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Sample records for liver support system

  1. Novel bioartificial liver support system: preclinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Patzer, J F; Mazariegos, G V; Lopez, R; Molmenti, E; Gerber, D; Riddervold, F; Khanna, A; Yin, W Y; Chen, Y; Scott, V L; Aggarwal, S; Kramer, D J; Wagner, R A; Zhu, Y; Fulmer, M L; Block, G D; Amiot, B P

    1999-06-18

    Preclinical safety and efficacy evaluation of a novel bioartificial liver support system (BLSS) was conducted using a D-galactosamine canine liver failure model. The BLSS houses a suspension of porcine hepatocytes in a hollow fiber cartridge with the hepatocytes on one side of the membrane and whole blood flowing on the other. Porcine hepatocytes harvested by a collagenase digestion technique were infused into the hollow fiber cartridge and incubated for 16 to 24 hours prior to use. Fifteen purpose-bred male hounds, 1-3 years old, 25-30 kg, were administered a lethal dose, 1.5 g/kg, of D-galactosamine. The animals were divided into three treatment groups: (1b) no BLSS treatment (n = 6); (2b) BLSS treatment starting at 24-26 h post D-galactosamine (n = 5); and (2c) BLSS treatment starting at 16-18 h post D-galactosamine (n = 4). While maintained under isoflurane anesthesia, canine supportive care was guided by electrolyte and invasive physiologic monitoring consisting of arterial pressure, central venous pressure, extradural intracranial pressure (ICP), pulmonary artery pressure, urinary catheter, and end-tidal CO2. All animals were treated until death or death-equivalent (inability to sustain systolic blood pressure > 80 mmHg for 20 minutes despite massive fluid resuscitation and/or dopamine administration), or euthanized at 60 hours. All animals developed evidence of liver failure at 12-24 hours as evidenced by blood pressure lability, elevated ICP, marked hepatocellular enzyme elevation with microscopic massive hepatocyte necrosis and cerebral edema, elevated prothrombin time, and metabolic acidosis. Groups 2b and 2c marginally prolong survival compared with Group 1b (pairwise log rank censored survival time analysis, p = 0.096 and p = 0.064, respectively). Since survival times for Groups 2b and 2c are not significantly different (p = 0.694), the groups were combined for further statistical analysis. Survival times for the combined active treatment Groups 2b and

  2. Cell sources, liver support systems and liver tissue engineering: alternatives to liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Young; Kim, Han Joon; Choi, Dongho

    2015-05-01

    The liver is the largest organ in the body; it has a complex architecture, wide range of functions and unique regenerative capacity. The growing incidence of liver diseases worldwide requires increased numbers of liver transplant and leads to an ongoing shortage of donor livers. To meet the huge demand, various alternative approaches are being investigated including, hepatic cell transplantation, artificial devices and bioprinting of the organ itself. Adult hepatocytes are the preferred cell sources, but they have limited availability, are difficult to isolate, propagate poor and undergo rapid functional deterioration in vitro. There have been efforts to overcome these drawbacks; by improving culture condition for hepatocytes, providing adequate extracellular matrix, co-culturing with extra-parenchymal cells and identifying other cell sources. Differentiation of human stem cells to hepatocytes has become a major interest in the field of stem cell research and has progressed greatly. At the same time, use of decellularized organ matrices and 3 D printing are emerging cutting-edge technologies for tissue engineering, opening up new paths for liver regenerative medicine. This review provides a compact summary of the issues, and the locations of liver support systems and tissue engineering, with an emphasis on reproducible and useful sources of hepatocytes including various candidates formed by differentiation from stem cells. PMID:26019753

  3. Cell Sources, Liver Support Systems and Liver Tissue Engineering: Alternatives to Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo Young; Kim, Han Joon; Choi, Dongho

    2015-01-01

    The liver is the largest organ in the body; it has a complex architecture, wide range of functions and unique regenerative capacity. The growing incidence of liver diseases worldwide requires increased numbers of liver transplant and leads to an ongoing shortage of donor livers. To meet the huge demand, various alternative approaches are being investigated including, hepatic cell transplantation, artificial devices and bioprinting of the organ itself. Adult hepatocytes are the preferred cell sources, but they have limited availability, are difficult to isolate, propagate poor and undergo rapid functional deterioration in vitro. There have been efforts to overcome these drawbacks; by improving culture condition for hepatocytes, providing adequate extracellular matrix, co-culturing with extra-parenchymal cells and identifying other cell sources. Differentiation of human stem cells to hepatocytes has become a major interest in the field of stem cell research and has progressed greatly. At the same time, use of decellularized organ matrices and 3 D printing are emerging cutting-edge technologies for tissue engineering, opening up new paths for liver regenerative medicine. This review provides a compact summary of the issues, and the locations of liver support systems and tissue engineering, with an emphasis on reproducible and useful sources of hepatocytes including various candidates formed by differentiation from stem cells. PMID:26019753

  4. Current Evidence for Extracorporeal Liver Support Systems in Acute Liver Failure and Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Karvellas, Constantine J; Subramanian, Ram M

    2016-07-01

    Artificial (nonbiological) extracorporeal liver support devices aim to remove albumin-bound and water-soluble toxins to restore and preserve hepatic function and mitigate or limit the progression of multiorgan failure while hepatic recovery or liver transplant occurs. The following beneficial effects have been documented: improvement of jaundice, amelioration of hemodynamic instability, reduction of portal hypertension, and improvement of hepatic encephalopathy. The only randomized prospective multicenter controlled trial to show an improvement in transplant-free survival was for high-volume plasmapheresis. Biological (cell-based) extracorporeal liver support systems aim to support the failing liver through detoxification and synthetic function and warrant further study for safety and benefit. PMID:27339682

  5. Review article: liver support systems in acute hepatic failure.

    PubMed

    Rahman, T M; Hodgson, H J

    1999-10-01

    The treatment of acute hepatic failure has developed rapidly over the last 40 years, reducing morbidity and mortality from this syndrome. Whilst this has been partly attributed to significant improvements in the specialist medical management of these patients, advances in surgical techniques and pharmaceutical developments have led to the establishment of successful liver transplantation programmes, which have improved mortality significantly. This review will examine the clinical impact of alternative methods that have been used to provide extra-corporeal hepatic support. Non-biological, bio- logical and hybrid hepatic extra-corporeal support will be explored, offering a comprehensive historical overview and an appraisal of present and future advances. PMID:10540040

  6. [Problems and prospects of creation of extracorporal systems for support of functional livers status].

    PubMed

    Ryabinin, V E

    2015-01-01

    The review considers features of efferent therapy employing extracorporeal systems, the devices known as "artificial liver" and "bioartificial liver" in the treatment of liver insufficiency. Analysis of literature data shows the need for further development of these biomedical studies and the search for optimal solutions in the selection of the source of hepatocytes, the development of bioreactors and biomaterials forming the basis of devices like "bioartificial liver". Taking into consideration certain advantages and disadvantages typical for various methods of extracorporeal support of the functional state of the liver one can evaluate prior experience in the treatment of liver diseases and approaches to the development of new, more effective medical technologies. PMID:26539863

  7. Overview of extracorporeal liver support systems and clinical results.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, B E; Tosone, C M; Custer, L M; Mullon, C

    1999-06-18

    Patients with acute liver failure (ALF) continue to have an almost 50% mortality rate despite improvements associated with the use of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Numerous ex vivo methods have been developed in attempts to improve patient survival. These methods can be divided into three groups: detoxification (e.g., dialysis, charcoal adsorption, plasma exchange), which only provides excretory function; ex vivo liver perfusion (e.g., whole organ or tissue perfusion), which provides some metabolic function; and bioartificial or cell-based systems, which combine elements of the first two methods. Clinical trials have shown minimal efficacy of the various detoxification methods in terms of ALF patient survival, while the relative success of OLT has shown the importance of providing metabolic as well as excretory functions. Attempts to provide those additional functions with ex vivo tissue perfusion have been fraught with complications such as clotting and acute tissue rejection, leading to the conceptual development of cell-based bioreactor systems. A number of these bioartificial systems have been clinically evaluated, and the preliminary patient survival rates have encouraged further work in this area. PMID:10415578

  8. Prognosis of acute-on-chronic liver failure patients treated with artificial liver support system

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Pi-Qi; Zheng, Shao-Ping; Yu, Min; He, Sheng-Song; Weng, Zhi-Hong

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To establish a new model for predicting survival in acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) patients treated with an artificial liver support system. METHODS: One hundred and eighty-one ACLF patients who were admitted to the hospital from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2014 and were treated with an artificial liver support system were enrolled in this retrospective study, including a derivation cohort (n = 113) and a validation cohort (n = 68). Laboratory parameters at baseline were analyzed and correlated with clinical outcome. In addition to standard medical therapy, ACLF patients underwent plasma exchange (PE) or plasma bilirubin adsorption (PBA) combined with plasma exchange. For the derivation cohort, Kaplan-Meier methods were used to estimate survival curves, and Cox regression was used in survival analysis to generate a prognostic model. The performance of the new model was tested in the validation cohort using a receiver-operator curve. RESULTS: The mean overall survival for the derivation cohort was 441 d (95%CI: 379-504 d), and the 90- and 270-d survival probabilities were 70.3% and 58.3%, respectively. The mean survival times of patients treated with PBA plus PE and patients treated with PE were 531 d (95%CI: 455-605 d) and 343 d (95%CI: 254-432 d), respectively, which were significantly different (P = 0.012). When variables with bivariate significance were selected for inclusion into the multivariate Cox regression model, number of complications, age, scores of the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) and type of artificial liver support system were defined as independent risk factors for survival in ACLF patients. This new prognostic model could accurately discriminate the outcome of patients with different scores in this cohort (P < 0.001). The model also had the ability to assign a predicted survival probability for individual patients. In the validation cohort, the new model remained better than the MELD. CONCLUSION: A novel model was

  9. Bioartificial liver support anno 2001.

    PubMed

    Chamuleau, Robert A F M

    2002-12-01

    Despite maximal intensive care, mortality of acute fulminant hepatic failure is high: 60%-75% in several studies. In addition patients with chronic liver insufficiency suffer from a bad quality of life: all patients suffer from fatigue; symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy, jaundice, and itching are often present. Analogous to artificial kidney treatment in patients with renal failure, an artificial liver assist device is needed not only to bridge patients with fulminant hepatic failure to liver transplantation or own liver regeneration, but also to improve the quality of life of patients with chronic liver insufficiency. Several modalities of artificial liver support are under investigation, like plasma exchange, haemodialysis, haemadsorption, albumin dialysis, liver cell transplantation, and the bioartificial liver. Artificial livers based on only supportive detoxification function do not show significant improvement of survival in controlled studies. Bioartificial liver support systems have also the potential to support hepatic synthetic functions. Bioreactors can be charged with freshly isolated or cryopreserved porcine hepatocytes, but also by human hepatoma cell lines. Several uncontrolled studies in humans show safety of such a treatment, even by using porcine cells. Transmission of porcine endogenous retrovirus to recipients has not been found. Furthermore, beneficial effects have been reported on symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy, on the height of intracranial pressure and on hemodynamic parameters. By using porcine cells immunological problems (e.g., serum sickness) can be expected during treatments longer than one week. However, "proof of the pudding" in the sense of improvement of survival is not yet available. The creation of a "liver dialysis unit" in the near future depends mainly on the development of well-differentiated immortalized human hepatocytes. Some progress in this field has already been obtained. PMID:12602524

  10. Porcine acute liver failure model established by two-phase surgery and treated with hollow fiber bioartificial liver support system

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yi; Mu, Ning; Xu, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Yan

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To establish a highly reproducible animal model of acute liver failure (ALF), for assessing the effect of bioartificial liver support system (BALSS). METHODS: A two-phase complete liver devascularization procedure was performed in eight loco-hybrid pigs. Blood biochemical index and liver biopsy were studied every 2 h after surgery, and survival time was recorded. The BALSS constructed with high volume recirculating technique was a hollow fiber circulating system consisting of a hepatocyte reactor-hollow fiber module inoculated with microcarrier-adhering hepatocytes, and a double pump, heparinized, thermostabilized, micro-capsulized activated carbon-adsorbing plasmapheresis system. Twelve pigs undergoing two-phase surgery were randomized into: control group (perfused without hepatocytes, n = 6) and treatment group (perfused with hepatocytes, n = 6). Intergroup liver biochemical indexes, survival time, and liver pathological changes were analyzed at regular intervals. RESULTS: Two-phase surgery was performed in all the experimental pigs, and there was no obvious difference between their biochemical indexes. After 3 h of phase II surgery, ammonia (Amm) increased to (269±37) μmol/L. After 5 h of the surgery, fibrinogen (Fib) decreased to (1.5±0.2) g/L. After 7 h of the surgery, ALT, AST, Tbil and PT were (7.6±1.8) nka/L, (40±5) nka/L, (55±8) μmol/L and (17.5±1.7) nka/L respectively. After 9 h of surgery, ALB and Cr were (27±4) g/L and (87±9) μmol/L. After 13 h of surgery, BUN was (3.5±0.9) μmol/L. All the above values were different from those determined before surgery. Survival time of pigs averaged 13.5±1.4 h. ALF pigs in the other group were treated with BALSS. The comparison analysis between the treated and control animals showed the changes of Tbil, PT, Alb, BUN, Cr, Fib, and Amm (P<0.01), but there was no change of ALT and AST. The survival time was statistically different (P<0.01), and there was no significant difference in histological

  11. Matrices for tissue engineering-scaffold structure for a bioartificial liver support system.

    PubMed

    Mayer, J; Karamuk, E; Akaike, T; Wintermantel, E

    2000-02-14

    This study proposes a new composite scaffold system. A woven polyethylenterephtalate (PET) fabric was coated on one side with a biodegradable PLGA film, in order to obtain a geometrically polarized scaffold structure for an bioartificial liver support system. The composite structure ensures the stability of the membrane during degradation of the membrane polymer. The mesh size of the composite does not significantly influence the degradation behavior. Hepatocyte culturing studies reveal that the formation of aggregates depends on the mesh size and on the pretreatment: The largest aggregates could be observed after 48 h when PVLA coating, large mesh size and EGF were combined. Thus, the combination of a geometrically structured, partially degradable scaffold with receptor-mediated cell attachment sites offers promising possibilities in liver tissue engineering. PMID:10640647

  12. Bioengineering the Liver: Scale-Up and Cool Chain Delivery of the Liver Cell Biomass for Clinical Targeting in a Bioartificial Liver Support System

    PubMed Central

    Erro, Eloy; Bundy, James; Massie, Isobel; Chalmers, Sherri-Ann; Gautier, Aude; Gerontas, Spyridon; Hoare, Mike; Sharratt, Peter; Choudhury, Sarah; Lubowiecki, Marcin; Llewellyn, Ian; Legallais, Cécile; Fuller, Barry; Hodgson, Humphrey

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Acute liver failure has a high mortality unless patients receive a liver transplant; however, there are insufficient donor organs to meet the clinical need. The liver may rapidly recover from acute injury by hepatic cell regeneration given time. A bioartificial liver machine can provide temporary liver support to enable such regeneration to occur. We developed a bioartificial liver machine using human-derived liver cells encapsulated in alginate, cultured in a fluidized bed bioreactor to a level of function suitable for clinical use (performance competence). HepG2 cells were encapsulated in alginate using a JetCutter to produce ∼500 μm spherical beads containing cells at ∼1.75 million cells/mL beads. Within the beads, encapsulated cells proliferated to form compact cell spheroids (AELS) with good cell-to-cell contact and cell function, that were analyzed functionally and by gene expression at mRNA and protein levels. We established a methodology to enable a ∼34-fold increase in cell density within the AELS over 11–13 days, maintaining cell viability. Optimized nutrient and oxygen provision were numerically modeled and tested experimentally, achieving a cell density at harvest of >45 million cells/mL beads; >5×1010 cells were produced in 1100 mL of beads. This process is scalable to human size ([0.7–1]×1011). A short-term storage protocol at ambient temperature was established, enabling transport from laboratory to bedside over 48 h, appropriate for clinical translation of a manufactured bioartificial liver machine. PMID:23514704

  13. Artificial liver support: a real step forward.

    PubMed

    Saliba, F; Samuel, D

    2015-02-01

    Since the early 1960s, several authors reported on the use of some experimental artificial liver devices in order to support patients with either acute liver failure (ALF) or end-stage chronic liver disease. In the 1980s, liver transplantation became an established real treatment replacing the whole liver with a major survival benefit. In the 1990s, the concept of albumin dialysis appeared as a new revolution in the concept of dialysis with the great capacity of removal of toxins, drugs and molecules strongly bound to albumin. Currently, three artificial liver support devices are available: The MARS®, the Prometheus® and the SPAD®. The most widely studied and used system is the MARS® that uses albumin dialysis to replace the detoxification function of the liver. MARS has shown in several uncontrolled studies and few randomized studies an improvement in the patient condition in terms of clinical symptoms (hepatic encephalopathy, pruritus, jaundice) and in liver and kidney biological parameters bringing these patients safely to liver transplantation. MARS® has shown for some patients with ALF (mainly paracetamol intoxication) an improvement of spontaneous or transplant free survival. The use of MARS in acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) require further studies based on strict definition of the syndrome. The use of albumin dialysis technique, require the performance of multiple sessions of treatment or even (in situations of ALF) a continuous treatment in order to improve spontaneous recovery or bridge these patients to liver transplantation. The performance of these systems would need further improvement. Large randomized trials are still needed in both patients with ALF and ACLF to establish the indications, the timing and the real place of liver support therapies. Meanwhile, early use of these devices in patients with ALF and ACLF could be considered as an additional tool among others in the management of these patients in specialized liver units. PMID

  14. Plasma exchange-based plasma recycling dialysis system as an artificial liver support.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kentaro; Umehara, Yutaka; Umehara, Minoru; Nishimura, Akimasa; Narumi, Shunji; Toyoki, Yoshikazu; Hakamada, Kenichi; Yoshihara, Syuichi; Sasaki, Mutsuo

    2008-08-01

    We developed a plasma recycling dialysis (PRD) system based on plasma exchange (PE). In this system, rapid reduction of toxic substances and restitution of deficient essential substances are performed by PE and subsequent blood purification is performed by dialysis between separated plasma recycled over a purification device and the patient's blood across the membrane of a plasma separator. To demonstrate the safety and efficacy of this system, we used a pig model of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) and anion exchange resin, activated charcoal and hemodialysis for the purification device. FHF was induced by intraportal administration of alpha-amanitine (0.1 mg/kg) and lipopolysaccharides (1 microg/kg) in pigs. Three groups of animals were studied: group 1, diseased controls (N = 4); group 2, PE group (N = 4), 16 h after drug infusion the pigs underwent PE of approximately 1.2 L for 2 h; and group 3, PE + PRD group (N = 4), the pigs underwent PE followed by PRD for 6 h. The hemodynamic status of all animals was stable during the procedure. In group 3, the values of ammonia, total bile acid and total bilirubin continuously decreased and were significantly lower than those of the animals in group 2 24 h after the induction of FHF. The Fischer ratio was significantly higher than in group 2 after 24 h. Group 3 pigs maintained a higher level of consciousness and survived longer than group 2 pigs. Safety of this PE-based PRD system was demonstrated and the removal of toxic substances was significant. This study confirmed the clinical utility of this system as an artificial liver support. PMID:18789112

  15. Molecular adsorbent recycling system (MARS): clinical results of a new membrane-based blood purification system for bioartificial liver support.

    PubMed

    Stange, J; Mitzner, S R; Risler, T; Erley, C M; Lauchart, W; Goehl, H; Klammt, S; Peszynski, P; Freytag, J; Hickstein, H; Löhr, M; Liebe, S; Schareck, W; Hopt, U T; Schmidt, R

    1999-04-01

    The use of xenogenic or genetically engineered cell types in bioartificial liver support systems requires separation methods between the patients' blood and the liver support bioreactors that guarantee the sufficient transfer of pathophysiologically relevant substances but prevent complications. The present paper describes a new membrane separation system that is nearly impermeable to proteins but enables the exchange of water soluble and protein bound toxins by a special membrane and a recycled protein containing dialysate. Because the full range of toxins in hepatic failure has still not been identified, the value of this membrane separation method was evaluated clinically. Thirteen patients suffering from life threatening hepatic failure who had not responded to state of the art therapy were treated with this device, the molecular adsorbent recycling system (MARS). The overall survival rate was 69%. All patients showed positive response to the therapy, indicating that the presented membrane separator combines therapeutic effectivity with the highest safety criteria for the patient by cutting the exchange of substances below the level of proteins. PMID:10226696

  16. Plasma exchange-based plasma recycling dialysis system as a potential platform for artificial liver support.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Akimasa; Umehara, Yutaka; Umehara, Minoru; Hakamada, Kenichi; Narumi, Shunji; Toyoki, Yoshikazu; Yoshihara, Shuichi; Sasaki, Mutsuo

    2006-08-01

    We developed a plasma recycling dialysis (PRD) system based on plasma exchange (PE). In this system, rapid reduction of toxic substances and restitution of deficient essential substances are performed by PE, and subsequent blood purification is performed by dialysis between separated plasma recycled over a purification device and the patient's blood across the membrane of the plasma separator. This study was performed to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of this system. Hyperbilirubinemia was induced by ligating the bile duct in pigs, and 7 days later, only PE for 2 h (group PE) or PE for 2 h followed by PRD for 6 h (group PE + PRD) was performed. The separated plasma was recycled over anion-exchange resin through the extra fiber space of the plasma separator. The safety and efficacy of this system were evaluated based on the values of hemodynamic and laboratory parameters. Transfer from PE to PRD was completed in a few minutes. The hemodynamic status and blood cells counts were stable and hemolysis was not observed during the procedure. In the PE + PRD group, the concentrations of total bile acids continuously decreased (pretreatment, 155.5 +/- 40.6 microM; 2 h [end of PE], 76.1 +/- 14.4 microM; 8 h [end of PRD], 25.8 +/- 9.1 microM) and the value was significantly lower than in the PE group after 6 h. The total bilirubin also continuously decreased during PRD (pretreatment, 55.3 +/- 11.5 microM; 2 h [end of PE], 33.8 +/- 8.4 microM; 8 h [end of PRD], 18.6 +/- 7.7 microM) and was significantly lower than in the PE group after 4 h. No significant change was observed in other laboratory values. This PE-based PRD system allowed a swift transfer from PE to sorbent-based blood purification. The safety of this system was demonstrated and the removal of toxic substances was significant. This study confirmed the clinical utility of this system as a platform for artificial liver support. PMID:16911318

  17. Trials and tribulations with artificial liver support.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, R

    1978-01-01

    This paper reviews the experience gained over the past few years in two techniques of liver support, charcoal haemoperfusion and polyacrylonitrile membrane haemodialysis. Problems with charcoal haemoperfusion have centred around platelet aggregation and hypertension, and new carbon preparations with a variety of different coatings to overcome these problems are described. Haemodialysis using the PAN membrane has caused fewer side-effects and current results show that 33% of patients so treated recover consciousness. The new techniques for liver support currently being developed, including combined dialysis/perfusion systems and those based on plasma separation, are also described. PMID:355070

  18. Extracorporeal liver support devices for listed patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Karla C L; Stadlbauer, Vanessa; Jalan, Rajiv

    2016-06-01

    An alternative to liver transplantation for patients with liver failure remains an unmet need. In acute liver failure, the ideal extracorporeal liver support device (ELSD) would replace the functions of the failing liver in order to permit spontaneous recovery, given the incredible regenerative potential of the liver, negating the need for transplantation. In acute-on-chronic liver failure, an ELSD would ideally support hepatic function until a recovery to liver function before acute decompensation or until liver transplantation. In decompensated cirrhosis, an ELSD could again be used to support hepatic function until transplant. In addition, ELSDs may have the potential to treat the multiorgan failure that accompanies liver failure including hepatic encephalopathy, renal failure, and immune dysfunction or indeed potential to promote liver regeneration. Creation of an extracorporeal bioartificial liver able to completely replace liver function remains an unmet need. This review will describe a number of technologies suitable for clinical trials in humans, which have resulted from decades of engineering and biological research to develop a bioreactor able to adequately sustain functional hepatocytes. In addition, this review will describe artificial liver support devices that are primarily designed to replace the detoxifying functions of the liver and will consider the current data available or studies required to support their use in liver failure patients on the transplant waiting list. Liver Transplantation 22 839-848 2016 AASLD. PMID:26785141

  19. Extracorporeal Liver Support and Liver Transplant for Patients with Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Li, Han; Chen, Harvey Shi-Hsien; Nyberg, Scott L

    2016-05-01

    Recognition of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) as a unique entity is slowly evolving, as are therapies to improve survival of affected patients. Further investigation into its disease process and proper treatments with critical timing are important for improving patient survival. At this time, liver transplant is the only treatment known to improve survival in liver-failure patients. However, liver transplantation has its own disadvantages, such as organ shortage and the need for lifelong immunotherapy. Bridging therapies such as extracorporeal liver-support systems are attractive options to stabilize patients until transplantation or spontaneous recovery. The goals of these liver-support systems are to remove detoxification products, reduce systemic inflammation, and enhance regeneration of the injured liver. These devices have been under development for the past decade; a few are in clinical trials. At this time, there is no proven clearcut survival benefit in these devices, but they may improve the outcome of challenging cases and potentially avoid or postpone liver transplantation in some cases. PMID:27172357

  20. Development of a Support Vector Machine - Based Image Analysis System for Focal Liver Lesions Classification in Magnetic Resonance Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatos, I.; Tsantis, S.; Karamesini, M.; Skouroliakou, A.; Kagadis, G.

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: The design and implementation of a computer-based image analysis system employing the support vector machine (SVM) classifier system for the classification of Focal Liver Lesions (FLLs) on routine non-enhanced, T2-weighted Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 92 patients; each one of them has undergone MRI performed on a Magnetom Concerto (Siemens). Typical signs on dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and biopsies were employed towards a three class categorization of the 92 cases: 40-benign FLLs, 25-Hepatocellular Carcinomas (HCC) within Cirrhotic liver parenchyma and 27-liver metastases from Non-Cirrhotic liver. Prior to FLLs classification an automated lesion segmentation algorithm based on Marcov Random Fields was employed in order to acquire each FLL Region of Interest. 42 texture features derived from the gray-level histogram, co-occurrence and run-length matrices and 12 morphological features were obtained from each lesion. Stepwise multi-linear regression analysis was utilized to avoid feature redundancy leading to a feature subset that fed the multiclass SVM classifier designed for lesion classification. SVM System evaluation was performed by means of leave-one-out method and ROC analysis. Results: Maximum accuracy for all three classes (90.0%) was obtained by means of the Radial Basis Kernel Function and three textural features (Inverse- Different-Moment, Sum-Variance and Long-Run-Emphasis) that describe lesion's contrast, variability and shape complexity. Sensitivity values for the three classes were 92.5%, 81.5% and 96.2% respectively, whereas specificity values were 94.2%, 95.3% and 95.5%. The AUC value achieved for the selected subset was 0.89 with 0.81 - 0.94 confidence interval. Conclusion: The proposed SVM system exhibit promising results that could be utilized as a second opinion tool to the radiologist in order to decrease the time/cost of diagnosis and the need for patients to undergo invasive examination.

