ecological support systems, and to develop a group of researchers who understand the interdisciplinary requirements of the overall program.

  3. A proposed ecosystem services classification system to support green accounting

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are a multitude of actual or envisioned, complete or incomplete, ecosystem service classification systems being proposed to support Green Accounting. Green Accounting is generally thought to be the formal accounting attempt to factor environmental production into National ...

  4. Support System Effects on the NASA Common Research Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, S. Melissa B.; Hunter, Craig A.

    2012-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the NASA Common Research Model was conducted in the NASA Langley National Transonic Facility and NASA Ames 11-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel Facility for use in the Drag Prediction Workshop. As data from the experimental investigations was collected, a large difference in moment values was seen between the experimental and the computational data from the 4th Drag Prediction Workshop. This difference led to the present work. In this study, a computational assessment has been undertaken to investigate model support system interference effects on the Common Research Model. The configurations computed during this investigation were the wing/body/tail=0deg without the support system and the wing/body/tail=0deg with the support system. The results from this investigation confirm that the addition of the support system to the computational cases does shift the pitching moment in the direction of the experimental results.

  5. Interior detail, view to northnortheast showing support system for roof ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail, view to north-northeast showing support system for roof truss (typical), 90 mm lens plus electronic flash lighting. - Travis Air Force Base, Readiness Maintenance Hangar, W Street, Air Defense Command Readiness Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  6. 37. View showing support system below deck setting on pier ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. View showing support system below deck setting on pier 2, looking west. Note rollers beneath pod (center photo) and navigational light on left center - Williamstown-Marietta Bridge, Spanning Ohio River between Williamstown & Marietta, Williamstown, Wood County, WV

  7. Acceptable Toxicity After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Liver Tumors Adjacent to the Central Biliary System

    SciTech Connect

    Eriguchi, Takahisa; Takeda, Atsuya; Sanuki, Naoko; Oku, Yohei; Aoki, Yousuke; Shigematsu, Naoyuki; Kunieda, Etsuo

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate biliary toxicity after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for liver tumors. Methods and Materials: Among 297 consecutive patients with liver tumors treated with SBRT of 35 to 50 Gy in 5 fractions, patients who were irradiated with >20 Gy to the central biliary system (CBS), including the gallbladder, and had follow-up times >6 months were retrospectively analyzed. Toxicity profiles, such as clinical symptoms and laboratory and radiologic data especially for obstructive jaundice and biliary infection, were investigated in relation to the dose volume and length relationship for each biliary organ. Results: Fifty patients with 55 tumors were irradiated with >20 Gy to the CBS. The median follow-up period was 18.2 months (range, 6.0-80.5 months). In the dose length analysis, 39, 34, 14, and 2 patients were irradiated with >20 Gy, >30 Gy, >40 Gy, and >50 Gy, respectively, to >1 cm of the biliary tract. Seven patients were irradiated with >20 Gy to >20% of the gallbladder. Only 2 patients experienced asymptomatic bile duct stenosis. One patient, metachronously treated twice with SBRT for tumors adjacent to each other, had a transient increase in hepatic and biliary enzymes 12 months after the second treatment. The high-dose area >80 Gy corresponded to the biliary stenosis region. The other patient experienced biliary stenosis 5 months after SBRT and had no laboratory changes. The biliary tract irradiated with >20 Gy was 7 mm and did not correspond to the bile duct stenosis region. No obstructive jaundice or biliary infection was found in any patient. Conclusions: SBRT for liver tumors adjacent to the CBS was feasible with minimal biliary toxicity. Only 1 patient had exceptional radiation-induced bile duct stenosis. For liver tumors adjacent to the CBS without other effective treatment options, SBRT at a dose of 40 Gy in 5 fractions is a safe treatment with regard to biliary toxicity.

  8. Xenobiotic and Endobiotic Mediated Interactions between the Cytochrome P450 System and the Inflammatory Response In the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Woolbright, Benjamin L.; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    The liver is a unique organ in the body as it has significant roles in both metabolism and innate immune clearance. Hepatocytes in the liver carry a nearly complete complement of drug metabolizing enzymes, including numerous cytochrome P450s. While a majority of these enzymes effectively detoxify xenobiotics, or metabolize endobiotics, a sub-portion of these reactions result in accumulation of metabolites that can cause either direct liver injury or indirect liver injury through activation of inflammation. The liver also contains multiple populations of innate immune cells including the resident macrophages (Kupffer cells), a relatively large number of natural killer cells, and blood-derived neutrophils. While these cells are primarily responsible for clearance of pathogens, activation of these immune cells can result in significant tissue injury during periods of inflammation. When activated chronically, these inflammatory bouts can lead to fibrosis, cirrhosis, cancer or death. This Chapter will focus on interactions between how the liver processes xenobiotic and endobiotic compounds through the cytochrome P450 system, and how these processes can result in a response from the innate immune cells of the liver. A number of different clinically relevant diseases, as well as experimental models, are currently available to study mechanisms related to the interplay of innate immunity and cytochrome P450 mediated metabolism. A major focus of the chapter will be to evaluate currently understood mechanisms in the context of these diseases as a way of outlining mechanisms that dictate the interactions between the P450 system and innate immunity. PMID:26233906

  9. Automated support requirement system user's guide for nondata entry personnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maryland, J. E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    ASRS provides the capability to process intercenter/agency support requirements and commitments necessary for support of the Space Shuttle Launch and Landing, Flight, and Cargo operations. The instructions and commands that users will be allowed to utilize are presented. ASRS utilizes a data base stored on Honeywell DPS8 computer. ASRS programs are written in COBOL 74 utilizing the Honeywell DMIV-TP Processing System and the GCOS8 Operating System; they can also be accessed through Telenet or Datanet.

  10. Overview of NASA's Environmental Control and Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Monserrate

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) on the International Space Station. A look inside of the International Space Station detailing ECLSS processes of controlling atmospheric pressure, conditioning the atmosphere, responding to emergency conditions, controlling internal carbon dioxide and contaminants and providing water are described. A detailed description of ISS Regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support System is also presented.

  11. Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems: Natural and Artificial Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, Robert D. (Editor); Thompson, Brad G. (Editor); Tibbitts, Theodore W. (Editor); Volk, Tyler (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The scientists supported by the NASA sponsored Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) program have played a major role in creating a Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) section devoted to the development of bioregenerative life support for use in space. The series of 22 papers were sponsored by Subcommission F.4. The papers deal with many of the diverse aspects of life support, and with outgrowth technologies that may have commercial applications in fields such as biotechnology and bioengineering. Papers from researchers in France, Canada, Japan and the USSR are also presented.

  12. The Systems Engineering Process for Human Support Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2005-01-01

    Systems engineering is designing and optimizing systems. This paper reviews the systems engineering process and indicates how it can be applied in the development of advanced human support systems. Systems engineering develops the performance requirements, subsystem specifications, and detailed designs needed to construct a desired system. Systems design is difficult, requiring both art and science and balancing human and technical considerations. The essential systems engineering activity is trading off and compromising between competing objectives such as performance and cost, schedule and risk. Systems engineering is not a complete independent process. It usually supports a system development project. This review emphasizes the NASA project management process as described in NASA Procedural Requirement (NPR) 7120.5B. The process is a top down phased approach that includes the most fundamental activities of systems engineering - requirements definition, systems analysis, and design. NPR 7120.5B also requires projects to perform the engineering analyses needed to ensure that the system will operate correctly with regard to reliability, safety, risk, cost, and human factors. We review the system development project process, the standard systems engineering design methodology, and some of the specialized systems analysis techniques. We will discuss how they could apply to advanced human support systems development. The purpose of advanced systems development is not directly to supply human space flight hardware, but rather to provide superior candidate systems that will be selected for implementation by future missions. The most direct application of systems engineering is in guiding the development of prototype and flight experiment hardware. However, anticipatory systems engineering of possible future flight systems would be useful in identifying the most promising development projects.

  13. Biomarkers for liver fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Jon M.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Baker, Erin M.; Smith, Richard D.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Orton, Daniel

    2015-09-15

    Methods and systems for diagnosing or prognosing liver fibrosis in a subject are provided. In some examples, such methods and systems can include detecting liver fibrosis-related molecules in a sample obtained from the subject, comparing expression of the molecules in the sample to controls representing expression values expected in a subject who does not have liver fibrosis or who has non-progressing fibrosis, and diagnosing or prognosing liver fibrosis in the subject when differential expression of the molecules between the sample and the controls is detected. Kits for the diagnosis or prognosis of liver fibrosis in a subject are also provided which include reagents for detecting liver fibrosis related molecules.

  14. Polyurethane foam/spheroid culture system using human hepatoblastoma cell line (Hep G2) as a possible new hybrid artificial liver.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Y; Shimada, M; Tsujita, E; Tanaka, S; Ijima, H; Nakazawa, K; Sakiyama, R; Fukuda, J; Ueda, T; Funatsu, K; Sugimachi, K

    2001-01-01

    The risk of xenozoonosis infections poses the greatest obstacle against the clinical application of hybrid artificial liver support system (HALSS). Primary human hepatocytes are an ideal source for HALSS, but the shortage of human livers available for hepatocyte isolation limits this modality. To resolve this issue, we used human hepatocytes with replication capacity (fetal hepatocytes, Hep G2, and Huh 7) in a polyurethane foam (PUF)/spheroid culture system in vitro, and analyzed liver functions such as ammonia removal and albumin synthesis capacity; results were compared to those of porcine hepatocytes. Human fetal hepatocytes, Hep G2, and Huh 7 formed spheroids spontaneously within 24 h in a PUF/spheroid culture system; ammonia removal activity (micromol/10(6) nuclei/h) was upregulated, as was albumin synthesis activity (microg/10(6) nuclei/day). In particular, Hep G2 spheroids demonstrated high ammonia removal and albumin synthesis activities: 85% of the ammonia removal activity and 171.7% of the albumin synthesis activity of porcine hepatocytes in the monolayer culture. These results indicate the possibility of the development of a multicapillary PUF (MC-PUF) packed-bed culture system of hepatocyte spheroids as a HALSS using Hep G2. PMID:11814114

  15. MPI support in the DIRAC Pilot Job Workload Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Hamar, V.

    2012-12-01

    Parallel job execution in the grid environment using MPI technology presents a number of challenges for the sites providing this support. Multiple flavors of the MPI libraries, shared working directories required by certain applications, special settings for the batch systems make the MPI support difficult for the site managers. On the other hand the workload management systems with Pilot Jobs became ubiquitous although the support for the MPI applications in the Pilot frameworks was not available. This support was recently added in the DIRAC Project in the context of the GISELA Latin American Grid Initiative. Special services for dynamic allocation of virtual computer pools on the grid sites were developed in order to deploy MPI rings corresponding to the requirements of the jobs in the central task queue of the DIRAC Workload Management System. Pilot Jobs using user space file system techniques install the required MPI software automatically. The same technique is used to emulate shared working directories for the parallel MPI processes. This makes it possible to execute MPI jobs even on the sites not supporting them officially. Reusing so constructed MPI rings for execution of a series of parallel jobs increases dramatically their efficiency and turnaround. In this contribution we describe the design and implementation of the DIRAC MPI Service as well as its support for various types of MPI libraries. Advantages of coupling the MPI support with the Pilot frameworks are outlined and examples of usage with real applications are presented.

  16. Human vs. robot operator error in a needle-based navigation system for percutaneous liver interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier-Hein, Lena; Walsh, Conor J.; Seitel, Alexander; Hanumara, Nevan C.; Shepard, Jo-Anne; Franz, A. M.; Pianka, F.; Müller, Sascha A.; Schmied, Bruno; Slocum, Alexander H.; Gupta, Rajiv; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

    2009-02-01

    Computed tomography (CT) guided percutaneous punctures of the liver for cancer diagnosis and therapy (e.g. tumor biopsy, radiofrequency ablation) are well-established procedures in clinical routine. One of the main challenges related to these interventions is the accurate placement of the needle within the lesion. Several navigation concepts have been introduced to compensate for organ shift and deformation in real-time, yet, the operator error remains an important factor influencing the overall accuracy of the developed systems. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the operator error and, thus, the overall insertion error of an existing navigation system could be further reduced by replacing the user with the medical robot Robopsy. For this purpose, we performed navigated needle insertions in a static abdominal phantom as well as in a respiratory liver motion simulator and compared the human operator error with the targeting error performed by the robot. According to the results, the Robopsy driven needle insertion system is able to more accurately align the needle and insert it along its axis compared to a human operator. Integration of the robot into the current navigation system could thus improve targeting accuracy in clinical use.

