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Sample records for livia approach nash

  1. Pigeons ("Columba Livia") Approach Nash Equilibrium in Experimental Matching Pennies Competitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanabria, Federico; Thrailkill, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The game of Matching Pennies (MP), a simplified version of the more popular Rock, Papers, Scissors, schematically represents competitions between organisms with incentives to predict each other's behavior. Optimal performance in iterated MP competitions involves the production of random choice patterns and the detection of nonrandomness in the…

  2. Exhaustible resources and market structure in world oil: a Nash-Cournot approach

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    Most studies in the economic literature suggested the 1974-1978 world oil price structure as nearly compatible with optimum OPEC profits. Since 1978, however, renewed market instability has led to much higher prices. This study deals with the role of the world oil market structure and its implications for long-term equilibrium prices. Various market models are investigated to study the impact of large-scale cartelization and the probable long-term evolution in the event of a cartel breakdown. All results are referenced to the perfectly competitive solution. The theoretical structure of the various imperfect competition models follows the standard Nash-Cournot analysis of oligopolistic markets. The solutions are derived from dynamic optimization problems subject to the constraint of resource exhaustion. The empirical parameterization of the models is a simplified version of intricate realities. In spite of the simplified approach, important insights are gained on the nature of alternative world oil equilibria. The most-significant findings concern the stability of the relative effects of different imperfectly competitive models across parametric cases and the substantial monopoly gains attainable without large-scale cartelization.

  3. ASH and NASH.

    PubMed

    Scaglioni, F; Ciccia, S; Marino, M; Bedogni, G; Bellentani, S

    2011-01-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) have a similar pathogenesis and histopathology but a different etiology and epidemiology. NASH and ASH are advanced stages of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD). NAFLD is characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the liver (steatosis), without any other evident causes of chronic liver diseases (viral, autoimmune, genetic, etc.), and with an alcohol consumption ≤20-30 g/day. On the contrary, AFLD is defined as the presence of steatosis and alcohol consumption >20-30 g/day. The most common phenotypic manifestations of primary NAFLD/NASH are overweight/obesity, visceral adiposity, type 2 diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia and hypertension. The prevalence of NAFLD in the general population in Western countries is estimated to be 25-30%. The prevalence and incidence of NASH and ASH are not known because of the impossibility of performing liver biopsy in the general population. Up to 90% of alcoholics have fatty liver, and 5-15% of these subjects will develop cirrhosis over 20 years. The risk of cirrhosis increases to 30-40% in those who continue to drink alcohol. About 10-35% of alcoholics exhibit changes on liver biopsy consistent with alcoholic hepatitis. Natural histories of NASH and ASH are not completely defined, even if patients with NASH have a reduced life expectancy due to liver-related death and cardiovascular diseases. The best treatment of AFLD/ASH is to stop drinking, and the most effective first-line therapeutic option for NAFLD/NASH is non-pharmacologic lifestyle interventions through a multidisciplinary approach including weight loss, dietary changes, physical exercise, and cognitive-behavior therapy. PMID:21734385

  4. Registration of 'Nash' Chickpea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The kabuli chickpea (Cicer arientinum L.) cultivar ‘Nash’ was released by the USDA-ARS in 2013 based on both its high yield and large seed size compared to the popular commercial chickpea cultivars ‘Sierra’ and ‘Sawyer’. Nash is an F5 derived line from the cross HB-19/CA9783142 and was evaluated in...

  5. The Nash equilibrium: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Holt, Charles A; Roth, Alvin E

    2004-03-23

    In 1950, John Nash contributed a remarkable one-page PNAS article that defined and characterized a notion of equilibrium for n- person games. This notion, now called the "Nash equilibrium," has been widely applied and adapted in economics and other behavioral sciences. Indeed, game theory, with the Nash equilibrium as its centerpiece, is becoming the most prominent unifying theory of social science. In this perspective, we summarize the historical context and subsequent impact of Nash's contribution. PMID:15024100

  6. A Tribute to Gary Nash

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jason-Fives, Alli

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author gives tribute to Gary Nash, a brilliant scholar, an award-winning professor, a prolific writer, a true humanitarian, and a revered historian. She honors him for his work with public school teachers. He has provided the educational support, encouragement, and motivation behind the importance of teaching history. Here,…

  7. Nash: genius with schizophrenia or vice versa?

    PubMed

    Funaki, Tevita

    2009-11-01

    Schizophrenia has many negative impacts on the wellbeing of individuals (sufferers). I will critically analyse Nash's experience with his illness of schizophrenia and his concept of wellness based on themes, his journey with schizophrenia and the support of this wife and friends. Ron Howard directed the movie, A Beautiful Mind based on Nash's biography about his mathematical genius and his struggle with schizophrenia. Nash only had one sister, Martha Nash who was born on November 16th, 1930. In terms of his mental health and wellness, Nash began to show signs of schizophrenia in 1958, on the threshold of his career. After 1970, by his choice, he never took antipsychotic medication again. In 1978, Nash was awarded the John von Neumann Theory Prize for his discovery of non-cooperative equilibria, now called Nash equilibria. As a result of Nash's illness, he adopted unhealthy practices that did not help him cope with schizophrenia. Recovery from mental illness has emphasised the importance of hope for the people experiencing mental illness. Nash's self-determinations enabled him to overcome the stigmatisation suffering due to schizophrenia. Nash experienced the five stages of coping with mental illness. The support of Nash's wife Alicia and the few close friends he had were paramount to his recovery and living with schizophrenia. Alicia had used cognitive coping strategies with her caring for Nash by having positive thinking in attempting to accept Nash's illness rather than denying that it existed and to understand the life experiences of a person with schizophrenia. Howard (2001) stated that it's about a 25% chance, that survivors of schizophrenia can regain clarity as Nash did within a certain time period. PMID:20443526

  8. Pre-Collegiate Teachers and Gary Nash

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sesso, Gloria

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author recalls the time she met Gary Nash at UCLA on July 13, 1992, when they began the work of creating the National Standards in History. Professor Nash was the leader in the development of the United States History Standards. In creating the Standards, they were to focus on Historical Thinking. They needed to organize the…

  9. NARSTO SOS99NASH WIND PROFILER DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-25

    NARSTO SOS99NASH WIND PROFILER DATA Project Title:  NARSTO ... Platform:  Ground Station Instrument:  Wind Profiler Location:  Nashville, Tennessee Spatial ... Data Guide Documents:  SOS99Nash Wind Profiler Guide Related Data:  Southern Oxidants ...

  10. Model Checking Coalition Nash Equilibria in MAD Distributed Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, Federico; Melatti, Igor; Salvo, Ivano; Tronci, Enrico; Alvisi, Lorenzo; Clement, Allen; Li, Harry

    We present two OBDD based model checking algorithms for the verification of Nash equilibria in finite state mechanisms modeling Multiple Administrative Domains (MAD) distributed systems with possibly colluding agents (coalitions) and with possibly faulty or malicious nodes (Byzantine agents). Given a finite state mechanism, a proposed protocol for each agent and the maximum sizes f for Byzantine agents and q for agents collusions, our model checkers return PASS if the proposed protocol is an ɛ-f-q-Nash equilibrium, i.e. no coalition of size up to q may have an interest greater than ɛ in deviating from the proposed protocol when up to f Byzantine agents are present, FAIL otherwise. We implemented our model checking algorithms within the NuSMV model checker: the first one explicitly checks equilibria for each coalition, while the second represents symbolically all coalitions. We present experimental results showing their effectiveness for moderate size mechanisms. For example, we can verify coalition Nash equilibria for mechanisms which corresponding normal form games would have more than 5 ×1021 entries. Moreover, we compare the two approaches, and the explicit algorithm turns out to outperform the symbolic one. To the best of our knowledge, no model checking algorithm for verification of Nash equilibria of mechanisms with coalitions has been previously published.

  11. Non-invasive Testing for NASH and NASH with Advanced Fibrosis: Are We There Yet?

    PubMed Central

    Arulanandan, Ahilan; Loomba, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent etiology of chronic liver disease in America. NAFLD can be broadly classified in two subtypes: nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL), which is generally considered a benign condition with negligible risk of progression to cirrhosis, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is generally considered to be progressive with substantial risk of progression to cirrhosis. Additionally, recent studies suggest the odds of liver mortality increases amongst NASH patients with advanced fibrosis (bridging fibrosis ± cirrhosis). Liver biopsy examination is the current gold standard to accurately discriminate between NAFL vs. NASH as well as diagnose advanced fibrosis. However, due to its invasive nature, risk of bleeding (and even rarely death), prohibitive cost, and sampling error, liver biopsies are imperfect for diagnosis and monitoring of NAFLD. As a result, noninvasive biomarkers that can accurately detect NASH and advanced fibrosis without biopsy are needed. This article will discuss the most novel noninvasive biomarkers in diagnosing NASH and advanced fibrosis. PMID:26500833

  12. Local Nash Equilibrium in Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yichao; Aziz-Alaoui, M. A.; Bertelle, Cyrille; Guan, Jihong

    2014-01-01

    Nash equilibrium is widely present in various social disputes. As of now, in structured static populations, such as social networks, regular, and random graphs, the discussions on Nash equilibrium are quite limited. In a relatively stable static gaming network, a rational individual has to comprehensively consider all his/her opponents' strategies before they adopt a unified strategy. In this scenario, a new strategy equilibrium emerges in the system. We define this equilibrium as a local Nash equilibrium. In this paper, we present an explicit definition of the local Nash equilibrium for the two-strategy games in structured populations. Based on the definition, we investigate the condition that a system reaches the evolutionary stable state when the individuals play the Prisoner's dilemma and snow-drift game. The local Nash equilibrium provides a way to judge whether a gaming structured population reaches the evolutionary stable state on one hand. On the other hand, it can be used to predict whether cooperators can survive in a system long before the system reaches its evolutionary stable state for the Prisoner's dilemma game. Our work therefore provides a theoretical framework for understanding the evolutionary stable state in the gaming populations with static structures. PMID:25169150

  13. On Learning Algorithms for Nash Equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daskalakis, Constantinos; Frongillo, Rafael; Papadimitriou, Christos H.; Pierrakos, George; Valiant, Gregory

    Can learning algorithms find a Nash equilibrium? This is a natural question for several reasons. Learning algorithms resemble the behavior of players in many naturally arising games, and thus results on the convergence or non-convergence properties of such dynamics may inform our understanding of the applicability of Nash equilibria as a plausible solution concept in some settings. A second reason for asking this question is in the hope of being able to prove an impossibility result, not dependent on complexity assumptions, for computing Nash equilibria via a restricted class of reasonable algorithms. In this work, we begin to answer this question by considering the dynamics of the standard multiplicative weights update learning algorithms (which are known to converge to a Nash equilibrium for zero-sum games). We revisit a 3×3 game defined by Shapley [10] in the 1950s in order to establish that fictitious play does not converge in general games. For this simple game, we show via a potential function argument that in a variety of settings the multiplicative updates algorithm impressively fails to find the unique Nash equilibrium, in that the cumulative distributions of players produced by learning dynamics actually drift away from the equilibrium.

  14. Proteomic and lipidomic signatures of lipid metabolism in NASH-associated hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Muir, Kyle; Hazim, Antonious; He, Ying; Peyressatre, Marion; Kim, Do-Young; Song, Xiaoling; Beretta, Laura

    2013-08-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a common preneoplastic condition of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Mice with hepatocytic deletion of Pten develop NASH and HCC later in life. This model is highly valuable for studies aimed at identifying the molecular mechanism by which metabolic disorders contribute to tumor development. We applied proteomic and lipidomic profiling approaches to Pten-null NASH liver and tumors. Circulating fatty acid composition was also characterized in these mice. The relevance to human NASH and HCC was further validated. This integrative proteomic and lipidomic study from mouse to human and from liver to blood identified the following disease signatures: (i) an HCC signature: upregulated hepatic scd1/scd2, fads2, and acsl5:acsl1 ratio, elevated vaccenic and erucic acids, and reduced margaric and linoleic acids in both liver and plasma; (ii) a NASH signature that correlates with tumor burden: upregulated hepatic elovl6, elevated oleic, adrenic, and osbond acids, and reduced cervonic acid in liver and plasma; and (iii) a NASH signature: reduced hepatic and circulating lignoceric and eicosapentaenoic acids. Altogether, these results show the role of lipid-modifying enzymes converting saturated fatty acids (SFA) to monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in HCC and the importance of an increased ratio of long chain n6-polyunsaturated fatty acids over n3-polyunsaturated fatty acids in NASH and HCC risk. They also highlight the relevance of the Pten-null model for studies related to NASH and HCC and show that circulating lipid metabolome provides a direct read of lipid changes in the liver. Most importantly, novel candidate targets for HCC diagnosis, therapy, risk assessment, and prevention were identified. PMID:23749645

  15. Gary Nash: Preeminent Scholar and Committed Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symcox, Linda

    2009-01-01

    The author has known Gary Nash as a friend since 1969, but she only began to work with him as a colleague in 1989, when he invited her to join the National Center for History in the Schools (NCHS) as it was just forming. During the seven years she spent as Assistant and then Associate Director of the NCHS, they shared the extraordinary experience…

  16. Gary Nash: Repairing a Necessary Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    In this essay, the author comments on the life and the contributions of author Gary Nash. Everyone is thanking him for his remarkable engagement with the schools, as a writer of outstanding textbooks and materials for teachers developed through his work as director of the Center for Teaching History in the Schools, and, of course, the National…

  17. Quantum Nash Equilibria and Quantum Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellman, Philip Vos; Post, Jonathan Vos

    In 2004, At the Fifth International Conference on Complex Systems, we drew attention to some remarkable findings by researchers at the Santa Fe Institute (Sato, Farmer and Akiyama, 2001) about hitherto unsuspected complexity in the Nash Equilibrium. As we progressed from these findings about heteroclinic Hamiltonians and chaotic transients hidden within the learning patterns of the simple rock-paper-scissors game to some related findings on the theory of quantum computing, one of the arguments we put forward was just as in the late 1990's a number of new Nash equilibria were discovered in simple bi-matrix games (Shubik and Quint, 1996; Von Stengel, 1997, 2000; and McLennan and Park, 1999) we would begin to see new Nash equilibria discovered as the result of quantum computation. While actual quantum computers remain rather primitive (Toibman, 2004), and the theory of quantum computation seems to be advancing perhaps a bit more slowly than originally expected, there have, nonetheless, been a number of advances in computation and some more radical advances in an allied field, quantum game theory (Huberman and Hogg, 2004) which are quite significant. In the course of this paper we will review a few of these discoveries and illustrate some of the characteristics of these new "Quantum Nash Equilibria". The full text of this research can be found at http://necsi.org/events/iccs6/viewpaper.php?id-234

  18. Memories of Gary Nash over Five Decades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellor, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    It is as a longtime client, softball teammate, colleague, traveling companion, and friend that the author writes this article to honor Gary Nash. He has known him in varied guises in five different decades, and on five continents, with Africa coming in 2009. In this article, the author recalls some of his memories of Gary over five decades.

  19. On Nash equilibria in Eisert-Lewenstein-Wilkens game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolonek-Lasoń, Katarzyna; Kosiński, Piotr

    2015-12-01

    Landsburg method of classifying mixed Nash equilibria for maximally entangled Eisert-Lewenstein-Wilkens (ELW) game is analyzed with special emphasis on symmetries inherent to the problem. Nash equilibria for the original ELW game are determined.

  20. Uniqueness of Nash equilibrium in vaccination games.

    PubMed

    Bai, Fan

    2016-12-01

    One crucial condition for the uniqueness of Nash equilibrium set in vaccination games is that the attack ratio monotonically decreases as the vaccine coverage level increasing. We consider several deterministic vaccination models in homogeneous mixing population and in heterogeneous mixing population. Based on the final size relations obtained from the deterministic epidemic models, we prove that the attack ratios can be expressed in terms of the vaccine coverage levels, and also prove that the attack ratios are decreasing functions of vaccine coverage levels. Some thresholds are presented, which depend on the vaccine efficacy. It is proved that for vaccination games in homogeneous mixing population, there is a unique Nash equilibrium for each game. PMID:27465224

  1. Nash equilibrium and multi criterion aerodynamic optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhili; Zhang, Lianhe

    2016-06-01

    Game theory and its particular Nash Equilibrium (NE) are gaining importance in solving Multi Criterion Optimization (MCO) in engineering problems over the past decade. The solution of a MCO problem can be viewed as a NE under the concept of competitive games. This paper surveyed/proposed four efficient algorithms for calculating a NE of a MCO problem. Existence and equivalence of the solution are analyzed and proved in the paper based on fixed point theorem. Specific virtual symmetric Nash game is also presented to set up an optimization strategy for single objective optimization problems. Two numerical examples are presented to verify proposed algorithms. One is mathematical functions' optimization to illustrate detailed numerical procedures of algorithms, the other is aerodynamic drag reduction of civil transport wing fuselage configuration by using virtual game. The successful application validates efficiency of algorithms in solving complex aerodynamic optimization problem.

  2. Geometry of Cournot-Nash Equilibrium with Application to Commons and Anticommons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Agata, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The author develops a simple geometric analysis of Cournot-Nash equilibrium in the price-quantity space by exploiting the economic content of the first-order condition. The approach makes it clear that strategic interdependency in oligopoly originates from externalities among producers. This explains why cartels are unstable and casts oligopoly…

  3. Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms of NASH.

    PubMed

    Eslam, Mohammed; George, Jacob

    2016-05-01

    Along with the obesity epidemic, the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased exponentially. The histological disease spectrum of NAFLD ranges from bland fatty liver (hepatic steatosis), to the concomitant presence of inflammation and ballooning which defines nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The latter can progress in a subset to fibrosis, leading ultimately to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The past decade has seen tremendous advances in our understanding of the genetic and epigenetic bases of NAFLD, mainly through the application of high end technology platforms including genome-wide association studies (GWAS). These have helped to define common gene variants (minor allele frequency >5 %) that contribute to the NAFLD phenotype. Looking to the future, these discoveries are expected to lead to improved diagnostics, the personalization of medicine, and a better understanding of the pathophysiological underpinnings that drive the transition from NAFLD to steatohepatitis and fibrosis, leading to the identification of novel therapeutic targets. In this review, we summarize data on the current state of knowledge with regard to the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms for the development of NASH. PMID:26683320

  4. An Overview of NAFLD/NASH in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ryang Kim, Soo; Ih Kim, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Clinical identity of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has established it as a chronic liver disease since the 1990s in the USA and in the 21st century in Japan, although its significance is not well recognized in Japanese society. It is characterized as a chronic liver disease, differentiated from viral liver disease and alcoholic liver disease. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) comprises nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and NASH. NASH is considered to be the hepatic manifestation of a metabolic syndrome. It is understood that among individuals with NAFLD, NAFL is a benign condition, whereas NASH can progress to cirrhosis and ultimately to hepatocellular carcinoma. The precise mechanism of NASH is poorly understood, although insulin resistance, oxidative stress and multiple parallel hits theory have been reported. Computed tomography and ultrasonography are performed to detect NAFLD, but these are not sufficient to distinguish between NAFL and NASH. The distinct diagnosis of NAFL and NASH is currently made by liver biopsy, requiring hospitalization. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop simple, non-invasive markers that can accurately distinguish between NASH and NAFL. In Japan, the number of NASH patients is estimated to be about 1 million. The treatment of NASH comprises changes in life style, including eating habits and exercise that will lead to weight loss, and drug intake, including vitamin E. Based on the global increase in obese people, NASH as a chronic liver disease will become the most important chronic liver disease in the 21st century, not only in Japan but also worldwide. PMID:27040340

  5. Evaluation of environmental genotoxicity by comet assay in Columba livia.

    PubMed

    González-Acevedo, Anahi; García-Salas, Juan A; Gosálvez, Jaime; Fernández, José Luis; Dávila-Rodríguez, Martha I; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Méndez-López, Luis F; Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I

    2016-01-01

    The concentrations of recognized or suspected genotoxic and carcinogenic agents found in the air of large cities and, in particular, developing countries, have raised concerns about the potential for chronic health effects in the populations exposed to them. The biomonitoring of environmental genotoxicity requires the selection of representative organisms as "sentinels," as well as the development of suitable and sensitive assays, such as those aimed at assessing DNA damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate DNA damage levels in erythrocytes from Columba livia living in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Mexico, compared with control animals via comet assay, and to confirm the results via Micronuclei test (MN) and DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH). Our results showed a significant increase in DNA migration in animals from the area assayed compared with that observed in control animals sampled in non-contaminated areas. These results were confirmed by MN test and DBD-FISH. In conclusion, these observations confirm that the examination of erythrocytes from Columba livia via alkaline comet assay provides a sensitive and reliable end point for the detection of environmental genotoxicants. PMID:26608565

  6. Small Clique Detection and Approximate Nash Equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minder, Lorenz; Vilenchik, Dan

    Recently, Hazan and Krauthgamer showed [12] that if, for a fixed small ɛ, an ɛ-best ɛ-approximate Nash equilibrium can be found in polynomial time in two-player games, then it is also possible to find a planted clique in G n, 1/2 of size C logn, where C is a large fixed constant independent of ɛ. In this paper, we extend their result to show that if an ɛ-best ɛ-approximate equilibrium can be efficiently found for arbitrarily small ɛ> 0, then one can detect the presence of a planted clique of size (2 + δ) logn in G n, 1/2 in polynomial time for arbitrarily small δ> 0. Our result is optimal in the sense that graphs in G n, 1/2 have cliques of size (2 - o(1)) logn with high probability.

  7. Nash Equilibria in Theory of Reasoned Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Leando; Cruz, José; Ferreira, Helena; Pinto, Alberto Adrego

    2009-08-01

    Game theory and Decision Theory have been applied to many different areas such as Physics, Economics, Biology, etc. In its application to Psychology, we introduce, in the literature, a Game Theoretical Model of Planned Behavior or Reasoned Action by establishing an analogy between two specific theories. In this study we take in account that individual decision-making is an outcome of a process where group decisions can determine individual probabilistic behavior. Using Game Theory concepts, we describe how intentions can be transformed in behavior and according to the Nash Equilibrium, this process will correspond to the best individual decision/response taking in account the collective response. This analysis can be extended to several examples based in the Game Theoretical Model of Planned Behavior or Reasoned Action.

  8. The Nash Equilibrium Revisited: Chaos and Complexity Hidden in Simplicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellman, Philip V.

    The Nash Equilibrium is a much discussed, deceptively complex, method for the analysis of non-cooperative games (McLennan and Berg, 2005). If one reads many of the commonly available definitions the description of the Nash Equilibrium is deceptively simple in appearance. Modern research has discovered a number of new and important complex properties of the Nash Equilibrium, some of which remain as contemporary conundrums of extraordinary difficulty and complexity (Quint and Shubik, 1997). Among the recently discovered features which the Nash Equilibrium exhibits under various conditions are heteroclinic Hamiltonian dynamics, a very complex asymptotic structure in the context of two-player bi-matrix games and a number of computationally complex or computationally intractable features in other settings (Sato, Akiyama and Farmer, 2002). This paper reviews those findings and then suggests how they may inform various market prediction strategies.

  9. Molecular cloning and sequencing analysis of the interferon receptor (IFNAR-1) from Columba livia

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wei Shan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Partial sequence cloning of interferon receptor (IFNAR-1) of Columba livia. Material and methods In order to obtain a certain length (630 bp) of gene, a pair of primers was designed according to the conserved nucleotide sequence of Gallus (EU477527.1) and Taeniopygia guttata (XM_002189232.1) IFNAR-1 gene fragment that was published by GenBank. Special primers were designed by the Race method to amplify the 3'terminal cDNA. Results The Columba livia IFNAR-1 displayed 88.5%, 80.5% and 73.8% nucleotide identity to Falco peregrinus, Gallus and Taeniopygia guttata, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the IFNAR1 gene showed that the relationship of Columba livia, Falco peregrinus and chicken had high homology. Conclusions We successfully obtained a Columba livia IFNAR-1 gene partial sequence. Analysis of the genetic tree showed that the relationship of Columba livia and Falco peregrinus IFNAR-1 had high homology. This result can be used as reference for further research and practical application. PMID:26155117

  10. Nash equilibrium and evolutionary dynamics in semifinalists' dilemma.

    PubMed

    Baek, Seung Ki; Son, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Hyeong-Chai

    2015-04-01

    We consider a tournament among four equally strong semifinalists. The players have to decide how much stamina to use in the semifinals, provided that the rest is available in the final and the third-place playoff. We investigate optimal strategies for allocating stamina to the successive matches when players' prizes (payoffs) are given according to the tournament results. From the basic assumption that the probability to win a match follows a nondecreasing function of stamina difference, we present symmetric Nash equilibria for general payoff structures. We find three different phases of the Nash equilibria in the payoff space. First, when the champion wins a much bigger payoff than the others, any pure strategy can constitute a Nash equilibrium as long as all four players adopt it in common. Second, when the first two places are much more valuable than the other two, the only Nash equilibrium is such that everyone uses a pure strategy investing all stamina in the semifinal. Third, when the payoff for last place is much smaller than the others, a Nash equilibrium is formed when every player adopts a mixed strategy of using all or none of its stamina in the semifinals. In a limiting case that only last place pays the penalty, this mixed-strategy profile can be proved to be a unique symmetric Nash equilibrium, at least when the winning probability follows a Heaviside step function. Moreover, by using this Heaviside step function, we study the tournament by using evolutionary replicator dynamics to obtain analytic solutions, which reproduces the corresponding Nash equilibria on the population level and gives information on dynamic aspects. PMID:25974475

  11. NASH (Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis): A case of multiorganelle failure.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    The clinical term 'multiorgan failure' lends itself, modified to 'multiorganelle failure', to the cascading events in cellular systems leading to hepatocyte injury, cell death, inflammation and fibrosis and ultimately to cirrhosis in NASH (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis). NASH is one of the most common forms of liver disease and constitutes the severe form of NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease). The key features that distinguish potentially progressive NASH from relatively stable non-NASH fatty liver (NNFL, often referred to as simple steatosis) are cellular ballooning, inflammation and fibrosis. These findings, together with steatosis or accumulation of greater than normal hepatic lipid, usually constitute histological NASH seen on liver biopsy or in laboratory samples. Cellular ballooning is not specific to NASH but it is perhaps the most emblematic finding on histological samples. The ballooned hepatocyte has evidence of cytoskeletal injury (depletion and condensation as Mallory-Denk bodies), accumulation of partially oxidized small fat droplets, mitochondrial morphological changes presumably related to organelle dysfunction, dilated endoplasmic reticulum and autophagosomes - an attempt at cellular repair. Ballooning itself likely results from a combination of cytoskeletal injury resulting in loss of normal cell shape and from accumulation of injured and somewhat derelict small fat droplets and dilated endoplasmic reticulum. Cellular injury in NASH and especially cellular ballooning can be viewed as a process of 'multi-organelle failure' beginning with generation of super oxide and failure to contain the subsequent oxidative injury and by-products in an environment rich in lipid fuel. These events lead to activation of imunologic pathways. Dysfunction of the small fat droplet appears to be a central mechanism and the oxidative injury can be viewed as the process of rancidification - the chemical decomposition of oils, lipids and fats. PMID:26461413

  12. Nash equilibrium and evolutionary dynamics in semifinalists' dilemma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Seung Ki; Son, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Hyeong-Chai

    2015-04-01

    We consider a tournament among four equally strong semifinalists. The players have to decide how much stamina to use in the semifinals, provided that the rest is available in the final and the third-place playoff. We investigate optimal strategies for allocating stamina to the successive matches when players' prizes (payoffs) are given according to the tournament results. From the basic assumption that the probability to win a match follows a nondecreasing function of stamina difference, we present symmetric Nash equilibria for general payoff structures. We find three different phases of the Nash equilibria in the payoff space. First, when the champion wins a much bigger payoff than the others, any pure strategy can constitute a Nash equilibrium as long as all four players adopt it in common. Second, when the first two places are much more valuable than the other two, the only Nash equilibrium is such that everyone uses a pure strategy investing all stamina in the semifinal. Third, when the payoff for last place is much smaller than the others, a Nash equilibrium is formed when every player adopts a mixed strategy of using all or none of its stamina in the semifinals. In a limiting case that only last place pays the penalty, this mixed-strategy profile can be proved to be a unique symmetric Nash equilibrium, at least when the winning probability follows a Heaviside step function. Moreover, by using this Heaviside step function, we study the tournament by using evolutionary replicator dynamics to obtain analytic solutions, which reproduces the corresponding Nash equilibria on the population level and gives information on dynamic aspects.

  13. Challenges and Management of Liver Cirrhosis: Practical Issues in the Therapy of Patients with Cirrhosis due to NAFLD and NASH.

    PubMed

    Traussnigg, Stefan; Kienbacher, Christian; Halilbasic, Emina; Rechling, Christian; Kazemi-Shirazi, Lili; Hofer, Harald; Munda, Petra; Trauner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and comprises a liver disease spectrum ranging from steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with risk of progression to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Associated metabolic conditions and comorbidities such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases are common and require concerted management. Adiponutrin (PNPLA3) variants may help to identify NAFLD patients at higher risk for liver disease progression towards advanced fibrosis and HCC. The therapeutic options in NAFLD/NASH include lifestyle modification, pharmacological treatment, bariatric surgery for patients with morbid obesity and treatment of complications of liver cirrhosis and HCC, including liver transplantation. Insulin sensitizers and antioxidative treatment strategies with vitamin E are among the best-established pharmacological approaches, but both drugs have long-term safety issues and there is limited evidence in cirrhotic patients. Treatment of concomitant/underlying metabolic conditions with statins or metformin may also have beneficial effects on portal hypertension, complications of liver cirrhosis and HCC prevention. The bile acid receptor FXR may be a promising novel therapeutic target for the treatment of NAFLD/NASH, fibrosis and portal hypertension, but the prognostic implications of associated changes in low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol require further studies. Morbidly obese NASH patients can benefit from bariatric surgery which may reduce liver fibrosis but carries a risk of decompensation in patients with advanced liver cirrhosis. When carefully selected, patients with NASH cirrhosis undergoing liver transplantation have a good outcome. This review summarizes recent progress in the management of patients with liver cirrhosis due to NASH. PMID:26159280

  14. Nash equilibrium strategy in the deregulated power industry and comparing its lost welfare with Iran wholesale electricity market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, Seyed Hosein; Nazemi, Ali; Hafezalkotob, Ashkan

    2016-07-01

    With the increasing use of different types of auctions in market designing, modeling of participants' behaviors to evaluate the market structure is one of the main discussions in the studies related to the deregulated power industries. In this article, we apply an approach of the optimal bidding behavior to the Iran wholesale electricity market as a restructured electric power industry and model how the participants of the market bid in the spot electricity market. The problem is formulated analytically using the Nash equilibrium concept composed of large numbers of players having discrete and very large strategy spaces. Then, we compute and draw supply curve of the competitive market in which all generators' proposed prices are equal to their marginal costs and supply curve of the real market in which the pricing mechanism is pay-as-bid. We finally calculate the lost welfare or inefficiency of the Nash equilibrium and the real market by comparing their supply curves with the competitive curve. We examine 3 cases on November 24 (2 cases) and July 24 (1 case), 2012. It is observed that in the Nash equilibrium on November 24 and demand of 23,487 MW, there are 212 allowed plants for the first case (plants are allowed to choose any quantity of generation except one of them that should be equal to maximum Power) and the economic efficiency or social welfare of Nash equilibrium is 2.77 times as much as the real market. In addition, there are 184 allowed plants for the second case (plants should offer their maximum power with different prices) and the efficiency or social welfare of Nash equilibrium is 3.6 times as much as the real market. On July 24 and demand of 42,421 MW, all 370 plants should generate maximum energy due to the high electricity demand that the economic efficiency or social welfare of the Nash equilibrium is about 2 times as much as the real market.

  15. John Nash, game theory, and the schizophrenic brain.

    PubMed

    Capps, Donald

    2011-03-01

    This article focuses on John Nash, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1994, and subject of the Award winning 2001 film A Beautiful Mind, who was diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia in 1958 at the age of 29. After presenting an account of the emergence, course, and eventual remission of his illness, the article argues for the relevance of his contribution to game theory, known as the Nash equilibrium, for which he received the Nobel Prize, to research studies of the schizophrenic brain and how it deviates from the normal brain. The case is made that the Nash equilibrium is descriptive of the normal brain, whereas the game theory formulated by John van Neumann, which Nash's theory challenges, is descriptive of the schizophrenic brain. The fact that Nash and his colleagues in mathematics did not make the association between his contributions to mathematics and his mental breakdown and that his later recovery exemplified the validity of this contribution are noted and discussed. Religious themes in his delusional system, including his view of himself as a secret messianic figure and the biblical Esau, are interpreted in light of these competing game theories and the dysfunctions of the schizophrenic brain. His recognition that his return to normalcy came at the price of his sense of being in relation to the cosmos is also noted. PMID:19862621

  16. The generalized Nash model for river flow routing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Baowei; Guo, Shenglian; Liang, Ji; Sun, Huaiwei

    2015-11-01

    The widely used instantaneous unit hydrograph (IUH) based on the Nash cascade reservoir model was obtained under a zero initial condition, or equivalently an empty reservoir assumption. In this study, a more general case with a non-zero initial condition is considered in the derivation of the classical Nash model. A generalized Nash model (GNM) has been deduced using the Laplace transform and the principle of mathematical induction. For river flow routing, the GNM physically interprets the formation of downstream outflow, i.e. the summation of the recession flow of the initial channel storage and the response to upstream inflow. The GNM, written in a state-space representation, is able to update the state of the river system in time, and hence can be applied in real-time forecasting. Two separate case studies have been used for illustration. It is indicated that the proposed updating procedure results in improved river flow forecasts when compared with the traditional IUH method.

  17. Acute, fatal Sarcocystis calchasi-associated hepatitis in Roller pigeons (Columbia livia f. dom.) at Philadelphia Zoo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four Roller pigeons (Columba livia f. dom.) at the Philadelphia Zoo died suddenly. Necropsy examination revealed macroscopic hepatitis. Microscopically, the predominant lesions were in liver, characterized with necrosis and mixed cell inflammatory response. Sarcocystis calchasi-like schizonts and fr...