  1. Nutritional support during liver failure.

    PubMed

    Gecelter, G R; Comer, G M

    1995-07-01

    Critically ill patients in varying degrees of liver failure are catabolic and consequently require expeditious caloric support. Unique problems in this group of patients essentially revolve around the diagnosis and management of hepatic encephalopathy. From the overview provided in this text, it can be concluded that, only in overt hepatic coma, should all nitrogen products be withheld while precipitating causes are evaluated. Protein should be reintroduced as rapidly as possible to avoid the consequences of protein deprivation. Once the acute intercurrent illness has resolved, the cirrhotic patient returns to baseline energy and protein requirements indistinguishable from the population at large. PMID:7552976

  2. Survival Benefits With Artificial Liver Support System for Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure: A Time Series-Based Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yi; Wang, Xu-Lin; Wang, Bin; Shao, Jian-Guo; Liu, Yan-Mei; Qin, Yan; Wang, Lu-Jun; Qin, Gang

    2016-01-01

    The artificial liver support system (ALSS) offers the potential to improve the prognosis of patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). However, the literature has been inconsistent on its survival benefits. We aimed to conduct a time series-based meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and observational studies which examined differences in mortality in ACLF patients treated with ALSS or not.MEDLINE, EMBASE, OVID, and COCHRANE library database were systemically searched up to December 2014. Quality of included studies was evaluated using the Jadad score. The outcome measure was mortality at different follow-up endpoints. Odds ratios (ORs) and survival curve data were pooled for analysis.Ten studies, 7 RCTs, and 3 controlled cohorts were enrolled, involving a total of 1682 ACLF patients, among whom 842 were treated with ALSS. ALSS was found to reduce the risk of short-term (1-month and 3-month) mortality for patients with ACLF by nearly 30%. Randomized trials and observational studies provided good internal and external validity respectively. The combined Kaplan-Meier curves showed a consistent pattern of findings. Meta-analysis also suggested that ALSS might reduce medium-term (6-month and 1-year) mortality risk by 30% and long-term (3-year) mortality risk by 50% in ACLF patients.ALSS therapy could reduce short-term mortality in patients with ACLF. Meanwhile, its impacts on medium- and long-term survival seem to be promising but remained inconclusive. Clinical utility of this system for survival benefit may be implied. PMID:26817889

  3. Liver involvement in systemic infection

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    The liver is often involved in systemic infections, resulting in various types of abnormal liver function test results. In particular, hyperbilirubinemia in the range of 2-10 mg/dL is often seen in patients with sepsis, and several mechanisms for this phenomenon have been proposed. In this review, we summarize how the liver is involved in various systemic infections that are not considered to be primarily hepatotropic. In most patients with systemic infections, treatment for the invading microbes is enough to normalize the liver function tests. However, some patients may show severe liver injury or fulminant hepatic failure, requiring intensive treatment of the liver. PMID:25276279

  4. Extracorporeal liver support in severe alcoholic hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Parés, Albert; Mas, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    The severity of alcoholic hepatitis (AH) which may coexist with cirrhosis varies greatly, from asymptomatic forms which are detected in alcoholic patients without any sign of liver disease, except laboratory abnormalities, to severe forms characterised by deep jaundice, ascites, hepatic encephalopathy and low prothrombin index. In hospitalized patients the mortality could be as high as 75%. The elevated number of therapeutic proposals reported for more than forty years reveals the lack of efficacy of a particular modality. Even in the most favorable trials, the survival is already very poor and in some cases related to the development of renal failure or hepatorenal syndrome. There are some motivating reports concerning albumin dialysis as a support treatment in patients with severe AH, either alone or in combination with other pharmacological therapies. The favorable effects of albumin dialysis in patients with severe AH suggest that the procedure used alone or in combination with other therapies may have a role in this clinical condition. This will be particularly relevant to offer an alternative therapy in these patients, thus being a potential bridge to recovery or to be listed for liver transplantation. PMID:25009371

  5. Extracorporeal support for patients with acute and acute on chronic liver failure.

    PubMed

    Aron, Jonathan; Agarwal, Banwari; Davenport, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The number of patients developing liver failure; acute on chronic liver failure and acute liver failure continues to increase, along with the demand for donor livers for transplantation. As such there is a clinical need to develop effective extracorporeal devices to support patients with acute liver failure or acute-on-chronic liver failure to allow time for hepatocyte regeneration, and so avoiding the need for liver transplantation, or to bridge the patient to liver transplantation, and also potentially to provide symptomatic relief for patients with cirrhosis not suitable for transplantation. Currently devices can be divided into those designed to remove toxins, including plasma exchange, high permeability dialyzers and adsorption columns or membranes, coupled with replacement of plasma proteins; albumin dialysis systems; and bioartificial devices which may provide some of the biological functions of the liver. In the future we expect combinations of these devices in clinical practice, due to the developments in bioartificial scaffolds. PMID:26894968

  6. [(Bio)artificial liver support: ready for the patient?].

    PubMed

    Chamuleau, R A F M

    2016-05-01

    In 2016, an intensive-care physician has at his disposal a number of artificial organs for the support of patients with organ failure. Examples are the artificial kidney and the heart-lung machine. Artificial livers are being developed for patients with severe liver failure whose lives can only be saved at the present time by a transplant with a donor liver. These artificial livers are based either on a device that removes toxic materials from the patient's blood with, for example, albumin dialysis, or make use of bio-reactors filled with functioning liver cells, the so-called bio-artificial liver. In theory, the bio-artificial liver has the greatest potential to increase life expectancy. The results of clinical studies are also very promising. They are not yet sufficient, however, to permit general clinical use. PMID:27166453

  7. Implementation of an interactive liver surgery planning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Luyao; Liu, Jingjing; Yuan, Rong; Gu, Shuguo; Yu, Long; Li, Zhitao; Li, Yanzhao; Li, Zhen; Xie, Qingguo; Hu, Daoyu

    2011-03-01

    Liver tumor, one of the most wide-spread diseases, has a very high mortality in China. To improve success rates of liver surgeries and life qualities of such patients, we implement an interactive liver surgery planning system based on contrastenhanced liver CT images. The system consists of five modules: pre-processing, segmentation, modeling, quantitative analysis and surgery simulation. The Graph Cuts method is utilized to automatically segment the liver based on an anatomical prior knowledge that liver is the biggest organ and has almost homogeneous gray value. The system supports users to build patient-specific liver segment and sub-segment models using interactive portal vein branch labeling, and to perform anatomical resection simulation. It also provides several tools to simulate atypical resection, including resection plane, sphere and curved surface. To match actual surgery resections well and simulate the process flexibly, we extend our work to develop a virtual scalpel model and simulate the scalpel movement in the hepatic tissue using multi-plane continuous resection. In addition, the quantitative analysis module makes it possible to assess the risk of a liver surgery. The preliminary results show that the system has the potential to offer an accurate 3D delineation of the liver anatomy, as well as the tumors' location in relation to vessels, and to facilitate liver resection surgeries. Furthermore, we are testing the system in a full-scale clinical trial.

  8. Reactor vessel support system

    DOEpatents

    Golden, Martin P.; Holley, John C.

    1982-01-01

    A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

  9. Vessel structural support system

    SciTech Connect

    Jenko, J.X.; Ott, H.L.; Wilson, R.M.; Wepfer, R.M.

    1992-10-06

    Vessel structural support system for laterally and vertically supporting a vessel, such as a nuclear steam generator having an exterior bottom surface and a side surface thereon is disclosed. The system includes a bracket connected to the bottom surface. A support column is pivotally connected to the bracket for vertically supporting the steam generator. The system also includes a base pad assembly connected pivotally to the support column for supporting the support column and the steam generator. The base pad assembly, which is capable of being brought to a level position by turning leveling nuts, is anchored to a floor. The system further includes a male key member attached to the side surface of the steam generator and a female stop member attached to an adjacent wall. The male key member and the female stop member coact to laterally support the steam generator. Moreover, the system includes a snubber assembly connected to the side surface of the steam generator and also attached to the adjacent wall for dampening lateral movement of the steam generator. In addition, the system includes a restraining member of flat'' attached to the side surface of the steam generator and a bumper attached to the adjacent wall. The flat and the bumper coact to further laterally support the steam generator. 19 figs.

  10. Vessel structural support system

    DOEpatents

    Jenko, James X.; Ott, Howard L.; Wilson, Robert M.; Wepfer, Robert M.

    1992-01-01

    Vessel structural support system for laterally and vertically supporting a vessel, such as a nuclear steam generator having an exterior bottom surface and a side surface thereon. The system includes a bracket connected to the bottom surface. A support column is pivotally connected to the bracket for vertically supporting the steam generator. The system also includes a base pad assembly connected pivotally to the support column for supporting the support column and the steam generator. The base pad assembly, which is capable of being brought to a level position by turning leveling nuts, is anchored to a floor. The system further includes a male key member attached to the side surface of the steam generator and a female stop member attached to an adjacent wall. The male key member and the female stop member coact to laterally support the steam generator. Moreover, the system includes a snubber assembly connected to the side surface of the steam generator and also attached to the adjacent wall for dampening lateral movement of the steam generator. In addition, the system includes a restraining member of "flat" attached to the side surface of the steam generator and a bumper attached to the adjacent wall. The flat and the bumper coact to further laterally support the steam generator.

  11. Experiment support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, A. V.

    1977-01-01

    The Experiment Support System is a switchboard system with displays and controls. It routes electrical power to experiments M092, M093, and M171 equipment; gaseous nitrogen to the Blood Pressure Measurement System; receives biomedical data from all related equipment; routes the conditioned data signals to the Airlock Module Telemetry System and also displays (in digital or analog from) portions of that data which the crewmen must see to complete the experiment successfully. The Experiment Support System is interfaced to the M131 control panel to transfer conditioned data to the Airlock Module Telemetry System.

  12. Cryogenic support system

    DOEpatents

    Nicol, T.H.; Niemann, R.C.; Gonczy, J.D.

    1988-11-01

    A support system is disclosed for restraining large masses at very low or cryogenic temperatures. The support system employs a tie bar that is pivotally connected at opposite ends to an anchoring support member and a sliding support member. The tie bar extends substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the cold mass assembly, and comprises a rod that lengthens when cooled and a pair of end attachments that contract when cooled. The rod and end attachments are sized so that when the tie bar is cooled to cryogenic temperature, the net change in tie bar length is approximately zero. Longitudinal force directed against the cold mass assembly is distributed by the tie bar between the anchoring support member and the sliding support member. 7 figs.

  13. Cryogenic support system

    DOEpatents

    Nicol, Thomas H.; Niemann, Ralph C.; Gonczy, John D.

    1988-01-01

    A support system is disclosed for restraining large masses at very low or cryogenic temperatures. The support system employs a tie bar that is pivotally connected at opposite ends to an anchoring support member and a sliding support member. The tie bar extends substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the cold mass assembly, and comprises a rod that lengthens when cooled and a pair of end attachments that contract when cooled. The rod and end attachments are sized so that when the tie bar is cooled to cryogenic temperature, the net change in tie bar length is approximately zero. Longitudinal force directed against the cold mass assembly is distributed by the tie bar between the anchoring support member and the sliding support member.

  14. Biological Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Session MP2 includes short reports on: (1) Crew Regenerative Life Support in Long Duration Space Missions; (2) Bioconversion Systems for Food and Water on Long Term Space Missions; (3) Novel Laboratory Approaches to Multi-purpose Aquatic Biogenerative Closed-Loop Food Production Systems; and (4) Artificial Neural Network Derived Plant Growth Models.

  15. Group Support Systems (GSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamel, Gary P.; Wijesinghe, R.

    1996-01-01

    Groupware is a term describing an emerging computer software technology enhancing the ability of people to work together as a group, (a software driven 'group support system'). This project originated at the beginning of 1992 and reports were issued describing the activity through May 1995. These reports stressed the need for process as well as technology. That is, while the technology represented a computer assisted method for groups to work together, the Group Support System (GSS) technology als required an understanding of the facilitation process electronic meetings demand. Even people trained in traditional facilitation techniques did not necessarily aimlessly adopt groupware techniques. The latest phase of this activity attempted to (1) improve the facilitation process by developing training support for a portable groupware computer system, and (2) to explore settings and uses for the portable groupware system using different software, such as Lotus Notes.

  16. Steam generator support system

    DOEpatents

    Moldenhauer, James E.

    1987-01-01

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances.

  17. Steam generator support system

    DOEpatents

    Moldenhauer, J.E.

    1987-08-25

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source is disclosed. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances. 4 figs.

  18. SAS Attitude Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, J. L.; Meyers, G. F.

    1972-01-01

    A unique ground control system was designed and implemented to support and meet the stringent mission requirements of the SAS-1. The important features of the system are described with emphasis on the software used to control the orientation of the spacecraft. A summary of the system's operation during the SAS-1 mission is given along with a discussion of the performance of the software subsystems relative to the mission requirements.

  19. Advances in liver transplantation allocation systems

    PubMed Central

    Schilsky, Michael L; Moini, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    With the growing number of patients in need of liver transplantation, there is a need for adopting new and modifying existing allocation policies that prioritize patients for liver transplantation. Policy should ensure fair allocation that is reproducible and strongly predictive of best pre and post transplant outcomes while taking into account the natural history of the potential recipients liver disease and its complications. There is wide acceptance for allocation policies based on urgency in which the sickest patients on the waiting list with the highest risk of mortality receive priority. Model for end-stage liver disease and Child-Turcotte-Pugh scoring system, the two most universally applicable systems are used in urgency-based prioritization. However, other factors must be considered to achieve optimal allocation. Factors affecting pre-transplant patient survival and the quality of the donor organ also affect outcome. The optimal system should have allocation prioritization that accounts for both urgency and transplant outcome. We reviewed past and current liver allocation systems with the aim of generating further discussion about improvement of current policies. PMID:26973389

  20. Advances in liver transplantation allocation systems.

    PubMed

    Schilsky, Michael L; Moini, Maryam

    2016-03-14

    With the growing number of patients in need of liver transplantation, there is a need for adopting new and modifying existing allocation policies that prioritize patients for liver transplantation. Policy should ensure fair allocation that is reproducible and strongly predictive of best pre and post transplant outcomes while taking into account the natural history of the potential recipients liver disease and its complications. There is wide acceptance for allocation policies based on urgency in which the sickest patients on the waiting list with the highest risk of mortality receive priority. Model for end-stage liver disease and Child-Turcotte-Pugh scoring system, the two most universally applicable systems are used in urgency-based prioritization. However, other factors must be considered to achieve optimal allocation. Factors affecting pre-transplant patient survival and the quality of the donor organ also affect outcome. The optimal system should have allocation prioritization that accounts for both urgency and transplant outcome. We reviewed past and current liver allocation systems with the aim of generating further discussion about improvement of current policies. PMID:26973389

  1. Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation is planned to be a 10-15 minute "catalytic" focused presentation to be scheduled during one of the working sessions at the TIM. This presentation will focus on Advanced Life Support technologies key to future human Space Exploration as outlined in the Vision, and will include basic requirements, assessment of the state-of-the-art and gaps, and include specific technology metrics. The presentation will be technical in character, lean heavily on data in published ALS documents (such as the Baseline Values and Assumptions Document) but not provide specific technical details or build to information on any technology mentioned (thus the presentation will be benign from an export control and a new technology perspective). The topics presented will be focused on the following elements of Advanced Life Support: air revitalization, water recovery, waste management, thermal control, habitation systems, food systems and bioregenerative life support.

  2. The Circulatory System in Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Hollenberg, Steven M; Waldman, Brett

    2016-07-01

    In the cirrhotic liver, distortion of the normal liver architecture is caused by structural and vascular changes. Portal hypertension is often associated with a hyperdynamic circulatory syndrome in which cardiac output and heart rate are increased and systemic vascular resistance is decreased. The release of several vasoactive substances is the primary factor involved in the reduction of mesenteric arterial resistance, resulting in sodium and water retention with eventual formation of ascites. Management of these patients with acute cardiac dysfunction often requires invasive hemodynamic monitoring in an intensive care unit setting to tailor decisions regarding use of fluids and vasopressors. PMID:27339674

  3. [Enteral Nutritional Support in Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases].

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Ran

    2015-06-01

    Nutritional support is important because malnutrition is a major contributor to increased morbidity and mortality, decreased quality of life, increased length of hospital stay, and higher healthcare costs. Patients with gastrointestinal disease are at an increased risk of nutritional deterioration due to therapeutic dietary restriction, fasting for the diagnostic tests, loss of appetite due to anorexia or altered nutritional requirement caused by the disease itself. Therefore, it is important that gastroenterologists are aware of the nutritional status of patients and plan a treatment strategy considering patient's nutritional status. Enteral nutrition is preferred to parenteral nutrition as it is more physiologic, has fewer complications, help to prevent mucosal atrophy and maintain gut barrier function, which decrease intestinal bacterial translocation. Hence, enteral nutrition has been considered to be the most effective route for nutritional support. In this article, we will review enteral nutrition (oral nutritional supplements, enteral tube feeding) as a treatment for the patients with gastrointestinal, liver and pancreatic disease at risk of malnutrition. PMID:26087690

  4. [The liver and the immune system].

    PubMed

    Jakab, Lajos

    2015-07-26

    The liver is known to be the metabolic centre of the organism and is under the control of the central nervous system. It has a peculiar tissue structure and its anatomic localisation defines it as part of the immune system having an individual role in the defence of the organism. The determinant of its particular tissue build-up is the sinusoid system. In addition to hepatocytes, one cell row "endothelium", stellate cells close to the external surface, Kupffer cells tightly to its inner surface, as well as dendritic cells and other cell types (T and B lymphocytes, natural killer and natural killer T-cells, mast cells, granulocytes) are present. The multitudes and variety of cells make it possible to carry out the tasks according to the assignment of the organism. The liver is a member of the immune system having immune cells largely in an activated state. Its principal tasks are the assurance of the peripheral immune tolerance of the organism with the help of the haemopoetic cells and transforming growth factor-β. The liver takes part in the determination of the manner of the non-specific immune response of the organism. In addition to acute phase reaction of the organism, the liver has a role in the adaptive/specific immune response. These functions include retardation of the T and B lymphocytes and the defence against harmful pathogens. With the collaboration of transforming growth factor-β, immunoglobulins and their subclasses are inhibited just as the response of the T lymphocytes. The only exception is the undisturbed immunoglobulin A production. Particularly important is the intensive participation of the liver in the acute phase reaction of the organism, which is organised and guided by the coordinated functions of the cortico-hypothalamo-hypophysis-adrenal axis. Beside cellular elements, hormones, adhesion molecules, chemokines and cytokines are also involved in the cooperation with the organs. Acute phase reactants play a central role in these processes

  5. Bioreactor Technologies to Support Liver Function In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimkhani, Mohammad R; Neiman, Jaclyn A Shepard; Raredon, Micah Sam B; Hughes, David J; Griffith, Linda G

    2014-01-01

    Liver is a central nexus integrating metabolic and immunologic homeostasis in the human body, and the direct or indirect target of most molecular therapeutics. A wide spectrum of therapeutic and technological needs drive efforts to capture liver physiology and pathophysiology in vitro, ranging from prediction of metabolism and toxicity of small molecule drugs, to understanding off-target effects of proteins, nucleic acid therapies, and targeted therapeutics, to serving as disease models for drug development. Here we provide perspective on the evolving landscape of bioreactor-based models to meet old and new challenges in drug discovery and development, emphasizing design challenges in maintaining long-term liver-specific function and how emerging technologies in biomaterials and microdevices are providing new experimental models. PMID:24607703

  6. The liver: conductor of systemic iron balance

    PubMed Central

    Meynard, Delphine; Babitt, Jodie L.

    2014-01-01

    Iron is a micronutrient essential for almost all organisms: bacteria, plants, and animals. It is a metal that exists in multiple redox states, including the divalent ferrous (Fe2+) and the trivalent ferric (Fe3+) species. The multiple oxidation states of iron make it excellent for electron transfer, allowing iron to be selected during evolution as a cofactor for many proteins involved in central cellular processes including oxygen transport, mitochondrial respiration, and DNA synthesis. However, the redox cycling of ferrous and ferric iron in the presence of H2O2, which is physiologically present in the cells, also leads to the production of free radicals (Fenton reaction) that can attack and damage lipids, proteins, DNA, and other cellular components. To meet the physiological needs of the body, but to prevent cellular damage by iron, the amount of iron in the body must be tightly regulated. Here we review how the liver is the central conductor of systemic iron balance and show that this central role is related to the secretion of a peptide hormone hepcidin by hepatocytes. We then review how the liver receives and integrates the many signals that report the body’s iron needs to orchestrate hepcidin production and maintain systemic iron homeostasis. PMID:24200681

  7. Biological life-support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepelev, Y. Y.

    1975-01-01

    The establishment of human living environments by biologic methods, utilizing the appropriate functions of autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms is examined. Natural biologic systems discussed in terms of modeling biologic life support systems (BLSS), the structure of biologic life support systems, and the development of individual functional links in biologic life support systems are among the factors considered. Experimental modeling of BLSS in order to determine functional characteristics, mechanisms by which stability is maintained, and principles underlying control and regulation is also discussed.

  8. Extended mission life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrone, P. D.

    1985-01-01

    Extended manned space missions which include interplanetary missions require regenerative life support systems. Manned mission life support considerations are placed in perspective and previous manned space life support system technology, activities and accomplishments in current supporting research and technology (SR&T) programs are reviewed. The life support subsystem/system technologies required for an enhanced duration orbiter (EDO) and a space operations center (SOC), regenerative life support functions and technology required for manned interplanetary flight vehicles, and future development requirements are outlined. The Space Shuttle Orbiters (space transportation system) is space cabin atmosphere is maintained at Earth ambient pressure of 14.7 psia (20% O2 and 80% N2). The early Shuttle flights will be seven-day flights, and the life support system flight hardware will still utilize expendables.

  9. Systematic review: unmet supportive care needs in people diagnosed with chronic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Valery, Patricia C; Powell, Elizabeth; Moses, Neta; Volk, Michael L; McPhail, Steven M; Clark, Paul J; Martin, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Objective People with chronic liver disease, particularly those with decompensated cirrhosis, experience several potentially debilitating complications that can have a significant impact on activities of daily living and quality of life. These impairments combined with the associated complex treatment mean that they are faced with specific and high levels of supportive care needs. We aimed to review reported perspectives, experiences and concerns of people with chronic liver disease worldwide. This information is necessary to guide development of policies around supportive needs screening tools and to enable prioritisation of support services for these patients. Design Systematic searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL and PsycINFO from the earliest records until 19 September 2014. Data were extracted using standardised forms. A qualitative, descriptive approach was utilised to analyse and synthesise data. Results The initial search yielded 2598 reports: 26 studies reporting supportive care needs among patients with chronic liver disease were included, but few of them were patient-reported needs, none used a validated liver disease-specific supportive care need assessment instrument, and only three included patients with cirrhosis. Five key domains of supportive care needs were identified: informational or educational (eg, educational material, educational sessions), practical (eg, daily living), physical (eg, controlling pruritus and fatigue), patient care and support (eg, support groups), and psychological (eg, anxiety, sadness). Conclusions While several key domains of supportive care needs were identified, most studies included hepatitis patients. There is a paucity of literature describing the supportive care needs of the chronic liver disease population likely to have the most needs—namely those with cirrhosis. Assessing the supportive care needs of people with chronic liver disease have potential utility in clinical practice for facilitating timely referrals

  10. Reactor vessel support system. [LMFBR

    DOEpatents

    Golden, M.P.; Holley, J.C.

    1980-05-09

    A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

  11. Support systems design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    The integration of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) ground support systems with the new launch processing system and new launch vehicle provided KSC with a unique challenge in system design and analysis for the Space Transportation System. Approximately 70 support systems are controlled and monitored by the launch processing system. Typical systems are main propulsion oxygen and hydrogen loading systems, environmental control life support system, hydraulics, etc. An End-to-End concept of documentation and analysis was chosen and applied to these systems. Unique problems were resolved in the areas of software analysis, safing under emergency conditions, sampling rates, and control loop analysis. New methods of performing End-to-End reliability analyses were implemented. The systems design approach selected and the resolution of major problem areas are discussed.

  12. Life Support Systems Microbial Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Monserrate C.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the current microbial challenges of environmental control and life support systems. The contents include: 1) Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) What is it?; 2) A Look Inside the International Space Station (ISS); 3) The Complexity of a Water Recycling System; 4) ISS Microbiology Acceptability Limits; 5) Overview of Current Microbial Challenges; 6) In a Perfect World What we Would like to Have; and 7) The Future.

  13. Ergonomically neutral arm support system

    DOEpatents

    Siminovitch, Michael J; Chung, Jeffrey Y; Dellinges, Steven; Lafever, Robin E

    2005-08-02

    An ergonomic arm support system maintains a neutral position for the forearm. A mechanical support structure attached to a chair or other mounting structure supports the arms of a sitting or standing person. The system includes moving elements and tensioning elements to provide a dynamic balancing force against the forearms. The support structure is not fixed or locked in a rigid position, but is an active dynamic system that is maintained in equipoise by the continuous operation of the opposing forces. The support structure includes an armrest connected to a flexible linkage or articulated or pivoting assembly, which includes a tensioning element such as a spring. The pivoting assembly moves up and down, with the tensioning element providing the upward force that balances the downward force of the arm.

  14. Supporting the Work Keys System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGintry, Louis

    1999-01-01

    Seeks faculty's understanding of and support for the Work Keys System, which is designed to determine the level of skill required for an occupation, assess the level of a skill of a prospective employee, and compare the skills requirements against the skills possessed. Describes how Work Keys supports various educational philosophies and Knowles'…

  15. Tumours of the liver and biliary system

    PubMed Central

    Ponomarkov, V.; Mackey, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    In this histological classification of liver and gall bladder tumours the tumour types largely correspond to those found in man. The most common tumours in this group are liver cell adenoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and cholangiocarcinoma. ImagesFig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12 PMID:1086149

  16. Rhode Island Model Evaluation & Support System: Support Professional. Edition II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Rhode Island educators believe that implementing a fair, accurate, and meaningful evaluation and support system for support professionals will help improve student outcomes. The primary purpose of the Rhode Island Model Support Professional Evaluation and Support System (Rhode Island Model) is to help all support professionals do their best work…

  17. Perioperative nutritional support and fluid therapy in patients with liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yongliang; Tan, Haidong

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of liver dysfunction and malnutrition is common among patients with obstructive jaundice or cirrhosis, the poor nutrition status in patients with indications for hepatic resection increases the risk of postoperative complications and/or mortality. Hepatic surgery significantly affects body’s metabolism and environment. Therefore, it is very important for patients with liver diseases undergoing hepatic surgery to receive essential nutritional support and fluid therapy during perioperative period. There are several principles in nutritional support and fluid therapy that surgeons need to pay attention to, for example, time, nutritional approach, fluid volume, choice of fat emulsions and amino acids. Some issues, such as albumin and plasma application, choice of crystalloid and colloid, liver protective therapy, also need further attention. PMID:25019075

  18. The Virtual Liver Network: systems understanding from bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Henney, Adriano; Coaker, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Adriano Henney speaks to Hannah Coaker, Commissioning Editor. After achieving a PhD in medicine and spending many years in academic research in the field of cardiovascular disease, Adriano Henney was recruited by Zeneca Pharmaceuticals from a British Heart Foundation Senior Fellowship, where he led the exploration of new therapeutic approaches in atherosclerosis, specifically focusing on his research interests in vascular biology. Following the merger with Astra to form AstraZeneca, Henney became responsible for exploring strategic improvements to the company's approaches to pharmaceutical target identification and the reduction of attrition in early development, directing projects across research sites and across functional project teams in the USA, Sweden and the UK. This resulted in the creation of a new multidisciplinary department that focused on pathway mapping, modeling and simulation and supporting projects across research and development, which evolved into the establishment of the practice of systems biology within the company. Here, projects prototyped the application of mechanistic disease-modeling approaches in order to support the discovery of innovative new medicines, such as Iressa®. Since leaving AstraZeneca, Henney has continued his interest in systems biology, synthetic biology and systems medicine through his company, Obsidian Biomedical Consulting Ltd. He now directs a major €50 million German national flagship program – the Virtual Liver Network – which is currently the largest systems biology program in Europe. PMID:25574529

  19. [Remote radiation planning support system].