  17. Decision support systems for robotic surgery and acute care

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazanzides, Peter

    2012-06-01

    Doctors must frequently make decisions during medical treatment, whether in an acute care facility, such as an Intensive Care Unit (ICU), or in an operating room. These decisions rely on a various information sources, such as the patient's medical history, preoperative images, and general medical knowledge. Decision support systems can assist by facilitating access to this information when and where it is needed. This paper presents some research eorts that address the integration of information with clinical practice. The example systems include a clinical decision support system (CDSS) for pediatric traumatic brain injury, an augmented reality head- mounted display for neurosurgery, and an augmented reality telerobotic system for minimally-invasive surgery. While these are dierent systems and applications, they share the common theme of providing information to support clinical decisions and actions, whether the actions are performed with the surgeon's own hands or with robotic assistance.

  18. Developing closed life support systems for large space habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, J. M.; Harlan, A. D.; Krumhar, K. C.

    1978-01-01

    In anticipation of possible large-scale, long-duration space missions which may be conducted in the future, NASA has begun to investigate the research and technology development requirements to create life support systems for large space habitats. An analysis suggests the feasibility of a regeneration of food in missions which exceed four years duration. Regeneration of food in space may be justified for missions of shorter duration when large crews must be supported at remote sites such as lunar bases and space manufacturing facilities. It is thought that biological components consisting principally of traditional crop and livestock species will prove to be the most acceptable means of closing the food cycle. A description is presented of the preliminary results of a study of potential biological components for large space habitats. Attention is given to controlled ecosystems, Russian life support system research, controlled-environment agriculture, and the social aspects of the life-support system.

  19. Translating Clinical Findings into Knowledge in Drug Safety Evaluation - Drug Induced Liver Injury Prediction System (DILIps)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhichao; Shi, Qiang; Ding, Don; Kelly, Reagan; Fang, Hong; Tong, Weida

    2011-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a significant concern in drug development due to the poor concordance between preclinical and clinical findings of liver toxicity. We hypothesized that the DILI types (hepatotoxic side effects) seen in the clinic can be translated into the development of predictive in silico models for use in the drug discovery phase. We identified 13 hepatotoxic side effects with high accuracy for classifying marketed drugs for their DILI potential. We then developed in silico predictive models for each of these 13 side effects, which were further combined to construct a DILI prediction system (DILIps). The DILIps yielded 60–70% prediction accuracy for three independent validation sets. To enhance the confidence for identification of drugs that cause severe DILI in humans, the “Rule of Three” was developed in DILIps by using a consensus strategy based on 13 models. This gave high positive predictive value (91%) when applied to an external dataset containing 206 drugs from three independent literature datasets. Using the DILIps, we screened all the drugs in DrugBank and investigated their DILI potential in terms of protein targets and therapeutic categories through network modeling. We demonstrated that two therapeutic categories, anti-infectives for systemic use and musculoskeletal system drugs, were enriched for DILI, which is consistent with current knowledge. We also identified protein targets and pathways that are related to drugs that cause DILI by using pathway analysis and co-occurrence text mining. While marketed drugs were the focus of this study, the DILIps has a potential as an evaluation tool to screen and prioritize new drug candidates or chemicals, such as environmental chemicals, to avoid those that might cause liver toxicity. We expect that the methodology can be also applied to other drug safety endpoints, such as renal or cardiovascular toxicity. PMID:22194678

  20. [Liver and artificial liver].

    PubMed

    Chamuleau, R A

    1998-06-01

    Despite good results of orthotopic liver transplantation in patients with fulminant hepatic failure the need still exists for an effective and safe artificial liver, able to temporarily take over the complex liver function so as to bridge the gap with transplantation or regeneration. Attempts to develop non-biological artificial livers have failed, mostly when controlled clinical trials were performed. In the last decade several different types of bioartificial livers have been devised, in which the biocomponent consists of freshly isolated porcine hepatocytes or a human hepatoblastoma cell line. The majority use semipermeable hollow fibers known from artificial kidney devices. The liver cells may lie either inside or outside the lumen of these fibers. In vitro analysis of liver function and animal experimental work showing that the bioartificial liver increases survival justify clinical application. Bioartificial livers are connected to patients extracorporeally by means of plasmapheresis circuit for periods of about 6 hours. In different trials about 40 patients with severe liver failure have been treated. No important adverse effects have not been reported in these phase I trials. Results of controlled studies are urgently needed. As long as no satisfactory immortalised human liver cell line with good function is available, porcine hepatocytes will remain the first choice, provided transmission of porcine pathogens to man is prevented. PMID:9752034

  1. Diverse Redundant Systems for Reliable Space Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2015-01-01

    Reliable life support systems are required for deep space missions. The probability of a fatal life support failure should be less than one in a thousand in a multi-year mission. It is far too expensive to develop a single system with such high reliability. Using three redundant units would require only that each have a failure probability of one in ten over the mission. Since the system development cost is inverse to the failure probability, this would cut cost by a factor of one hundred. Using replaceable subsystems instead of full systems would further cut cost. Using full sets of replaceable components improves reliability more than using complete systems as spares, since a set of components could repair many different failures instead of just one. Replaceable components would require more tools, space, and planning than full systems or replaceable subsystems. However, identical system redundancy cannot be relied on in practice. Common cause failures can disable all the identical redundant systems. Typical levels of common cause failures will defeat redundancy greater than two. Diverse redundant systems are required for reliable space life support. Three, four, or five diverse redundant systems could be needed for sufficient reliability. One system with lower level repair could be substituted for two diverse systems to save cost.

  2. Donor liver dysfunction: application of a new scoring system to identify the marginal donor.

    PubMed

    Ferraz-Neto, B H; Zurstrassen, M P V C; Hidalgo, R; Fonseca, L E P; Motta, T D B; Pandullo, F L; Rezende, M B; Meira-Filho, S P; Sá, J R; Afonso, R C

    2007-10-01

    Livers from marginal donors are increasingly used for transplantation due to the shortage of donor organs. The definition of a marginal donor remains unclear; prediction of organ function is a challenge. In the literature the use of steatotic livers has been associated with poor liver function or even primary dysfunction of the allograft. Tekin et al created a scoring system that classifies a donor as marginal or nonmarginal, using a mathematical model based on donor age and steatosis degree. The aims of this study were to apply the Tekin method to identify marginal and nonmarginal donors and evaluate the influence of the cold ischemia time (CIT) on allograft evolution. We retrospectively reviewed deceased donor liver transplantations performed from October 1995 to March 2006, namely, 177 adult liver transplantations in 163 patients. Fifty-five were excluded due to retransplantation (14) or insufficient data (41). Donor age and macrovesicular steatosis were evaluated according to the mathematical formula proposed by Tekin et al, classifying the donors as marginal versus nonmarginal. The authors also analyzed the CIT, 3-month mortality, and development of primary nonfunction or primary dysfunction. The median donor age was 38.9 years (range, 6-71). The postreperfusion biopsy specimen showed moderate to intense steatosis (>30%) in 14.75% of specimens, with no steatosis or mild steatosis in 85.25%. Sixty-one grafts (50%) developed primary graft dysfunction (PGD): 10 grafts, with primary nonfunction (PNF); and 51 with initial poor function (IPF). Using the criteria provided by Tekin et al, we obtained 41 marginal and 81 nonmarginal allografts. The marginal group showed 61.9% PGD, compared with 59.2% of PGD by the nonmarginal group. The CIT was greater than 12 hours in 5 marginal group transplants and 4 PGD cases (80%). Of the nonmarginal allografts, the CIT was greater than 12 hours in 29.6%, with 75% PGD. The 3-month graft survival rate was 80% in the marginal group

  3. Is spleen circulation impaired in systemic sclerosis and what is the role of liver fibrosis?

    PubMed Central

    Tarantino, Giovanni; Spanò, Angelo; Loi, Gabriella; Parisi, Anna; Tarantino, Marianna; Brancaccio, Giuseppina; Gaeta, Giovanni Battista; Riccio, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the spleen vascular involvement and the presence of liver fibrosis in a population of subjects with established systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: In a cross-sectional fashion, 17 patients with SSc were compared with 18 patients suffering from hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver cirrhosis, grade A and B Child-Pugh classification. Eighteen non elderly subjects, apparently healthy, were used as the control group. Splenic artery resistivity index (SARI) at doppler ultraSound, transient elastography of liver and nailfold capillaroscopy were the main outcomes. RESULTS: Transient elastography values of SSc patients were similar to those of controls; 5.2 ± 1.1 vs 4.5 ± 1, (P = 0.07). Median Alanine amino transferase (ALT) concentrations of cirrhotic patients were greater than those of controls and SSc patients, i.e. 66.5 (36-89) U/L vs 29 (22-34) U/L and 31 (22-41) U/L, respectively, (P = 0.005). SARI determinations in cirrhotic patients, although significantly higher than those found in controls and SSc patients, showed some degree of overlap with SSc patients, i.e. 0.59 vs 0.52 and 0.57, respectively, (P = 0.04). Mean systolic blood pressure was significantly higher in SSc patients than in cirrhotics and controls, i.e. 142 mmHg vs 128.2 mmHg and 127 mmHg, respectively, (P = 0.005). Mean diastolic blood pressure behaved in a similar fashion, i.e. 84 mmHg vs 72.2 mmHg and 76.9 mmHg (P = 0.005). Nailfold Capillaroscopy grades and diastolic blood pressure values correlated well with SARI results. CONCLUSION: An enhanced resistivity of the splenic artery was found in patients suffering from SSc; they did not have evidence of splenomegaly as well as no liver fibrosis or any other form of liver damage. PMID:21472128

  4. Splenectomy Causes 10-Fold Increased Risk of Portal Venous System Thrombosis in Liver Cirrhosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xingshun; Han, Guohong; Ye, Chun; Zhang, Yongguo; Dai, Junna; Peng, Ying; Deng, Han; Li, Jing; Hou, Feifei; Ning, Zheng; Zhao, Jiancheng; Zhang, Xintong; Wang, Ran; Guo, Xiaozhong

    2016-01-01

    Background Portal venous system thrombosis (PVST) is a life-threatening complication of liver cirrhosis. We conducted a retrospective study to comprehensively analyze the prevalence and risk factors of PVST in liver cirrhosis. Material/Methods All cirrhotic patients without malignancy admitted between June 2012 and December 2013 were eligible if they underwent contrast-enhanced CT or MRI scans. Independent predictors of PVST in liver cirrhosis were calculated in multivariate analyses. Subgroup analyses were performed according to the severity of PVST (any PVST, main portal vein [MPV] thrombosis >50%, and clinically significant PVST) and splenectomy. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. Results Overall, 113 cirrhotic patients were enrolled. The prevalence of PVST was 16.8% (19/113). Splenectomy (any PVST: OR=11.494, 95%CI=2.152–61.395; MPV thrombosis >50%: OR=29.987, 95%CI=3.247–276.949; clinically significant PVST: OR=40.415, 95%CI=3.895–419.295) and higher hemoglobin (any PVST: OR=0.974, 95%CI=0.953–0.996; MPV thrombosis >50%: OR=0.936, 95%CI=0.895–0.980; clinically significant PVST: OR=0.935, 95%CI=0.891–0.982) were the independent predictors of PVST. The prevalence of PVST was 13.3% (14/105) after excluding splenectomy. Higher hemoglobin was the only independent predictor of MPV thrombosis >50% (OR=0.952, 95%CI=0.909–0.997). No independent predictors of any PVST or clinically significant PVST were identified in multivariate analyses. Additionally, PVST patients who underwent splenectomy had a significantly higher proportion of clinically significant PVST but lower MELD score than those who did not undergo splenectomy. In all analyses, the in-hospital mortality was not significantly different between cirrhotic patient with and without PVST. Conclusions Splenectomy may increase by at least 10-fold the risk of PVST in liver cirrhosis independent of severity of liver dysfunction. PMID:27432511