  18. Stress-induced core temperature changes in pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Myla de Aguiar; Melleu, Fernando Falkenburger; Marino-Neto, José

    2015-02-01

    Changes in body temperature are significant physiological consequences of stressful stimuli in mammals and birds. Pigeons (Columba livia) prosper in (potentially) stressful urban environments and are common subjects in neurobehavioral studies; however, the thermal responses to stress stimuli by pigeons are poorly known. Here, we describe acute changes in the telemetrically recorded celomatic (core) temperature (Tc) in pigeons given a variety of potentially stressful stimuli, including transfer to a novel cage (ExC) leading to visual isolation from conspecifics, the presence of the experimenter (ExpR), gentle handling (H), sham intracelomatic injections (SI), and the induction of the tonic immobility (TI) response. Transfer to the ExC cage provoked short-lived hyperthermia (10-20 min) followed by a long-lasting and substantial decrease in Tc, which returned to baseline levels 2 h after the start of the test. After a 2-hour stay in the ExC, the other potentially stressful stimuli evoked only weak, marginally significant hyperthermic (ExpR, IT) or hypothermic (SI) responses. Stimuli delivered 26 h after transfer to the ExC induced definite and intense increases in Tc (ExpR, H) or hypothermic responses (SI). These Tc changes appear to be unrelated to modifications in general activity (as measured via telemetrically recorded actimetric data). Repeated testing failed to affect the hypothermic responses to the transference to the ExC, even after nine trials and at 1- or 8-day intervals, suggesting that the social (visual) isolation from conspecifics may be a strong and poorly controllable stimulus in this species. The present data indicated that stress-induced changes in Tc may be a consistent and reliable physiological parameter of stress but that they may also show stressor type-, direction- and species-specific attributes. PMID:25479572

  19. Surviving History: Gary Nash and the National Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Marjorie

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author recalls the first time she met Gary Nash. He came to speak at a Bradley Commission meeting and she was rather surprised to see him appear and to find out that he, along with Charlotte Crabtree, was involved in a National Center for History. She gives three reasons for her surprise which she thinks may tell aspects of…

  20. Innate Immunity and Inflammation in NAFLD/NASH.

    PubMed

    Arrese, Marco; Cabrera, Daniel; Kalergis, Alexis M; Feldstein, Ariel E

    2016-05-01

    Inflammation and hepatocyte injury and death are the hallmarks of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the progressive form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is a currently burgeoning public health problem. Innate immune activation is a key factor in triggering and amplifying hepatic inflammation in NAFLD/NASH. Thus, identification of the underlying mechanisms by which immune cells in the liver recognize cell damage signals or the presence of pathogens or pathogen-derived factors that activate them is relevant from a therapeutic perspective. In this review, we present new insights into the factors promoting the inflammatory response in NASH including sterile cell death processes resulting from lipotoxicity in hepatocytes as well as into the altered gut-liver axis function, which involves translocation of bacterial products into portal circulation as a result of gut leakiness. We further delineate the key immune cell types involved and how they recognize both damage-associated molecular patterns or pathogen-associated molecular patterns through binding of surface-expressed pattern recognition receptors, which initiate signaling cascades leading to injury amplification. The relevance of modulating these inflammatory signaling pathways as potential novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of NASH is summarized. PMID:26841783

  1. 26. Photocopy of original photograph in collection of John Nash, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photocopy of original photograph in collection of John Nash, Cleveland Water Department showing nine foot tunnel under Lake Erie for water supply. location is a Crib #1. photo undated. - Division Avenue Pumping Station & Filtration Plant, West 45th Street and Division Avenue, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  2. 13. Photocopy of original photograph in collection of John Nash, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of original photograph in collection of John Nash, Cleveland Water Department, showing Allis Chambers triple-expansion steam engine at the Division Avenue Plant. Photo ca. 1900-1920. Engine now demolished. - Division Avenue Pumping Station & Filtration Plant, West 45th Street and Division Avenue, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  3. Critical Realism and Statistical Methods--A Response to Nash

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, David

    2007-01-01

    This article offers a defence of critical realism in the face of objections Nash (2005) makes to it in a recent edition of this journal. It is argued that critical and scientific realisms are closely related and that both are opposed to statistical positivism. However, the suggestion is made that scientific realism retains (from statistical…

  4. Current efforts and trends in the treatment of NASH.

    PubMed

    Ratziu, Vlad; Goodman, Zachary; Sanyal, Arun

    2015-04-01

    Of all the aspects of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the slowest advances have occurred in the therapeutic field. Thirty-five years after its formal description and after 15 years of intense scrutiny from researchers worldwide, there is still no approved drug for the treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatits (NASH). In the meantime, progress in the understanding of pathophysiology, diagnosis - both invasive and non-invasive, epidemiology and even natural history have been substantial or, at times, spectacular. In contrast, hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy underwent constant improvement and even before the great acceleration of the past few years, patients were already being offered approved therapies that were increasingly more efficient. What then explains such a slow pace of therapeutic advances in NASH, and will this change in the near future? Here we will review commonly-held myths that have diverted attention from therapy of NASH, obstacles that have slowed down industrial development of drugs for this indication, and recent achievements that will create better conditions for drug development programs. We will also briefly review current knowledge of non-pharmacological and pharmacological management in this early era of NASH therapies. PMID:25920092

  5. Dynamic elastic Cournot-Nash principle with memory term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbagallo, Annamaria

    2013-10-01

    In the paper we consider the dynamic elastic oligopolistic market equilibrium problem in presence of production excesses and show the equivalence between the generalized Cournot-Nash principle and a quasi-variational inequality. Moreover, we present existence and regularity results for equilibrium solutions. Finally, we introduce a long term memory in order to take into account the delay effects in the noncooperative market.

  6. Imaging Mass Spectrometry Reveals a Decrease of Cardiolipin in the Kidney of NASH Model Mice.

    PubMed

    Hayasaka, Takahiro; Fuda, Hirotoshi; Hui, Shu-Ping; Chiba, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can be complicated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this study, changes in the distribution of biomolecules in the kidney were studied in NASH model mice with the use of imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). The mass spectra and ion images of IMS showed that the signals of cardiolipin (CL) species were decreased in the kidney cortex of the NASH mice. The decrease of CL might therefore suggest the kidney involvement of NASH. PMID:27063723

  7. Role of MicroRNAs in NAFLD/NASH.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Gyongyi; Csak, Timea

    2016-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are highly conserved, small, 18-25 nucleotide, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Each miRNA can regulate hundreds of target genes, and vice versa each target gene can be regulated by numerous miRNAs, suggesting a very complex network and explaining how miRNAs play pivotal roles in fine-tuning essentially all biological processes in all cell types in the liver. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the role of miRNAs in the pathogenesis and diagnosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with an outlook to the broader aspects of metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, we discuss the role of miRNAs as potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets in NAFLD/NASH. PMID:26769057

  8. Nash Equilibria in Noncooperative Predator-Prey Games

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos, Angel Manuel Roubicek, Tomas

    2007-09-15

    A noncooperative game governed by a distributed-parameter predator-prey system is considered, assuming that two players control initial conditions for predator and prey, respectively. Existence of a Nash equilibrium is shown under the condition that the desired population profiles and the environmental carrying capacity for the prey are sufficiently small. A conceptual approximation algorithm is proposed and analyzed. Finally, numerical simulations are performed, too.

  9. Investigation of land use effects on Nash model parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niazi, Faegheh; Fakheri Fard, Ahmad; Nourani, Vahid; Goodrich, David; Gupta, Hoshin

    2015-04-01

    Flood forecasting is of great importance in hydrologic planning, hydraulic structure design, water resources management and sustainable designs like flood control and management. Nash's instantaneous unit hydrograph is frequently used for simulating hydrological response in natural watersheds. Urban hydrology is gaining more attention due to population increases and associated construction escalation. Rapid development of urban areas affects the hydrologic processes of watersheds by decreasing soil permeability, flood base flow, lag time and increase in flood volume, peak runoff rates and flood frequency. In this study the influence of urbanization on the significant parameters of the Nash model have been investigated. These parameters were calculated using three popular methods (i.e. moment, root mean square error and random sampling data generation), in a small watershed consisting of one natural sub-watershed which drains into a residentially developed sub-watershed in the city of Sierra Vista, Arizona. The results indicated that for all three methods, the lag time, which is product of Nash parameters "K" and "n", in the natural sub-watershed is greater than the developed one. This logically implies more storage and/or attenuation in the natural sub-watershed. The median K and n parameters derived from the three methods using calibration events were tested via a set of verification events. The results indicated that all the three method have acceptable accuracy in hydrograph simulation. The CDF curves and histograms of the parameters clearly show the difference of the Nash parameter values between the natural and developed sub-watersheds. Some specific upper and lower percentile values of the median of the generated parameters (i.e. 10, 20 and 30 %) were analyzed to future investigates the derived parameters. The model was sensitive to variations in the value of the uncertain K and n parameter. Changes in n are smaller than K in both sub-watersheds indicating

  10. A generalization of Nash's theorem with higher-order functionals

    PubMed Central

    Hedges, Julian

    2013-01-01

    The recent theory of sequential games and selection functions by Escardó & Oliva is extended to games in which players move simultaneously. The Nash existence theorem for mixed-strategy equilibria of finite games is generalized to games defined by selection functions. A normal form construction is given, which generalizes the game-theoretic normal form, and its soundness is proved. Minimax strategies also generalize to the new class of games, and are computed by the Berardi–Bezem–Coquand functional, studied in proof theory as an interpretation of the axiom of countable choice. PMID:23750111

  11. Bayesian Nash equilibria using extended Werner-like states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alid-Vaccarezza, M.; Soto, M. E.

    2016-07-01

    We study quantum strategies in games of incomplete information using a formalism of game theory based on multi-sector probability matrix. We analyze an extension of the well-known game of Battle of Sexes using an extended Werner-like state focusing in how its mixedness and entanglement affect the Bayesian Nash payoffs of the player. It is shown that entanglement is needed to outperform classical payoffs but not all entangled states are useful due to the presence of mixedness. A threshold for the mixedness parameter and the minimum entanglement value were found.

  12. CEACAM1 loss links inflammation to Insulin Resistance in obesity and Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH)

    PubMed Central

    Najjar, Sonia M.; Russo, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Mounting epidemiological evidence points to an association between metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), an increasingly recognized new epidemic. NASH pathologies include hepatocellular ballooning, lobular inflammation, hepatocellular injury, apoptosis and hepatic fibrosis. We will review the relationship between insulin resistance and inflammation in visceral obesity and NASH in an attempt to shed more light on the pathogenesis of these major metabolic diseases. Moreover, we will identify loss of the Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 as a unifying mechanism linking the immunological and metabolic abnormalities in NASH. PMID:24258517

  13. Two Monthly Continuous Dynamic Model Based on Nash Bargaining Theory for Conflict Resolution in Reservoir System

    PubMed Central

    Homayounfar, Mehran; Zomorodian, Mehdi; Martinez, Christopher J.; Lai, Sai Hin

    2015-01-01

    So far many optimization models based on Nash Bargaining Theory associated with reservoir operation have been developed. Most of them have aimed to provide practical and efficient solutions for water allocation in order to alleviate conflicts among water users. These models can be discussed from two viewpoints: (i) having a discrete nature; and (ii) working on an annual basis. Although discrete dynamic game models provide appropriate reservoir operator policies, their discretization of variables increases the run time and causes dimensionality problems. In this study, two monthly based non-discrete optimization models based on the Nash Bargaining Solution are developed for a reservoir system. In the first model, based on constrained state formulation, the first and second moments (mean and variance) of the state variable (water level in the reservoir) is calculated. Using moment equations as the constraint, the long-term utility of the reservoir manager and water users are optimized. The second model is a dynamic approach structured based on continuous state Markov decision models. The corresponding solution based on the collocation method is structured for a reservoir system. In this model, the reward function is defined based on the Nash Bargaining Solution. Indeed, it is used to yield equilibrium in every proper sub-game, thereby satisfying the Markov perfect equilibrium. Both approaches are applicable for water allocation in arid and semi-arid regions. A case study was carried out at the Zayandeh-Rud river basin located in central Iran to identify the effectiveness of the presented methods. The results are compared with the results of an annual form of dynamic game, a classical stochastic dynamic programming model (e.g. Bayesian Stochastic Dynamic Programming model, BSDP), and a discrete stochastic dynamic game model (PSDNG). By comparing the results of alternative methods, it is shown that both models are capable of tackling conflict issues in water allocation

  14. Two Monthly Continuous Dynamic Model Based on Nash Bargaining Theory for Conflict Resolution in Reservoir System.

    PubMed

    Homayounfar, Mehran; Zomorodian, Mehdi; Martinez, Christopher J; Lai, Sai Hin

    2015-01-01

    So far many optimization models based on Nash Bargaining Theory associated with reservoir operation have been developed. Most of them have aimed to provide practical and efficient solutions for water allocation in order to alleviate conflicts among water users. These models can be discussed from two viewpoints: (i) having a discrete nature; and (ii) working on an annual basis. Although discrete dynamic game models provide appropriate reservoir operator policies, their discretization of variables increases the run time and causes dimensionality problems. In this study, two monthly based non-discrete optimization models based on the Nash Bargaining Solution are developed for a reservoir system. In the first model, based on constrained state formulation, the first and second moments (mean and variance) of the state variable (water level in the reservoir) is calculated. Using moment equations as the constraint, the long-term utility of the reservoir manager and water users are optimized. The second model is a dynamic approach structured based on continuous state Markov decision models. The corresponding solution based on the collocation method is structured for a reservoir system. In this model, the reward function is defined based on the Nash Bargaining Solution. Indeed, it is used to yield equilibrium in every proper sub-game, thereby satisfying the Markov perfect equilibrium. Both approaches are applicable for water allocation in arid and semi-arid regions. A case study was carried out at the Zayandeh-Rud river basin located in central Iran to identify the effectiveness of the presented methods. The results are compared with the results of an annual form of dynamic game, a classical stochastic dynamic programming model (e.g. Bayesian Stochastic Dynamic Programming model, BSDP), and a discrete stochastic dynamic game model (PSDNG). By comparing the results of alternative methods, it is shown that both models are capable of tackling conflict issues in water allocation

  15. 75 FR 41518 - Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish (Gun Lake) Tribe Liquor Control Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish (Gun Lake) Tribe Liquor Control Ordinance AGENCY... certification of the Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish Band of Pottawatomi Indians (Gun Lake) Liquor Control Ordinance... purpose of regulating liquor transactions in Indian Country. The Tribal Council of the Gun Lake...

  16. Multi Objective Aerodynamic Optimization Using Parallel Nash Evolutionary/deterministic Hybrid Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhili

    2016-06-01

    This paper solved aerodynamic drag reduction of transport wing fuselage configuration in transonic regime by using a parallel Nash evolutionary/deterministic hybrid optimization algorithm. Two sets of parameters are used, namely globally and locally. It is shown that optimizing separately local and global parameters by using Nash algorithms is far more efficient than considering these variables as a whole.

  17. Two-population replicator dynamics and number of Nash equilibria in matrix games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galla, T.

    2007-04-01

    We study the connection between the evolutionary replicator dynamics and the number of Nash equilibria in large random bi-matrix games. Using techniques of disordered systems theory we compute the statistical properties of both, the fixed points of the dynamics and the Nash equilibria. Except for the special case of zero-sum games, one finds a transition as a function of the so-called co-operation pressure between a phase in which there is a unique stable fixed point of the dynamics coinciding with a unique Nash equilibrium, and an unstable phase in which there are exponentially many Nash equilibria with statistical properties different from the stationary state of the replicator equations. Our analytical results are confirmed by numerical simulations of the replicator dynamics, and by explicit enumeration of Nash equilibria.

  18. [Current trends of NASH/NAFLD in Asia-Pacific region].

    PubMed

    Ishii, Hiromasa

    2006-06-01

    In Japan, much attention has been paid to NASH and NAFLD for the past several years and the prevalence of this disease entity has been estimated, and NASH is thought to be present in 10% of those who have fatty liver diseases. Other points out the prevalence of NASH in Japan as 6 to 8 hundred thousand patients. The last two or three decades have seen the evolution of Western-style life of near complete inactivity, energy-dense food choices and liberal fiscal resources to obtain them and other means to avoid physical activity. Moreover, what is increasingly apparent is that NASH and NAFLD is not a Western disease and many population groups in the Asia-Pacific region are particularly prone to type 2 diabetes. Thus, it is not surprising that NASH has increasingly been diagnosed in several regions in Asia including Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and India. PMID:16768103

  19. Navigable networks as Nash equilibria of navigation games.

    PubMed

    Gulyás, András; Bíró, József J; Kőrösi, Attila; Rétvári, Gábor; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2015-01-01

    Common sense suggests that networks are not random mazes of purposeless connections, but that these connections are organized so that networks can perform their functions well. One function common to many networks is targeted transport or navigation. Here, using game theory, we show that minimalistic networks designed to maximize the navigation efficiency at minimal cost share basic structural properties with real networks. These idealistic networks are Nash equilibria of a network construction game whose purpose is to find an optimal trade-off between the network cost and navigability. We show that these skeletons are present in the Internet, metabolic, English word, US airport, Hungarian road networks, and in a structural network of the human brain. The knowledge of these skeletons allows one to identify the minimal number of edges, by altering which one can efficiently improve or paralyse navigation in the network. PMID:26138277

  20. Navigable networks as Nash equilibria of navigation games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulyás, András; Bíró, József J.; Kőrösi, Attila; Rétvári, Gábor; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2015-07-01

    Common sense suggests that networks are not random mazes of purposeless connections, but that these connections are organized so that networks can perform their functions well. One function common to many networks is targeted transport or navigation. Here, using game theory, we show that minimalistic networks designed to maximize the navigation efficiency at minimal cost share basic structural properties with real networks. These idealistic networks are Nash equilibria of a network construction game whose purpose is to find an optimal trade-off between the network cost and navigability. We show that these skeletons are present in the Internet, metabolic, English word, US airport, Hungarian road networks, and in a structural network of the human brain. The knowledge of these skeletons allows one to identify the minimal number of edges, by altering which one can efficiently improve or paralyse navigation in the network.

  1. Navigable networks as Nash equilibria of navigation games

    PubMed Central

    Gulyás, András; Bíró, József J.; Kőrösi, Attila; Rétvári, Gábor; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2015-01-01

    Common sense suggests that networks are not random mazes of purposeless connections, but that these connections are organized so that networks can perform their functions well. One function common to many networks is targeted transport or navigation. Here, using game theory, we show that minimalistic networks designed to maximize the navigation efficiency at minimal cost share basic structural properties with real networks. These idealistic networks are Nash equilibria of a network construction game whose purpose is to find an optimal trade-off between the network cost and navigability. We show that these skeletons are present in the Internet, metabolic, English word, US airport, Hungarian road networks, and in a structural network of the human brain. The knowledge of these skeletons allows one to identify the minimal number of edges, by altering which one can efficiently improve or paralyse navigation in the network. PMID:26138277

  2. EFFECTS OF N-ACETYLCYSTEINE ON NON-ALCOHOLIC STEATOHEPATITIS (NASH) IN RATS FED VIA TOTAL ENTERAL NUTRITION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A "two-hit" model for NASH exists in which development of steatosis constitutes the "first hit" and sensitizes the liver to potential "second hits", resulting in NASH. Oxidative stress is possibly a central mechanism of hepatocellular injury in NASH and is a candidate for the "second hit" since it c...

  3. [Which animal models of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis-hepatocellular carcinoma (NASH-HCC) have more practical value in experimental investigations?].

    PubMed

    Duan, N N; Wu, J

    2016-03-20

    In the past, we used to think that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) only occurred when nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progressed to liver cirrhosis. However, recent clinical studies have shown that HCC may occur during the stage of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The prevalence of NAFLD and the increasing incidence of NASH-associated HCC require the elucidation of the pathogenesis of NASH-HCC and the assessment of the efficacy of novel therapies as early as possible, while these evaluations need reliable animal models. This article reviews the characteristics of NASH-HCC models with a practical value to uncover the mysteries of NASH-HCC. PMID:27095770

  4. Antioxidant potential of the root of Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash.

    PubMed

    Luqman, Suaib; Kumar, Ritesh; Kaushik, Shubhangi; Srivastava, Suchita; Darokar, Mahendra P; Khanuja, Suman P S

    2009-02-01

    Vetiveria zizanioides, an aromatic plant commonly known as vetiver has been used for various ailments. The essential oil of vetiver root has been shown to possess antioxidant activity. However, antioxidant potential of spent root extract has not been reported. Hence, in the present study, ferric reducing, free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of two genotypes namely KS1 and gulabi of V. zizanioides L. Nash root were investigated using in vitro assays - the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), total phenolic content (TPC), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and reducing power (RP). KS1 genotype showed higher FRAP values, DPPH inhibition, TPC and RP potential compared to gulabi and the antioxidant activity increased with the concentration of the extract (10-1000 microg/mL). A significant protective effect of cv KS1 (100 microg/mL) extract was also observed in reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations of erythrocytes subjected to oxidative stress by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) and hydrogen peroxide (H202). The cv KS1 showed better antioxidant activity, compared to cv gulabi indicating the possibility of exploring the presence of different phytoconstituents in the two varieties. PMID:19374265

  5. Role of NLRP3 Inflammasome in the Progression of NAFLD to NASH

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xingyong; Xu, Chengfu; Yu, Chaohui; Li, Youming

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been recognized as a major public health problem worldwide. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is an advanced form of NAFLD that may progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The pathogenesis of disease progression from NAFLD to NASH has not been fully understood. Immunological mechanisms that have been increasingly recognized in the disease progression include defects in innate immunity, adaptive immunity, Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, and gut-liver axis. The NLRP3 inflammasome is an intracellular multiprotein complex involved in the production of mature interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β) and induces metabolic inflammation. NLRP3 inflammasome has been recently demonstrated to play a crucial role in the progression of NASH. This review highlights the recent findings linking NLRP3 inflammasome to the progression of NASH. PMID:27446858

  6. Mycoplasma columbinum Isolated From a Racing Pigeon ( Columba livia ) With Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Hellebuyck, Tom; Garmyn, An; De Cooman, Lien; Boyen, Filip; Pasmans, Frank; Martel, An

    2014-09-01

    A juvenile racing pigeon ( Columba livia ) was presented with drooping of the wing and inability to fly. On physical examination, the right shoulder joint was swollen. The pigeon was euthanatized and submitted for necropsy. An excessive amount of fibrin was present in the canalis triosseus with severe arthritis of the affected shoulder joint. A pure growth of Mycoplasma-like colonies was obtained on microbiological culture of the shoulder joint. A 16S ribosomal RNA gene-specific polymerase chain reaction assay was performed on the isolate and revealed 100% similarity with Mycoplasma columbinum . Although infectious arthritis in homing pigeons is primarily associated with paratyphoid and Streptococcus gallolyticus infection, clinical practitioners should consider the potential role of Mycoplasma columbinum in arthritis in pigeons. PMID:25843324

  7. Invasion of Flukes of the Echinostomatidae Family in Racing Pigeon ( Columba livia var. domestica) Lofts.

    PubMed

    Ledwoń, Aleksandra; Dolka, Beata; Piasecki, Tomasz; Dolka, Izabella; Szeleszczuk, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    Over 4 years, only two known cases of fluke invasions were diagnosed in racing pigeons ( Columba livia ) originating from different regions of Poland. In both cases, the invasion was characterized by a very high mortality (approximately 70%), and the source of the infestation was snails of the Lymnaeidae family eaten by pigeons. Fluke invasions in pigeons are extremely rare and to date have not been described in Poland. Therefore, the occurrence of the symptoms of hemorrhagic diarrhea and sudden deaths of either adult pigeons or nestlings were suspected to be associated with poisoning. Autopsy revealed an invasion of flukes causing hemorrhagic enteritis. Renal failure and spleen atrophy were also found in the birds. Using molecular biology techniques, infestation with the fluke Echinostoma revolutum was determined in the second case. PMID:27309299

  8. Helminth-bacteria interaction in the gut of domestic pigeon Columba livia domestica.

    PubMed

    Biswal, Debraj; Nandi, Anadi Prasad; Chatterjee, Soumendranath

    2016-03-01

    The present paper is an attempt to study the interaction between the helminth parasite and bacteria residing in the gut of domestic pigeon, Columba livia domestica. Biochemical and molecular characterization of the gut bacterial isolate were done and the isolate was identified as Staphylococcus sp. DB1 (JX442510). The interaction of Staphylococcus sp. with Cotugnia cuneata, an intestinal helminth parasite of domestic pigeon was studied on the basis of the difference between 'mean worm burden' of antibiotic treated infected pigeons and infected pigeons without any antibiotic treatment. The ANOVA and Tukey tests of the data obtained showed that antibiotic treatment reduced the mean worm burden significantly. The biochemical properties of Staphylococcus sp. DB1 (JX442510) also showed a mutualistic relationship with the physiology of C. cuneata. PMID:27065609

  9. Age-correlation of blood values in the rock pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Prinzinger, Roland; Misovic, Andrea

    2010-07-01

    Hematological adaptations to age (1-17 years) and about variability per se for free-living rock pigeons Columba livia are presented. Increasing age is correlated with decreasing values of hematocrit and hemoglobin. A marked reduction of lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27) activity in the first 2-3 years may be caused by a training-based increase of the relative portion of the aerobically working red breast muscles (responsible for endurance) at the expense of the proportion of anaerobically working white breast muscles. The age-correlated increase in glucose could indicate a decreasing tolerance for carbohydrates. Optimal flight performance is achieved by the doves at an age of about 2-3 years; the high performance is retained until an age range of 7-9 years. PMID:20184962

  10. A Bidding Methodology by Nash Equilibrium for Finite Generators Participating in Imperfect Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satyaramesh, P. V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an application of finite n-person non-cooperative game theory for analyzing bidding strategies of generators in a deregulated energy marketplace with Pool Bilateral contracts so as to maximize their net profits. A new methodology to build bidding methodology for generators participating in oligopoly electricity market has been proposed in this paper. It is assumed that each generator bids a supply function. This methodology finds out the coefficients in the supply function of generators in order to maximize benefits in an environment of competing rival bidders. A natural choice for developing strategies is Nash Equilibrium (NE) model incorporating mixed strategies, for solving the bidding problem of electrical market. Associated optimal profits are evaluated for a combination of set of pure strategies of bidding of generators, and payoff matrix has been constructed. The optimal payoff is calculated by using NE. An attempt has also been made to minimize the gap between the optimal payoff and the payoff obtained by a possible mixed strategies combination. The algorithm is coded in MATLAB. A numerical example is used to illustrate the essential features of the approach and the results are proved to be the optimal values.

  11. Hepatic cholesterol crystals and crown-like structures distinguish NASH from simple steatosis.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, George N; Haigh, W Geoffrey; Thorning, David; Savard, Christopher

    2013-05-01

    We sought to determine whether hepatic cholesterol crystals are present in patients or mice with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and whether their presence or distribution correlates with the presence of NASH as compared with simple steatosis. We identified, by filipin staining, free cholesterol within hepatocyte lipid droplets in patients with NASH and in C57BL/6J mice that developed NASH following a high-fat high-cholesterol diet. Under polarized light these lipid droplets exhibited strong birefringence suggesting that some of the cholesterol was present in the form of crystals. Activated Kupffer cells aggregated around dead hepatocytes that included strongly birefringent cholesterol crystals, forming "crown-like structures" similar to those recently described in inflamed visceral adipose tissue. These Kupffer cells appeared to process the lipid of dead hepatocytes turning it into activated lipid-laden "foam cells" with numerous small cholesterol-containing droplets. In contrast, hepatocyte lipid droplets in patients and mice with simple steatosis did not exhibit cholesterol crystals and their Kupffer cells did not form crown-like structures or transform into foam cells. Our results suggest that cholesterol crystallization within hepatocyte lipid droplets and aggregation and activation of Kupffer cells in crown-like structures around such droplets represent an important, novel mechanism for progression of simple steatosis to NASH. PMID:23417738

  12. Sorafenib prevents liver fibrosis in a non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) rodent model.

    PubMed

    Stefano, J T; Pereira, I V A; Torres, M M; Bida, P M; Coelho, A M M; Xerfan, M P; Cogliati, B; Barbeiro, D F; Mazo, D F C; Kubrusly, M S; D'Albuquerque, L A C; Souza, H P; Carrilho, F J; Oliveira, C P

    2015-05-01

    Liver fibrosis occurring as an outcome of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can precede the development of cirrhosis. We investigated the effects of sorafenib in preventing liver fibrosis in a rodent model of NASH. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a choline-deficient high-fat diet and exposed to diethylnitrosamine for 6 weeks. The NASH group (n=10) received vehicle and the sorafenib group (n=10) received 2.5 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) by gavage. A control group (n=4) received only standard diet and vehicle. Following treatment, animals were sacrificed and liver tissue was collected for histologic examination, mRNA isolation, and analysis of mitochondrial function. Genes related to fibrosis (MMP9, TIMP1, TIMP2), oxidative stress (HSP60, HSP90, GST), and mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC1α) were evaluated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Liver mitochondrial oxidation activity was measured by a polarographic method, and cytokines by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sorafenib treatment restored mitochondrial function and reduced collagen deposition by nearly 63% compared to the NASH group. Sorafenib upregulated PGC1α and MMP9 and reduced TIMP1 and TIMP2 mRNA and IL-6 and IL-10 protein expression. There were no differences in HSP60, HSP90 and GST expression. Sorafenib modulated PGC1α expression, improved mitochondrial respiration and prevented collagen deposition. It may, therefore, be useful in the treatment of liver fibrosis in NASH. PMID:25714891

  13. Sorafenib prevents liver fibrosis in a non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) rodent model

    PubMed Central

    Stefano, J.T.; Pereira, I.V.A.; Torres, M.M.; Bida, P.M.; Coelho, A.M.M.; Xerfan, M.P.; Cogliati, B.; Barbeiro, D.F.; Mazo, D.F.C.; Kubrusly, M.S.; D'Albuquerque, L.A.C.; Souza, H.P.; Carrilho, F.J.; Oliveira, C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Liver fibrosis occurring as an outcome of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can precede the development of cirrhosis. We investigated the effects of sorafenib in preventing liver fibrosis in a rodent model of NASH. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a choline-deficient high-fat diet and exposed to diethylnitrosamine for 6 weeks. The NASH group (n=10) received vehicle and the sorafenib group (n=10) received 2.5 mg·kg-1·day-1 by gavage. A control group (n=4) received only standard diet and vehicle. Following treatment, animals were sacrificed and liver tissue was collected for histologic examination, mRNA isolation, and analysis of mitochondrial function. Genes related to fibrosis (MMP9, TIMP1, TIMP2), oxidative stress (HSP60, HSP90, GST), and mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC1α) were evaluated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Liver mitochondrial oxidation activity was measured by a polarographic method, and cytokines by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sorafenib treatment restored mitochondrial function and reduced collagen deposition by nearly 63% compared to the NASH group. Sorafenib upregulated PGC1α and MMP9 and reduced TIMP1 and TIMP2 mRNA and IL-6 and IL-10 protein expression. There were no differences in HSP60, HSP90 and GST expression. Sorafenib modulated PGC1α expression, improved mitochondrial respiration and prevented collagen deposition. It may, therefore, be useful in the treatment of liver fibrosis in NASH. PMID:25714891

  14. On Nash Equilibrium and Evolutionarily Stable States That Are Not Characterised by the Folk Theorem

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiawei; Kendall, Graham

    2015-01-01

    In evolutionary game theory, evolutionarily stable states are characterised by the folk theorem because exact solutions to the replicator equation are difficult to obtain. It is generally assumed that the folk theorem, which is the fundamental theory for non-cooperative games, defines all Nash equilibria in infinitely repeated games. Here, we prove that Nash equilibria that are not characterised by the folk theorem do exist. By adopting specific reactive strategies, a group of players can be better off by coordinating their actions in repeated games. We call it a type-k equilibrium when a group of k players coordinate their actions and they have no incentive to deviate from their strategies simultaneously. The existence and stability of the type-k equilibrium in general games is discussed. This study shows that the sets of Nash equilibria and evolutionarily stable states have greater cardinality than classic game theory has predicted in many repeated games. PMID:26288088

  15. Recent Advances in Understanding of NASH: MicroRNAs as Both Biochemical Markers and Players

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Robert; Sanyal, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatis (NASH) are becoming the dominant liver diseases in the US and Western World. Extensive work is being done to diagnose, understand, and explore the pathogenesis of these multivariable complex diseases. Recently a new avenue of biologic regulation is being explored. MicroRNAs are non-coding RNAs that modulate the expression of multiple genes and have been implicated in multiple diseases. Recently there is a growing body of evidence supporting a significant role of microRNAs in NAFLD pathogenesis and progression to NASH, and hinting at their use as targets, biomarkers and potential therapeutic tools. This review is designed to highlight some of the recent work on a few of the key microRNAs involved in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and NASH. PMID:25574453

  16. Developing Methods for Mapping Soil Moisture in Nash Draw, NM Using RADARSAT 1 SAR Fine Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, A. A.; Easson, G.; Powers, D. W.; Holt, R. M.

    2006-12-01

    Nash Draw, in southeastern NM, is a karst valley that developed in response to subsurface dissolution of evaporites, including halite and sulfate rocks. The hydrologic system within Nash Draw is poorly understood. This study focuses on identifying the distribution and amount of recharge in Nash Draw to assist in understanding the existing processes modifying Nash Draw by solution. We hypothesize that 1) soil moisture contents will be higher in the areas where potential recharge occurs and 2) these areas can be identified using remote sensing. To test the second part of this hypothesis, this study has been designed to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of soil moisture in the study site using microwave data. An area of 225 sq. km in Nash Draw has been selected as the study site. Imagery was acquired from the Alaska SAR Facility (ASF) for 8 scenes of RADARDSAT 1 SAR Fine Beam imagery with different incidence angles (40° and 48°) and imaging modes (ascending and descending). We use RADARDSAT 1 SAR Fine Beam imagery acquired on August 1, 2006 and August 2, 2006 and near real-time ground truth data to develop suitable model to map the spatial distribution of soil moisture in the study site. During the image acquisitions on August 1 and 2, 80 soil samples were collected to determine the near real- time volumetric soil moisture in the study site. Soil samples were collected using a stratified sampling method, and locations of the samples were recorded using GPS. Soil water is compared, using linear regression, to radar backscatter to develop an empirical model of the relationship. The radar backscatter used in this model was acquired at different incidence angles. This study also provides an opportunity to investigate the impact of variable incidence angles on the potential of space-borne active microwave data for soil moisture mapping in semi-arid region like Nash Draw.