    PubMed

    Atsumi, Kazushige; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Yoshidome, Satoshi; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Sasaki, Tomonari; Ohga, Saiji; Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Shinoto, Makoto; Asai, Kaori; Sakamoto, Katsumi; Hirakawa, Masakazu; Honda, Hiroshi

    2012-08-01

    We constructed a remote radiation planning support system between Kyushu University Hospital (KUH) in Fukuoka and Kyushu University Beppu Hospital (KBH) in Oita. Between two institutions, radiology information system for radiotherapy division (RT-RIS) and radiation planning system (RTPS) were connected by virtual private network (VPN). This system enables the radiation oncologists at KUH to perform radiotherapy planning for the patients at KBH. The detail of the remote radiation planning support system in our institutions is as follows: The radiation oncologist at KBH performs radiotherapy planning and the data of the patients are sent anonymously to the radiation oncologists at KUH. The radiation oncologists at KUH receive the patient's data, access to RTPS at KBH, verify or change the radiation planning at KBH: Radiation therapy is performed at KBH according to the confirmed plan by the radiation oncologists at KUH. Our remote radiation planning system is useful for providing radiation therapy with safety and accuracy. PMID:23157128

  20. Decellularized liver scaffolds effectively support the proliferation and differentiation of mouse fetal hepatic progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaojun; Cui, Jing; Zhang, Bing-Qiang; Zhang, Hongyu; Bi, Yang; Kang, Quan; Wang, Ning; Bie, Ping; Yang, Zhanyu; Wang, Huaizhi; Liu, Xiangde; Haydon, Rex C; Luu, Hue H; Tang, Ni; Dong, Jiahong; He, Tong-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Decellularized whole organs represent ideal scaffolds for engineering new organs and/or cell transplantation. Here, we investigate whether decellularized liver scaffolds provide cell-friendly biocompatible three-dimensional environment to support the proliferation and differentiation of hepatic progenitor cells. Mouse liver tissues are efficiently decellularized through portal vein perfusion. Using the reversibly immortalized mouse fetal hepatic progenitor cells (iHPCs), we are able to effectively recellularize the decellularized liver scaffolds. The perfused iHPCs survive and proliferate in the three-dimensional scaffolds in vitro for 2 weeks. When the recellularized scaffolds are implanted into the kidney capsule of athymic nude mice, cell survival and proliferation of the implanted scaffolds are readily detected by whole body imaging for 10 days. Furthermore, EGF is shown to significantly promote the proliferation and differentiation of the implanted iHPCs. Histologic and immunochemical analyses indicate that iHPCs are able to proliferate and differentiate to mature hepatocytes upon EGF stimulation in the scaffolds. The recellularization of the biomaterial scaffolds is accompanied with vascularization. Taken together, these results indicate that decullarized liver scaffolds effectively support the proliferation and differentiation of iHPCs, suggesting that decellularized liver matrix may be used as ideal biocompatible scaffolds for hepatocyte transplantation. PMID:23625886

  1. Decellularized liver scaffolds effectively support the proliferation and differentiation of mouse fetal hepatic progenitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojun; Cui, Jing; Zhang, Bing-Qiang; Zhang, Hongyu; Bi, Yang; Kang, Quan; Wang, Ning; Bie, Ping; Yang, Zhanyu; Wang, Huaizhi; Liu, Xiangde; Haydon, Rex C; Luu, Hue H; Tang, Ni; Dong, Jiahong; He, Tong-Chuan

    2014-04-01

    Decellularized whole organs represent ideal scaffolds for engineering new organs and/or cell transplantation. Here, we investigate whether decellularized liver scaffolds provide cell-friendly biocompatible three-dimensional (3-D) environment to support the proliferation and differentiation of hepatic progenitor cells. Mouse liver tissues are efficiently decellularized through portal vein perfusion. Using the reversibly immortalized mouse fetal hepatic progenitor cells (iHPCs), we are able to effectively recellularize the decellularized liver scaffolds. The perfused iHPCs survive and proliferate in the 3-D scaffolds in vitro for 2 weeks. When the recellularized scaffolds are implanted into the kidney capsule of athymic nude mice, cell survival and proliferation of the implanted scaffolds are readily detected by whole body imaging for 10 days. Furthermore, epidermal growth factor (EGF) is shown to significantly promote the proliferation and differentiation of the implanted iHPCs. Histologic and immunochemical analyzes indicate that iHPCs are able to proliferate and differentiate to mature hepatocytes upon EGF stimulation in the scaffolds. The recellularization of the biomaterial scaffolds is accompanied with vascularization. Taken together, these results indicate that decullarized liver scaffolds effectively support the proliferation and differentiation of iHPCs, suggesting that decellularized liver matrix may be used as ideal biocompatible scaffolds for hepatocyte transplantation. PMID:23625886

  2. Correlative imaging of the liver and hepatobiliary system.

    PubMed

    Davis, L P; McCarroll, K

    1994-07-01

    Many imaging techniques can be used to assess the liver and hepatobiliary system. Each modality has individual strengths and limitations, which usually vary depending on the specific clinical situation. This review discusses several specific common clinical situations where imaging of the liver and biliary system is necessary and describes the various imaging options. Space-occupying liver lesions are discussed, and particular attention is paid to the assessment of liver metastasis, hepatoma, and incidentally discovered liver lesions such as hemangioma, adenoma, and focal nodular hyperplasia. The value of ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and scintigraphic techniques in this patient population is described. Isolated sulfur colloid hepatic scintigraphy is not of great value in the evaluation of these patients. Therefore, this review describes in some detail the value of physiological liver scintigraphy, including gallium and iminodiacetic acid (IDA) scanning as well as dynamic flow imaging of the liver such as hepatic artery perfusion scintigraphy and tagged red cell scintigraphy. Imaging of the biliary tree also is described. The roles of ultrasound and scintigraphy are compared and contrasted as related to the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis, common duct obstruction, and postoperative complications. PMID:7973757

  3. ELECTRICAL SUPPORT SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    S. Roy

    2004-06-24

    The purpose of this revision of the System Design Description (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the electrical support system and their bases to allow the design effort to proceed to License Application. This SDD is a living document that will be revised at strategic points as the design matures over time. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design as they exist at this time, with emphasis on those attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD has been developed to be an engineering tool for design control. Accordingly, the primary audience/users are design engineers. This type of SDD both ''leads'' and ''trails'' the design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flow down of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential in performing the design process. The SDD trails the design with regard to the description of the system. The description provided in the SDD is a reflection of the results of the design process to date. Functional and operational requirements applicable to electrical support systems are obtained from the ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' (F&OR) (Siddoway 2003). Other requirements to support the design process have been taken from higher-level requirements documents such as the ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (PDC) (Doraswamy 2004), and fire hazards analyses. The above-mentioned low-level documents address ''Project Requirements Document'' (PRD) (Canon and Leitner 2003) requirements. This SDD contains several appendices that include supporting information. Appendix B lists key system charts, diagrams, drawings, and lists, and Appendix C includes a list of system procedures.

  4. Apollo Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    With its exterior removed, the Apollo portable life support system (PLSS) can be studied. The PLSS is worn as a backpack over the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), a multi-layered spacesuit used for outside the spacecraft activity. This is a close-up of the working parts of the PLSS.

  5. Apollo Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    With its exterior removed, the Apollo portable life support system (PLSS) can be studied. The PLSS is worn as a backpack over the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), a multi-layered spacesuit used for outside the spacecraft activity. This is a wider view of the exposed interior working parts of the PLSS and its removed cover.

  6. A proposed classification system for liver metastasis from colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Petrelli, N J; Bonnheim, D C; Herrera, L O; Mittelman, A

    1984-04-01

    A proposed classification system for liver metastasis from colorectal carcinoma is presented. This proposed system utilizes the prognostic factors of the extent of hepatic involvement by metastasis at the time of laparotomy, performance status, preoperative serum alkaline phosphatase level, and the presence or absence of extrahepatic intraabdominal disease at the time of laparotomy. Because of the several different modes of treatment for liver metastasis from colorectal carcinoma, it is necessary that a liver classification system be adopted so that different treatment groups will be comparable. The proposed system utilizes the extent of hepatic involvement by metastasis at laparotomy with a division into three subsets of patients described by a Roman numeral. Roman numeral I represents less than or equal to 25 per cent involvement of the liver by metastasis; Roman numeral II represents greater than 25 per cent but less than or equal to 50 per cent involvement by liver metastasis, and Roman numeral III represents greater than 50 per cent involvement by liver metastasis. An Arabic subscript number is used to describe the patients' performance status. Alkaline phosphatase levels are described by a subscript letter with a representing less than two times normal alkaline phosphatase, b representing greater than two times, but less than four times normal levels, and c representing greater than four times normal levels. At the time of laparotomy extrahepatic intra-abdominal disease is represented by the superscript letter E. PMID:6714032

  7. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease as a multi-systemic disease

    PubMed Central

    Fotbolcu, Hakan; Zorlu, Elçin

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease. NAFLD includes a wide spectrum of liver conditions ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and advanced hepatic fibrosis. NAFLD has been recognized as a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome linked with insulin resistance. NAFLD should be considered not only a liver specific disease but also an early mediator of systemic diseases. Therefore, NAFLD is usually associated with cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and dyslipidemia. NAFLD is highly prevalent in the general population and is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The underlying mechanisms and pathogenesis of NAFLD with regard to other medical disorders are not yet fully understood. This review focuses on pathogenesis of NAFLD and its relation with other systemic diseases. PMID:27122660

  8. Liver.

    PubMed

    Kim, W R; Lake, J R; Smith, J M; Skeans, M A; Schladt, D P; Edwards, E B; Harper, A M; Wainright, J L; Snyder, J J; Israni, A K; Kasiske, B L

    2016-01-01

    The median waiting time for patients with MELD ≥ 35 decreased from 18 days in 2012 to 9 days in 2014, after implementation of the Share 35 policy in June 2013. Similarly, mortality among candidates listed with MELD ≥ 35 decreased from 366 per 100 waitlist years in 2012 to 315 in 2014. The number of new active candidates added to the pediatric liver transplant waiting list in 2014 was 655, down from a peak of 826 in 2005. The number of prevalent candidates (on the list on December 31 of the given year) continued to decline, 401 active and 173 inactive. The number of deceased donor pediatric liver transplants peaked at 542 in 2008 and was 478 in 2014. The number of living donor liver pediatric transplants was 52 in 2014; most were from donors closely related to the recipients. Graft survival continued to improve among pediatric recipients of deceased donor and living donor livers. PMID:26755264

  9. Photobioreactors in Life Support Systems.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Ines; Braun, Markus; Slenzka, Klaus; Posten, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    Life support systems for long-term space missions or extraterrestrial installations have to fulfill major functions such as purification of water and regeneration of atmosphere as well as the generation of food and energy. For almost 60 years ideas for biological life support systems have been collected and various concepts have been developed and tested. Microalgae as photosynthetic organisms have played a major role in most of these concepts. This review deals with the potentials of using eukaryotic microalgae for life support systems and highlights special requirements and frame conditions for designing space photobioreactors especially regarding illumination and aeration. Mono- and dichromatic illumination based on LEDs is a promising alternative for conventional systems and preliminary results yielded higher photoconversion efficiencies (PCE) for dichromatic red/blue illumination than white illumination. Aeration for microgravity conditions should be realized in a bubble-free manner, for example, via membranes. Finally, a novel photobioreactor concept for space application is introduced being parameterized and tested with the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. This system has already been tested during two parabolic flight campaigns. PMID:26206570

  10. The Life Support Database system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Likens, William C.

    1991-01-01

    The design and implementation of the database system are described with specific reference to data available from the Build-1 version and techniques for its utilization. The review of the initial documents for the Life Support Database is described in terms of title format and sequencing, and the users are defined as participants in NASA-sponsored life-support research. The software and hardware selections are based respectively on referential integrity and compatibility, and the implementation of the user interface is achieved by means of an applications-programming tool. The current Beta-Test implementation of the system includes several thousand acronyms and bibliographic references as well as chemical properties and exposure limits, equipment, construction materials, and mission data. In spite of modifications in the database the system is found to be effective and a potentially significant resource for the aerospace community.

  11. Mobile mine roof support system

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.C.

    1981-12-29

    A description is given of a mobile self-propelled mine roof support system employing pairs of individually self-propelled roof support units movable along opposite ribs of a mine room to follow an advancing mine face. Each support unit comprises an elongated, wheel-mounted frame positioned along the adjacent rib. Pairs of vertical jacks are connected to opposite sides of the frame, being positioned loosely, and vertically movable, within oversize openings in brackets attached to the frame. A foot plate is universally pivotally attached to the lower ends of each pair of jacks and extends across the underside of the frame. A top-supporting canopy is universally pivotally attached across the upper ends of each pair of jacks and has an overhanging portion extending cantileverly into the room toward the opposite support unit. The jacks have external flanges engagable with the brackets. When the jacks fully retract the foot plate from the mine bottom upwardly against the underside of the frame, the entire assembly including the canopies is clamped rigidly between the brackets and the underside of the frame to lock the canopies to the frame for tramming. After the pairs of jacks press the foot plates downwardly against the bottom, the jacks shift upwardly to disengage their external flanges from the brackets and to press the canopies against the mine top. In an alternate embodiment, the ends of the canopies of the opposite roof support units are interconnected by wire ropes or chains and tensioned by hydraulic cylinders to support the top at the center of the room. A horizontally swingable inbye section of the frame has at least one canopy to continuously support the top when the mining operation changes direction, as when it makes a breakthrough from one room to another.

  12. Operator Performance Support System (OPSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conklin, Marlen Z.

    1993-01-01

    In the complex and fast reaction world of military operations, present technologies, combined with tactical situations, have flooded the operator with assorted information that he is expected to process instantly. As technologies progress, this flow of data and information have both guided and overwhelmed the operator. However, the technologies that have confounded many operators today can be used to assist him -- thus the Operator Performance Support Team. In this paper we propose an operator support station that incorporates the elements of Video and Image Databases, productivity Software, Interactive Computer Based Training, Hypertext/Hypermedia Databases, Expert Programs, and Human Factors Engineering. The Operator Performance Support System will provide the operator with an integrating on-line information/knowledge system that will guide expert or novice to correct systems operations. Although the OPSS is being developed for the Navy, the performance of the workforce in today's competitive industry is of major concern. The concepts presented in this paper which address ASW systems software design issues are also directly applicable to industry. the OPSS will propose practical applications in how to more closely align the relationships between technical knowledge and equipment operator performance.

  13. Modeling Advance Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Marvin; Sager, John; Loader, Coleen; Drysdale, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Activities this summer consisted of two projects that involved computer simulation of bioregenerative life support systems for space habitats. Students in the Space Life Science Training Program (SLSTP) used the simulation, space station, to learn about relationships between humans, fish, plants, and microorganisms in a closed environment. One student complete a six week project to modify the simulation by converting the microbes from anaerobic to aerobic, and then balancing the simulation's life support system. A detailed computer simulation of a closed lunar station using bioregenerative life support was attempted, but there was not enough known about system restraints and constants in plant growth, bioreactor design for space habitats and food preparation to develop an integrated model with any confidence. Instead of a completed detailed model with broad assumptions concerning the unknown system parameters, a framework for an integrated model was outlined and work begun on plant and bioreactor simulations. The NASA sponsors and the summer Fell were satisfied with the progress made during the 10 weeks, and we have planned future cooperative work.

  14. Satellite operations support expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Satellite Operations Support Expert System is an effort to identify aspects of satellite ground support activity which could profitably be automated with artificial intelligence (AI) and to develop a feasibility demonstration for the automation of one such area. The hydrazine propulsion subsystems (HPS) of the International Sun Earth Explorer (ISEE) and the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUS) were used as applications domains. A demonstration fault handling system was built. The system was written in Franz Lisp and is currently hosted on a VAX 11/750-11/780 family machine. The system allows the user to select which HPS (either from ISEE or IUE) is used. Then the user chooses the fault desired for the run. The demonstration system generates telemetry corresponding to the particular fault. The completely separate fault handling module then uses this telemetry to determine what and where the fault is and how to work around it. Graphics are used to depict the structure of the HPS, and the telemetry values displayed on the screen are continually updated. The capabilities of this system and its development cycle are described.

  15. Intelligence supportability in future systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, Brian; Watson, Mariah; Vayette, Corey; Fiduk, Francis

    2010-08-01

    Advanced weaponry is providing an exponential increase in intelligence data collection capabilities and the Intelligence Community (IC) is not properly positioned for the influx of intelligence supportabilitiy requirements the defense acquisition community is developing for it. The Air Force Material Command (AFMC) has initiated the Intelligence Supportability Analysis (ISA) process to allow the IC to triage programs for intelligence sensitivities as well as begin preparations within the IC for the transition of future programs to operational status. The ISA process is accomplished through system decomposition, allowing analysts to identify intelligence requirements and deficiencies. Early collaboration and engagement by program managers and intelligence analysts is crucial to the success of intelligence sensitive programs through the utilization of a repeatable analytical framework for evaluating and making cognizant trade-offs between cost, schedule and performance. Addressing intelligence supportability early in the acquisition process will also influence system design and provide the necessary lead time for intelligence community to react and resource new requirements.

  16. Liver failure, life support, family support, and palliation: an inside story.

    PubMed

    Guy, Victoria

    2006-09-01

    My sister was admitted to the intensive-care-unit (ICU) five months before she died. At the time of admission her life-support wishes were not discussed with her. During her time in the ICU, we, the family, were given hope that she may survive. As with most families, we wanted my sister to live. During her progression from ICU to step-down unit to ward unit, the plan of care was not discussed, and goals were not set. Many medical teams were involved in my sister's care, and many looked at individual body parts instead of the whole person. I am a Registered Nurse at the same hospital where my sister was being cared for. Through many family meetings I was regarded as a medical professional, not as a sister. Knowing the medical system yet going through this as a family member has given me the opportunity to gain insight into what should have happened. If code status had been discussed we would have known my sisters wishes. If relevant literature pertaining to her disease and her slim chance of recovery had been brought to our attention, my sister could have died at home as she wished, and perhaps could have lived her final days in comfort. PMID:16990092

  17. Regenerative life support system research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Sections on modeling, experimental activities during the grant period, and topics under consideration for the future are contained. The sessions contain discussions of: four concurrent modeling approaches that were being integrated near the end of the period (knowledge-based modeling support infrastructure and data base management, object-oriented steady state simulations for three concepts, steady state mass-balance engineering tradeoff studies, and object-oriented time-step, quasidynamic simulations of generic concepts); interdisciplinary research activities, beginning with a discussion of RECON lab development and use, and followed with discussions of waste processing research, algae studies and subsystem modeling, low pressure growth testing of plants, subsystem modeling of plants, control of plant growth using lighting and CO2 supply as variables, search for and development of lunar soil simulants, preliminary design parameters for a lunar base life support system, and research considerations for food processing in space; and appendix materials, including a discussion of the CELSS Conference, detailed analytical equations for mass-balance modeling, plant modeling equations, and parametric data on existing life support systems for use in modeling.

  18. Advanced support systems development and supporting technologies for Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, William E.; Li, Ku-Yen; Yaws, Carl L.; Mei, Harry T.; Nguyen, Vinh D.; Chu, Hsing-Wei

    1994-01-01

    A methyl acetate reactor was developed to perform a subscale kinetic investigation in the design and optimization of a full-scale metabolic simulator for long term testing of life support systems. Other tasks in support of the closed ecological life support system test program included: (1) heating, ventilation and air conditioning analysis of a variable pressure growth chamber, (2) experimental design for statistical analysis of plant crops, (3) resource recovery for closed life support systems, and (4) development of data acquisition software for automating an environmental growth chamber.

  19. Systems proteomics of liver mitochondria function.

    PubMed

    Williams, Evan G; Wu, Yibo; Jha, Pooja; Dubuis, Sébastien; Blattmann, Peter; Argmann, Carmen A; Houten, Sander M; Amariuta, Tiffany; Wolski, Witold; Zamboni, Nicola; Aebersold, Ruedi; Auwerx, Johan

    2016-06-10

    Recent improvements in quantitative proteomics approaches, including Sequential Window Acquisition of all Theoretical Mass Spectra (SWATH-MS), permit reproducible large-scale protein measurements across diverse cohorts. Together with genomics, transcriptomics, and other technologies, transomic data sets can be generated that permit detailed analyses across broad molecular interaction networks. Here, we examine mitochondrial links to liver metabolism through the genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome of 386 individuals in the BXD mouse reference population. Several links were validated between genetic variants toward transcripts, proteins, metabolites, and phenotypes. Among these, sequence variants in Cox7a2l alter its protein's activity, which in turn leads to downstream differences in mitochondrial supercomplex formation. This data set demonstrates that the proteome can now be quantified comprehensively, serving as a key complement to transcriptomics, genomics, and metabolomics--a combination moving us forward in complex trait analysis. PMID:27284200

  20. Hepatic nervous system and neurobiology of the liver.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kendal Jay; Alpini, Gianfranco; Glaser, Shannon

    2013-04-01

    The liver has a nervous system containing both afferent and efferent neurons that are involved in a number of processes. The afferent arm includes the sensation of lipids, glucose, and metabolites (after eating and drinking) and triggers the nervous system to make appropriate physiological changes. The efferent arm is essential for metabolic regulation, modulation of fibrosis and biliary function and the control of a number of other processes. Experimental models have helped us to establish how: (i) the liver is innervated by the autonomic nervous system; and (ii) the cell types that are involved in these processes. Thus, the liver acts as both a sensor and effector that is influenced by neurological signals and ablation. Understanding these processes hold significant implications in disease processes such as diabetes and obesity, which are influenced by appetite and hormonal signals. PMID:23720325

  1. Systems simulations supporting NASA telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, F. W., Jr.; Pennington, J. E.

    1987-01-01

    Two simulation and analysis environments have been developed to support telerobotics research at the Langley Research Center. One is a high-fidelity, nonreal-time, interactive model called ROBSIM, which combines user-generated models of workspace environment, robots, and loads into a working system and simulates the interaction among the system components. Models include user-specified actuator, sensor, and control parameters, as well as kinematic and dynamic characteristics. Kinematic, dynamic, and response analyses can be selected, with system configuration, task trajectories, and arm states displayed using computer graphics. The second environment is a real-time, manned Telerobotic Systems Simulation (TRSS) which uses the facilities of the Intelligent Systems Research Laboratory (ISRL). It utilizes a hierarchical structure of functionally distributed computers communicating over both parallel and high-speed serial data paths to enable studies of advanced telerobotic systems. Multiple processes perform motion planning, operator communications, forward and inverse kinematics, control/sensor fusion, and I/O processing while communicating via common memory. Both ROBSIM and TRSS, including their capability, status, and future plans are discussed. Also described is the architecture of ISRL and recent telerobotic system studies in ISRL.

  2. System Support for Forensic Inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehani, Ashish; Kirchner, Florent; Shankar, Natarajan

    Digital evidence is playing an increasingly important role in prosecuting crimes. The reasons are manifold: financially lucrative targets are now connected online, systems are so complex that vulnerabilities abound and strong digital identities are being adopted, making audit trails more useful. If the discoveries of forensic analysts are to hold up to scrutiny in court, they must meet the standard for scientific evidence. Software systems are currently developed without consideration of this fact. This paper argues for the development of a formal framework for constructing “digital artifacts” that can serve as proxies for physical evidence; a system so imbued would facilitate sound digital forensic inference. A case study involving a filesystem augmentation that provides transparent support for forensic inference is described.

  3. Skylab food system laboratory support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanford, D.

    1974-01-01

    A summary of support activities performed to ensure the quality and reliability of the Skylab food system design is reported. The qualification test program was conducted to verify crew compartment compatibility, and to certify compliance of the food system with nutrition, preparation, and container requirements. Preflight storage requirements and handling procedures were also determined. Information on Skylab food items was compiled including matters pertaining to serving size, preparation information, and mineral, calorie, and protein content. Accessory hardware and the engraving of food utensils were also considered, and a stowage and orientation list was constructed which takes into account menu use sequences, menu items, and hardware stowage restrictions. A food inventory system was established and food thermal storage tests were conducted. Problems and comments pertaining to specific food items carried onboard the Skylab Workshop were compiled.

  4. Lunar lander ground support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This year's project, like the previous Aerospace Group's project, involves a lunar transportation system. The basic time line will be the years 2010-2030 and will be referred to as a second generation system, as lunar bases would be present. The project design completed this year is referred to as the Lunar Lander Ground Support System (LLGSS). The area chosen for analysis encompasses a great number of vehicles and personnel. The design of certain elements of the overall lunar mission are complete projects in themselves. For this reason the project chosen for the Senior Aerospace Design is the design of specific servicing vehicles and additions or modifications to existing vehicles for the area of concern involving servicing and maintenance of the lunar lander while on the surface.

  5. Guidelines for specialized nutritional and metabolic support in the critically-ill patient: update. Consensus SEMICYUC-SENPE: liver failure and liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Montejo González, J C; Mesejo, A; Bonet Saris, A

    2011-11-01

    Patients with liver failure have a high prevalence of malnutrition, which is related to metabolic abnormalities due to the liver disease, reduced nutrient intake and alterations in digestive function, among other factors. In general, in patients with liver failure, metabolic and nutritional support should aim to provide adequate nutrient intake and, at the same time, to contribute to patients' recovery through control or reversal of metabolic alterations. In critically-ill patients with liver failure, current knowledge indicates that the organ failure is not the main factor to be considered when choosing the nutritional regimen. As in other critically-ill patients, the enteral route should be used whenever possible. The composition of the nutritional formula should be adapted to the patient's metabolic stress. Despite the physiopathological basis classically described by some authors who consider amino acid imbalance to be a triggering factor and key element in maintaining encephalopathy, there are insufficient data to recommend "specific" solutions (branched-chain amino acid-enriched with low aromatic amino acids) as part of nutritional support in patients with acute liver failure. In patients undergoing liver transplantation, nutrient intake should be started early in the postoperative period through transpyloric access. Prevention of the hepatic alterations associated with nutritional support should also be considered in distinct clinical scenarios. PMID:22411515

  6. Lunar lander ground support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The design of the Lunar Lander Ground Support System (LLGSS) is examined. The basic design time line is around 2010 to 2030 and is referred to as a second generation system, as lunar bases and equipment would have been present. Present plans for lunar colonization call for a phased return of personnel and materials to the moons's surface. During settlement of lunar bases, the lunar lander is stationary in a very hostile environment and would have to be in a state of readiness for use in case of an emergency. Cargo and personnel would have to be removed from the lander and transported to a safe environment at the lunar base. An integrated system is required to perform these functions. These needs are addressed which center around the design of a lunar lander servicing system. The servicing system could perform several servicing functions to the lander in addition to cargo servicing. The following were considered: (1) reliquify hydrogen boiloff; (2) supply power; and (3) remove or add heat as necessary. The final design incorporates both original designs and existing vehicles and equipment on the surface of the moon at the time considered. The importance of commonality is foremost in the design of any lunar machinery.

  7. Systems engineering considerations for operational support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aller, Robert O.

    1993-01-01

    Operations support as considered here is the infrastructure of people, procedures, facilities and systems that provide NASA with the capability to conduct space missions. This infrastructure involves most of the Centers but is concentrated principally at the Johnson Space Center, the Kennedy Space Center, the Goddard Space Flight Center, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. It includes mission training and planning, launch and recovery, mission control, tracking, communications, data retrieval and data processing.