  5. A Lunar Surface System Supportability Technology Development Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Struk, Peter M.; Taleghani, Barmac K.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the establishment of a Supportability Technology Development Roadmap as a guide for developing capabilities intended to allow NASA's Constellation program to enable a supportable, sustainable and affordable exploration of the Moon and Mars. Presented is a discussion of "supportability", in terms of space facility maintenance, repair and related logistics and a comparison of how lunar outpost supportability differs from the International Space Station. Supportability lessons learned from NASA and Department of Defense experience and their impact on a future lunar outpost is discussed. A supportability concept for future missions to the Moon and Mars that involves a transition from a highly logistics dependent to a logistically independent operation is discussed. Lunar outpost supportability capability needs are summarized and a supportability technology development strategy is established. The resulting Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Strategy defines general criteria that will be used to select technologies that will enable future flight crews to act effectively to respond to problems and exploit opportunities in a environment of extreme resource scarcity and isolation. This strategy also introduces the concept of exploiting flight hardware as a supportability resource. The technology roadmap involves development of three mutually supporting technology categories, Diagnostics Test & Verification, Maintenance & Repair, and Scavenging & Recycling. The technology roadmap establishes two distinct technology types, "Embedded" and "Process" technologies, with different implementation and thus different criteria and development approaches. The supportability technology roadmap addresses the technology readiness level, and estimated development schedule for technology groups that includes down-selection decision gates that correlate with the lunar program milestones. The resulting supportability technology roadmap is intended to develop a set of

  6. A Lunar Surface System Supportability Technology Development Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Struk, Peter M.; Taleghani, barmac K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the establishment of a Supportability Technology Development Roadmap as a guide for developing capabilities intended to allow NASA s Constellation program to enable a supportable, sustainable and affordable exploration of the Moon and Mars. Presented is a discussion of supportability, in terms of space facility maintenance, repair and related logistics and a comparison of how lunar outpost supportability differs from the International Space Station. Supportability lessons learned from NASA and Department of Defense experience and their impact on a future lunar outpost is discussed. A supportability concept for future missions to the Moon and Mars that involves a transition from a highly logistics dependent to a logistically independent operation is discussed. Lunar outpost supportability capability needs are summarized and a supportability technology development strategy is established. The resulting Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Strategy defines general criteria that will be used to select technologies that will enable future flight crews to act effectively to respond to problems and exploit opportunities in an environment of extreme resource scarcity and isolation. This strategy also introduces the concept of exploiting flight hardware as a supportability resource. The technology roadmap involves development of three mutually supporting technology categories, Diagnostics Test and Verification, Maintenance and Repair, and Scavenging and Recycling. The technology roadmap establishes two distinct technology types, "Embedded" and "Process" technologies, with different implementation and thus different criteria and development approaches. The supportability technology roadmap addresses the technology readiness level, and estimated development schedule for technology groups that includes down-selection decision gates that correlate with the lunar program milestones. The resulting supportability technology roadmap is intended to develop a set

  7. A complete augmented reality guidance system for liver punctures: first clinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Nicolau, S A; Pennec, X; Soler, L; Ayache, N

    2005-01-01

    We provided in an augmented reality guidance system for liver punctures, which has been validated on a static abdominal phantom. In this paper, we report the first in vivo experiments. We developed a strictly passive protocol to directly evaluate our system on patients. We show that the system algorithms work efficiently and we highlight the clinical constraints that we had to overcome (small operative field, weight and sterility of the tracked marker attached to the needle...). Finally, we investigate to what extent breathing motion can be neglected for free breathing patient. Results show that the guiding accuracy, close to 1 cm, is sufficient for large targets only (above 3 cm of diameter) when the breathing motion is neglected. In the near future, we aim at validating our system on smaller targets using a respiratory gating technique. PMID:16685888

  8. Training in tooth preparation utilizing a support system.

    PubMed

    Nishida, M; Sohmura, T; Takahashi, J

    2004-02-01

    Tooth preparation is an essential technique for dental treatment, but it is a skill not easily learned by a dental student. To facilitate this leaning process, a new tooth preparation support system with a parallel link mechanism was developed. This study reports the educational efficiency of this system for dental students. Dental students with no experience in clinical practice were selected and divided into two groups; one trained with this support system; and the other, with freehand preparation. They prepared axial walls in right maxillary second premolars and molars mounted in a phantom manikin with an air-turbine handpiece. Convergence angles of the axial walls and parallelisms between axes of prepared teeth were evaluated. Training with the support system led to significantly smaller convergence angles and parallelisms as compared with freehand preparation training. With the freehand preparation after training, the convergence angles and parallelisms became smaller in the group trained with the support system than those trained with freehand. The above findings suggest that training in tooth preparation utilizing the newly developed support system can be one of practical programs that are useful for dental students to achieve greater competency in tooth preparation. PMID:15009599

  9. Ultrasound-directed robotic system for thermal ablation of liver tumors: a preliminary report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jian; Tian, Jie; Dai, Yakang; Zhang, Xing; Dong, Di; Xu, Min

    2010-03-01

    Thermal ablation has been proved safe and effective as the treatment for liver tumors that are not suitable for resection. Currently, manually performed thermal ablation is greatly dependent on the surgeon's acupuncture manipulation against hand tremor. Besides that, inaccurate or inappropriate placement of the applicator will also directly decrease the final treatment effect. In order to reduce the influence of hand tremor, and provide an accurate and appropriate guidance for a better treatment, we develop an ultrasound-directed robotic system for thermal ablation of liver tumors. In this paper, we will give a brief preliminary report of our system. Especially, three innovative techniques are proposed to solve the critical problems in our system: accurate ultrasound calibration when met with artifacts, realtime reconstruction with visualization using Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) acceleration and 2D-3D ultrasound image registration. To reduce the error of point extraction with artifacts, we propose a novel point extraction method by minimizing an error function which is defined based on the geometric property of our N-fiducial phantom. Then realtime reconstruction with visualization using GPU acceleration is provided for fast 3D ultrasound volume acquisition with dynamic display of reconstruction progress. After that, coarse 2D-3D ultrasound image registration is performed based on landmark points correspondences, followed by accurate 2D-3D ultrasound image registration based on Euclidean distance transform (EDT). The effectiveness of our proposed techniques is demonstrated in phantom experiments.

  10. Enzyme activities support the use of liver lipid-derived ketone bodies as aerobic fuels in muscle tissues of active sharks.

    PubMed

    Watson, R R; Dickson, K A

    2001-01-01

    Few data exist to test the hypothesis that elasmobranchs utilize ketone bodies rather than fatty acids for aerobic metabolism in muscle, especially in continuously swimming, pelagic sharks, which are expected to be more reliant on lipid fuel stores during periods between feeding bouts and due to their high aerobic metabolic rates. Therefore, to provide support for this hypothesis, biochemical indices of lipid metabolism were measured in the slow-twitch, oxidative (red) myotomal muscle, heart, and liver of several active shark species, including the endothermic shortfin mako, Isurus oxyrinchus. Tissues were assayed spectrophotometrically for indicator enzymes of fatty acid oxidation (3-hydroxy-o-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase), ketone-body catabolism (3-oxoacid-CoA transferase), and ketogenesis (hydroxy-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase). Red muscle and heart had high capacities for ketone utilization, low capacities for fatty acid oxidation, and undetectable levels of ketogenic enzymes. Liver demonstrated undetectable activities of ketone catabolic enzymes but high capacities for fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis. Serum concentrations of the ketone beta-hydroxybutyrate varied interspecifically (means of 0.128-0.978 micromol mL(-1)) but were higher than levels previously reported for teleosts. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that aerobic metabolism in muscle tissue of active sharks utilizes ketone bodies, and not fatty acids, derived from liver lipid stores. PMID:11247746

  11. Integrating Wraparound into a Schoolwide System of Positive Behavior Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eber, Lucille; Hyde, Kelly; Suter, Jesse C.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the structure for implementation of the wraparound process within a multi-tiered system of school wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) to address the needs of the 1-5% of students with complex emotional/behavioral challenges. The installation of prerequisite system features that, based on a 3 year demonstration process, we consider…

  12. Decision Support Systems: An Introduction for Program Evaluators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Elizabethann

    1985-01-01

    Decision Support Systems (DSS) are automated information systems designed to aid administrative decision making. A literature review on the design, implementation, and evaluation of DSS, suggests that evaluators act as liasons between designers and managers, identify and collect data for DSS, and evaluate DSS. (Author/EGS)

  13. Information Systems to Support Surveillance for Malaria Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Ohrt, Colin; Roberts, Kathryn W.; Sturrock, Hugh J. W.; Wegbreit, Jennifer; Lee, Bruce Y.; Gosling, Roly D.

    2015-01-01

    Robust and responsive surveillance systems are critical for malaria elimination. The ideal information system that supports malaria elimination includes: rapid and complete case reporting, incorporation of related data, such as census or health survey information, central data storage and management, automated and expert data analysis, and customized outputs and feedback that lead to timely and targeted responses. Spatial information enhances such a system, ensuring cases are tracked and mapped over time. Data sharing and coordination across borders are vital and new technologies can improve data speed, accuracy, and quality. Parts of this ideal information system exist and are in use, but have yet to be linked together coherently. Malaria elimination programs should support the implementation and refinement of information systems to support surveillance and response and ensure political and financial commitment to maintain the systems and the human resources needed to run them. National malaria programs should strive to improve the access and utility of these information systems and establish cross-border data sharing mechanisms through the use of standard indicators for malaria surveillance. Ultimately, investment in the information technologies that support a timely and targeted surveillance and response system is essential for malaria elimination. PMID:26013378

  14. Software Application for Supporting the Education of Database Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vágner, Anikó

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces an application which supports the education of database systems, particularly the teaching of SQL and PL/SQL in Oracle Database Management System environment. The application has two parts, one is the database schema and its content, and the other is a C# application. The schema is to administrate and store the tasks and the…

  15. Decision Support Systems and the Art of Enrollment Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beeler, Karl J.

    1989-01-01

    Summarizes college enrollment management process and its inherent information requirements, followed by section on the limitations of traditional management information systems (MIS). Introduces decision support systems, emphasizing the improvement of MIS applications in the enrollment management process. Underscores competitive nature of…

  16. Developing a Management Support System in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timm, Neil H.

    1983-01-01

    Some basic conceptual tools, knowledge, and experience that help evaluate needs for a management support system (MSS) to meet the planning and management challenges in academe are presented. An MSS must integrate the planning, control, forecasting, modeling, reporting, computing, and data administration functions of the system. (MLW)

  17. Decision Support System Development for the Treatment of Maladaptive Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hile, Matthew G.; Desrochers, Marcie N.

    The Mental Retardation-Expert (MR-E) is a microcomputer based expert decision support system that provides practitioners with state of the art assistance in the treatment of aggressive, self injurious, and destructive behaviors displayed by individuals with mental retardation or developmental disabilities. This system, based on human experts and…

  18. A Support System for Error Correction Questions in Programming Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hachisu, Yoshinari; Yoshida, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    For supporting the education of debugging skills, we propose a system for generating error correction questions of programs and checking the correctness. The system generates HTML files for answering questions and CGI programs for checking answers. Learners read and answer questions on Web browsers. For management of error injection, we have…

  19. The Information Support System: Management Information for Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, Nancy A.

    The Information Support System (ISS) is a management information system developed for the National Drug Education Program (NDEP). The major components of the ISS are: (1) the Project Growth Record which provides a tool for project self-evaluation and for communication between NDEP project officers and project directors; (2) the Quarterly Project…

  20. An intelligent fuzzy decision support system for production management

    SciTech Connect

    Vojdani, N.