  17. Infinite horizon linear quadratic stochastic Nash differential games of Markov jump linear systems with its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Huai-nian; Zhang, Cheng-ke; Bin, Ning

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we deal with the problem of stochastic Nash differential games of Markov jump linear systems governed by Itô-type equation. Combining the stochastic stabilizability with the stochastic systems, a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of the Nash strategy is presented by means of a set of cross-coupled stochastic algebraic Riccati equations. Moreover, the stochastic H2/H∞ control for stochastic Markov jump linear systems is discussed as an immediate application and an illustrative example is presented.

  18. Nash equilibrium in differential games and the construction of the programmed iteration method

    SciTech Connect

    Averboukh, Yurii V

    2011-05-31

    This work is devoted to the study of nonzero-sum differential games. The set of payoffs in a situation of Nash equilibrium is examined. It is shown that the set of payoffs in a situation of Nash equilibrium coincides with the set of values of consistent functions which are fixed points of the program absorption operator. A condition for functions to be consistent is given in terms of the weak invariance of the graph of the functions under a certain differential inclusion. Bibliography: 18 titles.

  19. Implicit learning in cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) and pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Locurto, Charles; Fox, Maura; Mazzella, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    There is considerable interest in the conditions under which human subjects learn patterned information without explicit instructions to learn that information. This form of learning, termed implicit or incidental learning, can be approximated in nonhumans by exposing subjects to patterned information but delivering reinforcement randomly, thereby not requiring the subjects to learn the information in order to be reinforced. Following acquisition, nonhuman subjects are queried as to what they have learned about the patterned information. In the present experiment, we extended the study of implicit learning in nonhumans by comparing two species, cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) and pigeons (Columba livia), on an implicit learning task that used an artificial grammar to generate the patterned elements for training. We equated the conditions of training and testing as much as possible between the two species. The results indicated that both species demonstrated approximately the same magnitude of implicit learning, judged both by a random test and by choice tests between pairs of training elements. This finding suggests that the ability to extract patterned information from situations in which such learning is not demanded is of longstanding origin. PMID:25673101

  20. Endoscopic Vasectomy of Male Feral Pigeons (Columba livia) as a Possible Method of Population Control.

    PubMed

    Heiderich, Elisabeth; Schildger, Bernd; Lierz, Michael

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate whether single-entry endoscopic vasectomy of male feral pigeons (Columba livia) significantly reduced fertility and would potentially be valuable for control of feral pigeon populations, 252 male feral pigeons were caught in the city of Berne and endoscopically vasectomized. In this procedure, approximately 1 cm of the deferent duct was removed bilaterally. Rapid, uneventful recoveries occurred in 94% (237/252) of the pigeons, whereas 6% (15/252) died because of complications associated with the procedure, consisting of perforation of the ureter (9/15), major hemorrhage (5/15), and respiratory arrest (1/15). Mean anesthesia time was 23±6 minutes. The vasectomized males were habituated to 2 pigeon houses together with fertile females. Another pigeon house with fertile pairs acted as control. All eggs laid were candled weekly to assess fertility. In the 2 pigeon houses with vasectomized males, the mean fertilization rate was 0.9% (5/563), while in the control pigeon house, the rate was 100% (39/39). The results indicate that endoscopic vasectomy of male feral pigeons may be a promising tool for field control of feral pigeon populations, especially in combination with other methods such as pigeon houses. PMID:25867661

  1. Homing pigeons ( Columba livia f. domestica) can use magnetic cues for locating food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thalau, Peter; Holtkamp-Rötzler, Elke; Fleissner, Gerta; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    2007-10-01

    An experimental group of homing pigeons ( Columba livia f. domestica) learned to associate food with a magnetic anomaly produced by bar magnets that were fixed to the bowl in which they received their daily food ration in their home loft; the control group lacked this experience. Both groups were trained to search for two hidden food depots in a rectangular sand-filled arena without obvious visual cues; for the experimental birds, these depots were also marked with three 1.15 × 106 μT bar magnets. During the tests, there were two food depots, one marked with the magnets, the other unmarked; their position within the arena was changed from test to test. The experimental birds searched within 10 cm of the magnetically marked depot in 49% of the test sessions, whereas the control birds searched there in only 11% of the sessions. Both groups searched near the control depot in 11 and 13% of the sessions, respectively. The significant preference of the magnetically marked food depot by the experimental birds shows that homing pigeons cannot only detect a magnetic anomaly but can also use it as a cue for locating hidden food in an open arena.

  2. Fibrogenesis and Carcinogenesis in Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH): Involvement of Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) and Tissue Inhibitors of Metalloproteinase (TIMPs)

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, Isao; Noro, Takuji; Tsutsui, Nobuhiro; Yamanouchi, Eigoro; Kuroda, Hajime; Nakano, Masayuki; Yokomori, Hiroaki; Inagaki, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is emerging worldwide because life-styles have changed to include much over-eating and less physical activity. The clinical and pathophysiological features of NASH are very different from those of HBV- and HCV-chronic liver diseases. The prognosis of NASH is worse among those with nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD), and some NASH patients show HCC with or without cirrhosis. In the present review we discuss fibrogenesis and the relationship between fibrosis and HCC occurrence in NASH to clarify the role of MMPs and TIMPs in both mechanisms. Previously we proposed MMP and TIMP expression in the multi-step occurrence of HCC from the literature based on viral-derived HCC. We introduce again these expressions during hepatocarcinogenesis and compare them to those in NASH-derived HCC, although the relationship with hepatic stem/progenitor cells (HPCs) invasion remains unknown. Signal transduction of MMPs and TIMPs is also discussed because it is valuable for the prevention and treatment of NASH and NASH-derived HCC. PMID:24978432

  3. Efficient Nash Equilibrium Resource Allocation Based on Game Theory Mechanism in Cloud Computing by Using Auction

    PubMed Central

    Nezarat, Amin; Dastghaibifard, GH

    2015-01-01

    One of the most complex issues in the cloud computing environment is the problem of resource allocation so that, on one hand, the cloud provider expects the most profitability and, on the other hand, users also expect to have the best resources at their disposal considering the budget constraints and time. In most previous work conducted, heuristic and evolutionary approaches have been used to solve this problem. Nevertheless, since the nature of this environment is based on economic methods, using such methods can decrease response time and reducing the complexity of the problem. In this paper, an auction-based method is proposed which determines the auction winner by applying game theory mechanism and holding a repetitive game with incomplete information in a non-cooperative environment. In this method, users calculate suitable price bid with their objective function during several round and repetitions and send it to the auctioneer; and the auctioneer chooses the winning player based the suggested utility function. In the proposed method, the end point of the game is the Nash equilibrium point where players are no longer inclined to alter their bid for that resource and the final bid also satisfies the auctioneer’s utility function. To prove the response space convexity, the Lagrange method is used and the proposed model is simulated in the cloudsim and the results are compared with previous work. At the end, it is concluded that this method converges to a response in a shorter time, provides the lowest service level agreement violations and the most utility to the provider. PMID:26431035

  4. Efficient Nash Equilibrium Resource Allocation Based on Game Theory Mechanism in Cloud Computing by Using Auction.

    PubMed

    Nezarat, Amin; Dastghaibifard, G H

    2015-01-01

    One of the most complex issues in the cloud computing environment is the problem of resource allocation so that, on one hand, the cloud provider expects the most profitability and, on the other hand, users also expect to have the best resources at their disposal considering the budget constraints and time. In most previous work conducted, heuristic and evolutionary approaches have been used to solve this problem. Nevertheless, since the nature of this environment is based on economic methods, using such methods can decrease response time and reducing the complexity of the problem. In this paper, an auction-based method is proposed which determines the auction winner by applying game theory mechanism and holding a repetitive game with incomplete information in a non-cooperative environment. In this method, users calculate suitable price bid with their objective function during several round and repetitions and send it to the auctioneer; and the auctioneer chooses the winning player based the suggested utility function. In the proposed method, the end point of the game is the Nash equilibrium point where players are no longer inclined to alter their bid for that resource and the final bid also satisfies the auctioneer's utility function. To prove the response space convexity, the Lagrange method is used and the proposed model is simulated in the cloudsim and the results are compared with previous work. At the end, it is concluded that this method converges to a response in a shorter time, provides the lowest service level agreement violations and the most utility to the provider. PMID:26431035

  5. Acute, fatal Sarcocystis calchasi-associated hepatitis in Roller pigeons (Columba livia f. dom.) at Philadelphia Zoo.

    PubMed

    Trupkiewicz, J G; Calero-Bernal, R; Verma, S K; Mowery, J; Davison, S; Habecker, P; Georoff, T A; Ialeggio, D M; Dubey, J P

    2016-01-30

    Four Roller pigeons (Columba livia f. dom.) at the Philadelphia Zoo died suddenly. Necropsy examination revealed macroscopic hepatitis. Microscopically, the predominant lesions were in liver, characterized with necrosis and mixed cell inflammatory response. Sarcocystis calchasi-like schizonts and free merozoites were identified in liver. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed that schizonts were in hepatocytes. A few schizonts were in spleen. PCR using S. calchasi-specific primers confirmed the diagnosis. Neither lesions nor protozoa were found in brain and muscles. This is the first report of acute visceral S. calchasi-associated sarcocystosis in naturally infected avian hosts. PMID:26801595

  6. Monitoring air pollution at Mohammedia (Morocco): Pb, Cd and Zn in the blood of pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Kouddane, N; Mouhir, L; Fekhaoui, M; Elabidi, A; Benaakame, R

    2016-05-01

    The concentrations of Pb, Cd and Zn were investigated in the blood of pigeons (Columba livia) in order to assess the degree of pollution by heavy metal. For this, wild city pigeons were caught at four different locations in Mohammedia classified according to their industrial activity and road traffic density. Significant difference in heavy metal concentrations were observed between sites studied, the highest lead and cadmium levels were found in industrial area and center town, while the highest zinc level was found in the less contaminated area. These results indicate that the industrial activities and the road traffic are the most important source of pollution. PMID:26903169

  7.  NASH: A glance at the landscape of pharmacological treatment.

    PubMed

    Brodosi, Lucia; Marchignoli, Francesca; Petroni, Maria Letizia; Marchesini, Giulio

    2016-01-01

     The role of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, namely nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), as risk factor for liver- and non-liver-related morbidity and mortality has been extensively reported. In addition to lifestyle changes, capable of removing the metabolic factors driving disease progression, there is an urgent need for drugs able to reduce hepatic necroinflammation without worsening of fibrosis. This goal is considered by regulatory agencies as surrogate marker to define the effectiveness in pharmacological compounds in NASH, and fast-track approval was granted by the Food and Drug Administration in consideration of disease severity and unmet medical needs. Several compounds are in the pipeline of pharmaceutical industries and are being studied in phase II trials, but only a few (obeticholic acid, elafibranor) have started phase III trials. This concise review is intended to offer a systematic analysis of the most promising therapeutic intervention in NASH. In conclusion, there is reasonable expectation that drug may help curb the burden of NASH, and we look forward to obtaining solid data on their long-term safety and effectiveness. However, we should not forget that behavioral interventions remain a mandatory background treatment, able to stop disease progression in compliant overweight/ obese patients, with results that compare favorably with - and add to - the beneficial effects of drug treatment. PMID:27493105

  8. Protein kinase STK25 regulates hepatic lipid partitioning and progression of liver steatosis and NASH.

    PubMed

    Amrutkar, Manoj; Cansby, Emmelie; Nuñez-Durán, Esther; Pirazzi, Carlo; Ståhlman, Marcus; Stenfeldt, Elin; Smith, Ulf; Borén, Jan; Mahlapuu, Margit

    2015-04-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common form of liver disease, and 10% to 20% of NAFLD patients progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The molecular pathways controlling progression to NAFLD/NASH remain poorly understood. We recently identified serine/threonine protein kinase 25 (STK25) as a regulator of whole-body insulin and glucose homeostasis. This study investigates the role of STK25 in liver lipid accumulation and NASH. Stk25 transgenic mice challenged with a high-fat diet displayed a dramatic increase in liver steatosis and hepatic insulin resistance compared to wild-type siblings. Focal fibrosis, hepatocellular damage, and inflammation were readily seen in transgenic but not wild-type livers. Transgenic livers displayed reduced β-oxidation and triacylglycerol secretion, while lipid uptake and synthesis remained unchanged. STK25 was associated with lipid droplets, colocalizing with the main hepatic lipid droplet-coating protein adipose differentiation-related protein, the level of which was increased 3.8 ± 0.7-fold in transgenic livers (P < 0.01), while a key hepatic lipase, adipose triacylglycerol lipase, was translocated from the lipid droplets surface to the cytoplasm, providing the likely mechanism underlying the effect of STK25. In summary, STK25 is a lipid droplet-associated protein that promotes NAFLD through control of lipid release from the droplets for β-oxidation and triacylglycerol secretion. STK25 also drives pathogenesis of NASH. PMID:25609431

  9. Two Different Approaches to Nonzero-Sum Stochastic Differential Games

    SciTech Connect

    Rainer, Catherine

    2007-06-15

    We make the link between two approaches to Nash equilibria for nonzero-sum stochastic differential games: the first one using backward stochastic differential equations and the second one using strategies with delay. We prove that, when both exist, the two notions of Nash equilibria coincide.

  10. Quality of Life in Adults with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Baseline Data from the NASH CRN

    PubMed Central

    David, Kristin; Kowdley, Kris V.; Unalp, Aynur; Kanwal, Fasiha; Brunt, Elizabeth M.; Schwimmer, Jeffrey B.

    2009-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the United States. The association between NAFLD and quality of life (QOL) remains unclear. These data are important to estimate the burden of illness in NAFLD. The aim was to report QOL scores of adults with NAFLD, and examine the association between NAFLD severity and QOL. QOL data were collected from adults with NAFLD enrolled in the NASH Clinical Research Network using the SF-36 survey and scores were compared to normative U.S. population scores. Liver biopsy histology was reviewed by a central pathology committee. A total of 713 subjects with NAFLD (M=269, F=444) were included. Mean age of subjects was 48.3 years; 61% had definite NASH, and 28% had bridging fibrosis or cirrhosis. Diabetes was present in 27% of subjects. Subjects with NAFLD had worse physical (mean=45.2) and mental health scores (mean=47.6) compared to the U.S. population with (mean=50) and without (physical: 55.8, mental: 52.5) chronic illness. Subjects with NASH reported lower physical health compared to subjects with fatty liver disease without NASH (44.5 vs. 47.1, p=.02). Subjects with cirrhosis had significantly (P<0.001) poorer physical health scores (38.4) vs. subjects with no (47.6), mild (46.2), moderate (44.6) or bridging fibrosis (44.6). Cirrhosis was associated with poorer physical health after adjusting for potential confounders. Mental health scores did not differ between participants with and without NASH or by degree of fibrosis. Conclusion Adults with NAFLD have a significant decrement in QOL. Treatment of NAFLD should incorporate strategies to improve QOL, especially physical health. PMID:19434741

  11. Muscle function during takeoff and landing flight in the pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Robertson, Angela M Berg; Biewener, Andrew A

    2012-12-01

    This study explored the muscle strain and activation patterns of several key flight muscles of the pigeon (Columba livia) during takeoff and landing flight. Using electromyography (EMG) to measure muscle activation, and sonomicrometry to quantify muscle strain, we evaluated the muscle function patterns of the pectoralis, biceps, humerotriceps and scapulotriceps as pigeons flew between two perches. These recordings were analyzed in the context of three-dimensional wing kinematics. To understand the different requirements of takeoff, midflight and landing, we compared the activity and strain of these muscles among the three flight modes. The pectoralis and biceps exhibited greater fascicle strain rates during takeoff than during midflight or landing. However, the triceps muscles did not exhibit notable differences in strain among flight modes. All observed strain, activation and kinematics were consistent with hypothesized muscle functions. The biceps contracted to stabilize and flex the elbow during the downstroke. The humerotriceps contracted to extend the elbow at the upstroke-downstroke transition, followed by scapulotriceps contraction to maintain elbow extension during the downstroke. The scapulotriceps also appeared to contribute to humeral elevation. Greater muscle activation intensity was observed during takeoff, compared with mid-flight and landing, in all muscles except the scapulotriceps. The timing patterns of muscle activation and length change differed among flight modes, yet demonstrated that pigeons do not change the basic mechanical actions of key flight muscles as they shift from flight activities that demand energy production, such as takeoff and midflight, to maneuvers that require absorption of energy, such as landing. Similarly, joint kinematics were consistent among flight modes. The stereotypy of these neuromuscular and joint kinematic patterns is consistent with previously observed stereotypy of wing kinematics relative to the pigeon's body

  12. Pigeons (Columba livia) as Trainable Observers of Pathology and Radiology Breast Cancer Images

    PubMed Central

    Levenson, Richard M.; Krupinski, Elizabeth A.; Navarro, Victor M.; Wasserman, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    Pathologists and radiologists spend years acquiring and refining their medically essential visual skills, so it is of considerable interest to understand how this process actually unfolds and what image features and properties are critical for accurate diagnostic performance. Key insights into human behavioral tasks can often be obtained by using appropriate animal models. We report here that pigeons (Columba livia)—which share many visual system properties with humans—can serve as promising surrogate observers of medical images, a capability not previously documented. The birds proved to have a remarkable ability to distinguish benign from malignant human breast histopathology after training with differential food reinforcement; even more importantly, the pigeons were able to generalize what they had learned when confronted with novel image sets. The birds’ histological accuracy, like that of humans, was modestly affected by the presence or absence of color as well as by degrees of image compression, but these impacts could be ameliorated with further training. Turning to radiology, the birds proved to be similarly capable of detecting cancer-relevant microcalcifications on mammogram images. However, when given a different (and for humans quite difficult) task—namely, classification of suspicious mammographic densities (masses)—the pigeons proved to be capable only of image memorization and were unable to successfully generalize when shown novel examples. The birds’ successes and difficulties suggest that pigeons are well-suited to help us better understand human medical image perception, and may also prove useful in performance assessment and development of medical imaging hardware, image processing, and image analysis tools. PMID:26581091

  13. Pigeons (Columba livia) as Trainable Observers of Pathology and Radiology Breast Cancer Images.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Richard M; Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Navarro, Victor M; Wasserman, Edward A

    2015-01-01

    Pathologists and radiologists spend years acquiring and refining their medically essential visual skills, so it is of considerable interest to understand how this process actually unfolds and what image features and properties are critical for accurate diagnostic performance. Key insights into human behavioral tasks can often be obtained by using appropriate animal models. We report here that pigeons (Columba livia)-which share many visual system properties with humans-can serve as promising surrogate observers of medical images, a capability not previously documented. The birds proved to have a remarkable ability to distinguish benign from malignant human breast histopathology after training with differential food reinforcement; even more importantly, the pigeons were able to generalize what they had learned when confronted with novel image sets. The birds' histological accuracy, like that of humans, was modestly affected by the presence or absence of color as well as by degrees of image compression, but these impacts could be ameliorated with further training. Turning to radiology, the birds proved to be similarly capable of detecting cancer-relevant microcalcifications on mammogram images. However, when given a different (and for humans quite difficult) task-namely, classification of suspicious mammographic densities (masses)-the pigeons proved to be capable only of image memorization and were unable to successfully generalize when shown novel examples. The birds' successes and difficulties suggest that pigeons are well-suited to help us better understand human medical image perception, and may also prove useful in performance assessment and development of medical imaging hardware, image processing, and image analysis tools. PMID:26581091

  14. Discovery and characterization of the first genuine avian leptin gene in the rock dove (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Friedman-Einat, Miriam; Cogburn, Larry A; Yosefi, Sara; Hen, Gideon; Shinder, Dmitry; Shirak, Andrey; Seroussi, Eyal

    2014-09-01

    Leptin, the key regulator of mammalian energy balance, has been at the center of a great controversy in avian biology for the last 15 years since initial reports of a putative leptin gene (LEP) in chickens. Here, we characterize a novel LEP in rock dove (Columba livia) with low similarity of the predicted protein sequence (30% identity, 47% similarity) to the human ortholog. Searching the Sequence-Read-Archive database revealed leptin transcripts, in the dove's liver, with 2 noncoding exons preceding 2 coding exons. This unusual 4-exon structure was validated by sequencing of a GC-rich product (76% GC, 721 bp) amplified from liver RNA by RT-PCR. Sequence alignment of the dove leptin with orthologous leptins indicated that it consists of a leader peptide (21 amino acids; aa) followed by the mature protein (160 aa), which has a putative structure typical of 4-helical-bundle cytokines except that it is 12 aa longer than human leptin. Extra residues (10 aa) were located within the loop between 2 5'-helices, interrupting the amino acid motif that is conserved in tetrapods and considered essential for activation of leptin receptor (LEPR) but not for receptor binding per se. Quantitative RT-PCR of 11 tissues showed highest (P < .05) expression of LEP in the dove's liver, whereas the dove LEPR peaked (P < .01) in the pituitary. Both genes were prominently expressed in the gonads and at lower levels in tissues involved in mammalian leptin signaling (adipose; hypothalamus). A bioassay based on activation of the chicken LEPR in vitro showed leptin activity in the dove's circulation, suggesting that dove LEP encodes an active protein, despite the interrupted loop motif. Providing tools to study energy-balance control at an evolutionary perspective, our original demonstration of leptin signaling in dove predicts a more ancient role of leptin in growth and reproduction in birds, rather than appetite control. PMID:24758303

  15. Defensive behaviors and prosencephalic neurogenesis in pigeons (Columba livia) are affected by environmental enrichment in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Melleu, F F; Pinheiro, M V; Lino-de-Oliveira, C; Marino-Neto, J

    2016-05-01

    Neurogenesis in the adult brain appears to be phylogenetically conserved across the animal kingdom. In pigeons and other adult non-oscine birds, immature neurons are observed in several prosencephalic areas, suggesting that neurogenesis may participate in the control of different behaviors. The mechanisms controlling neurogenesis and its relevance to defensive behaviors in non-oscine birds remain elusive. Herein, the contribution of the environment to behavior and neurogenesis of pigeons was investigated. Adult pigeons (Columba livia, n = 6/group), housed in standard (SE) or enriched environment (EE) for 42 days, were exposed to an unfamiliar environment (UE) followed by presentation to a novel object (NO). Video recordings of UE+NO tests were analyzed and scored for latency, duration and frequency of angular head movements, peeping, grooming, immobility and locomotion. Twenty-four hours later, pigeons were submitted to the tonic immobility test (TI) and number of trials for TI and TI duration were scored, followed by euthanasia 2 h later. Brains were immunohistochemically processed to reveal doublecortin (DCX), a marker for newborn neurons. Compared to those housed in SE, the pigeons housed in EE responded to a NO with more immobility. In addition, the pigeons housed in EE presented longer TI, more DCX-immunoreactive (DCX-ir) cells in the hippocampus and fewer DCX-ir cells in the lateral striatum than those housed in SE. There was no correlation between the number of DCX-ir cells and the scores of immobility in behavioral tests. Together, these data suggest that enrichment favored behavioral inhibition and neurogenesis in the adult pigeons through different, parallel mechanisms. PMID:25869276

  16. Definition and natural history of metabolic steatosis: clinical aspects of NAFLD, NASH and cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Serfaty, L; Lemoine, M

    2008-12-01

    Metabolic steatosis or non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver injury in Western countries. Histological signs of necroinflammation, indicating the presence of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), are present in 20-30% of cases. While steatosis on its own has a benign course, NASH may be associated with fibrosis and may progress to cirrhosis, terminal liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD is closely associated with the metabolic syndrome, its prevalence reaching 50-90% in obese patients. The clinical impact of NAFLD has been demonstrated in large cohort studies by the overprevalence of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in obese and diabetic patients. In terms of survival, liver disease is the third most common cause of mortality in patients with NAFLD. When associated with other causes of liver disease such as alcohol consumption or hepatitis C infection, metabolic steatosis may be a major risk factor for disease progression. PMID:19195623

  17. Transforming the Ordinary into Extraordinary: Gary Nash and the Visions of History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigilante, David

    2009-01-01

    Through his long career, Gary Nash has been a pioneer in opening the often-stuffy chambers of academia. He has shown a devotion to K-12 teachers throughout the nation and has ventured into their classrooms to observe, to teach, and, yes, to learn. It is all too rare for a noted historian, famous for his many seminal works, to roll up his sleeves…

  18. MicroRNA Expression Relating to Dietary-Induced Liver Steatosis and NASH

    PubMed Central

    Zarfeshani, Aida; Ngo, Sherry; Sheppard, Allan M.

    2015-01-01

    Health issues associated with excessive caloric intake and sedentary lifestyle are driving a modern “epidemic” of liver disease. Initially presenting in the clinic as an excessive accumulation of fat within hepatocyte cells (steatosis), the progression to more severe non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in which liver damage and inflammation are overt features, is becoming increasingly common. Often developing as a sequela of obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) arises in almost one-third of people initially carrying excess hepatic fat and is likely the result of the liver’s limited capacity to cope with the modern-day levels of dietary fatty acids circulating in the blood. While routine imaging can readily assess the presence and level of “extra-hepatic fat”, a proper diagnosis of disease progression to NASH is currently only possible by liver biopsy. A general reluctance to undergo such screening means that the prevalence of NASH is likely to be under reported and, thus, risk assessment for future metabolic syndrome (MetS) markedly compromised. The seemingly inevitable progression to overt insulin resistance that characterizes MetS may in part be the consequence of the body’s attempt to cope with NAFLD by driving systemic insulin sensitivity and, thus, fatty acid breakdown. The potential significance of miRNAs in both physiological homeostasis and pathogenesis is increasingly appreciated and in the liver may contribute specifically to the regulation of lipid pathways and NAFLD progression. As such, they may have utility as molecular indicators for the accurate profiling of both initial risk and disease progression from simple steatosis to NASH, and further to fibrosis/cirrhosis. PMID:26580662

  19. Photocurrents in retinal rods of pigeons (Columba livia): kinetics and spectral sensitivity.

    PubMed Central

    Palacios, A G; Goldsmith, T H

    1993-01-01

    1. Membrane photocurrents were recorded from outer segments of isolated retinal rods of pigeons (Columba livia), the first such measurements on the photoreceptors of a bird. The amplitude of the response to 20 ms flashes of narrow wavelength bands of light increases linearly with intensity at low photon fluxes and saturates at higher intensities. The maximum (saturating) photocurrent observed in forty-nine rod cells was 50 pA. Larger responses with less variability in the intensity for half-maximal responses were observed when the physiological saline contained 20 mM bicarbonate (in addition to Hepes buffer). 2. The dependence of peak amplitude on intensity is well fitted by an exponential function; it is usually less well fitted by the Michaelis-Menten (Naka-Rushton) equation. 3. In the presence of bicarbonate, the average sensitivity of pigeon rods to dim flashes was 0.56 pA photon-1 microns -2. The effective collecting area per photon was 1.8 microns 2. About 83 +/- 26 (mean +/- S.D.) photoisomerizations were required for a half-saturating response. 4. The response kinetics of rods to dim flashes can be reasonably well described by a series of four to five either Poisson or independent filters. The time to peak, measured from the mid-point of a 20 ms flash, was 319 +/- 83 ms (mean +/- S.D.). The integration time of the response was 851 +/- 86 ms (mean +/- S.D.) with bicarbonate present and 572 +/- 126 ms in the absence of bicarbonate. The responses of pigeon rods appear to be slower than those of mammals at the same temperature. The fraction of current suppressed by a single photoisomerization is smaller in pigeon than in mammalian rods by a factor of at least two. 5. The spectral sensitivity function was measured between 680 and 330 nm. The maximum at about 505 nm (range 497-508 nm) corresponds to the alpha-band of a vertebrate rhodopsin and agrees with previous behavioural measurements of scotopic sensitivity of pigeons as well as the absorption spectrum of

  20. Liver Injury Indicating Fatty Liver but Not Serologic NASH Marker Improves under Metformin Treatment in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Susanne; Vollmar, Nils; Benson, Sven; Sowa, Jan-Peter; Bechmann, Lars P.; Gerken, Guido; Fuhrer, Dagmar; Canbay, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with obesity and insulin resistance (IR), key features of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Cytokeratin 18 fragments (M30) have been established as a serum marker for NASH. The insulin sensitizer metformin improves hepatic IR. This study evaluates the influence of MF on serologic NASH (sNASH) in patients with PCOS. Patients and Methods. In 89 patients, metabolic parameters, liver injury indicating fatty liver (LIFL), and M30 were assessed at baseline and after metformin treatment. Patients with initial IR were subdivided into dissolved (PCOS-exIR) and persistent IR (PCOS-PIR) after treatment and compared to an initially insulin sensitive PCOS group (PCOS-C). Results. Improvement of LIFL prevalence could be seen in PCOS-C and PCOS-exIR compared to PCOS-PIR (−19.4, resp., −12.0% versus 7.2%, Chi2 = 29.5, P < 0.001) without change in sNASH prevalence. In PCOS-PIR, ALT levels increased significantly accompanied by a nominal, nonsignificant M30 increase. Conclusions. Metformin improves LIFL in subgroups of patients with PCOS without influencing sNASH. This could either indicate a missing effect of metformin on NAFLD or slowed disease progression. Further studies are needed to elucidate NAFLD in the context of PCOS and potential therapeutic options. PMID:25873949

  1. Insulin resistance and clinical aspects of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Naresh; Sharma, Barjesh Chander

    2005-10-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is one of the most common liver disorders. This is highly prevalent in obese and diabetic subjects. Persons with central obesity are at particular risk. Other clinical predictors are age more than 40-50 years and hyperlipidemias, but none of these factors is invariable for causation of NASH. Other reported associations are, celiac disease, Wilson's Disease and few other metabolic diseases. Drugs, particularly amiodarone, tamoxifen, nucleoside analogues and methotrxate have also been linked to NASH. The disease is evenly distributed in both sexes but advanced disease is more common in women. Ethnic variation exists and African Americans are less affected than Hispanic Americans. Specific clinical features of NASH are infrequent. Patients usually come to clinical attention by elevated liver enzymes found on routine evaluation but on history, about two third of patients will admit to have mild fatigue and about half will report right upper quadrant pain. Rarely, patient may present with a complication of cirrhosis. Physical examination may reveal hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. Research in last few years has stressed that development of steatosis, stetohepatitis, fibrosis with subsequent cirrhosis are most probably the result of insulin resistance. Therefore, clinical features may reflect existence of insulin resistance. Obesity, particularly central obesity is most important of these. Patients may have sleep apnea syndrome. Hypertension and manifestations of diabetes mellitus like polyuria, polydypsia, and neurological deficits may occur. Patients may have varying combination of obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and impaired fibrinolysis (syndrome X). Children with insulin resistance may show acanthosis nigricance. Patients with polycystic ovary syndrome, which consists of insulin resistance, diabetes, obesity, hirsutism, oligo or polymenorrha and hyperlipidemia may have NASH. Other rare manifestations of insulin

  2. Detection of carcinogenic etheno-DNA adducts in children and adolescents with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)

    PubMed Central

    Teufel, Ulrike; Peccerella, Teresa; Engelmann, Guido; Bruckner, Thomas; Flechtenmacher, Christa; Millonig, Gunda; Stickel, Felix; Hoffmann, Georg F.; Schirmacher, Peter; Mueller, Sebastian; Bartsch, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Background Carcinogenic exocyclic-DNA adducts like 1,N6-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine (εdA) are formed through reactive intermediates of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) or other lipid peroxidation (LPO) products with the DNA bases A, C, methyl-C and G. High levels of hepatic etheno-DNA adducts have been detected in cancer prone liver diseases including alcoholic liver disease (ALD). In ALD εdA levels correlated significantly with cytochrome P-450 2E1 (CYP2E1) expression which is also induced in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We investigated the occurrence of εdA adducts in children with NASH as a DNA damage marker. Methods Liver biopsies from 21 children/adolescents with histologically proven NASH were analysed for hepatic fat content, inflammation, and fibrosis. εdA levels in DNA, CYP2E1-expression and protein bound 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) were semi-quantitatively evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Results Among 21 NASH children, εdA levels in the liver were high in 3, moderate in 5, weak in 9 and not elevated in 4 patients. There was a positive correlation between CYP2E1 and protein-bound 4-HNE (r=0.60; P=0.008) and a trend for a positive relationship for CYP2E1 vs. staining intensity of εdA (r=0.45; P=0.06). Inflammatory activity and fibrosis correlated significantly (r=0.49, P=0.023). Conclusions Our results demonstrate for the first time the presence of elevated carcinogenic etheno-DNA lesions (εdA) in the majority (17/21) of liver biopsies from young NASH patients. Our data suggest that LPO-derived etheno-adducts are implicated in NASH. Whether these adducts may serve as predictive risk markers in NASH children to develop hepatocellular cancer later in life remains to be investigated. PMID:26734629

  3. Reliability and validity of the Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire (CLDQ) in adults with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Kashmira S; Talwalkar, Jayant A; Keach, Jill C; Malinchoc, Michael; Lindor, Keith D; Jorgensen, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Significant impairments in health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease have been previously described. The disease-specific HRQL among patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), however, remains unknown. Aim To determine the degree of construct validity of the Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire (CLDQ) in adults with NASH. Methods Participants referred for the evaluation of histology-proven NASH at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, between 1996 and 2000, were evaluated. HRQL assessment by the Short-Form 36 (SF-36) Health Survey and CLD) was performed. The primary outcome was to determine the level of correlation between overall and subscale scores for the CLDQ and SF-36 instruments. Results Among 79 participants (70%) with NASH completing both questionnaires (mean age, 51.2 years with 64% female gender), excellent reliability was noted for the CLDQ instrument. Significant reductions in all SF-36 domains (p<0.05 for all) including PCS and MCS scores (p<0.02 for both) among participants with NASH compared with normative data from an age-matched and sex-matched US general population sample was observed. Highly significant correlations were observed between overall CLDQ score with SF-36 PCS (r=0.82, p<0.0001) and SF-36 MCS (r=0.67, p<0.0001) scores. Similar degrees of correlation were observed between relevant subscales of the CLDQ and SF-36 as well. Discussion The CLDQ has excellent reliability and validity of construct for HRQL assessment in adults with NASH when compared with the SF-36. Future investigations among participants with NASH require assessing the responsiveness of the CLDQ to medical therapies and disease progression. PMID:27110379

  4. General quantum two-player games, their gate operators, and Nash equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolonek-Lasoń, Katarzyna

    2015-02-01

    Two-player N-strategy games quantized according to the Eisert-Lewenstein-Wilkens scheme [Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3077 (1999)] are considered. Group-theoretical methods are applied to the problem of finding a general form of gate operators (entanglers) under the assumption that the set of classical pure strategies is contained in the set of pure quantum ones. The role of the stability group of the initial state of the game is stressed. As an example, it is shown that maximally entangled games do not admit nontrivial pure Nash strategies. The general arguments are supported by explicit computations performed in the three-strategy case.