  8. LiverCancerMarkerRIF: a liver cancer biomarker interactive curation system combining text mining and expert annotations

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Hong-Jie; Wu, Johnny Chi-Yang; Lin, Wei-San; Reyes, Aaron James F.; dela Rosa, Mira Anne C.; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han; Hsu, Wen-Lian

    2014-01-01

    Biomarkers are biomolecules in the human body that can indicate disease states and abnormal biological processes. Biomarkers are often used during clinical trials to identify patients with cancers. Although biomedical research related to biomarkers has increased over the years and substantial effort has been expended to obtain results in these studies, the specific results obtained often contain ambiguities, and the results might contradict each other. Therefore, the information gathered from these studies must be appropriately integrated and organized to facilitate experimentation on biomarkers. In this study, we used liver cancer as the target and developed a text-mining–based curation system named LiverCancerMarkerRIF, which allows users to retrieve biomarker-related narrations and curators to curate supporting evidence on liver cancer biomarkers directly while browsing PubMed. In contrast to most of the other curation tools that require curators to navigate away from PubMed and accommodate distinct user interfaces or Web sites to complete the curation process, our system provides a user-friendly method for accessing text-mining–aided information and a concise interface to assist curators while they remain at the PubMed Web site. Biomedical text-mining techniques are applied to automatically recognize biomedical concepts such as genes, microRNA, diseases and investigative technologies, which can be used to evaluate the potential of a certain gene as a biomarker. Through the participation in the BioCreative IV user-interactive task, we examined the feasibility of using this novel type of augmented browsing-based curation method, and collaborated with curators to curate biomarker evidential sentences related to liver cancer. The positive feedback received from curators indicates that the proposed method can be effectively used for curation. A publicly available online database containing all the aforementioned information has been constructed at http

  9. Bioregenerative life-support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. A.

    1994-01-01

    Long-duration future habitation of space involving great distances from Earth and/or large crew sizes (eg, lunar outpost, Mars base) will require a controlled ecological life-support system (CELSS) to simultaneously revitalize atmosphere (liberate oxygen and fix carbon dioxide), purify water (via transpiration), and generate human food (for a vegetarian diet). Photosynthetic higher plants and algae will provide the essential functions of biomass productivity in a CELSS, and a combination of physicochemical and bioregenerative processes will be used to regenerate renewable resources from waste materials. Crop selection criteria for a CELSS include nutritional use characteristics as well as horticultural characteristics. Cereals, legumes, and oilseed crops are used to provide the major macronutrients for the CELSS diet. A National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Specialized Center of Research and Training (NSCORT) was established at Purdue University to establish proof of the concept of the sustainability of a CELSS. The Biosphere 2 project in Arizona is providing a model for predicted and unpredicted situations that arise as a result of closure in a complex natural ecosystem.

  10. 49 CFR 193.2609 - Support systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Support systems. 193.2609 Section 193.2609 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2609 Support systems. Each support system or foundation of...

  11. Characterization of primary human hepatocyte spheroids as a model system for drug-induced liver injury, liver function and disease.

    PubMed

    Bell, Catherine C; Hendriks, Delilah F G; Moro, Sabrina M L; Ellis, Ewa; Walsh, Joanne; Renblom, Anna; Fredriksson Puigvert, Lisa; Dankers, Anita C A; Jacobs, Frank; Snoeys, Jan; Sison-Young, Rowena L; Jenkins, Rosalind E; Nordling, Åsa; Mkrtchian, Souren; Park, B Kevin; Kitteringham, Neil R; Goldring, Christopher E P; Lauschke, Volker M; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Liver biology and function, drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and liver diseases are difficult to study using current in vitro models such as primary human hepatocyte (PHH) monolayer cultures, as their rapid de-differentiation restricts their usefulness substantially. Thus, we have developed and extensively characterized an easily scalable 3D PHH spheroid system in chemically-defined, serum-free conditions. Using whole proteome analyses, we found that PHH spheroids cultured this way were similar to the liver in vivo and even retained their inter-individual variability. Furthermore, PHH spheroids remained phenotypically stable and retained morphology, viability, and hepatocyte-specific functions for culture periods of at least 5 weeks. We show that under chronic exposure, the sensitivity of the hepatocytes drastically increased and toxicity of a set of hepatotoxins was detected at clinically relevant concentrations. An interesting example was the chronic toxicity of fialuridine for which hepatotoxicity was mimicked after repeated-dosing in the PHH spheroid model, not possible to detect using previous in vitro systems. Additionally, we provide proof-of-principle that PHH spheroids can reflect liver pathologies such as cholestasis, steatosis and viral hepatitis. Combined, our results demonstrate that the PHH spheroid system presented here constitutes a versatile and promising in vitro system to study liver function, liver diseases, drug targets and long-term DILI. PMID:27143246

  12. Characterization of primary human hepatocyte spheroids as a model system for drug-induced liver injury, liver function and disease

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Catherine C.; Hendriks, Delilah F. G.; Moro, Sabrina M. L.; Ellis, Ewa; Walsh, Joanne; Renblom, Anna; Fredriksson Puigvert, Lisa; Dankers, Anita C. A.; Jacobs, Frank; Snoeys, Jan; Sison-Young, Rowena L.; Jenkins, Rosalind E.; Nordling, Åsa; Mkrtchian, Souren; Park, B. Kevin; Kitteringham, Neil R.; Goldring, Christopher E. P.; Lauschke, Volker M.; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Liver biology and function, drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and liver diseases are difficult to study using current in vitro models such as primary human hepatocyte (PHH) monolayer cultures, as their rapid de-differentiation restricts their usefulness substantially. Thus, we have developed and extensively characterized an easily scalable 3D PHH spheroid system in chemically-defined, serum-free conditions. Using whole proteome analyses, we found that PHH spheroids cultured this way were similar to the liver in vivo and even retained their inter-individual variability. Furthermore, PHH spheroids remained phenotypically stable and retained morphology, viability, and hepatocyte-specific functions for culture periods of at least 5 weeks. We show that under chronic exposure, the sensitivity of the hepatocytes drastically increased and toxicity of a set of hepatotoxins was detected at clinically relevant concentrations. An interesting example was the chronic toxicity of fialuridine for which hepatotoxicity was mimicked after repeated-dosing in the PHH spheroid model, not possible to detect using previous in vitro systems. Additionally, we provide proof-of-principle that PHH spheroids can reflect liver pathologies such as cholestasis, steatosis and viral hepatitis. Combined, our results demonstrate that the PHH spheroid system presented here constitutes a versatile and promising in vitro system to study liver function, liver diseases, drug targets and long-term DILI. PMID:27143246

  13. Facility Systems, Ground Support Systems, and Ground Support Equipment General Design Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaxton, Eric A.; Mathews, Roger E.

    2014-01-01

    This standard establishes requirements and guidance for design and fabrication of ground systems (GS) that includes: ground support equipment (GSE), ground support systems (GSS), and facility ground support systems (F GSS) to provide uniform methods and processes for design and development of robust, safe, reliable, maintainable, supportable, and cost-effective GS in support of space flight and institutional programs and projects.

  14. DECISION-SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR DIAGNOSTICS RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Phase 1 of this research, we will identify existing tools, methods, and models available to support establishment of cause-effect relationships. In Phase 2, we will investigate existing decision support systems and produce an appropriate decision support system design. Based ...

  15. Professional Growth & Support System Self-Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resource Strategies, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The "Professional Growth & Support System Self-Assessment" is designed to help school systems evaluate their current Professional Growth & Support strategy. The self-assessment is organized around the "Eight Principles of Strategic Professional Growth & Support." Each section allows school leaders to identify the…

  16. Controlled Ecological Life Support System - CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sager, John C.

    1992-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Program, a NASA effort to develop bioregenerative systems which provide required life support elements for crews on long duration space missions or extraterrestrial planetary colonizations, is briefly discussed. The CELSS analytical requirements are defined in relation to the life support objectives and priorities of a CELSS. The first phase of the CELSS Breadboard Concept is shown.

  17. The Effectiveness of a Novel Cartridge-Based Bioreactor Design in Supporting Liver Cells

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Mei; Hammond, Paul

    2009-01-01

    There are a number of applications—ranging from temporary strategies for organ failure to pharmaceutical testing—that rely on effective bioreactor designs. The significance of these devices is that they provide an environment for maintaining cells in a way that allows them to perform key cellular and tissue functions. In the current study, a novel cartridge-based bioreactor was developed and evaluated. Its unique features include its capacity for cell support and the adaptable design of its cellular space. Specifically, it is able to accommodate functional and reasonably sized tissue (>2.0 × 108 cells), and can be easily modified to support a range of anchorage-dependent cells. To evaluate its efficacy, it was applied to liver support in the current study. This involved evaluating the performance of rat primary hepatocytes within the unique cartridges in culture—sans bioreactor—and after being loaded within the novel bioreactor. Compared to collagen sandwich culture functional controls, hepatocytes within the unique cartridge design demonstrated significantly higher albumin production and urea secretion rates when cultured under dynamic flow conditions—reaching peak values of 170 ± 22 μg/106 cells/day and 195 ± 18 μg/106 cells/day, respectively. The bioreactor's effectiveness in supporting live and functioning primary hepatocytes is also presented. Cell viability at the end of 15 days of culture in the new bioreactor was 84 ± 18%, suggesting that the new design is effective in maintaining primary hepatocytes for at least 2 weeks in culture. Liver-specific functions of urea secretion, albumin synthesis, and cytochrome P450 activity were also assessed. The results indicate that hepatocytes are able to achieve good functional performance when cultured within the novel bioreactor. This is especially true in the case of cytochrome P450 activity, where by day 15 of culture, hepatocytes within the bioreactor reached values that were 56

  18. Supportive therapies for prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence and preservation of liver function.

    PubMed

    Takami, Taro; Yamasaki, Takahiro; Saeki, Issei; Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Suehiro, Yutaka; Sakaida, Isao

    2016-08-28

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the deadliest cancers in the world and is associated with a high risk of recurrence. The development of a wide range of new therapies is therefore essential. In this study, from the perspective of supportive therapy for the prevention of HCC recurrence and preservation of liver function in HCC patients, we surveyed a variety of different therapeutic agents. We show that branched chain amino acids (BCAA) supplementation and late evening snack with BCAA, strategies that address issues of protein-energy malnutrition, are important for liver cirrhotic patients with HCC. For chemoprevention of HCC recurrence, we show that viral control after radical treatment is important. We also reviewed the therapeutic potential of antiviral drugs, sorafenib, peretinoin, iron chelators. Sorafenib is a kinase inhibitor and a standard therapy in the treatment of advanced HCC. Peretinoin is a vitamin A-like molecule that targets the retinoid nuclear receptor to induce apoptosis and inhibit tumor growth in HCC cells. Iron chelators, such as deferoxamine and deferasirox, act to prevent cancer cell growth. These chelators may have potential as combination therapies in conjunction with peretinoin. Finally, we review the potential inhibitory effect of bone marrow cells on hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:27621572

  19. Supportive therapies for prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence and preservation of liver function

    PubMed Central

    Takami, Taro; Yamasaki, Takahiro; Saeki, Issei; Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Suehiro, Yutaka; Sakaida, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the deadliest cancers in the world and is associated with a high risk of recurrence. The development of a wide range of new therapies is therefore essential. In this study, from the perspective of supportive therapy for the prevention of HCC recurrence and preservation of liver function in HCC patients, we surveyed a variety of different therapeutic agents. We show that branched chain amino acids (BCAA) supplementation and late evening snack with BCAA, strategies that address issues of protein-energy malnutrition, are important for liver cirrhotic patients with HCC. For chemoprevention of HCC recurrence, we show that viral control after radical treatment is important. We also reviewed the therapeutic potential of antiviral drugs, sorafenib, peretinoin, iron chelators. Sorafenib is a kinase inhibitor and a standard therapy in the treatment of advanced HCC. Peretinoin is a vitamin A-like molecule that targets the retinoid nuclear receptor to induce apoptosis and inhibit tumor growth in HCC cells. Iron chelators, such as deferoxamine and deferasirox, act to prevent cancer cell growth. These chelators may have potential as combination therapies in conjunction with peretinoin. Finally, we review the potential inhibitory effect of bone marrow cells on hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:27621572

  20. Support Systems for Treatment Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goense, Pauline Brigitta; Boendermaker, Leonieke; van Yperen, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This systematic review evaluates the content of effective support provided to practitioners of evidence-based interventions in order to establish and maintain treatment integrity. Method: Four articles covering six outcome studies are included in this review, these studies (1) adequately operationalized treatment integrity procedures…

  1. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... to run events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community ... Liver > Liver Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn ...

  2. Developing Information Systems for Competitive Intelligence Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohhof, Bonnie

    1994-01-01

    Discusses issues connected with developing information systems for competitive intelligence support; defines the elements of an effective competitive information system; and summarizes issues affecting system design and implementation. Highlights include intelligence information; information needs; information sources; decision making; and…

  3. Development of a New Diagnostic System for Human Liver Diseases Based on Conventional Ultrasonic Diagnostic Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Tsuneo; Nakazawa, Toshihiro; Harada, Akimitsu; Sato, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Yukio; Sato, Sojun

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, the authors present the experimental results of using a quantitative ultrasonic diagnosis technique for human liver diseases using the fractal dimension (FD) of the shape of the power spectra (PS) of RF signals. We have developed an experimental system based on a conventional ultrasonic diagnostic system. As a result, we show that normal livers, fatty livers and liver cirrhosis can be identified using the FD values.

  4. Academic Support Systems: A Networked Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingenstein, Kenneth

    1984-01-01

    Academic support systems are characterized as those activities that center around a dean's office--office automation/information systems, institutional research and electronic communication. The basic and design and implementation issues that are encountered in providing these support systems are examined. (Author/MLW)

  5. Academic Support Systems: A Networked Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingenstein, Kenneth J.

    Basic design and implementation issues encountered in providing academic support systems are examined. "Academic support systems" describes the growing class of university computing that is being developed to integrate administrative computing environments. These systems may be typically characterized by the activities that center around a dean's…

  6. Assessment of Readiness for Clinical Decision Support to Aid Laboratory Monitoring of Immunosuppressive Care at U.S. Liver Transplant Centers

    PubMed Central

    Weir, C.; Evans, R. S.; Staes, C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Following liver transplantation, patients require lifelong immunosuppressive care and monitoring. Computerized clinical decision support (CDS) has been shown to improve post-transplant immunosuppressive care processes and outcomes. The readiness of transplant information systems to implement computerized CDS to support post-transplant care is unknown. Objectives a) Describe the current clinical information system functionality and manual and automated processes for laboratory monitoring of immunosuppressive care, b) describe the use of guidelines that may be used to produce computable logic and the use of computerized alerts to support guideline adherence, and c) explore barriers to implementation of CDS in U.S. liver transplant centers. Methods We developed a web-based survey using cognitive interviewing techniques. We surveyed 119 U.S. transplant programs that performed at least five liver transplantations per year during 2010–2012. Responses were summarized using descriptive analyses; barriers were identified using qualitative methods. Results Respondents from 80 programs (67% response rate) completed the survey. While 98% of programs reported having an electronic health record (EHR), all programs used paper-based manual processes to receive or track immunosuppressive laboratory results. Most programs (85%) reported that 30% or more of their patients used external laboratories for routine testing. Few programs (19%) received most external laboratory results as discrete data via electronic interfaces while most (80%) manually entered laboratory results into the EHR; less than half (42%) could integrate internal and external laboratory results. Nearly all programs had guidelines regarding pre-specified target ranges (92%) or testing schedules (97%) for managing immunosuppressive care. Few programs used computerized alerting to notify transplant coordinators of out-of-range (27%) or overdue laboratory results (20%). Conclusions Use of EHRs is

  7. Unmanned systems win unexpected support

    SciTech Connect

    Schneiderman, R.

    1991-09-01

    A review of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is presented in which emphasis is given to recent mission accomplishments and current directions of research. Existing and new military UAV programs are listed with reference to funding, the type of vehicle, and level of development. Several trends are established including the reliance of UVAs on global positioning satellites and advanced electronics and the growth of the UVA industry. UVAs that are in advanced stages of development or have been deployed include short-range UAV such as the Pioneer, the Pointer, the Sky Owl, and the Hunter. Key UAV systems are described such as the Advanced Tactical Airborne Reconnaissance System, the Maritime Vertical Takeoff and Landing, and other VTOL systems. Very small UVAs and Exdrones are also discussed, and a weather reconnaissance system and surveillance systems are mentioned.

  8. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems and Power Systems ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Environmental Control and Life Support Systems and Power Systems - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  9. In vitro evidence in rainbow trout supporting glucosensing mediated by sweet taste receptor, LXR, and mitochondrial activity in Brockmann bodies, and sweet taste receptor in liver.

    PubMed

    Otero-Rodiño, Cristina; Velasco, Cristina; Álvarez-Otero, Rosa; López-Patiño, Marcos A; Míguez, Jesús M; Soengas, José L

    2016-10-01

    We previously obtained evidence in rainbow trout peripheral tissues such as liver and Brockmann bodies (BB) for the presence and response to changes in circulating levels of glucose (induced by intraperitoneal hypoglycaemic and hyperglycaemic treatments) of glucosensing mechanisms others than that mediated by glucokinase (GK). There were based on mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to increased expression of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), and sweet taste receptor in liver and BB, and on liver X receptor (LXR) and sodium/glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT-1) in BB. We aimed in the present study to obtain further in vitro evidence for the presence and functioning of these systems. In a first experiment, pools of sliced liver and BB were incubated for 6h at 15°C in modified Hanks' medium containing 2, 4, or 8mM d-glucose, and we assessed the response of parameters related to these glucosensing mechanisms. In a second experiment, pools of sliced liver and BB were incubated for 6h at 15°C in modified Hanks' medium with 8mM d-glucose alone (control) or containing 1mM phloridzin (SGLT-1 antagonist), 20μM genipin (UCP2 inhibitor), 1μM trolox (ROS scavenger), 100μM bezafibrate (T1R3 inhibitor), and 50μM geranyl-geranyl pyrophosphate (LXR inhibitor). The results obtained in both experiments support the presence and functioning of glucosensor mechanisms in liver based on sweet taste receptor whereas in BB the evidence support those based on LXR, mitochondrial activity and sweet taste receptor. PMID:27139261

  10. Controlled Ecological Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Averner, Maurice M.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA CELLS program is based upon the integration of biological and physiochemical processes in order to produce a system that will produce food, a breathable atmosphere, and potable water from metabolic and other wastes. The CELSS concept is described and a schematic system diagram is provided. Central to the CELSS concept is the Plant Growth Chamber, where green plant photosynthesis produces food, and aids in the production of oxygen and water. Progress to date at the Breadboard Facility at the Kennedy Space Center is summarized. The Breadboard Facility will implement the basic techniques and processes required for a CELSS based on photosynthetic plant growth in a ground-based system of practical size and results will be extrapolated to predict the performance of a full-sized system. Current available technology and near-future forecasts for plant growth techniques (focusing on maximum productivity), food sources (to select optimal CELSS plants), and waste management and contaminant control are discussed.

  11. Supporting Multiple Cognitive Processing Styles Using Tailored Support Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tuan Q. Tran; Karen M. Feigh; Amy R. Pritchett

    2007-08-01

    According to theories of cognitive processing style or cognitive control mode, human performance is more effective when an individual’s cognitive state (e.g., intuition/scramble vs. deliberate/strategic) matches his/her ecological constraints or context (e.g., utilize intuition to strive for a "good-enough" response instead of deliberating for the "best" response under high time pressure). Ill-mapping between cognitive state and ecological constraints are believed to lead to degraded task performance. Consequently, incorporating support systems which are designed to specifically address multiple cognitive and functional states e.g., high workload, stress, boredom, and initiate appropriate mitigation strategies (e.g., reduce information load) is essential to reduce plant risk. Utilizing the concept of Cognitive Control Models, this paper will discuss the importance of tailoring support systems to match an operator's cognitive state, and will further discuss the importance of these ecological constraints in selecting and implementing mitigation strategies for safe and effective system performance. An example from the nuclear power plant industry illustrating how a support system might be tailored to support different cognitive states is included.

  12. Integrated support systems for electric utility operations

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, H.W.; Imparato, C.F.; Becker, D.L.; Malinowski, J.H. )

    1992-01-01

    Power system dispatch, the real-time monitoring and coordination of transmission and generation facilities, is the focal point of power system operations. However, dispatch is just one of the many duties of the typical power system operations department. Many computer-based tools and systems are used in support of these duties. Energy management systems (EMS), the centralized, mainframe-, or mini-computer-based systems that support dispatch, have been widely publicized, but few of the other support systems have been given much notice. This article provides an overview of these support tools and systems, frames the major issues faced in systems integration, and describes the path taken to integrate EMS, workstations, desktop computers, networks and applications. Network architecture enables the distribution of real-time operations data throughout the company, from EMS to power plants to district offices, on an unprecedented scale.

  13. Controlled Ecological Life Support System. Life Support Systems in Space Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, R. D. (Editor); Smernoff, D. T. (Editor); Klein, H. P. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Life support systems in space travel, in closed ecological systems were studied. Topics discussed include: (1) problems of life support and the fundamental concepts of bioregeneration; (2) technology associated with physical/chemical regenerative life support; (3) projection of the break even points for various life support techniques; (4) problems of controlling a bioregenerative life support system; (5) data on the operation of an experimental algal/mouse life support system; (6) industrial concepts of bioregenerative life support; and (7) Japanese concepts of bioregenerative life support and associated biological experiments to be conducted in the space station.

  14. Liver lipid content of twenty varieties of laying hens from three confinement systems.

    PubMed

    Garlich, J D; Olson, J D; Huff, W E; Hamilton, P B

    1975-05-01

    Average liver lipid values were determined for 20 varieties of 71-week old laying hens managed in 3 confinement systems of the 1972-73 North Carolina Random Sample Laying Test. There were highly significant differences in liver lipid atrributable to variety, to confinement system, and a significant variety X system interaction. Four varieties had consistently high and five had consistently low liver lipid values in all 3 confinement systems. Varietymeans ranged from 25.8 to 49.0% liver lipid on a dry weight basis. Hens confined 2/cage had slight but significantly higher liver lipid than hens 7/cage or in floor pens. Liver lipid was positively correlated with body weight in hens 2/cage and in floor pens. There were no significant correlations of liver lipid with egg production or mortality. A frequency distribution of individual liver lipid values revealed a continuous distribution from 15.4 to 65.4with a pronounced skew to the right of the mean of 38.2%. Neither a fatty liver syndrome nor liver hemorrhage syndrome was reported for any of the flocks during the laying year. The normal range of liver lipid values for hens 71 weeks of age appears to be between 25 and 49 g. of lipid per 100 g. of dry liver weight. PMID:1153379

  15. Beyond the Pediatric end-stage liver disease system: solutions for infants with biliary atresia requiring liver transplant.

    PubMed

    Tessier, Mary Elizabeth M; Harpavat, Sanjiv; Shepherd, Ross W; Hiremath, Girish S; Brandt, Mary L; Fisher, Amy; Goss, John A

    2014-08-28

    Biliary atresia (BA), a chronic progressive cholestatic disease of infants, is the leading cause for liver transplant in children, especially in patients under two years of age. BA can be successfully treated with the Kasai portoenterostomy; however most patients still require a liver transplant, with up to one half of BA children needing a transplant by age two. In the current pediatric end-stage liver disease system, children with BA face the risk of not receiving a liver in a safe and timely manner. In this review, we discuss a number of possible solutions to help these children. We focus on two general approaches: (1) preventing/delaying need for transplantation, by optimizing the success of the Kasai operation; and (2) expediting transplantation when needed, by performing techniques other than the standard deceased-donor, whole, ABO-matched organ transplant. PMID:25170195

  16. Developing Sustainable Life Support System Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Evan A.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable spacecraft life support concepts may allow the development of more reliable technologies for long duration space missions. Currently, life support technologies at different levels of development are not well evaluated against each other, and evaluation methods do not account for long term reliability and sustainability of the hardware. This paper presents point-of-departure sustainability evaluation criteria for life support systems, that may allow more robust technology development, testing and comparison. An example sustainable water recovery system concept is presented.

  17. Instructional Support Software System. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Co. - East, St. Louis, MO.

    This report describes the development of the Instructional Support System (ISS), a large-scale, computer-based training system that supports both computer-assisted instruction and computer-managed instruction. Written in the Ada programming language, the ISS software package is designed to be machine independent. It is also grouped into functional…

  18. Business Management System Support Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parikh, Jay

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to develop a searchable database compiled with internal and external audit findings/observations. The data will correspond to the findings and observations from the date of Center-wide implementation of the ISO 9001-2000 standard to the present (2003-2008). It was derived and extracted from several sources and was in multiple formats. Once extracted, categorization of the findings/observations would be possible. The final data was mapped to the ISO 9001-2000 standard with the understanding that it will be displayed graphically. The data will be used to verify trends, associate risks, and establish timelines to identify strengths and weaknesses to determine areas of improvement in the Kennedy Space Center Business Management System Internal Audit Program.

  19. Advanced Group Support Systems and Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Malone, John B. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    The document contains the proceedings of the Workshop on Advanced Group Support Systems and Facilities held at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, July 19-20, 1999. The workshop was jointly sponsored by the University of Virginia Center for Advanced Computational Technology and NASA. Workshop attendees came from NASA, other government agencies, industry, and universities. The objectives of the workshop were to assess the status of advanced group support systems and to identify the potential of these systems for use in future collaborative distributed design and synthesis environments. The presentations covered the current status and effectiveness of different group support systems.

  20. Liver disease - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - liver disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on liver disease : American Liver Foundation -- www.liverfoundation.org Children's Liver Association for Support Services -- www.classkids.org Hepatitis ...

  1. Innovative secondary support systems for gate roads

    SciTech Connect

    Barczak, T.; Molinda, G.M.; Zelanko, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    With the development of the shield support, the primary requirement for successful ground control in longwall mining is to provide stable gate road and bleeder entries. Wood cribbing has been the dominant form of secondary and supplemental support. However, the cost and limited availability of timber, along with the poor performance of softwood crib supports, has forced western U.S. mines to explore the utilization of support systems other than conventional wood cribbing. The recent success of cable bolts has engendered much interest from western operators. Eastern U.S. coal operators are also now experimenting with various intrinsic and freestanding alternative support systems that provide effective ground control while reducing material handling costs and injuries. These innovative freestanding support systems include (1) {open_quotes}The Can{close_quotes} support by Burrell Mining Products International, Inc., (2) Hercules and Link-N-Lock wood cribs and Propsetter supports by Strata Products (USA) Inc., (3) Variable Yielding Crib and Power Crib supports by Mountainland Support Systems, (4) the Confined Core Crib developed by Southern Utah Fuels Corporation; and (5) the MEGA prop by MBK Hydraulik. This paper assesses design considerations and compares the performance and application of these alternative secondary support systems. Support performance in the form of load-displacement behavior is compared to conventional wood cribbing. Much of the data was developed through full-scale tests conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) at the Strategic Structures Testing Laboratory in the unique Mine Roof Simulator load frame at the Pittsburgh Research Center. A summary of current mine experience with these innovative supports is also documented.

  2. Life Support Systems Microbial Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Monsi C.

    2010-01-01

    Many microbiological studies were performed during the development of the Space Station Water Recovery and Management System from1990-2009. Studies include assessments of: (1) bulk phase (planktonic) microbial population (2) biofilms, (3) microbially influenced corrosion (4) biofouling treatments. This slide presentation summarizes the studies performed to assess the bulk phase microbial community during the Space Station Water Recovery Tests (WRT) from 1990 to 1998. This report provides an overview of some of the microbiological analyses performed during the Space Station WRT program. These tests not only integrated several technologies with the goal of producing water that met NASA s potable water specifications, but also integrated humans, and therefore human flora into the protocols. At the time these tests were performed, not much was known (or published) about the microbial composition of these types of wastewater. It is important to note that design changes to the WRS have been implemented over the years and results discussed in this report might be directly related to test configurations that were not chosen for the final flight configuration. Results microbiological analyses performed Conclusion from the during the WRT showed that it was possible to recycle water from different sources, including urine, and produce water that can exceed the quality of municipally produced water.