    1996-11-01

    In the near future the optimizing of production processes in terms of reducing order lead times, delivery times, inventory stocks and production costs, while increasing the flexibility, productivity and quality of all operations will become a matter of survival for many manufacturing enterprises. This paper presents an application using an intelligent fuzzy decision support system in production management. It is based on a goal oriented logistics index numbers system and ensures the competitive capacity of manufacturing enterprises by indicating the means to achieve management goals. The aim is to demonstrate the main properties of the fuzzy decision support system PROMAN.

  1. Behavior Change Support Systems: A Research Model and Agenda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri

    This article introduces the concept of a behavior change support system and suggests it as a key construct for research on persuasive systems design, technologies, and applications. Key concepts for behavior change support systems are defined and a research agenda for them is outlined. The article suggests that a change in complying, a behavior change, and an attitude change (C-, B- or A-Change) constitute the archetypes of a behavioral change. Change in itself is either of a forming, altering or reinforcing outcome (F-, A- or R-Outcome). This research model will become helpful in researching and designing persuasive technology.

  2. Large Space Telescope support systems module thermal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapter, J. J.

    1975-01-01

    In 1982, an unmanned three-meter class Cassegrainian telescopic system referred to as the Large Space Telescope (LST) will be placed in earth orbit by the Shuttle. The LST consists of a telescope system and surrounding support structure that is referred to as the support system module (SSM). This paper summarizes the thermal control subsystem for several candidate SSM designs. Major emphasis has been given to the LST/SSM design concept that includes a thermally isolated aft cylinder compartment that contains subsystem components. Requirements, interfaces and thermal math modeling methods are presented. Analysis results demonstrate that a cold-biased thermal design using electrical heaters is promising.

  3. Malaria elimination: moving forward with spatial decision support systems.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Gerard C; Tanner, Marcel; Vallely, Andrew; Clements, Archie

    2012-07-01

    Operational challenges facing contemporary malaria elimination have distinct geospatial elements including the need for high-resolution location-based surveillance, targeted prevention and response interventions, and effective delivery of essential services at optimum levels of coverage. Although mapping and geographical reconnaissance (GR) has traditionally played an important role in supporting malaria control and eradication, its full potential as an applied health systems tool has not yet been fully realised. As accessibility to global positioning system (GPS), geographic information system (GIS) and mobile computing technology increases, the role of an integrated spatial decision support system (SDSS) framework for supporting the increased operational demands of malaria elimination requires further exploration, validation and application; particularly in the context of resource-poor settings. PMID:22607693

  4. Communication Support System in Emergency Considering Dynamic Connection of Organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimoto, Yasumasa; Nakatani, Mie; Nishida, Shogo

    It is frequently observed in emergent situation that important information does not reach to an right person or department in the organization because of the confusion after the emergency or in some case because of lack of knowledge on contact address. This phenomenon happens especially when different organizations are connected dynamically in emergency and it is very important to support communication in emergent situations. This paper deals with a communication support system considering dynamic organizational connection in emergency. The system is based on the communication model that considers human related factors such as “competence", “duty", “responsibility" and “knowledge" in organization. On the basis of the model, a communication support system to give contact address depending on the situation is designed and a prototype system with GUI is developed.

  5. Nanomaterials for Advanced Life Support in Advanced Life Support in Space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allada, Rama Kumar; Moloney, Padraig; Yowell, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing nanomaterial research at NASA Johnson Space Center with a focus on advanced life support in space systems is shown. The topics include: 1) Introduction; 2) Research and accomplishments in Carbon Dioxide Removal; 3) Research and Accomplishments in Water Purification; and 4) Next Steps

  6. Methodology and Assumptions of Contingency Shuttle Crew Support (CSCS) Calculations Using ISS Environmental Control and Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokhorov, Kimberlee; Shkedi, Brienne

    2006-01-01

    The current International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system is designed to support an ISS crew size of three people. The capability to expand that system to support nine crew members during a Contingency Shuttle Crew Support (CSCS) scenario has been evaluated. This paper describes how the ISS ECLS systems may be operated for supporting CSCS, and the durations expected for the oxygen supply and carbon dioxide control subsystems.

  7. System for supporting bundled tube segments within a combustor

    DOEpatents

    Melton, Patrick Benedict

    2016-03-01

    A system for supporting bundled tube segments within a combustor includes an annular sleeve that extends circumferentially and axially within the combustor, a support lug that extends radially inward from the annular sleeve and an annular support frame that is disposed within the annular sleeve. The annular support frame includes an inner ring portion, an outer ring portion and a plurality of spokes that extend radially between the inner and outer ring portions. The inner ring portion, the outer ring portion and the plurality of spokes define an annular array of openings for receiving a respective bundled tube segment. The inner ring portion is connected to each bundled tube segment and the outer ring portion is coupled to the support lug.

  8. A Automated Tool for Supporting FMEAs of Digital Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yue,M.; Chu, T.-L.; Martinez-Guridi, G.; Lehner, J.

    2008-09-07

    Although designs of digital systems can be very different from each other, they typically use many of the same types of generic digital components. Determining the impacts of the failure modes of these generic components on a digital system can be used to support development of a reliability model of the system. A novel approach was proposed for such a purpose by decomposing the system into a level of the generic digital components and propagating failure modes to the system level, which generally is time-consuming and difficult to implement. To overcome the associated issues of implementing the proposed FMEA approach, an automated tool for a digital feedwater control system (DFWCS) has been developed in this study. The automated FMEA tool is in nature a simulation platform developed by using or recreating the original source code of the different module software interfaced by input and output variables that represent physical signals exchanged between modules, the system, and the controlled process. For any given failure mode, its impacts on associated signals are determined first and the variables that correspond to these signals are modified accordingly by the simulation. Criteria are also developed, as part of the simulation platform, to determine whether the system has lost its automatic control function, which is defined as a system failure in this study. The conceptual development of the automated FMEA support tool can be generalized and applied to support FMEAs for reliability assessment of complex digital systems.

  9. NASA's Advanced Life Support Systems Human-Rated Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henninger, D. L.; Tri, T. O.; Packham, N. J.

    1996-01-01

    Future NASA missions to explore the solar system will be long-duration missions, requiring human life support systems which must operate with very high reliability over long periods of time. Such systems must be highly regenerative, requiring minimum resupply, to enable the crews to be largely self-sufficient. These regenerative life support systems will use a combination of higher plants, microorganisms, and physicochemical processes to recycle air and water, produce food, and process wastes. A key step in the development of these systems is establishment of a human-rated test facility specifically tailored to evaluation of closed, regenerative life supports systems--one in which long-duration, large-scale testing involving human test crews can be performed. Construction of such a facility, the Advanced Life Support Program's (ALS) Human-Rated Test Facility (HRTF), has begun at NASA's Johnson Space Center, and definition of systems and development of initial outfitting concepts for the facility are underway. This paper will provide an overview of the HRTF project plan, an explanation of baseline configurations, and descriptive illustrations of facility outfitting concepts.

  10. Visual Simulation of Microalgae Growth in Bioregenerative Life Support System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ming

    Bioregenerative life support system is one of the key technologies for future human deep space exploration and long-term space missions. BLSS use biological system as its core unit in combination with other physical and chemical equipments, under the proper control and manipulation by crew to complete a specific task to support life. Food production, waste treatment, oxygen and water regeneration are all conducted by higher plants or microalgae in BLSS, which is the most import characteristic different from other kinds of life support systems. Microalgae is light autotrophic micro-organisms, light undoubtedly is the most import factor which limits its growth and reproduction. Increasing or decreasing the light intensity changes the growth rate of microalgae, and then regulates the concentration of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the system. In this paper, based on the mathematical model of microalgae which grew under the different light intensity, three-dimensional visualization model was built and realized through using 3ds max, Virtools and some other three dimensional software, in order to display its change and impacting on oxygen and carbon dioxide intuitively. We changed its model structure and parameters, such as establishing closed-loop control system, light intensity, temperature and Nutrient fluid’s velocity and so on, carried out computer virtual simulation, and observed dynamic change of system with the aim of providing visualization support for system research.

  11. Preferential delivery of the Sleeping Beauty transposon system to livers of mice by hydrodynamic injection

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Jason B; Podetz-Pedersen, Kelly M; Aronovich, Elena L; Belur, Lalitha R; McIvor, R Scott; Hackett, Perry B

    2008-01-01

    Nonviral, DNA-mediated gene transfer is an alternative to viral delivery systems for expressing new genes in cells and tissues. The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system combines the advantages of viruses and naked DNA molecules for gene therapy purposes; however, efficacious delivery of DNA molecules to animal tissues can still be problematic. Here we describe the hydrodynamic delivery procedure for the SB transposon system that allows efficient delivery to the liver in the mouse. The procedure involves rapid, high-pressure injection of a DNA solution into the tail vein. The overall procedure takes <1 h although the delivery into one mouse requires only a few seconds. Successful injections result in expression of the transgene in 5−40% of hepatocytes 1 d after injection. Several weeks after injection, transgene expression stabilizes at ∼1% of the level at 24 h, presumably owing to integration of the transposons into chromosomes. PMID:18079715

  12. Behavior-aware decision support systems : LDRD final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, Gary B.; Homer, Jack; Chenoweth, Brooke N.; Backus, George A.; Strip, David R.

    2007-11-01

    As Sandia National Laboratories serves its mission to provide support for the security-related interests of the United States, it is faced with considering the behavioral responses that drive problems, mitigate interventions, or lead to unintended consequences. The effort described here expands earlier works in using healthcare simulation to develop behavior-aware decision support systems. This report focuses on using qualitative choice techniques and enhancing two analysis models developed in a sister project.

  13. Discern--an integrated prospective decision support system.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, B.; McNair, D.; Kailasam, K.; Reilly, R.; Eklund, N.; McCoy, G.; Jamieson, P.

    1994-01-01

    We present a new integrated decision support tool, called Discern, for prospective case management within a comprehensive Healthcare Network Architecture (HNA). Discern is an event-driven, expert system tightly integrated into this architecture. It can perform a variety of actions including generating alerts, ordering tests, and entering results. Over 100 institutions use Discern to automate care processes. Discern was designed to meet the demanding requirements for effective decision support. PMID:7950073

  14. Neutral Buoyancy Portable Life Support System performance study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Chi-Min; Conger, Bruce C.; Iovine, John V.

    1991-01-01

    The Neutral Buoyancy Portable Life Support System (NBPSS) has been designed to support astronaut underwater training activities associated with EVA operations. The performance of competing NBPSS configurations has been analyzed on the basis of a modified 'Metabolic Man' program. NBPSS success is dependent on the development of novel cryogen supply tank and liquid-cooling garment vaporizer. Attention is given to mass and thermal balances and the evaluation results for the vent-loop ejector and heat-exchanger designs.

  15. Controlled Ecological Life Support System: Research and Development Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, R. M. (Editor); Carden, J. L. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Results of a workshop designed to provide a base for initiating a program of research and development of controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS) are summarized. Included are an evaluation of a ground based manned demonstration as a milestone in CELSS development, and a discussion of development requirements for a successful ground based CELSS demonstration. Research recommendations are presented concerning the following topics: nutrition and food processing, food production, waste processing, systems engineering and modelling, and ecology-systems safety.

  16. A History of Spacecraft Environmental Control and Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daues, Katherine R.

    2006-01-01

    A spacecraft's Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system enables and maintains a habitable and sustaining environment for its crew. A typical ECLS system provides for atmosphere consumables and revitalization, environmental monitoring, pressure, temperature and humidity control, heat rejection (including equipment cooling), food and water supply and management, waste management, and fire detection and suppression. The following is a summary of ECLS systems used in United States (US) and Russian human spacecraft.