  5. Nash Equilibria and the Price of Anarchy for Flows over Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Ronald; Skutella, Martin

    We study Nash equilibria in the context of flows over time. Many results on static routing games have been obtained over the last ten years. In flows over time (also called dynamic flows), flow travels through a network over time and, as a consequence, flow values on edges are time-dependent. This more realistic setting has not been tackled from the viewpoint of algorithmic game theory yet; but there is a rich literature on game theoretic aspects of flows over time in the traffic community.

  6. Implications of worse renal dysfunction and medical comorbidities in patients with NASH undergoing liver transplant evaluation: impact on MELD and more.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan W; Tsai, Naoky T; Wong, Linda L

    2011-01-01

    Increasing numbers of patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are referred for liver transplant (LT). Our objective was to characterize patients with NASH among referred LT candidates (from 1998 to 2008), and we compared demographics, etiology of liver disease, diabetes, hypertension, smoking, obesity, cardiac disease, cancer, laboratory data, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD), and outcomes between NASH and non-NASH patients. Patients with NASH (n = 71) were compared to other chronic liver disease (n = 472). Patients with NASH were older (58.7 vs. 52.5 yr, p < 0.0001), Asian (53.5% vs. 34.7%, p = 0.03) and women (50.7% vs. 32.1%, p = 0.003). Patients with NASH had more diabetes, hypertension, obesity, cardiac disease, and smoking history (p < 0.05). Patients with NASH were equally likely to have liver cancer, but more likely to have non-liver cancers (20.8% vs. 4.4%, p = 0.008). There was no difference in MELD, but patients with NASH had lower protime/international normalized ratio (1.14 vs. 1.27, p = 0.04) and higher creatinine (1.26 vs. 0.98 mg/dL, p = 0.0018). Patients with NASH were equally likely to undergo evaluation, listing, and transplantation compared to non-NASH patients. While all patients with chronic liver disease can have renal dysfunction because of hepatorenal syndrome, patients with NASH have more renal dysfunction, perhaps related to diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Transplant centers should consider this carefully in selection of candidates for LT. PMID:21958082

  7. Kupffer Cells Undergo Fundamental Changes during the Development of Experimental NASH and Are Critical in Initiating Liver Damage and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Reid, D. T.; Reyes, J. L.; McDonald, B. A.; Vo, T.; Reimer, R. A.; Eksteen, B.

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has become the leading liver disease in North America and is associated with the progressive inflammatory liver disease non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Considerable effort has been made to understand the role of resident and recruited macrophage populations in NASH however numerous questions remain. Our goal was to characterize the dynamic changes in liver macrophages during the initiation of NASH in a murine model. Using the methionine-choline deficient diet we found that liver-resident macrophages, Kupffer cells were lost early in disease onset followed by a robust infiltration of Ly-6C+ monocyte-derived macrophages that retained a dynamic phenotype. Genetic profiling revealed distinct patterns of inflammatory gene expression between macrophage subsets. Only early depletion of liver macrophages using liposomal clodronate prevented the development of NASH in mice suggesting that Kupffer cells are critical for the orchestration of inflammation during experimental NASH. Increased understanding of these dynamics may allow us to target potentially harmful populations whilst promoting anti-inflammatory or restorative populations to ultimately guide the development of effective treatment strategies. PMID:27454866

  8. Kupffer Cells Undergo Fundamental Changes during the Development of Experimental NASH and Are Critical in Initiating Liver Damage and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Reid, D T; Reyes, J L; McDonald, B A; Vo, T; Reimer, R A; Eksteen, B

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has become the leading liver disease in North America and is associated with the progressive inflammatory liver disease non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Considerable effort has been made to understand the role of resident and recruited macrophage populations in NASH however numerous questions remain. Our goal was to characterize the dynamic changes in liver macrophages during the initiation of NASH in a murine model. Using the methionine-choline deficient diet we found that liver-resident macrophages, Kupffer cells were lost early in disease onset followed by a robust infiltration of Ly-6C+ monocyte-derived macrophages that retained a dynamic phenotype. Genetic profiling revealed distinct patterns of inflammatory gene expression between macrophage subsets. Only early depletion of liver macrophages using liposomal clodronate prevented the development of NASH in mice suggesting that Kupffer cells are critical for the orchestration of inflammation during experimental NASH. Increased understanding of these dynamics may allow us to target potentially harmful populations whilst promoting anti-inflammatory or restorative populations to ultimately guide the development of effective treatment strategies. PMID:27454866

  9. Prohibitin-induced, obesity-associated insulin resistance and accompanying low-grade inflammation causes NASH and HCC

    PubMed Central

    Ande, Sudharsana R.; Nguyen, K. Hoa; Grégoire Nyomba, B. L.; Mishra, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and hepatocarcinogenesis. However, the underlying mechanisms involved in the disease process remain unclear. Recently, we have developed a transgenic obese mouse model (Mito-Ob) by prohibitin mediated mitochondrial remodeling in adipocytes. The Mito-Ob mice develop obesity in a sex-neutral manner, but obesity-associated adipose inflammation and metabolic dysregulation in a male sex-specific manner. Here we report that with aging, the male Mito-Ob mice spontaneously develop obesity-linked NASH and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In contrast, the female Mito-Ob mice maintained normal glucose and insulin levels and did not develop NASH and HCC. The anti-inflammatory peptide ghrelin was significantly upregulated in the female mice and down regulated in the male mice compared with respective control mice. In addition, a reduction in the markers of mitochondrial content and function was found in the liver of male Mito-Ob mice with NASH/HCC development. We found that ERK1/2 signaling was significantly upregulated whereas STAT3 signaling was significantly down regulated in the tumors from Mito-Ob mice. These data provide a proof-of-concept that the metabolic and inflammatory status of the adipose tissue and their interplay at the systemic and hepatic level play a central role in the pathogenesis of obesity-linked NASH and HCC. PMID:27005704

  10. Prohibitin-induced, obesity-associated insulin resistance and accompanying low-grade inflammation causes NASH and HCC.

    PubMed

    Ande, Sudharsana R; Nguyen, K Hoa; Grégoire Nyomba, B L; Mishra, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and hepatocarcinogenesis. However, the underlying mechanisms involved in the disease process remain unclear. Recently, we have developed a transgenic obese mouse model (Mito-Ob) by prohibitin mediated mitochondrial remodeling in adipocytes. The Mito-Ob mice develop obesity in a sex-neutral manner, but obesity-associated adipose inflammation and metabolic dysregulation in a male sex-specific manner. Here we report that with aging, the male Mito-Ob mice spontaneously develop obesity-linked NASH and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In contrast, the female Mito-Ob mice maintained normal glucose and insulin levels and did not develop NASH and HCC. The anti-inflammatory peptide ghrelin was significantly upregulated in the female mice and down regulated in the male mice compared with respective control mice. In addition, a reduction in the markers of mitochondrial content and function was found in the liver of male Mito-Ob mice with NASH/HCC development. We found that ERK1/2 signaling was significantly upregulated whereas STAT3 signaling was significantly down regulated in the tumors from Mito-Ob mice. These data provide a proof-of-concept that the metabolic and inflammatory status of the adipose tissue and their interplay at the systemic and hepatic level play a central role in the pathogenesis of obesity-linked NASH and HCC. PMID:27005704

  11. Spontaneous Time Symmetry Breaking in System with Mixed Strategy Nash Equilibrium: Evidences in Experimental Economics Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhijian; Xu, Bin; Zhejiang Collaboration

    2011-03-01

    In social science, laboratory experiment with human subjects' interaction is a standard test-bed for studying social processes in micro level. Usually, as in physics, the processes near equilibrium are suggested as stochastic processes with time-reversal symmetry (TRS). To the best of our knowledge, near equilibrium, the breaking time symmetry, as well as the existence of robust time anti-symmetry processes, has not been reported clearly in experimental economics till now. By employing Markov transition method to analysis the data from human subject 2x2 Games with wide parameters and mixed Nash equilibrium, we study the time symmetry of the social interaction process near Nash equilibrium. We find that, the time symmetry is broken, and there exists a robust time anti-symmetry processes. We also report the weight of the time anti-symmetry processes in the total processes of each the games. Evidences in laboratory marketing experiments, at the same time, are provided as one-dimension cases. In these cases, time anti-symmetry cycles can also be captured. The proposition of time anti-symmetry processes is small, but the cycles are distinguishable.

  12. Animal Models Correlating Immune Cells for the Development of NAFLD/NASH.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Srikanth; Upadhyay, Pramod Kumar; Majumdar, Subeer S; Nagarajan, Perumal

    2015-09-01

    This review mainly elaborates on the animal models available for understanding the pathogenesis of the second hit of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) involving immune system. This is known to be a step forward from simple steatosis caused during the first hit, which leads to the stage of inflammation followed by more serious liver conditions like non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. Immune-deficient animal models serve as an important tool for understanding the role of a specific cell type or a cytokine in the progression of NAFLD. These animal models can be used in combination with the already available animal models of NAFLD, including dietary models, as well as genetically modified mouse models. Advancements in molecular biological techniques enabled researchers to produce several new animal models for the study of NAFLD, including knockin, generalized knockout, and tissue-specific knockout mice. Development of NASH/NAFLD in various animal models having compromised immune system is discussed in this review. PMID:26628841

  13. P(URI)fying Novel Drivers of NASH and HCC: A Feedforward Loop of IL17A via White Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Weber, Achim; Heikenwalder, Mathias

    2016-07-11

    How obesity and metabolic syndrome trigger non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains elusive. In this issue, Gomes and colleagues describe that nutrient surplus induces hepatic URI expression, triggering genotoxicity and IL17A expression, thus leading to insulin resistance, NASH, and HCC. IL17A signaling blockers might become a readily translatable therapy. PMID:27411585

  14. Heterotopic implantation of autologous bone marrow in rock pigeons (Columba livia): possible applications in avian bone grafting.

    PubMed

    Sanaei, M Reza; Abu, Jalila; Nazari, Mojgan; Faiz, Nik Mohd; Bakar, Mohd Zuki Abu; Allaudin, Zeenathul N

    2011-12-01

    Autologous bone marrow, alone or as a composite marrow graft, has received much attention in various species. To assess the potential osteogenicity of autologous, extramedullary bone marrow implants in an avian model, 24 adult pigeons (Columba livia) were given intramuscular implantations of autologous marrow aspirated from the medial tibiotarsus. Birds were euthanatized at 1, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks after surgery to evaluate whether ectopic bone had formed at the implant sites. Primary evaluations by in situ radiography and postmortem histologic examinations showed no evidence of bone formation. Further evaluation with histologic scores and histomorphometry revealed a significantly increased rate of angiogenesis at the implant sites by the sixth and tenth week postimplantation (P < .05). No significant differences between the treatment and control sites were present at any other endpoints. Results of this study show that, although autologous bone marrow lacks heterotopic osteogenic potentials in this avian model, it could still function as a useful adjunct to routine bone grafting techniques because of its unique capabilities to promote early angiogenesis. PMID:22458179

  15. Who are the real bird brains? Qualitative differences in behavioral flexibility between dogs (Canis familiaris) and pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Laude, Jennifer R; Pattison, Kristina F; Rayburn-Reeves, Rebecca M; Michler, Daniel M; Zentall, Thomas R

    2016-01-01

    Pigeons given a simultaneous spatial discrimination reversal, in which a single reversal occurs at the midpoint of each session, consistently show anticipation prior to the reversal as well as perseveration after the reversal, suggesting that they use a less effective cue (time or trial number into the session) than what would be optimal to maximize reinforcement (local feedback from the most recent trials). In contrast, rats (Rattus norvegicus) and humans show near-optimal reversal learning on this task. To determine whether this is a general characteristic of mammals, in the present research, pigeons (Columba livia) and dogs (Canis familiaris) were tested with a simultaneous spatial discrimination mid-session reversal. Overall, dogs performed the task more poorly than pigeons. Interestingly, both pigeons and dogs employed what resembled a timing strategy. However, dogs showed greater perseverative errors, suggesting that they may have relatively poorer working memory and inhibitory control with this task. The greater efficiency shown by pigeons with this task suggests they are better able to time and use the feedback from their preceding choice as the basis of their future choice, highlighting what may be a qualitative difference between the species. PMID:26364290

  16. Chlamydia psittaci genotype B in a pigeon (Columba livia) inhabiting a public place in San José, Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Dolz, G.; Solórzano-Morales, Á.; Angelova, L.; Tien, C.; Fonseca, L.; Bonilla, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Human chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease of avian origin caused by Chlamydia psittaci. The highest infection rates have been detected in parrots (Psittacidae) and pigeons (Columbiformes), the latter most frequently carry the genotypes B and E. These genotypes have been shown to also infect humans. Because pigeons (Columba livia) cohabit with humans in urban areas, C. psittaci present in the dust from dry feces of infected pigeons may be transmitted by inhalation and represent a significant public health problem. Between 2012 and 2013 a total of 120 fecal samples were collected from pigeons at four public places (Plaza de la Cultura, Parque Morazán, Parque Central de Guadalupe, Plaza de las Garantías Sociales) in San José, Costa Rica. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify a region of the outer membrane protein A gene of C. psittaci. Only one sample was positive in PCR and the positive sample was further subjected to sequencing and genotyping. Sequencing identified this sample as C. psittaci genotype B. This study is the first report to show the presence of this organism in pigeons of Costa Rica, and shows that the infected pigeons may represent a significant risk for humans who visit public places that are inhabited by pigeons. PMID:26623327

  17. Quantitative ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and histologic image analysis of hepatic iron accumulation in pigeons (Columbia livia).

    PubMed

    Matheson, Jodi S; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; O'Brien, Robert T; Steinberg, Howard

    2007-06-01

    Iron overload was induced by iron dextran i.v. in clinically healthy adult pigeons, Columbia livia, (n = 8). Hemosiderosis was induced in all treated birds. Two control pigeons received no iron injections. Pigeons did not show clinical signs of iron overload during the 6-wk study. Ultrasound examination of the liver in the pigeons receiving iron dextran was performed on days 0, 13, 28, and 42. No ultrasound images were collected on the control pigeons. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed on days 0, 13, 28, and 42 on all study pigeons and imaging sequences were collected in three different imaging formats: T1, T2, and gradient-recalled echo (GRE). Surgical liver biopsies were performed on pigeons receiving iron dextran on days 2, 16, and 45 (at necropsy). A single liver sample was collected at necropsy from the control birds. Histologic examination, quantitative image analysis, and tissue iron analysis by thin-layer chromatography were performed on each liver sample and compared to the imaging studies. Although hemosiderosis was confirmed histologically in each experimental pigeon, no significant change in pixel intensity of the ultrasound images was seen at any point in the study. Signal intensity, in all magnetic resonance imaging formats, significantly decreased in a linear fashion as the accumulation of iron increased. PMID:17679505

  18. The effect of alpha2-adrenergic receptors on cutaneous water evaporation in the rock pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Ophir, Eshel; Arieli, Yehuda; Marder, Jacob

    2004-12-01

    The role of beta-adrenergic receptors in regulating cutaneous water evaporation (CWE) in the rock pigeon (Columba livia) is well documented. Here, we studied the involvement of the alpha2-adrenergic receptors in this cooling mechanism of the heat-acclimated (HAc) pigeon. Systemic alpha2-adrenergic activation [clonidine, 50 microg kg(-1), intramuscular (i.m.)] was found to increase CWE in heat-acclimated pigeons at an ambient temperature (T(a)) of 25 degrees C. Subcutaneous administration of the drug had no significant effect. Preinjection of an alpha2-adrenergic antagonist (yohimbine, 10 mg kg(-1), i.m.) completely prevented clonidine-induced CWE and attenuated propranolol-induced CWE by 53%. Pretreatment with a beta-adrenergic agonist (isoproterenol, 4 mg kg(-1), i.m.) abolished the effect of clonidine. None of the above treatments was found to elicit significant CWE in nonacclimated (NAc) pigeons. These findings, in addition to previously reported data, indicate a complex regulatory pathway of CWE in the heat-acclimated pigeon consisting of alpha2- and beta2-adrenergic receptors. The possible hierarchical pattern of these receptors is discussed. PMID:15596385

  19. Chlamydia psittaci genotype B in a pigeon (Columba livia) inhabiting a public place in San José, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Dolz, G; Solórzano-Morales, Á; Angelova, L; Tien, C; Fonseca, L; Bonilla, M C

    2013-01-01

    Human chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease of avian origin caused by Chlamydia psittaci. The highest infection rates have been detected in parrots (Psittacidae) and pigeons (Columbiformes), the latter most frequently carry the genotypes B and E. These genotypes have been shown to also infect humans. Because pigeons (Columba livia) cohabit with humans in urban areas, C. psittaci present in the dust from dry feces of infected pigeons may be transmitted by inhalation and represent a significant public health problem. Between 2012 and 2013 a total of 120 fecal samples were collected from pigeons at four public places (Plaza de la Cultura, Parque Morazán, Parque Central de Guadalupe, Plaza de las Garantías Sociales) in San José, Costa Rica. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify a region of the outer membrane protein A gene of C. psittaci. Only one sample was positive in PCR and the positive sample was further subjected to sequencing and genotyping. Sequencing identified this sample as C. psittaci genotype B. This study is the first report to show the presence of this organism in pigeons of Costa Rica, and shows that the infected pigeons may represent a significant risk for humans who visit public places that are inhabited by pigeons. PMID:26623327

  20. Evolution of the Distribution of Wealth in an Economic Environment Driven by Local Nash Equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degond, Pierre; Liu, Jian-Guo; Ringhofer, Christian

    2014-02-01

    We present and analyze a model for the evolution of the wealth distribution within a heterogeneous economic environment. The model considers a system of rational agents interacting in a game theoretical framework, through fairly general assumptions on the cost function. This evolution drives the dynamic of the agents in both wealth and economic configuration variables. We consider a regime of scale separation where the large scale dynamics is given by a hydrodynamic closure with a Nash equilibrium serving as the local thermodynamic equilibrium. The result is a system of gas dynamics-type equations for the density and average wealth of the agents on large scales. We recover the inverse gamma distribution as an equilibrium in the particular case of quadratic cost functions which has been previously considered in the literature.

  1. On the Fair Division of Multiple Stochastic Pies to Multiple Agents within the Nash Bargaining Solution

    PubMed Central

    Karmperis, Athanasios C.; Aravossis, Konstantinos; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P.; Sotirchos, Anastasios

    2012-01-01

    The fair division of a surplus is one of the most widely examined problems. This paper focuses on bargaining problems with fixed disagreement payoffs where risk-neutral agents have reached an agreement that is the Nash-bargaining solution (NBS). We consider a stochastic environment, in which the overall return consists of multiple pies with uncertain sizes and we examine how these pies can be allocated with fairness among agents. Specifically, fairness is based on the Aristotle’s maxim: “equals should be treated equally and unequals unequally, in proportion to the relevant inequality”. In this context, fairness is achieved when all the individual stochastic surplus shares which are allocated to agents are distributed in proportion to the NBS. We introduce a novel algorithm, which can be used to compute the ratio of each pie that should be allocated to each agent, in order to ensure fairness within a symmetric or asymmetric NBS. PMID:23024752

  2. Midkine Increases Diagnostic Yield in AFP Negative and NASH-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Vongsuvanh, Roslyn; van der Poorten, David; Iseli, Tristan; Strasser, Simone I.; McCaughan, Geoffrey W.; George, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Robust biomarkers for population-level hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance are lacking. We compared serum midkine (MDK), dickkopf-1 (DKK1), osteopontin (OPN) and AFP for HCC diagnosis in 86 HCC patients matched to 86 cirrhotics, 86 with chronic liver disease (CLD) and 86 healthy controls (HC). Based on the performance of each biomarker, we assessed a separate longitudinal cohort of 28 HCC patients, at and before cancer diagnosis. Serum levels of MDK and OPN were higher in HCC patients compared to cirrhosis, CLD and HC groups. DKK1 was not different between cases and controls. More than half of HCC patients had normal AFP. In this AFP-negative HCC cohort, 59.18% (n = 29/49) had elevated MDK, applying the optimal cut-off of 0.44 ng/ml. Using AFP ≥ 20 IU/ml or MDK ≥ 0.44 ng/ml, a significantly greater number (76.7%; n = 66/86) of HCC cases were detected. The area under the receiver operating curve for MDK was superior to AFP and OPN in NASH-HCC diagnosis. In the longitudinal cohort, MDK was elevated in 15/28 (54%) of HCC patients at diagnosis, of whom 67% had elevated MDK 6 months prior. Conclusion: AFP and MDK have a complementary role in HCC detection. MDK increases the diagnostic yield in AFP-negative HCC and has greater diagnostic performance than AFP, OPN and DKK-1 in the diagnosis of NASH-HCC. Additionally, MDK has a promising role in the pre-clinical diagnosis of HCC. PMID:27219517

  3. Protective effect of salvianolic acid B on NASH rat liver through restoring intestinal mucosal barrier function

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying-Chun; Jin, Qing-Mei; Kong, Wei-Zong; Chen, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of Salvianolic acid B (Sal B) on the disease progress of NASH and change of intestinal barrier function. Methods: Sixty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into control group, model group and treated group, with the former given normal diet and the latter 2 groups rats fed high-fat diet. In treated group, rats were infused through the stomach with 1 mg/ml Sal B every day at a dose of 20 mL/kg body weight. All animals were killed at the 24th week and plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), endotoxin (ET) and diamine oxdase (DAO) were analyzed using the blood samples. The histopathology of liver was observed by H&E staining. The expression changes of tight junction protein occludin and ZO-1 were analyzed by immunocytochemistry. Ultrastructural morphology of small intestinal tissues was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Results: Plasma levels of ALT, AST, TG, TC, ET and DAO were significantly higher in model group than those in both control group and group treated with Sal B. In model group, vacuolated swelling of the cytoplasm with aggregates of chronic inflammatory cells was observed in the liver tissue but not in Sal B-treated group. NAFLD Activity Score in the treated group was significantly lower than that in model group. Immunohistochemical staining showed that Sal B administration recovered the expression of occludin and ZO-1, which was downregulated in the model group. Transmission electron microscopy analysis demonstrated that cell surface microvilli and major intercellular junctional complex including tight junction, gap junction and adherens junction were restored in Sal B-treated group. Conclusion: Sal B exerted protective function against high-fat diet-induced liver damage by restoring healthy barrier function of intestine in NASH rat model. PMID:26191218

  4. NAFLD and NASH in HCV Infection: Prevalence and Significance in Hepatic and Extrahepatic Manifestations.

    PubMed

    Adinolfi, Luigi Elio; Rinaldi, Luca; Guerrera, Barbara; Restivo, Luciano; Marrone, Aldo; Giordano, Mauro; Zampino, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review and up to date the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and their significance in both accelerating progression of HCV-related liver disease and development of HCV-associated extrahepatic diseases. The reported mean prevalence of HCV-related NAFLD was 55%, whereas NASH was reported in 4%-10% of cases. HCV genotype 3 directly induces fatty liver deposition, namely "viral steatosis" and it is associated with the highest prevalence and degree of severity, whereas, HCV non-3 genotype infection showed lower prevalence of steatosis, which is associated with metabolic factors and insulin resistance. The host's genetic background predisposes him or her to the development of steatosis. HCV's impairment of lipid and glucose metabolism causes fatty liver accumulation; this seems to be a viral strategy to optimize its life cycle. Irrespective of insulin resistance, HCV-associated NAFLD, in a degree-dependent manner, contributes towards accelerating the liver fibrosis progression and development of hepatocellular carcinoma by inducing liver inflammation and oxidative stress. Furthermore, NAFLD is associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and atherosclerosis. In addition, HCV-related "metabolic steatosis" impairs the response rate to interferon-based treatment, whereas it seems that "viral steatosis" may harm the response rate to new oral direct antiviral agents. In conclusion, a high prevalence of NAFLD occurs in HCV infections, which is, at least in part, induced by the virus, and that NAFLD significantly impacts progression of the liver disease, therapeutic response, and some extrahepatic diseases. PMID:27231906

  5. Supplementation of sodium butyrate protects mice from the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).

    PubMed

    Jin, Cheng Jun; Sellmann, Cathrin; Engstler, Anna Janina; Ziegenhardt, Doreen; Bergheim, Ina

    2015-12-14

    Overnutrition, insulin resistance and an impaired intestinal barrier function are discussed as critical factors in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Not only butyrate-producing probiotics as well as supplementation of sodium butyrate (SoB) have been suggested to bear protective effects on liver damage of various aetiologies. However, whether an oral consumption of SoB has a protective effect on Western-style diet (WSD)-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and if so molecular mechanism involved has not yet been determined. Eight-week-old C57BL/6J mice were pair-fed either a liquid control or WSD±0·6 g/kg body weight SoB. After 6 weeks, markers of liver damage, inflammation, toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 signalling, lipid peroxidation and glucose as well as lipid metabolism were determined in the liver tissue. Tight junction protein levels were determined in the duodenal tissue. SoB supplementation had no effects on the body weight gain or liver weight of WSD-fed mice, whereas liver steatosis and hepatic inflammation were significantly decreased (e.g. less inflammatory foci and neutrophils) when compared with mice fed only a WSD. Tight junction protein levels in duodenum, hepatic mRNA expression of TLR-4 and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c were altered similarly in both WSD groups when compared with controls, whereas protein levels of myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88, inducible nitric oxide synthase, 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts and F4/80 macrophages were only significantly induced in livers of mice fed only the WSD. In summary, these data suggest that an oral supplementation of SoB protects mice from inflammation in the liver and thus from the development of WSD-induced NASH. PMID:26450277

  6. DSS colitis promotes tumorigenesis and fibrogenesis in a choline-deficient high-fat diet-induced NASH mouse model.

    PubMed

    Achiwa, Koichi; Ishigami, Masatoshi; Ishizu, Yoji; Kuzuya, Teiji; Honda, Takashi; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Katano, Yoshiaki; Goto, Hidemi

    2016-01-29

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) patients progress to liver cirrhosis and even hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Several lines of evidence indicate that accumulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and disruption of gut microbiota play contributory roles in HCC. Moreover, in a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis model in mice, a high-fat diet increases portal LPS level and promotes hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. However, this diet-induced NASH model requires at least 50 weeks for carcinogenesis. In this study, we sought to determine whether increased intestinal permeability would aggravate liver inflammation and fibrosis and accelerate tumorigenesis in a diet-induced NASH model. Mice were fed a choline-deficient high-fat (CDHF) diet for 4 or 12 weeks. The DSS group was fed CDHF and intermittently received 1% DSS in the drinking water. Exposure to DSS promoted mucosal changes such as crypt loss and increased the number of inflammatory cells in the colon. In the DSS group, portal LPS levels were elevated at 4 weeks, and the proportions of Clostridium cluster XI in the fecal microbiota were elevated. In addition, levels of serum transaminase, number of lobular inflammatory cells, F4/80 staining-positive area, and levels of inflammatory cytokines were all elevated in the DSS group. Liver histology in the DSS group revealed severe fibrosis at 12 weeks. Liver tumors were detected in the DSS group at 12 weeks, but not in the other groups. Thus, DSS administration promoted liver tumors in a CDHF diet-induced NASH mouse over the short term, suggesting that the induction of intestinal inflammation and gut disruption of microbiota in NASH promote hepatic tumorigenesis. PMID:26682925

  7. Oral Nitrate Reductase Activity Is Not Associated with Development of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH): A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Barzin, Gilda; Merat, Shahin; Nokhbeh-Zaeem, Habibeh; Saniee, Parastoo; Pedramnia, Shahrzad; Mostashfi Habibabadi, Ali; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND NAFLD/NASH is a manifestation of metabolic syndrome and is associated with obesity/overweight. Not all obese/overweight individuals develop NASH. Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is considered a gastrointestinal manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and is associated with obesity/overweight. Again not all obese/overweight individuals develop GERD. Recent data show association of dietary nitrate content and oral nitrate reductase activity (NRA) with GERD. Nitrates need to be converted to nitrite (done in human beings by nitrate reductase of oral bacteria exclusively) to be active in metabolic pathways. OBJECTIVE To assess the relation between NASH/NAFLD and oral NRA. METHODS Oral NRA was measured in individuals with NASH (compatible abdominal ultrasound and two elevated ALT/AST levels over six months) and was compared with that of those without NASH. Oral NRA was measured according to a previously reported protocol. RESULTS Eleven NASH patients and twelve controls were enrolled. Mean oral NRA activity were 2.82 vs. 3.51 μg nitrite-N formed per person per minute for cases and controls respectively (p=0.46). CONCLUSION According to our data, oral nitrite production is not different between individual swith and without NASH. PMID:24829701

  8. Parasite distribution and early-stage encephalitis in Sarcocystis calchasi infections in domestic pigeons (Columba livia f. domestica).

    PubMed

    Maier, Kristina; Olias, Philipp; Enderlein, Dirk; Klopfleisch, Robert; Mayr, Sylvia L; Gruber, Achim D; Lierz, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Pigeon protozoal encephalitis is a biphasic, neurologic disease of domestic pigeons (Columba livia f. domestica) caused by the apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis calchasi. Despite severe inflammatory lesions of the brain, associated parasitic stages have only rarely been identified and the cause of the lesions is still unclear. The aim of this study was therefore to characterize the tissue distribution of S. calchasi within pigeons between the two clinical phases and during the occurrence of neurological signs. For this purpose, a semi-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed. Forty-five domestic pigeons were infected orally (via a cannula into the crop) with 200 S. calchasi sporocysts and euthanized in groups of three pigeons at intervals of 2 to 10 days over a period of 61 days. Tissue samples including brain and skeletal muscle were examined by histology, immunohistochemistry, and PCR. Schizonts were detected in the liver of one pigeon at day 10 post infection. A mild encephalitis was detected at day 20 post infection, around 4 weeks before the onset of neurological signs. At the same time, immature sarcocysts were present in the skeletal muscle. In seven pigeons a few sarcocysts were identified in the brain, but not associated with any lesion. These results suggest that the encephalitis is induced at a very early stage of the S. calchasi lifecycle rather than in the chronic phase of pigeon protozoal encephalitis. Despite the increasing severity of lesions in the central nervous system, the amount of sarcocysts did not increase. This supports the hypothesis of a delayed-type hypersensitivity response as the cause of the encephalitis. The study also demonstrated that S. calchasi DNA is detectable in tissues negative by histological methods, indicating a higher sensitivity of the real-time PCR. PMID:25338141

  9. Histologic Evaluation of Critical Size Defect Healing With Natural and Synthetic Bone Grafts in the Pigeon ( Columba livia ) Ulna.

    PubMed

    Tunio, Ahmed; Jalila, Abu; Goh, Yong Meng; Shameha-Intan; Shanthi, Ganabadi

    2015-06-01

    Fracture and bone segment loss are major clinical problems in birds. Achieving bone formation and clinical union in a fracture case is important for the survival of the bird. To evaluate the efficacy of bone grafts for defect healing in birds, 2 different bone grafts were investigated in the healing of a bone defect in 24 healthy pigeons ( Columba livia ). In each bird, a 1-cm critical size defect (CSD) was created in the left ulna, and the fracture was stabilized with external skeletal fixation (ESF). A graft of hydroxyapatite (HA) alone (n = 12 birds) or demineralized bone matrix (DBM) combined with HA (n = 12 birds) was implanted in the CSD. The CSD healing was evaluated at 3 endpoints: 3, 6, and 12 weeks after surgery. Four birds were euthanatized at each endpoint from each treatment group, and bone graft healing in the ulna CSD was evaluated by histologic examination. The CSD and graft implants were evaluated for quality of union, cortex development, and bone graft incorporation. Results showed no graft rejection in any bird, and all birds had connective tissue formation in the defect because of the bone graft application. These results suggest that bone defect healing can be achieved by a combination of osteoinductive and osteoconductive bone graft materials for clinical union and new bone regeneration in birds. The combination of DBM and HA resulted in a better quality bone graft (P < .05) than did HA alone, but there was no significant differences in cortex development or bone graft incorporation at 3, 6, or 12 weeks. From the results of this study, we conclude that HA bone grafts, alone or in combination with DBM, with external skeletal fixation is suitable and safe for bone defect and fracture treatment in pigeons. PMID:26115209

  10. Trace metals, melanin-based pigmentation and their interaction influence immune parameters in feral pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Chatelain, M; Gasparini, J; Frantz, A

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the effects of trace metals emitted by anthropogenic activities on wildlife is of great concern in urban ecology; yet, information on how they affect individuals, populations, communities and ecosystems remains scarce. In particular, trace metals may impact survival by altering the immune system response to parasites. Plumage melanin is assumed to influence the effects of trace metals on immunity owing to its ability to bind metal ions in feathers and its synthesis being coded by a pleiotropic gene. We thus hypothesized that trace metal exposure would interact with plumage colouration in shaping immune response. We experimentally investigated the interactive effect between exposure to an environmentally relevant range of zinc and/or lead and melanin-based plumage colouration on components of the immune system in feral pigeons (Columba livia). We found that zinc increased anti-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) IgY primary response maintenance, buffered the negative effect of lead on anti-KLH IgY secondary response maintenance and tended to increase T-cell mediated phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) skin response. Lead decreased the peak of the anti-KLH IgY secondary response. In addition, pheomelanic pigeons exhibited a higher secondary anti-KLH IgY response than did eumelanic ones. Finally, T-cell mediated PHA skin response decreased with increasing plumage eumelanin level of birds exposed to lead. Neither treatments nor plumage colouration correlated with endoparasite intensity. Overall, our study points out the effects of trace metals on some parameters of birds' immunity, independently from other confounding urbanization factors, and underlines the need to investigate their impacts on other life history traits and their consequences in the ecology and evolution of host-parasite interactions. PMID:26809976

  11.  Monozygotic twins with NASH cirrhosis: cumulative effect of multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms?