  3. Automated CPX support system preliminary design phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bordeaux, T. A.; Carson, E. T.; Hepburn, C. D.; Shinnick, F. M.

    1984-01-01

    The development of the Distributed Command and Control System (DCCS) is discussed. The development of an automated C2 system stimulated the development of an automated command post exercise (CPX) support system to provide a more realistic stimulus to DCCS than could be achieved with the existing manual system. An automated CPX system to support corps-level exercise was designed. The effort comprised four tasks: (1) collecting and documenting user requirements; (2) developing a preliminary system design; (3) defining a program plan; and (4) evaluating the suitability of the TRASANA FOURCE computer model.

  4. Development of a decision support tool to facilitate primary care management of patients with abnormal liver function tests without clinically apparent liver disease [HTA03/38/02]. Abnormal Liver Function Investigations Evaluation (ALFIE)

    PubMed Central

    Donnan, Peter T; McLernon, David; Steinke, Douglas; Ryder, Stephen; Roderick, Paul; Sullivan, Frank M; Rosenberg, William; Dillon, John F

    2007-01-01

    Background Liver function tests (LFTs) are routinely performed in primary care, and are often the gateway to further invasive and/or expensive investigations. Little is known of the consequences in people with an initial abnormal liver function (ALF) test in primary care and with no obvious liver disease. Further investigations may be dangerous for the patient and expensive for Health Services. The aims of this study are to determine the natural history of abnormalities in LFTs before overt liver disease presents in the population and identify those who require minimal further investigations with the potential for reduction in NHS costs. Methods/Design A population-based retrospective cohort study will follow up all those who have had an incident liver function test (LFT) in primary care to subsequent liver disease or mortality over a period of 15 years (approx. 2.3 million tests in 99,000 people). The study is set in Primary Care in the region of Tayside, Scotland (pop approx. 429,000) between 1989 and 2003. The target population consists of patients with no recorded clinical signs or symptoms of liver disease and registered with a GP. The health technologies being assessed are LFTs, viral and auto-antibody tests, ultrasound, CT, MRI and liver biopsy. The study will utilise the Epidemiology of Liver Disease In Tayside (ELDIT) database to determine the outcomes of liver disease. These are based on hospital admission data (Scottish Morbidity Record 1), dispensed medication records, death certificates, and examination of medical records from Tayside hospitals. A sample of patients (n = 150) with recent initial ALF tests or invitation to biopsy will complete questionnaires to obtain quality of life data and anxiety measures. Cost-effectiveness and cost utility Markov model analyses will be performed from health service and patient perspectives using standard NHS costs. The findings will also be used to develop a computerised clinical decision support tool. Discussion

  5. Thermodynamic Considerations in Solid Adsorption of Bound Solutes for Patient Support in Liver Failure

    PubMed Central

    Patzer, John F.

    2008-01-01

    New detoxification modes of treatment for liver failure that use solid adsorbents to remove toxins bound to albumin in the patient bloodstream are entering clinical evaluations, frequently in head-to-head competition. While generally effective in reducing toxin concentration beyond that obtainable by conventional dialysis procedures, the solid adsorbent processes are largely the result of heuristic development. Understanding the principles and limitations inherent in competitive toxin binding, albumin versus solid adsorbent, will enhance the design process and, possibly, improve detoxification performance. An equilibrium thermodynamic analysis is presented for both the Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS) and Fractionated Plasma Separation, Adsorption, and Dialysis System (Prometheus), two advanced systems with distinctly different operating modes but with similar equilibrium limitations. The Prometheus analysis also applies to two newer approaches: sorbent suspension reactor (SSR) and microspheres-based detoxification system (MDS). Primary results from the thermodynamic analysis are that: (1) the solute-albumin binding constant is of minor importance to equilibrium once it exceeds about 105 L mol−1; (2) the Prometheus approach requires larger solid adsorbent columns than calculated by adsorbent solute capacity alone; and (3) the albumin-containing recycle stream in the MARS approach is a major reservoir of removed toxin. A survey of published results indicates that MARS is operating under mass transfer control dictated by solute-albumin equilibrium in the recycle stream and Prometheus is approaching equilibrium limits under current clinical protocols. PMID:18638303

  6. Network support for system initiated checkpoints

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip

    2013-01-29

    A system, method and computer program product for supporting system initiated checkpoints in parallel computing systems. The system and method generates selective control signals to perform checkpointing of system related data in presence of messaging activity associated with a user application running at the node. The checkpointing is initiated by the system such that checkpoint data of a plurality of network nodes may be obtained even in the presence of user applications running on highly parallel computers that include ongoing user messaging activity.

  7. Mathematical Modeling Of Life-Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshan, Panchalam K.; Ganapathi, Balasubramanian; Jan, Darrell L.; Ferrall, Joseph F.; Rohatgi, Naresh K.

    1994-01-01

    Generic hierarchical model of life-support system developed to facilitate comparisons of options in design of system. Model represents combinations of interdependent subsystems supporting microbes, plants, fish, and land animals (including humans). Generic model enables rapid configuration of variety of specific life support component models for tradeoff studies culminating in single system design. Enables rapid evaluation of effects of substituting alternate technologies and even entire groups of technologies and subsystems. Used to synthesize and analyze life-support systems ranging from relatively simple, nonregenerative units like aquariums to complex closed-loop systems aboard submarines or spacecraft. Model, called Generic Modular Flow Schematic (GMFS), coded in such chemical-process-simulation languages as Aspen Plus and expressed as three-dimensional spreadsheet.

  8. Design Rules for Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2002-01-01

    This paper considers some of the common assumptions and engineering rules of thumb used in life support system design. One general design rule is that the longer the mission, the more the life support system should use recycling and regenerable technologies. A more specific rule is that, if the system grows more than half the food, the food plants will supply all the oxygen needed for the crew life support. There are many such design rules that help in planning the analysis of life support systems and in checking results. These rules are typically if-then statements describing the results of steady-state, "back of the envelope," mass flow calculations. They are useful in identifying plausible candidate life support system designs and in rough allocations between resupply and resource recovery. Life support system designers should always review the design rules and make quick steady state calculations before doing detailed design and dynamic simulation. This paper develops the basis for the different assumptions and design rules and discusses how they should be used. We start top-down, with the highest level requirement to sustain human beings in a closed environment off Earth. We consider the crew needs for air, water, and food. We then discuss atmosphere leakage and recycling losses. The needs to support the crew and to make up losses define the fundamental life support system requirements. We consider the trade-offs between resupplying and recycling oxygen, water, and food. The specific choices between resupply and recycling are determined by mission duration, presence of in-situ resources, etc., and are defining parameters of life support system design.

  9. Chip-based human liver-intestine and liver-skin co-cultures--A first step toward systemic repeated dose substance testing in vitro.

    PubMed

    Maschmeyer, Ilka; Hasenberg, Tobias; Jaenicke, Annika; Lindner, Marcus; Lorenz, Alexandra Katharina; Zech, Julie; Garbe, Leif-Alexander; Sonntag, Frank; Hayden, Patrick; Ayehunie, Seyoum; Lauster, Roland; Marx, Uwe; Materne, Eva-Maria

    2015-09-01

    Systemic repeated dose safety assessment and systemic efficacy evaluation of substances are currently carried out on laboratory animals and in humans due to the lack of predictive alternatives. Relevant international regulations, such as OECD and ICH guidelines, demand long-term testing and oral, dermal, inhalation, and systemic exposure routes for such evaluations. So-called "human-on-a-chip" concepts are aiming to replace respective animals and humans in substance evaluation with miniaturized functional human organisms. The major technical hurdle toward success in this field is the life-like combination of human barrier organ models, such as intestine, lung or skin, with parenchymal organ equivalents, such as liver, at the smallest biologically acceptable scale. Here, we report on a reproducible homeostatic long-term co-culture of human liver equivalents with either a reconstructed human intestinal barrier model or a human skin biopsy applying a microphysiological system. We used a multi-organ chip (MOC) platform, which provides pulsatile fluid flow within physiological ranges at low media-to-tissue ratios. The MOC supports submerse cultivation of an intact intestinal barrier model and an air-liquid interface for the skin model during their co-culture with the liver equivalents respectively at (1)/100.000 the scale of their human counterparts in vivo. To increase the degree of organismal emulation, microfluidic channels of the liver-skin co-culture could be successfully covered with human endothelial cells, thus mimicking human vasculature, for the first time. Finally, exposure routes emulating oral and systemic administration in humans have been qualified by applying a repeated dose administration of a model substance - troglitazone - to the chip-based co-cultures. PMID:25857839

  10. Macrophage-secreted granulin supports pancreatic cancer metastasis by inducing liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Sebastian R; Quaranta, Valeria; Linford, Andrea; Emeagi, Perpetua; Rainer, Carolyn; Santos, Almudena; Ireland, Lucy; Sakai, Takao; Sakai, Keiko; Kim, Yong-Sam; Engle, Dannielle; Campbell, Fiona; Palmer, Daniel; Ko, Jeong Heon; Tuveson, David A; Hirsch, Emilio; Mielgo, Ainhoa; Schmid, Michael C

    2016-05-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a devastating metastatic disease for which better therapies are urgently needed. Macrophages enhance metastasis in many cancer types; however, the role of macrophages in PDAC liver metastasis remains poorly understood. Here we found that PDAC liver metastasis critically depends on the early recruitment of granulin-secreting inflammatory monocytes to the liver. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that granulin secretion by metastasis-associated macrophages (MAMs) activates resident hepatic stellate cells (hStCs) into myofibroblasts that secrete periostin, resulting in a fibrotic microenvironment that sustains metastatic tumour growth. Disruption of MAM recruitment or genetic depletion of granulin reduced hStC activation and liver metastasis. Interestingly, we found that circulating monocytes and hepatic MAMs in PDAC patients express high levels of granulin. These findings suggest that recruitment of granulin-expressing inflammatory monocytes plays a key role in PDAC metastasis and may serve as a potential therapeutic target for PDAC liver metastasis. PMID:27088855

  11. HIF-1{alpha} is necessary to support gluconeogenesis during liver regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Tajima, Toshihide; Goda, Nobuhito; Fujiki, Natsuko; Hishiki, Takako; Nishiyama, Yasumasa; Senoo-Matsuda, Nanami; Shimazu, Motohide; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Yoshimura, Yasunori; Johnson, Randall S.; Suematsu, Makoto

    2009-10-02

    Coordinated recovery of hepatic glucose metabolism is prerequisite for normal liver regeneration. To examine roles of hypoxia inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) for hepatic glucose homeostasis during the reparative process, we inactivated the gene in hepatocytes in vivo. Following partial hepatectomy (PH), recovery of residual liver weight was initially retarded in the mutant mice by down-regulation of hepatocyte proliferation, but occurred comparably between the mutant and control mice at 72 h after PH. At this time point, the mutant mice showed lowered blood glucose levels with enhanced accumulation of glycogen in the liver. The mutant mice exhibited impairment of hepatic gluconeogenesis as assessed by alanine tolerance test. This appeared to result from reduced expression of PGK-1 and PEPCK since 3-PG, PEP and malate were accumulated to greater extents in the regenerated liver. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence for roles of HIF-1{alpha} in the regulation of gluconeogenesis under liver regeneration.

  12. Closed-Loop Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, John W.

    2003-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Advanced life support requirements document-high level: (a) high level requirements and standards, (b) advanced life support requirements documents-air, food, water. 2. Example technologies that satisfy requrements: air system-carbon dioxide removal. 3. Air-sabatter. 4. International Space Station water treatment subsystem.5. Direct osmotic concentrator. 6. Mass, volume and power estimates.

  13. Perspectives on Electronic Performance Support Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, Glenda Rose; Yang, Chia-Shing

    The complexity of the modern workplace means that decision makers are entertaining the idea of providing employees with software applications that are designed to provide true support and on-the-job training from the employee's desktop computer. An electronic performance support system (EPSS) is the tool that can make such training a reality when…

  14. Developing Electronic Performance Support Systems for Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Michael P.; And Others

    This paper discusses a variety of development strategies and issues involved in the development of electronic performance support systems (EPSS) for professionals. The topics of front-end analysis, development, and evaluation are explored in the context of a case study involving the development of an EPSS to support teachers in the use of…

  15. 14 CFR 417.307 - Support systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... subsystem, component, and part that can affect the reliability of the support system must have written... recording system required by paragraph (e) of this section. (d) Communications network. A flight safety system must include a communications network that connects all flight safety functions with all...

  16. QA CLASSIFICATION ANALYSIS OF GROUND SUPPORT SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    D. W. Gwyn

    1996-10-29

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to determine if the permanent function Ground Support Systems (CI: BABEEOOOO) are quality-affecting items and if so, to establish the appropriate Quality Assurance (QA) classification.

  17. Controlled Ecological Life-Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, Robert D.

    1992-01-01

    Document contains proceedings of February, 1989 meeting of Scientists of NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) program. Includes 25 scientific papers and bibliography of CELSS documents published as NASA reports.

  18. Life support systems for Mars transit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, R. D.; Kliss, M.; Straight, C.

    1992-01-01

    The structural elements of life-support systems are reviewed in order to assess the suitability of specific features for use during a Mars mission. Life-support requirements are estimated by means of an approximate input/output analysis, and the advantages are listed relating to the use of recycling and regeneration techniques. The technological options for regeneration are presented in categories such as CO2 reduction, organics removal, polishing, food production, and organics oxidation. These data form the basis of proposed mission requirements and constraints as well as the definition of what constitutes an adequate reserve. Regenerative physical/chemical life-support systems are championed based exclusively on the mass savings inherent in the technology. The resiliency and 'soft' failure modes of bioregenerative life-support systems are identified as areas of investigation.

  19. STEP-AIRSEDS System Engineering Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowell, Tom; Taliaferro, Lanny

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes and highlights the activities in support of the Space Transportation using Electrodynamic Propulsion Atmospheric Ionospheric Research Small Expendable Deployer Satellite (STEP-AIRSEDS) Project for the period of May 16, 2000 through September 28, 2001. The Alpha Technology, Inc. was tasked to provide support to the MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) in requirements development and in verification activities. Specifically, the Alpha Technology, Inc. task was to: (1) develop and maintain the STEP-AIRSEDS Project System Requirements Database; (2) develop and maintain the STEP-AIRSEDS requirements verification definition and planning support database; (3) perform requirements flow down analysis of STEP-AIRSEDS Project System Requirements to TMTC (The Michigan Technic Corporation) Level IV Requirements; (4) provide system engineering guidance to the Project as needed; (5) provide guidance to TMTC in preparation of Level IV Requirements; and (6) provide support to STEP-AIRSEDS meetings, reviews, and telecons as needed.

  20. Learning to Control Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramanian, Devika

    2004-01-01

    Advanced life support systems have many interacting processes and limited resources. Controlling and optimizing advanced life support systems presents unique challenges. In particular, advanced life support systems are nonlinear coupled dynamical systems and it is difficult for humans to take all interactions into account to design an effective control strategy. In this project. we developed several reinforcement learning controllers that actively explore the space of possible control strategies, guided by rewards from a user specified long term objective function. We evaluated these controllers using a discrete event simulation of an advanced life support system. This simulation, called BioSim, designed by Nasa scientists David Kortenkamp and Scott Bell has multiple, interacting life support modules including crew, food production, air revitalization, water recovery, solid waste incineration and power. They are implemented in a consumer/producer relationship in which certain modules produce resources that are consumed by other modules. Stores hold resources between modules. Control of this simulation is via adjusting flows of resources between modules and into/out of stores. We developed adaptive algorithms that control the flow of resources in BioSim. Our learning algorithms discovered several ingenious strategies for maximizing mission length by controlling the air and water recycling systems as well as crop planting schedules. By exploiting non-linearities in the overall system dynamics, the learned controllers easily out- performed controllers written by human experts. In sum, we accomplished three goals. We (1) developed foundations for learning models of coupled dynamical systems by active exploration of the state space, (2) developed and tested algorithms that learn to efficiently control air and water recycling processes as well as crop scheduling in Biosim, and (3) developed an understanding of the role machine learning in designing control systems for

  1. Decision support system for nursing management control

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    A knowledge representation approach for expert systems supporting decision processes in business is proposed. A description of a knowledge representation schema using a logic programming metalanguage is described, then the role of such a schema in a management expert system is demonstrated through the problem of nursing management control in hospitals. 18 references.

  2. Systemic Thinking To Support Dine Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rude, Harvey; Gorman, Roxanne

    This paper describes systemic thinking in support of the recently established Navajo Nation Rural Systemic Initiative (RSI). The RSI aims to create a standards-based student-centered teaching and learning environment in mathematics, science, and technology in the 173 elementary and secondary schools on or near the Navajo Nation, including public,…

  3. Building Bridges: Supporting Families across Service Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Kathy, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This double issue of the journal "Report" focuses on the collaboration among seven social service systems that support and serve children and families. Each of the sections discusses one of the seven systems, presents an overview essay, and profiles programs that execute the service. The first section, on education, emphasizes linkages between…

  4. Defensive And Supportive Communications In Family Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, James F.

    1973-01-01

    An evaluation of the application of Systems Theory concepts to family functioning involving 21 families provides data which demonstrates that normal families behave as adaptive systems, both in generating and reciprocating high rates of supportiveness. Information is also obtained concerning a possible cause of aggressive behavior. (RP)

  5. 1991 NASA Life Support Systems Analysis workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evanich, Peggy L.; Crabb, Thomas M.; Gartrell, Charles F.

    1992-01-01

    The 1991 Life Support Systems Analysis Workshop was sponsored by NASA Headquarters' Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) to foster communication among NASA, industrial, and academic specialists, and to integrate their inputs and disseminate information to them. The overall objective of systems analysis within the Life Support Technology Program of OAST is to identify, guide the development of, and verify designs which will increase the performance of the life support systems on component, subsystem, and system levels for future human space missions. The specific goals of this workshop were to report on the status of systems analysis capabilities, to integrate the chemical processing industry technologies, and to integrate recommendations for future technology developments related to systems analysis for life support systems. The workshop included technical presentations, discussions, and interactive planning, with time allocated for discussion of both technology status and time-phased technology development recommendations. Key personnel from NASA, industry, and academia delivered inputs and presentations on the status and priorities of current and future systems analysis methods and requirements.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF A TOXICITY TEST SYSTEM USING PRIMARY RAT LIVER CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A model in vitro rat liver parenchymal cellular toxicity system employing cells obtained by the in situ collagenase perfusion technique has been developed to detect potential liver toxicants. The initial evaluation of this test system was accomplished using cadmium chloride, chro...

  7. Support systems for mineral mining installations

    SciTech Connect

    Tengler, J.; Von Viebahn, H.E.

    1980-03-11

    A mineral mining installation has a longwall scraper-chain conveyor with a machine, such as a plough, guided for movement back and forth alongside the conveyor to win mineral from a longwall face. A roof support system which may be arranged at the ends of the longwall working, i.e., at the so-called stable zones , is composed of several units each with hydraulic props protected within cylindrical telescopic casings. Each support unit may be displaceable as a whole to follow the working progress or else each support unit may be constructed with front and rear frame assemblies which are relatively displaceable. Each support unit has at least five narrow elongate roof bars disposed closely side-by-side in parallelism. The roof bars are guided for longitudinal advancement and hydraulic rams serve to advance the roof bars individually or in groups. A similar arrangement may also be employed as the floor structure of each support unit.

  8. Support systems of the orbiting quarantine facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The physical support systems, the personnel management structure, and the contingency systems necessary to permit the Orbiting Quarantine Facility (OQF) to function as an integrated system are described. The interactions between the subsystems within the preassembled modules are illustrated. The Power Module generates and distributes electrical power throughout each of the four modules, stabilizes the OQF's attitude, and dissipates heat generated throughout the system. The Habitation Module is a multifunctional structure designed to monitor and control all aspects of the system's activities. The Logistics Module stores the supplies needed for 30 days of operation and provides storage for waste materials generated during the mission. The Laboratory Module contains the equipment necessary for executing the protocol, as well as an independent life support system.

  9. Support systems of the orbiting quarantine facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The physical support systems, the personnel management structure, and the contingency systems necessary to permit the Orbiting Quarantine Facility (OQF) to function as an integrated system are described. The interactions between the subsystems within the preassembled modules are illustrated. The Power Module generates and distributes electrical power throughout each of the four modules, stabilizes the OQF's attitude, and dissipates heat generated throughout the system. The Habitation Module is a multifunctional structure designed to monitor and control all aspects of the system's activities. The Logistics Module stores the supplies needed for 30 days of operation and provides storage for waste materials generated during the mission. The Laboratory Module contains the equipment necessary for executing the protocol, as well as an independent life support system.

  10. Controlled ecological life support system: Transportation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustan, E.; Vinopal, T.

    1982-01-01

    This report discusses a study utilizing a systems analysis approach to determine which NASA missions would benefit from controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) technology. The study focuses on manned missions selected from NASA planning forecasts covering the next half century. Comparison of various life support scenarios for the selected missions and characteristics of projected transportation systems provided data for cost evaluations. This approach identified missions that derived benefits from a CELSS, showed the magnitude of the potential cost savings, and indicated which system or combination of systems would apply. This report outlines the analytical approach used in the evaluation, describes the missions and systems considered, and sets forth the benefits derived from CELSS when applicable.

  11. Mission Requirements and Data Systems Support Forecast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This document was developed by the Flight Mission Support Office and prepared by the Forecast Analysis Section of the Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (BFEC) to provide NASA management with detailed mission information. It is one of a number of sources used in planning Mission Operations and Data Systems resource commitments in support of mission requirements. All mission dates are based on information available as of May 28, 1993.

  12. Systematic review building a preceptor support system.

    PubMed

    Goss, Carol R

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review identifies the significance of the preceptor role in affecting new graduate nurse retention. Findings from 20 research studies provide support that nurse preceptors receiving continuing education and perceiving reward and recognition from the preceptor position positively affect new graduate nurse retention. Hospital administration, nurse managers, nurse educators, preceptors, and new graduate nurses each play a role in the successful implementation of a preceptor support system. PMID:25325297

  13. Control problems in Autonomous Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombano, S. P.; Schwartzkopf, S. H.; Macelroy, R. D.

    1981-01-01

    Autonomous Life Support Systems (ALSS) are envisioned for long range permanence in space. ALSS would require little or no input of matter for extended periods of time. The design of such a system involves an understanding of both ecological principles and control theory of nonlinear, ill-defined systems. A distinction is drawn between ecosystem survival strategies and the aims of control theory. Experimental work is under way to help combine the two approaches.

  14. Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Technology Development Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Struk, Peter M.; Green, Jennifer L.; Chau, Savio N.; Curell, Philip C.; Dempsey, Cathy A.; Patterson, Linda P.; Robbins, William; Steele, Michael A.; DAnnunzio, Anthony; Meseroll, Robert; Quiter, John; Shannon, Russell; Easton, John W.; Madaras, Eric I.; BrownTaminger, Karen M.; Tabera, John T.; Tellado, Joseph; Williams, Marth K.; Zeitlin, Nancy P.

    2011-01-01

    The Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Technology Development Roadmap is a guide for developing the technologies needed to enable the supportable, sustainable, and affordable exploration of the Moon and other destinations beyond Earth. Supportability is defined in terms of space maintenance, repair, and related logistics. This report considers the supportability lessons learned from NASA and the Department of Defense. Lunar Outpost supportability needs are summarized, and a supportability technology strategy is established to make the transition from high logistics dependence to logistics independence. This strategy will enable flight crews to act effectively to respond to problems and exploit opportunities in an environment of extreme resource scarcity and isolation. The supportability roadmap defines the general technology selection criteria. Technologies are organized into three categories: diagnostics, test, and verification; maintenance and repair; and scavenge and recycle. Furthermore, "embedded technologies" and "process technologies" are used to designate distinct technology types with different development cycles. The roadmap examines the current technology readiness level and lays out a four-phase incremental development schedule with selection decision gates. The supportability technology roadmap is intended to develop technologies with the widest possible capability and utility while minimizing the impact on crew time and training and remaining within the time and cost constraints of the program.

  15. Cost analysis of life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yakut, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    A methodology was developed to predict realistic relative cost of Life Support Systems (LSS) and to define areas of major cost impacts in the development cycle. Emphasis was given to tailoring the cost data for usage by program planners and designers. The equipment classifications used based on the degree of refinement were as follows: (1) Working model; (2) low-fidelity prototype; (3) high-fidelity prototype; and (4) flight-qualified system. The major advanced LSS evaluated included the following: (1) Carbon dioxide removal; (2) oxygen recovery systems; (3) water recovery systems; (4) atmosphere analysis system.

  16. Using Visualization in Cockpit Decision Support Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Aragon, Cecilia R.

    2005-07-01

    In order to safely operate their aircraft, pilots must makerapid decisions based on integrating and processing large amounts ofheterogeneous information. Visual displays are often the most efficientmethod of presenting safety-critical data to pilots in real time.However, care must be taken to ensure the pilot is provided with theappropriate amount of information to make effective decisions and notbecome cognitively overloaded. The results of two usability studies of aprototype airflow hazard visualization cockpit decision support systemare summarized. The studies demonstrate that such a system significantlyimproves the performance of helicopter pilots landing under turbulentconditions. Based on these results, design principles and implicationsfor cockpit decision support systems using visualization arepresented.

  17. Advanced Life Support System Value Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have led to the following approach. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are considered to be exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is defined after many trade-offs. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, SVM/[ESM + function (TRL)], with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is given by SVM. Cost is represented by higher ESM and lower TRL. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of a suggested System Value Metric and an overall ALS system metric.

  18. Liver-inherent immune system: its role in blood-stage malaria

    PubMed Central

    Wunderlich, Frank; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Dkhil, Mohamed A.