  17. Moderate swimming suppressed the growth and metastasis of the transplanted liver cancer in mice model: with reference to nervous system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q-B; Zhang, B-H; Zhang, K-Z; Meng, X-T; Jia, Q-A; Zhang, Q-B; Bu, Y; Zhu, X-D; Ma, D-N; Ye, B-G; Zhang, N; Ren, Z-G; Sun, H-C; Tang, Z-Y

    2016-08-01

    Physical activity has been shown to suppress tumor initiation and progression. The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) is closely related to movement and exhibits antitumor properties. However, whether the suppressive effects of physical activity on tumors was mediated by the nervous system via increased DA level remains unknowns. Here we show that regular moderate swimming (8 min/day, 9 weeks) raised DA levels in the prefrontal cortex, serum and tumor tissue, suppressed growth, reduced lung metastasis of transplanted liver cancer, and prolonged survival in a C57BL/6 mouse model, while overload swimming (16 and 32 min/day, 9 weeks) had the opposite effect. In nude mice that were orthotopically implanted with human liver cancer cell lines, DA treatment significantly suppressed growth and lung metastasis by acting on the D2 receptor (DR2). Furthermore, DR2 blockade attenuated the suppressive effect of moderate swimming on liver cancer. Both moderate swimming and DA treatment suppressed the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1)-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of transplanted liver cancer cells. At the molecular level, DR2 signaling inhibited extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation and expression of TGF-β1 in vitro. Together, these findings demonstrated a novel mechanism by which the moderate exercise suppressed liver cancer through boosting DR2 activity, while overload exercise had the opposite effect, highlighting the possible importance of the dopaminergic system in tumor growth and metastasis of liver cancer. PMID:26686088

  18. FXR antagonism of NSAIDs contributes to drug-induced liver injury identified by systems pharmacology approach

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Weiqiang; Cheng, Feixiong; Jiang, Jing; Zhang, Chen; Deng, Xiaokang; Xu, Zhongyu; Zou, Shien; Shen, Xu; Tang, Yun; Huang, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are worldwide used drugs for analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory therapeutics. However, NSAIDs often cause several serious liver injuries, such as drug-induced liver injury (DILI), and the molecular mechanisms of DILI have not been clearly elucidated. In this study, we developed a systems pharmacology approach to explore the mechanism-of-action of NSAIDs. We found that the Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) antagonism of NSAIDs is a potential molecular mechanism of DILI through systematic network analysis and in vitro assays. Specially, the quantitative real-time PCR assay reveals that indomethacin and ibuprofen regulate FXR downstream target gene expression in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, the western blot shows that FXR antagonism by indomethacin induces the phosphorylation of STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3), promotes the activation of caspase9, and finally causes DILI. In summary, our systems pharmacology approach provided novel insights into molecular mechanisms of DILI for NSAIDs, which may propel the ways toward the design of novel anti-inflammatory pharmacotherapeutics. PMID:25631039

  19. Development of a 3D ultrasound-guided system for thermal ablation of liver tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neshat, Hamid R. S.; Cool, Derek W.; Barker, Kevin; Gardi, Lori; Kakani, Nirmal; Fenster, Aaron

    2013-03-01

    Two-dimensional ultrasound (2D US) imaging is commonly used for diagnostic and intraoperative guidance of interventional abdominal procedures including percutaneous thermal ablation of focal liver tumors with radiofrequency (RF) or microwave (MW) induced energy. However, in many situations 2D US may not provide enough anatomical detail and guidance information. Therefore, intra-procedural CT or MR imaging are used in many centers for guidance purposes. These modalities are costly and are mainly utilized to confirm tool placement rather than guiding the insertion. Three-dimensional ultrasound (3D US) has been introduced to address these issues. In this paper, we present our integrated solution to provide 3D US images using a newly developed mechanical transducer with a large field-ofview and without the need for external tracking devices to combine diagnostic and planning information of different modalities for intraoperative guidance. The system provides tools to segment the target(s), plan the treatment, and detect the ablation applicators during the procedure for guiding purposes. We present experimental results used to ensure that our system generates accurate measurements and our early clinical evaluation results. The results suggest that 3D US used for focal liver ablation can provide a more reliable planning and guidance tool compared to 2D US only, and in many cases offers comparable measurements to other alternatives at significantly lower cost, faster time and with no harmful radiation.

  20. Simulating advanced life support systems to test integrated control approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortenkamp, D.; Bell, S.

    Simulations allow for testing of life support control approaches before hardware is designed and built. Simulations also allow for the safe exploration of alternative control strategies during life support operation. As such, they are an important component of any life support research program and testbed. This paper describes a specific advanced life support simulation being created at NASA Johnson Space Center. It is a discrete-event simulation that is dynamic and stochastic. It simulates all major components of an advanced life support system, including crew (with variable ages, weights and genders), biomass production (with scalable plantings of ten different crops), water recovery, air revitalization, food processing, solid waste recycling and energy production. Each component is modeled as a producer of certain resources and a consumer of certain resources. The control system must monitor (via sensors) and control (via actuators) the flow of resources throughout the system to provide life support functionality. The simulation is written in an object-oriented paradigm that makes it portable, extensible and reconfigurable.

  1. Closure of regenerative life support systems: results of the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barta, D.; Henninger, D.; Edeen, M.; Lewis, J.; Smith, F.; Verostko, C.

    Future long duration human exploration missions away from Earth will require closed-loop regenerative life support systems to reduce launch mass reduce dependency on resupply and increase the level of mission self sufficiency Such systems may be based on the integration of biological and physiocochemical processes to produce potable water breathable atmosphere and nutritious food from metabolic and other mission wastes Over the period 1995 to 1998 a series of ground-based tests were conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Johnson Space Center to evaluate the performance of advanced closed-loop life support technologies with real human metabolic and hygiene loads Named the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project LMLSTP four integrated human tests were conducted with increasing duration complexity and closure The first test LMLSTP Phase I was designed to demonstrate the ability of higher plants to revitalize cabin atmosphere A single crew member spent 15 days within an atmospherically closed chamber containing 11 2 square meters of actively growing wheat Atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen levels were maintained by control of the rate of photosynthesis through manipulation of light intensity or the availability of carbon dioxide and included integrated physicochemical systems During the second and third tests LMLSTP Phases II IIa four crew members spent 30 days and 60 days respectively in a larger sealed chamber Advanced physicochemical life support hardware was used to regenerate the atmosphere and produce potable water

  2. Regenerative life support systems-Why do we need them?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barta, D. J.; Henninger, D. L.

    1994-11-01

    Human exploration of the solar system will include missions lasting years at a time. Such missions mandate extensive regeneration of life support consumables with efficient utilization of local planetary resources. As mission durations extend beyond one or two years, regenerable human life support systems which supply food and recycle air, water, and wastes become feasible; resupply of large volumes and masses of food, water, and atmospheric gases become unrealistic. Additionally, reduced dependency on resupply or self sufficiency can be an added benefit to human crews in hostile environments far from the security of Earth. Comparisons of resupply and regeneration will be discussed along with possible scenarios for developing and implementing human life support systems on the Moon and Mars.

  3. Portable, space-saving medical patient support system

    DOEpatents

    Bzorgi; Fariborz

    2011-02-01

    A support platform having a stowed configuration and a deployed configuration on a floor. The support platform is related to stretcher devices that are used for transporting, confining, or conducting medical procedures on medical patients in medical emergencies. The support platform typically includes a work surface that has a geometric extent. A base that typically includes a plurality of frame members is provided, and the frame members are disposed across the geometric extent of, and proximal to, the work surface in the stowed configuration. The frame members are typically disposed on the floor in the deployed configuration. There is a foldable bracing system engaged with the work surface and engaged with the base. At least a portion of the foldable bracing system is disposed substantially inside at least a portion of the plurality of frame members in the stowed configuration. Further, the foldable bracing system is configured for translocation of the work surface distal from the base in the deployed configuration.

  4. System for selecting relevant information for decision support.

    PubMed

    Kalina, Jan; Seidl, Libor; Zvára, Karel; Grünfeldová, Hana; Slovák, Dalibor; Zvárová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    We implemented a prototype of a decision support system called SIR which has a form of a web-based classification service for diagnostic decision support. The system has the ability to select the most relevant variables and to learn a classification rule, which is guaranteed to be suitable also for high-dimensional measurements. The classification system can be useful for clinicians in primary care to support their decision-making tasks with relevant information extracted from any available clinical study. The implemented prototype was tested on a sample of patients in a cardiological study and performs an information extraction from a high-dimensional set containing both clinical and gene expression data. PMID:23542973

  5. Regenerative life support systems - why do we need them?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, D. J.; Henninger, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    Human exploration of the solar system will include missions lasting years at a time. Such missions mandate extensive regeneration of life support consumables with efficient utilization of local planetary resources. As missions durations extend beyond one or two years, regenerable human life support systems which supply food and recycle air, water, and wastes become feasible; resupply of large volumes and masses of food, water, and atmospheric gases become unrealistic. Additionally, reduced dependency on resupply or self sufficiency can be an added benefit to human crews in hostile environments far from the security of Earth. Comparisons of resupply and regeneration will be discussed along with possible scenarios for developing and implementing human life support systems on the Moon and Mars.

  6. Regenerative life support systems--why do we need them?

    PubMed

    Barta, D J; Henninger, D L

    1994-11-01

    Human exploration of the solar system will include missions lasting years at a time. Such missions mandate extensive regeneration of life support consumables with efficient utilization of local planetary resources. As mission durations extend beyond one or two years, regenerable human life support systems which supply food and recycle air, water, and wastes become feasible; resupply of large volumes and masses of food, water, and atmospheric gases become unrealistic. Additionally, reduced dependency on resupply or self sufficiency can be an added benefit to human crews in hostile environments far from the security of Earth. Comparisons of resupply and regeneration will be discussed along with possible scenarios for developing and implementing human life support systems on the Moon and Mars. PMID:11540213

  7. v-Liver: Simulating Hepatic Tissue Lesions as Virtual Cellular Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA Virtual Liver (v-Liver) project is aimed at reducing the uncertainty in estimating the risk of toxic outcomes in humans by simulating the dose-dependent effects of environmental chemicals in silico. The v-Liver embodies an emerging field of research in computational ti...

  8. A facilitated technique for hepatectomy of porcine liver.

    PubMed

    Mizrahi, S S; Jones, J W; Bentley, F R

    1996-01-01

    The swine liver has been used for experimental transplantation and as an ex vivo support system for patients with fulminant hepatic failure. Preservation of liver function after the cold storage period can be accomplished by complying with several key steps during the procurement: Keep the procedure short, provide extensive exposure, allow only minimal dissection, irrigate the portal system through the splenic vein and thereby obtain regular blood flow through the organ up to the clamping point, and ice the liver abruptly in situ. This retrieval technique was used and evaluated in 10 pigs. The method allowed a short and successful organ procurement while preserving normal function of the liver ex vivo. PMID:8951663

  9. Patients as experts: a collaborative performance support system.

    PubMed Central

    Porter, S. C.