    PubMed

    Grove, Jane I; Austin, Mark; Tibble, Jeremy; Aithal, Guruprasad P; Verma, Sumita

    2016-01-01

     Multiple genetic and environmental factors interact to determine an individual's predisposition to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and its phenotypic characteristics. Association studies have found a number of alleles associated with the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Our aim was to investigate whether multiple risk-associated alleles may be present in affected monozygotic twins, indicating underlying genetic predisposition to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. We determined the genotype of 14 candidate gene polymorphisms (at 11 unlinked loci) in a set of monozygotic twins who presented with cirrhosis within 18 months of each other. Genotyping revealed multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms at 9 independent loci in genes PNPLA3, APOC3, GCKR, TRIB1, LYPLAL1, PPP1R3B, COL13A1, and EFCAB4B, previously implicated in contributing to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis pathogenesis. In conclusion, this case series illustrates the potential cumulative effect of multiple polymorphisms in the development and potential progression of a complex trait such as NASH cirrhosis. PMID:26845607

  12. Evolution of wealth in a non-conservative economy driven by local Nash equilibria

    PubMed Central

    Degond, Pierre; Liu, Jian-Guo; Ringhofer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    We develop a model for the evolution of wealth in a non-conservative economic environment, extending a theory developed in Degond et al. (2014 J. Stat. Phys. 154, 751–780 (doi:10.1007/s10955-013-0888-4)). The model considers a system of rational agents interacting in a game-theoretical framework. This evolution drives the dynamics of the agents in both wealth and economic configuration variables. The cost function is chosen to represent a risk-averse strategy of each agent. That is, the agent is more likely to interact with the market, the more predictable the market, and therefore the smaller its individual risk. This yields a kinetic equation for an effective single particle agent density with a Nash equilibrium serving as the local thermodynamic equilibrium. We consider a regime of scale separation where the large-scale dynamics is given by a hydrodynamic closure with this local equilibrium. A class of generalized collision invariants is developed to overcome the difficulty of the non-conservative property in the hydrodynamic closure derivation of the large-scale dynamics for the evolution of wealth distribution. The result is a system of gas dynamics-type equations for the density and average wealth of the agents on large scales. We recover the inverse Gamma distribution, which has been previously considered in the literature, as a local equilibrium for particular choices of the cost function. PMID:25288808

  13. A Differential Evolution Algorithm Based on Nikaido-Isoda Function for Solving Nash Equilibrium in Nonlinear Continuous Games.

    PubMed

    He, Feng; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Guoqiang

    2016-01-01

    A differential evolution algorithm for solving Nash equilibrium in nonlinear continuous games is presented in this paper, called NIDE (Nikaido-Isoda differential evolution). At each generation, parent and child strategy profiles are compared one by one pairwisely, adapting Nikaido-Isoda function as fitness function. In practice, the NE of nonlinear game model with cubic cost function and quadratic demand function is solved, and this method could also be applied to non-concave payoff functions. Moreover, the NIDE is compared with the existing Nash Domination Evolutionary Multiplayer Optimization (NDEMO), the result showed that NIDE was significantly better than NDEMO with less iterations and shorter running time. These numerical examples suggested that the NIDE method is potentially useful. PMID:27589229

  14. Hepatic Expression Patterns of Inflammatory and Immune Response Genes Associated with Obesity and NASH in Morbidly Obese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bertola, Adeline; Bonnafous, Stéphanie; Anty, Rodolphe; Patouraux, Stéphanie; Saint-Paul, Marie-Christine; Iannelli, Antonio; Gugenheim, Jean; Barr, Jonathan; Mato, José M.; Le Marchand-Brustel, Yannick; Tran, Albert; Gual, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Background Obesity modulates inflammation and activation of immune pathways which can lead to liver complications. We aimed at identifying expression patterns of inflammatory and immune response genes specifically associated with obesity and NASH in the liver of morbidly obese patients. Methodology/Principal Findings Expression of 222 genes was evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR in the liver of morbidly obese patients with histologically normal liver (n = 6), or with severe steatosis without (n = 6) or with NASH (n = 6), and in lean controls (n = 5). Hepatic expression of 58 out of 222 inflammatory and immune response genes was upregulated in NASH patients. The most notable changes occurred in genes encoding chemokines and chemokine receptors involved in leukocyte recruitment, CD and cytokines involved in the T cell activation towards a Th1 phenotype, and immune semaphorins. This regulation seems to be specific for the liver since visceral adipose tissue expression and serum levels of MCP1, IP10, TNFα and IL6 were not modified. Importantly, 47 other genes were already upregulated in histologically normal liver (e.g. CRP, Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway). Interestingly, serum palmitate, known to activate the TLR pathway, was increased with steatosis. Conclusion/Significance The liver of obese patients without histological abnormalities already displayed a low-grade inflammation and could be more responsive to activators of the TLR pathway. NASH was then characterized by a specific gene signature. These findings help to identify new potential actors of the pathogenesis of NAFLD. PMID:21042596

  15. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitic (NASH) mice are protected from higher hepatotoxicity of acetaminophen upon induction of PPAR{alpha} with clofibrate

    SciTech Connect

    Donthamsetty, Shashikiran; Bhave, Vishakha S.; Mitra, Mayurranjan S.; Latendresse, John R.; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2008-08-01

    The objective was to investigate if the hepatotoxic sensitivity in nonalcoholic steatohepatitic mice to acetaminophen (APAP) is due to downregulation of nuclear receptor PPAR{alpha} via lower cell division and tissue repair. Male Swiss Webster mice fed methionine and choline deficient diet for 31 days exhibited NASH. On the 32nd day, a marginally toxic dose of APAP (360 mg/kg, ip) yielded 70% mortality in steatohepatitic mice, while all non steatohepatitic mice receiving the same dose survived. {sup 14}C-APAP covalent binding, CYP2E1 protein, and enzyme activity did not differ from the controls, obviating increased APAP bioactivation as the cause of amplified APAP hepatotoxicity. Liver injury progressed only in steatohepatitic livers between 6 and 24 h. Cell division and tissue repair assessed by {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation and PCNA were inhibited only in the steatohepatitic mice given APAP suggesting that higher sensitivity of NASH liver to APAP-induced hepatotoxicity was due to lower tissue repair. The hypothesis that impeded liver tissue repair in steatohepatitic mice was due to downregulation of PPAR{alpha} was tested. PPAR{alpha} was downregulated in NASH. To investigate whether downregulation of PPAR{alpha} in NASH is the critical mechanism of compromised liver tissue repair, PPAR{alpha} was induced in steatohepatitic mice with clofibrate (250 mg/kg for 3 days, ip) before injecting APAP. All clofibrate pretreated steatohepatitic mice receiving APAP exhibited lower liver injury, which did not progress and the mice survived. The protection was not due to lower bioactivation of APAP but due to higher liver tissue repair. These findings suggest that inadequate PPAR{alpha} expression in steatohepatitic mice sensitizes them to APAP hepatotoxicity.

  16. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, NM

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Mark B.

    1999-02-24

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County New Mexico is a cost-shared field demonstration project in the US Department of Energy Class II Program. A major goal of the Class III Program is to stimulate the use of advanced technologies to increase ultimate recovery from slope-basin clastic reservoirs. Advanced characterization techniques are being used at the Nash Draw project to develop reservoir management strategies for optimizing oil recovery from this Delaware reservoir. Analysis, interpretation, and integration of recently acquired geologic, geophysical, and engineering data revealed that the initial reservoir characterization was too simplistic to capture the critical features of this complex formation. Contrary to the initial characterization, a new reservoir description evolved that provided sufficient detail regarding the complexity of the Brushy Canyon interval at Nash Draw. This new reservoir description is being used as a risk reduction tool to identify ''sweet spots'' for a development drilling program as well as to evaluate pressure maintenance strategies. The reservoir characterization, geological modeling, 3-D seismic interpretation, and simulation studies have provided a detailed model of the Brushy Canyon zones. This model was used to predict the success of different reservoir management scenarios and to aid in determining the most favorable combination of targeted drilling, pressure maintenance, well simulation, and well spacing to improve recovery from this reservoir.

  17. Application of game theory on parameter optimization of the novel two-stage Nash nonlinear grey Bernoulli model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsin, Pei-Han; Chen, Chun-I.

    2015-10-01

    In grey prediction modeling, there are three parameters in nonlinear grey Bernoulli model (NGBM), including the power n, the coefficient p and the length of raw data used to construct grey forecasting model. Nash NGBM only optimizes n and p by the iterated elimination of weakly dominated strategies of game theory. To optimize above three parameters, this study develops a two-stage game for NNGBM (abbreviated as two-stage NNGBM). In the first stage, find the Nash equilibrium for each possible game. In the second stage, use Minimax principle to find the optimal left topological sequence which has the best forecasting performance. Then, obtain Nash equilibrium which consists of these three parameters. This study also proves that the traditional GM(1, 1), optimal p GM(1, 1) and NGBM(1, 1) are the special cases of the proposed model. In order to show the feasibility of this research, the proposed method is applied to the forecasting of Taiwan's GDP. The results show that five elements in raw data sequence are optimal topological length for constructing NNGBM in the case of Taiwan's GDP forecasting.

  18. Growth of embryo and gene expression of nutrient transporters in the small intestine of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-xia; Li, Xiang-guang; Yang, Jun-xian; Gao, Chun-qi; Wang, Bin; Wang, Xiu-qi; Yan, Hui-chao

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between gene expression of nutrient (amino acid, peptide, sodium and proton) transporters in the small intestine and embryonic growth in domestic pigeons (Columba livia). One hundred and twenty-five fertilized eggs were randomly assigned into five groups and were incubated under optimal conditions (temperature of 38.1 °C and relative humidity of 55%). Twenty embryos/birds from each group were sacrificed by cervical dislocation on embryonic day (E) 9, 11, 13, 15 and day of hatch (DOH). The eggs, embryos (without yolk sac), and organs (head, brain, heart, liver, lungs, kidney, gizzard, small intestine, legs, and thorax) were dissected, cleaned, and weighed. Small intestine samples were collected for RNA isolation. The mRNA abundance of intestinal nutrient transporters was evaluated by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We classified these ten organs into four types according to the changes in relative weight during embryonic development. In addition, the gene expression of nutrient transporters was differentially regulated by embryonic day. The mRNA abundances of b(0,+)AT, EAAT3, y(+)LAT2, PepT1, LAT4, NHE2, and NHE3 increased linearly with age, whereas mRNA abundances of CAT1, CAT2, LAT1, EAAT2, SNAT1, and SNAT2 were increased to higher levels on E9 or E11 and then decreased to lower levels until DOH. The results of correlation analysis showed that the gene expressions of b(0,+)AT, EAAT3, PepT1, LAT4, NHE2, NHE3, and y(+)LAT2 had positive correlations with body weight (0.71

  19. Growth of embryo and gene expression of nutrient transporters in the small intestine of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia)*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ming-xia; Li, Xiang-guang; Yang, Jun-xian; Gao, Chun-qi; Wang, Bin; Wang, Xiu-qi; Yan, Hui-chao

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between gene expression of nutrient (amino acid, peptide, sodium and proton) transporters in the small intestine and embryonic growth in domestic pigeons (Columba livia). One hundred and twenty-five fertilized eggs were randomly assigned into five groups and were incubated under optimal conditions (temperature of 38.1 °C and relative humidity of 55%). Twenty embryos/birds from each group were sacrificed by cervical dislocation on embryonic day (E) 9, 11, 13, 15 and day of hatch (DOH). The eggs, embryos (without yolk sac), and organs (head, brain, heart, liver, lungs, kidney, gizzard, small intestine, legs, and thorax) were dissected, cleaned, and weighed. Small intestine samples were collected for RNA isolation. The mRNA abundance of intestinal nutrient transporters was evaluated by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We classified these ten organs into four types according to the changes in relative weight during embryonic development. In addition, the gene expression of nutrient transporters was differentially regulated by embryonic day. The mRNA abundances of b0,+AT, EAAT3, y+LAT2, PepT1, LAT4, NHE2, and NHE3 increased linearly with age, whereas mRNA abundances of CAT1, CAT2, LAT1, EAAT2, SNAT1, and SNAT2 were increased to higher levels on E9 or E11 and then decreased to lower levels until DOH. The results of correlation analysis showed that the gene expressions of b0,+AT, EAAT3, PepT1, LAT4, NHE2, NHE3, and y+LAT2 had positive correlations with body weight (0.71

  20. Investigations into the uricolytic properties of urate oxidase in a granivorous (Columba livia domestica) and in a carnivorous (Buteo jamaicensis) avian species.

    PubMed

    Poffers, J; Lumeij, J T; Redig, P T

    2002-12-01

    To study the uricolytic properties of urate oxidase in granivorous and carnivorous birds, experiments were conducted in pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). Plasma concentrations of allantoin and uric acid were determined at various times in experimental groups before and after receiving 100, 200, and 600 U/kg urate oxidase once daily and were compared with controls. All regimens caused a significant decrease in plasma uric acid concentrations within 2 days after the first administration, when compared with controls. Furthermore, both doses used in Red-tailed Hawks (200 and 100 U/kg) caused a significant postprandial suppression of plasma uric acid concentrations. Plasma allantoin concentrations were significantly higher when compared with controls. The ability of urate oxidase to prevent the physiological postprandial hyperuricaemia in Red-tailed Hawks and to reduce plasma uric acid concentrations to undetectable levels, shows the great potential of this drug for treating avian hyperuricaemia. PMID:12593740

  1. Experimental infection of rock pigeons (Columba livia) with three West Nile virus lineage 1 strains isolated in Italy between 2009 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Spedicato, M; Carmine, I; Bellacicco, A L; Marruchella, G; Marini, V; Pisciella, M; Di Francesco, G; Lorusso, A; Monaco, F; Savini, G

    2016-04-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) circulation dynamics in the context of the urban environment is not yet elucidated. In this perspective, three groups of eight rock pigeons (Columbia livia) were inoculated with three WNV lineage 1 strains isolated in Italy between 2009 and 2012. The pigeons did not develop any clinical signs consistent with WNV acute infection. All animals seroconverted and shed virus up to 15 days post-infection by the oral or cloacal routes. In all infected groups viraemia lasted for 4 days post-infection. No WNV-specific gross or histological lesions were found in infected birds compared to control birds and immunohistochemistry remained constantly negative from all tissues. The reservoir competence index was also assessed and it ranged between 0·11 and 0·14. This study demonstrates that pigeons are competent reservoir hosts for Italian WNV lineage 1 circulating strains thus potentially posing a risk to the public health system. PMID:26493864

  2. A minimax approach to mean field games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averboukh, Yu V.

    2015-07-01

    An initial boundary value problem for the system of equations of a determined mean field game is considered. The proposed definition of a generalized solution is based on the minimax approach to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. We prove the existence of the generalized (minimax) solution using the Nash equilibrium in the auxiliary differential game with infinitely many identical players. We show that the minimax solution of the original system provides the \\varepsilon-Nash equilibrium in the differential game with a finite number of players. Bibliography: 34 titles.

  3. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, NM

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, M.B.

    1999-02-01

    Advanced reservoir characterization techniques are being used at the Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool project to develop reservoir management strategies for optimizing oil recovery from this Delaware reservoir. The reservoir characterization, geologic modeling, 3-D seismic interpretation, and simulation studies have provided a detailed model of the Brushy Canyon zones. This model was used to predict the success of different reservoir management scenarios and to aid in determining the most favorable combination of targeted drilling, pressure maintenance, well stimulation, and well spacing to improve recovery from this reservoir.

  4. ADVANCED OIL RECOVERY TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVED RECOVERY FROM SLOPE BASIN CLASTIC RESERVOIRS, NASH DRAW BRUSHY CANYON POOL, EDDY COUNTY, NM

    SciTech Connect

    Mark B. Murphy

    2004-01-31

    The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate that a development program based on advanced reservoir management methods can significantly improve oil recovery at the Nash Draw Pool (NDP). The plan includes developing a control area using standard reservoir management techniques and comparing its performance to an area developed using advanced reservoir management methods. Specific goals are (1) to demonstrate that an advanced development drilling and pressure maintenance program can significantly improve oil recovery compared to existing technology applications and (2) to transfer these advanced methodologies to oil and gas producers in the Permian Basin and elsewhere throughout the U.S. oil and gas industry.

  5. ADVANCED OIL RECOVERY TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVED RECOVERY FROM SLOPE BASIN CLASTIC RESERVOIRS, NASH DRAW BRUSHY CANYON POOL, EDDY COUNTY, NM

    SciTech Connect

    Mark B. Murphy

    2003-10-31

    The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate that a development program based on advanced reservoir management methods can significantly improve oil recovery at the Nash Draw Pool (NDP). The plan includes developing a control area using standard reservoir management techniques and comparing its performance to an area developed using advanced reservoir management methods. Specific goals are (1) to demonstrate that an advanced development drilling and pressure maintenance program can significantly improve oil recovery compared to existing technology applications and (2) to transfer these advanced methodologies to oil and gas producers in the Permian Basin and elsewhere throughout the U.S. oil and gas industry.

  6. ADVANCED OIL RECOVERY TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVED RECOVERY FROM SLOPE BASIN CLASTIC RESERVOIRS, NASH DRAW BRUSHY CANYON POOL, EDDY COUNTY, NM

    SciTech Connect

    Mark B. Murphy

    2002-12-31

    The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate that a development program based on advanced reservoir management methods can significantly improve oil recovery at the Nash Draw Pool (NDP). The plan includes developing a control area using standard reservoir management techniques and comparing its performance to an area developed using advanced reservoir management methods. Specific goals are (1) to demonstrate that an advanced development drilling and pressure maintenance program can significantly improve oil recovery compared to existing technology applications and (2) to transfer these advanced methodologies to oil and gas producers in the Permian Basin and elsewhere throughout the U.S. oil and gas industry.

  7. ADVANCED OIL RECOVERY TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVED RECOVERY FROM SLOPE BASIN CLASTIC RESERVOIRS, NASH DRAW BRUSHY CANYON POOL, EDDY COUNTY, NM

    SciTech Connect

    Mark B. Murphy

    2003-07-30

    The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate that a development program based on advanced reservoir management methods can significantly improve oil recovery at the Nash Draw Pool (NDP). The plan includes developing a control area using standard reservoir management techniques and comparing its performance to an area developed using advanced reservoir management methods. Specific goals are (1) to demonstrate that an advanced development drilling and pressure maintenance program can significantly improve oil recovery compared to existing technology applications and (2) to transfer these advanced methodologies to oil and gas producers in the Permian Basin and elsewhere throughout the U.S. oil and gas industry.

  8. The balance between IL-17 and IL-22 produced by liver-infiltrating T-helper cells critically controls NASH development in mice.

    PubMed

    Rolla, Simona; Alchera, Elisa; Imarisio, Chiara; Bardina, Valentina; Valente, Guido; Cappello, Paola; Mombello, Cristina; Follenzi, Antonia; Novelli, Francesco; Carini, Rita

    2016-02-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the evolution of steatosis towards NASH (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis) and fibrosis are not completely defined. In the present study we evaluated the role of CD4(+) T-helper (Th) cells in this process. We analysed the infiltration of different subsets of CD4(+) Th cells in C57BL/6 mice fed on a MCD (methionine choline-deficient) diet, which is a model reproducing all phases of human NASH progression. There was an increase in Th17 cells at the beginning of NASH development and at the NASH-fibrosis transition, whereas levels of Th22 cells peaked between the first and the second expansion of Th17 cells. An increase in the production of IL (interleukin)-6, TNFα (tumour necrosis factor α), TGFβ (transforming growth factor β) and CCL20 (CC chemokine ligand 20) accompanied the changes in Th17/Th22 cells. Livers of IL-17(-/-) mice were protected from NASH development and characterized by an extensive infiltration of Th22 cells. In vitro, IL-17 exacerbated the JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase)-dependent mouse hepatocyte lipotoxicity induced by palmitate. IL-22 prevented lipotoxicity through PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)-mediated inhibition of JNK, but did not play a protective role in the presence of IL-17, which up-regulated the PI3K/Akt inhibitor PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10). Consistently, livers of IL-17(-/-) mice fed on the MCD diet displayed decreased activation of JNK, reduced expression of PTEN and increased phosphorylation of Akt compared with livers of wild-type mice. Hepatic infiltration of Th17 cells is critical for NASH initiation and development of fibrosis in mice, and reflects an infiltration of Th22 cells. Th22 cells are protective in NASH, but only in the absence of IL-17. These data strongly support the potentiality of clinical applications of IL-17 inhibitors that can prevent NASH by both abolishing the lipotoxic action of IL-17 and allowing IL-22-mediated protection. PMID:26558403

  9. Morphological and molecular characterization of Eimeria labbeana-like (Apicomplexa:Eimeriidae) in a domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica, Gmelin, 1789) in Australia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rongchang; Brice, Belinda; Elloit, Aileen; Ryan, Una

    2016-07-01

    An Eimeria species is described from a domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica). Sporulated oocysts (n = 35) were subspherical, with a smooth bi-layered oocyst wall (1.0 μm thick). Oocysts measured 20.2 × 16.1 (22.0-18.9 × 15.7-18.9) μm, oocyst length/width (L/W) ratio, 1.38. Oocyst residuum and a polar granule were present. The micropyle was absent. Sporocysts are elongate-ovoid, 13.0 × 6.1 (14.5-12.5 × 5.5-7.0) μm, sporocyst L/W ratio, 2.13 (2.0-2.2), sporocyst residuum was present, composed of numerous granules in a spherical or ovoid mass. Each sporocyst contained 2 banana-shaped sporozoites, 12.3 × 3.5 (11.8-13.0 × 3.3-3.6) μm. A spherical-ellipsoid posterior refractile body was found in the sporozoites. A nucleus was located immediately anterior to the posterior refractile body. Molecular analysis was conducted at three loci; the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA genes and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene (COI). At the 18S locus, the new isolate shared 98.0% genetic similarity with three Isospora isolates from Japan from the domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica). At the 28S locus, it grouped separately and shared 92.4% and 92.5% genetic similarity with Isospora anthochaerae (KF766053) from a red wattlebird (Anthochaera carunculata) from Australia and an Isospora sp. (MS-2003 - AY283845) from a Himalayan grey-headed bullfinch (Pyrrhula erythaca) respectively. At COI locus, this new isolate was in a separate clade and shared 95.6% and 90.0% similarity respectively with Eimeria tiliquae n. sp. from a shingleback skink in Australia and an Eimeria sp. from a common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) from America. Based on the morphological data, this isolate is most similar to Eimeria labbeana. As no molecular data for E. labbeana is available and previous morphological data is incomplete, we refer to the current isolate as E. labbeana-like. PMID:27080159

  10. Preliminary hydrologic data for wells tested in Nash Draw, near the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site, southeastern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richey, S.F.

    1987-01-01

    Hydrologic testing was conducted at wells WIPP-25, WIPP-26, WIPP-27, WIPP-28, WIPP-29, and WIPP-30 in Nash Draw near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site in southeastern New Mexico. The three water-bearing zones tested were the Magenta Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation, Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation, and the Rustler Formation-Salado Formation contact zone. Inflatable packers were used in a variety of test configurations. Tests conducted include bailing, recovery after perforation, shut in, slug, flow, and pressure pulse. Water pressure response in the tested zone was monitored by a pressure-transducer system. Preliminary hydrologic-test data are tabulated in chronological order for each well. (Lantz-PTT)

  11. Defining the Polar Vortex Edge Using an N2O: Potential Temperature Correlation Versus the Nash Criterion: A Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.; Jost, Hans-Juerg; Loewenstein, Max; Podolske, James R.; Bui, T. Paul; Hurst, Dale F.; Elkins, James W.; Herman, Robert L.; Webster, Christopher R.; Schauffler, Sue M.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A prerequisite to study phenomena in the winter stratospheric polar vortex is the separation of measurements inside and outside the dynamical barrier of the vortex edge. We describe a technique to accurately determine the inner edge of the vortex boundary region from measurements of potential temperature and a trace gas, such as N2O, and apply it to in situ aircraft and balloon measurements from the SOLVE/THESE02000 Arctic campaign. The method may be used to refine the Nash algorithm, which, due to the inherently coarser resolution of potential vorticity on which it is dependent, may misidentify the inner edge by up to 466 km, and omit the identification of small, extra-vortex filaments within the vortex.

  12. ADVANCED OIL RECOVERY TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVED RECOVERY FROM SLOPE BASIN CLASTIC RESERVOIRS, NASH DRAW BRUSHY CANYON POOL, EDDY COUNTY, NM

    SciTech Connect

    Mark B. Murphy

    2002-09-30

    The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate that a development program-based on advanced reservoir management methods-can significantly improve oil recovery at the Nash Draw Pool (NDP). The plan includes developing a control area using standard reservoir management techniques and comparing its performance to an area developed using advanced reservoir management methods. Specific goals are (1) to demonstrate that an advanced development drilling and pressure maintenance program can significantly improve oil recovery compared to existing technology applications and (2) to transfer these advanced methodologies to oil and gas producers in the Permian Basin and elsewhere throughout the U.S. oil and gas industry. This is the twenty-eighth quarterly progress report on the project. Results obtained to date are summarized.

  13. Caspase 3 inactivation protects against hepatic cell death and ameliorates fibrogenesis in a diet induced NASH model

    PubMed Central

    Thapaliya, Samjhana; Wree, Alexander; Povero, Davide; Inzaugarat, Maria Eugenia; Berk, Michael; Dixon, Laura; Papouchado, Bettina G.; Feldstein, Ariel E

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Hepatocyte cell death is a key feature of nonalcoholic steohepatitis (NASH). As the contribution of specific caspases remains unclear, our aim was to ascertain the effect of caspase 3 suppression on liver injury and fibrogenesis. Methods C57BL/6 wild-type (WT), and caspase 3 knock out (Casp3−/−) mice were placed on a methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet for 6 weeks to induce steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis. Thereafter, liver injury, liver fibrosis and hepatocellular apoptosis were quantified in liver sections. Additionally, expression of proteins associated with liver inflammation and fibrogenesis were analyzed. Results WT mice fed MCD diet showed marked activation of caspase 3 in hepatocytes, in conjunction with steatohepatitis and increased hepatic triglyceride levels, hepatocyte ballooning, inflammation and fibrosis. Casp3−/− fed the MCD diet showed similar serum ALT levels and NAFLD activity scores (NAS) compared to WT MCD-fed mice. However Casp3−/− mice on the MCD diet showed a marked reduction in expression of transcripts for pro-fibrogenic genes i which translated into reduced hepatic collagen deposition. These changes were associated with decreased levels of apoptosis, and a significant reduction in the expression of cytokines involved in inflammatory signaling. Casp3−/− mice on the MCD showed a reduction in expression of chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) leading to ameliorated infiltration of inflammatory lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus C1 (Ly6c) positive monocytes. Conclusion These findings support a prominent role for hepatocyte caspase 3 activation in NASH related apoptosis, fibrogenesis and fibrosis which in part is mediated via CCR2 dependent infiltration of Ly6c positive monocytes. PMID:24795036

  14. 77 FR 10553 - Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish Band of Pottawatomi Indians (Gun Lake)-Amendment to Liquor Beverage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish Band of Pottawatomi Indians (Gun Lake)-- Amendment to Liquor Beverage Control Ordinance AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice...

  15. Prevalence and risk factors for Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Newcastle disease virus in feral pigeons (Columba livia) in public areas of Montreal, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gabriele-Rivet, Vanessa; Fairbrother, Julie-Hélène; Tremblay, Donald; Harel, Josée; Côté, Nathalie; Arsenault, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Feral pigeons (Columbia livia) can harbor a range of zoonotic pathogens. A transversal study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of feral pigeons infected by various pathogens in public areas in Montreal, Quebec. Cloacal swabs from captured birds were cultured for Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. and tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of Coxiella burnetii. An oropharyngeal swab was also submitted to real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) for the detection of Newcastle disease virus. Among the 187 pigeons tested from 10 public areas, 9.1% (95% CI: 3.0 to 15.2) were positive for Campylobacter spp. with all strains identified as Campylobacter jejuni. The Campylobacter status of birds was not associated with individual characteristics of birds, with the exception of body score. None of the pigeons tested positive for the other pathogens. Direct or indirect contacts with feral pigeons may constitute a potential risk for Campylobacter infection in humans. PMID:26733736

  16. Prevalence and risk factors for Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Newcastle disease virus in feral pigeons (Columba livia) in public areas of Montreal, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Gabriele-Rivet, Vanessa; Fairbrother, Julie-Hélène; Tremblay, Donald; Harel, Josée; Côté, Nathalie; Arsenault, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Feral pigeons (Columbia livia) can harbor a range of zoonotic pathogens. A transversal study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of feral pigeons infected by various pathogens in public areas in Montreal, Quebec. Cloacal swabs from captured birds were cultured for Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. and tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of Coxiella burnetii. An oropharyngeal swab was also submitted to real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) for the detection of Newcastle disease virus. Among the 187 pigeons tested from 10 public areas, 9.1% (95% CI: 3.0 to 15.2) were positive for Campylobacter spp. with all strains identified as Campylobacter jejuni. The Campylobacter status of birds was not associated with individual characteristics of birds, with the exception of body score. None of the pigeons tested positive for the other pathogens. Direct or indirect contacts with feral pigeons may constitute a potential risk for Campylobacter infection in humans. PMID:26733736

  17. Comparison of a Point-of-Care Glucometer and a Laboratory Autoanalyzer for Measurement of Blood Glucose Concentrations in Domestic Pigeons ( Columba livia domestica).