    2014-01-01

    The liver is well known as that organ which is obligately required for the intrahepatocyte development of the pre-erythrocytic stages of the malaria-causative agent Plasmodium. However, largely neglected is the fact that the liver is also a central player of the host defense against the morbidity- and mortality-causing blood stages of the malaria parasites. Indeed, the liver is equipped with a unique immune system that acts locally, however, with systemic impact. Its main “antipodal” functions are to recognize and to generate effective immunoreactivity against pathogens on the one hand, and to generate tolerance to avoid immunoreactivity with “self” and harmless substances as dietary compounds on the other hand. This review provides an introductory survey of the liver-inherent immune system: its pathogen recognition receptors including Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and its major cell constituents with their different facilities to fight and eliminate pathogens. Then, evidence is presented that the liver is also an essential organ to overcome blood-stage malaria. Finally, we discuss effector responses of the liver-inherent immune system directed against blood-stage malaria: activation of TLRs, acute phase response, phagocytic activity, cytokine-mediated pro- and anti-inflammatory responses, generation of “protective” autoimmunity by extrathymic T cells and B-1 cells, and T cell-mediated repair of liver injuries mainly produced by malaria-induced overreactions of the liver-inherent immune system. PMID:25408684

  19. Regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes by local and systemic liver injuries

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yan; Hu, Bingfang; Xie, Yang; Billiar, Timothy R.; Sperry, Jason L.; Huang, Min; Xie, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Drug metabolism and disposition are critical in maintaining the chemical and functional homeostasis of xenobiotics/drugs and endobiotics. The liver plays an essential role in drug metabolism and disposition due to its abundant expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) and transporters. There is growing evidence to suggest that many hepatic and systemic diseases can affect drug metabolism and disposition by regulating the expression and/or activity of DMEs and transporters in the liver. Areas covered This review focuses on the recent progress on the regulation of DMEs by local and systemic liver injuries. Liver ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) and sepsis are used as examples of local and systemic injury, respectively. The reciprocal effect of the expression and activity of DMEs on animals' sensitivity to local and systemic liver injuries is also discussed. Expert opinion Local and systemic liver injuries have a major effect on the expression and activity of DMEs in the liver. Understanding the disease effect on DMEs is clinically important due to the concern of disease-drug interactions. Future studies are necessary to understand the mechanism by which liver injury regulates DMEs. Human studies are also urgently needed in order to determine whether the results in animals can be replicated in human patients. PMID:26751558

  20. Liver-inherent immune system: its role in blood-stage malaria.

    PubMed

    Wunderlich, Frank; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Dkhil, Mohamed A

    2014-01-01

    The liver is well known as that organ which is obligately required for the intrahepatocyte development of the pre-erythrocytic stages of the malaria-causative agent Plasmodium. However, largely neglected is the fact that the liver is also a central player of the host defense against the morbidity- and mortality-causing blood stages of the malaria parasites. Indeed, the liver is equipped with a unique immune system that acts locally, however, with systemic impact. Its main "antipodal" functions are to recognize and to generate effective immunoreactivity against pathogens on the one hand, and to generate tolerance to avoid immunoreactivity with "self" and harmless substances as dietary compounds on the other hand. This review provides an introductory survey of the liver-inherent immune system: its pathogen recognition receptors including Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and its major cell constituents with their different facilities to fight and eliminate pathogens. Then, evidence is presented that the liver is also an essential organ to overcome blood-stage malaria. Finally, we discuss effector responses of the liver-inherent immune system directed against blood-stage malaria: activation of TLRs, acute phase response, phagocytic activity, cytokine-mediated pro- and anti-inflammatory responses, generation of "protective" autoimmunity by extrathymic T cells and B-1 cells, and T cell-mediated repair of liver injuries mainly produced by malaria-induced overreactions of the liver-inherent immune system. PMID:25408684

  1. Reducing Social Disparity in Liver Transplantation Utilization through Governmental Financial Support

    PubMed Central

    Lankarani, Kamran B.; Mahmoodi, Mojtaba; Gholami, Siavash; Mehravar, Soheila; Malekhosseini, Seyed Ali; Heydari, Sayed Taghi; Zarei, Elham; Salahi, Heshmatollah; Nikeghbalian, Saman; Taghavi, Seyed Alireza; Janghorban, Parisa; Ghaffarpasand, Fariborz

    2012-01-01

    Background A high proportion of patients suffering from end stage liver disease are from low socioeconomic classes , which limits their access to liver transplantation as the most effctive treatment of this condition because of cost barrier. Objectives one of the most challenging aspects of liver transplantation is its affordability and utilization by those who need it the most. Patients and Methods Since November 2005, Iran Ministry of Health had covered 100% of the costs of in-patient liver transplantation care. To determine the effects of this policy, patterns of utilization of liver transplantation were compared before and after implementation of the policy. Group one included 112 and group two included 120 individuals who received transplantation before (from early January 2003 to November 2005) and after (from November 2005 to the end of December 2007) the legislation entered into the effect, respectively. Socioeconomic characteristics of these patients were evaluated by data collected about house and car ownership, education level, employment status, and place of residence. Results Coverage of the costs allowed more illiterate and semiliterate people (P = 0.032) as well as more unemployed or unskilled workers to receive transplantation (P = 0.021). The number of transplantations also increased in children and geriatric age group. This legislation also led to greater countrywide regional coverage of indigent patients. Conclusions This survey provides evidence that coverage of the costs by Ministry of Health was effective in reducing social discrimination in utilization of liver transplantation, and narrowed the gap between low and high socioeconomic classes in Iranian society. PMID:23300495

  2. Ion Thruster Support and Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haag, Thomas W. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A system for supporting and selectively positioning an ion thruster relative to a surface of a spacecraft includes three angularly spaced thruster support assemblies. Each thruster support assembly includes a frame which has a rotary actuator mounted thereon. The rotary actuator is connected to an actuator member which is rotatably connected to a thruster attachment member connected to a body of the thruster. A stabilizer member is rotatably mounted to the frame and to the thruster attachment member. The thruster is selectively movable in the pitch and yaw directions responsive to movement of the actuator members by the actuators on the thruster support assemblies. A failure of any one actuator on a thruster support assembly will generally still enable limited thruster positioning capability in two directions. In a retracted position the thruster attachment members are held in nested relation in saddles supported on the frames of the thruster support assemblies. The thruster is securely held in the retracted position during periods of high loading such as during launch of the spacecraft.

  3. Birds of a Feather: Supporting Secure Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Braswell III, H V

    2006-04-24

    Over the past few years Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has begun the process of moving to a diskless environment in the Secure Computer Support realm. This movement has included many moving targets and increasing support complexity. We would like to set up a forum for Security and Support professionals to get together from across the Complex and discuss current deployments, lessons learned, and next steps. This would include what hardware, software, and hard copy based solutions are being used to manage Secure Computing. The topics to be discussed include but are not limited to: Diskless computing, port locking and management, PC, Mac, and Linux/UNIX support and setup, system imaging, security setup documentation and templates, security documentation and management, customer tracking, ticket tracking, software download and management, log management, backup/disaster recovery, and mixed media environments.

  4. Advanced Life Support System Value Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have reached a consensus. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is then set accordingly. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, [SVM + TRL]/ESM, with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is the sum of SVM and TRL. Cost is represented by ESM. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of the suggested System Value Metric.

  5. Support for User Interfaces for Distributed Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eychaner, Glenn; Niessner, Albert

    2005-01-01

    An extensible Java(TradeMark) software framework supports the construction and operation of graphical user interfaces (GUIs) for distributed computing systems typified by ground control systems that send commands to, and receive telemetric data from, spacecraft. Heretofore, such GUIs have been custom built for each new system at considerable expense. In contrast, the present framework affords generic capabilities that can be shared by different distributed systems. Dynamic class loading, reflection, and other run-time capabilities of the Java language and JavaBeans component architecture enable the creation of a GUI for each new distributed computing system with a minimum of custom effort. By use of this framework, GUI components in control panels and menus can send commands to a particular distributed system with a minimum of system-specific code. The framework receives, decodes, processes, and displays telemetry data; custom telemetry data handling can be added for a particular system. The framework supports saving and later restoration of users configurations of control panels and telemetry displays with a minimum of effort in writing system-specific code. GUIs constructed within this framework can be deployed in any operating system with a Java run-time environment, without recompilation or code changes.

  6. Alisse : Advanced life support system evaluator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, Jean; Gerbi, Olivier; André, Philippe; Davin, Elisabeth; Avezuela Rodriguez, Raul; Carbonero, Fernando; Soumalainen, Emilia; Lasseur, Christophe

    Long duration missions, such as the establishment of permanent bases on the lunar surface or the travel to Mars, require such an amount of life support consumables (e.g. food, water and oxygen) that direct supply or re-supply from Earth is not an option anymore. Regenerative Life Support Systems are therefore necessary to sustain long-term manned space mission to increase recycling rates and so reduce the launched mass. The architecture of an Environmental Controlled Life Support System widely depends on the mission scenario. Even for a given mission scenario, different architectures could be envisaged which need to be evaluated and compared with appropriate tools. As these evaluation and comparison, based on the single criterion of Equivalent System Mass, was not considered com-prehensive enough, ESA is developing a multi-criteria evaluation tool: ALISSE (Advanced Life Support System Evaluator). The main objective of ALISSE, and of the work presented here, is the definition and implemen-tation of a metrics system, addressing the complexity of any ECLSS along its Life Cycle phases. A multi-dimensional and multi-criteria (i.e. mass, energy, efficiency, risk to human, reliability, crew time, sustainability, life cycle cost) approach is proposed through the development of a computing support platform. Each criterion being interrelated with the others, a model based system approach is used. ALISSE is expected to provide significant inputs to the ESA Concurrent Design Facility and, as a consequence, to be a highly valuable tool for decision process linked to any manned space mission. Full contact detail for the contact author : Jean Brunet Sherpa Engineering General Manager Phone : 0033(0)608097480 j.brunet@sherpa-eng.com

  7. Environmental Control and Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Charles; Adams, Alan

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) for the space station are presented. The ECLSS is divided into six subsystems: temperature and humidity control (THC), atmosphere control and supply (ACS), atmosphere revitalization (AR), fire detection and suppression (FDS), water recovery management (WRM), and waste management (WM). Topics covered include: ECLSS subsystem functions; ECLSS distributed system; ECLSS functional distribution; CO2 removal; CO2 reduction; oxygen generation; urine processor; and potable water recovery.

  8. Pressure vessel sliding support unit and system using the sliding support unit

    SciTech Connect

    Breach, Michael R.; Keck, David J.; Deaver, Gerald A.

    2013-01-15

    Provided is a sliding support and a system using the sliding support unit. The sliding support unit may include a fulcrum capture configured to attach to a support flange, a fulcrum support configured to attach to the fulcrum capture, and a baseplate block configured to support the fulcrum support. The system using the sliding support unit may include a pressure vessel, a pedestal bracket, and a plurality of sliding support units.

  9. Life support system development in West Germany.

    PubMed

    Skoog, A I

    1982-12-01

    The delivery of fully qualified Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLS) flight hardware for the Spacelab Flight Unit was completed in 1979, and the first Spacelab flight is scheduled for mid 1983. With Spacelab approaching its operational stage, ESA has initiated the Follow-on Development Programme. The future evolution of Spacelab elements in a continued U.S./European cooperation is obviously linked to the U.S. STS evolution and leads from the sortie-mode improvements (Initial Step) towards pallet systems and module applications in unmanned and manned space platforms (Medium and Far Term Alternatives). Extensive studies and design work have been accomplished on life support systems for Life Sciences Laboratories (Biorack) in Spacelab (incubators and holding units for low vertebrates). Future long term missions require the implementation of closed loop life support systems and in order to meet the long range development cycle feasibility studies have been performed. Terrestrial applications of the life support technologies developed for space have been successfully implemented. PMID:11541695

  10. Control Problems in Autonomous Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombano, S.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of constructing life support systems which require little or no input of matter (food and gases) for long, or even indefinite, periods of time is addressed. Natural control in ecosystems, a control theory for ecosystems, and an approach to the design of an ALSS are addressed.

  11. Life support system development in West Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoog, A. Ingemar

    The delivery of fully qualified Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLS) flight hardware for the Spacelab Flight Unit was completed in 1979, and the first Spacelab flight is scheduled for mid 1983. With Spacelab approaching its operational stage, ESA has initiated the Follow-on Development Programme. The future evolution of Spacelab elements in a continued U.S./European cooperation is obviously linked to the U.S. STS evolution and leads from the sortie-mode improvements (Initial Step) towards pallet systems and module applications in unmanned and manned space platforms (Medium and Far Term Alternatives). Extensive studies and design work have been accomplished on life support systems for Life Sciences Laboratories (Biorack) in Spacelab (incubators and holding units for low vertebrates). Future long term missions require the implementation of closed loop life support systems and in order to meet the long range development cycle feasibility studies have been performed. Terrestrial applications of the life support technologies developed for space have been successfully implemented.

  12. Electronic Performance Support Systems and Technological Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maughan, George R.

    2005-01-01

    Electronic performance support systems (EPSS) can provide alternative learning opportunities to supplement traditional classroom or training strategies. Today's students may benefit from educational settings and strategies that they will use in the future. In using EPSS to nurture the development of technological literacy, workers and students can…

  13. ROI Calculations for Electronic Performance Support Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altalib, Hasan

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the importance of calculating the return on investment (ROI) for electronic performance support systems, beginning with the practical issues of identifying what will be measured and then assigning costs and benefits to each variable in monetary terms. Suggests the challenge is in defining and quantifying the real business benefits.…

  14. Virtual Tutoring and Student Support Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geary, Jennifer Lee

    2005-01-01

    Virtual tutoring and student support systems may be pivotal in developing opportunities of equality and of outcome for students who study at a distance. Cookson (2002) mentions that it is important to assist students to have access to study programs. Cookson (2002) elaborates upon this and states, "If access is to be equitable, once they are…

  15. Environmental control and life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Charles D.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: crew generated wastes processing and reclamation; water reclamation - pre- and post-treatment; simplified waste water processing; improved trace contaminant removal; and real time microbial analysis.

  16. A Personal Multimedia System for Instructional Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Robin M.

    This paper presents a specific bottom-up implementation method for getting started with multimedia for instructional support at the personal level. Some minimal top-down design considerations for an institutional multimedia system include: (1) the instructor should be able to take work from/to the desktop to/from the classroom; (2) the capability…

  17. A Design of Electronic Performance Support Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheu, Feng-Ru

    The project described in this paper, representing the initial phases of a one-year on-going project, was organized to build a supportive environment for Instructional Systems Technology (IST) doctoral students at Indiana University-Bloomington to help them prepare for the Qualifying exams. An overview is provided of steps taken to create an…

  18. Supporting Classroom Activities with the BSUL System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogata, Hiroaki; Saito, Nobuji A.; Paredes J., Rosa G.; San Martin, Gerardo Ayala; Yano, Yoneo

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the integration of ubiquitous computing systems into classroom settings, in order to provide basic support for classrooms and field activities. We have developed web application components using Java technology and configured a classroom with wireless network access and a web camera for our purposes. In this classroom, the…

  19. Regenerative life support system research and concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Life support systems that involve recycling of atmospheres, water, food and waste are so complex that models incorporating all the interactions and relationships are vital to design, development, simulations, and ultimately to control of space qualified systems. During early modeling studies, FORTRAN and BASIC programs were used to obtain numerical comparisons of the performance of different regenerative concepts. Recently, models were made by combining existing capabilities with expert systems to establish an Intelligent Design Support Environment for simpliflying user interfaces and to address the need for the engineering aspects. Progress was also made toward modeling and evaluating the operational aspects of closed loop life support systems using Time-step and Dynamic simulations over a period of time. Example models are presented which show the status and potential of developed modeling techniques. For instance, closed loop systems involving algae systeMs for atmospheric purification and food supply augmentation, plus models employing high plants and solid waste electrolysis are described and results of initial evaluations are presented.

  20. Strategy for accurate liver intervention by an optical tracking system

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qinyong; Yang, Rongqian; Cai, Ken; Guan, Peifeng; Xiao, Weihu; Wu, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Image-guided navigation for radiofrequency ablation of liver tumors requires the accurate guidance of needle insertion into a tumor target. The main challenge of image-guided navigation for radiofrequency ablation of liver tumors is the occurrence of liver deformations caused by respiratory motion. This study reports a strategy of real-time automatic registration to track custom fiducial markers glued onto the surface of a patient’s abdomen to find the respiratory phase, in which the static preoperative CT is performed. Custom fiducial markers are designed. Real-time automatic registration method consists of the automatic localization of custom fiducial markers in the patient and image spaces. The fiducial registration error is calculated in real time and indicates if the current respiratory phase corresponds to the phase of the static preoperative CT. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed strategy, a liver simulator is constructed and two volunteers are involved in the preliminary experiments. An ex-vivo porcine liver model is employed to further verify the strategy for liver intervention. Experimental results demonstrate that real-time automatic registration method is rapid, accurate, and feasible for capturing the respiratory phase from which the static preoperative CT anatomical model is generated by tracking the movement of the skin-adhered custom fiducial markers. PMID:26417501

  1. 1992 NASA Life Support Systems Analysis workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evanich, Peggy L.; Crabb, Thomas M.; Gartrell, Charles F.

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 Life Support Systems Analysis Workshop was sponsored by NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) to integrate the inputs from, disseminate information to, and foster communication among NASA, industry, and academic specialists. The workshop continued discussion and definition of key issues identified in the 1991 workshop, including: (1) modeling and experimental validation; (2) definition of systems analysis evaluation criteria; (3) integration of modeling at multiple levels; and (4) assessment of process control modeling approaches. Through both the 1991 and 1992 workshops, NASA has continued to seek input from industry and university chemical process modeling and analysis experts, and to introduce and apply new systems analysis approaches to life support systems. The workshop included technical presentations, discussions, and interactive planning, with sufficient time allocated for discussion of both technology status and technology development recommendations. Key personnel currently involved with life support technology developments from NASA, industry, and academia provided input to the status and priorities of current and future systems analysis methods and requirements.

  2. Using Visualization in Cockpit Decision Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aragon, Cecilia R.

    2005-01-01

    In order to safely operate their aircraft, pilots must make rapid decisions based on integrating and processing large amounts of heterogeneous information. Visual displays are often the most efficient method of presenting safety-critical data to pilots in real time. However, care must be taken to ensure the pilot is provided with the appropriate amount of information to make effective decisions and not become cognitively overloaded. The results of two usability studies of a prototype airflow hazard visualization cockpit decision support system are summarized. The studies demonstrate that such a system significantly improves the performance of helicopter pilots landing under turbulent conditions. Based on these results, design principles and implications for cockpit decision support systems using visualization are presented.

  3. Web-Based Learning Support System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Lisa

    Web-based learning support system offers many benefits over traditional learning environments and has become very popular. The Web is a powerful environment for distributing information and delivering knowledge to an increasingly wide and diverse audience. Typical Web-based learning environments, such as Web-CT, Blackboard, include course content delivery tools, quiz modules, grade reporting systems, assignment submission components, etc. They are powerful integrated learning management systems (LMS) that support a number of activities performed by teachers and students during the learning process [1]. However, students who study a course on the Internet tend to be more heterogeneously distributed than those found in a traditional classroom situation. In order to achieve optimal efficiency in a learning process, an individual learner needs his or her own personalized assistance. For a web-based open and dynamic learning environment, personalized support for learners becomes more important. This chapter demonstrates how to realize personalized learning support in dynamic and heterogeneous learning environments by utilizing Adaptive Web technologies. It focuses on course personalization in terms of contents and teaching materials that is according to each student's needs and capabilities. An example of using Rough Set to analyze student personal information to assist students with effective learning and predict student performance is presented.

  4. In-flight medical support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chassay, C.; Rose, S. A.

    1977-01-01

    The In-flight Medical Support System for Skylab was designed to provide the onboard Crew Physician or Scientist Pilot (or other crewmember if the Scientist Pilot was unable to act) with information adequate to make diagnostic assessment of those injuries or illnesses most likely to occur in the Skylab environment. The necessary diagnostic, therapeutic, and laboratory equipment needed to diagnose and to render first aid, resuscitative or supportive measures was stored in the Skylab Orbital Workshop. The resupply kit containing refrigerated laboratory and drug resupply items was stored in the Command Module.

  5. Apollo 14 flight support and system performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. R.

    1971-01-01

    The Apollo 13 incident and subsequent oxygen tank redesign for Apollo 14 placed unique requirements on the flight support activity. A major part of this activity was the integration of the various analytical efforts into a single team function. Additionally, the first flight of the redesigned system without an orbital test required an extensive analytical base. The support team philosophy, objectives, and organization are presented. Various analytical tools that were used during the flight are discussed. Investigations made during the postflight period are considered and their impact upon subsequent flights shown.

  6. Situational adapting system supporting team situation awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helldin, Tove; Erlandsson, Tina; Niklasson, Lars; Falkman, Göran

    2010-10-01

    Military fighter pilots have to make suitable decisions fast in an environment where continuously increasing flows of information from sensors, team members and databases are provided. Not only do the huge amounts of data aggravate the pilots' decision making process: time-pressure, presence of uncertain data and high workload are factors that can worsen the performance of pilot decision making. In this paper, initial ideas of how to support the pilots accomplishing their tasks are presented. Results from interviews with two fighter pilots are described as well as a discussion about how these results can guide the design of a military fighter pilot decision support system, with focus on team cooperation.

  7. Supporting multiple control systems at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Nicklaus, Dennis J.; /Fermilab

    2009-10-01

    The Fermilab control system, ACNET, is used for controlling the Tevatron and all of its pre-accelerators. However, other smaller experiments at Fermilab have been using different controls systems, in particular DOOCS and EPICS. This paper reports some of the steps taken at Fermilab to integrate support for these outside systems. We will describe specific tools that we have built or adapted to facilitate interaction between the architectures. We also examine some of the difficulties that arise from managing this heterogeneous environment. Incompatibilities as well as common elements will be described.

  8. Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majumdar, M.

    1985-01-01

    One of the major problems facing researchers in the design of a life support system is to construct it so that it will be capable of regulating waste materials and gases, while at the same time supporting the inhabitants with adequate food and oxygen. The basis of any gaseous life supporting cycle is autotrophs (plants that photosynthesize). The major problem is to get the respiratory quotient (RQ) of the animals to be equivalent to the assimilatory quotient (AQ) of the plants. A technique is being developed to control the gas exchange. The goal is to determine the feasibility of manipulating the plant's AQ by altering the plants environment in order to eliminate the mismatch between the plant's AQ and the animal's RQ.

  9. Life Support Systems for Lunar Landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly

    2008-01-01

    Engineers designing life support systems for NASA s next Lunar Landers face unique challenges. As with any vehicle that enables human spaceflight, the needs of the crew drive most of the lander requirements. The lander is also a key element of the architecture NASA will implement in the Constellation program. Many requirements, constraints, or optimization goals will be driven by interfaces with other projects, like the Crew Exploration Vehicle, the Lunar Surface Systems, and the Extravehicular Activity project. Other challenges in the life support system will be driven by the unique location of the vehicle in the environments encountered throughout the mission. This paper examines several topics that may be major design drivers for the lunar lander life support system. There are several functional requirements for the lander that may be different from previous vehicles or programs and recent experience. Some of the requirements or design drivers will change depending on the overall Lander configuration. While the configuration for a lander design is not fixed, designers can examine how these issues would impact their design and be prepared for the quick design iterations required to optimize a spacecraft.

  10. Impact of model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scoring system on pathological findings at and after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Khettry, Urmila; Azabdaftari, Gissou; Simpson, Mary Ann; Pomfret, Elizabeth A; Pomposelli, James J; Lewis, W David; Jenkins, Roger L; Gordon, Fredric D

    2006-06-01

    The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scoring system, a validated objective liver disease severity scale, was adopted in February 2002 to allocate cadaveric organs for liver transplantation (LT). To improve transplantability before succumbing to advanced disease, patients with low-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are given extra points in this system commensurate with their predicted mortality. Our aims were to determine 1) any change in the pathological findings at LT following the implementation of this system and 2) the impact of scoring advantage given to early-stage HCC. Clinicopathologic findings were compared before (pre-MELD, n = 87) and after (MELD, n = 58) the introduction of the MELD system. The findings in the pre-MELD vs. MELD groups were as follows: HCC, 27.5% vs. 48.3% (P = 0.001); portal vein thrombosis (PVT), 13.7% vs. 25.9% (P = 0.08); cholestasis, 16.1% vs. 32.7% (P = 0.026); inflammation grade of 2 or more, 43.7% vs. 48.3% (P = not significant); hepatitis C (HCV), 45.9% vs. 51.7% (P = not significant); HCV with lymphoid aggregates, 25% vs. 60% (P = 0.003); HCV with hyperplastic hilar nodes, 15.0% vs. 36.6% (P = 0.001); and post-LT HCC recurrence, 4.1% vs. 3.4% (P = not significant). Non-HCC-related findings were further compared in the 2 subgroups of pre-MELD (n = 57) and MELD (n = 31) after exclusion of HCC and fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) cases, and only cholestasis was significantly increased in the subgroup MELD. In conclusion, increased incidence of native liver cholestasis in the MELD era may be the histologic correlate of clinically severe liver disease. The scoring advantage given to low-stage HCC did result in a significantly increased incidence of HCC in the MELD group, but it did not adversely affect the post-LT recurrence rate. PMID:16598742

  11. Nuclear reactor pressure vessel support system

    DOEpatents

    Sepelak, George R.

    1978-01-01

    A support system for nuclear reactor pressure vessels which can withstand all possible combinations of stresses caused by a postulated core disrupting accident during reactor operation. The nuclear reactor pressure vessel is provided with a flange around the upper periphery thereof, and the flange includes an annular vertical extension formed integral therewith. A support ring is positioned atop of the support ledge and the flange vertical extension, and is bolted to both members. The plug riser is secured to the flange vertical extension and to the top of a radially outwardly extension of the rotatable plug. This system eliminates one joint through which fluids contained in the vessel could escape by making the fluid flow path through the joint between the flange and the support ring follow the same path through which fluid could escape through the plug risers. In this manner, the sealing means to prohibit the escape of contained fluids through the plug risers can also prohibit the escape of contained fluid through the securing joint.

  12. Decision support system for theater missile defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonsalves, Paul; Burge, Janet; Popp, Ben

    2003-08-01

    Military services require C4I systems that support a full spectrum of operations. This is specifically relevant to the theatre missile defense (TMD) mission planning and analysis community where there have been several recent concept changes; advancements in information technology, sensors, and weapons; and expansion in the diversity and capabilities of potential adversaries. To fully support campaign development and analysis in this new environment, there is a need for systems and tools that enhance understanding of adversarial behavior, assess potential threat capabilities and vulnerabilities, perform C4I system trades, and provide methods to identify macro-level novel or emergent combat tactics and behavior derived from simpler micro-level rules. Such systems must also be interactive, collaborative, and semi-autonomous, providing the INTEL analyst with the means for exploration and potential exploitation of novel enemy behavior patterns. To address these issues we have developed an Intelligent Threat Assessment Processor (ITAP) to provide prediction and interpretation of enemy courses of actions (eCOAs) for the TMD domain. This system uses a combination of genetic algorithm-based optimization in tandem with the spatial analysis and visualization capabilities of a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) geographic information system to generate and evaluate potential eCOAs.

  13. Light Machines Operator Performance Support System

    SciTech Connect

    Bohley, M.C.

    1998-06-15

    The objective of this project was to create a multimedia operator performance support system (OPSS) shell that would provide a framework for delivering appropriate information to the student/novice machine tool user just when needed and in the most appropriate form. In addition, the program was designed so that it could be expanded and further developed by Light Machines personnel. The expertise of AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (ASFM and T) in the areas of performance support system design and multimedia creation was employed to create the most user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) while providing access to key topical areas. Light Machines provided a subject matter expert from their technical services group in order to provide the needed information for structuring the OPSS shell. They also provided a Benchman VMC 4000 machine tool at the ASFM and T New Mexico location as well as specific instruction on the safe and effective use of that machine tool.

  14. ESRP2 controls an adult splicing programme in hepatocytes to support postnatal liver maturation.

    PubMed

    Bhate, Amruta; Parker, Darren J; Bebee, Thomas W; Ahn, Jaegyoon; Arif, Waqar; Rashan, Edrees H; Chorghade, Sandip; Chau, Anthony; Lee, Jae-Hyung; Anakk, Sayeepriyadarshini; Carstens, Russ P; Xiao, Xinshu; Kalsotra, Auinash

    2015-01-01

    Although major genetic networks controlling early liver specification and morphogenesis are known, the mechanisms responsible for postnatal hepatic maturation are poorly understood. Here we employ global analyses of the mouse liver transcriptome to demonstrate that postnatal remodelling of the liver is accompanied by large-scale transcriptional and post-transcriptional transitions that are cell-type-specific and temporally coordinated. Combining detailed expression analyses with gain- and loss-of-function studies, we identify epithelial splicing regulatory protein 2 (ESRP2) as a conserved regulatory factor that controls the neonatal-to-adult switch of ∼20% of splice isoforms in mouse and human hepatocytes. The normal shift in splicing coincides tightly with dramatic postnatal induction of ESRP2 in hepatocytes. We further demonstrate that forced expression of ESRP2 in immature mouse and human hepatocytes is sufficient to drive a reciprocal shift in splicing and causes various physiological abnormalities. These findings define a direct role for ESRP2 in the generation of conserved repertoires of adult splice isoforms that facilitate terminal differentiation and maturation of hepatocytes. PMID:26531099

  15. The Controlled Ecological Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, K.

    1985-01-01

    A Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) is needed which would convert waste water to usable water, waste products to food, and CO2 to O2 to permit long duration space flight. Algae, representing the autotroph, and mice, representing the heterotroph are placed together in a controlled, gas closed environment to examine the gas exchange rate of O2 and CO2. The eventual goal is to develop biological controls that can stabilize atmospheres.