    2001-01-01

    Performance support systems that provide decision support and encourage quality improvement historically focus on physicians as the expert to the exclusion of an active role for patients. This paper outlines an argument for the development of a collaborative expert system in the acute care setting that emphasizes a key role for patients. Patients are not just seekers of information; they remain capable of sharing and integrating their knowledge and expertise actively in an electronically-supported care process. Collaborative use of information technology emerges as a novel variation of consumer informatics. I will define specific domains of expertise for patients and place the proposed collaborative expert system within the framework of Wagner's view of idealized collaborative care for chronic illness. Basic architecture for a patient-inclusive system is proposed with additional detail provided for a patient-level interface targeting pediatric asthma. The benefits of the electronically-supported collaboration include the activation of patients in the information-sharing process, enhanced decision support, a patient-focused needs assessment, and improved communication and partnership between patients and providers. PMID:11825247

  10. System-based proteomic analysis of the interferon response in human liver cells

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Wei; Lee, Hookeun; Yi, Eugene C; Reiss, David; Shannon, Paul; Kwieciszewski, Bartlomiej K; Coito, Carlos; Li, Xiao-jun; Keller, Andrew; Eng, Jimmy; Galitski, Timothy; Goodlett, David R; Aebersold, Ruedi; Katze, Michael G

    2004-01-01

    Background Interferons (IFNs) play a critical role in the host antiviral defense and are an essential component of current therapies against hepatitis C virus (HCV), a major cause of liver disease worldwide. To examine liver-specific responses to IFN and begin to elucidate the mechanisms of IFN inhibition of virus replication, we performed a global quantitative proteomic analysis in a human hepatoma cell line (Huh7) in the presence and absence of IFN treatment using the isotope-coded affinity tag (ICAT) method and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Results In three subcellular fractions from the Huh7 cells treated with IFN (400 IU/ml, 16 h) or mock-treated, we identified more than 1,364 proteins at a threshold that corresponds to less than 5% false-positive error rate. Among these, 54 were induced by IFN and 24 were repressed by more than two-fold, respectively. These IFN-regulated proteins represented multiple cellular functions including antiviral defense, immune response, cell metabolism, signal transduction, cell growth and cellular organization. To analyze this proteomics dataset, we utilized several systems-biology data-mining tools, including Gene Ontology via the GoMiner program and the Cytoscape bioinformatics platform. Conclusions Integration of the quantitative proteomics with global protein interaction data using the Cytoscape platform led to the identification of several novel and liver-specific key regulatory components of the IFN response, which may be important in regulating the interplay between HCV, interferon and the host response to virus infection. PMID:15287976

  11. A health examination system integrated with clinical decision support system.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Kuan-Liang; Fuh, Chiou-Shann

    2010-10-01

    Health examinations play a key role in preventive medicine. We propose a health examination system named Health Examination Automatic Logic System (HEALS) to assist clinical workers in improving the total quality of health examinations. Quality of automated inference is confirmed by the zero inference error where during 6 months and 14,773 cases. Automated inference time is less than one second per case in contrast to 2 to 5 min for physicians. The most significant result of efficiency evaluation is that 3,494 of 4,356 (80.2%) cases take less than 3 min per case for producing a report summary. In the evaluation of effectiveness, novice physicians got 18% improvement in making decisions with the assistance of our system. We conclude that a health examination system with a clinical decision system can greatly reduce the mundane burden on clinical workers and markedly improve the quality and efficiency of health examination tasks. PMID:20703626

  12. Program Support Communications Network (PSCN) facsimile system directory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This directory provides a system description, a station listing, and operating procedures for the Program Support Communications Network (PSCN) NASA Facsimile System. The NASA Facsimile System is a convenient and efficient means of spanning the distance, time, and cost of transmitting documents from one person to another. In the spectrum of communication techniques, facsimile bridges the gap between mail and data transmission. Facsimile can transmit in a matter of minutes or seconds what would take a day or more by mail delivery. The NASA Facsimile System is composed of several makes and models of facsimile machines. The system also supports the 3M FaxXchange network controllers located at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  13. A closed life-support system for space colonies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. D.; Jebens, H. J.; Sweet, H. C.

    1977-01-01

    In 1975, a system design study was performed to examine a completely self-contained system for a permanent colony of 10,000 inhabitants in space. Fundamental to this design was the life support system. Since resupply from earth is prohibitive in transportation costs, it was decided to use a closed system with the initial supply of oxygen coming from processing of lunar ores, and the supply of carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen from earth. The problem of life support was treated starting with the nutritional and metabolic requirements for the human population, creating a food and water chain sufficient to supply these demands, adding the additional requirements for the animal and plant sources in the food chain, feeding back useful waste products, supplying water as required from different sources, and closing the loop by processing organic wastes into CO2. This concept places the burden of the system upon plants for O2 generation and waste processing the CO2 generation.

  14. Controlled ecological life support systems for space habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, P.

    1984-01-01

    The development of regenerative life support systems to meet the physiological requirements of humans in space is described. A review of previous research on regenerative systems is presented. NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) program, which is to develop an environment for a human space crew, is discussed. The table of physiological requirements of an average human and the logical system approach to planning a closed system created by Spurlock and Modell (1976, 1978) are examined. The weight of food and oxygen with respect to lift-off weight is investigated. The creation of the proper atmosphere for space, by balancing all the necessary parameters is studied. The need for a mineral and fluid balance and methods of maintaining it are analyzed. The required cooperation between physicians, physiologists, and nutritionists for the success of the CELSS program is discussed.

  15. A System Of Systems Ground Segment To Support SEcurity Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez Cid, Celestino; Yague, Julia; Galilea, Javier Noguero; Pedrazzani, Donata; Martinez, Jorge Pacios

    2013-12-01

    The progress of Copernicus projects into initial operative services is showing the complexity and operational bottlenecks in satellite data supply: as end users put forward requests and activations for Earth Ovservation (EO) based services, providers face the thresholds of requirements such as responsiveness or spectral capabilities. To develop the “S” of security within GMES-COPERNICUS, ESA has (i) valued the EO needs roadmap, (ii) assessed data access infrastructure options, (iii) explored the concepts of operation and (iv) defined architectural system lay outs. GMV has undertaken an analysis of user requirements for security and presented a technical solution for a system of systems coordinated data access in the short, medium and long term up to 2025.

  16. Shuttle remote manipulator system safety and rescue support capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. W.; Whitehead, G. D.

    1977-01-01

    The Remote Manipulator System (RMS) incorporates a manipulator arm with a payload-handling end effector, an arm positioning mechanism and a control system. The RMS is designed to capture and deploy free-flying payloads up to 4.6 m in diameter and 18.3 m long, weighing 14,515 kg. This paper describes the RMS with attention given to the arm, the supporting subsystems, and safety design features (displays and controls, the mechanical subsystem and operations). Man-in-the-loop simulations for the assurance of RMS and crew safety are described and the use of the RMS for EVA rescue support is considered in detail.

  17. Supporting Remote Sensing Research with Small Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. C.; Shanks, P. C.; Kritis, L. A.; Trani, M. G.

    2014-11-01

    We describe several remote sensing research projects supported with small Unmanned Aerial Systems (sUAS) operated by the NGA Basic and Applied Research Office. These sUAS collections provide data supporting Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR), NGA University Research Initiative (NURI), and Cooperative Research And Development Agreements (CRADA) efforts in addition to inhouse research. Some preliminary results related to 3D electro-optical point clouds are presented, and some research goals discussed. Additional details related to the autonomous operational mode of both our multi-rotor and fixed wing small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS) platforms are presented.

  18. Approach to Health Supporting System Using Traditional Chinese Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watsuji, Tadashi; Shinohara, Shoji; Arita, Seizaburo

    The primary prevention of disease related to the lifestyle is an essential theme in medical research. Preventing before it arises is the important concept in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Since TCM, which emphasizes individual physical condition in medical treatment, has recently attracted considerable attention globally, objective diagnostic methods in TCM have been investigated in this work. Firstly, the fuzzy theory was applied to develop a tongue diagnosis supporting system based on the tongue diagnosis in TCM. Secondly, the usefulness of TCM health questionnaire was examined to identify individual physical condition. Our results suggest that the TCM health questionnaire is useful in the construction of a health supporting system based on TCM.

  19. Novel Applications of Intuitionistic Fuzzy Digraphs in Decision Support Systems

    PubMed Central

    Sarwar, Mansoor

    2014-01-01

    Many problems of practical interest can be modeled and solved by using graph algorithms. In general, graph theory has a wide range of applications in diverse fields. In this paper, the intuitionistic fuzzy organizational and neural network models, intuitionistic fuzzy neurons in medical diagnosis, intuitionistic fuzzy digraphs in vulnerability assessment of gas pipeline networks, and intuitionistic fuzzy digraphs in travel time are presented as examples of intuitionistic fuzzy digraphs in decision support system. We have also designed and implemented the algorithms for these decision support systems. PMID:25045752

  20. System-agnostic clinical decision support services: benefits and challenges for scalable decision support.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Kensaku; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Orton, Charles; Lobach, David F

    2010-01-01

    System-agnostic clinical decision support (CDS) services provide patient evaluation capabilities that are independent of specific CDS systems and system implementation contexts. While such system-agnostic CDS services hold great potential for facilitating the widespread implementation of CDS systems, little has been described regarding the benefits and challenges of their use. In this manuscript, the authors address this need by describing potential benefits and challenges of using a system-agnostic CDS service. This analysis is based on the authors' formal assessments of, and practical experiences with, various approaches to developing, implementing, and maintaining CDS capabilities. In particular, the analysis draws on the authors' experience developing and leveraging a system-agnostic CDS Web service known as SEBASTIAN. A primary potential benefit of using a system-agnostic CDS service is the relative ease and flexibility with which the service can be leveraged to implement CDS capabilities across applications and care settings. Other important potential benefits include facilitation of centralized knowledge management and knowledge sharing; the potential to support multiple underlying knowledge representations and knowledge resources through a common service interface; improved simplicity and componentization; easier testing and validation; and the enabling of distributed CDS system development. Conversely, important potential challenges include the increased effort required to develop knowledge resources capable of being used in many contexts and the critical need to standardize the service interface. Despite these challenges, our experiences to date indicate that the benefits of using a system-agnostic CDS service generally outweigh the challenges of using this approach to implementing and maintaining CDS systems. PMID:21603281

  1. GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM, DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS, AND URBAN STORMWATER MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The full report reviews the application of Geographic Inforamtion System (GIS) technology to the field of urban stormwater modeling. The GIS literature is reviewed in the context of its use as a spatial database for urban stormwater modeling, integration of GIS and hydroloic time...

  2. Liver Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / Before The Transplant / Organ Facts / Liver Organ Facts Heart Lung Heart/Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver ... Receiving "the call" About the Operation Heart Lung Heart/Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Liver Facts How the Liver Works The liver is one ...

  3. Computer-aided classification of liver tumors in 3D ultrasound images with combined deformable model segmentation and support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Myungeun; Kim, Jong Hyo; Park, Moon Ho; Kim, Ye-Hoon; Seong, Yeong Kyeong; Cho, Baek Hwan; Woo, Kyoung-Gu

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we propose a computer-aided classification scheme of liver tumor in 3D ultrasound by using a combination of deformable model segmentation and support vector machine. For segmentation of tumors in 3D ultrasound images, a novel segmentation model was used which combined edge, region, and contour smoothness energies. Then four features were extracted from the segmented tumor including tumor edge, roundness, contrast, and internal texture. We used a support vector machine for the classification of features. The performance of the developed method was evaluated with a dataset of 79 cases including 20 cysts, 20 hemangiomas, and 39 hepatocellular carcinomas, as determined by the radiologist's visual scoring. Evaluation of the results showed that our proposed method produced tumor boundaries that were equal to or better than acceptable in 89.8% of cases, and achieved 93.7% accuracy in classification of cyst and hemangioma.

  4. Online model-based diagnosis to support autonomous operation of an advanced life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, Gautam; Manders, Eric-Jan; Ramirez, John; Mahadevan, Nagabhusan; Abdelwahed, Sherif

    2004-01-01

    This article describes methods for online model-based diagnosis of subsystems of the advanced life support system (ALS). The diagnosis methodology is tailored to detect, isolate, and identify faults in components of the system quickly so that fault-adaptive control techniques can be applied to maintain system operation without interruption. We describe the components of our hybrid modeling scheme and the diagnosis methodology, and then demonstrate the effectiveness of this methodology by building a detailed model of the reverse osmosis (RO) system of the water recovery system (WRS) of the ALS. This model is validated with real data collected from an experimental testbed at NASA JSC. A number of diagnosis experiments run on simulated faulty data are presented and the results are discussed.