    PubMed

    Mohsenzadeh, Mahdieh Sadat; Zaeemi, Mahdieh; Razmyar, Jamshid; Azizzadeh, Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    Biochemical analysis is necessary for diagnosis and monitoring of diseases in birds; however, the small volume of blood that can be safely obtained from small avian species often limits laboratory diagnostic testing. Consequently, a suitable methodology requiring only a small volume of blood must be used. This study was designed to compare blood glucose concentrations in domestic pigeons ( Columba livia domestica) as measured by a commercial, handheld, human glucometer and a standard autoanalyzer. During the first phase of the study, whole blood samples obtained from 30 domestic pigeons were used to measure the blood glucose concentration with a glucometer, the packed cell volume (PCV), and the total erythrocyte count (nRBC). Plasma separated from the each sample was then used to obtain the plasma glucose concentration with the autoanalyzer. During the second phase of the study, 30 pigeons were assigned to 2 equal groups (n = 15). Hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia was induced in each group by intravenous injection of insulin or glucose, respectively. Blood was collected and processed, and glucose concentrations, PCV, and nRBC were measured as previously described. Linear-regression models demonstrated a significant relationship between results measured by the glucometer and autoanalyzer results from normoglycemic (correlation coefficient [R] = 0.43, P = .02), hypoglycemic (R = 0.95; P < .001), and hyperglycemic (R = 0.81; P < .001) birds. The results of this study suggest that we can predict the real blood-glucose concentration of pigeons by using results obtained by a glucometer. PMID:26378663

  18. Ultrasound therapy for the prevention and correction of contractures and bone mineral loss associated with wing bandaging in the domestic pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Wimsatt, J; Dressen, P; Dennison, C; Turner, A S

    2000-06-01

    Figure-of-eight wing bandaging is widely used to treat wing injuries, to immobilize wings before and after fracture repair, and during transient wing paralysis. However, prolonged bandaging can lead to bone loss and to contractures and reduced range of joint motion. Studies evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic ultrasound to reverse and prevent bandaging-associated contractures in pigeons (Columba livia) showed a significant increase in elbow and carpal extension after 10 twice weekly ultrasound treatments when started either 4 or 11 days after bandage placement. In addition, after 42 days of wing bandaging, three ultrasound treatments stimulated a faster reversal of carpal wing rotation loss than removal of the bandage over the 10-day treatment period. Finally, bone loss in response to 28 days of bandaging was significant, progressed at 2.8% per week, and was not affected by ultrasound treatment twice weekly during this period. Therefore, therapeutic ultrasound prevented and reversed loss of wing extension associated with figure-of-eight bandaging but did not lessen the disuse osteoporosis created by bandaging in these birds. PMID:10982131

  19. Evaluation of hepatobiliary scintigraphy as an indicator of hepatic function in domestic pigeons (Columba livia) before and after exposure to ethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Tarah L; Daniel, Gregory B; Rotstein, David S; Avenell, James S; Zagaya, Nancy; Jones, Michael P

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the use of quantitative hepatobiliary scintigraphy to assess liver function in 14 white Carneaux pigeons (Columba livia). Liver scintigraphy using 99mTc-mebrofenin was performed and liver function was quantified using deconvolutional analysis and the area under the normalized heart time-activity curve as previously described in the dog and horse. Liver biopsies were performed in all birds before and after toxin-induced liver damage with ethylene glycol. Before the induction of liver disease, all biopsy specimens showed varying degrees of granulomatous inflammation. After ethylene glycol administration, hepatic lesions were scored and compared with scintigraphic findings. Scintigraphic results showed a significant decrease (P = 0.04) in hepatic function using the area under the normalized time-activity curve. There was good correlation between the overall histologic score posttoxin exposure and scintigraphic measures of liver function (P < 0.03). Based upon these preliminary results, the area under the heart time-activity curve can determine hepatic extraction as a measure of hepatic parenchymal cell function. The results also showed that worsening hepatic cellular function correlated with increased histologic damage to the liver. The use of hepatobiliary scintigraphy using 99mTc-mebrofenin to determine liver function in pigeons has not been previously reported. Additional studies are warranted to evaluate the application of this technique in clinical patients and to establish the sensitivity of this technique. PMID:17385376

  20. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, NM

    SciTech Connect

    Mark B. Murphy

    2005-09-30

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County New Mexico was a cost-shared field demonstration project in the U.S. Department of Energy Class III Program. A major goal of the Class III Program was to stimulate the use of advanced technologies to increase ultimate recovery from slope-basin clastic reservoirs. Advanced characterization techniques were used at the Nash Draw Pool (NDP) project to develop reservoir management strategies for optimizing oil recovery from this Delaware reservoir. The objective of the project was to demonstrate that a development program, which was based on advanced reservoir management methods, could significantly improve oil recovery at the NDP. Initial goals were (1) to demonstrate that an advanced development drilling and pressure maintenance program can significantly improve oil recovery compared to existing technology applications and (2) to transfer these advanced methodologies to other oil and gas producers. Analysis, interpretation, and integration of recently acquired geological, geophysical, and engineering data revealed that the initial reservoir characterization was too simplistic to capture the critical features of this complex formation. Contrary to the initial characterization, a new reservoir description evolved that provided sufficient detail regarding the complexity of the Brushy Canyon interval at Nash Draw. This new reservoir description was used as a risk reduction tool to identify 'sweet spots' for a development drilling program as well as to evaluate pressure maintenance strategies. The reservoir characterization, geological modeling, 3-D seismic interpretation, and simulation studies have provided a detailed model of the Brushy Canyon zones. This model was used to predict the success of different reservoir management scenarios and to aid in determining the most favorable combination of targeted drilling, pressure maintenance, well stimulation, and well spacing to improve recovery from this reservoir. An Advanced

  1. Potential of vetiver (vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash) for phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Regine; Merkl, Nicole; Schultze-Kraft, Rainer; Infante, Carmen; Broll, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    Venezuela is one of the largest oil producers in the world. For the rehabilitation of oil-contaminated sites, phytoremediation represents a promising technology whereby plants are used to enhance biodegradation processes in soil. A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the tolerance of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash) to a Venezuelan heavy crude oil in soil. Additionally, the plant's potential for stimulating the biodegradation processes of petroleum hydrocarbons was tested under the application of two fertilizer levels. In the presence of contaminants, biomass and plant height were significantly reduced. As for fertilization, the lower fertilizer level led to higher biomass production. The specific root surface area was reduced under the effects of petroleum. However, vetiver was found to tolerate crude-oil contamination in a concentration of 5% (w/w). Concerning total oil and grease content in soil, no significant decrease under the influence of vetiver was detected when compared to the unplanted control. Thus, there was no evidence of vetiver enhancing the biodegradation of crude oil in soil under the conditions of this trial. However, uses of vetiver grass in relation to petroleum-contaminated soils are promising for amelioration of slightly polluted sites, to allow other species to get established and for erosion control. PMID:17305302

  2. Nash and integrated solutions in a just-in-time seller-buyer supply chain with buyer's ordering cost reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Kuo-Ren; Wang, Lu

    2016-05-01

    The seller frequently offers the buyer trade credit to settle the purchase amount. From the seller's prospective, granting trade credit increases not only the opportunity cost (i.e., the interest loss on the buyer's purchase amount during the credit period) but also the default risk (i.e., the rate that the buyer will be unable to pay off his/her debt obligations). On the other hand, granting trade credit increases sales volume and revenue. Consequently, trade credit is an important strategy to increase seller's profitability. In this paper, we assume that the seller uses trade credit and number of shipments in a production run as decision variables to maximise his/her profit, while the buyer determines his/her replenishment cycle time and capital investment as decision variables to reduce his/her ordering cost and achieve his/her maximum profit. We then derive non-cooperative Nash solution and cooperative integrated solution in a just-in-time inventory system, in which granting trade credit increases not only the demand but also the opportunity cost and default risk, and the relationship between the capital investment and the ordering cost reduction is logarithmic. Then, we use a software to solve and compare these two distinct solutions. Finally, we use sensitivity analysis to obtain some managerial insights.

  3. Leaf gas exchange of Andropogon gerardii Vitman, Panicum virgatum L., and Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash in a tallgrass prairie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polley, H. W.; Norman, J. M.; Arkebauer, T. J.; Walter-Shea, E. A.; Greegor, D. H., Jr.; Bramer, B.

    1992-01-01

    Net CO2 assimilation as a function of internal CO2 and stomatal conductance to water vapor were measured on blades of the C4 grasses Andropogon gerardii Vitman, Panicum virgatrum L., and Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash in northeast Kansas over two growing seasons to determine the comparative physiological responses of these dominant grasses of the tallgrass prairie to environmental variables. The response of dark respiration to temperature and of net assimilation to CO2 concentration and absorbed quantum flux differed little among species. A. gerardii had lower potential photosynthetic rates at internal CO2 concentrations below saturation than P. virgatum and S. nutans, but net assimilation under ambient conditions was similar in the three species. Net assimilation and both the initial slope of assimilation versus internal CO2 curves and the maximum potential assimilation rate decreased as leaf water potential declined in blades of A. gerardii and S. nutans. Changes in assimilation capacity were paralleled by changes in stomatal conductance that were similar in all three species. The strong correlations among processes regulating leaf CO2 assimilation and transpiration in A. gerardii, P. virgatum, and S. nutans suggest that the processes are tightly and similarly coupled in these grasses over a wide range of environmental conditions encountered in the tallgrass prairie.

  4. Comparison between lead levels in blood and bone tissue of rock doves (Columba livia) treated with lead acetate or exposed to the environment of Alcala de Henares

    SciTech Connect

    Tejedor, M.C.; Gonzalez, M.

    1992-06-01

    The increase in the amount of lead released into the environment in developed countries during the last two to three decades has resulted in a significant increase in lead levels in organisms from completely different environments. Several surveys have been made in urban areas with high traffic densities in an attempt to identify plant and animal species that might reflect environmental metal concentrations so that those species could be used as sensitive biological indicators of heavy metal contamination. Studies of lead accumulation in U.K. rock doves imply that use of this species as a pollution indicator would facilitate periodic monitoring of chronic lead exposure conditions in the urban environment. Laboratory investigations cannot readily reflect environmental conditions since the validity of extrapolating laboratory results, where high doses are administered over short-time periods, to the natural environment has been seriously questioned. The present study was made on four rock dove (Columbia livia) populations: two groups (males and females) were dosed with lead acetate in the laboratory and two groups of males were housed in different parts of the city of Alcala de Henares. Data on lead bioaccumulation were collected in two situations: the first was in a laboratory with controlled amounts of lead, while in the second situation the amounts reflected the actual environmental levels in Alcala de Henares. Lead levels were determined in two tissues: blood, which is the target of first impact in possible acute situations; and bone, which is the main tissue where lead accumulates and, therefore, very important during chronic exposure. The study focused on the following three items: (1) lead tissue distribution; (2) variation with habitat; and (3) an evaluation of the levels of lead contamination in the city of Alcala de Henares. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Flexible learning and use of multiple-landmark information by pigeons (Columba livia) in a touch screen-based goal searching task.

    PubMed

    Ushitani, Tomokazu; Jitsumori, Masako

    2011-08-01

    Three touch screen-based experiments were conducted to investigate whether pigeons would learn to use configural information about a goal's location in relation to a multiple-landmark array. In Experiment 1, 4 pigeons (Columba livia) were trained to peck a computer monitor at a location that constituted the third vertex of a hypothetical triangle defined by 2 different landmarks. The landmarks appeared in 3 orientations during the training, and the pigeons' goal-searching ability easily transferred to the landmarks presented in 3 novel orientations. Each landmark was asymmetric, so we next examined whether the pigeons used (a) the small-scale, local orientation information that could be inferred from each landmark individually, or (b) the large-scale, configural information that could be inferred from the spatial arrangement of multiple landmarks taken as a whole. Even when each single landmark appeared by itself, the pigeons were able to locate the goal accurately, suggesting that the large-scale, configural information was not essential. However, when 1 landmark locally pointed to a location that was consistent with the triangular configuration and the other landmark locally pointed to a different location, the pigeons predominantly pecked at the configurally array-consistent location. These results suggest that the pigeons redundantly learned both the large-scale, configural strategy and the local, single-landmark strategy, but they mainly used the latter information, and used the former information solely to disambiguate conflicts when the 2 landmarks pointed toward different targets. Such flexible learning and use of redundant information may reflect the pigeons' adaptation to unstable wild environments during their evolutionary history. PMID:21574692

  6. Prevalence of ectoparasites in free-range backyard chickens, domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and turkeys of Kermanshah province, west of Iran.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Farid; Hashemnia, Mohammad; Chalechale, Abdolali; Seidi, Shahin; Gholizadeh, Maryam

    2016-06-01

    This study was carried out on free-range backyard chickens, domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and turkeys from May 2012 to April 2013 to determine the prevalence and identify the species of ectoparasites in Kermanshah province, west of Iran. Of the total of 600 free-range backyard chickens (185 ♂ and 415 ♀), 700 domestic pigeons (278 ♂ and 422 ♀) and 150 turkeys (53 ♂ and 97 ♀), 389 (64.83 %), 608 (86.85 %) and 54 (36 %) were infected with one or more parasites respectively. Eleven ectoparasites species including five of lice (50.16 % Menacanthus stramineus, 13.66 % Menopon gallinae, 4.83 % Cuclotogaster heterographus, 5.16 % Goniocotes gallinae, 2.33 % Goniodes gigas), three of mites (26.33 % Dermanyssus gallinae, 8.5 % Ornithonyssus bursa, 7 % Cnemidocoptes mutans), one of tick (78.66 % Argas persicus) and two of flea (12.33 % Echidnophaga gallinacea, 2 % Pulex irritans) were found in the backyard chickens. The domestic pigeons were infected with six species of parasites including: Columbicola columbae (61.7 %), M. gallinae (10.43 %), M. stramineus (9 %), D. gallinae (8.28 %), Argas reflexus (74.14 %) and Pseudolynchia canariensis (27.7 %). The ectoparasites species recorded in turkeys were M. gallinae (14 %), M. stramineus (8 %), D. gallinae (12.66 %), C. mutans (6 %), A. persicus (24.66 %) and E. gallinacean (6 %). This is the first survey to determine the prevalence and identify the species of ectoparasites among free-range backyard chicken, domestic pigeons and turkeys in Kermanshah province. The high prevalence rate of ectoparasites in free-range backyard chickens and domestic pigeons indicates that parasitic infection is a common problem in this area. PMID:27413319

  7. Evaluation of Two Miniplate Systems and Figure-of-eight Bandages for Stabilization of Experimentally Induced Ulnar and Radial Fractures in Pigeons ( Columba livia ).

    PubMed

    Bennert, Beatrice M; Kircher, Patrick R; Gutbrod, Andreas; Riechert, Juliane; Hatt, Jean-Michel

    2016-06-01

    Although plate fixation has advantages over other fixation methods for certain indications, it is rarely used in avian surgery, especially in birds that weigh less than 1000 g. Exceptionally small plating systems for these birds are required, which are relatively expensive and difficult to insert. To study avian fracture healing after repair using miniplates, we evaluated 2 steel miniplate systems in 27 pigeons ( Columba livia ) divided into 4 groups. In each pigeon, the left ulna and radius were transected and the ulna was repaired with a bone plate. In groups A and B, a 1.3-mm adaption plate was applied without and with a figure-of-eight bandage; in groups C and D, a 1.0-mm compression plate was applied without and with a bandage, respectively. Healing was evaluated with radiographs after 3, 14, and 28 days; flight tests were conducted after 14, 21, and 28 days; and the wing was macroscopically examined after euthanasia of birds on day 28. Fractures healed without bending or distortion of the plate in all 27 birds, and no significant differences in healing were found between treatment groups. At the end of the study, 23 pigeons (85.2%) showed good or very good flight ability. Results show the 1.3-mm adaption plate and the 1.0-mm compression plate meet the requirements for avian osteosynthesis and can be recommended for fracture repair of the ulna or other long bones in birds weighing less than 500 g. The application of a figure-of-eight bandage might be beneficial in fracture healing. PMID:27315377

  8. Prevalence of parasites and associated risk factors in domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and free-range backyard chickens of Sistan region, east of Iran.

    PubMed

    Radfar, Mohammad Hossein; Khedri, Javad; Adinehbeigi, Keivan; Nabavi, Reza; Rahmani, Khatereh

    2012-10-01

    This study was carried out on free-range backyard chickens and domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) from December 2010 to November 2011 to determine the prevalence, intensity and species of internal and external parasites in Sistan region, east of Iran. Of the total of 59 (27 males and 32 females) free-range backyard chickens and 46 (26 males and 20 females) domestic pigeons inspected, 55 (93.22 %) and 39 (84.78 %) were infected respectively. Ten species of free-range backyard chickens parasites were collected from alimentary canals, body, head and neck, comprising of 3 species of nematodes, 4 species of cestodes and 3 species of ectoparasites as follows: Ascaridia galli (16.94 %), Heterakis gallinarum (23.72 %), Subulura brumpti (67.79 %), Raillietina tetragona (35.59 %), Raillietina echinobothrida (27.11 %), Raillietina cesticillus (15.25 %), Choanotaenia infundibulum (40.67 %), Argas persicus (16.94 %), Menopen gallinae (55.93 %) and Menacanthus stramineus (33.89 %). The domestic pigeons were infected with seven species of parasites including 2 species of nematodes, 2 species of cestodes and 3 species of ectoparasites as follows: Ascaridia colombae (15.21 %), Hadjelia truncata (17.39 %), Raillietina tetragona (26.08 %), Raillietina echinobothrida (28.26 %), Argas reflexus (13.04 %), Menopen gallinae (32.60 %), Columbicola Columba (41.30 %). This is the first survey to determine the prevalence and intensity of parasites among free-range backyard chicken and domestic pigeon species in Sistan region. PMID:24082532

  9. The change in heat shock protein expression in avermectin induced neurotoxicity of the pigeon (Columba livia) both in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Wang, Xian-Song; Xu, Feng-Ping; Liu, Shuang; Xu, Shi-Wen; Li, Shu

    2014-12-01

    The expression of heat shock proteins (Hsps) commonly increases to provide neuroprotection when brain tissues are under stress conditions. Residues of avermectins (AVMs) have neurotoxic effects on a number of non-target organisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AVM exposure on the expression levels of Hsp 60, Hsp 70 and Hsp 90 for pigeon (Columba livia) neurons both in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that in general, the mRNA and protein levels of Hsps were increased in treated groups relative to control groups after AVM exposure for 30d, 60d and 90d in the cerebrum, cerebellum and optic lobe in vivo. However, AVM exposure had no significant effects on the transcription expression of Hsps for 90d in the optic lobe and decreased the translation expression of Hsps significantly for 90d in the optic lobe. In vitro, the LC50 of avermectin for King pigeon neurons is between 15μgL(-1) and 20μgL(-1). Following AVM (2.5-20μgL(-1)) exposure, the mRNA expression of the 3 Hsps was up-regulated to different degrees. Compared with the control groups, a significant decrease, a remarkable increase and a non-significant change was found in the protein expression of Hsp 60, Hsp 70 and Hsp 90 separately following AVM (2.5-20μgL(-1)) exposure. Based on these results, we conclude that AVM exposure can induce a protective stress response in pigeons by means of promoting the mRNA and protein expression of Hsps under in vivo and in vitro conditions, thus easing the neurotoxic effects of AVM to some extent. PMID:25202854

  10. The role of beta-adrenergic receptors in the cutaneous water evaporation mechanism in the heat-acclimated pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Ophir, E; Arieli, Y; Raber, P; Marder, J

    2000-01-01

    The effects of selective and non-selective beta-adrenergic agents on cutaneous water evaporation (CWE) were studied in hand-reared rock pigeons (Columba livia). CWE was measured by the vapor diffusive resistance method, using a transient porometer. Intramuscular and subcutaneous injections of a non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist (propranolol) or a selective beta(2)-adrenergic antagonist (ICI-118551) to heat-acclimated (HAc) pigeons at ambient temperature (T(a)) of 24 degrees C resulted in intensive CWE. The CWE values that were triggered by propranolol and ICI-118551 (18.59+/-0.73 and 16.48+/-0.70 mg cm(-2) h(-1), respectively) were close to those induced by heat exposure (17.62+/-1.40 mg cm(-2) h(-1)). Subcutaneous administration of propranolol produced local response. Intramuscular injection of salbutamol (selective beta(2)-adrenergic agonist) to HAc pigeons drastically diminished CWE induced by either propranolol, metoprolol or heat exposure. Such manipulations also enhanced panting at relatively low T(a)s (42 degrees C). The inhibition of beta(1)-adrenergic receptors by metoprolol increased CWE, while inhibition by atenolol produced no change from basal values. This difference may be attributed to their distinctive nature in penetrating the blood-brain barrier. Our findings indicate a regulatory pathway for CWE consisting of both beta(1)- and beta(2)-adrenergic receptors. We suggest that the beta(1)-adrenergic effect is restricted mainly to the CNS, while the beta(2)-adrenergic effect takes place at the effector level. We postulate this level to be either the cutaneous microvasculature or the epidermal layer. PMID:10779732

  11. Color differences among feral pigeons (Columba livia) are not attributable to sequence variation in the coding region of the melanocortin-1 receptor gene (MC1R)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genetic variation at the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene is correlated with melanin color variation in many birds. Feral pigeons (Columba livia) show two major melanin-based colorations: a red coloration due to pheomelanic pigment and a black coloration due to eumelanic pigment. Furthermore, within each color type, feral pigeons display continuous variation in the amount of melanin pigment present in the feathers, with individuals varying from pure white to a full dark melanic color. Coloration is highly heritable and it has been suggested that it is under natural or sexual selection, or both. Our objective was to investigate whether MC1R allelic variants are associated with plumage color in feral pigeons. Findings We sequenced 888 bp of the coding sequence of MC1R among pigeons varying both in the type, eumelanin or pheomelanin, and the amount of melanin in their feathers. We detected 10 non-synonymous substitutions and 2 synonymous substitution but none of them were associated with a plumage type. It remains possible that non-synonymous substitutions that influence coloration are present in the short MC1R fragment that we did not sequence but this seems unlikely because we analyzed the entire functionally important region of the gene. Conclusions Our results show that color differences among feral pigeons are probably not attributable to amino acid variation at the MC1R locus. Therefore, variation in regulatory regions of MC1R or variation in other genes may be responsible for the color polymorphism of feral pigeons. PMID:23915680

  12. Fast food diet mouse: novel small animal model of NASH with ballooning, progressive fibrosis, and high physiological fidelity to the human condition

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Anuradha; Viker, Kimberly; Sanderson, Schuyler; Cazanave, Sophie; McConico, Andrea; Masuoko, Howard; Gores, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Although there are small animal platforms that recapitulate some of the histological features of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, there are no small animal models of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with consistent hepatocellular ballooning and progressive fibrosis that also exhibit fidelity to the human condition physiologically. We examined the metabolic and histological effects of a diet on the basis of the composition of “fast food” (high saturated fats, cholesterol, and fructose). Mice (n = 8 in each group) were assigned to diets as follows: 1) standard chow (SC), i.e., 13% energy as fat [1% saturated fatty acids (SFA)], 2) high fat (HF), i.e., 60% energy as fat (1% SFA), and 3) fast food (FF), i.e., 40% energy as fat (12% SFA, 2% cholesterol). All three diets were supplemented with high fructose. All diets produced obesity. The HF and FF diets produced insulin resistance. Liver histology was normal in animals fed the SC diet. Steatohepatitis with pronounced ballooning and progressive fibrosis (stage 2) was observed in mice fed the FF diet. Although the HF diet produced obesity, insulin resistance, and some steatosis; inflammation was minimal, and there was no increase in fibrosis. The FF diet produced a gene expression signature of increased fibrosis, inflammation, and endoplasmic reticulum stress and lipoapoptosis. A diet based on high cholesterol, high saturated fat, and high fructose recapitulates features of the metabolic syndrome and NASH with progressive fibrosis. This represents a novel small animal model of fibrosing NASH with high fidelity to the human condition. These results highlight the contribution of dietary composition to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and NASH. PMID:21836057

  13. Reactive approach motivation (RAM) for religion.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Ian; Nash, Kyle; Prentice, Mike

    2010-07-01

    In 3 experiments, participants reacted with religious zeal to anxious uncertainty threats that have caused reactive approach motivation (RAM) in past research (see McGregor, Nash, Mann, & Phills, 2010, for implicit, explicit, and neural evidence of RAM). In Study 1, results were specific to religious ideals and did not extend to merely superstitious beliefs. Effects were most pronounced among the most anxious and uncertainty-averse participants in Study 1 and among the most approach-motivated participants in Study 2 (i.e., with high Promotion Focus, Behavioral Activation, Action Orientation, and Self-Esteem Scale scores). In Studies 2 and 3, anxious uncertainty threats amplified even the most jingoistic and extreme aspects of religious zeal. In Study 3, reactive religious zeal occurred only among participants who reported feeling disempowered in their everyday goals in life. Results support a RAM view of empowered religious idealism for anxiety management (cf. Armstrong, 2000; Inzlicht, McGregor, Hirsch, & Nash, 2009). PMID:20565192

  14. Kupffer cell depletion attenuates leptin-mediated methoxamine-stimulated portal perfusion pressure and thromboxane A2 release in a rodent model of NASH-cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying-Ying; Huang, Yi-Tsau; Tsai, Tung-Hu; Hou, Ming-Chih; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Lee, Shou-Dong; Lin, Han-Chieh

    2012-12-01

    Cirrhotic portal hypertension is characterized by increased hepatic oxidative stress, AA (arachidonic acid)-derived TXA(2) (thromboxane A(2)) release and exaggerated hepatic response to the α-adrenergic agonist MTX (methoxamine). Besides promoting hepatic fibrosis, the role of hyperleptinaemia in the modulation of vascular response in NASH (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis) rat livers remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to explore the possible links between hyperleptinaemia and the disarrangement in the hepatic microcirculation. NASH-cirrhosis with hyperleptinaemia was induced in lean rats by feeding with an HF/MCD (high-fat/methionine-choline-deficient) diet. Portal haemodynamics, various substances, protein and mRNA expression and PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid) composition were measured. Finally, the effects of leptin pre-infusion on TXA(2) release and concentration-PPP (portal perfusion pressure) curves in response to MTX were evaluated by simultaneously pre-treatment with the Kupffer cell inactivators GdCl(3) (gadolinium chloride) or EC (encapsulated clodronate), the TXS (TXA(2) synthase) inhibitor furegrelate, the TP receptor (TXA(2) receptor) antagonist SQ29548 and the dual TXS/TP receptor antagonist BM567. In HF/MCD+leptin-lean rats, cirrhosis-induced PPP and MTX hyper-responsiveness were associated with increased hepatic TXA(2) production, TBARS (thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances) levels and the AA (arachidonic acid)/n-3 PUFA ratio, and up-regulation of hepatic leptin, FAS (fatty acid synthase), NADPH oxidase subunits, TXS, TP receptor, TGFβ(1) (transforming growth factor β(1)) proteins and mRNAs. Pre-infusion of leptin significantly enhanced MTX-stimulated PPP elevation and TXA(2) release, which were attenuated by GdCl(3) and EC pre-treatment. Concomitantly pre-incubation with BM567, but not furegrelate or SQ29548, significantly abolished the leptin-enhanced MTX-stimulated increase in PPP in NASH-cirrhotic rats. Hyperleptinaemia

  15. The effect of cocoa supplementation on hepatic steatosis, reactive oxygen species and LFABP in a rat model of NASH

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Non alcoholic steatohepatitis is hypothesised to develop via a mechanism involving fat accumulation and oxidative stress. The current study aimed to investigate if an increase in oxidative stress was associated with changes in the expression of liver fatty acid binding protein in a rat model of non alcoholic steatohepatitis and whether cocoa supplementation attenuated those changes. Methods Female Sprague Dawley rats were fed a high fat control diet, a high fat methionine choline deficient diet, or one of four 12.5% cocoa supplementation regimes in combination with the high fat methionine choline deficient diet. Results Liver fatty acid binding protein mRNA and protein levels were reduced in the liver of animals with fatty liver disease when compared to controls. Increased hepatic fat content was accompanied by higher levels of oxidative stress in animals with fatty liver disease when compared to controls. An inverse association was found between the levels of hepatic liver fatty acid binding protein and the level of hepatic oxidative stress in fatty liver disease. Elevated NADPH oxidase protein levels were detected in the liver of animals with increased severity in inflammation and fibrosis. Cocoa supplementation was associated with partial attenuation of these pathological changes, although the severity of liver disease induced by the methionine choline deficient diet prevented complete reversal of any disease associated changes. Red blood cell glutathione was increased by cocoa supplementation, whereas liver glutathione was reduced by cocoa compared to methionine choline deficient diet fed animals. Conclusion These findings suggest a potential role for liver fatty acid binding protein and NADPH oxidase in the development of non alcoholic steatohepatitis. Furthermore, cocoa supplementation may have be of therapeutic benefit in less sever forms of NASH. PMID:22081873

  16. ADVANCED OIL RECOVERY TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVED RECOVERY FROM SLOPE BASIN CLASTIC RESERVOIRS, NASH DRAW BRUSHY CANYON POOL, EDDY COUNTY, NM

    SciTech Connect

    Mark B. Murphy

    2001-10-31

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool (NDP) in southeast New Mexico is one of the nine projects selected in 1995 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for participation in the Class III Reservoir Field Demonstration Program. The goals of the DOE cost-shared Class Program are to: (1) extend economic production, (2) increase ultimate recovery, and (3) broaden information exchange and technology application. Reservoirs in the Class III Program are focused on slope basin and deep-basin clastic depositional types. Production at the NDP is from the Brushy Canyon formation, a low-permeability turbidite reservoir in the Delaware Mountain Group of Permian, Guadalupian age. A major challenge in this marginal-quality reservoir is to distinguish oil-productive pay intervals from water-saturated non-pay intervals. Because initial reservoir pressure is only slightly above bubble-point pressure, rapid oil decline rates and high gas/oil ratios are typically observed in the first year of primary production. Limited surface access, caused by the proximity of underground potash mining and surface playa lakes, prohibits development with conventional drilling. Reservoir characterization results obtained to date at the NDP show that a proposed pilot injection area appears to be compartmentalized. Because reservoir discontinuities will reduce effectiveness of a pressure maintenance project, the pilot area will be reconsidered in a more continuous part of the reservoir if such areas have sufficient reservoir pressure. Most importantly, the advanced characterization results are being used to design extended reach/horizontal wells to tap into predicted ''sweet spots'' that are inaccessible with conventional vertical wells. The activity at the NDP during the past year has included the completion of the NDP Well No.36 deviated/horizontal well and the completion of additional zones in three wells, the design of the NDP No.33 directional/horizontal well, The planning and regulatory approval for the

  17. Effect of egg weight on composition, embryonic growth, and expression of amino acid transporter genes in yolk sac membranes and small intestines of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Chen, M X; Li, X G; Yan, H C; Wang, X Q; Gao, C Q

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of egg weight on the composition of the egg, the growth of the embryo, and the expression of amino acid transporter genes in the yolk sac membranes and small intestines of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia). A total of 240 fertilized eggs were collected and divided into two groups based on the weight of the eggs, light (LE) and heavy (HE). The composition of 20 eggs from each group was measured, and the remaining eggs were weighed and placed in an incubator. On embryonic days (E) 9, 11, 13, and 15 and day of hatch (DOH), 15 embryos/hatchlings from each group were measured for embryonic growth, and samples were collected. The HE had heavier yolk and albumen weights than the LE (P < 0.01). Compared with the LE, the HE had heavier yolk-free embryonic body and yolk sac weights from E13 to DOH (P < 0.05). Additionally, the HE had larger yolk sac membrane weights from E13 to E15 (P < 0.05) and had more residual yolk sac content on DOH than those of the LE (P < 0.01). The yolk absorption was greater for the HE than for the LE from E11 to E13 (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the abundance of CAT2 and PepT1 mRNA in the yolk sac membranes was greater in the HE than in the LE on E13 (P < 0.05). Compared with the LE, the gene expression of EAAT2 in the intestine on E13 was greater in the HE, whereas the expression of EAAT3 was lower in the HE (P < 0.05). Taken together, our results suggest that egg weight influenced the composition of the eggs, embryonic development, and expression of amino acid transporter genes in the yolk sac membranes and small intestines of pigeon embryos. PMID:26957627

  18. Sarcocystis calchasi has an expanded host range and induces neurological disease in cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and North American rock pigeons (Columbia livia f. dom.).

    PubMed

    Olias, Philipp; Maier, Kristina; Wuenschmann, Arno; Reed, Leslie; Armién, Aníbal G; Shaw, Daniel P; Gruber, Achim D; Lierz, Michael

    2014-02-24

    Pigeon protozoal encephalitis (PPE) is an emerging central nervous system disease of pigeons (Columba livia f. domestica) caused by the apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis calchasi. The intermediate host specificity of S. calchasi had been considered high, as domestic chickens were resistant to experimental infection. Here, we have re-evaluated this concept and expanded the known host range of S. calchasi by experimental infection of cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), a species distantly related to pigeons. In this work, a group of eight cockatiels were experimentally infected with S. calchasi, which resulted in a biphasic central nervous system disease that paralleled PPE in many aspects, albeit with a more diverse pathology. All cockatiels became lethargic and polyuric between days 7 and 13 pi and during that time schizonts of S. calchasi were found primarily in the liver and spleen accompanied by necrosis and inflammation. As with pigeons, neurological signs occurred during a chronic phase of the disease in three cockatiels between 57 and 63 dpi. However, all five cockatiels necropsied in that period, or at the end of the trial at 76 dpi, had a severe lymphohistiocytic and necrotizing encephalitis. No tissue cysts were found in the heart, and cockatiels infected with 10(5) sporocysts only had a negligible parasite load in skeletal muscles despite the presence of severe central nervous system lesions. Notably, intralesional schizonts were identified in the brain of one cockatiel. In contrast to previous results, intralesional schizonts were also identified in the brains of three of six naturally infected pigeons from Minnesota and Missouri examined as part of an epidemiological investigation. In both the cockatiel and the pigeons, tissue cysts were found concurrently with schizonts suggesting an uncommon phenomenon in the Sarcocystis life cycle. Based on the results of this study, transmission of S. calchasi to avian species other than the domestic pigeon is

  19. Growth curves and age-related changes in carcass characteristics, organs, serum parameters, and intestinal transporter gene expression in domestic pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Gao, C Q; Yang, J X; Chen, M X; Yan, H C; Wang, X Q

    2016-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to fit growth curves, and determine age-related changes in carcass characteristics, organs, serum biochemical parameters, and gene expression of intestinal nutrient transporters in domestic pigeon (Columba livia). In experiment 1, body weight (BW) of 30 pigeons was respectively determined at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days old to fit growth curves and to describe the growth of pigeons. In experiment 2, eighty-four 1-day-old squabs were grouped by weight into 7 groups. On d 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35, twelve birds from each group were randomly selected for slaughter and post-slaughter analysis. The results showed that BW of pigeons increased rapidly from d 1 to d 28 (a 25.7-fold increase), and then had little change until d 35. The Logistic, Gompertz, and Von Bertalanffy functions can all be well fitted with the growth curve of domestic pigeons (R2>0.90) and the Gompertz model showed the highest R2value among the models (R2=0.9997). The equation of Gompertz model was Y=507.72×e-(3.76exp(-0.17t))(Y=BW of pigeon (g); t=time (day)). In addition, breast meat yield (%) increased with age throughout the experiment, whereas the leg meat yield (%) reached to the peak on d 14. Serum total protein, albumin, globulin, and glucose concentration were increased with age, whereas serum uric acid concentration was decreased (P<0.05). Furthermore, the gene expressions of nutrient transporters (y+LAT2, LAT1, B0AT1, PepT1, and NHE2) in jejunum of pigeon were increased with age. The results of correlation analysis showed the gene expressions of B0AT1, PepT1, and NHE2 had positive correlations with BW (0.73

  20. CHIP−/−-Mouse Liver: Adiponectin-AMPK-FOXO-Activation Overrides CYP2E1-Elicited JNK1-Activation, Delaying Onset of NASH: Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Mi; Grenert, James P.; Patterson, Cam; Correia, Maria Almira

    2016-01-01

    Genetic ablation of C-terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) E3 ubiquitin-ligase impairs hepatic cytochrome P450 CYP2E1 degradation. Consequent CYP2E1 gain of function accelerates reactive O2 species (ROS) production, triggering oxidative/proteotoxic stress associated with sustained activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK)-signaling cascades, pro-inflammatory effectors/cytokines, insulin resistance, progressive hepatocellular ballooning and microvesicular steatosis. Despite this, little evidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was found in CHIP−/−-mice over the first 8–9-months of life. We herein document that this lack of tissue injury is largely due to the concurrent up-regulation and/or activation of the adiponectin-5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-forkhead box O (FOXO)-signaling axis stemming from at the least three synergistic features: Up-regulated expression of adipose tissue adiponectin and its hepatic adipoR1/adipoR2 receptors, stabilization of hepatic AMPKα1-isoform, identified herein for the first time as a CHIP-ubiquitination substrate (unlike its AMPKα2-isoform), as well as nuclear stabilization of FOXOs, well-known CHIP-ubiquitination targets. Such beneficial predominance of the adiponectin-AMPK-FOXO-signaling axis over the sustained JNK-elevation and injurious insulin resistance in CHIP−/−-livers apparently counteracts/delays rapid progression of the hepatic microvesicular steatosis to the characteristic macrovesicular steatosis observed in clinical NASH and/or rodent NASH-models. PMID:27406999

  1. Eplerenone ameliorates the phenotypes of metabolic syndrome with NASH in liver-specific SREBP-1c Tg mice fed high-fat and high-fructose diet.