  16. Computer systems to support census geography.

    PubMed

    Deecker, G; Cunningham, R; Kidd, K

    1986-01-01

    The development of computer systems that support the geography of the census in Canada is described. The authors "present proposals for the 1991 Census that increase the level of automation, whether the geography changes or not. In addition, opportunities for change and improvement, should the geography change, are outlined. To minimize the risks involved, it is important to give these different proposals serious consideration early in the planning of a census." PMID:12341362

  17. Clinical Decision Support Systems for Ambulatory Care

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Stephen C.

    1984-01-01

    This conference serves to further the state of the art in the application of computers to medical care via a forum for the intercommunication of ideas. Papers discuss the experiences of diverse research projects. It is the purpose of this article to review the major developments in ambulatory care decision support. From this vantage point, the major impediments to broad applicability of information systems are discussed. The DUCHESS Medical Information Management System is then described as a step towards overcoming these obstacles. Two distinct but often overlapping issues are the representation of the data and its subsequent manipulation: records vs. knowledge. The complexity of the medical record requires state-of-the-art computer science. Clinical decision support requires flexible means for representing medical knowledge and the ability to input “rules.” Artificial intelligence has provided tools for simulating the decision making processes. A sample of the major systems are contrasted and compared. In the realm of medical records COSTAR, TMR, SCAMP, HELP, and STOR are considered. In clinical decision support CADEUCUS, REGENSTRIEF, PKC, and DUCHESS are reviewed.

  18. Telescience Support Center Data System Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Hasan

    2010-01-01

    The Telescience Support Center (TSC) team has developed a databasedriven, increment-specific Data Require - ment Document (DRD) generation tool that automates much of the work required for generating and formatting the DRD. It creates a database to load the required changes to configure the TSC data system, thus eliminating a substantial amount of labor in database entry and formatting. The TSC database contains the TSC systems configuration, along with the experimental data, in which human physiological data must be de-commutated in real time. The data for each experiment also must be cataloged and archived for future retrieval. TSC software provides tools and resources for ground operation and data distribution to remote users consisting of PIs (principal investigators), bio-medical engineers, scientists, engineers, payload specialists, and computer scientists. Operations support is provided for computer systems access, detailed networking, and mathematical and computational problems of the International Space Station telemetry data. User training is provided for on-site staff and biomedical researchers and other remote personnel in the usage of the space-bound services via the Internet, which enables significant resource savings for the physical facility along with the time savings versus traveling to NASA sites. The software used in support of the TSC could easily be adapted to other Control Center applications. This would include not only other NASA payload monitoring facilities, but also other types of control activities, such as monitoring and control of the electric grid, chemical, or nuclear plant processes, air traffic control, and the like.

  19. The VST secondary mirror support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schipani, P.; Perrotta, F.; Molfese, C.; Caputi, O.; Ferragina, L.; Marty, L.; Capaccioli, M.; Gallieni, D.; Fumi, P.; Anaclerio, E.; Lazzarini, P.; De Paris, G.

    2008-07-01

    The VST telescope is equipped with an active optics system based on a wavefront sensor, a set of axial actuators to change the primary mirror shape and a secondary mirror positioner stage. The secondary mirror positioning capability allows the correction of defocus and coma optical aberrations, mainly caused by incorrect relative positions of the optics. The secondary mirror positioner is a 6-6 Stewart platform (also called "hexapod"). It is a parallel robot with a mobile platform moved by 6 linear actuators acting simultaneously. This paper describes the secondary mirror support system and the current status of the work.

  20. Apollo portable life support system performance report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    The performance of the Apollo portable life support system (PLSS) on actual lunar missions is discussed. Both subjective comments by the crewmen and recorded telemetry data are evaluated although emphasis is on the telemetry data. Because the most important information yielded by the PLSS deals with determination of crewman metabolic rates, these data and their interpretation are explained in detail. System requirements are compared with actual performance, and the effect of performance margins on mission planning are described. Mission preparation testing is described to demonstrate how the mission readiness of the PLSS and the crewmen in verified, and to show how the PLSS and the crewmen are calibrated for mission evaluation.

  1. Facility Systems, Ground Support Systems, and Ground Support Equipment General Design Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaxton, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    KSC-DE-512-SM establishes overall requirements and best design practices to be used at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for the development of ground systems (GS) in support of operations at launch, landing, and retrieval sites. These requirements apply to the design and development of hardware and software for ground support equipment (GSE), ground support systems (GSS), and facility ground support systems (F-GSS) used to support the KSC mission for transportation, receiving, handling, assembly, test, checkout, servicing, and launch of space vehicles and payloads and selected flight hardware items for retrieval. This standards manual supplements NASA-STD-5005 by including KSC-site-specific and local environment requirements. These requirements and practices are optional for equipment used at manufacturing, development, and test sites.

  2. Thermal control extravehicular life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive study which defined an Extravehicular Life Support System Thermal Control System (TCS) are presented. The design of the prototype hardware and a detail summary of the prototype TCS fabrication and test effort are given. Several heat rejection subsystems, water management subsystems, humidity control subsystems, pressure control schemes and temperature control schemes were evaluated. Alternative integrated TCS systems were studied, and an optimum system was selected based on quantitative weighing of weight, volume, cost, complexity and other factors. The selected subsystem contains a sublimator for heat rejection, bubble expansion tank for water management, a slurper and rotary separator for humidity control, and a pump, a temperature control valve, a gas separator and a vehicle umbilical connector for water transport. The prototype hardware complied with program objectives.

  3. Bioregenerative life support systems for microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nevill, Gail E., Jr.; Hessel, Michael I., Jr.; Rodriguez, Jose; Morgan, Steve (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) project centers on growing plants and recycling wastes in space. The current version of the biomass production chamber (BPC) uses a hydroponic system for nutrient delivery. To optimize plant growth and conserve system resources, the content of the nutrient solution which feeds the plants must be constantly monitored. The macro-nutrients (greater than ten ppm) in the solution include nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulphur; the micro-nutrients (less than ten ppm) include iron, copper, manganese, zinc, and boron. The goal of this project is to construct a computer-controlled system of ion detectors that will accurately measure the concentrations of several necessary ions in solution. The project focuses on the use of a sensor array to eliminate problems of interference and temperature dependence.

  4. A COMPUTERIZED OPERATOR SUPPORT SYSTEM PROTOTYPE

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas A. Ulrich; Roger Lew; Ronald L. Boring; Ken Thomas

    2015-03-01

    A computerized operator support system (COSS) is proposed for use in nuclear power plants to assist control room operators in addressing time-critical plant upsets. A COSS is a collection of technologies to assist operators in monitoring overall plant performance and making timely, informed decisions on appropriate control actions for the projected plant condition. A prototype COSS was developed in order to demonstrate the concept and provide a test bed for further research. The prototype is based on four underlying elements consisting of a digital alarm system, computer-based procedures, piping and instrumentation diagram system representations, and a recommender module for mitigation actions. The initial version of the prototype is now operational at the Idaho National Laboratory using the Human System Simulation Laboratory.

  5. JPSS Common Ground System Multimission Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamilkowski, M. L.; Miller, S. W.; Grant, K. D.

    2013-12-01

    NOAA & NASA jointly acquire the next-generation civilian operational weather satellite: Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS contributes the afternoon orbit & restructured NPOESS ground system (GS) to replace the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) system run by NOAA. JPSS sensors will collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological & solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere & space. The JPSS GS is the Common Ground System (CGS), consisting of Command, Control, & Communications (C3S) and Interface Data Processing (IDPS) segments, both developed by Raytheon Intelligence, Information & Services (IIS). CGS now flies the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite, transfers its mission data between ground facilities and processes its data into Environmental Data Records for NOAA & Defense (DoD) weather centers. CGS will expand to support JPSS-1 in 2017. The JPSS CGS currently does data processing (DP) for S-NPP, creating multiple TBs/day across over two dozen environmental data products (EDPs). The workload doubles after JPSS-1 launch. But CGS goes well beyond S-NPP & JPSS mission management & DP by providing data routing support to operational centers & missions worldwide. The CGS supports several other missions: It also provides raw data acquisition, routing & some DP for GCOM-W1. The CGS does data routing for numerous other missions & systems, including USN's Coriolis/Windsat, NASA's SCaN network (including EOS), NSF's McMurdo Station communications, Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP), and NOAA's POES & EUMETSAT's MetOp satellites. Each of these satellite systems orbits the Earth 14 times/day, downlinking data once or twice/orbit at up to 100s of MBs/second, to support the creation of 10s of TBs of data/day across 100s of EDPs. Raytheon and the US government invested much in Raytheon's mission-management, command & control and data-processing products & capabilities. CGS's flexible

  6. Power Management in Regenerative Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Sekou; Pawlowski, Christopher; Finn, Cory; Mead, Susan C. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Effective management of power can reduce the cost of launch and operation of regenerative life support systems. Variations in power may be quite severe and may manifest as surges or spikes, While the power plant may have some ability to deal with these variations, with batteries for example, over-capacity is expensive and does nothing to address the fundamental issue of excessive demand. Because the power unit must be sized to accommodate the largest demand, avoiding power spikes has the potential to reduce the required size of the power plant while at the same time increasing the dependability of the system. Scheduling of processors can help to reduce potential power spikes. However, not all power-consuming equipment is easily scheduled. Therefore, active power management is needed to further decrease the risk of surges or spikes. We investigate the use of a hierarchical scheme to actively manage power for a model of a regenerative life support system. Local level controllers individually determine subsystem power usage. A higher level controller monitors overall system power and detects surges or spikes. When a surge condition is detected, the higher level controller conducts an 'auction' and describes subsystem power usage to re-allocate power. The result is an overall reduction in total power during a power surge. The auction involves each subsystem making a 'bid' to buy or sell power based on local needs. However, this re-allocation cannot come at the expense of life support function. To this end, participation in the auction is restricted to those processes meeting certain tolerance constraints. These tolerances represent acceptable limits within which system processes can be operated. We present a simulation model and discuss some of our results.

  7. IGENPRO knowledge-based operator support system.

    SciTech Connect

    Morman, J. A.

    1998-07-01

    Research and development is being performed on the knowledge-based IGENPRO operator support package for plant transient diagnostics and management to provide operator assistance during off-normal plant transient conditions. A generic thermal-hydraulic (T-H) first-principles approach is being implemented using automated reasoning, artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic to produce a generic T-H system-independent/plant-independent package. The IGENPRO package has a modular structure composed of three modules: the transient trend analysis module PROTREN, the process diagnostics module PRODIAG and the process management module PROMANA. Cooperative research and development work has focused on the PRODIAG diagnostic module of the IGENPRO package and the operator training matrix of transients used at the Braidwood Pressurized Water Reactor station. Promising simulator testing results with PRODIAG have been obtained for the Braidwood Chemical and Volume Control System (CVCS), and the Component Cooling Water System. Initial CVCS test results have also been obtained for the PROTREN module. The PROMANA effort also involves the CVCS. Future work will be focused on the long-term, slow and mild degradation transients where diagnoses of incipient T-H component failure prior to forced outage events is required. This will enhance the capability of the IGENPRO system as a predictive maintenance tool for plant staff and operator support.

  8. Environmental Control and Life Support System Mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. This photograph shows the mockup of the the ECLSS to be installed in the Node 3 module of the ISS. From left to right, shower rack, waste management rack, Water Recovery System (WRS) Rack #2, WRS Rack #1, and Oxygen Generation System (OGS) rack are shown. The WRS provides clean water through the reclamation of wastewaters and is comprised of a Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) and a Water Processor Assembly (WPA). The UPA accepts and processes pretreated crewmember urine to allow it to be processed along with other wastewaters in the WPA. The WPA removes free gas, organic, and nonorganic constituents before the water goes through a series of multifiltration beds for further purification. The OGS produces oxygen for breathing air for the crew and laboratory animals, as well as for replacing oxygen loss. The OGS is comprised of a cell stack, which electrolyzes (breaks apart the hydrogen and oxygen molecules) some of the clean water provided by the WRS, and the separators that remove the gases from the water after electrolysis.

  9. Hail Disrometer Array for Launch Systems Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, John E.; Sharp, David W.; Kasparis, Takis C.; Doesken, Nolan J.

    2008-01-01

    Prior to launch, the space shuttle might be described as a very large thermos bottle containing substantial quantities of cryogenic fuels. Because thermal insulation is a critical design requirement, the external wall of the launch vehicle fuel tank is covered with an insulating foam layer. This foam is fragile and can be damaged by very minor impacts, such as that from small- to medium-size hail, which may go unnoticed. In May 1999, hail damage to the top of the External Tank (ET) of STS-96 required a rollback from the launch pad to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) for repair of the insulating foam. Because of the potential for hail damage to the ET while exposed to the weather, a vigilant hail sentry system using impact transducers was developed as a hail damage warning system and to record and quantify hail events. The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Hail Monitor System, a joint effort of the NASA and University Affiliated Spaceport Technology Development Contract (USTDC) Physics Labs, was first deployed for operational testing in the fall of 2006. Volunteers from the Community Collaborative Rain. Hail, and Snow Network (CoCoRaHS) in conjunction with Colorado State University were and continue to be active in testing duplicate hail monitor systems at sites in the hail prone high plains of Colorado. The KSC Hail Monitor System (HMS), consisting of three stations positioned approximately 500 ft from the launch pad and forming an approximate equilateral triangle (see Figure 1), was deployed to Pad 39B for support of STS-115. Two months later, the HMS was deployed to Pad 39A for support of STS-116. During support of STS-117 in late February 2007, an unusual hail event occurred in the immediate vicinity of the exposed space shuttle and launch pad. Hail data of this event was collected by the HMS and analyzed. Support of STS-118 revealed another important application of the hail monitor system. Ground Instrumentation personnel check the hail monitors daily when a

  10. Cellular Manufacturing Internet Performance Support System

    SciTech Connect

    Bohley, M.C.; Schwartz, M.E.

    1998-03-04

    The objective of this project was to develop an Internet-based electronic performance support system (EPSS) for cellular manufacturing providing hardware/software specifications, process descriptions, estimated cost savings, manufacturing simulations, training information, and service resources for government and industry users of Cincinnati Milacron machine tools and products. AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (ASFM and T) used expertise in the areas of Internet design and multimedia creation to develop a performance support system (PSS) for the Internet with assistance from CM's subject matter experts from engineering, manufacturing, and technical support. Reference information was both created and re-purposed from other existing formats, then made available on the Internet. On-line references on cellular manufacturing operations include: definitions of cells and cellular manufacturing; illustrations on how cellular manufacturing improves part throughput, resource utilization, part quality, and manufacturing flexibility; illustrations on how cellular manufacturing reduces labor and overhead costs; identification of critical factors driving decisions toward cellular manufacturing; a method for identifying process improvement areas using cellular manufacturing; a method for customizing the size of cells for a specific site; a simulation for making a part using cellular manufacturing technology; and a glossary of terms and concepts.

  11. A web-based computer aided system for liver surgery planning: initial implementation on RayPlus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ming; Yuan, Rong; Sun, Zhi; Li, Tianhong; Xie, Qingguo

    2016-03-01

    At present, computer aided systems for liver surgery design and risk evaluation are widely used in clinical all over the world. However, most systems are local applications that run on high-performance workstations, and the images have to processed offline. Compared with local applications, a web-based system is accessible anywhere and for a range of regardless of relative processing power or operating system. RayPlus (http://rayplus.life.hust.edu.cn), a B/S platform for medical image processing, was developed to give a jump start on web-based medical image processing. In this paper, we implement a computer aided system for liver surgery planning on the architecture of RayPlus. The system consists of a series of processing to CT images including filtering, segmentation, visualization and analyzing. Each processing is packaged into an executable program and runs on the server side. CT images in DICOM format are processed step by to interactive modeling on browser with zero-installation and server-side computing. The system supports users to semi-automatically segment the liver, intrahepatic vessel and tumor from the pre-processed images. Then, surface and volume models are built to analyze the vessel structure and the relative position between adjacent organs. The results show that the initial implementation meets satisfactorily its first-order objectives and provide an accurate 3D delineation of the liver anatomy. Vessel labeling and resection simulation are planned to add in the future. The system is available on Internet at the link mentioned above and an open username for testing is offered.

  12. Rho-kinase inhibitor targeting the liver prevents ischemia/reperfusion injury in the steatotic liver without major systemic adversity in rats.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Shintaro; Tashiro, Hirotaka; Kimura, Yasuhiro; Hirata, Kaori; Tsutada, Misaki; Mikuriya, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi; Amano, Hironobu; Tanaka, Yuka; Ohdan, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Rho-kinase (ROCK) inhibitors improve liver blood flow after ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury, especially in the setting of steatosis, by decreasing the resistance of intrahepatic microcirculation through hepatic stellate cell (HSC) relaxation. However, the systemic administration of ROCK inhibitors causes severe hypotension; therefore, liver-specific ROCK inhibition is required. Here, we tested vitamin A (VA)-coupled liposomes carrying the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 for targeted HSCs in steatotic rats. Rat livers with steatosis induced by a choline-deficient diet were subjected to IR injury. The delivery site and effect of the ROCK inhibitor were investigated. After liposomal Y-27632 injection, the survival rate after IR, the liver blood flow, the portal perfused pressure, and the hemodynamics were investigated. Immunohistochemical studies showed VA-coupled liposome accumulation in livers. Liposomal Y-27632 was 100-fold more effective in inhibiting HSC activation than free Y-27632. Liposomal Y-27632 improved the survival rate after IR injury, the liver blood flow, and the portal perfusion pressure without severe hypotension. In contrast, untargeted Y-27632 elicited severe systemic hypotension. We conclude that VA-coupled liposomes carrying the ROCK inhibitor yield enhanced drug accumulation in the liver and thus mitigate IR injury in the steatotic liver and reduce major systemic adversity. PMID:25307969

  13. A "systems medicine" approach to the study of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Petta, Salvatore; Valenti, Luca; Bugianesi, Elisabetta; Targher, Giovanni; Bellentani, Stefano; Bonino, Ferruccio

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of fatty liver (steatosis) in the general population is rapidly increasing worldwide. The progress of knowledge in the physiopathology of fatty liver is based on the systems biology approach to studying the complex interactions among different physiological systems. Similarly, translational and clinical research should address the complex interplay between these systems impacting on fatty liver. The clinical needs drive the applications of systems medicine to re-define clinical phenotypes, assessing the multiple nature of disease susceptibility and progression (e.g. the definition of risk, prognosis, diagnosis criteria, and new endpoints of clinical trials). Based on this premise and in light of recent findings, the complex mechanisms involved in the pathology of fatty liver and their impact on the short- and long-term clinical outcomes of cardiovascular, metabolic liver diseases associated with steatosis are presented in this review using a new "systems medicine" approach. A new data set is proposed for studying the impairments of different physiological systems that have an impact on fatty liver in different subsets of subjects and patients. PMID:26698409

  14. File System Support for Digital Evidence Bags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Golden; Roussev, Vassil

    Digital Evidence Bags (DEBs) are a mechanism for bundling digital evidence, associated metadata and audit logs into a single structure. DEB-compliant applications can update a DEB's audit log as evidence is introduced into the bag and as data in the bag is processed. This paper investigates native file system support for DEBs, which has a number of benefits over ad hoc modification of digital evidence bags. The paper also describes an API for DEB-enabled applications and methods for providing DEB access to legacy applications through a DEB-aware file system. The paper addresses an urgent need for digital-forensics-aware operating system components that can enhance the consistency, security and performance of investigations.

  15. Visual Support System for Report Distinctiveness Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunayama, Wataru; Kawaguchi, Toshiaki

    In recent years, as the Internet has grown, electronic reports have come to be used in educational organizations such as universities. Though reports written by hand must be evaluated by hand except for stereotype descriptions or numerical answers, electronic reports can be rated by computer. There are two major criteria in rating reports, correctness and distinctiveness. Correctness is rated by absolute criteria and distinctiveness is rated by relative criteria. Relative evaluation is difficult because raters should memorize all contents of submitted reports to provide objective rates. In addition, electronic data are easily copied or exchanged by students. This paper presents a report evaluation support system with which raters can compare each report and give objective rates for distinctiveness. This system evaluates each report by objective similarity criteria and visualizes them in a two-dimensional interface as the calculated distinctiveness order. Experimental results show the system is valid and effective for estimating associations between reports.

  16. An intelligent ground operator support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goerlach, Thomas; Ohlendorf, Gerhard; Plassmeier, Frank; Bruege, Uwe

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents first results of the project 'Technologien fuer die intelligente Kontrolle von Raumfahrzeugen' (TIKON). The TIKON objective was the demonstration of feasibility and profit of the application of artificial intelligence in the space business. For that purpose a prototype system has been developed and implemented for the operation support of the Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT), a scientific spacecraft designed to perform the first all-sky survey with a high-resolution X-ray telescope and to investigate the emission of specific celestial sources. The prototype integrates a scheduler and a diagnosis tool both based on artificial intelligence techniques. The user interface is menu driven and provides synoptic displays for the visualization of the system status. The prototype has been used and tested in parallel to an already existing operational system.

  17. Repulsive force support system feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boom, R. W.; Abdelsalam, M. K.; Eyssa, Y. M.; Mcintosh, G. E.

    1987-01-01

    A new concept in magnetic levitation and control is introduced for levitation above a plane. A set of five vertical solenoid magnets mounted flush below the plane supports and controls the model in five degrees of freedom. The compact system of levitation coils is contained in a space 2.4 m (96 in) diameter by 1 m (40 in) deep with the top of the levitation system 0.9 m (36 in) below the center line of the suspended model. The levitated model has a permanent magnet core held in position by the five parallel superconductive solenoids symmetrically located in a circle. The control and positioning system continuously corrects for model position in five dimensions using computer current pulses superimposed on the levitation coil base currents. The conceptual designs include: superconductive and Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet model cores and levitation solenoids of either superconductive, cryoresistive, or room temperature windings.

  18. Support system for pathologists and researchers

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Takumi; Takahashi, Junko; Kasai, Mai; Shiina, Takayuki; Iijima, Yuka; Takemura, Hiroshi; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi; Kuwata, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Aims: In Japan, cancer is the most prevalent cause of death; the number of patients suffering from cancer is increasing. Hence, there is an increased burden on pathologists to make diagnoses. To reduce pathologists’ burden, researchers have developed methods of auto-pathological diagnosis. However, virtual slides, which are created when glass slides are digitally scanned, saved in a unique format, and it is difficult for researchers to work on the virtual slides for developing their own image processing method. This paper presents the support system for pathologists and researchers who use auto-pathological diagnosis (P-SSD). Main purpose of P-SSD was to support both of pathologists and researchers. P-SSD consists of several sub-functions that make it easy not only for pathologists to screen pathological images, double-check their diagnoses, and reduce unimportant image data but also for researchers to develop and apply their original image-processing techniques to pathological images. Methods: We originally developed P-SSD to support both pathologists and researchers developing auto-pathological diagnoses systems. Current version of P-SSD consists of five main functions as follows: (i) Loading virtual slides, (ii) making a supervised database, (iii) learning image features, (iv) detecting cancerous areas, (v) displaying results of detection. Results: P-SSD reduces computer memory size random access memory utilization and the processing time required to divide the virtual slides into the smaller-size images compared with other similar software. The maximum observed reduction in computer memory size and reduction in processing time is 97% and 99.94%, respectively. Conclusions: Unlike other vendor-developed software, P-SSD has interoperability and is capable of handling virtual slides in several formats. Therefore, P-SSD can support both of pathologists and researchers, and has many potential applications in both pathological diagnosis and research area. PMID

  19. Advanced integrated life support system update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitley, Phillip E.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Integrated Life Support System Program (AILSS) is an advanced development effort to integrate the life support and protection requirements using the U.S. Navy's fighter/attack mission as a starting point. The goal of AILSS is to optimally mate protection from altitude, acceleration, chemical/biological agent, thermal environment (hot, cold, and cold water immersion) stress as well as mission enhancement through improved restraint, night vision, and head-mounted reticules and displays to ensure mission capability. The primary emphasis to date has been to establish garment design requirements and tradeoffs for protection. Here the garment and the human interface are treated as a system. Twelve state-off-the-art concepts from government and industry were evaluated for design versus performance. On the basis of a combination of centrifuge, thermal manikin data, thermal modeling, and mobility studies, some key design parameters have been determined. Future efforts will concentrate on the integration of protection through garment design and the use of a single layer, multiple function concept to streamline the garment system.

  20. Machine Maintenance Integrated Performance Support System

    SciTech Connect

    Bohley, M.C.; Schwartz, M.E.

    1998-03-11

    The objectives of this partnership project were to develop a preventive maintenance checklist program, a troubleshooting system for the Vertical Turning Center (VTC)-5, an on-line manual, and to integrate these components with a custom browser that would run on the VTC-5 machine's controller and would support future internet/intranet delivery. Kingsbury provided subject matter experts from engineering, manufacturing, and technical support. They also provided photographs, schematics, and CAD drawings, which AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (ASFM and T) digitized for use in the final program. Information from The Kingsbury troubleshooting experts were interviewed regarding symptoms and root causes of system malfunctions This knowledge was captured and from it, fault trees were developed. These trees were then incorporated into the EPSS as a troubleshooting tool. The troubleshooting portion of the system presents simple questions to the machine operator in order to determine the likely cause or causes of malfunctions and then recommends systematic corrective actions. The on-line reference manual, covering operations and maintenance, provides text and illustrations to the machine operator in a traditional structure, but additionally offers the capability to search voluminous amounts of technical data and retrieve specific information on request. The maintenance portion of the EPSS includes checklists that are displayed daily, weekly, monthly, and annually, as appropriate, on the VTC-5 controller screen. The controller software is unavailable for machining parts until the machine tool operator goes through and checks off all of the checklist items. This project provided the team with a detailed understanding of the knowledge and information required to produce and support advanced machine tools. In addition, it resulted in the design and construction of a prototype VTC-5 EPSS containing all the logic and interfaces necessary to integrate operations

  1. Controlled Ecological Life Support System: Regenerative Life Support Systems in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, Robert D.; Smernoff, David T.

    1987-01-01

    A wide range of topics related to the extended support of humans in space are covered. Overviews of research conducted in Japan, Europe, and the U.S. are presented. The methods and technologies required to recycle materials, especially respiratory gases, within a closed system are examined. Also presented are issues related to plant and algal productivity, efficiency, and processing methods. Computer simulation of closed systems, discussions of radiation effects on systems stability, and modeling of a computer bioregenerative system are also covered.

  2. Space transportation system biomedical operations support study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, S. C.

    1983-01-01

    The shift of the Space Transportation System (STS) flight tests of the orbiter vehicle to the preparation and flight of the payloads is discussed. Part of this change is the transition of the medical and life sciences aspects of the STS flight operations to reflect the new state. The medical operations, the life sciences flight experiments support requirements and the intramural research program expected to be at KSC during the operational flight period of the STS and a future space station are analyzed. The adequacy of available facilities, plans, and resources against these future needs are compared; revisions and/or alternatives where appropriate are proposed.