  5. Online model-based diagnosis to support autonomous operation of an advanced life support system.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Gautam; Manders, Eric-Jan; Ramirez, John; Mahadevan, Nagabhusan; Abdelwahed, Sherif

    2004-01-01

    This article describes methods for online model-based diagnosis of subsystems of the advanced life support system (ALS). The diagnosis methodology is tailored to detect, isolate, and identify faults in components of the system quickly so that fault-adaptive control techniques can be applied to maintain system operation without interruption. We describe the components of our hybrid modeling scheme and the diagnosis methodology, and then demonstrate the effectiveness of this methodology by building a detailed model of the reverse osmosis (RO) system of the water recovery system (WRS) of the ALS. This model is validated with real data collected from an experimental testbed at NASA JSC. A number of diagnosis experiments run on simulated faulty data are presented and the results are discussed. PMID:15880907

  6. A decision support system to determine optimal ventilator settings

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Choosing the correct ventilator settings for the treatment of patients with respiratory tract disease is quite an important issue. Since the task of specifying the parameters of ventilation equipment is entirely carried out by a physician, physician’s knowledge and experience in the selection of these settings has a direct effect on the accuracy of his/her decisions. Nowadays, decision support systems have been used for these kinds of operations to eliminate errors. Our goal is to minimize errors in ventilation therapy and prevent deaths caused by incorrect configuration of ventilation devices. The proposed system is designed to assist less experienced physicians working in the facilities without having lung mechanics like cottage hospitals. Methods This article describes a decision support system proposing the ventilator settings required to be applied in the treatment according to the patients’ physiological information. The proposed model has been designed to minimize the possibility of making a mistake and to encourage more efficient use of time in support of the decision making process while the physicians make critical decisions about the patient. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is implemented in order to calculate frequency, tidal volume, FiO2 outputs, and this classification model has been used for estimation of pressure support / volume support outputs. For the obtainment of the highest performance in both models, different configurations have been tried. Various tests have been realized for training methods, and a number of hidden layers mostly affect factors regarding the performance of ANNs. Results The physiological information of 158 respiratory patients over the age of 60 and were treated in three different hospitals between the years 2010 and 2012 has been used in the training and testing of the system. The diagnosed disease, core body temperature, pulse, arterial systolic pressure, diastolic blood pressure, PEEP, PSO2, pH, pCO2

  7. Clinical decision support for perioperative information management systems.

    PubMed

    Wanderer, Jonathan P; Ehrenfeld, Jesse M

    2013-12-01

    Clinical decision support (CDS) systems are being used to optimize the increasingly complex care that our health care system delivers. These systems have become increasingly important in the delivery of perioperative care for patients undergoing cardiac, thoracic, and vascular procedures. The adoption of perioperative information management systems (PIMS) has allowed these technologies to enter the operating room and support the clinical work flow of anesthesiologists and operational processes. Constructing effective CDS systems necessitates an understanding of operative work flow and technical considerations as well as achieving integration with existing information systems. In this review, we describe published examples of CDS for PIMS, including support for cardiopulmonary bypass separation physiological alarms, β-blocker guideline adherence, enhanced revenue capture for arterial line placement, and detection of hemodynamic monitoring gaps. Although these and other areas are amenable to CDS systems, the challenges of latency and data reliability represent fundamental limitations on the potential application of these tools to specific types of clinical issues. Ultimately, we expect that CDS will remain an important tool in our efforts to optimize the quality of care delivered. PMID:23690340

  8. Johnson Space Center's regenerative life support systems test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henninger, Donald L.; Tri, Terry O.; Barta, Daniel J.; Stahl, Randal S.

    1991-01-01

    The Regenerative Life Support System (RLSS) Test Bed at NASA's Johnson Space Center is an atmospherically closed, controlled environment facility for the evaluation of regenerative life support systems using higher plants in conjunction with physicochemical life support systems. When completed, the facility will be comprised of two large scale plant growth chambers, each with approximately 10 m(exp 2) growing area. One of the two chambers, the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC), will be capable of operating at lower atmospheric pressures to evaluate a range of environments that may be used in Lunar or Martian habitats; the other chamber, the Ambient Pressure Growth Chamber (APGC) will operate at ambient atmospheric pressure. The root zone in each chamber will be configurable for hydroponic or solid state media systems. Research will focus on: (1) in situ resource utilization for CELSS systems, in which simulated lunar soils will be used in selected crop growth studies; (2) integration of biological and physicochemical air and water revitalization systems; (3) effect of atmospheric pressure on system performance; and (4) monitoring and control strategies.

  9. The Liver in Critical Illness.

    PubMed

    Damm, Tessa W; Kramer, David J

    2016-07-01

    Caring for critically ill patients with acute and/or chronic liver dysfunction poses a unique challenge. Proper resuscitation and early consideration for transfer to liver transplant centers have resulted in improved outcomes. Liver support devices and cellular models have not yet shown mortality benefit, but they hold promise in the critical care of patients with liver disease. This article reviews pertinent anatomic and physiologic considerations of the liver in critical illness, followed by a selective review of associated organ dysfunction. PMID:27339681

  10. Toxic effects of nitenpyram on antioxidant enzyme system and DNA in zebrafish (Danio rerio) livers.

    PubMed

    Yan, Saihong; Wang, Jinhua; Zhu, Lusheng; Chen, Aimei; Wang, Jun

    2015-12-01

    Nitenpyram is one of the most commonly used neonicotinoid pesticide worldwide and was found to be toxic to non-target aquatic organisms. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the oxidative stress, changes in the detoxifying system and DNA damage in zebrafish induced by nitenpyram. In the present study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to four concentrations (0.6, 1.2, 2.5, and 5.0 mg L(-1)) for 28 d and then sampled in triplicate on days 7, 14, 21 and 28. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were dramatically inhibited at most exposure times compared with the control group, except SOD at low concentration (0.6 mg L(-1)) of nitenpyram and CAT on day 21. This difference is due to the excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content in zebrafish livers. The activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) increased in in the treatment groups at a higher concentration compared with the control group. We found that nitenpyram exposure could affect the antioxidant enzymes and DNA damage in the exposed zebrafish livers. Additionally, the changes in the antioxidant enzyme activities could be an adaptive response protecting against the toxicity induced by nitenpyram. PMID:26202306

  11. [Experiences with intra-arterial tumor chemotherapy of malignant liver tumors via totally implantable catheter systems].

    PubMed

    Matthias, M; Ridwelski, K; Wolff, H; Preiss, R; Sperling, P; Lüning, M

    1989-01-01

    Locoregional chemotherapy was applied to 30 patients for isolated, surgically not removable liver tumours (13 colorectal carcinomas, 17 carcinomas on different sites). Ten patients were in Stage I, 16 in Stage II, and four in Stage III. Cytostatics were administered through totally implantable catheter systems. The following therapeutic protocol was mainly used: 5-flourouracil 800-1,000 mg/m2/3hr/die X 5 in 22 days, adriamycin 30 mg/m2/3 hr/die X 2 in 22 days. The average time of treatment amounted to ten months. Cytotoxis side effects were of minor importance. Hepatic side effects, such as chemical hepatitis or sclerosing cholangitis, were not recordable. Reduction of tumour size by 50 percent or more was recorded by computed tomography from 14 cases (46.6 percent). The objectivated rate of responsiveness in patients with colorectal carcinoma was 61.5 percent. The average period up to progression amounted to 12.1 months. Premortal spreading of the disease beyond the liver was recorded from six patients. PMID:2750352

  12. Experience with molecular adsorbent recirculating system treatment in 20 children listed for high-urgency liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lexmond, Willem S; Van Dael, Carin M L; Scheenstra, René; Goorhuis, Joanne F; Sieders, Egbert; Verkade, Henkjan J; Van Rheenen, Patrick F; Kömhoff, Martin

    2015-03-01

    For more than 10 years, children at our national center for pediatric liver transplantation (LT) have been treated with Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS) liver dialysis as a bridging therapy to high-urgency LT. Treatment was reserved for 20 patients with the highest degrees of hepatic encephalopathy (HE; median grade = 3.5). Death from neurological sequelae was considered imminent for these patients, and this was further reflected in significantly higher international normalized ratios and ammonia levels and worse prognostic liver indices (Model for End-Stage Liver Disease/Pediatric End-Stage Liver Disease scores and liver injury units) in comparison with 32 wait-listed patients who did not receive MARS dialysis. MARS therapy was generally well tolerated, with a reduction in thrombocytes and hemorrhaging as the most common side effects. HE improvement was documented in 30% of the treated patients, but progression to grade IV encephalopathy occurred in 45% of the patients despite the treatment. Serum ammonia, bilirubin, bile acid, and creatinine levels significantly decreased during treatment. Eighty percent of MARS-treated patients survived to undergo LT, and their survival was equivalent to that of non-MARS-treated patients with severe liver failure (69%, P = 0.52). The heterogeneity between MARS-treated patients and non-MARS-treated patients in our cohort precluded a statistical evaluation of a benefit from MARS for patient survival. Our data demonstrate the safety of MARS even in the most severely ill patients awaiting LT, but strategies that promote the more rapid and widespread availability of high-quality donor organs remain of critical importance for improving patient survival in cases of severe acute liver failure. PMID:25366362

  13. Space Station Environmental Control/Life Support System engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. W.; Heppner, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with a systems engineering study which has provided an understanding of the overall Space Station ECLSS (Environmental Control and Life Support System). ECLSS/functional partitioning is considered along with function criticality, technology alternatives, a technology description, single thread systems, Space Station architectures, ECLSS distribution, mechanical schematics per space station, and Space Station ECLSS characteristics. Attention is given to trade studies and system synergism. The Space Station functional description had been defined by NASA. The ECLSS will utilize technologies which embody regenerative concepts to minimize the use of expendables.

  14. An expert system development methodology which supports verification and validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culbert, Chris; Riley, Gary; Savely, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    Expert systems have demonstrated commercial viability in a wide range of applications, but still face some obstacles to widespread use. A major stumbling block is the lack of well defined verification and validation (V and V) techniques. The primary difficulty with expert system V and V is the use of development methodologies which do not support V and V. As with conventional code, the key to effective V and V is the development methodology. An expert system development methodology is described which is based upon a panel review approach, that allows input from all parties concerned with the expert system.

  15. Dynamic Considerations for Control of Closed Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babcock, P. S.; Auslander, D. M.; Spear, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    Reliability of closed life support systems depend on their ability to continue supplying the crew's needs during perturbations and equipment failures. The dynamic considerations interact with the basic static design through the sizing of storages, the specification of excess capacities in processors, and the choice of system initial state. A very simple system flow model was used to examine the possibilities for system failures even when there is sufficient storage to buffer the immediate effects of the perturbation. Two control schemes are shown which have different dynamic consequences in response to component failures.

  16. Contingency support using adaptive telemetry extractor and expert system technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Thomas; Cruse, Bryant; Wende, Charles

    1987-01-01

    The 'telemetry analysis logic for operations support' prototype system constitutes an expert system that is charged with contingency planning for the NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST); this system has demonstrated the feasibility of using an adaptive telemetry extractor/reformatter that is integrated with an expert system. A test case generated by a simulator has demonstrated the reduction of the time required for analysis of a complex series of failures to a few minutes, from the hour usually required. The HST's telemetry extractor will be able to read real-time engineering telemetry streams and disk-based data. Telemetry format changes will be handled almost instantaneously.

  17. Semantic Interoperability in Clinical Decision Support Systems: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Marco-Ruiz, Luis; Bellika, Johan Gustav

    2015-01-01

    The interoperability of Clinical Decision Support (CDS) systems with other health information systems has become one of the main limitations to their broad adoption. Semantic interoperability must be granted in order to share CDS modules across different health information systems. Currently, numerous standards for different purposes are available to enable the interoperability of CDS systems. We performed a literature review to identify and provide an overview of the available standards that enable CDS interoperability in the areas of clinical information, decision logic, terminology, and web service interfaces. PMID:26262260

  18. NUCLEAR-FUELED CIRCULATORY SUPPORT SYSTEMS IV: RADIOLOGIC PERSPECTIVES

    PubMed Central

    Huffman, F. N.; Norman, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    If an implantable artificial heart can be developed, it should prove beneficial to a significant group of patients. A variety of energy sources, such as biologic, electromagnetic, and nuclear, are under evaluation. Currently, biologic fuel cell technology is not sufficiently advanced to permit its extrapolation to the power levels required for implantable circulatory support systems. Electromagnetic systems have the disadvantage of heavy batteries of considerable bulk requiring frequent recharging. Radioisotope-fueled thermal engine systems have the potential of providing degrees of freedom not possible with rechargeable units. However, radiosotope circulatory support systems subject their recipients to prolonged intracorporeal radiation, add to environmental background radiation, and constitute an exceedingly small, but finite, hazard due to possible violation of fuel containment. PMID:15215965

  19. Development of lung cancer CT screening operating support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishigaki, Rikuta; Hanai, Kozou; Suzuki, Masahiro; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2009-02-01

    In Japan, lung cancer death ranks first among men and third among women. Lung cancer death is increasing yearly, thus early detection and treatment are needed. For this reason, CT screening for lung cancer has been introduced. The CT screening services are roughly divided into three sections: office, radiology and diagnosis sections. These operations have been performed through paper-based or a combination of paper-based and an existing electronic health recording system. This paper describes an operating support system for lung cancer CT screening in order to make the screening services efficient. This operating support system is developed on the basis of 1) analysis of operating processes, 2) digitalization of operating information, and 3) visualization of operating information. The utilization of the system is evaluated through an actual application and users' survey questionnaire obtained from CT screening centers.