    PubMed

    Wada, Tsutomu; Miyashita, Yusuke; Sasaki, Motohiro; Aruga, Yusuke; Nakamura, Yuto; Ishii, Yoko; Sasahara, Masakiyo; Kanasaki, Keizo; Kitada, Munehiro; Koya, Daisuke; Shimano, Hitoshi; Tsuneki, Hiroshi; Sasaoka, Toshiyasu

    2013-12-01

    Because the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance and promotion of fibrosis in some tissues, such as the vasculature, we examined the effect of eplerenone, a selective mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist, on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and metabolic phenotypes in a mouse model reflecting metabolic syndrome in humans. We adopted liver-specific transgenic (Tg) mice overexpressing the active form of sterol response element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) fed a high-fat and fructose diet (HFFD) as the animal model in the present study. When wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 and liver-specific SREBP-1c Tg mice grew while being fed HFFD for 12 wk, body weight and epididymal fat weight increased in both groups with an elevation in blood pressure and dyslipidemia. Glucose intolerance and insulin resistance were also observed. Adipose tissue hypertrophy and macrophage infiltration with crown-like structure formation were also noted in mice fed HFFD. Interestingly, the changes noted in both genotypes fed HFFD were significantly ameliorated with eplerenone. HFFD-fed Tg mice exhibited the histological features of NASH in the liver, including macrovesicular steatosis and fibrosis, whereas HFFD-fed WT mice had hepatic steatosis without apparent fibrotic changes. Eplerenone effectively ameliorated these histological abnormalities. Moreover, the direct suppressive effects of eplerenone on lipopolysaccharide-induced TNFα production in the presence and absence of aldosterone were observed in primary-cultured Kupffer cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages. These results indicated that eplerenone prevented the development of NASH and metabolic abnormalities in mice by inhibiting inflammatory responses in both Kupffer cells and macrophages. PMID:24129399

  2. CHIP(-/-)-Mouse Liver: Adiponectin-AMPK-FOXO-Activation Overrides CYP2E1-Elicited JNK1-Activation, Delaying Onset of NASH: Therapeutic Implications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Mi; Grenert, James P; Patterson, Cam; Correia, Maria Almira

    2016-01-01

    Genetic ablation of C-terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) E3 ubiquitin-ligase impairs hepatic cytochrome P450 CYP2E1 degradation. Consequent CYP2E1 gain of function accelerates reactive O2 species (ROS) production, triggering oxidative/proteotoxic stress associated with sustained activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK)-signaling cascades, pro-inflammatory effectors/cytokines, insulin resistance, progressive hepatocellular ballooning and microvesicular steatosis. Despite this, little evidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was found in CHIP(-/-)-mice over the first 8-9-months of life. We herein document that this lack of tissue injury is largely due to the concurrent up-regulation and/or activation of the adiponectin-5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-forkhead box O (FOXO)-signaling axis stemming from at the least three synergistic features: Up-regulated expression of adipose tissue adiponectin and its hepatic adipoR1/adipoR2 receptors, stabilization of hepatic AMPKα1-isoform, identified herein for the first time as a CHIP-ubiquitination substrate (unlike its AMPKα2-isoform), as well as nuclear stabilization of FOXOs, well-known CHIP-ubiquitination targets. Such beneficial predominance of the adiponectin-AMPK-FOXO-signaling axis over the sustained JNK-elevation and injurious insulin resistance in CHIP(-/-)-livers apparently counteracts/delays rapid progression of the hepatic microvesicular steatosis to the characteristic macrovesicular steatosis observed in clinical NASH and/or rodent NASH-models. PMID:27406999

  3. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, New Mexico, Class III

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Mark B.

    2000-10-25

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool (NDP) is southeast New Mexico is one of the nine projects selected in 1995 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for participation in the Class III Reservoir Field Demonstration Program. The goals of the DOE cost-shared Class Program are to: (1) extend economic production, (2) increase ultimate recovery, and (3) broaden information exchange and technology application. Reservoirs in the Class III Program are focused on slope-basin and deep-basin clastic depositional types.

  4. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Mark B.

    1999-11-01

    The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate that a development program based on advanced reservoir management methods can significantly improve oil recovery at the Nash Draw Pool (NDP). The plan includes developing a control area using standard reservoir management techniques and comparing its performance to an area developed using advanced reservoir management methods. Specific goals are (1) to demonstrate that an advanced development drilling and pressure maintenance program can significantly improve oil recovery compared to existing technology applications and (2) to transfer these advanced methodologies to oil and gas producers in the Permian Basin and elsewhere throughout the U.S. oil and gas industry.

  5. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, New Mexico, Class III

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Michael B.

    2002-02-21

    The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate that a development program based on advanced reservoir management methods can significantly improve oil recovery at the Nash Draw Pool (NDP). The plan includes developing a control area using standard reservoir management techniques and comparing its performance to an area developed using advanced reservoir management methods. Specific goals are (1) to demonstrate that an advanced development drilling and pressure maintenance program can significantly improve oil recovery compared to existing technology applications and (2) to transfer these advanced methodologies to oil and gas producers in the Permian Basin and elsewhere throughout the U.S. oil and gas industry.

  6. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, New Mexico, Class III

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Mark B.

    2002-01-16

    The overall objective of this project was to demonstrate that a development program-based on advanced reservoir management methods-can significantly improve oil recovery at the Nash Draw Pool (NDP). The plan included developing a control area using standard reservoir management techniques and comparing its performance to an area developed using advanced reservoir management methods. Specific goals were (1) to demonstrate that an advanced development drilling and pressure maintenance program can significantly improve oil recovery compared to existing technology applications and (2) to transfer these advanced methodologies to oil and gas producers in the Permian Basin and elsewhere throughout the U.S. oil and gas industry.

  7. A Logical Approach to Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Abhishek

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we innovate a logical approach to develop an intuition regarding the phenomenon of quantum entanglement. In the vein of the logic introduced we substantiate that particles that were entangled in the past will be entangled in perpetuity and thereby abide a rule that restricts them to act otherwise. We also introduce a game and by virtue of the concept of Nash equilibrium we have been able to show that entangled particles will mutually correspond to an experiment that is performed on any one of the particle.

  8. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improve Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool,Eddy County,NM

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, M.B.

    1997-10-31

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County New Mexico is a field demonstration in the U. S. Department of Energy Class IH Program. Advanced reservoir characterization techniques are being used at the Nash Draw project to develop reservoir management strategies for optimizing oil recovery from this Delaware reservoir. Analysis, interpretation, and integration of recently acquired geological, geophysical, and engineering data revealed that the initial reservoir description was too simplistic to capture the critical features of this complex formation. As a result of the analysis, a proposed pilot area was reconsidered. Comparison of seismic data and engineering data have shown evidence of discontinuities in the area surrounding the proposed injector. Analysis of the 3-D seismic has shown that wells in the proposed pilot are in an area of poor quality amplitude development. The implication is that since amplitude attenuation is a function of porosity, then this is not the best area to be attempting a pilot pressure maintenance project. Because the original pilot area appears to be compartmentalized, the lateral continuity between the pilot wells could be reduced. The 3-D seismic interpretation indicates other areas may be better suited for the initial pilot area. Therefore, the current focus has shifted more to targeted drilling, and the pilot injection will be considered in a more continuous area of the NDP in the future. Results of reservoir simulation studies indicate that pressure maintenance should be started early when reservoir pressure is still high.

  9. Conditioned discrimination of magnetic inclination in a spatial-orientation arena task by homing pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Mora, Cordula V; Acerbi, Merissa L; Bingman, Verner P

    2014-12-01

    It has been well established that homing pigeons are able to use the Earth's magnetic field to obtain directional information when returning to their loft and that their magnetic compass is based, at least in part, on the perception of magnetic inclination. Magnetic inclination has also been hypothesized in pigeons and other long-distance navigators, such as sea turtles, to play a role providing positional information as part of a map. Here we developed a behavioral paradigm which allows us to condition homing pigeons to discriminate magnetic inclination cues in a spatial-orientation arena task. Six homing pigeons were required to discriminate in a circular arena between feeders located either in a zone with a close to 0 deg inclination cue or in a zone with a rapidly changing inclination cue (-3 deg to +85 deg when approaching the feeder and +85 deg to -3 deg when moving away from the feeder) to obtain a food reward. The pigeons consistently performed this task above chance level. Control experiments, during which the coils were turned off or the current was running anti-parallel through the double-wound coil system, confirmed that no alternative cues were used by the birds in the discrimination task. The results show that homing pigeons can be conditioned to discriminate differences in magnetic field inclination, enabling investigation into the peripheral and central neural processing of geomagnetic inclination under controlled laboratory conditions. PMID:25278470

  10. High-performance liquid chromatography determination of N- and O-demethylase activities of chemicals in human liver microsomes: application of postcolumn fluorescence derivatization using Nash reagent.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, K; Yamamoto, T; Taguchi, M; Chiba, K

    2000-09-10

    Formaldehyde is liberated in the process of cytochrome P450 (CYP) mediated demethylation of a wide variety of compounds containing the CH(3)N or CH(3)O functionality. A highly sensitive method using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system with postcolumn derivatization was developed to measure the liberated formaldehyde as N- and O-demethylase activity of drugs in human liver microsomes. Following the chromatographic separation of formaldehyde on a C18 column, the formaldehyde was reacted with the Nash reagent in the postcolumn reactor at 100 degrees C and detected by the fluorescence method. The results showed that the present method has excellent precision and accuracy. The intra- and interassay variances of this method were less than 10%. The newly developed HPLC method was found to be about 80-fold more sensitive than the colorimetric method in detection of formaldehyde. The N-demethylase activity of sertraline in rat liver microsomes determined by the present method did not differ from those detected by previous methods quantifying produced desmethyl metabolite. The present method has been successfully applied to determine the N-demethylase activities of several drugs, including aminopyrine, erythromycin, fluoxetine, S-mephenytoin, and sertraline, in human liver microsomes. This assay should be useful for generic analysis of N- and O-demethylase activities of xenobiotic and endobiotic chemicals by CYP enzymes. PMID:10964418

  11. Advanced oil recovery technologies for improved recovery from slope basin clastic reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, New Mexico. Annual report, September 25, 1995--September 24, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, M.B.

    1997-08-01

    The basic driver for this project is the low recovery observed in Delaware reservoirs, such as the Nash Draw Pool (NDP). This low recovery is caused by low reservoir energy, less than optimum permeabilities and porosities, and inadequate reservoir characterization and reservoir management strategies which are typical of projects operated by independent producers. Rapid oil decline rates and high gas/oil ratios are typically observed in the first year of primary production. Based on the production characteristics that have been observed in similar Delaware fields, pressure maintenance is a likely requirement at the Nash Pool. Three basic constraints to producing the Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Reservoir are: (1) limited areal and interwell geologic knowledge, (2) lack of an engineering tool to evaluate the various producing strategies, and (3) limited surface access prohibiting development with conventional drilling. The limited surface access is caused by the proximity of underground potash mining and surface playa lakes. The objectives of this project are: (1) to demonstrate that a development drilling program and pressure maintenance program, based on advanced reservoir management methods, can significantly improve oil recovery compared with existing technology applications and (2) to transfer these advanced methodologies to oil and gas producers, especially in the Permian Basin.

  12. Efficacy of nicarbazin (Ovistop®) in the containment and reduction of the populations of feral pigeons (Columba livia var. domestica) in the city of Genoa, Italy: a retrospective evaluation.

    PubMed

    Albonetti, Paolo; Marletta, Antonio; Repetto, Ivano; Sasso, Emanuela Assunta

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the results of a retrospective evaluation (8 years: 2005-2012) of the efficacy of the anti-fertility drug, Ovistop® nicarbazin (800 ppm) added to corn kernels used to feed non-migratory feral pigeon colonies, Columba livia var. domestica, in the city of Genoa, Italy. The observation interested 4 non-migratory feral pigeon colonies located into well‑defined areas of the city of Genoa, Italy. Three of these colonies were treated for 12 months, with 10 g of drug (Ovistop®) provided per bird per day for 5 days each week; the other colony was treated in the same way but with a placebo (control station). Each colony and the relative area where the colony was located were both monitored with the same daily examination. Statistical analysis techniques were applied to the findings recorded - both descriptive (indices of central and dispersion trends) and comparative (one-way variance analysis). In the colonies treated with the drug, following an initial increase in the population ('magnet effect'), a reduction was observed over the following 4 years (-35% >x> -45%) and a further decrease (-65% >x> -70%) was observed over the subsequent 4 years (statistically significant one-way ANOVA p<0.01). This phenomenon was recorded across the board in the 3 treated stations, compared to the overall unstable trend observed for the control station. As no external or exceptional anthropic or natural factors were observed, it can be stated that, given the results observed, the drug seemed effective in reducing the treated bird populations. PMID:25842215

  13. Anisotropic and heterogeneous mechanical properties of a stratified shale/limestone sequence at Nash Point, South Wales: A case study for hydraulic fracture propagation through a layered medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes Inskip, Nathaniel; Meredith, Philip; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2016-04-01

    While considerable effort has been expended on the study of fracture propagation in rocks in recent years, our understanding of how fractures propagate through layered sedimentary rocks with different mechanical and elastic properties remains poorly constrained. Yet this is a key issue controlling the propagation of both natural and anthropogenic hydraulic fractures in layered sequences. Here we report measurements of the contrasting mechanical and elastic properties of the Lower Lias at Nash Point, South Wales, which comprises an interbedded sequence of shale and limestone layers, and how those properties may influence fracture propagation. Elastic properties of both materials have been characterised via ultrasonic wave velocity measurements as a function of azimuth on samples cored both normal and parallel to bedding. The shale is highly anisotropic, with P-wave velocities varying from 2231 to 3890 m s-1, giving an anisotropy of ~55%. By contrast, the limestone is essentially isotropic, with a mean P-wave velocity of 5828 m s-1 and an anisotropy of ~2%. The dynamic Young's modulus of the shale, calculated from P- and S-wave velocity data, is also anisotropic with a value of 36 GPa parallel to bedding and 12 GPa normal to bedding. The modulus of the limestone is again isotropic with a value of 80 GPa. It follows that for a vertical fracture propagating (i.e. normal to bedding) the modulus contrast is 6.6. This is important because the contrast in elastic properties is a key factor in controlling whether fractures arrest, deflect, or propagate across interfaces between layers in a sequence. There are three principal mechanisms by which a fracture may deflect across or along an interface, namely: Cook-Gordon debonding, stress barrier, and elastic mismatch. Preliminary numerical modelling results (using a Finite Element Modelling software) of induced fractures at Nash Point suggest that all three are important. The results demonstrate a rotation of the maximum

  14. Willie Mays: Meet John Nash.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merz, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    Uses the various strategies involved in baseball to illustrate basic concepts in game theory. Specifically discusses Willie Mays' base-stealing strategy and how it relates to probability and risk. Reminds students that expected results depend on adopted assumptions. (MJP)

  15. Advanced oil recovery technologies for improved recovery from slope basin clastic reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, NM. Second annual technical progress report, October 1, 1996--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County, New Mexico is a field demonstration in the US Department of Energy Class III Program. Advanced reservoir characterization techniques are being used at the Nash Draw project to develop reservoir management strategies for optimizing oil recovery from this Delaware reservoir. Analysis, interpretation, and integration of recently acquired geological, geophysical, and engineering data revealed that the initial reservoir description was too simplistic to capture the critical features of this complex formation. As a result of the analysis, a proposed pilot area was reconsidered. Comparison of seismic data and engineering data have shown evidence of discontinuities in the area surrounding the proposed injector. Analysis of the 3-D seismic has shown that wells in the proposed pilot are in an area of poor quality amplitude development. The implication is that since amplitude attenuation is a function of porosity, then this is not the best area to be attempting a pilot pressure maintenance project. Because the original pilot area appears to be compartmentalized, the lateral continuity between the pilot wells could be reduced. The 3-D seismic interpretation indicates other areas may be better suited for the initial pilot area. Therefore, the current focus has shifted more to targeted drilling, and the pilot injection will be considered in a more continuous area of the NDP in the future. Results of reservoir simulation studies indicate that pressure maintenance should be started early when reservoir pressure is still high.

  16. Biomarkers of NAFLD progression: a lipidomics approach to an epidemic1[S

    PubMed Central

    Gorden, D. Lee; Myers, David S.; Ivanova, Pavlina T.; Fahy, Eoin; Maurya, Mano R.; Gupta, Shakti; Min, Jun; Spann, Nathanael J.; McDonald, Jeffrey G.; Kelly, Samuel L.; Duan, Jingjing; Sullards, M. Cameron; Leiker, Thomas J.; Barkley, Robert M.; Quehenberger, Oswald; Armando, Aaron M.; Milne, Stephen B.; Mathews, Thomas P.; Armstrong, Michelle D.; Li, Chijun; Melvin, Willie V.; Clements, Ronald H.; Washington, M. Kay; Mendonsa, Alisha M.; Witztum, Joseph L.; Guan, Ziqiang; Glass, Christopher K.; Murphy, Robert C.; Dennis, Edward A.; Merrill, Alfred H.; Russell, David W.; Subramaniam, Shankar; Brown, H. Alex

    2015-01-01

    The spectrum of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes steatosis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and cirrhosis. Recognition and timely diagnosis of these different stages, particularly NASH, is important for both potential reversibility and limitation of complications. Liver biopsy remains the clinical standard for definitive diagnosis. Diagnostic tools minimizing the need for invasive procedures or that add information to histologic data are important in novel management strategies for the growing epidemic of NAFLD. We describe an “omics” approach to detecting a reproducible signature of lipid metabolites, aqueous intracellular metabolites, SNPs, and mRNA transcripts in a double-blinded study of patients with different stages of NAFLD that involves profiling liver biopsies, plasma, and urine samples. Using linear discriminant analysis, a panel of 20 plasma metabolites that includes glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, sterols, and various aqueous small molecular weight components involved in cellular metabolic pathways, can be used to differentiate between NASH and steatosis. This identification of differential biomolecular signatures has the potential to improve clinical diagnosis and facilitate therapeutic intervention of NAFLD. PMID:25598080

  17. Advanced oil recovery technologies for improved recovery from slope basin clastic reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, NM. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-30

    The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate that a development program--based on advanced reservoir management methods--can significantly improve oil recovery at the Nash Draw Pool (NDP). The plan includes developing a control area using standard reservoir management techniques and comparing its performance to an area developed using advanced reservoir management methods. Specific goals are (1) to demonstrate that an advanced development drilling and pressure maintenance program can significantly improve oil recovery compared to existing technology applications and (2) to transfer these advanced methodologies to oil and gas producers in the Permian Basin and elsewhere throughout the US oil and gas industry. Results obtained to date are summarized for the following: geostatistics and reservoir mapping; reservoir engineering; reservoir characterization/reservoir simulation; miscible recovery simulations; and technology transfer.

  18. State-level approaches to managing the use of contraceptives in wildlife in the United States.

    PubMed

    Eisemann, John D; O'Hare, Jeanette R; Fagerstone, Kathleen A

    2013-12-01

    Several fertility control agents have recently been registered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for management of wildlife or other free-ranging animals. The registration of GonaCon Immunocontraceptive Vaccine for use in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and OvoControl for use in Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and pigeons (Columba livia) has caused state wildlife and land management agencies to review their regulatory authority over the use of contraceptives in wildlife. As a result, many states are taking steps to ensure legislation or policies are current with emerging technologies. This article examines the various approaches states are taking to regulate the use of contraceptives. Regardless of the final regulatory approach, biological, social, economic, and political implications must all be discussed as this new tool is introduced into the field of ona wildlife management. Thoughtful consideration of all aspects of wildlife contraceptive use will lead to the development of sound, best management practices for current and future products. PMID:24437085

  19. Regulatory drinking in the pigeon Columba livia.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, S; Peters, G

    1980-09-01

    Pigeons were subjected to stimuli known to induce regulatory drinking in mammals. Water-satiated birds drank in response to intravenous (iv) hypertonic NaCl, intraperitoneal (ip) hyperoncotic polyethylene glycol (PEG) (20 M), iv infusions of angiotensinamide, subcutaneous (sc) isoprenaline, and iv chicken kidney extract. Intravenous porcine renin failed to elicit a major drinking response. Drinking after water deprivation was reduced by an iv preload of isotonic saline. Water intake after iv hypertonic NaCl equaled the volume required for dilution to isotonicity. Water intake in response to ip PEG was larger than in rats and resulted in a parallel increase in body weight. Sensitivity to isoprenaline and angiotensinamide was less than or equal to that of rats although pigeons drank much more. Drinking responses to iv hypertonic NaCl plus ip hyperoncotic PEG were additive. Small (5 ml/kg body wt) blood losses induced delayed (after 4 h) drinking; larger blood losses were ineffective. There was no simple additive relationship between the responses to hemorrhage and hypertonic saline. In summary, the dipsogenic response of pigeons was much greater than that of mammals although sensitivity was sometimes higher and sometimes lower. PMID:7435592

  20. Spatial context learning in pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Gibson, Brett M; Leber, Andrew B; Mehlman, Max L

    2015-10-01

    In a seminal paper in the cognitive sciences, Chun and Jiang (1998) described the contextual cueing paradigm in which they used artificial stimuli and showed that people became faster to locate a target when the background predicted the location of a target compared to when it did not. Here we examined contextual cueing in pigeons for the first time using artificial stimuli and procedures similar to those of Chun and Jiang. In the first test, we had pigeons search for a target among a display of seven distractors; during one condition, the position of the distractors predicted the location of the target, and in the second condition, there was no relationship between the two. In a second test, we presented the pigeons with the predictive displays from Test 1 and a second set of displays that also predicted the location of a target to see if learning about one set of predictive backgrounds disrupted learning about a second set. The pigeons were quick to acquire context-based knowledge and retain that information when faced with additional contexts. The results suggest that contextual cueing can occur for a variety of stimuli in nonhuman animals and that it may be a common mechanism for processing visual information across a wide variety of species. PMID:26167773

  1. Dietary approach in the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Ferolla, Silvia Marinho; Silva, Luciana Costa; Ferrari, Maria de Lourdes Abreu; da Cunha, Aloísio Sales; Martins, Flaviano Dos Santos; Couto, Cláudia Alves; Ferrari, Teresa Cristina Abreu

    2015-10-28

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been identified as one of the most prevalent chronic liver disease in adults and children populations. NAFLD is usually associated with the metabolic syndrome (MS), which is chiefly related to insulin resistance and its consequences. Insulin resistance has a crucial role in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis and potentially nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Because of the contemporary epidemics of MS and obesity, the burden of NAFLD is also expected to rise. Unhealthy diets, such as the so-called western diet, are enriched in fructose, trans-fatty acids and saturated fat and seem to be associated with the development of NAFLD. In human studies, certain dietary sugars, particularly fructose, are used as a substrate for lipogenesis leading to hepatic fatty infiltration, inflammation, and possibly fibrosis. Other investigations have shown that fat consumption especially cholesterol and trans/saturated fatty acids are also steatogenic and seem to increase visceral adiposity. The identification of specific dietary components that favor the development of NASH could be important for the management of this disorder. This review focuses on the effects of different dietary approaches to prevent and treat NAFLD emphasizing the macronutrients and energy composition. PMID:26523205

  2. Dietary approach in the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Ferolla, Silvia Marinho; Silva, Luciana Costa; Ferrari, Maria de Lourdes Abreu; da Cunha, Aloísio Sales; Martins, Flaviano dos Santos; Couto, Cláudia Alves; Ferrari, Teresa Cristina Abreu

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been identified as one of the most prevalent chronic liver disease in adults and children populations. NAFLD is usually associated with the metabolic syndrome (MS), which is chiefly related to insulin resistance and its consequences. Insulin resistance has a crucial role in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis and potentially nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Because of the contemporary epidemics of MS and obesity, the burden of NAFLD is also expected to rise. Unhealthy diets, such as the so-called western diet, are enriched in fructose, trans-fatty acids and saturated fat and seem to be associated with the development of NAFLD. In human studies, certain dietary sugars, particularly fructose, are used as a substrate for lipogenesis leading to hepatic fatty infiltration, inflammation, and possibly fibrosis. Other investigations have shown that fat consumption especially cholesterol and trans/saturated fatty acids are also steatogenic and seem to increase visceral adiposity. The identification of specific dietary components that favor the development of NASH could be important for the management of this disorder. This review focuses on the effects of different dietary approaches to prevent and treat NAFLD emphasizing the macronutrients and energy composition. PMID:26523205

  3. Role of Hedgehog Signaling Pathway in NASH.

    PubMed

    Verdelho Machado, Mariana; Diehl, Anna Mae

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the number one cause of chronic liver disease in the Western world. Although only a minority of patients will ultimately develop end-stage liver disease, it is not yet possible to efficiently predict who will progress and, most importantly, effective treatments are still unavailable. Better understanding of the pathophysiology of this disease is necessary to improve the clinical management of NAFLD patients. Epidemiological data indicate that NAFLD prognosis is determined by an individual's response to lipotoxic injury, rather than either the severity of exposure to lipotoxins, or the intensity of liver injury. The liver responds to injury with a synchronized wound-healing response. When this response is abnormal, it leads to pathological scarring, resulting in progressive fibrosis and cirrhosis, rather than repair. The hedgehog pathway is a crucial player in the wound-healing response. In this review, we summarize the pre-clinical and clinical evidence, which demonstrate the role of hedgehog pathway dysregulation in NAFLD pathogenesis, and the preliminary data that place the hedgehog pathway as a potential target for the treatment of this disease. PMID:27258259

  4. J.B. Nash Lecture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Howard R., Comp.; And Others

    The following lectures are presented in this publication: (1) "The Dynamics of Recreation" (Betty Van der Smissen); (2) "Recreation Prospects" (Edith L. Ball); (3) "A View of the Past--A Bridge to the Future" (Allen V. Sapora); (4) "Coming to Grips with the New Leisure" (Richard G. Kraus); (5) "The Mild Blue Yonder--Changing Lifestyles and…

  5. Role of Hedgehog Signaling Pathway in NASH

    PubMed Central

    Verdelho Machado, Mariana; Diehl, Anna Mae

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the number one cause of chronic liver disease in the Western world. Although only a minority of patients will ultimately develop end-stage liver disease, it is not yet possible to efficiently predict who will progress and, most importantly, effective treatments are still unavailable. Better understanding of the pathophysiology of this disease is necessary to improve the clinical management of NAFLD patients. Epidemiological data indicate that NAFLD prognosis is determined by an individual’s response to lipotoxic injury, rather than either the severity of exposure to lipotoxins, or the intensity of liver injury. The liver responds to injury with a synchronized wound-healing response. When this response is abnormal, it leads to pathological scarring, resulting in progressive fibrosis and cirrhosis, rather than repair. The hedgehog pathway is a crucial player in the wound-healing response. In this review, we summarize the pre-clinical and clinical evidence, which demonstrate the role of hedgehog pathway dysregulation in NAFLD pathogenesis, and the preliminary data that place the hedgehog pathway as a potential target for the treatment of this disease. PMID:27258259

  6. Different approaches for centralized and decentralized water system management in multiple decision makers' problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghileri, D.; Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.

    2012-04-01

    There is a general agreement that one of the most challenging issues related to water system management is the presence of many and often conflicting interests as well as the presence of several and independent decision makers. The traditional approach to multi-objective water systems management is a centralized management, in which an ideal central regulator coordinates the operation of the whole system, exploiting all the available information and balancing all the operating objectives. Although this approach allows to obtain Pareto-optimal solutions representing the maximum achievable benefit, it is based on assumptions which strongly limits its application in real world contexts: 1) top-down management, 2) existence of a central regulation institution, 3) complete information exchange within the system, 4) perfect economic efficiency. A bottom-up decentralized approach seems therefore to be more suitable for real case applications since different reservoir operators may maintain their independence. In this work we tested the consequences of a change in the water management approach moving from a centralized toward a decentralized one. In particular we compared three different cases: the centralized management approach, the independent management approach where each reservoir operator takes the daily release decision maximizing (or minimizing) his operating objective independently from each other, and an intermediate approach, leading to the Nash equilibrium of the associated game, where different reservoir operators try to model the behaviours of the other operators. The three approaches are demonstrated using a test case-study composed of two reservoirs regulated for the minimization of flooding in different locations. The operating policies are computed by solving one single multi-objective optimal control problem, in the centralized management approach; multiple single-objective optimization problems, i.e. one for each operator, in the independent case

  7. Wavelet-based multiscale performance analysis: An approach to assess and improve hydrological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathinasamy, Maheswaran; Khosa, Rakesh; Adamowski, Jan; ch, Sudheer; Partheepan, G.; Anand, Jatin; Narsimlu, Boini

    2014-12-01

    The temporal dynamics of hydrological processes are spread across different time scales and, as such, the performance of hydrological models cannot be estimated reliably from global performance measures that assign a single number to the fit of a simulated time series to an observed reference series. Accordingly, it is important to analyze model performance at different time scales. Wavelets have been used extensively in the area of hydrological modeling for multiscale analysis, and have been shown to be very reliable and useful in understanding dynamics across time scales and as these evolve in time. In this paper, a wavelet-based multiscale performance measure for hydrological models is proposed and tested (i.e., Multiscale Nash-Sutcliffe Criteria and Multiscale Normalized Root Mean Square Error). The main advantage of this method is that it provides a quantitative measure of model performance across different time scales. In the proposed approach, model and observed time series are decomposed using the Discrete Wavelet Transform (known as the à trous wavelet transform), and performance measures of the model are obtained at each time scale. The applicability of the proposed method was explored using various case studies--both real as well as synthetic. The synthetic case studies included various kinds of errors (e.g., timing error, under and over prediction of high and low flows) in outputs from a hydrologic model. The real time case studies investigated in this study included simulation results of both the process-based Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model, as well as statistical models, namely the Coupled Wavelet-Volterra (WVC), Artificial Neural Network (ANN), and Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) methods. For the SWAT model, data from Wainganga and Sind Basin (India) were used, while for the Wavelet Volterra, ANN and ARMA models, data from the Cauvery River Basin (India) and Fraser River (Canada) were used. The study also explored the effect of the

  8. Crowd Computing as a Cooperation Problem: An Evolutionary Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christoforou, Evgenia; Fernández Anta, Antonio; Georgiou, Chryssis; Mosteiro, Miguel A.; Sánchez, Angel

    2013-05-01

    Cooperation is one of the socio-economic issues that has received more attention from the physics community. The problem has been mostly considered by studying games such as the Prisoner's Dilemma or the Public Goods Game. Here, we take a step forward by studying cooperation in the context of crowd computing. We introduce a model loosely based on Principal-agent theory in which people (workers) contribute to the solution of a distributed problem by computing answers and reporting to the problem proposer (master). To go beyond classical approaches involving the concept of Nash equilibrium, we work on an evolutionary framework in which both the master and the workers update their behavior through reinforcement learning. Using a Markov chain approach, we show theoretically that under certain----not very restrictive—conditions, the master can ensure the reliability of the answer resulting of the process. Then, we study the model by numerical simulations, finding that convergence, meaning that the system reaches a point in which it always produces reliable answers, may in general be much faster than the upper bounds given by the theoretical calculation. We also discuss the effects of the master's level of tolerance to defectors, about which the theory does not provide information. The discussion shows that the system works even with very large tolerances. We conclude with a discussion of our results and possible directions to carry this research further.

  9. Current concepts and management approaches in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Attar, Bashar M; Van Thiel, David H

    2013-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of liver dysfunction worldwide. NAFLD may progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and in turn cirrhosis. Importantly, hepatic cancer can occur in NASH in the absence of cirrhosis. The cardinal histologic feature of NAFLD is the presence of an excessive accumulation of triacylglycerols and diacylglycerols in hepatocytes. The presence of obesity and insulin resistance lead to an increased hepatic-free fatty acid (FFA) flux creating an environment appropriate for the development of NAFLD. The generation of toxic reactive oxygen species with the production of hepatic injury and inflammation as a consequence of FFA oxidation will ultimately lead to the initiation and progression of fibrosis. Lifestyle modifications specifically weight loss, physical exercise, and cognitive behavior therapy have been recommended as treatments for NASH. Dietary fructose is an independent risk factor for the development of NAFLD. Pioglitazone can be used to treat biopsy-proven NASH; however, its safety risks should be considered carefully. Greater consumption for coffee, independent of its caffeine component, has been associated with a significant reduced risk of advanced fibrosis in NASH. Additional data are needed before recommending bariatric surgery as an established option for the specific treatment of NASH. PMID:23576902

  10. The pigeon (Columba livia) model of spontaneous atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, J. L.; Smith, S. C.; Taylor, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple animal models have been employed to study human atherosclerosis, the principal cause of mortality in the United States. Each model has individual advantages related to specific pathologies. Initiation, the earliest disease phase, is best modeled by the White Carneau (WC-As) pigeon. Atherosclerosis develops spontaneously in the WC-As without either external manipulation or known risk factors. Furthermore, susceptibility is caused by a single gene defect inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. The Show Racer (SR-Ar) pigeon is resistant to atherosclerosis. Breed differences in the biochemistry and metabolism of celiac foci cells have been described. For example, WC-As have lower oxidative metabolism but higher amounts of chondroitin-6-sulfate and nonesterified fatty acids compared with SR-Ar. Gene expression in aortic smooth muscle cells was compared between breeds using representational difference analysis and microarray analysis. Energy metabolism and cellular phenotype were the chief gene expression differences. Glycolysis and synthetic cell types were related to the WC-As but oxidative metabolism and contractile cell types were related to the SR-Ar. Rosiglitazone, a PPARγ agonist, blocked RNA binding motif (RBMS1) expression in WC-As cells. The drug may act through the c-myc oncogene as RBMS1 is a c-myc target. Proteomic tests of aortic smooth muscle cells supported greater glycosylation in the WC-As and a transforming growth factor β effect in SR-Ar. Unoxidized fatty acids build up in WC-As cells because of their metabolic deficiency, ultimately preventing the contractile phenotype in these cells. The single gene responsible for the disease is likely regulatory in nature. PMID:25214557

  11. Detection and discrimination of complex sounds by pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Cook, Robert G; Qadri, Muhammad A J; Oliveira, Ryan

    2016-02-01

    Auditory scene analysis is the process by which sounds are separated and identified from each other and from the background to make functional auditory objects. One challenge in making these psychological units is that complex sounds often continuously differ in composition over their duration. Here we examined the acoustic basis of complex sound processing in four pigeons by evaluating their performance in an ongoing same/different (S/D) task. This provided an opportunity to investigate avian auditory processing in a non-vocal learning, non-songbird. These pigeons were already successfully discriminating 18.5 s sequences of all different 1.5 s sounds (ABCD…) from sequences of one sound repeating (AAAA…, BBBB…, etc.) in a go/no-go procedure. The stimuli for these same/different sequences consisted of 504 tonal sounds (36 chromatic notes×14 different instruments), 36 pure tones, and 72 complex sounds. Not all of these sounds were equally effective in supporting S/D discrimination. As identified by a stepwise regression modeling of ten acoustic properties, tonal and complex sounds with intermediate levels of acoustic content tended to support better discrimination. The results suggest that pigeons have the auditory and cognitive capabilities to recognize and group continuously changing sound elements into larger functional units that can serve to differentiate long sequences of same and different sounds. PMID:26616672

  12. Efferent projections of the ectostriatum in the pigeon (Columba livia)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Husband, S. A.; Shimizu, T.