  3. Long-term maintenance of liver-specific functions in three-dimensional culture of adult rat hepatocytes with a porous gelatin sponge support.

    PubMed

    Lin, K H; Maeda, S; Saito, T

    1995-02-01

    The three-dimensional culture of adult rat hepatocytes with a porous gelatin sponge (gelfoam) support was investigated. Hepatocytes were immobilized on the surface as well as within the pores of the support. The morphology of the hepatocytes immobilized on the support was close to that observed in vivo. In some parts of the support the spheroids of hepatocytes could be observed. To examine the liver-specific functions of the hepatocytes in the culture, the levels of serum albumin and bile acids secreted into the medium were assessed. The secretion of albumin and bile acids was stable over the course of 12 days, longer than that in collagen-gel culture. To elucidate further the function of hepatocytes immobilized on gelfoam, the metabolic activities of the hepatocytes, as measured by the competency of removal of NH4+ and the synthesis of urea nitrogen, were determined. The rates of ammonium removal and urea nitrogen synthesis were comparable with those in conventional monolayer culture. Albumin secretion was enhanced by the treatment of gelfoam with either heparin or acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF), the gelfoam having a high affinity for these substances. DNA synthesis was also enhanced by aFGF. These results demonstrate that gelfoam is a suitable support for the in vitro culture of hepatocytes. Combined with its easy manipulation, it is suggested that the culture system described could be used for both basic and applied studies. PMID:7536008

  4. Liver Support With Albumin Dialysis Reduces Hepatitis C Virus Viremia and Facilitates Antiviral Treatment of Severe Hepatitis C Virus Recurrence After Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez-Samaniego, Luis; Catalina, María-Vega; Rincón, Diego; Lo Iacono, Oreste; Fernández, Ainhoa; Clemente, Gerardo; Bañares, Rafael; Vaquero, Javier; Salcedo, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    Patients with severe hepatitis C virus (HCV) recurrence after liver transplantation (LT) present an ominous prognosis, rarely achieving sustained virological response (SVR). Dialysis procedures may transiently decrease the HCV viral load, but the effect of albumin dialysis is currently unknown. Here, we evaluated the impact of albumin dialysis using the Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS) used as a co-adjuvant antiviral treatment for severe HCV recurrence after LT. Thirteen patients (11 males, median age 48 years) with fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis or METAVIR fibrosis score ≥ F3 with severe portal hypertension underwent three consecutive MARS sessions. Antiviral therapy was initiated in 11 patients within 24 h after the MARS sessions. A contemporary cohort of seven patients who did not follow the MARS protocol is shown for comparison. MARS treatment resulted in consistent decreases of viral load from 7.59 log10 IU/mL [6.15-8.90] to 6.79 log10 IU/mL [5.18-7.84] (P = 0.003) as well as in decreases of serum bilirubin, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (all P < 0.05). The overall rate of SVR was 0% in the Control group and 54.6% in patients initiating antiviral therapy within 24 h after MARS. Survival at 1 and 3 years was, respectively, 93% and 70% in patients undergoing MARS, compared with 29% and 14% in the Control group (P = 0.001). No major adverse events related to MARS treatment were observed. In conclusion, the use of MARS may facilitate the achievement of SVR and improve the prognosis of patients with severe HCV-recurrence after LT by reducing viral load and improving liver function prior to antiviral therapy. PMID:26929255

  5. Matched-Pair Comparison of Radioembolization Plus Best Supportive Care Versus Best Supportive Care Alone for Chemotherapy Refractory Liver-Dominant Colorectal Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Seidensticker, Ricarda; Denecke, Timm; Kraus, Patrick; Seidensticker, Max; Mohnike, Konrad; Fahlke, Joerg; Kettner, Erika; Dudeck, Oliver; Pech, Maciej; Amthauer, Holger; Ricke, Jens

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate overall survival after radioembolization or best supportive care (BSC) in patients with chemotherapy-refractory liver-dominant metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Methods: This was a matched-pair comparison of patients who received radioembolization plus BSC or BSC alone for extensive liver disease. Twenty-nine patients who received radioembolization were retrospectively matched with a contemporary cohort of >500 patients who received BSC from 3 centers in Germany. Using clinical databases, patients were initially matched for prior treatments and tumor burden and then 29 patients were consecutively identified with two or more of four matching criteria: synchronous/metachronous metastases, tumor burden, increased ALP, and/or CEA >200 U/ml. Survival was calculated from date of progression before radioembolization or BSC by using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results: Of 29 patients in each study arm, 16 pairs (55.2%) matched for all four criteria, and 11 pairs (37.9%) matched three criteria. Patients in both groups had a similar performance status (Karnofsky index, median 80% [range, 60-100%]). Compared with BSC alone, radioembolization prolonged survival (median, 8.3 vs. 3.5 months; P < 0.001) with a hazard ratio of 0.3 (95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.55; P < 0.001) in a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model. Treatment-related adverse events following radioembolization included: grade 1-2 fatigue (n = 20, 69%), grade 1 abdominal pain/nausea (n = 14, 48.3%), and grade 2 gastrointestinal ulceration (n = 3, 10.3%). Three cases of grade 3 radiation-induced liver disease were symptomatically managed. Conclusions: Radioembolization offers a promising addition to BSC in treatment-refractory patients for whom there are limited options. Survival was prolonged and adverse events were generally mild-to-moderate in nature and manageable.

  6. Differences in Redox Regulatory Systems in Human Lung and Liver Tumors Suggest Different Avenues for Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tobe, Ryuta; Carlson, Bradley A.; Tsuji, Petra A.; Lee, Byeong Jae; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Hatfield, Dolph L.

    2015-01-01

    A common characteristic of many cancer cells is that they suffer from oxidative stress. They, therefore, require effective redox regulatory systems to combat the higher levels of reactive oxygen species that accompany accelerated growth compared to the normal cells of origin. An elevated dependence on these systems in cancers suggests that targeting these systems may provide an avenue for retarding the malignancy process. Herein, we examined the redox regulatory systems in human liver and lung cancers by comparing human lung adenocarcinoma and liver carcinoma to their respective surrounding normal tissues. Significant differences were found in the two major redox systems, the thioredoxin and glutathione systems. Thioredoxin reductase 1 levels were elevated in both malignancies, but thioredoxin was highly upregulated in lung tumor and only slightly upregulated in liver tumor, while peroxiredoxin 1 was highly elevated in lung tumor, but downregulated in liver tumor. There were also major differences within the glutathione system between the malignancies and their normal tissues. The data suggest a greater dependence of liver on either the thioredoxin or glutathione system to drive the malignancy, while lung cancer appeared to depend primarily on the thioredoxin system. PMID:26569310

  7. Comprehensive review of post-liver resection surgical complications and a new universal classification and grading system.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Masayuki; Mizuguchi, Toru; Harada, Kohei; Ota, Shigenori; Meguro, Makoto; Ueki, Tomomi; Nishidate, Toshihiko; Okita, Kenji; Hirata, Koichi

    2014-10-27

    Liver resection is the gold standard treatment for certain liver tumors such as hepatocellular carcinoma and metastatic liver tumors. Some patients with such tumors already have reduced liver function due to chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, or chemotherapy-associated steatohepatitis before surgery. Therefore, complications due to poor liver function are inevitable after liver resection. Although the mortality rate of liver resection has been reduced to a few percent in recent case series, its overall morbidity rate is reported to range from 4.1% to 47.7%. The large degree of variation in the post-liver resection morbidity rates reported in previous studies might be due to the lack of consensus regarding the definitions and classification of post-liver resection complications. The Clavien-Dindo (CD) classification of post-operative complications is widely accepted internationally. However, it is hard to apply to some major post-liver resection complications because the consensus definitions and grading systems for post-hepatectomy liver failure and bile leakage established by the International Study Group of Liver Surgery are incompatible with the CD classification. Therefore, a unified classification of post-liver resection complications has to be established to allow comparisons between academic reports. PMID:25349645

  8. Comprehensive review of post-liver resection surgical complications and a new universal classification and grading system

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Masayuki; Mizuguchi, Toru; Harada, Kohei; Ota, Shigenori; Meguro, Makoto; Ueki, Tomomi; Nishidate, Toshihiko; Okita, Kenji; Hirata, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Liver resection is the gold standard treatment for certain liver tumors such as hepatocellular carcinoma and metastatic liver tumors. Some patients with such tumors already have reduced liver function due to chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, or chemotherapy-associated steatohepatitis before surgery. Therefore, complications due to poor liver function are inevitable after liver resection. Although the mortality rate of liver resection has been reduced to a few percent in recent case series, its overall morbidity rate is reported to range from 4.1% to 47.7%. The large degree of variation in the post-liver resection morbidity rates reported in previous studies might be due to the lack of consensus regarding the definitions and classification of post-liver resection complications. The Clavien-Dindo (CD) classification of post-operative complications is widely accepted internationally. However, it is hard to apply to some major post-liver resection complications because the consensus definitions and grading systems for post-hepatectomy liver failure and bile leakage established by the International Study Group of Liver Surgery are incompatible with the CD classification. Therefore, a unified classification of post-liver resection complications has to be established to allow comparisons between academic reports. PMID:25349645

  9. Semantic technologies in a decision support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasielewska, K.; Ganzha, M.; Paprzycki, M.; Bǎdicǎ, C.; Ivanovic, M.; Lirkov, I.

    2015-10-01

    The aim of our work is to design a decision support system based on ontological representation of domain(s) and semantic technologies. Specifically, we consider the case when Grid / Cloud user describes his/her requirements regarding a "resource" as a class expression from an ontology, while the instances of (the same) ontology represent available resources. The goal is to help the user to find the best option with respect to his/her requirements, while remembering that user's knowledge may be "limited." In this context, we discuss multiple approaches based on semantic data processing, which involve different "forms" of user interaction with the system. Specifically, we consider: (a) ontological matchmaking based on SPARQL queries and class expression, (b) graph-based semantic closeness of instances representing user requirements (constructed from the class expression) and available resources, and (c) multicriterial analysis based on the AHP method, which utilizes expert domain knowledge (also ontologically represented).

  10. Hollow fiber membrane systems for advanced life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roebelen, G. J., Jr.; Lysaght, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    The practicability of utilizing hollow fiber membranes in vehicular and portable life support system applications is described. A preliminary screening of potential advanced life support applications resulted in the selection of five applications for feasibility study and testing. As a result of the feasibility study and testing, three applications, heat rejection, deaeration, and bacteria filtration, were chosen for breadboard development testing; breadboard hardware was manufactured and tested, and the physical properties of the hollow fiber membrane assemblies are characterized.

  11. Accuracy validation of an image guided laparoscopy system for liver resection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Stephen; Totz, Johannes; Song, Yi; Johnsen, Stian; Stoyanov, Danail; Ourselin, Sébastien; Gurusamy, Kurinchi; Schneider, Crispin; Davidson, Brian; Hawkes, David; Clarkson, Matthew J.

    2015-03-01

    We present an analysis of the registration component of a proposed image guidance system for image guided liver surgery, using contrast enhanced CT. The analysis is performed on a visually realistic liver phantom and in-vivo porcine data. A robust registration process that can be deployed clinically is a key component of any image guided surgery system. It is also essential that the accuracy of the registration can be quantified and communicated to the surgeon. We summarise the proposed guidance system and discuss its clinical feasibility. The registration combines an intuitive manual alignment stage, surface reconstruction from a tracked stereo laparoscope and a rigid iterative closest point registration to register the intra-operative liver surface to the liver surface derived from CT. Testing of the system on a liver phantom shows that subsurface landmarks can be localised to an accuracy of 2.9 mm RMS. Testing during five porcine liver surgeries demonstrated that registration can be performed during surgery, with an error of less than 10 mm RMS for multiple surface landmarks.

  12. Immune-protected xenogeneic bioartificial livers with liver-specific microarchitecture and hydrogel-encapsulated cells.

    PubMed

    No, Da Yoon; Jeong, Gi Seok; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2014-10-01

    Development of a xenogeneic biological liver support is important in providing a bridge to transplantation or liver regeneration, thus helping to overcome the chronic shortage of liver donors. Among the critical factors in developing biological liver support are the creation of in vivo mimetic micro liver tissue (mLT), especially mLTs containing liver-specific ultrastructure, and an encapsulation method that can package massive numbers of cells while providing immune-protection from the host immune system. We describe here the development of mLTs that include liver microarchitecture and their in situ encapsulation in hydrogel composites. Concave microwells and the tri-culture of three types of primary liver cells were applied for the construction of mLTs showing excellent liver functions and long-term (>1 month) viability in vitro. Large quantities of rat mLTs were encapsulated in collagen-alginate composites, implanted into hepatic failure mice and sustained their survival during regeneration of the remaining liver. The proposed liver support system offers xenogeneic hepatic assistance by mimicking native liver microarchitecture and providing immune-protection without the need for complicated devices or processes, and as such represents a promising system for recovery of organ function. PMID:25088727

  13. Superstoichiometric Ca2+ uptake supported by hydrolysis of endogenous ATP in rat liver mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Brand, M D; Lehninger, A L

    1975-10-10

    The nature of the energy store causing rapid superstoichiometric leads to H+/2e minus ejection and leads to Ca2+/2e minus uptake ratios in rat liver mitochondria pulsed with Ca2+ has been investigated. The extent and the rate of the initial fast superstoichiometric phase of H plus ejection were greatly reduced by oligomycin and other ATPase inhibitors; the subsequent shoichiometric phase was unaffected. No such inhibition was seen with atractyloside. Similarly, the initial fast phase of Ca2+ uptake was reduced in extent by oligomycin, whereas the slower stoichiometric phase was unaffected. Moreover, the ATP content of mitochondria previously incubated with succinate decreased by about 80% within 5 s after pulsing with Ca2+. The energy store for superstoichiometric Ca2+ uptake and H plus injection is thus identified as endogenous ATP. PMID:1176454

  14. Minnesota's Child Support System Fails To Meet Children's Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Kids Count, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This newsletter issue provides an evaluation of child support systems and services of the 87 counties in Minnesota. No county in the state collects enough to support children, child support is often late or not paid in full, children whose parents never married are especially dependent on the child support systems, and child support services vary…

  15. Creation of closed life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitelson, I.

    The 40-year-long experience in devising ecological systems with a significantly closed material cycling (CES), which are intended for human life support outside the Earth's biosphere, allows us to state that this problem has been largely solved technically. To test the terrestrial prototypes of these systems: Bios in Krasnoyarsk, the Terrestrial Ecological System (TES) in Moscow, and Bioplex in Houston, crews of humans stayed inside them over long periods of time. In Bios-3 humans could be fully (100%) provided with regenerated air and water and with a vegetable part (80%) of their diet. One human requires 4.5 kW of light energy, which is equal to the light energy incident on an 8-m2 surface perpendicular to solar rays in the Earth's orbit. The regeneration of air and water can be alternatively performed by a 17-L2 microalgal cultivator with a light-receiving surface of 8 m at 2 kW of light energy or by a conveyer culture of agricultural plants. To regenerate the vegetable part of2 the diet to the full, the area must increase to 31.5 m per person. Similar values have been obtained in the TES and in Bioplex. It can be concluded that the system is ready to be implemented in the engineering-technical designs of specific versions: for orbital flights, for missions to Mars and other planets, and for stations on the Moon and Mars. To improve the CES further, a number of new key problems should be resolved. The first of them are: to robotize the technological processes and to establish an optimized system of the internal control of the CES by the crew working in it; to develop a hybrid physicochemical-biological technology for returning the dead-end products of biosynthesis into the system's cycling; to solve the fundamental problem of regenerating the human ration completely inside the CES by the autotrophic chemo - and photosynthesis. Once this problem is solved, the energy requirements for life support in space will be significantly reduced. This will also considerably

  16. [Alterations of prooxidant-antioxidant system of rat liver at ethanol and tetracycline action].

    PubMed

    Nedoshytko, Kh Iu

    2013-01-01

    The state of antioxidant system and fatty acid composition of lipids in the liver tissues of rats of different sex at the ethanol and tetracycline action and at the influence of biologically active additives (BAA) "Alpha + Omega" at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg b.w. per os was investigated. It was found that the contet of lipid peroxidation products in the liver was increased at the action of 40% ethanol at a dose of 7 ml/kg b.w. per os and tetracycline--500 mg/kg and more profound at their joint using. However, the content of diene conjugates was stronger increased in the liver of females at the action of ethanol, while in the liver of males at the action of tetracycline (P < 0.05). It was shown that the application of the investigated compounds led to the reduction of an antioxidant defense system activity of males and females liver, as evidenced by the decrease of superoxide dismutase activity by 46 and 43% and reduction of glutathione content by 39 and 38% (P < 0.05). The activity of alanineaminotransferase, aspartateaminotransferase and alkalinephosphatase was increased in the liver of males and females under the influence of ethanol and tetracycline and more profound at their joint usage (P < 0.05). It was established that ethanol and tetracycline unidirectionally changed fatty acid composition of total lipids of rat liver, but at the ethanol action the changes were more expressed in females while at the tetracycline action in males. The application during 14 days of BAA "Alpha + Omega" to male and female rats with an acute tetracycline damage at subacute ethanol action led to partial normalization of prooxidant-antioxidant system and the relative content of total lipids fatty acids of the liver of both sexes animals. PMID:24479333

  17. 45 CFR 307.5 - Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.5 Mandatory computerized support... operational computerized support enforcement system, which meets Federal requirements under § 302.85(a)(1)...

  18. 45 CFR 307.5 - Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.5 Mandatory computerized support... operational computerized support enforcement system, which meets Federal requirements under § 302.85(a)(1)...

  19. 45 CFR 307.5 - Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mandatory computerized support enforcement systems... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPUTERIZED SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT SYSTEMS § 307.5 Mandatory computerized support... operational computerized support enforcement system, which meets Federal requirements under § 302.85(a)(1)...

  20. Diagnostic efficiency of Mueller-matrix polarization reconstruction system of the phase structure of liver tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabolotna, Natalia I.; Pavlov, Sergii V.; Radchenko, Kostiantyn O.; Stasenko, Vladyslav A.; Wójcik, Waldemar; Kussambayeva, Nazym

    2015-12-01

    The application field of using the Mueller-matrix polarizing reconstruction system of phase structure of biological layer for optical-anisotropic parameters differentiation of histological sections of healthy and rat's liver with hepatitis were investigated. Comparison of system informativity with known systems on indexes of sensitivity, specificity and balanced accuracy were performed.

  1. Suspension system for gimbal supported scanning payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, Michael E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Gimballed scanning devices or instruments are the subject of this invention. Scanning is an important aspect of space science. To achieve a scan pattern some means must be provided which impart to the payload an oscillatory motion. Various forms of machines have been employed for controllably conferring on scanning instruments predetermined scan patterns. They include control moment gyroscopes, reaction wheels, torque motors, reaction control systems, and the like. But rotating unbalanced mass (RUM) devices are a new and efficient way to generate scans in gimballed payloads. RUM devices are superior to previous scanning apparatus, but they require power consuming and frequently complex auxiliary control systems to position and reposition the particular scan pattern relative to a target or a number of targets. Herein the control system is simplified. The most frequently employed method for achieving the various scan patterns is to gimbal the scanning device. Gimbals are suspended in such a way that they can be activated to generate the scan pattern. The suspension means described is for payloads supported in gimbals wherein the payload rotation is restricted by a flex pivot so that the payload oscillates, thereby moving in a scan pattern.

  2. A new melanoma diagnosis active support system.

    PubMed

    Fiorini, R A; Dacquino, G; Laguteta, G

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the operational performance of a new MDASS (Melanoma Diagnosis Active Support System) prototype able to distil optimal knowledge from acquired data to automatically capture and reliably discriminate and quantify the stage of disease evolution. Automated classification dermatoscopical parameters can be divided into two main classes: Size Descriptor (point size, local, and global) and Intrinsic Descriptor (morphological, geometrical, chromatic, others). Usually elementary geometric shape robust and effective characterization, invariant to environment and optical geometry transformations, on a rigorous mathematical level is a key and computational intensive problem. MDASS uses GEOGINE (GEOmetrical enGINE), a state-of-the-art OMG (Ontological Model Generator) based on n-D Tensor Moment Invariants for shape/texture effective description. MDASS main results show robust disease classification procedure with distillation of minimal reference grids for pathological cases and they ultimately achieve effective early diagnosis of melanocytic lesion. System results are validated by carefully designed experiments with certified clinical reference database. Overall system operational performance is presented. Finally, MDASS error analysis and computational complexity are addressed and discussed. PMID:17270962

  3. Embedded systems for supporting computer accessibility.

    PubMed

    Mulfari, Davide; Celesti, Antonio; Fazio, Maria; Villari, Massimo; Puliafito, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, customized AT software solutions allow their users to interact with various kinds of computer systems. Such tools are generally available on personal devices (e.g., smartphones, laptops and so on) commonly used by a person with a disability. In this paper, we investigate a way of using the aforementioned AT equipments in order to access many different devices without assistive preferences. The solution takes advantage of open source hardware and its core component consists of an affordable Linux embedded system: it grabs data coming from the assistive software, which runs on the user's personal device, then, after processing, it generates native keyboard and mouse HID commands for the target computing device controlled by the end user. This process supports any operating system available on the target machine and it requires no specialized software installation; therefore the user with a disability can rely on a single assistive tool to control a wide range of computing platforms, including conventional computers and many kinds of mobile devices, which receive input commands through the USB HID protocol. PMID:26294501

  4. Knowledge-based systems and NASA's software support environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, Tim; Carmody, Cora; Lennington, Kent; Nelson, Bob

    1990-01-01

    A proposed role for knowledge-based systems within NASA's Software Support Environment (SSE) is described. The SSE is chartered to support all software development for the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP). This includes support for development of knowledge-based systems and the integration of these systems with conventional software systems. In addition to the support of development of knowledge-based systems, various software development functions provided by the SSE will utilize knowledge-based systems technology.

  5. Technological Support for Logistics Transportation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bujak, Andrzej; Śliwa, Zdzisław; Gębczyńska, Alicja

    The modern world is changing introducing robots, remotely controlled vehicles and other crewless means of transportation to reduce people's mistakes, as the main cause of incidents and crashes during traffic. New technologies are supporting operators and drivers, and according to some studies they can even replace them. Such programs as: AHS, UAH, IVBSS or MTVR are under development to improve traffic flow and its safety, to reduce traffic hazards and crashes. It is necessary to analyze such concepts and implement them boldly, including Polish logistics' companies, new programs, highways' system etc., as they will be applied in the future, so it is necessary to prepare logistics infrastructure ahead of time in order to capitalize on these improvements. The problem is quite urgent as transportation in the country must not be outdated to meet clients' expectations and to keep pace with competing foreign companies.

  6. Composting in advanced life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, C. F.; Sager, J. C.; Alazraki, M.; Loader, C.

    1998-01-01

    Space missions of extended duration are currently hampered by the prohibitive costs of external resupply. To reduce the need for resupply, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently testing methods to recycle solid wastes, water, and air. Composting can be an integral part of a biologically based waste treatment/recycling system. Results indicate that leachate from composted plant wastes is not inhibitory to seed germination and contains sufficient inorganic minerals to support plant growth. Other solid wastes, for example kitchen (food) wastes and human solid wastes, can be composted with inedible plant residues to safely reduce the volume of the wastes and levels of microorganisms potentially pathogenic to humans. Finished compost could serve as a medium for plant growth or mushroom production.

  7. Composting in advanced life support systems.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, C F; Sager, J C; Alazraki, M; Loader, C

    1998-01-01

    Space missions of extended duration are currently hampered by the prohibitive costs of external resupply. To reduce the need for resupply, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently testing methods to recycle solid wastes, water, and air. Composting can be an integral part of a biologically based waste treatment/recycling system. Results indicate that leachate from composted plant wastes is not inhibitory to seed germination and contains sufficient inorganic minerals to support plant growth. Other solid wastes, for example kitchen (food) wastes and human solid wastes, can be composted with inedible plant residues to safely reduce the volume of the wastes and levels of microorganisms potentially pathogenic to humans. Finished compost could serve as a medium for plant growth or mushroom production. PMID:11541773

  8. NASA Advanced Explorations Systems: Advancements in Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, Sarah A.; Schneider, Walter F.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems (LSS) project strives to develop reliable, energy-efficient, and low-mass spacecraft systems to provide environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) critical to enabling long duration human missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Highly reliable, closed-loop life support systems are among the capabilities required for the longer duration human space exploration missions assessed by NASA's Habitability Architecture Team (HAT). The LSS project is focused on four areas: architecture and systems engineering for life support systems, environmental monitoring, air revitalization, and wastewater processing and water management. Starting with the international space station (ISS) LSS systems as a point of departure (where applicable), the mission of the LSS project is three-fold: 1. Address discrete LSS technology gaps 2. Improve the reliability of LSS systems 3. Advance LSS systems towards integrated testing on the ISS. This paper summarized the work being done in the four areas listed above to meet these objectives. Details will be given on the following focus areas: Systems Engineering and Architecture- With so many complex systems comprising life support in space, it is important to understand the overall system requirements to define life support system architectures for different space mission classes, ensure that all the components integrate well together and verify that testing is as representative of destination environments as possible. Environmental Monitoring- In an enclosed spacecraft that is constantly operating complex machinery for its own basic functionality as well as science experiments and technology demonstrations, it's possible for the environment to become compromised. While current environmental monitors aboard the ISS will alert crew members and mission control if there is an emergency, long-duration environmental monitoring cannot be done in-orbit as current methodologies

  9. [Role of the endocrine system in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease].

    PubMed

    Hagymási, Krisztina; Reismann, Péter; Rácz, Károly; Tulassay, Zsolt

    2009-11-29

    The most frequent liver disorder in metabolic syndrome is the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Its pathogenesis is a complex, multifactorial process, characterized by insulin resistance and involvement of the endocrine system. Hypothyroidism may lead to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis via hyperlipidemia and obesity. Adult patients with growth hormone deficiency have a metabolic syndrome-like phenotype with obesity and many characteristic metabolic alterations. The chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis results in metabolic syndrome as well. Cushing's syndrome has also features of metabolic syndrome. Mild elevation of transaminase activities is commonly seen in patients with adrenal failure. Non-alcoholic steatosis is twice as common in postmenopusal as in premenopausal women and hormonal replacement therapy decreases the risk of steatosis. Insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus type 2, sleeping apnoe syndrome, cardiovascular disorders and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are more frequent in polycystic ovary syndrome. Hypoandrogenism in males and hyperandrogenism in females may lead to fatty liver via obesity and insulin resistance. Adipokines (leptin, acylation stimulating protein, adiponectin) have a potential role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver. The alterations of endocrine system must be considered in the background of cryptogenic liver diseases. The endocrine perspective may help the therapeutic approaches in the future. PMID:19923096

  10. Optimization of life support systems and their systems reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, L. T.; Hwang, C. L.; Erickson, L. E.

    1971-01-01

    The identification, analysis, and optimization of life support systems and subsystems have been investigated. For each system or subsystem that has been considered, the procedure involves the establishment of a set of system equations (or mathematical model) based on theory and experimental evidences; the analysis and simulation of the model; the optimization of the operation, control, and reliability; analysis of sensitivity of the system based on the model; and, if possible, experimental verification of the theoretical and computational results. Research activities include: (1) modeling of air flow in a confined space; (2) review of several different gas-liquid contactors utilizing centrifugal force: (3) review of carbon dioxide reduction contactors in space vehicles and other enclosed structures: (4) application of modern optimal control theory to environmental control of confined spaces; (5) optimal control of class of nonlinear diffusional distributed parameter systems: (6) optimization of system reliability of life support systems and sub-systems: (7) modeling, simulation and optimal control of the human thermal system: and (8) analysis and optimization of the water-vapor eletrolysis cell.