  20. Group decision support system for customer-driven product design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhihang; Chen, Hang; Chen, Kuen; Che, Ada

    2000-10-01

    This paper describes the work on the development of a group decision support system for customer driven product design. The customer driven is to develop products, which meet all customer requirements in whole life cycle of products. A process model of decision during product primary design is proposed to formulate the structured, semi-structured and unstructured decision problems. The framework for the decision support system is presented that integrated both advances in the group decision making and distributed artificial intelligent. The system consists of the product primary design tool kit and the collaborative platform with multi-agent structure. The collaborative platform of the system and the product primary design tool kit, including the VOC (Voice of Customer) tool, QFD (Quality Function Deployment) tool, the Conceptual design tool, Reliability analysis tool and the cost and profit forecasting tool, are indicated.

  1. Conceptual designs for lunar base life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dall-Bauman, Liese; Edeen, Marybeth; Brown, Mariann

    1991-01-01

    Three designs for lunar-base life support are described emphasizing the choices of individual processes for initial, intermediate, and advanced systems. Mass balances for the systems are employed to demonstrate the interactions of air, water, and waste loops, and several waste-treatment processes are considered for the initial life-support system. NASA space-station technologies are adopted for the start-up air, water, and waste treatment subsystems, and the intermediate subsystems provide enhanced capabilities. The intermediate waste-management subsystem permits the recovery of reusable waste, and the advanced system provides biological waste treatment. The reduction of resupply requirements and power use are identified as critical issues as is the ability to operate over extended periods.

  2. EXODUS: Integrating intelligent systems for launch operations support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Richard M.; Cottman, Bruce H.

    1991-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is developing knowledge-based systems to automate critical operations functions for the space shuttle fleet. Intelligent systems will monitor vehicle and ground support subsystems for anomalies, assist in isolating and managing faults, and plan and schedule shuttle operations activities. These applications are being developed independently of one another, using different representation schemes, reasoning and control models, and hardware platforms. KSC has recently initiated the EXODUS project to integrate these stand alone applications into a unified, coordinated intelligent operations support system. EXODUS will be constructed using SOCIAL, a tool for developing distributed intelligent systems. EXODUS, SOCIAL, and initial prototyping efforts using SOCIAL to integrate and coordinate selected EXODUS applications are described.

  3. Needs assessment for diagnostic decision support systems (DDSS).

    PubMed Central

    Berner, E. S.; Shugerman, A. A.

    1991-01-01

    Diagnostic decision support systems are often developed without a clear idea of how well the system will meet the needs of its users. The present study was designed to assess the information needs of clinicians. A set of questions submitted to an information service by family physicians was used to determine how much need there was for diagnostic decision support, the types of support needed, and the general content areas of their questions. Results showed that less than half of the questions were related to diagnosis and that most of those were requests for general information about a given condition. In addition, the fewest diagnosis questions were for conditions that were seen frequently in ambulatory care in a survey of family practitioners. PMID:1807674

  4. Systems Analysis of Life Support for Long-Duration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drysdale, Alan E.; Maxwell, Sabrina; Ewert, Michael K.; Hanford, Anthony J.

    2000-01-01

    Work defining advanced life support (ALS) technologies and evaluating their applicability to various long-duration missions has continued. Time-dependent and time-invariant costs have been estimated for a variety of life support technology options, including International Space Station (ISS) environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) technologies and improved options under development by the ALS Project. These advanced options include physicochemical (PC) and bioregenerative (BIO) technologies, and may in the future include in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) in an attempt to reduce both logistics costs and dependence on supply from Earth. PC and bioregenerative technologies both provide possibilities for reducing mission equivalent system mass (ESM). PC technologies are most advantageous for missions of up to several years in length, while bioregenerative options are most appropriate for longer missions. ISRU can be synergistic with both PC and bioregenerative options.

  5. Liver sharing and organ procurement organization performance.

    PubMed

    Gentry, Sommer E; Chow, Eric K H; Massie, Allan; Luo, Xun; Zaun, David; Snyder, Jon J; Israni, Ajay K; Kasiske, Bert; Segev, Dorry L

    2015-03-01

    Whether the liver allocation system shifts organs from better performing organ procurement organizations (OPOs) to poorer performing OPOs has been debated for many years. Models of OPO performance from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients make it possible to study this question in a data-driven manner. We investigated whether each OPO's net liver import was correlated with 2 performance metrics [observed to expected (O:E) liver yield and liver donor conversion ratio] as well as 2 alternative explanations [eligible deaths and incident listings above a Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score of 15]. We found no evidence to support the hypothesis that the allocation system transfers livers from better performing OPOs to centers with poorer performing OPOs. Also, having fewer eligible deaths was not associated with a net import. However, having more incident listings was strongly correlated with the net import, both before and after Share 35. Most importantly, the magnitude of the variation in OPO performance was much lower than the variation in demand: although the poorest performing OPOs differed from the best ones by less than 2-fold in the O:E liver yield, incident listings above a MELD score of 15 varied nearly 14-fold. Although it is imperative that all OPOs achieve the best possible results, the flow of livers is not explained by OPO performance metrics, and instead, it appears to be strongly related to differences in demand. PMID:25556648

  6. Plants for space plantations. [crops for closed life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikishanova, T. I.

    1978-01-01

    Criteria for selection of candidate crops for closed life support systems are presented and discussed, and desired characteristics of candidate higher plant crops are given. Carbohydrate crops, which are most suitable, grown worldwide are listed and discussed. The sweet potato, ipomoea batatas Poir., is shown to meet the criteria to the greatest degree, and the criteria are recommended as suitable for initial evaluation of candidate higher plant crops for such systems.

  7. Controlled Ecological Life Support System Breadboard Project - 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knott, W. M.

    1989-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Breadboard Project, NASA's effort to develop the technology required to produce a functioning bioregenerative system, is discussed. The different phases of the project and its current status are described. The relationship between the project components are shown, and major project activities for fiscal years 1989-1993 are listed. The biomass production chamber to be used by the project is described.

  8. Controlled ecological life support system breadboard project, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knott, W. M.

    1990-01-01

    The Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Breadboard Project, NASA's effort to develop the technology required to produce a functioning bioregenerative system, is discussed. The different phases of the project and its current status are described. The relationship between the project components are shown, and major project activities for fiscal years 1989 to 1993 are listed. The Biomass Production Chamber (BPC) became operational and tests of wheat as a single crop are nearing completion.

  9. Lunar Dust Characterization for Exploration Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agui, Juan H.

    2007-01-01

    Lunar dust effects can have a significant impact on the performance and maintenance of future exploration life support systems. Filtration systems will be challenged by the additional loading from lunar dust, and mitigation technology and strategies have to be adapted to protect sensitive equipment. An initial characterization of lunar dust and simulants was undertaken. The data emphasize the irregular morphology of the dust particles and the frequency dependence of lunar dust layer detachment from shaken surfaces.

  10. Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) System Engineering Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Laurie J.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation begins with a recap on a previous lecture on the ECLSS subsystems, and the various types (i.e., Non-regenerative vs Regenerative, open loop vs closed loop, and physical-chemical vs bioregenerative) It also recaps the Equivalent system mass (ESM) metric. The presentation continues with a review of the ECLSS of the various NASA manned space exploration programs from Mercury, to the current planned Altair lunar landing, and Lunar base operations. There is also a team project to establish the ESM of two conceptualized missions.

  11. OASIS: A GRAPHICAL DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR GROUNDWATER CONTAMINANT MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three new software technologies were applied to develop an efficient and easy to use decision support system far ground-water contaminant modeling. raphical interfaces create a more intuitive and effective form of communication with the computer compared to text-based interfaces....

  12. Designing an Online Writing System: Learning with Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Chih-Hua

    2008-01-01

    The potential of online language learning has received much attention recently. This paper reports the design of an online writing system featuring learning support for non-native students during their writing process. The central premise is that in the online writing situation, students are in great need of writing aids. The proposed system…

  13. Prevention of Child Maltreatment: The Use of Social Support Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Dale Robert

    A review of the clinically relevant literature on prevention of child maltreatment was conducted in an attempt to provide: (1) a definition and theoretical understanding of some aspects of prevention, child maltreatment, and social support systems; (2) a proposal of the usefulness of social isolation as an important theme in interpreting the…

  14. Advanced Modular Power Approach to Affordable, Supportable Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Kimnach, Greg L.; Fincannon, James; Mckissock,, Barbara I.; Loyselle, Patricia L.; Wong, Edmond

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of missions to the Moon, Mars and Near Earth Asteroids (NEA) indicate that these missions often involve several distinct separately launched vehicles that must ultimately be integrated together in-flight and operate as one unit. Therefore, it is important to see these vehicles as elements of a larger segmented spacecraft rather than separate spacecraft flying in formation. The evolution of large multi-vehicle exploration architecture creates the need (and opportunity) to establish a global power architecture that is common across all vehicles. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Modular Power System (AMPS) project managed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is aimed at establishing the modular power system architecture that will enable power systems to be built from a common set of modular building blocks. The project is developing, demonstrating and evaluating key modular power technologies that are expected to minimize non-recurring development costs, reduce recurring integration costs, as well as, mission operational and support costs. Further, modular power is expected to enhance mission flexibility, vehicle reliability, scalability and overall mission supportability. The AMPS project not only supports multi-vehicle architectures but should enable multi-mission capability as well. The AMPS technology development involves near term demonstrations involving developmental prototype vehicles and field demonstrations. These operational demonstrations not only serve as a means of evaluating modular technology but also provide feedback to developers that assure that they progress toward truly flexible and operationally supportable modular power architecture.

  15. A District Leader's Guide to Relationships That Support Systemic Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balch-Gonzalez, Margaret

    This booklet briefly presents some of the results of a study of the relationship between school districts and "reform support organizations" (RSOs). RSOs include a range of public, quasi-public, private for-profit, and private nonprofit organizations that seek to engage or are engaged by school districts in systemic reform efforts. The study…

  16. The Library as a Support System for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurkowski, Odin L.

    2006-01-01

    For many students who have a mild to moderate learning, emotional, social, or mental problems, the school librarian is an unparalleled resource, and the library becomes a refuge and an important support system outside of the general classroom. This article provides a brief review of literature and concrete information on creating a supportive…

  17. Management Control System Support of Initiatives for Disruptive Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Colin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to investigate the management control system (MCS) support of school initiatives to develop the school climate and to re-engage disruptive students. Design/methodology/approach: The paper adopts an approach of critical action research interviews with management and document reviews informed by Habermasian…

  18. Implementing New Teacher Evaluation Systems: Principals' Concerns and Supervisor Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derrington, Mary Lynne; Campbell, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Principal leadership is the key to successful implementation of mandated, high-accountability, teacher evaluation systems. Given the magnitude and complexity of change at the school level, understanding principals' perceptions, responses, and concerns is essential for effective change and support during implementation. Thus, research that…

  19. Using a Group Decision Support System as a Teaching Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiken, Milam W.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a typical Group Decision Support System (GDSS) in use at the University of Mississippi and potential uses of a GDSS in seminars, interactive testing, lectures, foreign language study, and in communication with deaf or mute students. Benefits are noted, including increased participation, group synergy, and automated record keeping. (27…

  20. An Instruction Support System for Competency-Based Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Jane M.; And Others

    This report discusses the Pennsylvania State University Instruction Support System (ISS) designed to meet the needs of large classes for competency-based teacher education (CBTE) programs. The ISS seven-step hierarchical developmental procedure is reported to free the instructor for specialized instruction and evaluation by utilizing a…