    1999-01-01

    The ectostriatum is a major visual component of the avian telencephalon. The core region of the ectostriatum (Ec) receives visual input from the optic tectum through thalamic nuclei. In the present study, the efferent projections of the ectostriatum were investigated by using the anterograde tracers Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin and biotinylated dextran amine. Projection patterns resulting from these tracers were confirmed by the retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit B. When anterograde tracers were injected in Ec, primary projections were seen traveling dorsolaterally to the belt region of the ectostriatum (Ep) and the neostriatal area immediately surrounding Ep (Ep2). Neurons in Ep sent projections primarily to the overlying Ep2. The efferents of Ep2 traveled dorsolaterally to terminate in three telencephalic regions, from anterior to posterior: (1) neostriatum frontale, pars lateralis (NFL), (2) area temporo-parieto-occipitalis (TPO), and (3) neostriatum intermedium, pars lateralis (NIL). A part of the archistriatum intermedium and the lateral part of the neostriatum caudale also received somewhat minor projections. In addition, some neurons in Ec were also the source of direct, but minor, projections to the NFL, TPO, NIL, and archistriatum intermedium. The topographical relationship among the primary (Ec), secondary (Ep and Ep2), and tertiary (NFL, TPO, NIL) areas indicate that the neural populations for visual processing are organized along the rostral-caudal axis. Thus, the anterior Ec sent efferents to the anterior Ep, which in turn sent projections to anterior Ep2. Neurons in the anterior Ep2 sent projections to NFL and the anterior TPO. Similarly, the intermediate and posterior Ec sent projections to corresponding parts of Ep, whose efferents projected to intermediate and posterior Ep2, respectively. The intermediate Ep2 gave rise to major projections to TPO, whereas posterior Ep2 neurons sent efferents primarily to NIL. The organization of this neural circuit is compared with those of other sensory circuits in the avian telencephalon, as well as the laminar arrangement of the mammalian isocortex.

  13. Multiple cue use and integration in pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Legge, Eric L G; Madan, Christopher R; Spetch, Marcia L; Ludvig, Elliot A

    2016-05-01

    Encoding multiple cues can improve the accuracy and reliability of navigation and goal localization. Problems may arise, however, if one cue is displaced and provides information which conflicts with other cues. Here we investigated how pigeons cope with cue conflict by training them to locate a goal relative to two landmarks and then varying the amount of conflict between the landmarks. When the amount of conflict was small, pigeons tended to integrate both cues in their search patterns. When the amount of conflict was large, however, pigeons used information from both cues independently. This context-dependent strategy for resolving spatial cue conflict agrees with Bayes optimal calculations for using information from multiple sources. PMID:26908004

  14. Bayesian Analysis of Foraging by Pigeons (Columba livia)

    PubMed Central

    Killeen, Peter R.; Palombo, Gina-Marie; Gottlob, Lawrence R.; Beam, Jon

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors combine models of timing and Bayesian revision of information concerning patch quality to predict foraging behavior. Pigeons earned food by pecking on 2 keys (patches) in an experimental chamber. Food was primed for only 1 of the patches on each trial. There was a constant probability of finding food in a primed patch, but it accumulated only while the animals searched there. The optimal strategy was to choose the better patch first and remain for a fixed duration, thereafter alternating evenly between the patches. Pigeons were nonoptimal in 3 ways: (a) they departed too early, (b) their departure times were variable, and (c) they were biased in their choices after initial departure. The authors review various explanations of these data. PMID:8865614

  15. Investigating causes of changes in runoff using hydrological simulation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guoqing; Zhang, Jianyun; Li, Xuemei; Bao, Zhenxin; Liu, Yanli; Liu, Cuishan; He, Ruimin; Luo, Junsong

    2016-03-01

    Stream flow plays a crucial role in environmental, social and economic contexts. It is of significance to investigate the causes of change in runoff for better water resources management. This study detects the variation trend of recorded runoff of the Gushan River, a tributary of the Yellow River located on the Loess Plateau with severe soil and water losing, and investigates the impacts of climate change and human activities on runoff using hydrological simulation approach. Results show that the recorded runoff at Gaoshiya station on the Gushan River has experienced a significant declining trend from 1954-2013 with an abrupt change occurring in 1973. SimHyd rainfall runoff model performs well for monthly discharge simulation with Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of 82.6 % and relative error of 0.32 %. Runoff depth over the catchment in 1980-2013 reduced by 52.4 mm compared to the previous period, in which human activities and climate change contribute 61.5 and 38.5 % of the total runoff reduction, respectively. However, the human-induced impact tends to increase. Therefore, efforts to improve the ecology of the Loess Plateau should give sufficient attention to the impacts of human activity.

  16. Intelligent cognitive radio jamming - a game-theoretical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabcevic, Kresimir; Betancourt, Alejandro; Marcenaro, Lucio; Regazzoni, Carlo S.

    2014-12-01

    Cognitive radio (CR) promises to be a solution for the spectrum underutilization problems. However, security issues pertaining to cognitive radio technology are still an understudied topic. One of the prevailing such issues are intelligent radio frequency (RF) jamming attacks, where adversaries are able to exploit on-the-fly reconfigurability potentials and learning mechanisms of cognitive radios in order to devise and deploy advanced jamming tactics. In this paper, we use a game-theoretical approach to analyze jamming/anti-jamming behavior between cognitive radio systems. A non-zero-sum game with incomplete information on an opponent's strategy and payoff is modelled as an extension of Markov decision process (MDP). Learning algorithms based on adaptive payoff play and fictitious play are considered. A combination of frequency hopping and power alteration is deployed as an anti-jamming scheme. A real-life software-defined radio (SDR) platform is used in order to perform measurements useful for quantifying the jamming impacts, as well as to infer relevant hardware-related properties. Results of these measurements are then used as parameters for the modelled jamming/anti-jamming game and are compared to the Nash equilibrium of the game. Simulation results indicate, among other, the benefit provided to the jammer when it is employed with the spectrum sensing algorithm in proactive frequency hopping and power alteration schemes.

  17. Approachability & Visibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruder, Robert

    2006-01-01

    To be approachable and visible may be one of the greatest lessons a retired middle level principal ever learned. Being approachable is an expectation of the principalship. Keeping the office door shut or restricting or limiting talk time with students, teachers, or parents sends a strong message to those constituents: "I've got more important…

  18. Quantum approach to Bertrand duopoly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fra¸ckiewicz, Piotr; Sładkowski, Jan

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the paper is to study the Bertrand duopoly example in the quantum domain. We use two ways to write the game in terms of quantum theory. The first one adapts the Li-Du-Massar scheme for the Cournot duopoly. The second one is a simplified model that exploits a two qubit entangled state. In both cases, we focus on finding Nash equilibria in the resulting games. Our analysis allows us to take another look at the classic model of Bertrand.

  19. Forecasting approaches to the Mekong River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plate, E. J.

    2009-04-01

    Hydrologists distinguish between flood forecasts, which are concerned with events of the immediate future, and flood predictions, which are concerned with events that are possible, but whose date of occurrence is not determined. Although in principle both involve the determination of runoff from rainfall, the analytical approaches differ because of different objectives. The differences between the two approaches will be discussed, starting with an analysis of the forecasting process. The Mekong River in south-east Asia is used as an example. Prediction is defined as forecast for a hypothetical event, such as the 100-year flood, which is usually sufficiently specified by its magnitude and its probability of occurrence. It forms the basis for designing flood protection structures and risk management activities. The method for determining these quantities is hydrological modeling combined with extreme value statistics, today usually applied both to rainfall events and to observed river discharges. A rainfall-runoff model converts extreme rainfall events into extreme discharges, which at certain gage points along a river are calibrated against observed discharges. The quality of the model output is assessed against the mean value by means of the Nash-Sutcliffe quality criterion. The result of this procedure is a design hydrograph (or a family of design hydrographs) which are used as inputs into a hydraulic model, which converts the hydrograph into design water levels according to the hydraulic situation of the location. The accuracy of making a prediction in this sense is not particularly high: hydrologists know that the 100-year flood is a statistical quantity which can be estimated only within comparatively wide error bounds, and the hydraulics of a river site, in particular under conditions of heavy sediment loads has many uncertainties. Safety margins, such as additional freeboards are arranged to compensate for the uncertainty of the prediction. Forecasts, on the

  20. A Fast Approach to Bimatrix Games with Intuitionistic Fuzzy Payoffs

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Min; Zou, Ping; Li, Shao-Rong

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop an effective method for solving bimatrix games with payoffs of intuitionistic fuzzy value. Firstly, bimatrix game model with intuitionistic fuzzy payoffs (IFPBiG) was put forward. Secondly, two kinds of nonlinear programming algorithms were discussed with the Nash equilibrium of IFPBiG. Thirdly, Nash equilibrium of the algorithm was proved by the fixed point theory and the algorithm was simplified by linear programming methods. Finally, an example was solved through Matlab; it showed the validity, applicability, and superiority. PMID:25197688

  1. Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... approaches under evaluation in patients with NASH include antioxidants, such as vitamin E, selenium, and betaine. These ... for NASH exist. Experimental therapies being studied include antioxidants and antidiabetes medications. [ Top ] Clinical Trials The National ...

  2. On approaches to analyze the sensitivity of simulated hydrologic fluxes to model parameters in the community land model

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Jie; Hou, Zhangshuan; Huang, Maoyi; Liu, Ying

    2015-12-04

    Here, effective sensitivity analysis approaches are needed to identify important parameters or factors and their uncertainties in complex Earth system models composed of multi-phase multi-component phenomena and multiple biogeophysical-biogeochemical processes. In this study, the impacts of 10 hydrologic parameters in the Community Land Model on simulations of runoff and latent heat flux are evaluated using data from a watershed. Different metrics, including residual statistics, the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient, and log mean square error, are used as alternative measures of the deviations between the simulated and field observed values. Four sensitivity analysis (SA) approaches, including analysis of variance based on the generalized linear model, generalized cross validation based on the multivariate adaptive regression splines model, standardized regression coefficients based on a linear regression model, and analysis of variance based on support vector machine, are investigated. Results suggest that these approaches show consistent measurement of the impacts of major hydrologic parameters on response variables, but with differences in the relative contributions, particularly for the secondary parameters. The convergence behaviors of the SA with respect to the number of sampling points are also examined with different combinations of input parameter sets and output response variables and their alternative metrics. This study helps identify the optimal SA approach, provides guidance for the calibration of the Community Land Model parameters to improve the model simulations of land surface fluxes, and approximates the magnitudes to be adjusted in the parameter values during parametric model optimization.

  3. On approaches to analyze the sensitivity of simulated hydrologic fluxes to model parameters in the community land model

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bao, Jie; Hou, Zhangshuan; Huang, Maoyi; Liu, Ying

    2015-12-04

    Here, effective sensitivity analysis approaches are needed to identify important parameters or factors and their uncertainties in complex Earth system models composed of multi-phase multi-component phenomena and multiple biogeophysical-biogeochemical processes. In this study, the impacts of 10 hydrologic parameters in the Community Land Model on simulations of runoff and latent heat flux are evaluated using data from a watershed. Different metrics, including residual statistics, the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient, and log mean square error, are used as alternative measures of the deviations between the simulated and field observed values. Four sensitivity analysis (SA) approaches, including analysis of variance based on the generalizedmore » linear model, generalized cross validation based on the multivariate adaptive regression splines model, standardized regression coefficients based on a linear regression model, and analysis of variance based on support vector machine, are investigated. Results suggest that these approaches show consistent measurement of the impacts of major hydrologic parameters on response variables, but with differences in the relative contributions, particularly for the secondary parameters. The convergence behaviors of the SA with respect to the number of sampling points are also examined with different combinations of input parameter sets and output response variables and their alternative metrics. This study helps identify the optimal SA approach, provides guidance for the calibration of the Community Land Model parameters to improve the model simulations of land surface fluxes, and approximates the magnitudes to be adjusted in the parameter values during parametric model optimization.« less

  4. Hydrologic calibration of paired watersheds using a MOSUM approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ssegane, H.; Amatya, D. M.; Muwamba, A.; Chescheir, G. M.; Appelboom, T.; Tollner, E. W.; Nettles, J. E.; Youssef, M. A.; Birgand, F.; Skaggs, R. W.

    2015-01-01

    Paired watershed studies have historically been used to quantify hydrologic effects of land use and management practices by concurrently monitoring two neighboring watersheds (a control and a treatment) during the calibration (pre-treatment) and post-treatment periods. This study characterizes seasonal water table and flow response to rainfall during the calibration period and tests a change detection technique of moving sums of recursive residuals (MOSUM) to select calibration periods for each control-treatment watershed pair when the regression coefficients for daily water table elevation (WTE) were most stable to reduce regression model uncertainty. The control and treatment watersheds included 1-3 year intensively managed loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) with natural understory, same age loblolly pine intercropped with switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), 14-15 year thinned loblolly pine with natural understory (control), and switchgrass only. Although monitoring during the calibration period spanned 2009 to 2012, silvicultural operational practices that occurred during this period such as harvesting of existing stand and site preparation for pine and switchgrass establishment may have acted as external factors, potentially shifting hydrologic calibration relationships between control and treatment watersheds. Results indicated that MOSUM was able to detect significant changes in regression parameters for WTE due to silvicultural operations. This approach also minimized uncertainty of calibration relationships which could otherwise mask marginal treatment effects. All calibration relationships developed using this MOSUM method were quantifiable, strong, and consistent with Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) greater than 0.97 for WTE and NSE greater than 0.92 for daily flow, indicating its applicability for choosing calibration periods of paired watershed studies.

  5. NARSTO SOS99NASH SURFACE MET CHEM DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-25

    ... Instrument:  Thermistor Anemometer Film Hygrometer Pyranometer UV Ozone Detector NDIR Gas Analyzer ... Monixide Nitrogen Oxides Sulfur Dioxide Ozone Solar Radiation Humidity Surface Winds Air Temperature Order ...

  6. Tricyclic sesquiterpenes from Vetiveria zizanoides (L.) Nash as antimycobacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Gaurav R; Gupta, Shikha; Roy, Sudeep; Kalani, Komal; Pal, Anirban; Thakur, Jay P; Saikia, Dharmendra; Sharma, Ashok; Darmwal, Nandan S; Darokar, Mahendra P; Srivastava, Santosh K

    2013-11-01

    Two bioactive constituents, khusenic acid (1) and khusimol (2), were isolated and characterized from hexane fraction of Vetiveria zizanoides roots. Compounds, 1 and 2, were tested against the various drug-resistant mutants of Mycobacterium smegmatis. The results showed that compound 1 was 4 times more active than the standard drugs ciprofloxacin (CF) and nalidixic acid (NA) against the ciprofloxacin (CSC 101) and lomefloxacin(LOMR5)-resistant mutants, whereas the compound 2 was 2 times more active against the CSC 101 than the NA and CF. Further, these compounds were tested against the virulent strain H37Rv of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which showed that 1 was two times more active than NA, while 2 was equally active to NA. In in silico docking study, 1 showed better binding affinity than 2 with both subunits of the bacterial DNA gyrase, which was further confirmed from the in vitro bacterial DNA gyrase inhibition study. The in silico ADME analysis of 1 and 2 showed better intestinal absorption, aqueous solubility and ability to penetrate blood-brain barrier. Finally, compound 2 was found safe at the highest dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight. Being edible, fragrant natural products, 1 and 2 will have advantage over the existing synthetic drugs. PMID:23841574

  7. Saddle-Point Properties and Nash Equilibria for Channel Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathar, Rudolf; Schmeink, Anke

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, transmission over a wireless channel is interpreted as a two-person zero-sum game, where the transmitter gambles against an unpredictable channel, controlled by nature. Mutual information is used as payoff function. Both discrete and continuous output channels are investigated. We use the fact that mutual information is a convex function of the channel matrix or noise distribution densities, respectively, and a concave function of the input distribution to deduce the existence of equilibrium points for certain channel strategies. The case that nature makes the channel useless with zero capacity is discussed in detail. For each, the discrete, continuous, and mixed discrete-continuous output channel, the capacity-achieving distribution is characterized by help of the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions. The results cover a number of interesting examples like the binary asymmetric channel, the Z-channel, the binary asymmetric erasure channel, and the [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]-ary symmetric channel. In each case, explicit forms of the optimum input distribution and the worst channel behavior are achieved. In the mixed discrete-continuous case, all convex combinations of some noise-free and maximum-noise distributions are considered as channel strategies. Equilibrium strategies are determined by extending the concept of entropy and mutual information to general absolutely continuous measures.

  8. NARSTO SOS99NASH WP3D CHEMISTRY DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-25

    ... Level:  L2 Platform:  Ground Station Instrument:  Chemiluminescence UV Ozone Detector ... Oxide Nitrogen Dioxide Nitrogen Oxides Ozone Total 'Reactive' Nitrogen Order Data:  ASDC Order Tool:   ...

  9. Exhaustible resources and cartels: an intertemporal Nash-Cournot model

    SciTech Connect

    Ulph, A.M.; Folie, G.M.

    1980-11-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the effects of the formation of a cartel in an industry extracting an exhaustible resource, where the cartel and competitive fringe have different costs of production. The important result of this paper is that cartelization can cause the rents on the fringe resources to fall, which is contrary to the results obtained if the usual cost assumption is invoked that all firms have identical cost functions. This result is proved for the special case of constant marginal costs, with the cartel enjoying a significant cost advantage. However, the result is more general and can occur even if the cartel enjoys only a slight cost advantage, and may also occur if there are convex rather than linear cost functions. The analysis also reveals that the patterns of production by both the fringe firms and the cartel will be altered by cartelization. 4 figures, 9 references.

  10. Limitations of the Nash Logoscope or diagnostic slide rule.

    PubMed

    Pain, R W

    1975-11-01

    The diagnostic efficacy of a commercially available diagnostic slide-rule (the Logoscope) was evaluated on 50 cases detailed in the leterature. In only 13 cases (26%) was the Logoscope of any practical assistance in diagnosis and even then it did not always indicate the entire final clinical diagnosis. Some major deficiencies of the Logoscope system are outlined. PMID:1207559

  11. Joint Network Selection and Discrete Power Control in Heterogeneous MIMO Networks: A Game Theoretical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gang; Tian, Hua; Xie, Wei; Zhong, Wei

    2013-09-01

    Next-generation wireless networks will integrate multiple wireless access technologies and the users will access the network using one of several available radio access technologies. In this paper, we study the spectrum access problem in heterogeneous multipleinput multiple-output (MIMO) networks through a game theoretic approach. The spectrum access problem in the considered system model is defined as joint network selection and discrete power control. We formulate the problem as a noncooperative game where the players are the multi-mode terminals and. The proposed common utility function takes both transmission rate and the power consumption into account. This game is shown to be a potential game which possess at least one pure strategy Nash equilibrium (NE) and the optimal strategy profile which maximizes the total energy efficiency of the heterogeneous MIMO network constitutes a pure strategy NE of our proposed game. Furthermore, we prove that the price of anarchy of the proposed game is equal to 1. In order to achieve the pure strategy NE, we design an iterative spectrum access algorithm. The convergence and the complexity of our designed algorithm is discussed. It is shown that the designed algorithm can achieve optimal performance with low complexity.

  12. Curriculum: Which Approach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rulloda, Rudolfo Barcena

    2010-01-01

    Curriculum has two major approaches, technical and scientific approach and the nontechnical-nonscientific approach. Both are different and distinct. Schools need to distinguish which approach is suited for their students.

  13. Hierarchical Mixture of Experts and Diagnostic Modeling Approach to Reduce Hydrologic Model Structural Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moges, E. M.; Demissie, Y.; Li, H. Y.

    2014-12-01

    The choice of hydrologic model structures is one of the sources of uncertainty in representing hydrological process. In most applications, a single comprehensive hydrologic model structure might not be able to capture the entire complex and multi-scale interactions among the different components of the hydrologic process adequately. Calibrating such model can result in displacement of errors from structure to parameters, which in turn leads to over-correction and biased parameter values. An alternative to a single model structure is to develop local expert structures that are well suited in representing specific components of the hydrologic system and adaptively integrate them based on an indicator state variable. In this study, the Hierarchical Mixture of Experts (HME) architecture with a modified gating network function is applied to integrate two runoff module structures of the HBV model. The runoff module structures (i.e., buckets number and orientation) are proposed based on their expertise in representing recession flow and flow duration curve. This process based diagnostic framework of local experts provides a skilled platform for HME to effectively capture each distinct characteristic of the hydrograph and stochastically adapt to catchment response through soil moisture as an indicator variable. The approach is tested using two previously studied catchments, the Guadalupe River (Texas) and the French Broad River (North Carolina) from the Model Parameter Estimation Experiment (MOPEX). The results show that the HME approach has a better performance over a single model for both catchments in terms of the Nash Sutcliffe and correlation coefficient. Furthermore, we have developed and applied a comprehensive performance assessment matrix based on information theory to evaluate the differences between model and observation in terms of different characteristics of the hydrograph.

  14. Estimating Model Parameter Uncertainty Using A Distribution Oriented Approach and a Similarity Measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tcherednichenko, I. A.; Bastidas, L. A.; Lansey, K.

    2004-12-01

    We use two very recently introduced in hydrology measures of performance: the Distributions Oriented (DO) approach and a set theory-based similarity metric - the Hausdorff Norm (HN) to evaluate the performance of two extensively used distributed rainfall-runoff models: Topmodel and PRMS. The distribution oriented approach considers the bivariate distribution of model outputs and observations and the corresponding marginal distributions. The Hausdorff norm allows for the inclusion, within the same framework or measure, both the spatial and temporal scales as a single multi-dimensional array. The performance evaluation is carried out over different time and spatial scales. The models are run over two nested catchments located in different climatic environments - one relatively wet, the Blue River in Oklahoma, and other semi-arid - the Sycamore Creek in Arizona. The levels and quality of input information are very dissimilar. To drive the models radar precipitation is used for the Blue River while the products generated at the University of Washington and gage measurements are used for Sycamore Creek. Both catchments have nested gages and the models are run to simulate 10 years of daily runoff at those points with different levels of discretization/resolution. Both measures: the DO and the HN, are used for parameter estimation using the multiple objective framework developed at the University of Arizona -that allows for the inclusion of trade-off uncertainties of the objective functions, and are compared against each other and against traditional scalar measures of performance as Nash Sutcliffe efficiency, bias, and general duration curves. In the Sycamore Creek a PRMS parameterization of the channel transmission losses is also considered for evaluation because of the important role played by those losses in the shape of the hydrographs.

  15. Statistical downscaling of rainfall: a non-stationary and multi-resolution approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Md. Mamunur; Beecham, Simon; Chowdhury, Rezaul Kabir

    2016-05-01

    A novel downscaling technique is proposed in this study whereby the original rainfall and reanalysis variables are first decomposed by wavelet transforms and rainfall is modelled using the semi-parametric additive model formulation of Generalized Additive Model in Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS). The flexibility of the GAMLSS model makes it feasible as a framework for non-stationary modelling. Decomposition of a rainfall series into different components is useful to separate the scale-dependent properties of the rainfall as this varies both temporally and spatially. The study was conducted at the Onkaparinga river catchment in South Australia. The model was calibrated over the period 1960 to 1990 and validated over the period 1991 to 2010. The model reproduced the monthly variability and statistics of the observed rainfall well with Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) values of 0.66 and 0.65 for the calibration and validation periods, respectively. It also reproduced well the seasonal rainfall over the calibration (NSE = 0.37) and validation (NSE = 0.69) periods for all seasons. The proposed model was better than the tradition modelling approach (application of GAMLSS to the original rainfall series without decomposition) at reproducing the time-frequency properties of the observed rainfall, and yet it still preserved the statistics produced by the traditional modelling approach. When downscaling models were developed with general circulation model (GCM) historical output datasets, the proposed wavelet-based downscaling model outperformed the traditional downscaling model in terms of reproducing monthly rainfall for both the calibration and validation periods.

  16. Using game theory approach to interpret stable policies for Iran's oil and gas common resources conflicts with Iraq and Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaeili, Maryam; Bahrini, Aram; Shayanrad, Sepideh

    2015-08-01

    Oil and gas as the non-renewable resources are considered very valuable for the countries with petroleum economics. These resources are not only diffused equally around the world, but also they are common in some places which their neighbors often come into conflicts. Consequently, it is vital for those countries to manage their resource utilization. Lately, game theory was applied in conflict resolution of common resources, such as water, which is a proof of its efficacy and capability. This paper models the conflicts between Iran and its neighbors namely Qatar and Iraq between their oil and gas common resources using game theory approach. In other words, the future of these countries will be introduced and analyzed by some well-known 2 × 2 games to achieve a better perspective of their conflicts. Because of information inadequacy of the players, in addition to Nash Stability, various solution concepts are used based on the foresight, disimprovements, and knowledge of preferences. The results of mathematical models show how the countries could take a reasonable strategy to exploit their common resources.

  17. Clinical approaches to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Schwenger, Katherine JP; Allard, Johane P

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) ranges from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), leading to fibrosis and potentially cirrhosis, and it is one of the most common causes of liver disease worldwide. NAFLD is associated with other medical conditions such as metabolic syndrome, obesity, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. NASH can only be diagnosed through liver biopsy, but noninvasive techniques have been developed to identify patients who are most likely to have NASH or fibrosis, reducing the need for liver biopsy and risk to patients. Disease progression varies between individuals and is linked to a number of risk factors. Mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis are associated with diet and lifestyle, influx of free fatty acids to the liver from adipose tissue due to insulin resistance, hepatic oxidative stress, cytokines production, reduced very low-density lipoprotein secretion and intestinal microbiome. Weight loss through improved diet and increased physical activity has been the cornerstone therapy of NAFLD. Recent therapies such as pioglitazone and vitamin E have been shown to be beneficial. Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and statins may offer additional benefits. Bariatric surgery should be considered in morbidly obese patients. More research is needed to assess the impact of these treatments on a long-term basis. The objective of this article is to briefly review the diagnosis, management and treatment of this disease in order to aid clinicians in managing these patients. PMID:24587650

  18. Morpheus Surface Approach

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows the Project Morpheus lander flying a kilometer-long simulated surface approach while avoiding hazards in a landing field. The approach takes place at the Shuttle Landing Facili...

  19. Holistic Approaches to Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinkmeyer, Don; Dinkmeyer, Don, Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The holistic approach to health includes a spectrum of concepts that have an important influence on our health. Elementary school counselors must recognize this previously neglected need for a holistic approach. Stress, relaxation response, biofeedback, and the orthomolecular approach are discussed. (Author/BEF)

  20. Endoscopic thyroidectomy: retroauricular approach.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doh Young; Baek, Seung-Kuk; Jung, Kwang-Yoong

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer has abruptly increased recently, with a female predominance. Conventional thyroidectomy using transcervical incision inevitably leaves an unfavorable neck scar; therefore, various extracervical approaches have been introduced to improve cosmetic satisfaction after thyroidectomy. Several reports demonstrated that these extracervical approaches have advantages not only in terms of cosmesis but also in terms of surgical outcomes and postoperative functional preservation. The retroauricular approach has advantages as the dissection area is smaller than that in the transaxillary approach (TA) and surgical anatomy is familiar to the head and neck surgeons. In addition, there is no concern about paresthesia around the nipple or anterior chest, and surgical direction makes central neck dissection easier than with the other extracervical approaches. Herein, we aim to introduce the surgical procedure of retroauricular approach thyroidectomy and present our experiences of postoperative outcomes. PMID:27294041

  1. Endoscopic thyroidectomy: retroauricular approach

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Doh Young; Baek, Seung-Kuk

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer has abruptly increased recently, with a female predominance. Conventional thyroidectomy using transcervical incision inevitably leaves an unfavorable neck scar; therefore, various extracervical approaches have been introduced to improve cosmetic satisfaction after thyroidectomy. Several reports demonstrated that these extracervical approaches have advantages not only in terms of cosmesis but also in terms of surgical outcomes and postoperative functional preservation. The retroauricular approach has advantages as the dissection area is smaller than that in the transaxillary approach (TA) and surgical anatomy is familiar to the head and neck surgeons. In addition, there is no concern about paresthesia around the nipple or anterior chest, and surgical direction makes central neck dissection easier than with the other extracervical approaches. Herein, we aim to introduce the surgical procedure of retroauricular approach thyroidectomy and present our experiences of postoperative outcomes. PMID:27294041

  2. Nonlinear dynamics and global analysis of a heterogeneous Cournot duopoly with a local monopolistic approach versus a gradient rule with endogenous reactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalli, Fausto; Naimzada, Ahmad; Tramontana, Fabio

    2015-06-01

    We study a heterogeneous duopolistic Cournotian game, in which the firms, producing a homogeneous good, have reduced rationality and respectively adopt a "Local Monopolistic Approximation" (LMA) and a gradient-based approach with endogenous reactivity, in an economy characterized by isoelastic demand function and linear total costs. We give conditions on reactivity and marginal costs under which the solution converges to the Cournot-Nash equilibrium. Moreover, we compare the stability regions of the proposed oligopoly to a similar one, in which the LMA firm is replaced by a best response firm, which is more rational than the LMA firm. We show that, depending on costs ratio, the equilibrium can lose its stability in two different ways, through both a flip and a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation. We show that the nonlinear, noninvertible map describing the model can give rise to several coexisting stable attractors (multistability). We analytically investigate the shape of the basins of attractions, in particular proving the existence of regions known in the literature as lobes.

  3. Treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: current approaches and future directions.

    PubMed

    Cusi, Kenneth

    2016-06-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is reaching epidemic proportions in patients with type 2 diabetes. Patients with NAFLD are at increased risk of more aggressive liver disease (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis [NASH]) and at a higher risk of death from cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and cardiovascular disease. Dysfunctional adipose tissue and insulin resistance play an important role in the pathogenesis of NASH, creating the conditions for hepatocyte lipotoxicity. Mitochondrial defects are at the core of the paradigm linking chronic excess substrate supply, insulin resistance and NASH. Recent work indicates that patients with NASH have more severe insulin resistance and lipotoxicity compared with matched obese controls with only isolated steatosis. This review focuses on available agents and future drugs under development for the treatment of NAFLD/NASH in type 2 diabetes. Reversal of lipotoxicity with pioglitazone is associated with significant histological improvement, which occurs within 6 months and persists with continued treatment (or for at least 3 years) in patients with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes, holding potential to modify the natural history of the disease. These results also suggest that pioglitazone may become the standard of care for this population. Benefit has also been reported in non-diabetic patients. Recent promising results with glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists have opened another new treatment avenue for NASH. Many agents in Phase 2-3 of development are being tested, aiming to restore glucose/lipid metabolism, ameliorate adipose tissue and liver inflammation, or to inhibit liver fibrosis. By targeting a diversity of relevant pathways, combination therapy in NASH will likely provide greater success in the future. In summary, increased clinical awareness and improved screening strategies (as currently done for diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy) are needed, to translate recent treatment progress into early treatment

  4. The NLERAP Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieto, Sonia; Rivera, Melissa; Irizarry, Jason

    2012-01-01

    From the start, NLERAP has been based on two major premises: one is that a sociocultural and sociopolitical approach to learning is more effective than a traditional approach, particularly in the case of populations that have historically been marginalized through their education; and the second is that research is more meaningful and inclusive…

  5. The Strategies Instructional Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deshler, Donald D.; Lenz, B. Keith

    1989-01-01

    The strategies instructional approach developed at the University of Kansas Institute for Research in Learning Disabilities is described. The approach teaches students strategies in the academic, social, motivational, and executive functioning areas that will enable students to meet content learning demands and modifies instructional environments…

  6. Critical Approaches to Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bywater, Timothy Robert

    This study deals primarily with recent academically oriented critical material, but it also embraces the range of film criticism that has been written for the mass audience in newspapers and periodicals. The study considers eight types of critical approaches to analyzing film: the journalistic approach, which contains both a reportorial-review and…

  7. Approaches to Truancy Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogulescu, Sara; Segal, Heidi J.

    This report examines how New York counties can systematically and programmatically improve approaches to managing persons in need of supervision (PINS), describing approaches to truancy prevention and diversion that have been instituted nationwide and may be applicable to the PINS operating system. Researchers surveyed truancy-specific programs…

  8. Stuttering-Psycholinguistic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hategan, Carolina Bodea; Anca, Maria; Prihoi, Lacramioara

    2012-01-01

    This research promotes psycholinguistic paradigm, it focusing in delimitating several specific particularities in stuttering pathology. Structural approach, on language sides proves both the recurrent aspects found within specialized national and international literature and the psycholinguistic approaches dependence on the features of the…

  9. Modular Approach for Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyne, Mudasser F.

    2010-01-01

    It is hard to define a single set of ethics that will cover an entire computer users community. In this paper, the issue is addressed in reference to code of ethics implemented by various professionals, institutes and organizations. The paper presents a higher level model using hierarchical approach. The code developed using this approach could be…

  10. Tiny Asteroid Approaches Earth

    NASA Video Gallery

    On Oct. 15, 2010, NASA astronomer Rob Suggs captured this view of the tiny asteroid 2010 TG19 as it made its way among the stars of the constellation Pegasus. It will continue to approach during th...